WorldWideScience

Sample records for huge bipeduncular invasive

  1. Minimally invasive endoscope-assisted trans-oral excision of huge parapharyngeal space tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shang-Yi; Hsu, Ching-Hui; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-04-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare head and neck neoplasms, and most are benign lesions. Complete excision of these tumors is difficult because of the complexity of the surrounding anatomic structures. The algorithm for excision of these tumors is typically based on the tumor's characteristics; excision is performed via approaches such as the trans-oral route, the trans-cervical route, and even a combination of the trans-parotid route and mandibulotomy. However, each of these approaches is associated with some complications. Endoscope-assisted minimally invasive surgery is being increasingly employed for surgeries in the head and neck regions. It has the advantage of leaving no facial scars, and ensures better patient comfort after the operation. Here, we report the use of endoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery for excision of parapharyngeal space tumors. The technique yields an excellent outcome and should be a feasible, safe, and economic method for these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A huge cystic craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Seishi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Yoichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko.

    1986-01-01

    The findings of computed tomography (CT) of a huge cystic craniopharyngioma in a 57-year-old woman are described. Cyst density varied from low to high levels in a short duration. Follow-up CT scans were regarded as important to diagnose craniopharyngioma. The mechanism of increment of cyst density was discussed. (author)

  3. Safety of huge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Jiro.

    1995-01-01

    Recently accompanying the development of engineering technology, huge systems tend to be constructed. The disaster countermeasures of huge cities become large problems as the concentration of population into cities is conspicuous. To make the expected value of loss small, the knowledge of reliability engineering is applied. In reliability engineering, even if a part of structures fails, the safety as a whole system must be ensured, therefore, the design having margin is carried out. The degree of margin is called redundancy. However, such design concept makes the structure of a system complex, and as the structure is complex, the possibility of causing human errors becomes high. At the time of huge system design, the concept of fail-safe is effective, but simple design must be kept in mind. The accident in Mihama No. 2 plant of Kansai Electric Power Co. and the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station, and the accident of Boeing B737 airliner and the fatigue breakdown are described. The importance of safety culture was emphasized as the method of preventing human errors. Man-system interface and management system are discussed. (K.I.)

  4. Huge interparietal posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Félix Companioni Rosildo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital encephalocele is a neural tube defect characterized by a sac-like protrusion of the brain, meninges, and other intracranial structures through the skull, which is caused by an embryonic development abnormality. The most common location is at the occipital bone, and its incidence varies according to different world regions. We report a case of an 1-month and 7-day-old male child with a huge interparietal-posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele, a rare occurrence. Physical examination and volumetric computed tomography were diagnostic. The encephalocele was surgically resected. Intradural and extradural approaches were performed; the bone defect was not primarily closed. Two days after surgery, the patient developed hydrocephaly requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The surgical treatment of the meningohydroencephalocele of the interparietal-posterior fontanel may be accompanied by technical challenges and followed by complications due to the presence of large blood vessels under the overlying skin. In these cases, huge sacs herniate through large bone defects including meninges, brain, and blood vessels. The latter present communication with the superior sagittal sinus and ventricular system. A favorable surgical outcome generally follows an accurate strategy taking into account individual features of the lesion.

  5. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Huge cystic craniopharyngioma with unusual extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, I.; Yoneda, K.; Yamakawa, Y.; Fukui, M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1981-09-01

    The findings on computed tomography (CT) of a huge cystic craniopharyngioma in a 3-year-old girl are described. The cyst occupied both anterior cranial fossae and a part of it extended to the region of the third ventricle which was displaced posteriorly. The tumor showed no contrast enhancement after the intravenous administration of contrast medium.

  7. Huge Thornwaldt's Cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hau Lin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Thornwaldt's bursa, also known as nasopharyngeal bursa, is a recess in the midline of the nasopharynx that is produced by persistent notochord remnants. If its opening becomes obstructed, possibly due to infection or a complication from adenoidectomy, a Thornwaldt's cyst might develop. Here, we present a 53-year-old man who complained of nasal obstruction that had progressed for 1 year. Nasopharyngoscopy showed a huge nasopharyngeal mass. Thornwaldt's cyst was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion measuring 3.6 × 3.4 cm, intermediate on T1-weighted and high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, neither bony destruction nor connection to the brain. The patient underwent endoscopic surgery for this huge mass. Afterwards, his symptoms improved significantly. We present the treatment and differential diagnosis of a nasopharyngeal cyst.

  8. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  9. From tiny microalgae to huge biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are an emerging research field due to their high potential as a source of several biofuels in addition to the fact that they have a high-nutritional value and contain compounds that have health benefits. They are also highly used for water stream bioremediation and carbon dioxide mitigation. Therefore, the tiny microalgae could lead to a huge source of compounds and products, giving a good example of a real biorefinery approach. This work shows and presents examples of experimental...

  10. Huge music archives on mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, H.; Bischl, B.; Botteck, M.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of huge nonvolatile storage capacities such as flash memory allows large music archives to be maintained even in mobile devices. With the increase in size, manual organization of these archives and manual search for specific music becomes very inconvenient. Automated dynamic...... organization enables an attractive new class of applications for managing ever-increasing music databases. For these types of applications, extraction of music features as well as subsequent feature processing and music classification have to be performed. However, these are computationally intensive tasks...... and difficult to tackle on mobile platforms. Against this background, we provided an overview of algorithms for music classification as well as their computation times and other hardware-related aspects, such as power consumption on various hardware architectures. For mobile platforms such as smartphones...

  11. Huge Tongue Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are among the most common tumors of the human body. However, they are uncommon in the oral cavity and are observed as slow growing, painless, and asymptomatic yellowish submucosal masses. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected.    Case Report: The case of a 30-year-old woman with a huge lipoma on the tip of her tongue since 3 years, is presented. She had difficulty with speech and mastication because the tongue tumor was filling the oral cavity. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 8 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from the lingual surface. The tumor was surgically excised with restoration of normal tongue function and histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed that it was a lipoma.   Conclusion:  Tongue lipoma is rarely seen and can be a cause of macroglossia. Surgical excision for lipoma is indicated for symptomatic relief and exclusion of associated malignancy.

  12. Nanocellulose, a tiny fiber with huge applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Tiffany; Rivkin, Amit; Cao, Yifeng; Nevo, Yuval; Abraham, Eldho; Ben-Shalom, Tal; Lapidot, Shaul; Shoseyov, Oded

    2016-06-01

    Nanocellulose is of increasing interest for a range of applications relevant to the fields of material science and biomedical engineering due to its renewable nature, anisotropic shape, excellent mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, tailorable surface chemistry, and interesting optical properties. We discuss the main areas of nanocellulose research: photonics, films and foams, surface modifications, nanocomposites, and medical devices. These tiny nanocellulose fibers have huge potential in many applications, from flexible optoelectronics to scaffolds for tissue regeneration. We hope to impart the readers with some of the excitement that currently surrounds nanocellulose research, which arises from the green nature of the particles, their fascinating physical and chemical properties, and the diversity of applications that can be impacted by this material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Huge hydrocephalus: definition, management, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghih Jouibari, Morteza; Baradaran, Nazanin; Shams Amiri, Rouzbeh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Lack of comprehensive knowledge and numerous socioeconomic problems may make the parents leave hydrocephalic children untreated, leading to progressive hydrocephalus and eventual unordinary big head. Management of huge hydrocephalus (HH) differs from common hydrocephalus. We present our experience in the management of these children. HH is defined as head circumference larger than the height of the infant. Nine infants with HH have been shunted in Children's Hospital Medical Center and followed up for 0.5 to 7 years. The most common cause of hydrocephalus was aqueductal stenosis. The mean age of patients during shunting was 3 months. The head circumference ranged from 56 to 94 cm with the average of 67 cm. Cognitive statuses were appropriate based on their age in five patients. Motor development was normal only in one patient. Complications were found in most cases which included subdural effusion (six patients), shunt infection (four patients), skin injury (three patients), proximal catheter coming out of ventricle to the subdural space (two patients), and shunt exposure (one patient). Three patients died due to shunt infection and sepsis. Numerous complications may occur in patients with HH after shunt operation such as subdural effusion, ventricular collapse, electrolyte disturbance, skull deformity, scalp injury, and shunt infection. Mental and motor disabilities are very common in patients with HH. Many of these complications can be related to overdrainage; therefore, drainage control using programmable shunts is advisable.

  14. Process control upgrades yield huge operational improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, W.V.

    2001-01-01

    Most nuclear plants in North America were designed and built in the late 60 and 70. The regulatory nature of this industry over the years has made design changes at the plant level difficult, if not impossible, to implement. As a result, many plants in this world region have been getting by on technology that is over 40 years behind the times. What this translates into is that the plants have not been able to take advantage of the huge technology gains that have been made in process control during this period. As a result, most of these plants are much less efficient and productive than they could be. One particular area of the plant that is receiving a lot of attention is the feedwater heaters. These systems were put in place to improve efficiency, but most are not operating correctly. This paper will present a case study where one progressive mid-western utility decided that enough was enough and implemented a process control audit of their heater systems. The audit clearly pointed out the existing problems with the current process control system. It resulted in a proposal for the implementation of a state of the art, digital distributed process control system for the heaters along with a complete upgrade of the level controls and field devices that will stabilize heater levels, resulting in significant efficiency gains and lower maintenance bills. Overall the payback period for this investment should be less than 6 months and the plant is now looking for more opportunities that can provide even bigger gains. (author)

  15. Huge maternal hydronephrosis: a rare complication in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Wang, Chin-Jung; Yen, Chih-Feng; Chou, Chien-Chung; Lee, Chyi-Long

    2003-06-10

    A huge maternal hydronephrosis is uncommon in pregnancy and might be mistaken as a pelvic mass. A 21-year-old primigravida was noted at 25th week of gestation to have a visible bulging mass on her left flank. The mass was originally mistaken as a large ovarian cyst but later proved to be a huge hydronephrosis. Retrograde insertion of ureteroscope and a ureteric stent failed, so we performed repeated ultrasound-guided needle aspiration to decompress the huge hydronephrosis, which enabled the patient to proceed to a successful term vaginal delivery. Nephrectomy was performed after delivery and proved the diagnosis of congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

  16. Aggressive angiomyxoma presenting with huge abdominal lump: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Agrawal, Nikhil; Khanna, Rahul; Khanna, AK

    2008-01-01

    Agressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm. It mainly presents in females. We here present a case of angiomyxoma presenting as huge abdominal lump along with gluteal swelling. Case note is described along with brief review of literature. PMID:18755035

  17. Huge magnetoresistance effect of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Youwei; Wang Zhiming; Ni Gang; Xing Dingyu; Xu Qingyu

    2004-01-01

    Graphite is a quasi-two-dimensional semimetal. However, for usual graphite the magnetoresistance is not so high due to its small crystal size and no preferred orientation. Huge positive magnetoresistance up to 85300% at 4.2 K and 4950% at 300 K under 8.15 T magnetic field was found in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The mechanism of huge positive magnetoresistance is not only due to ordinary magnetoresistance but also due to magnetic-field-driven semimetal-insulator transition

  18. Huge Mesenteric Lymphangioma – A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphangiomas are benign congenital masses which occur most commonly in head and neck of children and incidence of mesenteric lymphangiomas is very rare. We report such a case of huge mesenteric lymphangioma in a 20 year old male who presented to us with acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult ...

  19. 61 HUGE BENIGN GRANULOSA CELL TUMOUR IN A 61 YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    peritoneal cavity, huge right ovarian cyst measuring 37cm/29cm as in figure 1a, weighing 8.3 kg with a thick smooth wall without excrescences on surface. ... is released in the blood during pregnancy and is produced in other conditions such as endometriosis, fibroids and diverticulitis. It is useful in monitoring therapy.

  20. Umbilicoplasty in children with huge umbilical hernia | Komlatsè ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a mean follow-up of 10 months, we had 10 excellent results and two fair results according to our criteria. Conclusion: Our two lateral fl aps umbilicoplasty is well-adapted to HUH in children. Itis simple and assures a satisfactory anatomical and cosmetic result. Key words: Children, huge umbilical hernia, Togo, umbilical ...

  1. A Huge Ovarian Dermoid Cyst: Successful Laparoscopic Total Excision

    OpenAIRE

    Uyanikoglu, Hacer; Dusak, Abdurrahim

    2017-01-01

    Giant ovarian cysts, ≥15 cm in diameter, are quite rare in women of reproductive age. Here, we present a case of ovarian cyst with unusual presentation treated by laparoscopic surgery. On histology, mass was found to be mature cystic teratoma. The diagnostic and management challenges posed by this huge ovarian cyst were discussed in the light of the literature.

  2. Huge cystic craniopharyngioma. Changes of cyst density on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, Seishi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Yoichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-06-01

    The findings of computed tomography (CT) of a huge cystic craniopharyngioma in a 57-year-old woman are described. Cyst density varied from low to high levels in a short duration. Follow-up CT scans were regarded as important to diagnose craniopharyngioma. The mechanism of increment of cyst density was discussed.

  3. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas mistaken for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are rare and can be confused with pseudocysts.We present a 50 year old woman with a huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas initially diagnosed and managed with a cystojejunostomy and cyst wall biopsy. She required another laparotomy and tumor excision after histological ...

  4. Huge uterine-cervical diverticulum mimicking as a cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chufal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report an incidental huge uterine-cervical diverticulum from a total abdominal hysterectomy specimen in a perimenopausal woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. The diverticulum was mimicking with various cysts present in the lateral side of the female genital tract. Histopathological examination confirmed this to be a cervical diverticulum with communication to uterine cavity through two different openings. They can attain huge size if left ignored for long duration and present a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, radiologists, as well as pathologists because of its extreme rarity. Therefore, diverticula should also be included as a differential diagnosis. Its histopathological confirmation also highlights that diverticula can present as an acute abdomen, requiring early diagnosis with appropriate timely intervention. Immunohistochemistry CD 10 has also been used to differentiate it from a mesonephric cyst.

  5. It was huge! Nursing students' first experience at AORN Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle; Cantrell, Kelly; Fletcher, Daphne; McRaney, David; Morris, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    AN EXPERIENTIAL KNOWLEDGE of mentoring through nursing students' perspectives may enhance AORN's ability to recruit students to perioperative nursing and aid future planning for student involvement in the Association. IN 2003, four first-year nursing students attended the AORN Congress in Chicago with their nursing instructor and mentor. The students' experiences were captured using a thematic analysis to analyze their journals. THE FIVE COMMON THEMES identified were "it was huge," "exhibits," "student program," "exploring the city," and "suggestions for future planning."

  6. Huge biloma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harith M. Alkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: (1 Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2 A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3 Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective.

  7. Partial ureterectomy for a huge primary leiomyoma of the ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouralizadeh, A.; Tabib, A.; Taheri, M.; Torbati, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a huge primary leiomyoma of the ureter in which only partial ureterectomy was performed is presented. The benign nature of the mass was primarily confirmed with frozen section at the time of surgery and then with immunohistochemistry (IHC). To the best of our knowledge, this case is a unique form of leiomyoma of the ureter due to its large size. There have been only ten cases of primary leiomyoma of the ureter reported since 1955 and all of them were very small in size. Our case is considered to be the eleventh. (author)

  8. A huge renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge left renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma presented in a patient as an abdominal mass. Computed tomography displayed a large heterogeneous retro-peritoneal mass in the left side of the abdomen with inferior and medial displacement as well as loss of fat plane with the left kidney. Surgical exploration revealed a capsulated mass that was tightly adherent to the left kidney; therefore, total tumor resection with radical left nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology ultimately confirmed the benign nature of the mass. This is the largest leiomyoma reported in literature to the best of our knowledge.

  9. How a huge HEP experiment is designed course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-FAS

    2007-01-01

    More than twenty years after the idea of building the LHC machine was discussed in a workshop in Lausanne in 1984 for the first time, it is instructive to look back on the historical process which has led the community to where we are today with four huge detectors being commissioned and eagerly awaiting first beam collisions in 2008. The main design principles, detector features and performance characteristics of the ATLAS and CMS detectors will be briefly covered in these two lectures with, as an interlude, a wonderful DVD from ATLAS outreach depicting how particles interact and are detected in the various components of the experiments.

  10. A young woman with a huge paratubal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Golbasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paratubal cysts are asymptomatic embryological remnants. These cysts are usually diagnosed during adolescence and reproductive age. In general, their sizes are small but can be complicated by rupture, torsion, or hemorrhage. Paratubal cysts are often discovered fortuitously on routine ultrasound examination. We report a 19-year-old female patient who presented with irregular menses and abdominal pain. Ultrasound examination revealed a huge cystic mass at the right adnexial area. The diagnosis was confirmed as paratubal cyst during laporotomy and, hence, cystectomy and right salpingectomy were performed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 573-576

  11. Distributed and parallel approach for handle and perform huge datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Big Data refers to the dynamic, large and disparate volumes of data comes from many different sources (tools, machines, sensors, mobile devices) uncorrelated with each others. It requires new, innovative and scalable technology to collect, host and analytically process the vast amount of data. Proper architecture of the system that perform huge data sets is needed. In this paper, the comparison of distributed and parallel system architecture is presented on the example of MapReduce (MR) Hadoop platform and parallel database platform (DBMS). This paper also analyzes the problem of performing and handling valuable information from petabytes of data. The both paradigms: MapReduce and parallel DBMS are described and compared. The hybrid architecture approach is also proposed and could be used to solve the analyzed problem of storing and processing Big Data.

  12. Huge Intracanal lumbar Disc Herniation: a Review of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar disc herniation (LDH is the most common cause of sciatica and only in about 10% of the affected patients, surgical intervention is necessary. The side of the patient (the side of most prominent clinical complaints is usually consistent with the side of imaging (the side with most prominent disc herniation on imaging scans. In this case series, we presented our experience in four cases with huge intracanal LDH that a mismatch between the patient’s side and the imaging’s side was present. In these cases, for deciding to do the operation, the physicians need to rely more on clinical findings, but for deciding the side of discectomy, imaging characteristic (imaging side may be a more important criterion.

  13. A parallel solver for huge dense linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, J. M.; Movilla, J. L.; Climente, J. I.; Castillo, M.; Marqués, M.; Mayo, R.; Quintana-Ortí, E. S.; Planelles, J.

    2011-11-01

    HDSS (Huge Dense Linear System Solver) is a Fortran Application Programming Interface (API) to facilitate the parallel solution of very large dense systems to scientists and engineers. The API makes use of parallelism to yield an efficient solution of the systems on a wide range of parallel platforms, from clusters of processors to massively parallel multiprocessors. It exploits out-of-core strategies to leverage the secondary memory in order to solve huge linear systems O(100.000). The API is based on the parallel linear algebra library PLAPACK, and on its Out-Of-Core (OOC) extension POOCLAPACK. Both PLAPACK and POOCLAPACK use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) as the communication layer and BLAS to perform the local matrix operations. The API provides a friendly interface to the users, hiding almost all the technical aspects related to the parallel execution of the code and the use of the secondary memory to solve the systems. In particular, the API can automatically select the best way to store and solve the systems, depending of the dimension of the system, the number of processes and the main memory of the platform. Experimental results on several parallel platforms report high performance, reaching more than 1 TFLOP with 64 cores to solve a system with more than 200 000 equations and more than 10 000 right-hand side vectors. New version program summaryProgram title: Huge Dense System Solver (HDSS) Catalogue identifier: AEHU_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHU_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 87 062 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 069 110 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90, C Computer: Parallel architectures: multiprocessors, computer clusters Operating system

  14. Airway management of a rare huge-size supraglottic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Haitham A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdel Mohsin A.; Al-Qurain, Abdel-Aziz A.; Mokhazy, Khalid M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region, is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy, however, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome. A 26-year-old patient presented with dysphagia caused by left cystic vallecular synovial sarcoma. The airway was successfully secured via fiberoptic bronchoscopy, followed by excision of the supraglottic tumor with CO2 laser surgery. Tracheostomy was not required. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 4th day of surgery. This case, highlights the possibility to secure the airway passage without performing preoperative tracheostomy resulting in good outcome and short hospital stay. (author)

  15. Huge endometrioma mimicking mucinous cystadenoma on MR : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Im Kyung; Kim, Bong Soo; Nam, Kung Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol; Yoo, Yun Sik; Lee, Mee Ran; Hwang, Woo Chul [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    Endometriosis is a relatively common gynecologic disease affecting women during their reproductive years. For its diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to have greater specificity than other modalities. Although lesions may show variable signal intensity due to numerous stages of bleeding, the characteristic finding of endometrioma which distinguishes it from other ovarian cystic masses is relatively high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous signal intensity with prominent shading on 72-weighted images. We report an atypical case involving a huge endometrioma. Because of varying signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and scanty shading on T2-weighted images, the findings were misinterpreted and mucinous cystadenoma was diagnosed.

  16. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  17. Progressive skin necrosis of a huge occipital encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarabi, Yasir; Nejat, Farideh; El-Khashab, Mostafa

    2008-01-01

    Objects: Progressive skin necrosis of giant occipital encephalocoele is an extremely rare complication found in neonates. Infection and ulceration of the necrosed skin may lead to meningitis or sepsis. We present here a neonate with giant occipital encephalocoele showing progressive necrosis during the first day of his life. Methods: A newborn baby was found to have a huge mass in the occipital region, which was covered by normal pink-purplish skin. During the last hours of the first day of his life, the sac started becoming ulcerated accompanied with a rapid color change in the skin, gradually turning darker and then black. The neonate was taken up for urgent excision and repair of the encephalocele. Two years after the operation, he appears to be well-developed without any neurological problems. Conclusion: Necrosis may have resulted from arterial or venous compromise caused by torsion of the pedicle during delivery or after birth. The high pressure inside the sac associated with the thin skin of the encephalocoele may be another predisposing factor. In view of the risk of ulceration and subsequent infection, urgent surgery of the necrotizing encephalocele is suggested. PMID:19753210

  18. Progressive skin necrosis of a huge occipital encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andarabi Yasir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objects: Progressive skin necrosis of giant occipital encephalocoele is an extremely rare complication found in neonates. Infection and ulceration of the necrosed skin may lead to meningitis or sepsis. We present here a neonate with giant occipital encephalocoele showing progressive necrosis during the first day of his life. Methods: A newborn baby was found to have a huge mass in the occipital region, which was covered by normal pink-purplish skin. During the last hours of the first day of his life, the sac started becoming ulcerated accompanied with a rapid color change in the skin, gradually turning darker and then black. The neonate was taken up for urgent excision and repair of the encephalocele. Two years after the operation, he appears to be well-developed without any neurological problems. Conclusion: Necrosis may have resulted from arterial or venous compromise caused by torsion of the pedicle during delivery or after birth. The high pressure inside the sac associated with the thin skin of the encephalocoele may be another predisposing factor. In view of the risk of ulceration and subsequent infection, urgent surgery of the necrotizing encephalocele is suggested.

  19. [A Case of Huge Colon Cancer Accompanied with Severe Hypoproteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Sakurao; Kanesada, Kou; Harada, Toshio; Tada, Kousuke; Fukuda, Shintaro

    2017-11-01

    We report a case of huge colon cancer accompanied with severe hypoproteinemia. A7 4-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal fullness. Blood examinations revealed anemia(hemoglobin 8.8 g/dL)and sever hypopro- teinemia(total protein 4.5 g/dL, albumin 1.1 g/dL). Computed tomography examination of abdomen revealed ascites and large tumor(12.5×10.5 cm)at the right side colon. By further examinations ascending colon cancer without distant metastasis was diagnosed, then we performed right hemicolectomy and primary intestinal anastomosis by open surgery. Ahuge type 1 tumor(18×12 cm)was observed in the excised specimen, which invaded to terminal ileum directly. The tumor was diagnosed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma without lymph node metastasis(pT3N0M0, fStage II ). Postoperative course was uneventful and serum protein concentration recovered gradually to normal range. Protein leakage from the tumor cannot be proved by this case, so we can't diagnose as protein-losing enteropathy, but we strongly doubt this etiology from postoperative course in this case.

  20. A huge bladder calculus causing acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeya, Mitsuru; Sahoda, Tamami; Sugiura, Shinpei; Sawada, Takuto; Kitami, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    A 81-year-old male was referred to our emergency outpatient unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum creatinine was 276 μmol/l. A CT scan showed bilateral hydronephroureter, large bladder stone (7 cm × 6 cm × 6 cm) and bladder wall thickness. He was diagnosed as post renal failure due to bilateral hydronephroureter. Large bladder stone is thought to be the cause of bilateral hydronephroureter and renal failure. To improve renal failure, we performed open cystolithotomy and urethral catheterization. Three days after the surgery, the level of serum creatinine decreased to 224 μmol/l. He was discharged from our hospital with uneventful course. Bladder calculus is thought to be a rare cause of renal failure. We summarize the characteristics of bladder calculus causing renal failure. We should keep that long-term pyuria and urinary symptom, and repeated urinary tract infection can cause huge bladder calculus and renal failure in mind.

  1. MRI Verification of a Case of Huge Infantile Rhabdomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Kreshnike, Kreshnike Dedushi; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Jerliu, Naim; Bejiçi, Ramush

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac rhabdomyoma is type of benign myocardial tumor that is the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are usually detected before birth or during the first year of life. They account for over 60% of all primary cardiac tumors. A 6 month old child with coughing and obstruction in breathing, was hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic in UCCK, Pristine. The difficulty of breathing was heard and the pathological noise of the heart was noticed from the pediatrician. In the echo of the heart at the posterior and apico-lateral part of the left ventricle a tumoral mass was presented with the dimensions of 56 × 54 mm that forwarded the contractions of the left ventricle, the mass involved also the left ventricle wall and was not vascularized. The right ventricle was deformed and with the shifting of the SIV on the right the contractility was preserved. Aorta, the left arch and AP were normal with laminar circulation. The pericard was presented free. Radiography of thoracic organs was made; it resulted on cardiomegaly and significant bronchovascular drawing. It was completed with an MRI and it resulted on: Cardiomegaly due to large tumoral mass lesion (60×34 mm) involving lateral wall of left ventricle. It was isointense to the muscle on T1W images, markedly hyperintense on T2W images. There were a few septa or bant like hypointensities within lesion. On postcontrast study it showed avid enhancement. The left ventricle volume was decreased. Mild pericardial effusion was also noted. Surgical intervention was performed and it resulted on the histopathological aspect as a huge infantile rhadbomyoma. In most cases no treatment is required and these lesions regress spontaneously. Patients with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction or refractory arrhythmias respond well to surgical excision. Rhabdomyomas are frequently diagnosed by means of fetal echocardiography during the prenatal period.

  2. MRI Verification of a Case of Huge Infantile Rhabdomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Kreshnike, Kreshnike Dedushi; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Jerliu, Naim; Bejiçi, Ramush

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac rhabdomyoma is type of benign myocardial tumor that is the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are usually detected before birth or during the first year of life. They account for over 60% of all primary cardiac tumors. Case report: A 6 month old child with coughing and obstruction in breathing, was hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic in UCCK, Pristine. The difficulty of breathing was heard and the pathological noise of the heart was noticed from the pediatrician. In the echo of the heart at the posterior and apico-lateral part of the left ventricle a tumoral mass was presented with the dimensions of 56 × 54 mm that forwarded the contractions of the left ventricle, the mass involved also the left ventricle wall and was not vascularized. The right ventricle was deformed and with the shifting of the SIV on the right the contractility was preserved. Aorta, the left arch and AP were normal with laminar circulation. The pericard was presented free. Radiography of thoracic organs was made; it resulted on cardiomegaly and significant bronchovascular drawing. It was completed with an MRI and it resulted on: Cardiomegaly due to large tumoral mass lesion (60×34 mm) involving lateral wall of left ventricle. It was isointense to the muscle on T1W images, markedly hyperintense on T2W images. There were a few septa or bant like hypointensities within lesion. On postcontrast study it showed avid enhancement. The left ventricle volume was decreased. Mild pericardial effusion was also noted. Surgical intervention was performed and it resulted on the histopathological aspect as a huge infantile rhadbomyoma. Conclusion: In most cases no treatment is required and these lesions regress spontaneously. Patients with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction or refractory arrhythmias respond well to surgical excision. Rhabdomyomas are frequently diagnosed by means of fetal echocardiography during the prenatal period. PMID:27147810

  3. Invasive Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Invasive Candidiasis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Global Emergence ... antifungal drugs. Learn more about C. auris Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a ...

  4. Newtonian self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Ryusuke; Nakao, Ken-ichi [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Yoo, Chul-Moon, E-mail: ryusuke@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp, E-mail: knakao@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp, E-mail: yoo@gravity.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    We consider a test of the Copernican Principle through observations of the large-scale structures, and for this purpose we study the self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model which does not invoke the Copernican Principle. If we focus on the the weakly self-gravitating and slowly evolving system whose spatial extent is much smaller than the scale of the cosmological horizon in the homogeneous and isotropic background universe model, the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available. Also in the huge void universe model, the same kind of approximation as the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available for the analysis of the perturbations contained in a region whose spatial size is much smaller than the scale of the huge void: the effects of the huge void are taken into account in a perturbative manner by using the Fermi-normal coordinates. By using this approximation, we derive the equations of motion for the weakly self-gravitating perturbations whose elements have relative velocities much smaller than the speed of light, and show the derived equations can be significantly different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model, due to the anisotropic volume expansion in the huge void. We linearize the derived equations of motion and solve them. The solutions show that the behaviors of linear density perturbations are very different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model.

  5. A case report of surgical debulking for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Manabu; Ieguchi, Makoto; Taguchi, Susumu; Yamasaki, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    Achievement of a safe outcome for an extensive mass with hypervascularity in the extremities requires a surgical team skilled in musculoskeletal oncology. We report debulking surgery for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa in the right leg of a 56-year old man using the novel Ligasure® vessel sealing system. PMID:21139882

  6. A case report of surgical debulking for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamasaki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Achievement of a safe outcome for an extensive mass with hypervascularity in the extremities requires a surgical team skilled in musculoskeletal oncology. We report debulking surgery for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa in the right leg of a 56-year old man using the novel Ligasure® vessel sealing system.

  7. Constructing Optimal Coarse-Grained Sites of Huge Biomolecules by Fluctuation Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, John Zenghui; Xia, Fei

    2016-04-12

    Coarse-grained (CG) models are valuable tools for the study of functions of large biomolecules on large length and time scales. The definition of CG representations for huge biomolecules is always a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new method called fluctuation maximization coarse-graining (FM-CG) to construct the CG sites of biomolecules. The defined residual in FM-CG converges to a maximal value as the number of CG sites increases, allowing an optimal CG model to be rigorously defined on the basis of the maximum. More importantly, we developed a robust algorithm called stepwise local iterative optimization (SLIO) to accelerate the process of coarse-graining large biomolecules. By means of the efficient SLIO algorithm, the computational cost of coarse-graining large biomolecules is reduced to within the time scale of seconds, which is far lower than that of conventional simulated annealing. The coarse-graining of two huge systems, chaperonin GroEL and lengsin, indicates that our new methods can coarse-grain huge biomolecular systems with up to 10,000 residues within the time scale of minutes. The further parametrization of CG sites derived from FM-CG allows us to construct the corresponding CG models for studies of the functions of huge biomolecular systems.

  8. A Huge Ovarian Cyst in a Middle-Aged Iranian Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Moslemi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old Iranian woman was found to have a huge ovarian cystic mass. Her presenting symptom was vague abdominal pain and severe abdominal distention. She underwent laparotomy and after surgical removal, the mass was found to be mucinous cystadenoma on histology.

  9. Huge gastric diospyrobezoars successfully treated by oral intake and endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y W; Han, D S; Park, Y K; Son, B K; Paik, C H; Jeon, Y C; Sohn, J H

    2006-07-01

    A diospyrobezoar is a type of phytobezoar that is considered to be harder than any other types of phytobezoars. Here, we describe a new treatment modality, which effectively and easily disrupted huge gastric diospyrobezoars. A 41-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted with lower abdominal pain and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed three huge, round diospyrobezoars in the stomach. He was made to drink two cans of Coca-Cola every 6 h. At endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were partially dissolved and turned to be softened. We performed direct endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola into each bezoar. At repeated endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were completely dissolved.

  10. Successful Vaginal Delivery despite a Huge Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma Complicating Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Mandi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old patient with 9 months of amenorrhea and a huge abdominal swelling was admitted to our institution with an ultrasonography report of a multiloculated cystic space-occupying lesion, almost taking up the whole abdomen (probably of ovarian origin, along with a single live intrauterine fetus. She delivered vaginally a boy baby within 4 hours of admission without any maternal complication, but the baby had features of intrauterine growth restriction along with low birth weight. On the 8th postpartum day, the multiloculated cystic mass, which arose from the right ovary and weighed about 11 kg, was removed via laparotomy. A mucinous cystadenoma with no malignant cells in peritoneal washing was detected in histopathology examination. This report describes a rare case of a successful vaginal delivery despite a huge cystadenoma of the right ovary complicating the pregnancy.

  11. A New Pixels Flipping Method for Huge Watermarking Capacity of the Invoice Font Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  12. A new pixels flipping method for huge watermarking capacity of the invoice font image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hou, Qingzheng; Lu, Jianfeng; Xu, Qishuai; Dai, Junping; Mao, Xiaoyang; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  13. Churn prediction on huge telecom data using hybrid firefly based classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar A.Q. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Churn prediction in telecom has become a major requirement due to the increase in the number of telecom providers. However due to the hugeness, sparsity and imbalanced nature of the data, churn prediction in telecom has always been a complex task. This paper presents a metaheuristic based churn prediction technique that performs churn prediction on huge telecom data. A hybridized form of Firefly algorithm is used as the classifier. It has been identified that the compute intensive component of the Firefly algorithm is the comparison block, where every firefly is compared with every other firefly to identify the one with the highest light intensity. This component is replaced by Simulated Annealing and the classification process is carried out. Experiments were conducted on the Orange dataset. It was observed that Firefly algorithm works best on churn data and the hybridized Firefly algorithm provides effective and faster results.

  14. The therapy for huge goiter together with hyperthyroidism through 131I case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianhua; Yu Wencai; Zeng Qingwen; Wu Congjun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: 214 cases of the treatment of huge goiter with hyperthyroidism are revised to collect clinic material for the improvement of therapy to hyperthyroidism indications through 131 I. Methods: In all of these cases, patients take a full dose of 131 I based on MC Garack's formula for one time. Results: Among them, 154 resolved, accounting for 72%, 139 of the cases were reduced to normal size, which accounted for 64.9% of the patients. Only 114 cases of patients had side-effect, and during one year 12.1% of them have symptoms of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The statistics shows that 131 I is convenient, safe, well and with reduces suffering from treating huge goiter with hyperthyroidism

  15. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of ovary, describing a young patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Ovarian cysts in young women who are associated with elevated levels of tumor markers and ascites require careful evaluation. Management of ovarian cysts depends on patient's age, size of the cyst, and its histopathological nature. Conservative surgery such as ovarian cystectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy is adequate in mucinous tumors of ovary. Multiple frozen sections are very important to know the malignant variation of this tumor and helps accurate patient management. Surgical expertise is required to prevent complications in huge tumors has distorted the anatomy, so gynecologic oncologist plays a prominent role in management. In this case, beside of the huge tumor and massive ascites uterine and ovaries were preserved by gynecologist oncologist and patient is well up to now.

  16. Transcatheter Closure of Bilateral Multiple Huge Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Homemade Double-Umbrella Occluders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Hongshan; Xu Ke; Shao Haibo

    2008-01-01

    A 28-year-old man underwent successful transcatheter occlusion of three huge pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using homemade double-umbrella occluders and stainless steel coils. Thoracic CT with three-dimensional reconstruction and pulmonary angiography were used for treatment planning and follow-up. The diameters of the feeding vessels were 11 mm, 13 mm, and 14 mm, respectively. This report demonstrates the novel design and utility of the double-umbrella occluder, an alternative tool for treatment of large PAVMs.

  17. On the huge Lie superalgebra of pseudo superdifferential operators and super KP-hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedra, M.B.

    1995-08-01

    Lie superalgebraic methods are used to establish a connection between the huge Lie superalgebra Ξ of super (pseudo) differential operators and various super KP-hierarchies. We show in particular that Ξ splits into 5 = 2 x 2 + 1 graded algebras expected to correspond to five classes of super KP-hierarchies generalizing the well-known Manin-Radul and Figueroa O'Farrill-Ramos supersymmetric KP-hierarchies. (author). 10 refs

  18. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Basheir A.; Shreef, Khalid S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were...

  19. Disaster Characteristics and Mitigation Measures of Huge Glacial Debris Flows along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; You, Yong; Zhang, Guangze; Wang, Dong; Chen, Jiangang; Chen, Huayong

    2017-04-01

    The Ranwu-Tongmai section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through the Palongzangbu River basin which locates in the southeast Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Due to widely distributed maritime glacier in this area, the huge glacier debris flows are very developed. Consequently, the disastrous glacier debris flows with huge scale (106-108 m3 for one debris flow event) and damage become one of the key influencing factors for the route alignment of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway. The research on disaster characteristics and mitigation measures of huge glacial debris flows in the study area were conducted by the remote sensing interpretation, field investigation, parameter calculation and numerical simulation. Firstly, the distribution of the glaciers, glacier lakes and glacier debris flows were identified and classified; and the disaster characteristics for the huge glacier debris flow were analyzed and summarized. Secondly, the dynamic parameters including the flood peak discharge, debris flow peak discharge, velocity, total volume of a single debris flow event were calculated. Based on the disaster characteristics and the spatial relation with the railway, some mitigation principles and measures were proposed. Finally, the Guxiang Gully, where a huge glacier debris flow with 2*108m3 in volume occurred in 1953, was selected as a typical case to analyze its disaster characteristics and mitigation measures. The interpretation results show that the glacier area is about 970 km2 which accounts for 19% of the total study area. 130 glacier lakes and 102 glacier debris flows were identified and classified. The Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through 43 glacier debris flows in the study area. The specific disaster characteristics were analyzed and corresponding mitigation measures were proposed for the route selection of the railway. For the Guxiang Gully, a numerical simulation to simulate the deposition condition at the alluvial fan was conducted. the simulation results show that the

  20. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Duron, Q.; Bourguet, E.; De Meringo, H.; Millon, A.; Vidal, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Invasive rats (Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats (Rattus rattus and R. exulans) on native bird eggs in a ...

  1. The efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy on huge hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for other local modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, Jenny Y; Lin, Li-Ching; Lin, Kuei-Li; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Yu-Wei; Yang, Ching-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients with unresectable huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable of other standard treatment option. Between 2009 and 2011, 22 patients with unresectable huge HCC (≧10 cm) were treated with SBRT. dose ranged from 26 Gy to 40 Gy in five fractions. Overall survival (OS) and disease-progression free survival (DPFS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Tumor response and toxicities were also assessed. After a median follow-up of 11.5 month (range 2–46 months). The objective response rate was achieved in 86.3% (complete response (CR): 22.7% and partial response (PR): 63.6%). The 1-yr. local control rate was 55.56%. The 1-year OS was 50% and median survival was 11 months (range 2–46 months). In univariate analysis, Child-Pugh stage (p = 0.0056) and SBRT dose (p = 0.0017) were significant factors for survival. However, in multivariate analysis, SBRT dose (p = 0.0072) was the most significant factor, while Child-Pugh stage of borderline significance. (p = 0.0514). Acute toxicities were mild and well tolerated. This study showed that SBRT can be delivered safely to huge HCC and achieved a substantial tumor regression and survival. The results suggest this technique should be considered a salvage treatment. However, local and regional recurrence remain the major cause of failure. Further studies of combination of SBRT and other treatment modalities may be reasonable

  2. A case of huge neurofibroma expanding extra- and intracranially through the enlarged jugular foramen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanakita, Junya; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Handa, Hajime

    1984-01-01

    The surgical approach to the jugular foramen has been considered to be very difficult and troublesome, because of the location in which important structures, such as the internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery and lower cranial nerves, converge in the narrow deep space. A case of huge neurofibroma, which extended from the tentorium cerebelli through the dilated jugular foramen to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 was presented. A 12-year-old girl was admitted with complaints of visual disturbance and palsy of the V-XII cranial nerves of the left side. Plain skull film showed prominent widening of the cranial sutures and enlargement of the sella turcica. Horizontal CT scan with contrast showed symmetrical ventricular dilatation and a heterogeneously enhanced mass, which was situated mainly in the left CP angle. Coronal CT scan with contrast revealed a huge mass and enlarged jugular foramen, through which the tumor extended to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 . Occlusion of the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein of the left side was noticed in the vertebral angiography. Two-stage approach, the first one for removal of the intracranial tumor and the second one for extracranial tumor, was performed for its huge tumor. Several authors have reported excellent surgical approaches for the tumors situated in the jugular foramen. By our approach, modifying Gardner's original one, a wide operative field was obtained to remove the tumor around the jugular foramen with success. Our approach for the jugular foramen was described with illustrations. (author)

  3. En bloc resection of huge cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: avoiding lower lip split incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Tahera; Katpar, Shahjahan; Shafique, Salman; Mirza, Talat

    2011-05-01

    Cemento-ossifying Fibroma (COF) is an osteogenic benign neoplasm affecting the jaws and other craniofacial bones. It commonly presents as a progressively slow growing pathology, which can sometimes attain an enormous size, causing facial deformity. A case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma, appearing as a mandibular dumbell tumour in a male patient is documented, which caused massive bone destruction and deformity. It was surgically removed by performing en bloc resection of mandible avoiding the splitting of lower lip incision technique, thereby maintaining his normal facial appearance.

  4. Huge residual resistivity in the quantum critical region of CeAgSb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Miho; Kirita, Shingo; Asai, Rihito; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C; Okubo, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Mineko; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Inada, Yoshihiko; Settai, Rikio; Galatanu, Andre; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ebihara, Takao; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the effect of pressure on the electrical resistivity of a high-quality single crystal CeAgSb 2 which has a small net ferromagnetic moment of 0.4μ B /Ce. The magnetic ordering temperature T ord = 9.7 K decreases with increasing pressure p and disappears at a critical pressure p c ≅ 3.3 GPa. The residual resistivity, which is close to zero up to 3 GPa, increases steeply above 3 GPa, reaching 55μΩ cm at p c . A huge residual resistivity is found to appear when the magnetic order disappears. (letter to the editor)

  5. Acute abdomen in early pregnancy caused by torsion of bilateral huge multiloculated ovarian cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiyakala Rajendran; Suthanthira Devi

    2015-01-01

    The association of pregnancy and torsion of bilateral huge benign ovarian cyst is rare. We report a case of multigravida at 13 weeks of pregnancy presenting with acute onset of lower abdominal pain. Ultrasound revealed bilateral multiloculated ovarian cysts of size 10x10 cm on right side and 15x10cm on left side with evidence of torsion and a single live intrauterine fetus of gestational age 13 weeks 4 days. Emergency laparotomy was done with vaginal susten 200 mg as perioperative tocolysis. ...

  6. Surgical resection of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma in skull base by intraoral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Li, Yun-Peng; Lei, De-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Lei

    2011-03-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma, also known as ossifying fibroma, usually occurs in the mandible and less commonly in the maxilla. The huge example in the skull base is even rare. We present a case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma arising below the skull base of a 30-year-old woman patient. Radiologic investigations showed a giant, lobulated, heterogeneous calcified hard tissue mass, which is well circumscribed and is a mixture of radiolucent and radiopaque, situated at the rear of the right maxilla to the middle skull base. The tumor expands into the right maxillary sinus and the orbital cavity, fusing with the right maxilla at the maxillary tuberosity and blocking the bilateral choanas, which caused marked proptosis and blurred vision. The tumor was resected successfully by intraoral approach, and pathologic examination confirmed the lesion to be a cemento-ossifying fibroma. This case demonstrates that cemento-ossifying fibroma in the maxilla, not like in the mandible, may appear more aggressive because the extensive growth is unimpeded by anatomic obstacles and that the intraoral approach can be used to excise the tumor in the skull base.

  7. Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans

  8. Sleeping money: investigating the huge surpluses of social health insurance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, JunQiang; Chen, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The spreading of social health insurance (SHI) worldwide poses challenges for fledging public administrators. Inefficiency, misuse and even corruption threaten the stewardship of those newly established health funds. This article examines a tricky situation faced by China's largest SHI program: the basic health insurance (BHI) scheme for urban employees. BHI accumulated a 406 billion yuan surplus by 2009, although the reimbursement level was still low. Using a provincial level panel database, we find that the huge BHI surpluses are related to the (temporarily) decreasing dependency ratio, the steady growth of average wages, the extension of BHI coverage, and progress in social insurance agency building. The financial situations of local governments and risk pooling level also matter. Besides, medical savings accounts result in about one third of BHI surpluses. Although these findings are not causal, lessons drawn from this study can help to improve the governance and performance of SHI programs in developing countries.

  9. Subcortical heterotopia appearing as huge midline mass in the newborn brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Shinobu; Watanabe, Toshihide; Kimura, Sachiko; Ochi, Satoko; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who showed a huge midline mass in the brain at prenatal assessment. After birth, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a conglomerate mass with an infolded microgyrus at the midline, which was suspected as a midline brain-in-brain malformation. MRI also showed incomplete cleavage of his frontal cortex and thalamus, consistent with lobar holoprosencephaly. The patient underwent an incisional biopsy of the mass on the second day of life. The mass consisted of normal central nervous tissue with gray and white matter, representing a heterotopic brain. The malformation was considered to be a subcortical heterotopia. With maturity, focal signal changes and decreased cerebral perfusion became clear on brain imaging, suggesting secondary glial degeneration. Coincident with these MRI abnormalities, the child developed psychomotor retardation and severe epilepsy focused on the side of the intracranial mass.

  10. Huge pelvic parachordoma: fine needle aspiration cytology and histological differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Kandil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Parachordoma is an extremely rare soft tissue tumor of unknown lineage. Parachordoma develops most often on the extremities. Only 2 cases have been reported as pelvic parachordoma. A 46-year old Egyptian woman with a huge painful pelvic mass was found to have a parachordoma with ectopic pelvic right kidney. There is only one report in the literature of fine needle aspiration cytology in this setting. The microscopic picture of parachordoma is not new to pathologists but the gross picture of this rare tumor has not previously been published; not even in the World Health Organization classification of soft tissues tumors. Diagnosis was confirmed by immuno-histochemistry. The patient is in good clinical condition without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 84 months of follow up.

  11. Tiny Grains Give Huge Gains: Nanocrystal–Based Signal Amplification for Biomolecule Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Shen, Han; Bao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystals, despite their tiny sizes, contain thousands to millions of atoms. Here we show that the large number of atoms packed in each metallic nanocrystal can provide a huge gain in signal amplification for biomolecule detection. We have devised a highly sensitive, linear amplification scheme by integrating the dissolution of bound nanocrystals and metal-induced stoichiometric chromogenesis, and demonstrated that signal amplification is fully defined by the size and atom density of nanocrystals, which can be optimized through well-controlled nanocrystal synthesis. Further, the rich library of chromogenic reactions allows implementation of this scheme in various assay formats, as demonstrated by the iron oxide nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) and blotting assay developed in this study. Our results indicate that, owing to the inherent simplicity, high sensitivity and repeatability, the nanocrystal based amplification scheme can significantly improve biomolecule quantification in both laboratory research and clinical diagnostics. This novel method adds a new dimension to current nanoparticle-based bioassays. PMID:23659350

  12. PRS: PERSONNEL RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR HUGE DATA ANALYSIS USING PORTER STEMMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Chiranjeevi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Personal recommendation system is one which gives better and preferential recommendation to the users to satisfy their personalized requirements such as practical applications like Webpage Preferences, Sport Videos preferences, Stock selection based on price, TV preferences, Hotel preferences, books, Mobile phones, CDs and various other products now use recommender systems. The existing Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC and item-based algorithm using PCC, are called as UPCC and IPCC respectively. These systems are mainly based on only the rating services and does not consider the user personal preferences, they simply just give the result based on the ratings. As the size of data increases it will give the recommendations based on the top rated services and it will miss out most of user preferences. These are main drawbacks in the existing system which will give same results to the users based on some evaluations and rankings or rating service, they will neglect the user preferences and necessities. To address this problem we propose a new approach called, Personnel Recommendation System (PRS for huge data analysis using Porter Stemmer to solve the above challenges. In the proposed system it provides a personalized service recommendation list to the users and recommends the most useful services to the users which will increase the accuracy and efficiency in searching better services. Particularly, a set of suggestions or keywords are provided to indicate user preferences and we used Collaborative Filtering and Porter Stemmer algorithm which gives a suitable recommendations to the users. In real, the broad experiments are conducted on the huge database which is available in real world, and outcome shows that our proposed personal recommender method extensively improves the precision and efficiency of service recommender system over the KASR method. In our approach mainly consider the user preferences so it will not miss out the any of the data

  13. Hydrogen-terminated mesoporous silicon monoliths with huge surface area as alternative Si-based visible light-active photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting; Li, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Blazeby, Emma; Shang, Congxiao; Xu, Hualong; Zhang, Xixiang; Chao, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based nanostructures and their related composites have drawn tremendous research interest in solar energy storage and conversion. Mesoporous silicon with a huge surface area of 400-900 m2 g-1 developed by electrochemical etching exhibits

  14. A Huge Capital Drop with Compression of Femoral Vessels Associated with Hip Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Takasago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A capital drop is a type of osteophyte at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head commonly observed in hip osteoarthritis (OA, secondary to developmental dysplasia. Capital drop itself is typically asymptomatic; however, symptoms can appear secondary to impinge against the acetabulum or to irritation of the surrounding tissues, such as nerves, vessels, and tendons. We present here a case of unilateral leg edema in a patient with hip OA, caused by a huge bone mass occurring at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head that compressed the femoral vessels. We diagnosed this bone mass as a capital drop secondary to hip OA after confirming that the mass occurred at least after the age of 63 years based on a previous X-ray. We performed early resection and total hip arthroplasty since the patient’s hip pain was due to both advanced hip OA and compression of the femoral vessels; moreover, we aimed to prevent venous thrombosis secondary to vascular compression considering the advanced age and the potent risk of thrombosis in the patient. A large capital drop should be considered as a cause of vascular compression in cases of unilateral leg edema in OA patients.

  15. Crystal structure of Clostridium botulinum whole hemagglutinin reveals a huge triskelion-shaped molecular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatsu, Sho; Sugawara, Yo; Matsumura, Takuhiro; Kitadokoro, Kengo; Fujinaga, Yukako

    2013-12-06

    Clostridium botulinum HA is a component of the large botulinum neurotoxin complex and is critical for its oral toxicity. HA plays multiple roles in toxin penetration in the gastrointestinal tract, including protection from the digestive environment, binding to the intestinal mucosal surface, and disruption of the epithelial barrier. At least two properties of HA contribute to these roles: the sugar-binding activity and the barrier-disrupting activity that depends on E-cadherin binding of HA. HA consists of three different proteins, HA1, HA2, and HA3, whose structures have been partially solved and are made up mainly of β-strands. Here, we demonstrate structural and functional reconstitution of whole HA and present the complete structure of HA of serotype B determined by x-ray crystallography at 3.5 Å resolution. This structure reveals whole HA to be a huge triskelion-shaped molecule. Our results suggest that whole HA is functionally and structurally separable into two parts: HA1, involved in recognition of cell-surface carbohydrates, and HA2-HA3, involved in paracellular barrier disruption by E-cadherin binding.

  16. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheir A. Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  17. Propranolol in treatment of huge and complicated infantile hemangiomas in egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Basheir A; Shreef, Khalid S

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  18. Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in boron nitride – ethylene glycol nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żyła, Gaweł; Fal, Jacek; Traciak, Julian; Gizowska, Magdalena; Perkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental studies on thermophysical properties of boron nitride (BN) plate-like shaped particles in ethylene glycol (EG). Essentially, the studies were focused on the thermal conductivity of suspensions of these particles. Nanofluids were obtained with two-step method (by dispersing BN particles in ethylene glycol) and its’ thermal conductivity was analyzed at various mass concentrations, up to 20 wt. %. Thermal conductivity was measured in temperature range from 293.15 K to 338.15 K with 15 K step. The measurements of thermal conductivity of nanofluids were performed in the system based on a device using the transient line heat source method. Studies have shown that nanofluids’ thermal conductivity increases with increasing fraction of nanoparticles. The results of studies also presented that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids changes very slightly with the increase of temperature. - Highlights: • Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in BN-EG nanofluid was reported. • Thermal conductivity increase very slightly with increasing of the temperature. • Thermal conductivity increase linearly with volume concentration of particles.

  19. A rare life-threatening disease: unilateral kidney compressed by huge chronic spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu HY

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hao-Yuan Lu,1,* Wei Wei,2,* Qi-Wei Chen,1,* Qing-Gui Meng,1 Gao-Hua Hu,1 Xian-Lin Yi,1,3 Xian-Zhong Bai1 1Department of Urology, Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and Guangxi Cancer Research Institute, Nanning 530021, China; 2Department of Radiology, Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and Guangxi Cancer Research Institute, Nanning 530021,China; 3Hubei Engineering Laboratory for Synthetic Microbiology, Wuhan Institute of Biotechnology, Wuhan 430075, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: To study an uncommon life-threatening disease, spontaneous retroperitoneal and perirenal hemorrhage. Case descriptions: A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the left waist and back of 1 month duration. The renal abscess was suspected by magnetic resonance imaging before operation. The perirenal hematoma was cleaned by operation. In another case, the patient had a functional solitary left kidney compressed by a huge retroperitoneal mass and uropenia appeared. Results: The first patient died of adult respiratory distress syndrome after surgery. The second patient died of cardiac insufficiency and pulmonary embolism on the second day after evacuation of retroperitoneal hematoma. Conclusion: Conservative surgery, such as selective arterial embolization, is a reasonable approach in patients with chronic spontaneous retroperitoneal and perirenal space hemorrhage and with poor general condition. We strongly recommend drainage or interventional therapy, but not a major surgery, in patients with poor condition. Keywords: kidney, spontaneous, retroperitoneal, hemorrhage, surgery

  20. Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in boron nitride – ethylene glycol nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Żyła, Gaweł, E-mail: gzyla@prz.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, 35-905 (Poland); Fal, Jacek; Traciak, Julian [Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, 35-905 (Poland); Gizowska, Magdalena; Perkowski, Krzysztof [Department of Nanotechnology, Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Warsaw, 02-676 (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental studies on thermophysical properties of boron nitride (BN) plate-like shaped particles in ethylene glycol (EG). Essentially, the studies were focused on the thermal conductivity of suspensions of these particles. Nanofluids were obtained with two-step method (by dispersing BN particles in ethylene glycol) and its’ thermal conductivity was analyzed at various mass concentrations, up to 20 wt. %. Thermal conductivity was measured in temperature range from 293.15 K to 338.15 K with 15 K step. The measurements of thermal conductivity of nanofluids were performed in the system based on a device using the transient line heat source method. Studies have shown that nanofluids’ thermal conductivity increases with increasing fraction of nanoparticles. The results of studies also presented that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids changes very slightly with the increase of temperature. - Highlights: • Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in BN-EG nanofluid was reported. • Thermal conductivity increase very slightly with increasing of the temperature. • Thermal conductivity increase linearly with volume concentration of particles.

  1. Climate change adaptation accounting for huge uncertainties in future projections - the case of urban drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological design parameters, which are currently used in the guidelines for the design of urban drainage systems (Willems et al., 2013) have been revised, taking the Flanders region of Belgium as case study. The revision involved extrapolation of the design rainfall statistics, taking into account the current knowledge on future climate change trends till 2100. Uncertainties in these trend projections have been assessed after statistically analysing and downscaling by a quantile perturbation tool based on a broad ensemble set of climate model simulation results (44 regional + 69 global control-scenario climate model run combinations for different greenhouse gas scenarios). The impact results of the climate scenarios were investigated as changes to rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Thereafter, the climate scenarios and related changes in rainfall statistics were transferred to changes in flood frequencies of sewer systems and overflow frequencies of storage facilities. This has been done based on conceptual urban drainage models. Also the change in storage capacity required to exceed a given overflow return period, has been calculated for a range of return periods and infiltration or throughflow rates. These results were used on the basis of the revision of the hydraulic design rules of urban drainage systems. One of the major challenges while formulating these policy guidelines was the consideration of the huge uncertainties in the future climate change projections and impact assessments; see also the difficulties and pitfalls reported by the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage - Working group on urban rainfall (Willems et al., 2012). We made use of the risk concept, and found it a very useful approach to deal with the high uncertainties. It involves an impact study of the different climate projections, or - for practical reasons - a reduced set of climate scenarios tailored for the specific type of impact considered (urban floods in our

  2. Huge increase in gas phase nanoparticle generation by pulsed direct current sputtering in a reactive gas admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Peter, Tilo; Mohammad Ahadi, Amir; Hinz, Alexander; Strunskus, Thomas; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Biederman, Hynek; Faupel, Franz

    2013-07-01

    Using reactive DC sputtering in a gas aggregation cluster source, we show that pulsed discharge gives rise to a huge increase in deposition rate of nanoparticles by more than one order of magnitude compared to continuous operation. We suggest that this effect is caused by an equilibrium between slight target oxidation (during "time-off") and subsequent sputtering of Ti oxides (sub-oxides) at "time-on" with high power impulse.

  3. Reconstruction of juxta-articular huge defects of distal femur with vascularized fibular bone graft and Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Davy; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of reconstructing huge defects (mean, 15.8 cm) of the distal femur with Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis and free twin-barreled vascularized fibular bone graft (TVFG). We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of five patients who had cases of distal femoral fractures with huge defects and infection that were treated by the Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis. After radical debridement, two of the five cases had free TVFG and monolocal distraction osteogenesis, and another two cases had multilocal distraction osteogenesis with knee fusion because of loss of the joint congruity. The other case with floating knee injury had bilocal distraction osteogenesis and a preserved knee joint. The mean defect of distal femur was 15.8 cm (range, 14-18 cm) in length. The mean length of distraction osteogenesis by Ilizarov's apparatus was 8.2 cm. The mean length of TVFG was 8 cm. The average duration from application of Ilizarov's apparatus to achievement of bony union was 10.2 months (range, 8-13 months). At the end of the follow-up, ranges of motion of three knees were 0 to 45 degrees, 0 to 60 degrees, and 0 to 90 degrees. Two cases had knee arthrodesis with bony fusion because of loss of the joint congruity. There were no leg length discrepancies in all five patients. In addition, three patients had pin tract infections and one case had a 10 degree varus deformity of the femur. Juxta-articular huge defect (>10 cm) of distal femur remains a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Ilizarov's technique provides the capability to maintain stability, eradicate infection, restore leg length, and to perform adjuvant reconstructive procedure easily. In this study, we found that combining Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis with TVFG results in improved patient outcome for patients with injuries such as supracondylar or intercondylar infected fractures or nonunion of distal femur with huge bone defect.

  4. Huge Left Ventricular Thrombus and Apical Ballooning associated with Recurrent Massive Strokes in a Septic Shock Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most feared complication of left ventricular thrombus (LVT is the occurrence of systemic thromboembolic events, especially in the brain. Herein, we report a patient with severe sepsis who suffered recurrent devastating embolic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed apical ballooning of the left ventricle with a huge LVT, which had not been observed in chest computed tomography before the stroke. This case emphasizes the importance of serial cardiac evaluation in patients with stroke and severe medical illness.

  5. Hypointensity on postcontrast MR imaging from compression of the sacral promontory in enlarged uterus with huge leiomyoma and adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotani, Kensuke; Monzawa, Shuichi; Adachi, Shuji; Takemori, Masayuki; Kaji, Yasushi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2007-01-01

    In patients with huge leiomyoma and with adenomyosis of the uterus, a peculiar area of hypointensity was occasionally observed on postcontrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the dorsal portion of the enlarged uterus near the sacral promontory. We describe the imaging characteristics of these MR findings and correlate them with histopathological findings to examine whether the areas represent specific pathological changes. Ten patients with huge leiomyomas and two with huge adenomyotic lesions whose imaging revealed the hypointensity were enrolled. All had enlarged uteri that extended beyond the sacral promontory. MR findings of the hypointense areas were evaluated and correlated with histopathological findings in 5 patients with leiomyoma and two with adenomyosis who had hysterectomy. The ten patients with leiomyoma showed flare-shaped hypointensity arising from the dorsal surface of the uterine body that extended deep into the tumor. The base of the hypointense areas was narrow in 5 patients with intramural leiomyoma and broad in five with subserosal leiomyoma. Two patients with adenomyosis showed nodular-shaped areas of hypointensity in front of the sacral promontory. Precontrast T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MR images showed no signal abnormalities in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in any of the 12 patients. Pathological examinations showed no specific findings in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in the 7 patients who had hysterectomy. The areas of hypointensity may represent functional changes, such as decreased localized blood flow caused by compression of the sacral promontory. (author)

  6. The causes and the nursing interventions of the complications due to repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingfang; Sun Ge

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the causes of the complications occurred after repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations and to discuss their nursing interventions. Methods: A total of 54 embolization procedures were performed in 17 patients with huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The causes of complications were carefully examined and the preventive measures were discussed. The prompt and necessary nursing interventions were formulated in order to prevent the complications or serious consequences. Results: Among the total 17 patients, one patient gave up the treatment because of the cerebral hemorrhage which occurred two months after receiving 3 times of embolization therapy. One patient experienced cerebral vascular spasm during the procedure, which was relieved after antispasmodic medication and no neurological deficit was left behind. Two patients developed transient dizziness and headache, which were alleviated spontaneously. One patient presented with nervousness, fear and irritability, which made him hard to cooperate with the operation and the basis intravenous anesthesia was employed. No complications occurred in the remaining cases. Conclusion: The predictive nursing interventions for the prevention of complications are very important for obtaining a successful repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations, which will ensure that the patients can get the best treatment and the complications can be avoided. (authors)

  7. [Radical Resection of Huge Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with lmatinib - ACase Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Yoko; Kato, Hiroaki; Shiraishi, Osamu; Tanaka, Yumiko; Iwama, Mitsuru; Yasuda, Atsushi; Shinkai, Masayuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Imano, Motohiro; Imamoto, Haruhiko; Yasuda, Takushi

    2017-11-01

    The usefulness and safety of imatinibfor neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST) has not been established. We reported a case of a huge GIST of the stomach that was safely resected following preoperative imatinibtherapy. A 69-year-old man was hospitalized with abdominal fullness which increased rapidly from a month ago. A CT scan showed a huge tumor containing solid and cystic component which was accompanied by an extra-wall nodule. The tumor was strongly suspected to be originated from the stomach and EUS-FNA revealed GIST. We diagnosed GIST of the stomach and initiated preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with imatinib because there was a risk for the break of tumor capsule and composite resection of the other organs without prior chemotherapy. After the administration of imatinib4 00 mg/day for 6months, the solid component was decreased in size and its' activity by PET-CT had declined, but the size of the cystic component was not changed and the patient's complaint of fullness was not reduced. Then, after a week cessation of imatinib, we performed surgical removal of the tumor with partial gastrectomy without surgical complication during and after the operation. Imatinibwas resumed 2 weeks later postoperatively and 1 year and 8 months has passed since the operation without recurrence. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with imatinibhas the potential to become an important therapeutic option for the treatment of huge GISTs.

  8. Transarticular invasion of the sacroiliac joints by malignant pelvic bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwang Woo; Huh, Jin Do; Kim, Seong Min; Cho, Young Duk [College of Medicine, Kosin Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kil Ho [College of Medicine, Yeungnam Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    To describe modes of transarticular invasion, with reference to the size and location of a tumor, the anatomic characteristics of invaded cartilage,and the existence of ankylosis in SI joint. Eleven histologically confirmed malignant pelvic bone tumors involving transarticular invasion of sacroiliac joints, were retrospectively analysed. Transarticular invasion of a joint was defined as involvement of its opposing bones. The anatomic site and size of the tumors were analysed, and invaded sacroiliac joint was divided into upper, middle and lower parts on the basis of the anatomic characteristics of the intervening cartilage: synovial hyaline or fibrous ligamentous. the existence of ankylosis was determined, and transarticular invasion directly across a joint was classified as direct invasion. Extension of tumors around a joint from its periphery to the opposing bone were considered as indirect invasion. All tumors were located near the sacroiliac joint, eight at the ilium and three at the sacrum. Six invasions were indirect and five were direct. Average tumor area was larger in indirect cases than in direct: 191.8 cm{sup 2} vs. 69.6 cm{sup 2}. In all indirect invasions, a huge soft tissue mass abutted onto the peripheral portion of the sacroiliac joint. In five of six cases of indirect transarticular invasion, the upper part of the joint posteriorly located fibrous ligamentous cartilage. In the other, the lower part was invaded, and this involved a detour around the joint space, avoiding the invasion of intervening cartilage. Ankylosis occurred in one of the indirect cases. Among the five cases of direct invasion, there was invasion of the posteriorly located ligamentous fibrous cartilage in three without ankylosis. In the other two cases, involving ankylosis, the synovial hyaline cartilage was invaded directly at the lower part of the joint. Transarticular invasions of sacroiliac joint via fibrous cartilage are most common. Ankylosis of the sacroiliac joint

  9. Transarticular invasion of the sacroiliac joints by malignant pelvic bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwang Woo; Huh, Jin Do; Kim, Seong Min; Cho, Young Duk; Cho, Kil Ho

    2002-01-01

    To describe modes of transarticular invasion, with reference to the size and location of a tumor, the anatomic characteristics of invaded cartilage,and the existence of ankylosis in SI joint. Eleven histologically confirmed malignant pelvic bone tumors involving transarticular invasion of sacroiliac joints, were retrospectively analysed. Transarticular invasion of a joint was defined as involvement of its opposing bones. The anatomic site and size of the tumors were analysed, and invaded sacroiliac joint was divided into upper, middle and lower parts on the basis of the anatomic characteristics of the intervening cartilage: synovial hyaline or fibrous ligamentous. the existence of ankylosis was determined, and transarticular invasion directly across a joint was classified as direct invasion. Extension of tumors around a joint from its periphery to the opposing bone were considered as indirect invasion. All tumors were located near the sacroiliac joint, eight at the ilium and three at the sacrum. Six invasions were indirect and five were direct. Average tumor area was larger in indirect cases than in direct: 191.8 cm 2 vs. 69.6 cm 2 . In all indirect invasions, a huge soft tissue mass abutted onto the peripheral portion of the sacroiliac joint. In five of six cases of indirect transarticular invasion, the upper part of the joint posteriorly located fibrous ligamentous cartilage. In the other, the lower part was invaded, and this involved a detour around the joint space, avoiding the invasion of intervening cartilage. Ankylosis occurred in one of the indirect cases. Among the five cases of direct invasion, there was invasion of the posteriorly located ligamentous fibrous cartilage in three without ankylosis. In the other two cases, involving ankylosis, the synovial hyaline cartilage was invaded directly at the lower part of the joint. Transarticular invasions of sacroiliac joint via fibrous cartilage are most common. Ankylosis of the sacroiliac joint facilitates

  10. Deeply invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Rex, J.H.; Bennett, J.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of invasive candidiasis is on the rise because of increasing numbers of immunocompromised hosts and more invasive medical technology. Recovery of Candida spp from several body sites in a critically ill or immunocompromised patient should raise the question of disseminated disease.

  11. Cryptic invasions: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morais, Pedro Miguel; Reichard, Martin

    613-614, February (2018), s. 1438-1448 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conspecific invader * Biological invasions * Bibliometric * Invasiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  12. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  13. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.

  14. Minimally invasive orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Cory M; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is defined as the discipline in which operative procedures are performed in novel ways to diminish the sequelae of standard surgical dissections. The goals of minimally invasive surgery are to reduce tissue trauma and to minimize bleeding, edema, and injury, thereby improving the rate and quality of healing. In orthognathic surgery, there are two minimally invasive techniques that can be used separately or in combination: (1) endoscopic exposure and (2) distraction osteogenesis. This article describes the historical developments of the fields of orthognathic surgery and minimally invasive surgery, as well as the integration of the two disciplines. Indications, techniques, and the most current outcome data for specific minimally invasive orthognathic surgical procedures are presented.

  15. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated 99mTc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by 99m Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of 99m Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  16. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj [Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  17. Research on fast Fourier transforms algorithm of huge remote sensing image technology with GPU and partitioning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Li, Xue-You; Li, Jia-Guo; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Li; Yang, Jan; Du, Quan-Ye

    2014-02-01

    Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) is a basic approach to remote sensing image processing. With the improvement of capacity of remote sensing image capture with the features of hyperspectrum, high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, how to use FFT technology to efficiently process huge remote sensing image becomes the critical step and research hot spot of current image processing technology. FFT algorithm, one of the basic algorithms of image processing, can be used for stripe noise removal, image compression, image registration, etc. in processing remote sensing image. CUFFT function library is the FFT algorithm library based on CPU and FFTW. FFTW is a FFT algorithm developed based on CPU in PC platform, and is currently the fastest CPU based FFT algorithm function library. However there is a common problem that once the available memory or memory is less than the capacity of image, there will be out of memory or memory overflow when using the above two methods to realize image FFT arithmetic. To address this problem, a CPU and partitioning technology based Huge Remote Fast Fourier Transform (HRFFT) algorithm is proposed in this paper. By improving the FFT algorithm in CUFFT function library, the problem of out of memory and memory overflow is solved. Moreover, this method is proved rational by experiment combined with the CCD image of HJ-1A satellite. When applied to practical image processing, it improves effect of the image processing, speeds up the processing, which saves the time of computation and achieves sound result.

  18. Ubiquitous UAVs: a cloud based framework for storing, accessing and processing huge amount of video footage in an efficient way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Nectarios; Skitsas, Michael; Psaroudakis, Chrysostomos; Koutras, Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, video surveillance cameras are used for the protection and monitoring of a huge number of facilities worldwide. An important element in such surveillance systems is the use of aerial video streams originating from onboard sensors located on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Video surveillance using UAVs represent a vast amount of video to be transmitted, stored, analyzed and visualized in a real-time way. As a result, the introduction and development of systems able to handle huge amount of data become a necessity. In this paper, a new approach for the collection, transmission and storage of aerial videos and metadata is introduced. The objective of this work is twofold. First, the integration of the appropriate equipment in order to capture and transmit real-time video including metadata (i.e. position coordinates, target) from the UAV to the ground and, second, the utilization of the ADITESS Versatile Media Content Management System (VMCMS-GE) for storing of the video stream and the appropriate metadata. Beyond the storage, VMCMS-GE provides other efficient management capabilities such as searching and processing of videos, along with video transcoding. For the evaluation and demonstration of the proposed framework we execute a use case where the surveillance of critical infrastructure and the detection of suspicious activities is performed. Collected video Transcodingis subject of this evaluation as well.

  19. Elective hemi transurethral resection of prostate: a safe and effective method of treating huge benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidi, S.S.; Feroz, I.; Aslam, M.; Fawad, A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of elective hemi-resection of prostate in patients with huge gland, weighing more than 120 grams. Study Design: Multi centric, analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology, Karachi Medical and Dental College, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, from August 2006 to July 2009. Methodology: All benign cases were included in this study and divided into two groups. In group A, patients having huge prostate (> 120 grams) were placed and hemi TURP was performed. In group B, patients having 60 to 100 grams prostate were placed and conventional Blandy's TURP was performed. Results of both groups were compared in terms of duration of surgery, amount of tissue resected, operative bleeding, postoperative complications, duration of postoperative catheterization, re-admission and re-operations. Effectiveness of procedure was assessed by a simple questionnaire filled by the patients at first month, first year and second year. Patients satisfaction in terms of their ability to void, control urination, frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, haematuria, recurrent UTI, re-admission and re-operations were also assessed. Fisher exact test was applied to compare the safety and efficacy of variables. Results: In group A and B, average age range was 72 and 69 years, average weight of prostate was 148 and 70 grams, average duration of surgery was 102 and 50 minutes respectively. Average weight of resected tissue was 84 and 54 grams and haemoglobin loss was two grams and one gram respectively. Total hospital stay was 5 and 4 days. Total duration of indwelling Foley's catheter (postoperative) was 5 days and 2 days. Patient satisfaction in term of urine flow, urinary control, improvement in frequency and nocturia were comparable in both groups. UTI and re-admission was more in hemi resection group. At the end of 2 years follow-up, there is no statistical difference between the safety and efficacy

  20. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for a model invasive ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yangchun; Li, Shiguo; Zhan, Aibin

    2018-04-01

    Invasive species cause huge damages to ecology, environment and economy globally. The comprehensive understanding of invasion mechanisms, particularly genetic bases of micro-evolutionary processes responsible for invasion success, is essential for reducing potential damages caused by invasive species. The golden star tunicate, Botryllus schlosseri, has become a model species in invasion biology, mainly owing to its high invasiveness nature and small well-sequenced genome. However, the genome-wide genetic markers have not been well developed in this highly invasive species, thus limiting the comprehensive understanding of genetic mechanisms of invasion success. Using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) tag sequencing, here we developed a high-quality resource of 14,119 out of 158,821 SNPs for B. schlosseri. These SNPs were relatively evenly distributed at each chromosome. SNP annotations showed that the majority of SNPs (63.20%) were located at intergenic regions, and 21.51% and 14.58% were located at introns and exons, respectively. In addition, the potential use of the developed SNPs for population genomics studies was primarily assessed, such as the estimate of observed heterozygosity (H O ), expected heterozygosity (H E ), nucleotide diversity (π), Wright's inbreeding coefficient (F IS ) and effective population size (Ne). Our developed SNP resource would provide future studies the genome-wide genetic markers for genetic and genomic investigations, such as genetic bases of micro-evolutionary processes responsible for invasion success.

  1. Hydrogen-terminated mesoporous silicon monoliths with huge surface area as alternative Si-based visible light-active photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting

    2016-07-21

    Silicon-based nanostructures and their related composites have drawn tremendous research interest in solar energy storage and conversion. Mesoporous silicon with a huge surface area of 400-900 m2 g-1 developed by electrochemical etching exhibits excellent photocatalytic ability and stability after 10 cycles in degrading methyl orange under visible light irradiation, owing to its unique mesoporous network, abundant surface hydrides and efficient light harvesting. This work showcases the profound effects of surface area, crystallinity, pore topology on charge migration/recombination and mass transportation. Therein the ordered 1D channel array has outperformed the interconnected 3D porous network by greatly accelerating the mass diffusion and enhancing the accessibility of the active sites on the extensive surfaces. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Analysis of the Huge Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to Southern China in the Spring of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Si-Si; Bao, Yun-Xuan; Wu, Yan; Lu, Min-Hong; Tuan, Hoang-Anh

    2018-02-08

    Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory rice pest that periodically erupts across Asia, and early immigration is an important cause of its outbreak. The early immigration of S. furcifera into southern China shows evident annual fluctuations. In the spring of 2012, the huge size of the immigrant population and the large number of immigration peaks were at levels rarely seen prior to that year. However, little research has been done on the entire process of round-trip migration to clarify the development of the population, the long-distance migration and the final eruption. In this study, the light-trap data for S. furcifera in southern China and Vietnam in 2011-2016 were collected, and the trajectory modeling showed that the early immigrants to southern China came from the northern and central Vietnam, Laos, and northeastern Thailand. Analysis of the development of the population, the migration process and meteorological factors revealed the reasons for the huge size of the early immigration: 1) the expansion of the source area could be seen as a precondition; 2) the large size of the returned population in the last autumn and the warm temperature of southern Vietnam and Laos in the last winter increased the initial populations; 3) the sustained strong southwest winds were conducive to the northward migration of the population during the major immigration period in early May. Therefore, the large-scale immigration of S. furcifera to southern China in the spring of 2012 resulted from the combined effects of several factors involved in the process of round-trip migration. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Viability assessment of invasive microplankton in ship’s treated ballast water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgreen, Kim; Holbech, Henrik; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard

    The spreading of aquatic invasive species in ship’s ballast water has huge environmental and health-related consequences and is causing socio-economic losses around the world in the order of US$100 billion per year. Regulations now require all large ships to have an approved ballast water treatment...... system (BWTS) on-board for cleaning of the ballast water to avoid further spreading of invasive species. To ensure BWTS compliance with discharge standards water samples need to be verified for the number of viable organisms in different size classes. The current standard method for assessing organism...

  4. Hypercalcemia and huge splenomegaly presenting in an elderly patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirgari Farrokh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypercalcemia is the major electrolyte abnormality in patients with malignant tumors. It can be due to localized osteolytic hypercalcemia or elaboration of humoral substances such as parathyroid hormone-related protein from tumoral cells. In hematological malignancies, a third mechanism of uncontrolled synthesis and secretion of 1-25(OH2D3 from tumoral cells or neighboring macrophages may contribute to the problem. However, hypercalcemia is quite unusual in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Case presentation An 85-year-old Caucasian woman presented with low grade fever, anorexia, abdominal discomfort and fullness in her left abdomen for the last six months. She was mildly anemic and complained of fatigability. She had huge splenomegaly and was hypercalcemic. After correction of her hypercalcemia, she had a splenectomy. Microscopic evaluation revealed a malignant lymphoma. Her immunohistochemistry was positive for leukocyte common antigen, CD20 and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Conclusion Immunopositivity for parathyroid hormone-related peptide clearly demonstrates that hypersecretion of a parathyroid hormone-like substance from the tumor had led to hypercalcemia in this case. High serum calcium is seen in only seven to eight percent of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, apparently due to different mechanisms. Evaluation of serum parathyroid hormone-related protein and 1-25(OH2D3 can be helpful in diagnosis and management. It should be noted that presentation with hypercalcemia has a serious impact on prognosis and survival.

  5. A huge ovarian mucinous cystadenoma associated with contralateral teratoma and polycystic ovary syndrome in an obese adolescent girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweekul, Patcharapa; Thaweekul, Yuthadej; Mairiang, Karicha

    2016-12-01

    A 13-year-old, obese girl presented with acute abdominal pain with abdominal distension for a year. The physical examination revealed marked abdominal distension with a large well-circumscribed mass sized 13×20 cm. Her body mass index (BMI) was 37.8 kg/m2. An abdominal CT scan revealed a huge multiloculated cystic mass and a left adnexal mass. She had an abnormal fasting plasma glucose and low HDL-C. Laparotomy, right salpingooophorectomy, left cystectomy, lymph node biopsies and partial omentectomy were performed. The left ovary demonstrated multiple cystic follicles over the cortex. The histologic diagnosis was a mucinous cystadenoma of the right ovary and a matured cystic teratoma of the left ovary. Both obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with a greater risk of ovarian tumours, where PCOS could be either the cause or as a consequence of an ovarian tumour. We report an obese, perimenarchal girl with bilateral ovarian tumours coexistent with a polycystic ovary and the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-08-25

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  7. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chen Kuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  8. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction. PMID:26307983

  9. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  10. Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Røsok, Bård I.; de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Diener, Markus K.; Allen, Peter J.; Vollmer, Charles M.; Kooby, David A.; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Barkun, Jeffrey; Besselink, Marc G.; Boggi, Ugo; Conlon, Kevin; Han, Ho Seong; Hansen, Paul; Kendrick, Michael L.; Kooby, David; Montagnini, Andre L.; Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Wakabayashi, Go; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2017-01-01

    The first International conference on Minimally Invasive Pancreas Resection was arranged in conjunction with the annual meeting of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA), in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 19th 2016. The presented evidence and outcomes resulting from the session

  11. Pathogenesis of invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disseminated candidiasis remains a life-threatening disease in the ICU. The development of invasive disease with Candida albicans is dependent on multiple factors, such as colonization and efficient host defense at the mucosa. In the present review, we describe the host defense

  12. Cryptogenic transient ischemic attack after nose blowing: association of huge atrial septal aneurysm with patent foramen ovale as potential cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotze U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulrich Lotze,1 Uwe Kirsch,1 Marc-Alexander Ohlow,2 Thorsten Scholle,3 Jochen Leonhardi,3 Bernward Lauer,2 Gerhard Oltmanns,4 Hendrik Schmidt5,6 1Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Krankenhaus Sondershausen, Sondershausen, Germany; 2Department of Cardiology, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany; 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Germany; 4Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Krankenhaus Sömmerda; Sömmerda, Germany; 5Department of Cardiology and Diabetology, Klinikum Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 6Department of Internal Medicine III, Martin-Luther-Univeristy Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany Abstract: Association of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA with patent foramen ovale (PFO is considered an important risk factor for cardioembolism frequently forwarding paradoxical embolism in patients with cryptogenic or unexplained cerebral ischemic events. We herein describe the case of a 69-year-old male patient reporting uncontrolled movements of the right arm due to a muscle weakness, slurred speech, and paresthesia in the oral region some seconds after he had blown his nose. These neurological symptoms had improved dramatically within a few minutes and were completely regressive at admission to our hospital about two hours later. On transesophageal echocardiography (TEE a huge ASA associated with PFO was detected. Diagnosis of the large-sized ASA was also confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Due to the early complete recovery from his neurological symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with a transient ischemic attack (TIA. After nine days he was discharged in a good clinical condition under the treatment with oral anticoagulation. It is concluded that in cryptogenic or unexplained stroke or TIA TEE should always be performed to rule out ASA and PFO as potential sources for paradoxical embolism in those inconclusive clinical situations. Keywords: congenital cardiac abnormality, atrial septal

  13. ESR1 Gene Polymorphisms and Prostate Cancer Risk: A HuGE Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Wang

    Full Text Available Many published data on the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the ESR1 gene and prostate cancer susceptibility are inconclusive. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE review and meta-analysis is to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship.A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical (CBM databases was conducted from their inception through July 1st, 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to assess the strength of association.Twelve case-control studies were included with a total 2,165 prostate cancer cases and 3,361 healthy controls. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, ESR1 PvuII (C>T and XbaI (A>G polymorphisms showed no association with the risk of prostate cancer. However, in the stratified analyses based on ethnicity and country, the results indicated that ESR1 PvuII (C>T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among Asian populations, especially among Indian population; while ESR1 XbaI (A>G polymorphism may significantly increase the risk of prostate cancer among American population. Furthermore, we also performed a pooled analysis for all eligible case-control studies to explore the role of codon 10 (T>C, codon 325 (C>G, codon 594 (G>A and +261G>C polymorphisms in prostate cancer risk. Nevertheless, no significant associations between these polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer were observed.Results from the current meta-analysis indicate that ESR1 PvuII (C>T polymorphism may be a risk factor for prostate cancer among Asian populations, especially among Indian population; while ESR1 XbaI (A>G polymorphism may increase the risk of prostate cancer among American population.

  14. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    impact of the establishment of this invasive species is a substantial increase in the number of allergy cases, which we use as a measure of the physical damage. As valuation methods, we use both the cost-of-illness method and the benefit transfer method to quantify the total gross benefits of the two...... policy actions. Based on the idea of an invasion function, we identify the total and average net benefit under both prevention and mitigation. For both policy actions, the total and average net benefits are significantly positive irrespective of the valuation method used; therefore, both prevention...... and mitigation are beneficial policy actions. However, the total and average net benefits under mitigation are larger than the benefits under prevention, implying that the former policy action is more beneficial. Despite this result, we conclude that prevention, not mitigation, shall be used because...

  15. [Invasive nosocomial pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaud, P; Haloun, A

    2001-04-01

    Immunodepressed patients, particularly those with neutropenia or bone marrow or organ grafts, are at risk of developing nosocomial invasive pulmonary aspergilosis. The favoring factors, early diagnostic criteria and curative treatment protocols are well known. Prognosis remains however quite severe with a death rate above 50%. Preventive measures are required for the treatment of these high-risk patients and epidemiology surveillance is needed in case of aspergillosis acquired in the hospital.

  16. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-431 ISSN 0309-1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species invasiveness * community invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2006

  17. The Osceola Mudflow from Mount Rainier: Sedimentology and hazard implications of a huge clay-rich debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, J.W.; Scott, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    altered rock in the preavalanche mass determines whether a debris avalanche will transform into a cohesive debris flow or remain a largely unsaturated debris avalanche. The distinction among cohesive lahar, noncohesive lahar, and debris avalanche is important in hazard assessment because cohesive lahars spread much more widely than noncohesive lahars that travel similar distances, and travel farther and spread more widely than debris avalanches of similar volume. The Osceola Mudflow is documented here as an example of a cohesive debris flow of huge size that can be used as a model for hazard analysis of similar flows.

  18. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  19. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  20. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puneet Khanna

    for Hb estimation from the laboratory [total haemoglobin mass (tHb)] and arterial blood gas (ABG) machine (aHb), using ... A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of haemoglobin estimation in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. 161 .... making decisions for blood transfusions based on these results.

  1. Klebsiella pneumoniae Invasive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Evangelista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS is a rare clinical condition characterized by primary liver abscess associated with metastatic infection. Most case reports are from Southeast Asia, with only one case described in Portugal. The Authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with a history of fever, dry cough and cervicalgia. A thoracic computed tomography (CT scan showed multiple pulmonary and hepatic nodules, suggestive of metastatic malignancy. Both blood cultures and bronchoalveolar lavage were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Imaging studies were repeated during his hospital stay, showing a reduction in both number and volume of identified lesions, thus revealing their infectious nature. This case illustrates how much this entity can mimic other illnesses.

  2. Multiple huge epiphrenic esophageal diverticula with motility disease treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic and hand-assisted laparoscopic esophagectomy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Higashi, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Koji; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum is a rare condition that is often associated with a concomitant esophageal motor disorder. Some patients have the chief complaints of swallowing difficulty and gastroesophageal reflux; traditionally, such diverticula have been resected via right thoracotomy. Here, we describe a case with huge multiple epiphrenic diverticula with motility disorder, which were successfully resected using a video-assisted thoracic and laparoscopic procedure. Case pre...

  3. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  4. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure in waves. 2nd Report; Choogata futai no harochu dansei kyodo no suiteiho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    On the hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, a mutual interaction theory based on the area division method is used for the analysis of a fluid problem and a mode analysis method is used for the analysis of deformation. On the continuous deformation of a floating structure, the structure is considered as a set of partial structures obtained when the plane shape was divided into squares and discretely handled as a series of rigid motions in the small partial structures obtained by dividing the partial structures more finely. The experimental result in a water tank and the distribution method at a singular point were compared on the deformation of the elastic floating structure estimated by calculation based on this formulation. The result showed that the estimation method on the hydroelastic problem proposed in this paper is valid. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, various calculation examples indicate that the hydroelastic behavior is not only the relation between the structure length and wavelength, but also that the bending rigidity of a structure is a very important factor. For a huge floating structure in the 5,000 m class, up to shorter wavelength of about {lambda}/L = 1/100 must be investigated. 6 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Putten, W.H.; Klironomos, J.N.; Wardle, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have

  6. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  7. [Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, E; Gabriel, F; Jeanne-Leroyer, C; Servant, V; Dumas, P-Y

    2018-02-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in a wide range of patients. Early recognition and diagnosis have become a major focus in improving the management and outcomes of this life-threatening disease. IPA typically occurs during a period of severe and prolonged neutropenia. However, solid organ transplant recipients, patients under immunosuppressive therapy or hospitalized in intensive care units are also at risk. The diagnosis is suspected in the presence of a combination of clinical, biological and CT scan evidence. The microbiological diagnostic strategy should be adapted to the patient's profile. Conventional methods with culture and species identification remain the standard but early diagnosis has been improved by the use of biomarkers such as galactomannan antigen in serum or in bronchoalveolar lavage. The epidemiology of IPA should change with the increased use of antifungal prophylactic regimens and the arrival of targeted therapies. Other microbiological tools, such as PCR and other biomarkers, are currently being assessed. IPA must be considered in a wide range of patients. Its prognosis remains poor despite progress in the microbiological diagnosis and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2018 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Wiederhold

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nathan P Wiederhold1, Jason M Cota2, Christopher R Frei11University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, Austin, Texas, USA; 2University of the Incarnate Word Feik School of Pharmacy, San Antonio, Texas, USAAbstract: Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of β-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key pathogenic fungi, including Candida and Aspergillus species, while contributing minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This activity is maintained against polyene and azole-resistant isolates. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated linear kinetics both in adults and children with concentration-dependent activity observed both in vitro and in vivo. Dosage escalation studies have also demonstrated that doses much higher than those currently recommended may be administered without serious adverse effects. Clinically, micafungin has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness of micafungin against these infections occurs without the drug interactions that occur with the azoles and the nephrotoxicity observed with amphotericin B formulations. This review will focus on the pharmacology, clinical microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, safety, and clinical efficacy of micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.Keywords: micafungin, echinocandin, Candida, Aspergillus, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  11. The mathematics behind biological invasions

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Mark A; Potts, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates the mathematical analysis of biological invasions. Unlike purely qualitative treatments of ecology, it draws on mathematical theory and methods, equipping the reader with sharp tools and rigorous methodology. Subjects include invasion dynamics, species interactions, population spread, long-distance dispersal, stochastic effects, risk analysis, and optimal responses to invaders. While based on the theory of dynamical systems, including partial differential equations and integrodifference equations, the book also draws on information theory, machine learning, Monte Carlo methods, optimal control, statistics, and stochastic processes. Applications to real biological invasions are included throughout. Ultimately, the book imparts a powerful principle: that by bringing ecology and mathematics together, researchers can uncover new understanding of, and effective response strategies to, biological invasions. It is suitable for graduate students and established researchers in mathematical ecolo...

  12. Invasive Meningococcal Men Y Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-18

    Dr. Leonard Mayer, a public health microbiologist at CDC, discusses invasive meningococcal disease.  Created: 4/18/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  13. A Huge Morel-Lavallée Lesion Treated Using a Quilting Suture Method: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bommie F; Kang, In Sook; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Moon, Suk Ho

    2014-06-01

    The Morel-Lavallée lesion is a collection of serous fluid that develops after closed degloving injuries and after surgical procedures particularly in the pelvis and abdomen. It is a persistent seroma and is usually resistant to conservative methods of treatment such as percutaneous drainage and compression. Various methods of curative treatment have been reported in the literature, such as application of fibrin sealant, doxycycline, or alcohol sclerodhesis. We present a case of a huge recurrent Morel-Lavallée lesion in the lower back and buttock region that was treated with quilting sutures, fibrin sealant, and compression, with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colautti, R. I.; Parker, J. D.; Cadotte, M. W.; Pyšek, Petr; Brown, C. S.; Sax, D. F.; Richardson, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 7-27 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * biogeographical comparison * invasiveness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Multiple huge epiphrenic esophageal diverticula with motility disease treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic and hand-assisted laparoscopic esophagectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Higashi, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Koji; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-12-01

    Epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum is a rare condition that is often associated with a concomitant esophageal motor disorder. Some patients have the chief complaints of swallowing difficulty and gastroesophageal reflux; traditionally, such diverticula have been resected via right thoracotomy. Here, we describe a case with huge multiple epiphrenic diverticula with motility disorder, which were successfully resected using a video-assisted thoracic and laparoscopic procedure. A 63-year-old man was admitted due to dysphagia, heartburn, and vomiting. An esophagogram demonstrated an S-shaped lower esophagus with multiple epiphrenic diverticula (75 × 55 mm and 30 × 30 mm) and obstruction by the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Esophageal manometry showed normal peristaltic contractions in the esophageal body, whereas the LES pressure was high (98.6 mmHg). The pressure vector volume of LES was 23,972 mmHg 2  cm. Based on these findings, we diagnosed huge multiple epiphrenic diverticula with a hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter and judged that resection might be required. We performed lower esophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction using a video-assisted thoracic and hand-assisted laparoscopic procedure. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the esophagogram demonstrated good passage, with no leakage, stenosis, or diverticula. The most common causes of mid-esophageal and epiphrenic diverticula are motility disorders of the esophageal body; appropriate treatment should be considered based on the morphological and motility findings.

  16. A case of huge colon carcinoma and right renal angiomyolipoma accompanied by proximal deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and tumor thrombus in the renal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kuno, Hirofumi; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Shin; Akasu, Takayuki; Moriya, Yoshihiro

    2008-10-01

    A preoperative inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is reported to be effective in surgical cases with proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or in which pulmonary embolism (PE) has already developed, and considered to be at high risk of developing secondary fatal PE during or after surgery. However, guidelines for using an IVC filter have yet to be established. The patient in the present report had two huge tumors, ascending colon cancer and renal angiomyolipoma, which occupied the entire right half of the abdomen, coexisting PE, DVT and tumor thrombus in the right renal vein. Secondary PE is fatal in the perioperative period, therefore, the vena cava filters were preoperatively inserted into the supra- and the infrarenal IVC. We successfully removed the tumors without complications. The patient is alive without tumor recurrence and PE or recurrent DVT 1 year and 6 months after surgery. The coexistence of two huge abdominal tumors as potential causes of PE and DVT is extremely rare, and we could have safely undergone the operation, using two vena cava filters in the supra- and infrarenal IVC.

  17. [Transcatheter embolization for huge pulmonary arteriovenous fistula using metallic "spider" and spring embolus--application of hand-made metallic "spider" using partial monorail technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, S; Sako, M; Fujita, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Sugimoto, K; Suzuki, Y; Kono, M

    1992-07-25

    We performed transcatheter embolization in two cases with huge pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) using a metallic "spider" and spring embolus. Conventional spring embolus or detachable balloon could not be used in these cases. Metallic spider was indicated for pulmonary AVF with a feeding artery diameter of more than 16 mm to prevent embolus passing through the AVF. In the first case, we used large handmade metallic spiders of 25 mm in diameter followed by embolization by numerous spring coils. At that time, a partial monorail technique was newly devised to carry the large metallic spider into the feeding artery, otherwise the spider could not pass into a 9F catheter. After embolization, symptoms and PaO2 in arterial blood improved remarkably in both cases. In the second case, a spring coil migrated into the normal pulmonary artery, but no infarction resulted. In conclusion, the metallic spider was very useful for embolization of hugee pulmonary AVF to avoid the embolus passing through and to tangle spring coils together with it. If commercially available "spiders" are too small, ones can be made easily.

  18. Characterization of nine microsatellite markers and development of multiplex PCRs for the Chinese huge musel Anodonta (Sinanodonta) woodiana Lea, 1834 (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popa, O. P.; Bartáková, Veronika; Bryja, Josef; Reichard, Martin; Popa, L. O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, June (2015), s. 234-237 ISSN 0305-1978 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Invasive species * SSRs * Population genetics * Unionidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.988, year: 2015

  19. Huge opportunity for solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In Europe more than 400 solar cooling systems have been installed. By contrast, only a small number of solar cooling installations exist in Australia - primarily adsorption and absorption systems for commercial and hospitals - although these systems are growing. As with other renewable energy technologies, cost is a challenge. However solar cooling is currently competitive with other technologies, with some suggesting that system costs have been decreasing by about 20% per annum in recent times. Australia is also leading efforts in the development of residential solar desiccant technology, currently commercialising Australian-developed technology. Commercial and industrial enterprises are increasingly aware of the impact of demand charges, the potential to install technology as a hedge against future energy price rises and opportunities associated with increased on-site generation and reduced reliance on the grid, often necessitating on-site demand reduction and management. They are also driven by environmental and corporate social responsibility objectives as well as the opportunity for energy independence and uninterruptible operation. Interestingly, many of these interests are mirrdred at residential level, inspiring CSIRO's commercialisation of a domestic scale solar air conditioner with Australian manufacturer Brevis Climate Systems. Australia and other countries are increasingly aware of solar cooling as technology which can reduce or replace grid-powered cooling, particularly in applications where large building thermal energy requirements exist. In these applications, heating, cooling and hot water are generated and used in large amounts and the relative amounts of each can be varied dynamically, depending on building requirements. Recent demonstrations of solar cooling technology in Australia include Hunter TAFE's Solar Desiccant Cooling System - which provides heating, cooling and hot water to commercial training kitchens and classrooms - GPT's Charlestown Square Shopping Centre and Echuca Hospital. These systems join a number of others already in operation at the large commercial and industrial scale, as well as a smaller number of systems providing cooling to cafes and offices. The development in this area is being supported by CSIRO's Solar Cooling research team which provides development, modelling and design expertise across the spectrum of solar cooling variants, sizes and applications - from remote community food preservation in India, to large commercial and residential systems in Australia. The group also has industry test facilities to support the development and testing of solar air conditioning systems as well as conventional air conditioning technologies. The Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heating (AIRAH's) Solar Cooling Special Technical Group is also involved in developing the solar cooling industry in Australia with the aim of combating climate change by reducing greenhouse emissions from the residential and commercial building sectors. The group coordinates industry and research efforts and organises information exchange, educational and training events for interested technical and business representatives. Fact file- Solar cooling systems are essentially comprised of two parts - solar thermal collectors and a sorption chiller which convert the heat into useful cooling. Though a number of collector and chiller combinations exist, no one single approach has yet dominated. Corresponding with the type of chiller used, solar cooling systems are often grouped into three categories: absorption, adsorption and desiccant. During design, an appropriate collector technology will be chosen, typically either a parabolic, flat plate or evacuated tube collector. The optimal configuration is also determined in design, to align equipment characteristics with the conditions, environment and requirements presented by each application. Thus solar cooling has a number of variants which use different components or the same components in an alternate configuration. A number of variants are technically proven and available for commercial and industrial installations. Each variant uses standard 'off the shelf' FIVAC industry components which are available in both Australia and overseas. A typical solar cooling system is also able to supply broader energy needs of a building including space heating and hot water.

  20. Pathogen dynamics during invasion and establishment of white-nose syndrome explain mechanisms of host persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Winifred F; Cheng, Tina L; Langwig, Kate E; Hoyt, Joseph R; Janicki, Amanda F; Parise, Katy L; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-03-01

    Disease dynamics during pathogen invasion and establishment determine the impacts of disease on host populations and determine the mechanisms of host persistence. Temporal progression of prevalence and infection intensity illustrate whether tolerance, resistance, reduced transmission, or demographic compensation allow initially declining populations to persist. We measured infection dynamics of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans that causes white-nose syndrome in bats by estimating pathogen prevalence and load in seven bat species at 167 hibernacula over a decade as the pathogen invaded, became established, and some host populations stabilized. Fungal loads increased rapidly and prevalence rose to nearly 100% at most sites within 2 yr of invasion in six of seven species. Prevalence and loads did not decline over time despite huge reductions in colony sizes, likely due to an extensive environmental reservoir. However, there was substantial variation in fungal load among sites with persisting colonies, suggesting that both tolerance and resistance developed at different sites in the same species. In contrast, one species disappeared from hibernacula within 3 yr of pathogen invasion. Variable host responses to pathogen invasion require different management strategies to prevent disease-induced extinction and to facilitate evolution of tolerance or resistance in persisting populations. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Development and simulation of the air-jack for emergency like a huge disaster; Kyujoyo eajakki no kaihatsu to sono simyureshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuyama, Kunihisa.; Ogata, Yuji.; Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Hashizume, Kiyoshi.; Nishida, Kenjiro. [Nippon Kayaku Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-28

    When a disaster is so huge like Kobe earthquake, every energy line is killed. Even if we want to help the sufferers, we have no energy to move machines to help them. As collapsed houses are very heavy, we need machines to remove collapsed stuff. Explosives include a lot of energy in themselves. So, an air-jack which has explosives inside was developed to remove collapsed stuff on suffered people. A simple air-jack was made and tested. One concrete block, 50cm x 50cm x 50cm, was lifted by the simple air-jack. A simulation of lifting the concrete block was carried out with a programme ANSYS on the super computer. (author)

  2. Three pillars for achieving quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulations of huge systems: Divide-and-conquer, density-functional tight-binding, and massively parallel computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Masato; Irle, Stephan; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-08-05

    The linear-scaling divide-and-conquer (DC) quantum chemical methodology is applied to the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) theory to develop a massively parallel program that achieves on-the-fly molecular reaction dynamics simulations of huge systems from scratch. The functions to perform large scale geometry optimization and molecular dynamics with DC-DFTB potential energy surface are implemented to the program called DC-DFTB-K. A novel interpolation-based algorithm is developed for parallelizing the determination of the Fermi level in the DC method. The performance of the DC-DFTB-K program is assessed using a laboratory computer and the K computer. Numerical tests show the high efficiency of the DC-DFTB-K program, a single-point energy gradient calculation of a one-million-atom system is completed within 60 s using 7290 nodes of the K computer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Deep earth fluids and huge metallogenetic belt and fatal geological disaster: 60th anniversary of Professor Du Le-tian engaging in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Guangxi; Tao Shizhen; Liu Yinhe

    2012-01-01

    Professor Du Le-tian has been researching for a long time on scientific relationship between deep earth fluids and hydrocarbon accumulation and metallogenesis, as well as gestation and prediction of disasters. He has contributed greatly to the development of that scientific field. From 6 to 8, July, 2012, 'Workshop on Deep Earth Fluids and Huge Metallogenetic Belt, Fatal Geological Disaster, as well as 60 th Anniversary of Professor Du Le-tian Engaging in Geology' was successfully convened in Beijing, totally with 76 delegates present who were experts, scholars or students from USA, Hong Kong, or various institutes, colleges or universities of China. In the workshop, the scientific presentations discussed were counted up to 49, on aspects of geological processes of deep earth fluids, relationship between earth degassing and hydrocarbon accumulation or metallogenesis, gestating mechanism of volcanic eruptions and strong earthquakes as well as their relations with mine gas outburst, high-temperature and high-pressure experimental earth science, etc.. (authors)

  4. A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species

    OpenAIRE

    van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Fischer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A major aim in ecology is identifying determinants of invasiveness. We performed a meta-analysis of 117 field or experimental-garden studies that measured pair-wise trait differences of a total of 125 invasive and 196 non-invasive plant species in the invasive range of the invasive species. We tested whether invasiveness is associated with performance-related traits (physiology, leaf-area allocation, shoot allocation, growth rate, size and fitness), and whether such associations depend on typ...

  5. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  6. Radiological characterization of invasive prolactinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, J.C.; Goulao, A.; Ribeiro, C.; Campos, J.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical problems are analized of invasive prolactinomas, from the radiographic records of the Hospital Egas Moniz (Neuro-radiological Departament). The purpose of this paper is contribute for the anatomic-radiological knowledge and clinical progress, under medical treatment, of the macroprolactinomas that have some characteristics that differentiate them from the small adenomas. (Author) [pt

  7. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  8. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  9. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  10. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room.

  11. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their...-2012 Invasive Species National Management Plan. The meeting is open to the public. An orientation...

  12. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... both ecological and management contexts, will center on topics that: (1) Pertain to invasive species...

  13. Minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, M.; Lucenic, M.; Juhos, P.; Harustiak, S.

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer represents the sixth most common cause of the death caused by malignant diseases. The incidence is 11.5/100 000 in men population and 4.7/100 000 in women. It is the eighth most common malignancy. The incidence grows up, it doubled in Slovakia in last period and 5-year survival is only 18 %. Esophagectomy is a huge burden for organism. Mortality varies from 8.1 % to 23 % in low-volume departments in comparison with high-volume centres, where it is lower then 5 %. Complications range after operations is 30 – 80 %. Minimally invasive approach leads to the reduction of mortality and morbidity according to lot of studies. We performed 121 esophagectomies in cancer in period 2010 – 2015 and in 2015 it was 32 operations. We performed 29 totally minimally invasive esophagectomies, 16 hybrid MIE and 66 open esophagectomies. The chylothorax occurs twice, we managed it by surgery. The anastomotic dehiscence represents 9.09 %. Cardiovascular system complications occur in 43 %, need for vasopressors caused by hypotensia was in 44 %. It concluded from that we started with restrictive management of patients during the operation and need for vasopressors last only for two days after the operation and did not cause renal failure or any other complications.30 days mortality was related to MODS evolved by sepsis caused by pneumonia, most common in cirrhotic patients in very poor condition. Tracheoneoesophageal fistula occur in three patients, they all underwent operation, one of them died because of severe pneumonia. We recorded grow number of patient in our institution, which is probably related to better cooperation with gastroenterologists all over Slovakia. (author)

  14. Invasive plants in 21st Century landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie. Rapp

    2005-01-01

    A plant species is defined as invasive if it is nonnative to the ecosystem under consideration, and if it causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Nonnative plant invasions are generally considered to have reached the Pacific Northwest in the mid-1800s with the arrival of European-American settlers. Invasive species such as...

  15. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Council is co-chaired by the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of... of the most invaded marine/coastal environments in the world, with over 50 invasive species that... development of state invasive species councils. DATES: Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

  16. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  17. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  18. Invasive Plants on Rangelands: a Global Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species are spreading and invading rangelands at an unprecedented rate costing ranchers billions of dollars to control invasive plants each year. In its simplest form, the invasion process has four primary stages, including introduction, establishment, spread and colonization. Th...

  19. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  20. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  1. Recording Cultural Heritage Using Terrestrial Laserscanning - Dealing with the System, the Huge Datasets they Create and Ways to Extract the Necessary Deliverables you can Work with

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofori, E.; Bierwagen, J.

    2013-07-01

    Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS) Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany"), the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D - Animations) as well as the

  2. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z Urbisz

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal. In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female

  3. RECORDING CULTURAL HERITAGE USING TERRESTRIAL LASERSCANNING – DEALING WITH THE SYSTEM, THE HUGE DATASETS THEY CREATE AND WAYS TO EXTRACT THE NECESSARY DELIVERABLES YOU CAN WORK WITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Christofori

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany", the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D

  4. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  5. The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brian; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2007-10-22

    Invasive species are increasingly becoming a policy priority. This has spurred researchers and managers to try to estimate the risk of invasion. Conceptually, invasions are dependent both on the receiving environment (invasibility) and on the ability to reach these new areas (propagule pressure). However, analyses of risk typically examine only one or the other. Here, we develop and apply a joint model of invasion risk that simultaneously incorporates invasibility and propagule pressure. We present arguments that the behaviour of these two elements of risk differs substantially--propagule pressure is a function of time, whereas invasibility is not--and therefore have different management implications. Further, we use the well-studied zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to contrast predictions made using the joint model to those made by separate invasibility and propagule pressure models. We show that predictions of invasion progress as well as of the long-term invasion pattern are strongly affected by using a joint model.

  6. Data, Technology & Social Media: Their Invasive Role in Contemporary Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prakash Vel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketers have paid a huge price for their inability to decipher which trend has come to stay and which one is a fad. Such a challenge has jeopardized the survival of blue-chip brands, as marketers anticipated in vain the end of existing red ocean strategies. Essentially, the traditional marketing strategies associated with the success of well-known brands in the past are losing their relevance in the current context. There is the need to identify and understand modern trends and their implications to marketing strategy development. In light of this, this study examines fourteen (14 fundamental ‘game changing’ trends that are poised to impact the traditional practices and perceptions associated with marketing at the operational and strategic levels. The study presents the trends under three categories, the invasive role of technology, data, and social media, alongside looking at their impact on contemporary marketing. Each trend has been identified and analyzed based on in-depth interviews with industry experts as the primary source of data. Relevant data has also been given to present a holistic perspective on each trend. 

  7. Radiologic aspects in invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feger, C.; Kerviler, E. de; Zagdanski, A.M.; Attal, P.; Cyna-Gorse, F.; Frija, J.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening illness, whose diagnosis is difficult: clinical signs are indeed not specific, and biological and mycological exams are not always conclusive. Radiological exams are essential for the diagnosis of this disease allowing to start an early intensive appropriate therapy. According to the literature and to their own experience the authors report the main radiological patterns with emphasis on the pulmonary and cerebral affections. (authors). 26 refs., 5 figs

  8. [Minimally invasive coronary artery surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaquett, R; Howard, M; Irarrázaval, M J; Morán, S; Maturana, G; Becker, P; Medel, J; Sacco, C; Lema, G; Canessa, R; Cruz, F

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing interest to perform a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) on a beating heart through a minimally invasive access to the chest cavity. To report the experience with minimally invasive coronary artery surgery. Analysis of 11 patients aged 48 to 79 years old with single vessel disease that, between 1996 and 1997, had a LIMA graft to the LAD performed through a minimally invasive left anterior mediastinotomy, without cardiopulmonary bypass. A 6 to 10 cm left parasternal incision was done. The LIMA to the LAD anastomosis was done after pharmacological heart rate and blood pressure control and a period of ischemic pre conditioning. Graft patency was confirmed intraoperatively by standard Doppler techniques. Patients were followed for a mean of 11.6 months (7-15 months). All patients were extubated in the operating room and transferred out of the intensive care unit on the next morning. Seven patients were discharged on the third postoperative day. Duplex scanning confirmed graft patency in all patients before discharge; in two patients, it was confirmed additionally by arteriography. There was no hospital mortality, no perioperative myocardial infarction and no bleeding problems. After follow up, ten patients were free of angina, in functional class I and pleased with the surgical and cosmetic results. One patient developed atypical angina on the seventh postoperative month and a selective arteriography confirmed stenosis of the anastomosis. A successful angioplasty of the original LAD lesion was carried out. A minimally invasive left anterior mediastinotomy is a good surgical access to perform a successful LIMA to LAD graft without cardiopulmonary bypass, allowing a shorter hospital stay and earlier postoperative recovery. However, a larger experience and a longer follow up is required to define its role in the treatment of coronary artery disease.

  9. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room. This thesis has led to an enlarged insight in the organization of surgical skills training during residency training of surgical medical specialists.

  10. A unique case of a huge mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of non-endobronchial origin with a peripheral growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yabuki

    Full Text Available We report a case of a huge solitary non-endobronchial pulmonary tumor in a 76-year-old male smoker. The tumor measured 11 × 10 × 8 cm. It was ill-defined, and it was located periphery of the right lower lobe with the subpleural cystic spaces. He underwent right lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection and is free from tumor 30 months after surgery. Microscopically, it was composed of a proliferation of squamous and ciliated columnar epithelial cells with a few mucous cells. These cells were arranged in a papillary growth fashion extending along the fibrously thickened alveolar septa together with metaplastic bronchiolar and squamous epithelia displaying an usual interstitial pneumonia-pattern. Although the histologic features of the tumor were that of a mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (MSCGP, it was peripherally located and showed a lepidic growth, and it was much larger than previously reported MSCGPs. It is possible that the tumor developed in association with bronchial metaplasia in the periphery of the lung, and then extended along the surface of the reconstructed air spaces, which resulted in its unique histologic appearance. Further investigations of respiratory papilloma are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of these lesions. Keywords: Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma, Non-endobronchial, Cytology, Interstitial pneumonia, Pulmonary tumor

  11. Huge bilateral ovarian cysts in adulthood as the presenting feature of Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome due to chronic uncontrolled juvenile hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Shivaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile primary hypothyroidism causing cystic ovaries and pseudoprecocious puberty (Van-Wyk Grumbach syndrome (VWGS is well documented in literature. There are only a few reports of primary hypothyroidism presenting as ovarian cysts in adults. Here we present a case of huge bilateral ovarian cysts in adulthood as the presenting feature of VWGS due to chronic uncontrolled juvenile hypothyroidism. Large uniloculor right ovarian cyst (119 × 81 × 90 mm and a multicystic left ovary (55 × 45 × 49 mm were detected in a 24 year lady with secondary amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and palpable abdominal mass with history of neonatal jaundice, delayed milestones, short stature, and precocious menarche at age of 7.5 years age. She had elevated levels of cancer antigen (CA-125 which normalized post levothyroxine supplementation. Elevated CA-125 may lead to misdiagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and inadvertent treatment. Bilateral ovarian cysts in adults are a rare presentation of juvenile hypothyroidism. It is necessary to screen for primary hypothyroidism in patients presenting with bilateral ovarian cysts to prevent unnecessary evaluation and treatment.

  12. Topographical effects on wave exciting forces on huge floating structure. 2; Ogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ni sayosuru haryoku ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Okusu, M [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1997-12-31

    A method to predict drift force acting on a floating structure has been developed for a marine structure consisting of a number of floating elements, positioned in a region having a slope at the sea bottom. When a huge marine structure, such as floating air port, is located in a coastal area, scale of the overall structure is very large, of the order of scale of water depth change. The new method assumes that a marine structure consisting of an infinite number of cylindrical floating elements is installed in parallel to the seashore, where symmetrical nature of the configuration allows to predict behavior of the whole system by analyzing one element. Integration of pressures acting on structure surfaces determines the horizontal component of the drift force acting on the structure. Being influenced by topography, drift force predicted peaks at a frequency different from that for the level predicted on the assumption of constant water depth. This indicates the necessity for consideration of seabottom slope and effects of broken waves at the seashore. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  13. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M; Kagemoto, H; Hamada, T [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Topographical effects on wave exciting forces on huge floating structure. 2; Ogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ni sayosuru haryoku ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Okusu, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1996-12-31

    A method to predict drift force acting on a floating structure has been developed for a marine structure consisting of a number of floating elements, positioned in a region having a slope at the sea bottom. When a huge marine structure, such as floating air port, is located in a coastal area, scale of the overall structure is very large, of the order of scale of water depth change. The new method assumes that a marine structure consisting of an infinite number of cylindrical floating elements is installed in parallel to the seashore, where symmetrical nature of the configuration allows to predict behavior of the whole system by analyzing one element. Integration of pressures acting on structure surfaces determines the horizontal component of the drift force acting on the structure. Being influenced by topography, drift force predicted peaks at a frequency different from that for the level predicted on the assumption of constant water depth. This indicates the necessity for consideration of seabottom slope and effects of broken waves at the seashore. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  15. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Hamada, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. On the estimation method of hydrodynamic forces acting on a huge floating structure; Choogata futai ni hataraku haryoku ryutairyoku no suiteiho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M.; Zhu, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A floating structure such as an international airport is anticipated to have a length of about 5,000 m and a width of about 1,000 m. A singular point method may be used as a method to estimate force that such a floating body is subjected to from waves. In order to derive a solution with practically sufficient accuracy, 1250 elements are required in the length direction and 250 elements in the width direction, or a total of 312,500 elements. Calculating this number of elements should use finally a linear equation system handling complex coefficients comprising 312,500 elements, which would require a huge amount of calculation time. This paper proposes a method to derive solution on wave forces acting on a super-large floating structure or fluid force coefficients such as added mass coefficients and decay coefficients at a practically workable calculation amount and still without degrading the accuracy. The structure was assumed to be a box-shaped structure. Strengths of the singular points to be distributed on each element were assumed to be almost constant except for edges in lateral, oblique and longitudinal waves. Under this assumption, the interior of the floating structure excepting its edges was represented by several large elements to have reduced the number of elements. A calculation method proposed based on this conception was verified of its effectiveness. 2 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Angeler, David G; Herrmann, Dustin L; Stow, Craig A; Nyström, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Invasive Paget Disease of the Vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Chiara; Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Scaffa, Cono; Perotto, Stefania; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Recalcati, Dario; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Extramammary Paget disease of the vulva (EPDV) is a rare occurrence with an indolent and relapsing course. Progression to invasion occurs in 4% to 19% of cases. The aim of this study is to report clinical-pathological features and outcomes of patients treated for invasive EPDV. Data of consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2017 for invasive EPDV were reviewed. Among 79 patients with EPDV, 10 (12.7%) presented a microinvasive or invasive form at first diagnosis or during follow-up. All of them underwent upfront radical surgery; 7 (70%) received subsequent radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both. The mortality rate was 40%. The recurrence rate after treatment for invasive forms was 60%, with a mean time to first recurrence of 20 (range, 5-36) months. Our study confirms that invasive EPDV remains a rare gynecological neoplasm with a poor prognosis. Multicentre trials or well-organized prospective data collection could improve the knowledge about the management of invasive EPDV.

  19. Invasive predators and global biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim S; Glen, Alistair S; Nimmo, Dale G; Ritchie, Euan G; Dickman, Chris R

    2016-10-04

    Invasive species threaten biodiversity globally, and invasive mammalian predators are particularly damaging, having contributed to considerable species decline and extinction. We provide a global metaanalysis of these impacts and reveal their full extent. Invasive predators are implicated in 87 bird, 45 mammal, and 10 reptile species extinctions-58% of these groups' contemporary extinctions worldwide. These figures are likely underestimated because 23 critically endangered species that we assessed are classed as "possibly extinct." Invasive mammalian predators endanger a further 596 species at risk of extinction, with cats, rodents, dogs, and pigs threatening the most species overall. Species most at risk from predators have high evolutionary distinctiveness and inhabit insular environments. Invasive mammalian predators are therefore important drivers of irreversible loss of phylogenetic diversity worldwide. That most impacted species are insular indicates that management of invasive predators on islands should be a global conservation priority. Understanding and mitigating the impact of invasive mammalian predators is essential for reducing the rate of global biodiversity loss.

  20. 3D-CRT, Proton, or Brachytherapy APBI in Treating Patients With Invasive and Non-invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Grade 1 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 2 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 3 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  1. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Quiterie; Bourguet, Edouard; De Meringo, Hélène; Millon, Alexandre; Vidal, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Invasive rats ( Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats ( Rattus rattus and R. exulans ) on native bird eggs in a New Caledonian rainforest, using artificial bird-nest monitoring. A total of 178 artificial nests containing two eggs of three different sizes were placed either on the ground or 1.5 m high and monitored at the start of the birds' breeding season. Overall, 12.4% of the nests were depredated during the first 7 days. At site 1, where nests were monitored during 16 days, 41.8% of the nests were depredated. The main predator was the native crow Corvus moneduloides , responsible for 62.9% of the overall predation events. Rats were responsible for only 22.9% of the events, and ate only small and medium eggs at both heights. Our experiment suggests that in New Caledonia, predation pressure by rats strengthens overall bird-nest predation, adding to that by native predators. Experimental rat control operations may allow reduced predation pressure on nests as well as the recording of biodiversity responses after rat population reduction.

  2. Toenail as Non-invasive Biomarker in Metal Toxicity Measurement of Welding Fumes Exposure - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, S. F. Z.; Hariri, A.; Ma'arop, N. F.; Hussin, N. S. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Workers are exposed to a variety of heavy metal pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of workplace activities. This chemical pollutants are incorporated into the human by varies of routes entry and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, consequently have a potential to lead an adverse health effects and/or diseases. As to minimize the impact, a control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biological marker is a very effective tool in the assessment of occupational exposure and potential related risk as the results is normally accurate and reproducible. Toenail is the ideal matrix for most common heavy metals due to its reliability and practicality compared to other biological samples as well as it is a non-invasive and this appears as a huge advantage of toenail as a biomarker. This paper reviews studies that measure the heavy metals concentration in toenail as non-invasive matrix which later may adapt in the investigation of metal fume emitted from welding process. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of toenail as non-invasive approach. The presence of a heavy metal in this matrix reflects an exposure but the correlations between heavy metal levels in the toenail must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these heavy metals in metal fumes utilizing toenail biomarker endpoints are highly warranted especially among welders.

  3. Superposition model analysis of nickel(II) ions in trigonal bipyramidal complexes exhibiting huge zero field splitting (aka ‘giant magnetic anisotropy’)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Açıkgöz, Muhammed [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States); Gnutek, Paweł [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn-Teller distortions of five-fold coordinated Ni-complexes revealed by DFT geometry optimization, the ZFSPs are predicted for several structural models and wide ranges of model parameters. - Highlights: • Semiempirical study of potential SMM [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br). • Superposition model analysis of zero field splitting (ZFS) parameters carried out. • Jahn-Teller distortions revealed by DFT geometry optimization considered. • SPM predicts D(ZFS) of observed magnitudes with positive or negative signs. • Results corroborate giant ZFS, which shall not be equated with magnetic anisotropy. - Abstract: Potential single-ion magnet Ni{sup 2+} systems: [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) reveal unusually high zero field splitting (ZFS). The ZFS parameter (ZFSP) D{sub expt} = −120 to −180 cm{sup −1} was determined indirectly by high-magnetic field, high-frequency electron magnetic resonance (HMF-EMR). Modeling ZFSPs using the density functional theory (DFT) codes predicts D values: −100 to −200 cm{sup −1}. Such ZFSP values may seem controversial in view of the D values usually not exceeding several tens of cm{sup −1} for Ni{sup 2+} ions. To corroborate or otherwise these results and elucidate the origin of the huge ZFS (named inappropriately as ‘giant uniaxial magnetic anisotropy’) and respective wavefunctions, we have undertaken semiempirical modeling based on the crystal field (CF) and spin Hamiltonians (SH) theory. In this paper, a feasibility study is carried out to ascertain if superposition model (SPM) calculations may yield such huge D values for these Ni{sup 2+} systems. Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn

  4. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings.

  5. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings

  6. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  7. Antarctic crabs: invasion or endurance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huw J Griffiths

    Full Text Available Recent scientific interest following the "discovery" of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This "invasion hypothesis" suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40-15 million years ago and are only now returning as "warm" enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura, and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60 °S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0 °C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW. Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day "crab invasion". We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the

  8. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  9. [Minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Sun, Taicun; Huang, Yonghui

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the recent minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). The recent literature at home and abroad concerning minimally invasive approach for CSR was reviewed and summarized. There were two techniques of minimally invasive approach for CSR at present: percutaneous puncture techniques and endoscopic techniques. The degenerate intervertebral disc was resected or nucleolysis by percutaneous puncture technique if CSR was caused by mild or moderate intervertebral disc herniations. The cervical microendoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy was an effective minimally invasive approach which could provide a clear view. The endoscopy techniques were suitable to treat CSR caused by foraminal osteophytes, lateral disc herniations, local ligamentum flavum thickening and spondylotic foraminal stenosis. The minimally invasive procedure has the advantages of simple handling, minimally invasive and low incidence of complications. But the scope of indications is relatively narrow at present.

  10. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Invasion ecology meets parasitology: Advances and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Poulin

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions threaten the diversity and functioning of native ecosystems, and the rate at which species are being introduced to new areas shows no sign of slowing down. Parasites play roles in biological invasions, for instance when native parasites interact with exotic hosts, or when parasites themselves are introduced to new areas. However, publication trends show clearly that research on parasitism in the context of biological invasions is lagging far behind research on biological ...

  12. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Runyon

    2018-01-01

    In this issue, we cover new research on wide-ranging topics from the longterm effects of drought on competition between native and invasive plant species, to the effects of drought on pollinator visitation to invasive plants, to a novel use of insect pheromones to improve biocontrol of invasive saltcedar. There’s also big news to report in weed biocontrol: two new...

  13. Invasion ecology meets parasitology: Advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Poulin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions threaten the diversity and functioning of native ecosystems, and the rate at which species are being introduced to new areas shows no sign of slowing down. Parasites play roles in biological invasions, for instance when native parasites interact with exotic hosts, or when parasites themselves are introduced to new areas. However, publication trends show clearly that research on parasitism in the context of biological invasions is lagging far behind research on biological invasions in general. The different articles in this special issue of International Journal for Parasitology–Parasites and Wildlife on ‘Invasions’ address various aspects of the interface between parasitology and invasion biology, including how invasive free-living species lose or gain parasites on the invasion front as they move away from their site of introduction, how these invasive species affect the dynamics of native parasites, and how exotic parasites become established and impact native hosts. Together, they highlight the challenges facing researchers in this area, and set the agenda for the next few years of research. Keywords: alien species, Biological invasions, Enemy release, Non-natives, Parasites

  14. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Placental invasiveness-the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood-is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness.

  15. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalila El Ati

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379. Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg/height(m(2 and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR; models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural, age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy. RESULTS: BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2 versus men (25.3(0.1, P<0.0001 as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR = 3.8[3.1-7.4], P<0.0001 and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3-4.8], P<0.0001. Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.7] than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7-5.5] areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6], than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0-23.3]. They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5-4.3] or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0-5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]. Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. CONCLUSION: The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in

  16. Huge heterogeneity in survival in a subset of adult patients with resected, wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase status, WHO grade II astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulen, Gaëtan; Gozé, Catherine; Rigau, Valérie; Duffau, Hugues

    2018-04-20

    21 patients with a long-term follow-up greater than 5 years have died. There were no significant differences between the clinical, radiological, or molecular characteristics of the survivors relative to the patients who died. CONCLUSIONS Huge heterogeneity in the survival data for a subset of 31 patients with resected IDH-wt AII tumors was observed. These findings suggest that IDH mutation status alone is not sufficient to predict risk of malignant transformation and survival at the individual level. Therefore, the therapeutic management of AII tumors, in particular the decision to administer early adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy following surgery, should not solely rely on routine molecular markers.

  17. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati, Jalila; Traissac, Pierre; Delpeuch, Francis; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Béji, Chiraz; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Bougatef, Souha; Kolsteren, Patrick; Maire, Bernard; Ben Romdhane, Habiba

    2012-01-01

    Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg)/height(m)(2) and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR); models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural), age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy). BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2)) versus men (25.3(0.1)), PGender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR) were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.7]) than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7-5.5]) areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]), than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0-23.3]). They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5-4.3]) or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0-5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]). Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men) were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in obesity and their variation with socio-economic position should be sought so that appropriate policies to reduce these inequalities can be implemented in Tunisia and similar settings.

  18. Intraspecies differenes in phenotypic plasticity: Invasive versus non-invasive populations of Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    High phenotypic plasticity has been hypothesized to affect the invasiveness of plants, as high plasticity may enlarge the breath of environments in which the plants can survive and reproduce. Here we compare the phenotypic plasticity of invasive and non-invasive populations of the same species...... hypothesized that the phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits like growth and photosynthesis were higher in the invasive than in the non-invasive population. The invasive population acclimated to elevated temperatures through increased rates of photosynthesis (range: Pamb: 8–452 mol O2 g−1 DM h−1......-harvesting complex. Hence, the invasive population of C. demersum from New Zealand had higher phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature than the non-invasive Danish population. This might be the result of genetic evolution since its introduction to New Zealand five decades ago, but further studies are needed...

  19. An Evolutionary Modelling Approach To Understanding The Factors Behind Plant Invasiveness And Community Susceptibility To Invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John; Topping, Christopher John; James, Penri

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists have had limited success in understanding which introduced species may become invasive. An evolutionary model is used to investigate which traits are associated with invasiveness. Translocation experiments were simulated in which species were moved into similar but evolutionary younger...

  20. Monitoring the Distribution and Dynamics of an Invasive Grass in Tropical Savanna Using Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun R. Levick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The spread of an alien invasive grass (gamba grass—Andropogon gayanus in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia is a major threat to habitat quality and biodiversity in the region, primarily through its influence on fire intensity. Effective control and eradication of this invader requires better insight into its spatial distribution and rate of spread to inform management actions. We used full-waveform airborne LiDAR to map areas of known A. gayanus invasion in the Batchelor region of the Northern Territory, Australia. Our stratified sampling campaign included wooded savanna areas with differing degrees of A. gayanus invasion and adjacent areas of native grass and woody tree mixtures. We used height and spatial contiguity based metrics to classify returns from A. gayanus and developed spatial representations of A. gayanus occurrence (1 m resolution and canopy cover (10 m resolution. The cover classification proved robust against two independent field-based investigations at 500 m2 (R2 = 0.87, RMSE = 12.53 and 100 m2 (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 14.13 scale. Our mapping results provide a solid benchmark for evaluating the rate and pattern of A. gayanus spread from future LiDAR campaigns. In addition, this high-resolution mapping can be used to inform satellite image analysis for the evaluation of A. gayanus invasion over broader regional scales. Our research highlights the huge potential that airborne LiDAR holds for facilitating the monitoring and management of savanna habitat condition.

  1. A case report for fatal Churg-Strauss syndrome complications: first reported death due to rapid progression of prominently huge hepatic capsular hematoma and multi-system organ hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiejing; Tong, Hongyan; Chen, Feifei; Mai, Wenyuan; Lou, Yinjun; Jin, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare disease that has an extremely low incidence rate. CSS prognosis is good, in general; and there are no reports of multiple-organ hemorrhage in CSS. We report a unique case of CSS, wherein, an elderly man experienced multiple organ hemorrhage -- a particularly huge hematoma under the capsule of the liver and poor prognosis. PMID:25419420

  2. Invasion of a mined landscape: what habitat characteristics are influencing the occurrence of invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lemke; I.A. Tazisong; Y. Wang; J.A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habitat factors that may...

  3. Comparative anatomy of invasive and non-invasive species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The foliar and stem micromorphological study of the invasive and non-invasive species were undertaken using Light Microscope (LM). The occurrence of vessels in the pillar of the abundant sclerenchyma tissues are important component of the skeletal system in the invasive species. The prominent tiles of parenchymatous ...

  4. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. © 2015 Society for

  5. Unconventional gas development facilitates plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Kathryn M; Mortensen, David A; Drohan, Patrick J; Averill, Kristine M

    2017-11-01

    Vegetation removal and soil disturbance from natural resource development, combined with invasive plant propagule pressure, can increase vulnerability to plant invasions. Unconventional oil and gas development produces surface disturbance by way of well pad, road, and pipeline construction, and increased traffic. Little is known about the resulting impacts on plant community assembly, including the spread of invasive plants. Our work was conducted in Pennsylvania forests that overlay the Marcellus and Utica shale formations to determine if invasive plants have spread to edge habitat created by unconventional gas development and to investigate factors associated with their presence. A piecewise structural equation model was used to determine the direct and indirect factors associated with invasive plant establishment on well pads. The model included the following measured or calculated variables: current propagule pressure on local access roads, the spatial extent of the pre-development road network (potential source of invasive propagules), the number of wells per pad (indicator of traffic density), and pad age. Sixty-one percent of the 127 well pads surveyed had at least one invasive plant species present. Invasive plant presence on well pads was positively correlated with local propagule pressure on access roads and indirectly with road density pre-development, the number of wells, and age of the well pad. The vast reserves of unconventional oil and gas are in the early stages of development in the US. Continued development of this underground resource must be paired with careful monitoring and management of surface ecological impacts, including the spread of invasive plants. Prioritizing invasive plant monitoring in unconventional oil and gas development areas with existing roads and multi-well pads could improve early detection and control of invasive plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  7. A minimally invasive smile enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry refers to a wide variety of dental treatments. On the restorative aspect of dental procedures, direct resin bonding can be a very conservative treatment option for the patient. When tooth structure does not need to be removed, the patient benefits. Proper treatment planning is essential to determine how conservative the restorative treatment will be. This article describes the diagnosis, treatment options, and procedural techniques in the restoration of 4 maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin. The procedural steps are reviewed with regard to placing the composite and the variety of colors needed to ensure a natural result. Finishing and polishing of the composite are critical to ending with a natural looking dentition that the patient will be pleased with for many years.

  8. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  9. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  10. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  11. Clinical study of treatment of cerebral hemorrhage: remove the intracranial hematoma with a minimal invasive procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Dongfeng; He Yunguang; Hu Wen; Lin Yang; Yang Danyang; Chen Shaokai; Ma Shaobing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility and factors of minimal invasive intracranial hematoma removing procedure as a treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: From May, 2000 to September, 2003, 33 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage underwent minimal invasive intracranial hematoma removing procedure and from May, 1997 to September, 2000, 27 patients with cerebral hemorrhage received conservative treatments. Two groups were compared and analyzed. The quantity of hemorrhage and the indication of procedure were also studied. Results: State of an illness has no significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). The rate of recovery were higher in the group undergoing the procedure (57.6%) than in the control group (14.8%) (P<0.05). The rate of handicap were lower in the procedure group (24.0%) than in the control group (60.0%) (P<0.05). The mortality were also lower in the procedure group (24.2%) than in the control group (63.0%) (P<0.01). In the control group no patient with a hematoma larger than 70 ml survived. In the procedure group patients with hematoma larger than 70 ml had less chance of survival than the other patients (P<0.01). The mortality rate were respectively 50%, 5.6%, 33.3% when the procedure was done in super early, early, delayed stage. The mortality rate was higher in the super early stage than in early stage (P<0.05). Conclusion: The minimal invasive intracranial hematoma removing procedure has a better clinical outcome than the conservative treatment. The procedure reduces obviously mortality rate and increase the quality of survival. Multiple puncturing and draining or craniotomy are recommended to remove huge hematoma. The earlier treatment brings better clinical effects. This technique is simple, less invasive and provides good clinical outcome, which is worth recommendation

  12. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving

  13. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its ra...

  14. Impact of the invasive parasitic copepod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Bedolfe; Drent, J.; van der Meer, J.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive species can indirectly affect native species by modifying parasite–host dynamics and disease occurrence. This scenario applies to European coastal waters where the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) co-introduced the parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis that spills

  15. Alien invasive species and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergency control measures for invasive species often rely on use of pesticides and other destructive practices. Public concern about pesticide contamination of the ground water and the environment has lead to increased restrictions on the use of pesticides for control of many destructive invasive ...

  16. Economic Analysis of Biological Invasions in Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas P. Holmes; Julian Aukema; Jeffrey Englin; Robert G. Haight; Kent Kovacs; Brian Leung

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions of native forests by nonnative pests result from complex stochastic processes that are difficult to predict. Although economic optimization models describe efficient controls across the stages of an invasion, the ability to calibrate such models is constrained by lack of information on pest population dynamics and consequent economic damages. Here...

  17. Book review: Encyclopedia of biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    Species introductions and consequent biotic invasions and homogenization are major components of global change that are drawing increasing concern and various levels of actions and reactions around the world. Invasion ecology has advanced rapidly during the last few decades, and the discipline is now increasingly integrated with the social and economic sciences. A...

  18. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  19. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  20. Mapping invasive weeds using airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species present a serious problem to the natural environment and have adverse ecological and economic impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems they invade. This article provides a brief overview on the use of remote sensing for mapping invasive plant species in both terrestr...

  1. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Commerce. The duty of the Council is to provide national leadership regarding invasive species issues... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... with Western-based scientists and practitioners on problems and potential solutions, as well as...

  2. Liver injury in invasive aspergillus. Echographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero Fernandez, R.; Garcia Revillo, J.; Paez Moreno, J.; Zurera Tendero, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Aspergillus is the second most common mycoses in immuno compromised patients. The invasive form is associated with a mortality of approximately 100%. We present a case of invasive aspergillus in a heart transplant recipient in whom ultrasound disclosed the presence of liver injury which was later confirmed by necropsy. We review the available literature. (Author) 15 refs

  3. Domestic exotics and the perception of invasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Robert Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility of an area to invasion by exotic species is often judged by the fraction of introduced species in the local biota. However, the degree of invasion, particularly in mainland areas, has often been underestimated because of the exclusion of ‘domestic exotics’ (those introduced to internal units from within the national border) in calculations. Because all...

  4. Invasive aspergillosis in paediatric oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Z; Ibrahim, H; Abdulrahman, E J; Menon, B S; Zahari, Z; Zaleha, A M; Talib, A

    2008-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis predominantly occurs in immunocompromised patients and is often resistant to different therapeutically strategies. However, mortality significantly increases if the central nervous system is affected. In this report we describe two cases of invasive aspergilosis, one with kidney involvement with a successful treatment while the other with pulmonary and cerebral involvement with a grave outcome.

  5. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley

    2010-01-01

    Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...

  6. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, T. M.; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, S.; Carlton, J. T.; Duncan, R. P.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Wilson, J. R. U.; Richardson, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 7 (2011), s. 333-339 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * invasion process * general framework Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 15.748, year: 2011

  7. Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Arian D; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G; O'Neill, Adam J

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species are regarded as one of the top five drivers of the global extinction crisis. In response, extreme measures have been applied in an attempt to control or eradicate invasives, with little success overall. We tested the idea that state shifts to invasive dominance are symptomatic of losses in ecosystem resilience, due to the suppression of apex predators. This concept was investigated in Australia where the high rate of mammalian extinctions is largely attributed to the destructive influence of invasive species. Intensive pest control is widely applied across the continent, simultaneously eliminating Australia's apex predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). We show that predator management accounts for shifts between two main ecosystem states. Lethal control fractures dingo social structure and leads to bottom-up driven increases in invasive mesopredators and herbivores. Where control is relaxed, dingoes re-establish top-down regulation of ecosystems, allowing for the recovery of biodiversity and productivity.

  8. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  9. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  10. Invasive Candidiasis: An Overview from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yuan Ruan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis has emerged as an important nosocomial infection, especially in critically ill patients. We review the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis with an emphasis on data from Taiwan. An increasing incidence of candidemia became apparent from 1980 to the end of the 1990s, followed by relative stability. Crude mortality rates of patients with candidemia were in the range of 35% to 60%. Candida albicans remains the predominant cause of invasive candidiasis in Taiwan and accounts for more than 50% of all cases. Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis are the three most common nonalbicansCandida species that cause invasive candidiasis. The above four Candida species account for more than 90% of invasive candidiasis in Taiwan. Overall, invasive Candida isolates have remained highly susceptible to fluconazole (> 90% susceptibility over the past two decades. However, periodic surveillance is needed to monitor antifungal resistance because reduced fluconazole susceptibility in non-albicans Candida is not an uncommon trend. Voriconazole and echinocandins continue to exhibit excellent in vitro activity against invasive Candida isolates.

  11. Invasive Aspergillosis in Hematological Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in hematological patients, although its outcome has been improving. Prolonged and profound neutropenia in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia and stem cell transplantation is a major risk factor for IA. Allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease and corticosteroid use are also at high risk. Management in a protective environment with high efficiency particular air (HEPA) filter is generally recommended to prevent aspergillosis in patients with prolonged and profound neutropenia. Antifungal prophylaxis against Aspergillus species should be considered in patients with past history of aspergillosis or colonization of Aspergillus species, at facilities with high incidence of IA and those without a protective environment. Early diagnosis and prompt antifungal treatment is important to improve outcome. Imaging studies such as computed tomography and biomarkers such as galactomannan antigen and β-D-glucan are useful for early diagnosis. Empirical antifungal treatment based on persistent or recurrent fever during neutropenia despite broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is generally recommended in high-risk patients. Alternatively, a preemptive treatment strategy has recently been proposed in the context of progress in the early diagnosis of IA based on the results of imaging studies and biomarkers. Voriconazole is recommended for initial therapy for IA. Liposomal amphotericin B is considered as alternative initial therapy. Combination antifungal therapy of echinocandin with voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B could be a choice for refractory cases.

  12. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palep Jaydeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom′s Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK, FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc. redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System ® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist ® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.

  13. Study of melanoma invasion by FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sulé-Suso, J.; Sockalingum, G. D.

    2008-02-01

    Compared to other forms of skin cancer, a malignant melanoma has a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Melanoma invasion is a complex process involving changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and cell-cell interactions. To fully understand the factors which control the invasion process, a human skin model system was reconstructed. HBL (a commercially available cell line) melanoma cells were seeded on a skin model with and without the presence of keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts. After 14 days culture, the skin specimens were fixed, parafin embedded and cut into 7 µm sections. The de-parafinised sections were investigated by synchrotron Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to study skin cell invasion behaviour. The advantage of using FTIR is its ability to obtain the fingerprint information of the invading cells in terms of protein secondary structure in comparison to non-invading cells and the concentration of the enzyme (matrix-metalloproteinase) which digests protein matrix, near the invading cells. With aid of the spectral mapping images, it is possible to pinpoint the cells in non-invasion and invasion area and analyse the respective spectra. It has been observed that the protein bands in cells and matrix shifted between non-invasive and invasive cells in the reconstructed skin model. We hypothesise that by careful analysis of the FTIR data and validation by other models, FTIR studies can reveal information on which type of cells and proteins are involved in melanoma invasion. Thus, it is possible to trace the cell invasion path by mapping the spectra along the interface of cell layer and matrix body by FTIR spectroscopy.

  14. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  15. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem.

  16. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stivarou, Theodora; Patsavoudi, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion

  17. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Stivarou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion.

  18. Non-invasive Oil-Based Method to Increase Topical Delivery of Nucleic Acids to Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Manika; Alam, Shamshad; Gupta, Nidhi; Gotherwal, Vishvabandhu; Gautam, Hemlata; Ansari, Kausar M; Santhiya, Deenan; Natarajan, Vivek T; Ganguli, Munia

    2017-06-07

    Topical delivery of nucleic acids to skin has huge prospects in developing therapeutic interventions for cutaneous disorders. In spite of initial success, clinical translation is vastly impeded by the constraints of bioavailability as well as stability in metabolically active environment of skin. Various physical and chemical methods used to overcome these limitations involve invasive procedures or compounds that compromise skin integrity. Hence, there is an increasing demand for developing safe skin penetration enhancers for efficient nucleic acid delivery to skin. Here, we demonstrate that pretreatment of skin with silicone oil can increase the transfection efficiency of non-covalently associated peptide-plasmid DNA nanocomplexes in skin ex vivo and in vivo. The method does not compromise skin integrity, as indicated by microscopic evaluation of cellular differentiation, tissue architecture, enzyme activity assessment, dye penetration tests using Franz assay, and cytotoxicity and immunogenicity analyses. Stability of nanocomplexes is not hampered on pretreatment, thereby avoiding nuclease-mediated degradation. The mechanistic insights through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy reveal some alterations in the skin hydration status owing to possible occlusion effects of the enhancer. Overall, we describe a topical, non-invasive, efficient, and safe method that can be used to increase the penetration and delivery of plasmid DNA to skin for possible therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  20. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin; Schibli, Roger

    2017-01-01

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  1. Beautiful, but also potentially invasive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipták Boris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of non-indigenous exotic species to new areas, where they may establish viable populations and become invasive, is a considerable problem in the protection of nature worldwide, as these species may alter the indigenous species population structure and potentially even decrease the biodiversity. The European fauna underwent through major negative changes on the continent and nowadays, it experiences another new treat, represented by the expanding aquarium pet trade, and with it, associated species (and disease introductions. Exotic freshwater crustaceans are one of the taxa widely incorporated in the business, counting a remarkable number of species. Recent records of the exotic marbled crayfish or Marmorkrebs (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis in German in open ecosystems in Slovakia pointed to human-mediated introductions associated with aquarium pet trade in the country. In this regard, a study of the aquarium pet trade both in expositions and shops and online was assessed. Several crustacean taxa are available both in pet trade exhibitions and online through the Internet. Altogether 26 different species were identified in the aquarium trade in Slovakia. These are Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii, P. alleni, Cherax quadricarinatus, C. destructor, C. holthuisi, C. peknyi, Cambarellus patzcuarensis and C. diminutus occurring in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia (n = 9. Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii and C. patzuarensis are the most common in this regard. There is also a quantity of other related taxa in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia, mainly Caridina spp. (n = 5, Neocaridina spp. (n = 4, Atyopsis moluccensis, Atya gabonensis, Arachnochium kulsiense and several taxa of exotic crabs (n = 5 belonging to three different genera (Cardiosoma, Geosesarma and Gecarinus present. Neocaridina davidi is identified as the most frequent in this regard. As some of the species can become established and form viable

  2. Radio frequency energy for non-invasive and minimally invasive skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, R Stephen

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews the non-invasive and minimally invasive options for skin tightening, focusing on peer-reviewed articles and presentations and those technologies with the most proven or promising RF non-excisional skin-tightening results for excisional surgeons. RF has been the mainstay of non-invasive skin tightening and has emerged as the "cutting edge" technology in the minimally invasive skin-tightening field. Because these RF skin-tightening technologies are capital equipment purchases with a significant cost associated, this article also discusses some business issues and models that have proven to work in the plastic surgeon's office for non-invasive and minimally invasive skin-tightening technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. Invasive aspergillosis in near drowning nonneutropenic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munta, Kartik; Gopal, Palepu B N; Vigg, Ajit

    2015-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed people has been well documented, but to diagnose and treat in an immunocompetent individual after near drowning, it requires early suspicion and proper empirical treatment. We report a case diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis with systemic dissemination of the infection to the brain, gluteal muscles, and kidneys after a fall in a chemical tank of a paper manufacturing company. He was ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome and managed with antibiotics and vasopressors. Due to nonresolving pneumonia and positive serum galactomannan, trans-tracheal biopsy was performed which confirmed invasive aspergillosis and was treated with antifungals. With the availability of galactomannan assay and better radiological investigative modalities, occurrence of such invasive fungal infections in cases of drowning patients should be considered early in such patients and treated with appropriate antifungals.

  5. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  7. Providing intraosseous anesthesia with minimal invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, K M

    1994-08-01

    A new variation of intraosseous anesthesia--crestal anesthesia--that is rapid, site-specific and minimally invasive is presented. The technique uses alveolar crest nutrient canals for anesthetic delivery without penetrating either bone or periodontal ligament.

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Invasive Pneumococcal to Legionellosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  10. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Cremer

    Full Text Available It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects.

  11. The Evolution of Invasiveness in Garden Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line V.; Drijfhout, Falko P.; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C.; Steiner, Florian M.; Seifert, Bernhard; Hughes, David P.; Schulz, Andreas; Petersen, Klaus S.; Konrad, Heino; Stauffer, Christian; Kiran, Kadri; Espadaler, Xavier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Aktaç, Nihat; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jones, Graeme R.; Nash, David R.; Pedersen, Jes S.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects. PMID:19050762

  12. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  13. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to

  14. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Invasion and predation in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. WEIS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews biological invasions in which predation (or its absence plays a major role in the success of the invader. Examples are described in which the invader out-competes native species for the same food, and cases in which the invader consumes valued native species. In many instances, better predator avoidance by the invasive species or the absence of predators in the new habitat contributes to the success of the invaders; in other cases native or introduced predators appear to be able to keep the invasive species in check. A relatively new management approach in the US is the idea of adding another trophic level – to have humans act as the predators and consume the invasive species. This approach is being utilized in Florida and throughout the Caribbean against the lionfish, but could be extended to other fishes, as well as to various invasive crustaceans and mollusks. This idea is controversial, and current regulations prohibiting the possession of individuals of the invasive species (e.g., mitten crabs or snakefish would preclude the development of a fishery for them [Current Zoology 57 (5: 613–624, 2011].

  16. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  17. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L Acosta

    Full Text Available The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring.

  18. Non-invasive coronary angiography with multislice computed tomography. Technology, methods, preliminary experience and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, Egidio; Bertoli, Giuseppe; Barazzoni, Giancarlo; Baldi, Maurizia; Tramarin, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    The recent technical developments in multislice computed tomography (MSCT), with ECG retro-gated image reconstruction, have elicited great interest in the possibility of accurate non-invasive imaging of the coronary arteries. The latest generation of MSCT systems with 8-16 rows of detectors permits acquisition of the whole cardiac volume during a single 15-20 s breath-hold with a submillimetric definition of the images and an outstanding signal-to-noise ratio. Thus the race which, between MSCT, electron beam computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, can best provide routine and reliable imaging of the coronary arteries in clinical practice has recommenced. Currently available MSCT systems offer different options for both cardiac image acquisition and reconstruction, including multiplanar and curved multiplanar reconstruction, three-dimensional volume rendering, maximum intensity projection, and virtual angioscopy. In our preliminary experience including 176 patients suffering from known or suspected coronary artery disease, MSCT was feasible in 161 (91.5%) and showed a sensitivity of 80.4% and a specificity of 80.3%, with respect to standard coronary angiography, in detecting critical stenosis in coronary arteries and artery or venous bypass grafts. These results correspond to a positive predictive value of 58.6% and a negative predictive value of 92.2%. The true role that MSCT is likely to play in the future in non-invasive coronary imaging is still to be defined. Nevertheless, the huge amount of data obtainable by MSCT along with the rapid technological advances, shorter acquisition times and reconstruction algorithm developments will make the technique stronger, and possible applications are expected not only for non-invasive coronary angiography, but also for cardiac function and myocardial perfusion evaluation, as an all-in-one examination.

  19. Farmer to Pharmacist: Curcumin as an Anti-invasive and Antimetastatic Agent for the Treatment of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish

    2014-12-01

    A huge number of compounds are widely distributed in nature and many of these possess medicinal/biological/pharmacological activity. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the rhizomes (underground stems) of Curcuma longa Linn (a member of the ginger family, commonly known as turmeric) is a culinary spice and therapeutic used in India for thousands of years to induce color and flavor in food as well as to treat a wide array of diseases. The origin of turmeric as spice and folklore medicine is so old that it is lost in legend. Curcumin has many beneficial pharmacological effects which includes, but are not limited with, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antiangiogenic, and antidiabetic activities. Most importantly curcumin possesses immense antitumorigenic effect. It prevents tumor invasion and metastasis in a number of animal models, including models of lung, liver, stomach, colon, breast, esophageal cancer etc. Invasion and metastasis are considered as one of the hallmarks in cancer biology. The pertinent recent applications of curcumin as anti-invasive and antimetastatic agent in in vitro and in vivo and ex vivo studies as well as associated molecular mechanisms have been discussed in this review. Curcumin has also demonstrated the ability to improve patient outcomes in clinical trials.

  20. Farmer to Pharmacist: Curcumin as an Anti-invasive and Antimetastatic Agent for the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish eBandyopadhyay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A huge number of compounds are widely distributed in nature and many of these possess medicinal/biological/pharmacological activity. Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the rhizomes (underground stems of Curcuma longa Linn (a member of the ginger family, commonly known as turmeric is a culinary spice and therapeutic used in India for thousands of years to induce color and flavor in food as well as to treat a wide array of diseases. The origin of turmeric as spice and folklore medicine is so old that it is lost in legend. Curcumin has many beneficial pharmacological effects which includes, but are not limited with, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antiangiogenic, and antidiabetic activities. Most importantly curcumin possesses immense antitumorigenic effect. It prevents tumor invasion and metastasis in a number of animal models, including models of lung, liver, stomach, colon, breast, esophageal cancer etc. Invasion and metastasis are considered as one of the hallmarks in cancer biology. The pertinent recent applications of curcumin as anti-invasive and antimetastatic agent in in vitro and in vivo and ex vivo studies as well as associated molecular mechanisms have been discussed in this review. Curcumin has also demonstrated the ability to improve patient outcomes in clinical trials.

  1. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ruyi; Tang, Jianjun; Yang, Haishui; Hu, Shuijin; Chen, Xin

    2010-08-24

    Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum) while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum) that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  2. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb. Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  3. Fluid challenge: tracking changes in cardiac output with blood pressure monitoring (invasive or non-invasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, Karim; Ehrmann, Stephan; Perrotin, Dominique; Wolff, Michel; Boulain, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    To assess whether invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring allows the identification of patients who have responded to a fluid challenge, i.e., who have increased their cardiac output (CO). Patients with signs of circulatory failure were prospectively included. Before and after a fluid challenge, CO and the mean of four intra-arterial and oscillometric brachial cuff BP measurements were collected. Fluid responsiveness was defined by an increase in CO ≥10 or ≥15% in case of regular rhythm or arrhythmia, respectively. In 130 patients, the correlation between a fluid-induced increase in pulse pressure (Δ500mlPP) and fluid-induced increase in CO was weak and was similar for invasive and non-invasive measurements of BP: r² = 0.31 and r² = 0.29, respectively (both p area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.82 (0.74-0.88), similar (p = 0.80) to that of non-invasive Δ500mlPP [AUC of 0.81 (0.73-0.87)]. Outside large gray zones of inconclusive values (5-23% for invasive Δ500mlPP and 4-35% for non-invasive Δ500mlPP, involving 35 and 48% of patients, respectively), the detection of responsiveness or unresponsiveness to fluid was reliable. Cardiac arrhythmia did not impair the performance of invasive or non-invasive Δ500mlPP. Other BP-derived indices did not outperform Δ500mlPP. As evidenced by large gray zones, BP-derived indices poorly reflected fluid responsiveness. However, in our deeply sedated population, a high increase in invasive pulse pressure (>23%) or even in non-invasive pulse pressure (>35%) reliably detected a response to fluid. In the absence of a marked increase in pulse pressure (<4-5%), a response to fluid was unlikely.

  4. Minimal Invasive Urologic Surgery and Postoperative Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative ileus (POI is the most common cause of prolonged length of hospital stays (LOS and associated healthcare costs. The advent of minimal invasive technique was a major breakthrough in the urologic landscape with great potential to progress in the future. In the field of gastrointestinal surgery, several studies had reported lower incidence rates for POI following minimal invasive surgery compared to conventional open procedures. In contrast, little is known about the effect of minimal invasive approach on the recovery of bowel motility after urologic surgery. We performed an overview of the potential benefit of minimal invasive approach on POI for urologic procedures. The mechanisms and risk factors responsible for the onset of POI are discussed with emphasis on the advantages of minimal invasive approach. In the urologic field, POI is the main complication following radical cystectomy but it is rarely of clinical significance for other minimal invasive interventions. Laparoscopy or robotic assisted laparoscopic techniques when studied individually may reduce to their own the duration and prevent the onset of POI in a subset of procedures. The potential influence of age and urinary diversion type on postoperative ileus is contradictory in the literature. There is some evidence suggesting that BMI, blood loss, urinary extravasation, existence of a major complication, bowel resection, operative time and transperitoneal approach are independent risk factors for POI. Treatment of POI remains elusive. One of the most important and effective management strategies for patients undergoing radical cystectomy has been the development and use of enhanced recovery programs. An optimal rational strategy to shorten the duration of POI should incorporate minimal invasive approach when appropriate into multimodal fast track programs designed to reduce POI and shorten LOS.

  5. Plant invasions in China: an emerging hot topic in invasion science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available China has shown a rapid economic development in recent decades, and several drivers of this change are known to enhance biological invasions, a major cause of biodiversity loss. Here we review the current state of research on plant invasions in China by analyzing papers referenced in the ISI Web of Knowledge. Since 2001, the number of papers has increased exponentially, indicating that plant invasions in China are an emerging hot topic in invasion science. The analyzed papers cover a broad range of methodological approaches and research topics. While more that 250 invasive plant species with negative impacts have been reported from China, only a few species have been considered in more than a handful of papers (in order of decreasing number of references: Spartina alterniflora, Ageratina adenophora, Mikania micrantha, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Solidago canadensis, Eichhornia crassipes. Yet this selection might rather reflect the location of research teams than the most invasive plant species in China. Considering the previous achievements in China found in our analysis research in plant invasions could be expanded by (1 compiling comprehensive lists of non-native plant species at the provincial and national scales and to include species that are native to one part of China but non-native to others in these lists; (2 strengthening pathways studies (primary introduction to the country, secondary releases within the country to enhance prevention and management; and (3 assessing impacts of invasive species at different spatial scales (habitats, regions and in relation to conservation resources.

  6. Updated Scar Management Practical Guidelines: Non-invasive and invasive measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monstrey, S.; Middelkoop, E.; Vranckx, J.J.; Bassetto, F.; Ziegler, U.E.; Meaume, S.; Teot, L.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids can be aesthetically displeasing and lead to severe psychosocial impairment. Many invasive and non-invasive options are available for the plastic (and any other) surgeon both to prevent and to treat abnormal scar formation. Recently, an updated set of practical

  7. Spillover but no spillback of two invasive parasitic copepods from invasive Pacific oysters (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Schuster, A.-K.; Buschbaum, C.; Gergs, R.; Jung, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Van der Meer, J.; Troost, K.; Wegner, K.M.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species can cause indirect effects on native biota by modifying parasite-host interactions and disease occurrence in native species. This study investigated the role of the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in potential spillover (co-introduced parasites infect native hosts) and

  8. Integrating invasive species policies across ornamental horticulture supply chains to prevent plant invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulme, Philip E.; Brundu, Giuseppe; Carboni, Marta; Dehnen-schmutz, Katharina; Dullinger, Stefan; Early, Regan; Essl, Franz; González-moreno, Pablo; Groom, Quentin J.; Kueffer, Christoph; Kühn, Ingolf; Maurel, Noëlie; Novoa, Ana; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Seebens, Hanno; Tanner, Rob; Touza, Julia M.; Van Kleunen, Mark; Verbrugge, Laura Nicoline Halley

    2017-01-01

    1.Ornamental horticulture is the primary pathway for invasive alien plant introductions. We critically appraise published evidence on the effectiveness of four policy instruments that tackle invasions along the horticulture supply chain: pre-border import restrictions, post-border bans, industry

  9. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R.; Esselink, G.; Kodde, L.P.; Duistermaat, H.; Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Marashi, S.H.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to

  10. The relation between invasive and non-invasive tear break-up time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tear stability normal to Nigerians with consideration of gender and age has not been reported. Tear stability in young adults was measured using invasive and non-invasive tear break-up time (TBUT and NIBUT). Forty –five subjects aged 20 to 30 years were selected from among the students of University of. Benin, Edo ...

  11. Earthworm invasion in North America: Food resource competition affects native millipede survival and invasive earthworm reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Snyder; Mac Callaham; Christopher Lowe; Paul Hendrix

    2013-01-01

    The invasive non-native earthworm Amynthas agrestis (Goto and Hatai, 1899) has recently been documented invading forests of the Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. This epigeic earthworm decreases the depth of organic soil horizons, and this may play a role in the decrease of millipede richness and abundance associated with A. agrestis invasion. To...

  12. Invasive cervical carcinoma (Stages IB-IIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironi, S.; Zanello, A.; Rodighiero, M.G.; Vanzulli, A.; Del Maschio, A.; Taccagni, G.L.; Belloni, C.

    1991-01-01

    In the patients with invasive cervical carcinoma, the accurate assessment of parametrial invasion greatly affects the therapeutic choice between surgery and radiation therapy. As a matter of fact, surgery is usually performed only in the patients with carcinoma confined to the cervix, whereas those with parametrial involvement, or more advanced stages, are treated with radiation therapy. This prospective study was aimed at investigating the comparative adequecy of CT and MR imaging in assessing parametrial status in the patients with invasive cervical cancer. Twenty-one consecutive patients, with histologic diagnosis of cervical carcinoma, were investigated. All of them were clinically considered as having invasive cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB-IIB) and subsequently underwent surgery. In all cases, detailed histology of the parametrium was obtained. Pathological data were compared with CT and MR findings in all cases. As for assessing parametrial involvement by cancer, CT had 62% accuracy, 63% sensitivity, and 60% specificity, versus MR imaging 81% accuracy, 69% sensitivity, and 80% specificify. Therefore, MR imaging appears to be superior to CT in assessing the parametrial status of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma; the method yields valuable information for treatment planning

  13. Cell signaling during Trypanosoma cruzi invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Yukio Maeda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell signaling is an essential requirement for mammalian cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi. Depending on the parasite strain and the parasite developmental form, distinct signaling pathways may be induced. In this short review, we focus on the data coming from studies with metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT generated in vitro and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT, used as counterparts of insect-borne and bloodstream parasites respectively. During invasion of host cells by MT or TCT, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and host cell lysosomal exocytosis are triggered. Invasion mediated by MT surface molecule gp82 requires the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and protein kinase C (PKC in the host cell, associated with Ca2+-dependent disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. In MT, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK, PI3K, phospholipase C (PLC and PKC appear to be activated. TCT invasion, on the other hand, does not rely on mTOR activation, rather on target cell PI3K, and may involve the host cell autophagy for parasite internalization. Enzymes, such oligopeptidase B and the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase cruzipain, have been shown to generate molecules that induce target cell Ca2+ signal. In addition, TCT may trigger host cell responses mediated by TGF-β receptor or integrin family member. Further investigations are needed for a more complete and detailed picture of T. cruzi invasion.

  14. Current research in perineural invasion of cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xi-Yun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perineural invasion is a common path for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA metastasis, and it is highly correlated with postoperative recurrence and poor prognosis. It is often an early event in a disease that is commonly diagnosed in advanced stages, and thus it could offer a timely therapeutic and diagnostic target if better understood. This article systematically reviews the progress of CCA neural invasion-related molecules. Methods Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed databases for articles from January 1990 to December 2009, using the keywords "cholangiocarcinoma," "perineural invasion," "nerve growth factor"(NGF, "neural cell adhesion molecule" (NCAM, "matrix metalloproteinase"(MMP, "neurotransmitter," "acetylcholine" (Ach, and "transforming growth factor" (TGF." Additional papers and book chapters were identified by a manual search of references from the key articles. Results From above we found that the molecules NGF, NCAM, MMP, Ach and TGF may have prognostic significance in, and offer clues to the mechanism of CCA neural invasion. Conclusions Cholangiocarcinoma's increasing worldwide incidence is especially poignant in view of both the lacking effective therapies, and the fact that it is commonly diagnosed in advanced stages. As CCA neural invasion often appears early, more complete characterization of its molecular pathology could lead to the identification of targets for the diagnosis and therapy of this devastating malignancy.

  15. Synchronous lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular cancer: marker or precursor for invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A S; Xiang, D; Hockman, L; Arya, M; Jeffress, J; Wang, Z; Dale, P S

    2014-10-01

    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a known risk factor for invasive breast carcinoma, but there is increasing data indicating a possible precursor relationship. This study investigates the incidence of lobular carcinoma in situ that occurs with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Women diagnosed with ILC or LCIS from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively identified and reviewed after institutional review board approval. This group was divided into two cohorts: ILC alone, and LCIS and ILC (ILC/LCIS). Patient demographics, disease characteristics, and treatment modalities were captured. p invasive ductal carcinoma at ∼40%. The association of pre-invasive and invasive lobular lesions should be further studied in a large scale prospective study to assess for a precursor relationship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genomic comparison of invasive and rare non-invasive strains reveals Porphyromonas gingivalis genetic polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Dolgilevich

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are shown to invade human cells in vitro with different invasion efficiencies, varying by up to three orders of magnitude.We tested the hypothesis that invasion-associated interstrain genomic polymorphisms are present in P. gingivalis and that putative invasion-associated genes can contribute to P. gingivalis invasion.Using an invasive (W83 and the only available non-invasive P. gingivalis strain (AJW4 and whole genome microarrays followed by two separate software tools, we carried out comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis.We identified 68 annotated and 51 hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs that are polymorphic between these strains. Among these are surface proteins, lipoproteins, capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis enzymes, regulatory and immunoreactive proteins, integrases, and transposases often with abnormal GC content and clustered on the chromosome. Amplification of selected ORFs was used to validate the approach and the selection. Eleven clinical strains were investigated for the presence of selected ORFs. The putative invasion-associated ORFs were present in 10 of the isolates. The invasion ability of three isogenic mutants, carrying deletions in PG0185, PG0186, and PG0982 was tested. The PG0185 (ragA and PG0186 (ragB mutants had 5.1×103-fold and 3.6×103-fold decreased in vitro invasion ability, respectively.The annotation of divergent ORFs suggests deficiency in multiple genes as a basis for P. gingivalis non-invasive phenotype. Access the supplementary material to this article: Supplement, table (see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.

  17. [Lobular neoplasms and invasive lobular breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, H-P; Helmchen, B; Heil, J; Aulmann, S

    2014-02-01

    The term lobular neoplasia (LN) comprises both atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and thus a spectrum of morphologically heterogeneous but clinically and biologically related lesions. LN is regarded as a nonobligatory precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer and at the same time as an indicator lesion for ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer risk of the patient. Rare pleomorphic or florid variants of LCIS must be differentiated from classical LCIS. The classical type of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) can be distinguished from the non-special type of invasive breast cancer (NST) by E-cadherin inactivation, loss of E-cadherin related cell adhesion and the subsequent discohesive growth pattern. Variant forms of ILC may show different molecular features, and solid and pleomorphic differentiation patterns in cases of high grade variants. Important parameters for the prognostic assessment of ILC are tumor grading and the recognition of morphological variants.

  18. Mechatronic Feasibility of Minimally Invasive, Atraumatic Cochleostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Williamson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic assistance in the context of lateral skull base surgery, particularly during cochlear implantation procedures, has been the subject of considerable research over the last decade. The use of robotics during these procedures has the potential to provide significant benefits to the patient by reducing invasiveness when gaining access to the cochlea, as well as reducing intracochlear trauma when performing a cochleostomy. Presented herein is preliminary work on the combination of two robotic systems for reducing invasiveness and trauma in cochlear implantation procedures. A robotic system for minimally invasive inner ear access was combined with a smart drilling tool for robust and safe cochleostomy; evaluation was completed on a single human cadaver specimen. Access to the middle ear was successfully achieved through the facial recess without damage to surrounding anatomical structures; cochleostomy was completed at the planned position with the endosteum remaining intact after drilling as confirmed by microscope evaluation.

  19. DEGRO practical guidelines: radiotherapy of breast cancer II. Radiotherapy of non-invasive neoplasia of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souchon, R.; Sautter-Bihl, M.L.; Sedlmayer, F.; Budach, W.; Dunst, J.; Feyer, P.; Fietkau, R.; Sauer, R.; Harms, W.; Wenz, F.; Haase, W.

    2014-01-01

    To complement and update the 2007 practice guidelines of the breast cancer expert panel of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) for radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer. Owing to its growing clinical relevance, in the current version, a separate paper is dedicated to non-invasive proliferating epithelial neoplasia of the breast. In addition to the more general statements of the German interdisciplinary S3 guidelines, this paper is especially focused on indication and technique of RT in addition to breast conserving surgery. The DEGRO expert panel performed a comprehensive survey of the literature comprising recently published data from clinical controlled trials, systematic reviews as well as meta-analyses, referring to the criteria of evidence-based medicine yielding new aspects compared to 2005 and 2007. The literature search encompassed the period 2008 to September 2012 using databases of PubMed and Guidelines International Network (G-I-N). Search terms were ''non invasive breast cancer'', ''ductal carcinoma in situ, ''dcis'', ''borderline breast lesions'', ''lobular neoplasia'', ''radiotherapy'' and ''radiation therapy''. In addition to the more general statements of the German interdisciplinary S3 guidelines, this paper is especially focused on indications of RT and decision making of non-invasive neoplasia of the breast after surgery, especially ductal carcinoma in situ. Among different non-invasive neoplasia of the breast only the subgroup of pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; synonym ductal intraepithelial neoplasia, DIN) is considered for further recurrence risk reduction treatment modalities after complete excision of DCIS, particularly RT following breast conserving surgery (BCS), in order to avoid a mastectomy. About half of recurrences are invasive cancers. Up to 50?% of all recurrences require salvage mastectomy. Randomized clinical trials and a huge number of mostly observational studies have unanimously demonstrated that RT significantly

  20. Computed tomography versus invasive coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napp, Adriane E.; Haase, Robert; Laule, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate...... angiography (ICA) is the reference standard for detection of CAD.• Noninvasive computed tomography angiography excludes CAD with high sensitivity.• CT may effectively reduce the approximately 2 million negative ICAs in Europe.• DISCHARGE addresses this hypothesis in patients with low-to-intermediate pretest...

  1. Biosensors and invasive monitoring in clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Córcoles, Emma P

    2013-01-01

    This volume examines the advances of invasive monitoring by means of biosensors and microdialysis. Physical and physiological parameters are commonly monitored in clinical settings using invasive techniques due to their positive outcome in patients’ diagnosis and treatment. Biochemical parameters, however, still rely on off-line measurements and require large pieces of equipment. Biosensing and sampling devices present excellent capabilities for their use in continuous monitoring of patients’ biochemical parameters. However, certain issues remain to be solved in order to ensure a more widespread use of these techniques in today’s medical practices.

  2. Pepducin Based Intervention of Breast Cancer Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Metalloprotease-1 Receptor that Promotes Invasion and Tumorigenesis of Breast Cancer Cells. Cell 120, 303-313. (6) Arribas , J. (2005) Matrix Metalloproteases...promotes invasion and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. Cell 2005;120:303–13. 6. Arribas J. Matrix metalloproteases and tumor inva- sion. N Engl J Med...to ala - provide a model for more aggressive, tamoxifen-insen- nine. The F43A PAR1 mutant does not transduce a sig- sitive, breast cancers. MDA-MB-231

  3. A case of syndrome involving the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone developed during radiation therapy in a patient with invasive thymoma complicated with myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikuie, Naoki; Ishida, Simon; Sato, Tomohiko; Furutama, Daisuke; Sugino, Shyouichi; Kimura, Humihiro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 56-year-old male with a syndrome involving the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), which developed during radiation therapy for invasive thymoma, complicated with myasthenia gravis (MG). Chest computed tomography revealed a huge mediastinal mass lesion spreading to the pulmonary artery, vena cava and pericardium. He was diagnosed with invasive thymoma, based on the pathological findings of a mediastinal tumor biopsy under computed tomography guidance. He received outpatient radiotherapy for the invasive thymoma, and two weeks after the initiation of radiation at a dose of 22 Gy, was admitted to our hospital because of hypercapnea due to weakness of the diaphragm and disturbance of consciousness. Laboratory examinations of the patient showed hyponatremia, plasma hypoosmolarity in the presence of concentrated urine and inappropriately increased concentration of the plasma antidiuretic hormone. He was also diagnosed as having myasthenia gravis, based on the existence of an anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. The SIADH was treated by fluid restriction and sodium chloride, and MG was treated with plasma exchange and prednisolone. He recovered from respiratory failure, and his hyponatremia was improved. To our knowledge, this is a rare description of an invasive thymoma associated with SIADH. (author)

  4. Invasion rate and population characteristics of the invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus: effects of density and invasion history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azour, Farivar; Deurs, Mikael van; Behrens, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Round goby Neogobius melanostomus is currently one of the most wide-ranging invasive fish species in Europe and North America. The present study demonstrates how the distribution of round goby has expanded from 2008 to 2013 at a rate of about 30 km yr−1 along the Danish coastline in the western B...

  5. The complexity underlying invasiveness precludes the identification of invasive traits: A comparative study of invasive and noninvasive heterocarpic Atriplex congeners

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doudová, J.; Douda, J.; Mandák, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-16, č. článku e017645. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Atriplex * heterocarpy * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  6. Differentiating invasive and pre-invasive lung cancer by quantitative analysis of histopathologic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Sun, Hongliu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Kazerooni, Ella

    2018-02-01

    We are developing automated radiopathomics method for diagnosis of lung nodule subtypes. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using quantitative methods to analyze the tumor nuclei and cytoplasm in pathologic wholeslide images for the classification of pathologic subtypes of invasive nodules and pre-invasive nodules. We developed a multiscale blob detection method with watershed transform (MBD-WT) to segment the tumor cells. Pathomic features were extracted to characterize the size, morphology, sharpness, and gray level variation in each segmented nucleus and the heterogeneity patterns of tumor nuclei and cytoplasm. With permission of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) project, a data set containing 90 digital haematoxylin and eosin (HE) whole-slide images from 48 cases was used in this study. The 48 cases contain 77 regions of invasive subtypes and 43 regions of pre-invasive subtypes outlined by a pathologist on the HE images using the pathological tumor region description provided by NLST as reference. A logistic regression model (LRM) was built using leave-one-case-out resampling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for classification of invasive and pre-invasive subtypes. With 11 selected features, the LRM achieved a test area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.91+/-0.03. The results demonstrated that the pathologic invasiveness of lung adenocarcinomas could be categorized with high accuracy using pathomics analysis.

  7. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much...

  8. Invasive plants affect prairie soil biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native or exotic plants often cause ecological and environmental damage in ecosystems where they invade and become established. These invasive plants may be the most serious threat to plant diversity in prairies, especially those in scattered remnants, which may be particularly vulnerable to rap...

  9. The October 2011 Kenyan invasion of Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2018-01-01

    -Kenyan origin who pursued their own interests. Security and economic concerns did play a role, while the paper dismisses that the invasion can be understood as a consequence of the Kenyan government pursuing an ‘international image management strategy’. Theoretically, the paper concludes that ‘Western’ theories...

  10. Benefit from the minimally invasive sinus technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, N; Oakley, R J; Skilbeck, C J; Choudhury, N; Jacob, A

    2009-02-01

    Sinus drainage is impeded by the transition spaces that the anterior paranasal sinuses drain into, not the ostia themselves. Addressing the transition spaces and leaving the ostia intact, using the minimally invasive sinus technique, should reverse chronic rhinosinusitis. To assess patient benefit following use of the minimally invasive sinus technique for chronic rhinosinusitis. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients underwent the minimally invasive sinus technique for chronic rhinosinusitis. Symptoms (i.e. blocked nose, poor sense of smell, rhinorrhoea, post-nasal drip, facial pain and sneezing) were recorded using a visual analogue scale, pre-operatively and at six and 12 weeks post-operatively. Patients were also surveyed using the Glasgow benefit inventory, one and three years post-operatively. We found a significant reduction in all nasal symptom scores at six and 12 weeks post-operatively, and increased total quality of life scores at one and three years post-operatively (25.2 and 14.8, respectively). The patient benefits of treatment with the minimally invasive sinus technique compare with the published patient benefits for functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  11. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  12. Invasive plants often emanate from southern gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.H. Miller; A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Did you know that heavenly bamboo, thorny olive, English ivy, Boston fern, privets and many garden favorites are invading forests to their and thus our detriment? Garden clubs should band together to protect our natural vegetation against invasive plants that take over the habitat of the native flora. Often called non-native, exotic, or noxious weeds, they...

  13. Invasive thymoma; Radiologic evaluation by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Choe, Kyu Ok

    1985-01-01

    In 6 cases of invasive thymoma proved histologically from 1981 to 1984 in Yonsei University Medical Center, the CT findings and pattern were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. Of 6 cases, 4 were males and 2 were females. All cases were between 40-64 years and the average was 51 year old. 2. Of 6 cases, 2 female patients were associated with myasthenia gravis. 3. By the histological examination, 2 were confirmed as mixed cell type, 2 spindle cell type, 1 lymphocytic type and 1 epithelial cell type. 4. CT findings of invasive thymoma were 1) A discrete but lobulated and irregular marginated soft tissue mass in the superoanterior mediastinum replacing the normal mediastinal fat tissue. 2) Usually irregular low density areas within the mass suggesting central necrosis or calcification in 1 of 6 cases was noted. 3) Local invasiveness of the mass shown as obliteration of the normal fat plans surrounding great vessels, irregular thickening or nodular shadows of the pleura, diagphragm and pericardium and irregular and ragged tumor-lung interfaces if the tumor invade to the structures. 4) Frequent extension of tumor to middle and post. mediastinum along pericardium or mediastinal pleura with resultant extrinsic indentation and/or invasion of the hilar region. 5). Extensive tumor infiltration to middle and post. mediastinum in 1 case, indistinguishable from lymphoma. 6) Low attenuation numbered area of brain in another 1 case, but not confirmed histologically

  14. Invasive pests—insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Duerr; Paul A. Mistretta

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsNonnative pest species have increasing impacts in the South regardless of climate change, patterns of land ownership, or changes in the composition of vegetation.“New” nonnative invasive insects and diseases will have serious impacts on southern forests over the next 50 years. Some species such as emerald ash borer...

  15. Elephant invasion and escalated depletion of environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For decades, elephants' invasion is known to be associated with severe environmental consequences leading to escalated depletion o environmental resources (plants, water, wildlife and soil). This paper examined the effects of elephants' activity on the environmental resources inHong and Gombi Local Government areas ...

  16. Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essl, F.; Dullinger, S.; Rabitsch, W.; Hulme, P. E.; Hülber, K.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kleinbauer, I.; Krausmann, F.; Kuhn, H.; Nentwig, W.; Vila, M.; Genovesi, P.; Gherardi, F.; Desprez-Loustau, M.-L.; Roques, A.; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), s. 203-207 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * Europe * economy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 9.681, year: 2011

  17. On shelterbelt design for combating sand invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammed, A.E.; Stigter, C.J.; Adam, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    After a review of the scarce literature on using trees against sand encroachment, a quantitative experiment with a wide shelterbelt to combat sand invasion is reported on. Experimental work was carried out at the northwestern border of the Gezira Scheme (Sudan), an area of severe land degradation

  18. Voriconazole salvage treatment of invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Oude Lashof, A.M.L.; Kullberg, B.J.; Rex, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Data on the salvage treatment of invasive candidiasis with voriconazole in 52 patients intolerant of other antifungal agents or with infection refractory to other antifungal agents were analyzed. Patients had received a mean of two previous antifungal agents (range, 1-4 agents), and 83% had received

  19. The Long American Grain Invasion of Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    and Britain. Both trade statistics and contemporary comment reveal the importance of this trade from the middle to late eighteenth century, long before the so-called grain invasion of the late nineteenth century. Using data on imports from America and a large volume of substantiating primary evidence...

  20. Sonomammographic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Damshety O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Osama R Kombar,1,3 Dalia M Fahmy,1 Mary V Brown,3 Omar Farouk,2 Osama El-Damshety21Diagnostic Radiology Department, 2Surgical Oncology Department, Oncology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 3Diagnostic Radiology Department, Al-Amiri Hospital, Safat, KuwaitObjective: The objective of our study was to identify characteristic features of invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound examinationsMaterials and methods: This is a retrospective multicenter study of women with biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinoma. All patients had undergone diagnostic sonomammography. The imaging findings were identified by experienced breast imagers. Final surgical pathology results were used as the reference standard.Results: Thirty-two women ranging in age from 42 to 63 years old (mean age, 53 years, All had biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinomas. Common features on mammogram included dense mass followed by architectural distortion; three cases showed breast asymmetry and one case was reported as normal. On ultrasound, common features included solid mass with spiculated margins, posterior shadowing, and perpendicular to the skin.Conclusion: Although no specific features could be linked to invasive lobular carcinoma, care should be directed to subtle signs such as architectural distortion and breast asymmetry in order not to miss any lesions. The combination of mammographic and sonographic helps to decrease the relatively high false negative diagnosis of this type of breast cancer.Keywords: mammography, ultrasound, cancer, breast

  1. Systems for tracking minimally invasive surgical instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmarra, M. K.; Grimbergen, C. A.; Dankelman, J.

    2007-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (e.g. laparoscopy) requires special surgical skills, which should be objectively assessed. Several studies have shown that motion analysis is a valuable assessment tool of basic surgical skills in laparoscopy. However, to use motion analysis as the assessment tool, it is

  2. Invasive thymoma; Radiologic evaluation by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-04-15

    In 6 cases of invasive thymoma proved histologically from 1981 to 1984 in Yonsei University Medical Center, the CT findings and pattern were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. Of 6 cases, 4 were males and 2 were females. All cases were between 40-64 years and the average was 51 year old. 2. Of 6 cases, 2 female patients were associated with myasthenia gravis. 3. By the histological examination, 2 were confirmed as mixed cell type, 2 spindle cell type, 1 lymphocytic type and 1 epithelial cell type. 4. CT findings of invasive thymoma were 1) A discrete but lobulated and irregular marginated soft tissue mass in the superoanterior mediastinum replacing the normal mediastinal fat tissue. 2) Usually irregular low density areas within the mass suggesting central necrosis or calcification in 1 of 6 cases was noted. 3) Local invasiveness of the mass shown as obliteration of the normal fat plans surrounding great vessels, irregular thickening or nodular shadows of the pleura, diagphragm and pericardium and irregular and ragged tumor-lung interfaces if the tumor invade to the structures. 4) Frequent extension of tumor to middle and post. mediastinum along pericardium or mediastinal pleura with resultant extrinsic indentation and/or invasion of the hilar region. 5). Extensive tumor infiltration to middle and post. mediastinum in 1 case, indistinguishable from lymphoma. 6) Low attenuation numbered area of brain in another 1 case, but not confirmed histologically.

  3. New trends in minimally invasive urological surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Rajan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The perceived benefits of minimally-invasive surgery include less postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization, reduced morbidity and better cosmesis while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic outcome. We review the new trends in minimally-invasive urological surgery. Materials and method: We reviewed the English language literature using the National Library of Medicine database to identify the latest technological advances in minimally-invasive surgery with particular reference to urology. Results: Amongst other advances, studies incorporating needlescopic surgery, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery , magnetic anchoring and guidance systems, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and flexible robots were considered of interest. The results from initial animal and human studies are also outlined. Conclusion: Minimally-invasive surgery continues to evolve to meet the demands of the operators and patients. Many novel technologies are still in the testing phase, whilst others have entered clinical practice. Further evaluation is required to confirm the safety and efficacy of these techniques and validate the published reports.

  4. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Viktoria; Chytrý, Milan; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, Stephan; Biurrun, Idoia; Knollová, Ilona; Berg, Christian; Vassilev, Kiril; Rodwell, John S.; Škvorc, Željko; Jandt, Ute; Ewald, Jörg; Jansen, Florian; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Casella, Laura; Attorre, Fabio; Rašomavičius, Valerijus; Ćušterevska, Renata; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Brunet, Jörg; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens Christian; Kącki, Zygmunt; Petrášová-Šibíková, Mária; Šilc, Urban; García-Mijangos, Itziar; Campos, Juan Antonio; Fernández-González, Federico; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Onyshchenko, Viktor; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Woodlands make up a third of European territory and carry out important ecosystem functions, yet a comprehensive overview of their invasion by alien plants has never been undertaken across this continent. Location: Europe. Methods: We extracted data from 251,740 vegetation plots stored in the

  5. Minimally invasive treatments of uterine fibroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis assesses clinical results and technical developments of two minimally invasive treatments for symptomatic uterine fibroids: uterine artery embolization (UAE) and magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU). Part I: Uterine artery embolization The results of a

  6. Teaching Team Invasion Games and Motivational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John; Morgan, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Team invasion games (TIG) make up a large part of the PE curriculum in Scottish schools. It is important, therefore, to understand the environmental conditions that contribute to pupils' motivation to learn to play TIG. Consequently, this study aimed to identify the teaching behaviours exhibited when teaching TIG using a game-based approach and a…

  7. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Agrawal, Sachin; Bläckberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    The management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has evolved from the first reports on bladder endoscopy and transurethral resection to the introduction of adjuvant intravesical treatment. However, disease recurrence and progression remain an ongoing risk, placing a heavy burden...

  8. Control of invasive weeds with prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Allen, Edith B.; Minnich, Ralph; Rice, Peter M.; Kyser, Guy B.

    2006-01-01

    Prescribed burning has primarily been used as a tool for the control of invasive late-season annual broadleaf and grass species, particularly yellow starthistle, medusahead, barb goatgrass, and several bromes. However, timely burning of a few invasive biennial broadleaves (e.g., sweetclover and garlic mustard), perennial grasses (e.g., bluegrasses and smooth brome), and woody species (e.g., brooms and Chinese tallow tree) also has been successful. In many cases, the effectiveness of prescribed burning can be enhanced when incorporated into an integrated vegetation management program. Although there are some excellent examples of successful use of prescribed burning for the control of invasive species, a limited number of species have been evaluated. In addition, few studies have measured the impact of prescribed burning on the long-term changes in plant communities, impacts to endangered plant species, effects on wildlife and insect populations, and alterations in soil biology, including nutrition, mycorrhizae, and hydrology. In this review, we evaluate the current state of knowledge on prescribed burning as a tool for invasive weed management.

  9. Invasive Bacterial Pathogens and their Antibiotic Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolates showed high rates of resistance to most antibiotics tested. The range of resistance for gram positive bacteria were 0% to 85.7%, and for gram negative from 0% to 100%. None of the isolates were resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. CONCLUSION: Our study result showed the presence of invasive ...

  10. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Madsen, John; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Fournier, Christine; Mehrhoff, Les; Browne, Michael; Graham, Jim; Sellers, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  11. A systematic review of context bias in invasion biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Warren

    Full Text Available The language that scientists use to frame biological invasions may reveal inherent bias-including how data are interpreted. A frequent critique of invasion biology is the use of value-laden language that may indicate context bias. Here we use a systematic study of language and interpretation in papers drawn from invasion biology to evaluate whether there is a link between the framing of papers and the interpretation of results. We also examine any trends in context bias in biological invasion research. We examined 651 peer-reviewed invasive species competition studies and implemented a rigorous systematic review to examine bias in the presentation and interpretation of native and invasive competition in invasion biology. We predicted that bias in the presentation of invasive species is increasing, as suggested by several authors, and that bias against invasive species would result in misinterpreting their competitive dominance in correlational observational studies compared to causative experimental studies. We indeed found evidence of bias in the presentation and interpretation of invasive species research; authors often introduced research with invasive species in a negative context and study results were interpreted against invasive species more in correlational studies. However, we also found a distinct decrease in those biases since the mid-2000s. Given that there have been several waves of criticism from scientists both inside and outside invasion biology, our evidence suggests that the subdiscipline has somewhat self-corrected apparent biases.

  12. A systematic review of context bias in invasion biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert J; King, Joshua R; Tarsa, Charlene; Haas, Brian; Henderson, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    The language that scientists use to frame biological invasions may reveal inherent bias-including how data are interpreted. A frequent critique of invasion biology is the use of value-laden language that may indicate context bias. Here we use a systematic study of language and interpretation in papers drawn from invasion biology to evaluate whether there is a link between the framing of papers and the interpretation of results. We also examine any trends in context bias in biological invasion research. We examined 651 peer-reviewed invasive species competition studies and implemented a rigorous systematic review to examine bias in the presentation and interpretation of native and invasive competition in invasion biology. We predicted that bias in the presentation of invasive species is increasing, as suggested by several authors, and that bias against invasive species would result in misinterpreting their competitive dominance in correlational observational studies compared to causative experimental studies. We indeed found evidence of bias in the presentation and interpretation of invasive species research; authors often introduced research with invasive species in a negative context and study results were interpreted against invasive species more in correlational studies. However, we also found a distinct decrease in those biases since the mid-2000s. Given that there have been several waves of criticism from scientists both inside and outside invasion biology, our evidence suggests that the subdiscipline has somewhat self-corrected apparent biases.

  13. Economics of Harmful Invasive Species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marbuah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.

  14. From mini-invasive to non-invasive treatment using monopolar radiofrequency: the next orthopaedic frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Terry L

    2009-10-01

    Tendinopathy arises from a failed tendon healing process. Current non-invasive therapeutic alternatives are anti-inflammatory in nature, and outcomes are unpredictable. The benefit of invasive alternatives resides in the induction of the healing response. A new technology that uses non-invasive monopolar capacitive coupled radiofrequency has demonstrated the ability to raise temperatures in tendons and ligaments above 50 degrees C, the threshold for collagen modulation, tissue shrinkage and recruitment of macrophages, fibroblasts, and heat shock protein factors, without damaging the overlying structures, resulting in activation of the wound healing response. Monopolar capacitive-coupled radiofrequency offers a new non-invasive choice for tendinopathies and sprained ligaments. It does not interfere with subsequent surgical procedures should they become necessary.

  15. Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Vendula; Zákravský, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), s. 365-390 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA ČR GA206/05/0323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * reproductive traits * invasiveness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2010

  16. Stress in biological invasions: Introduced invasive grey squirrels increase physiological stress in native Eurasian red squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santicchia, Francesca; Dantzer, Ben; van Kesteren, Freya; Palme, Rupert; Martinoli, Adriano; Ferrari, Nicola; Wauters, Lucas Armand

    2018-05-23

    Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). We extracted glucocorticoid metabolites from faecal samples to measure whether the presence of the invasive species causes an increase in physiological stress in individuals of the native species. We show that native red squirrels in seven sites where they co-occurred with invasive grey squirrels had glucocorticoid concentrations that were three times higher than those in five sites without the invasive species. Moreover, in a longitudinal study, stress hormones in native red squirrels increased after colonisation by grey squirrels. When we experimentally reduced the abundance of the invasive grey squirrels, the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in co-occurring red squirrels decreased significantly between pre- and postremoval periods. Hence, we found that the invasive species acts as a stressor which significantly increases the concentrations of glucocorticoids in the native species. Given that sustained elevations in glucocorticoids could reduce body growth and reproductive rate, our results are consistent with previous studies where the co-occurrence of the invasive grey squirrel was associated with smaller size and lower reproductive output in red squirrels. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society.

  17. The effects of exotic weed Flaveria bidentis with different invasion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    community, especially its effect pattern at different invasion stages. In this study, soil ... invasion significantly decreased the richness of soil bacterial community, and the decline contents were positively ...... in nitrogen turnover. Agric. Ecosyst.

  18. School based assessment module for invasion games category in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School based assessment module for invasion games category in physical education. ... This study identify the level of basic skills of invasion games category when using School Based Assessment Module. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. CT evaluation of gastric cancer. Depth of tumor invasion and pancreas invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banba, Yoshihisa; Kanazawa, Tadayoshi; Seto, Hikaru

    1998-01-01

    To compare the internal structure of tumor and the contiguous organ configuration on computed tomography (CT) with the depth of tumor invasion on the pathological specimen. Sixty-four gastric cancers depicted on incremental dynamic CT were classified according to the internal structure of the tumor, and correlated with the depth of tumor invasion. In addition, the cancers were classified according to the contiguous pancreatic configuration, and correlated with the degree of pancreatic invasion. Eleven tumors with thickened gastric wall consisting of both a thick inner layer of high attenuation and a thin outer layer of low attenuation (two-layered tumor with a thin outer layer) did not invade the serosa: mucosa (n=5) and submucosa (n=6). Of 59 gastric cancers with a regular margin to the contiguous pancreas, pancreatic invasion was absent in 58 and present in one. Pancreatic invasion was present in all of five gastric cancers with an irregular margin. Our results indicate that two-layered gastric tumors with a thin outer layer never invade the serosa. Furthermore, pancreatic invasion is predicted only when the margin of the contiguous pancreas is irregular. (author)

  20. Invasive versus Non Invasive Methods Applied to Mummy Research: Will This Controversy Ever Be Solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jasmine; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the application of non invasive techniques to mummified remains have shed new light on past diseases. The virtual inspection of a corpse, which has almost completely replaced classical autopsy, has proven to be important especially when dealing with valuable museum specimens. In spite of some very rewarding results, there are still many open questions. Non invasive techniques provide information on hard and soft tissue pathologies and allow information to be gleaned concerning mummification practices (e.g., ancient Egyptian artificial mummification). Nevertheless, there are other fields of mummy studies in which the results provided by non invasive techniques are not always self-explanatory. Reliance exclusively upon virtual diagnoses can sometimes lead to inconclusive and misleading interpretations. On the other hand, several types of investigation (e.g., histology, paleomicrobiology, and biochemistry), although minimally invasive, require direct contact with the bodies and, for this reason, are often avoided, particularly by museum curators. Here we present an overview of the non invasive and invasive techniques currently used in mummy studies and propose an approach that might solve these conflicts. PMID:26345295

  1. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Dell; Pham Quang Thu; Dang Thanh Tan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from ...

  2. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  3. Huge Trionic Effects in Graphene Nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deilmann, Thorsten; Rohlfing, Michael

    2017-01-01

    V for widths of 14.6-3.6 Å. Both for the trions and for the excitons, we observe an almost linear dependency of their binding energies on the band gap. We observe several trion states with different character derived from the corresponding excitons. Because of the large bindings energies, this opens a route...

  4. A RARE CASE OF HUGE CERVICAL FIBROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tatyaba Palve

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PRESENTATION OF CASE Leiomyomas are the most common tumor of uterus and the female pelvis. It is impossible to determine true incidence, all though frequently quoted incidence of 50% seems reasonable at post mortem examination1 . However only 1- 2% of it are confined to cervix. Cervical leiomyomata are mostly single and are subserous or interstitial in origin. Generally these tumours presents with retention of urine, constipation, sensation of something coming out of vagina, & rarely at times present with abdominal mass which may mimic ovarian cancer. 47 year old unmarried nulligravida with complaints of severe dysmenorrhagia since one year and lump in abdomen which has grown over period of one year. There was no bowel and bladder complaints, On physical examination pallor present, on abdominal examination 26-28 week firm solid mass arising from pelvis with restricted mobility was present, Clinically no ascites, patient was investigated on OPD basis.

  5. Some general rules governing huge power networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clade, J.

    2010-01-01

    The very large networks operate on vast territories, on the scale not only of countries, but of continents. Their aim is twofold: transmitting electrical energy from the power plants - nuclear or thermal power plants, hydraulic, wind power plants etc. - to consumption areas (that is the transmission function); pooling the power plants, so as to operate at any time those which are the less expensive (interconnection of energy production) and to guarantee a safe continuous supply to the users (interconnection of power). However, the transmission of electrical energy is more costly than transmission, when possible, of primary energy sources, either fossil fuels or nuclear. When the sources are not chiefly hydraulic, it is pertinent to limit the transmission of electricity by siting the power plants as close as possible to the consumption areas. On the contrary, interconnection may allow significant savings in the way of power plant investments and fuel expenses. Therein is the main economical justification for very large electrical systems and networks, except in cases where distant hydraulic sources are operated. We must then think over large electrical networks mainly as tools for cooperation between power producers, aiming at an electrical supply to customers which is safe, continuous and as inexpensive as possible. (author)

  6. Corporate Donors Can Make a Huge Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Drew A.

    2009-01-01

    It is time to educate corporate America on the need to finance higher education by using a need-based giving standard. Corporations need to realize that two-year colleges significantly affect their work force and economy. Only 25 percent of the jobs in the United States require a degree from a four-year college, yet up to 75 percent of the jobs…

  7. The huge ATLAS cavern now fully excavated

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Excavation of the ATLAS cavern is now complete! At the end of two years' work involving a tremendous technical challenge, the civil engineering contractors have succeeded in digging out one of the biggest experimental caverns in the world. Bravo!

  8. Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arps, David P; Healy, Patrick; Zhao, Lili; Kleer, Celina G; Pang, Judy C

    2013-04-01

    Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features (IDC-L) is not recognized as a distinct subtype of breast cancer, and its clinicopathologic features and outcomes are unknown. In this retrospective study, we focused on characterization of clinicopathologic features and outcomes of IDC-L and compared them to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). 183 cases of IDC-L from 1996 to 2011 were compared with 1,499 cases of IDC and 375 cases of ILC. Available slides of IDC-L (n = 150) were reviewed to quantify the lobular component (≤ 20, 21-50, 51-80, >80 %), defined as small cells individually dispersed, arranged in linear cords, or in loose aggregates without the formation of tubules or cohesive nests. E-cadherin immunostain was performed to confirm ductal origin. Compared to IDC, IDC-L was more likely to have lower histologic grade (p lobular component in IDC-L had no impact on the size, nodal status, stage, or outcome. Our data suggest that although IDC-L may be a variant of IDC, with >90 % of cases being E-cadherin positive, the clinical and biological characteristics are more similar to that of ILC.

  9. Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Pearson; M. Kim; J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain...

  10. The role of hybridization in facilitating tree invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization events can generate additional genetic diversity on which natural selection can act and at times enhance invasiveness of the species. Invasive tree species are a growing ecological concern worldwide, and some of these invasions involve hybridization events pre- or post-introduction. Th...

  11. Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) hybrids: most dominant invasive genotype in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization can potentially enhance invasiveness. Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) hybrids appear to be the dominant genotypes in their invasions. Exotic Tamarix are declared invasive in South Africa and the exotic T. chinensis and T. ramosissima are known to hybridize between themselves, and with the nativ...

  12. Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. F. Hendrix; G. H. Baker; M. A. Callaham Jr; G. A. Damoff; Fragoso C.; G. Gonzalez; S. W. James; S. L. Lachnicht; T. Winsome; X. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management and bioremediation. A number of cases has documented where invasive earthworms have caused significant changes in...

  13. Optimal detection and control strategies for invasive species management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali V. Mehta; Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans; Stephen Polasky; Robert C. Venette

    2007-01-01

    The increasing economic and environmental losses caused by non-native invasive species amplify the value of identifying and implementing optimal management options to prevent, detect, and control invasive species. Previous literature has focused largely on preventing introductions of invasive species and post-detection control activities; few have addressed the role of...

  14. The potential role of podoplanin in tumour invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, A; Christofori, G

    2006-01-01

    Podoplanin is a small mucin-like transmembrane protein, widely expressed in various specialised cell types throughout the body. Here, we revisit the mechanism of podoplanin-mediated tumour invasion. We compare molecular pathways leading to single and collective cell invasion and discuss novel distinct concepts of tumour cell invasion. PMID:17179989

  15. Does responsiveness to arbuscular mycorrhizas depend on plant invasive status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Some posit invasive alien plants are less dependent on mycorrhizal associations than native plants, and thus weak mycorrhizal responsiveness may be a general mechanism of plant invasion. 2. Here, we tested whether mycorrhizal responsiveness varies by plant invasive status while controlling for ph...

  16. 49 CFR 801.56 - Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. 801.56... Unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(6), any personal, medical, or similar... a clearly unwarranted invasion of the person's personal privacy. ...

  17. Invasive species unchecked by climate - response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    environments. This may be particularly true in the world's boreal oceans as melting sea ice facilitates new migratory passages between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Moreover, as the ebb and flow of biodiversity intensifies under anthropogenic climate change, novel climates and communities of species......Hulme points out that observed rates of range expansion by invasive alien species are higher than the median speed of isotherm movement over the past 50 years, which in turn has outpaced the rates of climate-associated range changes of marine and terrestrial species. This is not surprising, given...... of climate-change-induced range shifts between native and alien species are meaningful only after the initial invasive spread has reached a stable range boundary. A focus on regions with high velocities of climate change, and on regions such as the tropics where novel thermal niches are being created, should...

  18. DNA barcoding of invasive plants in China: A resource for identifying invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song-Zhi; Li, Zhen-Yu; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Invasive plants have aroused attention globally for causing ecological damage and having a negative impact on the economy and human health. However, it can be extremely challenging to rapidly and accurately identify invasive plants based on morphology because they are an assemblage of many different families and many plant materials lack sufficient diagnostic characteristics during border inspections. It is therefore urgent to evaluate candidate loci and build a reliable genetic library to prevent invasive plants from entering China. In this study, five common single markers (ITS, ITS2, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA) were evaluated using 634 species (including 469 invasive plant species in China, 10 new records to China, 16 potentially invasive plant species around the world but not introduced into China yet and 139 plant species native to China) based on three different methods. Our results indicated that ITS2 displayed largest intra- and interspecific divergence (1.72% and 91.46%). Based on NJ tree method, ITS2, ITS, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA provided 76.84%, 76.5%, 63.21%, 52.86% and 50.68% discrimination rates, respectively. The combination of ITS + matK performed best and provided 91.03% discriminatory power, followed by ITS2 + matK (85.78%). For identifying unknown individuals, ITS + matK had 100% correct identification rate based on our database, followed by ITS/ITS2 (both 93.33%) and ITS2 + matK (91.67%). Thus, we propose ITS/ITS2 + matK as the most suitable barcode for invasive plants in China. This study also demonstrated that DNA barcoding is an efficient tool for identifying invasive species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A novel immunotherapy of Brucellosis in cows monitored non invasively through a specific biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Mohan Saxena

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease causing huge economic losses worldwide. Currently no effective immunotherapy for Brucellosis or any biomarker to monitor the efficacy of therapy is available. Treatment is ineffective and animals remain carrier lifelong. S19 and RB51 are live attenuated vaccine strains of Brucella abortus. However, S19 induces only antibody, ineffective for intracellular pathogen. RB51 induces cell mediated immunity (CMI but it is Rifampicin resistant. Both organisms are secreted in milk and can infect humans and cause abortions in animals. Phage lysed bacteria (lysates retain maximum immunogenicity as opposed to killing by heat or chemicals. We report here the successful immunotherapy of bovine Brucellosis by phage lysates of RB51 (RL and S19 (SL. The SL induced strong antibody response and RL stimulated CMI. In vitro restimulation of leukocytes from RL immunized cattle induced interferon gamma production. A single subcutaneous dose of 2 ml of cocktail lysate (both RL and SL, eliminated live virulent Brucella from Brucellosis affected cattle with plasma level of Brucella specific 223 bp amplicon undetectable by RT-PCR and blood negative for live Brucella by culture in 3 months post-immunization. This is the first report on minimally invasive monitoring of the efficacy of antibacterial therapy employing plasma RNA specific for live bacteria as a biomarker as well as on the use of RB51 phage lysate for successful immunotherapy of Brucellosis in cattle.

  20. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, V.; Chytrý, M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, B.; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, S. M.; Biurrun, I.; Knollová, I.; Berg, C.; Vassilev, K.; Rodwell, J. S.; Škvorc, Ž.; Jandt, U.; Ewald, J.; Jansen, F.; Tsiripidis, I.; Botta-Dukát, Z.; Casella, L.; Attorre, F.; Rašomavičius, V.; Ćušterevska, R.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Brunet, J.; Lenoir, J.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kacki, Z.; Petrášová-Šibíková, M.; Šilc, U.; García-Mijangos, I.; Campos, J. A.; Fernández-González, F.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Onyshchenko, V.; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2017), s. 969-981 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : neophyte * non-native * invasive plants * EUNIS * forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 4.391, year: 2016

  1. Procedures minimally invasive image-guided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Guevara, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    A literature review focused on minimally invasive procedures, has been performed at the Department of Radiology at the Hospital Calderon Guardia. A multidisciplinary team has been raised for decision making. The materials, possible complications and the available imaging technique such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, have been determined according to the procedure to be performed. The revision has supported medical interventions didactically enjoying the best materials, resources and conditions for a successful implementation of procedures and results [es

  2. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asy...

  3. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved.

  4. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Thymic Malignances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao FANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the most important therapy for thymic malignances. The last decade has seen increasing adoption of minimally invasive surgery (MIS for thymectomy. MIS for early stage thymoma patients has been shown to yield similar oncological results while being helpful in minimize surgical trauma, improving postoperative recovery, and reduce incisional pain. Meanwhile, With the advance in surgical techniques, the patients with locally advanced thymic tumors, preoperative induction therapies or recurrent diseases, may also benefit from MIS in selected cases.

  5. A Landscape Approach to Invasive Species Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lurgi

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are not only a major threat to biodiversity, they also have major impacts on local economies and agricultural production systems. Once established, the connection of local populations into metapopulation networks facilitates dispersal at landscape scales, generating spatial dynamics that can impact the outcome of pest-management actions. Much planning goes into landscape-scale invasive species management. However, effective management requires knowledge on the interplay between metapopulation network topology and management actions. We address this knowledge gap using simulation models to explore the effectiveness of two common management strategies, applied across different extents and according to different rules for selecting target localities in metapopulations with different network topologies. These management actions are: (i general population reduction, and (ii reduction of an obligate resource. The reduction of an obligate resource was generally more efficient than population reduction for depleting populations at landscape scales. However, the way in which local populations are selected for management is important when the topology of the metapopulation is heterogeneous in terms of the distribution of connections among local populations. We tested these broad findings using real-world scenarios of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus infesting agricultural landscapes in Western Australia. Although management strategies targeting central populations were more effective in simulated heterogeneous metapopulation structures, no difference was observed in real-world metapopulation structures that are highly homogeneous. In large metapopulations with high proximity and connectivity of neighbouring populations, different spatial management strategies yield similar outcomes. Directly considering spatial attributes in pest-management actions will be most important for metapopulation networks with heterogeneously

  6. Sonomammographic characteristics of invasive lobular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmy, Dalia Monir; Kombar,; Farouk,Omar; El-damshety,; Brown,

    2012-01-01

    Osama R Kombar,1,3 Dalia M Fahmy,1 Mary V Brown,3 Omar Farouk,2 Osama El-Damshety21Diagnostic Radiology Department, 2Surgical Oncology Department, Oncology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 3Diagnostic Radiology Department, Al-Amiri Hospital, Safat, KuwaitObjective: The objective of our study was to identify characteristic features of invasive lobular carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound examinationsMaterials and methods: This is a retrospective multicenter study of women with ...

  7. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... juxtapapillary tumors invading the optic nerve because of simple proximity to the nerve. A neurotropic subtype invades the optic nerve and retina in a diffuse fashion unrelated to tumor size or location. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  8. A Landscape Approach to Invasive Species Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurgi, Miguel; Wells, Konstans; Kennedy, Malcolm; Campbell, Susan; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are not only a major threat to biodiversity, they also have major impacts on local economies and agricultural production systems. Once established, the connection of local populations into metapopulation networks facilitates dispersal at landscape scales, generating spatial dynamics that can impact the outcome of pest-management actions. Much planning goes into landscape-scale invasive species management. However, effective management requires knowledge on the interplay between metapopulation network topology and management actions. We address this knowledge gap using simulation models to explore the effectiveness of two common management strategies, applied across different extents and according to different rules for selecting target localities in metapopulations with different network topologies. These management actions are: (i) general population reduction, and (ii) reduction of an obligate resource. The reduction of an obligate resource was generally more efficient than population reduction for depleting populations at landscape scales. However, the way in which local populations are selected for management is important when the topology of the metapopulation is heterogeneous in terms of the distribution of connections among local populations. We tested these broad findings using real-world scenarios of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infesting agricultural landscapes in Western Australia. Although management strategies targeting central populations were more effective in simulated heterogeneous metapopulation structures, no difference was observed in real-world metapopulation structures that are highly homogeneous. In large metapopulations with high proximity and connectivity of neighbouring populations, different spatial management strategies yield similar outcomes. Directly considering spatial attributes in pest-management actions will be most important for metapopulation networks with heterogeneously distributed links. Our

  9. Minimally invasive surgery for esophageal achalasia

    OpenAIRE

    Bonavina, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is the most commonly diagnosed primary esophageal motor disorder and the second most common functional esophageal disorder. Current therapy of achalasia is directed toward elimination of the outflow resistance caused by failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax completely upon swallowing. The advent of minimally invasive surgery has nearly replaced endoscopic pneumatic dilation as the first-line therapeutic approach. In this editorial, the rationale and the evide...

  10. Bacterial endophytes enhance competition by invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Marnie E; Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Westlie, Tara K; DeLuca, Thomas H; Callaway, Ragan M; Holben, William E

    2013-09-01

    Invasive plants can alter soil microbial communities and profoundly alter ecosystem processes. In the invasive grass Sorghum halepense, these disruptions are consequences of rhizome-associated bacterial endophytes. We describe the effects of N2-fixing bacterial strains from S. halepense (Rout and Chrzanowski, 2009) on plant growth and show that bacteria interact with the plant to alter soil nutrient cycles, enabling persistence of the invasive. • We assessed fluxes in soil nutrients for ∼4 yr across a site invaded by S. halepense. We assayed the N2-fixing bacteria in vitro for phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and production of the plant-growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We assessed the plant's ability to recruit bacterial partners from substrates and vertically transmit endophytes to seeds and used an antibiotic approach to inhibit bacterial activity in planta and assess microbial contributions to plant growth. • We found persistent alterations to eight biogeochemical cycles (including nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron) in soils invaded by S. halepense. In this context, three bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate, and all produced iron siderophores and IAA in vitro. In growth chamber experiments, bacteria were transmitted vertically, and molecular analysis of bacterial community fingerprints from rhizomes indicated that endophytes are also horizontally recruited. Inhibiting bacterial activity with antibiotics resulted in significant declines in plant growth rate and biomass, with pronounced rhizome reductions. • This work suggests a major role of endophytes on growth and resource allocation of an invasive plant. Indeed, bacterial isolate physiology is correlated with invader effects on biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphate, and iron.

  11. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  12. Intensive care unit audit: invasive procedure surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariama Amaral Michels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and objective: currently, Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs constitute a serious public health problem. It is estimated that for every ten hospitalized patients, one will have infection after admission, generating high costs resulting from increased length of hospitalization, additional diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The intensive care unit (ICU, due to its characteristics, is one of the most complex units of the hospital environment, a result of the equipment, the available technology, the severity of inpatients and the invasive procedures the latter are submitted to. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adherence to specifi c HAI prevention measures in invasive ICU procedures. Methods: This study had a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory approach. Among the risk factors for HAIs are the presence of central venous access, indwelling vesical catheter and mechanical ventilation, and, therefore, the indicators were calculated for patients undergoing these invasive procedures, through a questionnaire standardized by the Hospital Infection Control Commission (HICC. Results: For every 1,000 patients, 15 had catheter-related bloodstream infection, 6.85 had urinary tract infection associated with indwelling catheter in the fi rst half of 2010. Conclusion: most HAIs cannot be prevented, for reasons inherent to invasive procedures and the patients. However, their incidence can be reduced and controlled. The implementation of preventive measures based on scientifi c evidence can reduce HAIs signifi cantly and sustainably, resulting in safer health care services and reduced costs. The main means of prevention include the cleaning of hands, use of epidemiological block measures, when necessary, and specifi c care for each infection site. KEYWORDS Nosocomial infection. Intensive care units.

  13. THE INVASIVE COLEOPTEROFAUNA FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

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    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive coleopterofauna for Republic of Moldova consists of the 100 species. After correlation local database with Fauna Europaea for our country registered are 31 of species, but for 69 mentioned with the „absent” and 38 „no date”. In the meantime 24 species were recorded for our country: Acanthoscelides abtectus, A.pallidipennis, Alphitobius diaperinus, Alphitophagus bifasciatus, Bruchus pisorum, B.rufimanus, Caulophilus latinasus, Diabrotica virgifera, Gnathocerus cornutus, Harmonia axyridis, Lasioderma serricorne, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Lignyodes bischoffi, Lithocharis nigriceps, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, S. zeamais, Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrioides mauritanicus, Tribolium castaneum, T. destructor, Trogoderma granarium. According periods penetration the invasive beetles it was found that 2 species have entered the XVIII century, 16 species in the XIX, 53 species in the XX and 29 species in the XXI century. The registration invasive beetles in countries of interest to the our country is in: Bulgaria – 54 species; Poland – 39; România – 3; other countries- 4.

  14. Mechanisms of cellular invasion by intracellular parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dawn M; Oghumu, Steve; Gupta, Gaurav; McGwire, Bradford S; Drew, Mark E; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2014-04-01

    Numerous disease-causing parasites must invade host cells in order to prosper. Collectively, such pathogens are responsible for a staggering amount of human sickness and death throughout the world. Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, and malaria are neglected diseases and therefore are linked to socio-economical and geographical factors, affecting well-over half the world's population. Such obligate intracellular parasites have co-evolved with humans to establish a complexity of specific molecular parasite-host cell interactions, forming the basis of the parasite's cellular tropism. They make use of such interactions to invade host cells as a means to migrate through various tissues, to evade the host immune system, and to undergo intracellular replication. These cellular migration and invasion events are absolutely essential for the completion of the lifecycles of these parasites and lead to their for disease pathogenesis. This review is an overview of the molecular mechanisms of protozoan parasite invasion of host cells and discussion of therapeutic strategies, which could be developed by targeting these invasion pathways. Specifically, we focus on four species of protozoan parasites Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium, and Toxoplasma, which are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality.

  15. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  16. CT diagnosis of invasive hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Mingquan; Jiang Lina; Li Xianxing; Wang Peijun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features and the diagnostic value in invasive mole. Methods: Eleven cases (age, 30 to 53 years, mean 40 years) with invasive mole proved by operation and pathology were studied, including 3 cases during peri-menopausal period of eight months, ten months and twelve months respectively. All cases were scanned by CT and enhanced study was done. Results: All cases showed enlargement of uterus of varying degrees. On CT, the density of uterine cavity was similar to that of water, intermingled with spotty patchy and hazy circular isodense shadows. High density stripe-like bleeding foci were found in 3 cases. The outline of uterine cavity was locally disrupted in all case and the muscle layer was thickened in 3 cases. On enhanced CT scan, the lesions in the uterine cavity appeared markedly hyperdense, just like 'the crater' and the 'mole sign'. The muscle layers at the site of disruption showed inhomogeneous enhancement after contrast injection. Conclusion: The CT features of invasive mole are characteristic, with important diagnostic value, especially for those during peri-menopausal period

  17. Thymoma and minimally invasive surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajc, T.; Spalek, P.; Lucenic, M.; Benej, R.; Harustiak, S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the current thymoma classification schemes, diagnosis and surgical treatment options. Many minimally invasive techniques do not provide sufficient extensiveness when compared to complete sternotomy. The Zieliński technique combines transcervical, subxiphoidal and bilateral thoracoscopic approach in a hybrid procedure (MMIT, maximal minimally invasive thymectomy) based on double sternal traction, and allows for removal of the thymus gland, the thymoma and all the relevant mediastinal adipose tissue, thus adhering to principles of oncological radicality. Of the 28 patients undergoing MMIT there were 7 with myasthenia associated thymoma (MGAT) and 5 with a thymoma and no myasthenia, tumors staged Masaoka I-II. Apart from one temporary recurrent nerve palsy there were no postoperative complications. The largest thymoma measured 70 x 65 x 55 mm. Adjuvant radiotherapy was applied in 5 patients. Ectopic thymic tissue was identified in 100 % of patients with thymoma and no myasthenia and in 42.9 % of MGAT patients. Until now there were no recurrences, however, the follow-up median is very short, the longest follow-up period being 30 months. MMIT is a safe technique suitable also for Masaoka I-II thymoma patients and for some specific cases with Masaoka III stage (lung parenchyma invasion). The authors approach all the anterior mediastinal tumors with no mediastinal lymphadenopathy and no myasthenia as a potential thymoma and always attempt the MMIT procedure starting as VATS procedure on the side of tumor. (author)

  18. Invasive aquarium fish transform ecosystem nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Trade of ornamental aquatic species is a multi-billion dollar industry responsible for the introduction of myriad fishes into novel ecosystems. Although aquarium invaders have the potential to alter ecosystem function, regulation of the trade is minimal and little is known about the ecosystem-level consequences of invasion for all but a small number of aquarium species. Here, we demonstrate how ecological stoichiometry can be used as a framework to identify aquarium invaders with the potential to modify ecosystem processes. We show that explosive growth of an introduced population of stoichiometrically unique, phosphorus (P)-rich catfish in a river in southern Mexico significantly transformed stream nutrient dynamics by altering nutrient storage and remineralization rates. Notably, changes varied between elements; the P-rich fish acted as net sinks of P and net remineralizers of nitrogen. Results from this study suggest species-specific stoichiometry may be insightful for understanding how invasive species modify nutrient dynamics when their population densities and elemental composition differ substantially from native organisms. Risk analysis for potential aquarium imports should consider species traits such as body stoichiometry, which may increase the likelihood that an invasion will alter the structure and function of ecosystems. PMID:23966642

  19. Competitive interactions between co-occurring invaders: identifying asymmetries between two invasive crayfish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudina, S.; Galic, N.G.; Roessink, I.; Hock, K.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems today increasingly suffer invasions by multiple invasive species. Complex interactions between invasive species can have different fitness implications for each invader, which can in turn determine the future progression of their invasions and result in differential impacts on native

  20. Dynamic models in research and management of biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchadas, Ana; Vaz, Ana Sofia; Honrado, João P; Alagador, Diogo; Bastos, Rita; Cabral, João A; Santos, Mário; Vicente, Joana R

    2017-07-01

    Invasive species are increasing in number, extent and impact worldwide. Effective invasion management has thus become a core socio-ecological challenge. To tackle this challenge, integrating spatial-temporal dynamics of invasion processes with modelling approaches is a promising approach. The inclusion of dynamic processes in such modelling frameworks (i.e. dynamic or hybrid models, here defined as models that integrate both dynamic and static approaches) adds an explicit temporal dimension to the study and management of invasions, enabling the prediction of invasions and optimisation of multi-scale management and governance. However, the extent to which dynamic approaches have been used for that purpose is under-investigated. Based on a literature review, we examined the extent to which dynamic modelling has been used to address invasions worldwide. We then evaluated how the use of dynamic modelling has evolved through time in the scope of invasive species management. The results suggest that modelling, in particular dynamic modelling, has been increasingly applied to biological invasions, especially to support management decisions at local scales. Also, the combination of dynamic and static modelling approaches (hybrid models with a spatially explicit output) can be especially effective, not only to support management at early invasion stages (from prevention to early detection), but also to improve the monitoring of invasion processes and impact assessment. Further development and testing of such hybrid models may well be regarded as a priority for future research aiming to improve the management of invasions across scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J; Byers, James E; Bierwagen, Britta G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2008-06-01

    Scientific and societal unknowns make it difficult to predict how global environmental changes such as climate change and biological invasions will affect ecological systems. In the long term, these changes may have interacting effects and compound the uncertainty associated with each individual driver. Nonetheless, invasive species are likely to respond in ways that should be qualitatively predictable, and some of these responses will be distinct from those of native counterparts. We used the stages of invasion known as the "invasion pathway" to identify 5 nonexclusive consequences of climate change for invasive species: (1) altered transport and introduction mechanisms, (2) establishment of new invasive species, (3) altered impact of existing invasive species, (4) altered distribution of existing invasive species, and (5) altered effectiveness of control strategies. We then used these consequences to identify testable hypotheses about the responses of invasive species to climate change and provide suggestions for invasive-species management plans. The 5 consequences also emphasize the need for enhanced environmental monitoring and expanded coordination among entities involved in invasive-species management.

  2. Modelling Hotspots for Invasive Alien Plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Dibyendu; Tiwary, Raghuvar; Barik, Saroj Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Identification of invasion hotspots that support multiple invasive alien species (IAS) is a pre-requisite for control and management of invasion. However, till recently it remained a methodological challenge to precisely determine such invasive hotspots. We identified the hotspots of alien species invasion in India through Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) using species occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). The predicted area of invasion for selected species were classified into 4 categories based on number of model agreements for a region i.e. high, medium, low and very low. About 49% of the total geographical area of India was predicted to be prone to invasion at moderate to high levels of climatic suitability. The intersection of anthropogenic biomes and ecoregions with the regions of 'high' climatic suitability was classified as hotspot of alien plant invasion. Nineteen of 47 ecoregions of India, harboured such hotspots. Most ecologically sensitive regions of India, including the 'biodiversity hotspots' and coastal regions coincide with invasion hotspots, indicating their vulnerability to alien plant invasion. Besides demonstrating the usefulness of ENM and open source data for IAS management, the present study provides a knowledge base for guiding the formulation of an effective policy and management strategy for controlling the invasive alien species.

  3. Characterizing the landscape dynamics of an invasive plant and risk of invasion using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bethany A; Mustard, John F

    2006-06-01

    Improved understanding of the spatial dynamics of invasive plant species may lead to more effective land management and reduced future invasion. Here, we identified the spatial extents of nonnative cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in the north central Great Basin using remotely sensed data from Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM+. We compared cheatgrass extents in 1973 and 2001 to six spatially explicit landscape variables: elevation, aspect, hydrographic channels, cultivation, roads, and power lines. In 2001, Cheatgrass was 10% more likely to be found in elevation ranges from 1400 to 1700 m (although the data suggest a preferential invasion into lower elevations by 2001), 6% more likely on west and northwest facing slopes, and 3% more likely within hydrographic channels. Over this time period, cheatgrass expansion was also closely linked to proximity to land use. In 2001, cheatgrass was 20% more likely to be found within 3 km of cultivation, 13% more likely to be found within 700 m of a road, and 15% more likely to be found within 1 km of a power line. Finally, in 2001 cheatgrass was 26% more likely to be present within 150 m of areas occupied by cheatgrass in 1973. Using these relationships, we created a risk map of future cheatgrass invasion that may aid land management. These results highlight the importance of including land use variables and the extents of current plant invasion in predictions of future risk.

  4. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans.

  5. MicroRNA and protein profiles in invasive versus non-invasive oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korvala, Johanna, E-mail: johanna.korvala@oulu.fi [Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, The Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Aapistie 5A, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Jee, Kowan [Department of Pathology, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Porkola, Emmi [Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, The Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Aapistie 5A, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Almangush, Alhadi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Mosakhani, Neda [Department of Pathology, HUSLAB, Helsinki (Finland); Bitu, Carolina [Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, The Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Aapistie 5A, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Cervigne, Nilva K. [Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, 901 – Bairro Areião, CEP: 13414-903 Piracicaba, São Paulo (Brazil); Department of Clinical and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiai - FMJ, Jundiai, SP (Brazil); Zandonadi, Flávia S.; Meirelles, Gabriela V.; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes [Laboratório Nacional de Biociências, LNBio, CNPEM, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000, Polo II de Alta Tecnologia de Campinas, Campinas/SP, P.O.Box 6192, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Coletta, Ricardo D. [Department of Oral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, 901 – Bairro Areião, CEP: 13414-903 Piracicaba, São Paulo (Brazil); and others

    2017-01-01

    Complex molecular pathways regulate cancer invasion. This study overviewed proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) invasion. The human highly aggressive OTSCC cell line HSC-3 was examined in a 3D organotypic human leiomyoma model. Non-invasive and invasive cells were laser-captured and protein expression was analyzed using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and miRNA expression by microarray. In functional studies the 3D invasion assay was replicated after silencing candidate miRNAs, miR-498 and miR-940, in invasive OTSCC cell lines (HSC-3 and SCC-15). Cell migration, proliferation and viability were also studied in the silenced cells. In HSC-3 cells, 67 proteins and 53 miRNAs showed significant fold-changes between non-invasive vs. invasive cells. Pathway enrichment analyses allocated “Focal adhesion” and “ECM-receptor interaction” as most important for invasion. Significantly, in HSC-3 cells, miR-498 silencing decreased the invasion area and miR-940 silencing reduced invasion area and depth. Viability, proliferation and migration weren’t significantly affected. In SCC-15 cells, down-regulation of miR-498 significantly reduced invasion and migration. This study shows HSC-3 specific miRNA and protein expression in invasion, and suggests that miR-498 and miR-940 affect invasion in vitro, the process being more influenced by mir-940 silencing in aggressive HSC-3 cells than in the less invasive SCC-15.

  6. Insights into invasion and restoration ecology: Time to collaborate towards a holistic approach to tackle biological invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirijam Gaertner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to provide an integrated framework for the management of alien plant invasions, combining insights and experiences from the fields of invasion and restoration ecology to enable more effective management of invasive species. To determine linkages between the scientific outputs of the two disciplines we used an existing data base on restoration studies between 2000 and 2008 and did a bibliometric analysis. We identified the type of restoration applied, determined by the aim of the study, and conducted a content analysis on 208 selected studies with a link to biological invasions (invasion-restoration studies. We found a total of 1075 articles on ecosystem restoration, with only eight percent of the studiesthe main objective to control alien invasions. The content analysis of 208 invasion-restoration studies showed that the majority of the studies focused on causes of degradation other than alien invasions. If invaders were referred to as the main driver of degradation, the prevalent cause for degradation was invaders outcompeting and replacing native species. Mechanical control of alien plant invasions was by far the most common control method used. Measures that went beyond the removal of alien plants were implemented in sixty-five percent of the studies.Although invasion control was not as common as other types of restoration, a closer look at the sub-group of invasion-restoration studies shows a clear link between restoration and invasion ecology. Concerns, as identified in the literature review, are firstly that restoration activities mostly focus on controlling the invader while other underlying causes for degradation are neglected, and secondly that the current approach of dealing with alien invasions lacks a combination of theoretical and practical aspects. We suggest that closer collaboration between invasion and restoration ecologists can help to improve the management of alien plant invasions. We conclude with a

  7. Invasion Success by Plant Breeding Evolutionary Changes as a Critical Factor for the Invasion of the Ornamental Plant Mahonia aquifolium

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Christel Anne

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species are a major threat to global biodiversity and cause significant economic costs. Studying biological invasions is both essential for preventing future invasions and is also useful in order to understand basic ecological processes. Christel Ross investigates whether evolutionary changes by plant breeding are a relevant factor for the invasion success of Mahonia aquifolium in Germany. Her findings show that invasive populations differ from native populations in quantitative-genetic traits and molecular markers, whereas their genetic diversity is similar. She postulates that these evolutionary changes are rather a result of plant breeding, which includes interspecific hybridisation, than the result of a genetic bottleneck or the releases from specialist herbivores.

  8. A first step in understanding an invasive weed through its genes: an EST analysis of invasive Centaurea maculosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic and biological implications of plant invasion are overwhelming; however, the processes by which plants become successful invaders are not well understood. Limited genetic resources are available for most invasive and weedy species, making it difficult to study molecular and genetic aspects that may be associated with invasion. Results As an initial step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants become invasive, we have generated a normalized Expressed Sequence Tag (EST library comprising seven invasive populations of Centaurea maculosa, an invasive aster in North America. Seventy-seven percent of the 4423 unique transcripts showed significant similarity to existing proteins in the NCBI database and could be grouped based on gene ontology assignments. Conclusion The C. maculosa EST library represents an initial step towards looking at gene-specific expression in this species, and will pave the way for creation of other resources such as microarray chips that can help provide a view of global gene expression in invasive C. maculosa and its native counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first published set of ESTs derived from an invasive weed that will be targeted to study invasive behavior. Understanding the genetic basis of evolution for increased invasiveness in exotic plants is critical to understanding the mechanisms through which exotic invasions occur.

  9. A first step in understanding an invasive weed through its genes: an EST analysis of invasive Centaurea maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Amanda K; Broeckling, Corey D; He, Ji; Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick X; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2007-05-24

    The economic and biological implications of plant invasion are overwhelming; however, the processes by which plants become successful invaders are not well understood. Limited genetic resources are available for most invasive and weedy species, making it difficult to study molecular and genetic aspects that may be associated with invasion. As an initial step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants become invasive, we have generated a normalized Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library comprising seven invasive populations of Centaurea maculosa, an invasive aster in North America. Seventy-seven percent of the 4423 unique transcripts showed significant similarity to existing proteins in the NCBI database and could be grouped based on gene ontology assignments. The C. maculosa EST library represents an initial step towards looking at gene-specific expression in this species, and will pave the way for creation of other resources such as microarray chips that can help provide a view of global gene expression in invasive C. maculosa and its native counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first published set of ESTs derived from an invasive weed that will be targeted to study invasive behavior. Understanding the genetic basis of evolution for increased invasiveness in exotic plants is critical to understanding the mechanisms through which exotic invasions occur.

  10. Synergistic impacts by an invasive amphipod and an invasive fish explain native gammarid extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggel, S; Brandner, J; Cerwenka, A F; Geist, J

    2016-07-14

    Worldwide freshwater ecosystems are increasingly affected by invasive alien species. In particular, Ponto-Caspian gobiid fishes and amphipods are suspected to have pronounced effects on aquatic food webs. However, there is a lack of systematic studies mechanistically testing the potential synergistic effects of invasive species on native fauna. In this study we investigated the interrelations between the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and the invasive fish species Neogobius melanostomus in their effects on the native amphipod Gammarus pulex. We hypothesized selective predation by the fish as a driver for displacement of native species resulting in potential extinction of G. pulex. The survival of G. pulex in the presence of N. melanostomus in relation to the presence of D. villosus and availability of shelter was analyzed in the context of behavioural differences between the amphipod species. Gammarus pulex had a significantly higher susceptibility to predation by N. melanostomus compared to D. villosus in all experiments, suggesting preferential predation by this fish on native gammarids. Furthermore, the presence of D. villosus significantly increased the vulnerability of G. pulex to fish predation. Habitat structure was an important factor for swimming activity of amphipods and their mortality, resulting in a threefold decrease in amphipods consumed with shelter habitat structures provided. Behavioral differences in swimming activity were additionally responsible for higher predation rates on G. pulex. Intraguild predation could be neglected within short experimental durations. The results of this study provide evidence for synergistic effects of the two invasive Ponto-Caspian species on the native amphipod as an underlying process of species displacements during invasion processes. Prey behaviour and monotonous habitat structures additionally contribute to the decline of the native gammarid fauna in the upper Danube River and elsewhere.

  11. Secondary invasions of noxious weeds associated with control of invasive Tamarix are frequent, idiosyncratic and persistent

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A.; Anderson, Robert M.; Bay, Robin F.; Bean, Daniel W.; Bissonnete, Gabriel J.; Cooper, David J.; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D.; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K.; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L.; Makarick, Lori J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Robinson, W. Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Tabacchi, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Control of invasive species within ecosystems may induce secondary invasions of non-target invaders replacing the first alien. We used four plant species listed as noxious by local authorities in riparian systems to discern whether 1) the severity of these secondary invasions was related to the control method applied to the first alien; and 2) which species that were secondary invaders persisted over time. In a collaborative study by 16 research institutions, we monitored plant species composition following control of non-native Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers using defoliation by an introduced biocontrol beetle, and three physical removal methods: mechanical using saws, heavy machinery, and burning in 244 treated and 79 untreated sites across six U.S. states. Physical removal favored secondary invasions immediately after Tamarix removal (0–3 yrs.), while in the biocontrol treatment, secondary invasions manifested later (> 5 yrs.). Within this general trend, the response of weeds to control was idiosyncratic; dependent on treatment type and invader. Two annual tumbleweeds that only reproduce by seed (Bassia scoparia and Salsola tragus) peaked immediately after physical Tamarix removal and persisted over time, even after herbicide application. Acroptilon repens, a perennial forb that vigorously reproduces by rhizomes, and Bromus tectorum, a very frequent annual grass before removal that only reproduces by seed, were most successful at biocontrol sites, and progressively spread as the canopy layer opened. These results demonstrate that strategies to control Tamarix affect secondary invasions differently among species and that time since disturbance is an important, generally overlooked, factor affecting response.

  12. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Seed bank survival of an invasive species, but not of two native species, declines with invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L; Christopher, Cory C; Dutra, Humberto P

    2012-04-01

    Soil-borne seed pathogens may play an important role in either hindering or facilitating the spread of invasive exotic plants. We examined whether the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii (Caprifoliaceae) affected fungi-mediated mortality of conspecific and native shrub seeds in a deciduous forest in eastern Missouri. Using a combination of L. maackii removal and fungicide treatments, we found no effect of L. maackii invasion on seed viability of the native Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Caprifoliaceae) or Cornus drummondii (Cornaceae). In contrast, fungi were significant agents of L. maackii seed mortality in invaded habitats. Losses of L. maackii to soil fungi were also significant in invaded habitats where L. maackii had been removed, although the magnitude of the effect of fungi was lower, suggesting that changes in soil chemistry or microhabitat caused by L. maackii were responsible for affecting fungal seed pathogens. Our work suggests that apparent competition via soil pathogens is not an important factor contributing to impacts of L. maackii on native shrubs. Rather, we found that fungal seed pathogens have density-dependent effects on L. maackii seed survival. Therefore, while fungal pathogens may provide little biotic resistance to early invasion by L. maackii, our study illustrates that more work is needed to understand how changes in fungal pathogens during the course of an invasion contribute to the potential for restoration of invaded systems. More generally, our study suggests that increased rates of fungal pathogen attack may be realized by invasive plants, such as L. maackii, that change the chemical or physical environment of the habitats they invade.

  14. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, B M; Pearson, D E; Mack, R N

    2014-07-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food preference. We evaluated the effect of postdispersal seed predators on the establishment of invasive, naturalized, and native species within and between adjacent forest and steppe communities of eastern Washington, USA that differ in severity of plant invasion. Seed removal from trays placed within guild-specific exclosures revealed that small mammals were the dominant seed predators in both forest and steppe. Seeds of invasive species (Bromus tectorum, Cirsium arvense) were removed significantly less than the seeds of native (Pseudoroegneria spicata, Balsamorhiza sagittata) and naturalized (Secale cereale, Centaurea cyanus) species. Seed predation limited seedling emergence and establishment in both communities in the absence of competition in a pattern reflecting natural plant abundance: S. cereale was most suppressed, B. tectorum was least suppressed, and P. spicata was suppressed at an intermediate level. Furthermore, seed predation reduced the residual seed bank for all species. Seed mass correlated with seed removal rates in the forest and their subsequent effects on plant recruitment; larger seeds were removed at higher rates than smaller seeds. Our vegetation surveys indicate higher densities and canopy cover of nonnative species occur in the steppe compared with the forest understory, suggesting the steppe may be more susceptible to invasion. Seed predation alone, however, did not result in significant differences in establishment for any species between these communities, presumably due to similar total small-mammal abundance between communities. Consequently, preferential seed predation by small

  15. Responses of the soil fungal communities to the co-invasion of two invasive species with different cover classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Zhou, J; Liu, J; Jiang, K; Xiao, H; Du, D

    2018-01-01

    Soil fungal communities play an important role in the successful invasion of non-native species. It is common for two or more invasive plant species to co-occur in invaded ecosystems. This study aimed to determine the effects of co-invasion of two invasive species (Erigeron annuus and Solidago canadensis) with different cover classes on soil fungal communities using high-throughput sequencing. Invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis had positive effects on the sequence number, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, Shannon diversity, abundance-based cover estimator (ACE index) and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities, but negative effects on the Simpson index. Thus, invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis could increase diversity and richness of soil fungal communities but decrease dominance of some members of these communities, in part to facilitate plant further invasion, because high soil microbial diversity could increase soil functions and plant nutrient acquisition. Some soil fungal species grow well, whereas others tend to extinction after non-native plant invasion with increasing invasion degree and presumably time. The sequence number, OTU richness, Shannon diversity, ACE index and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities were higher under co-invasion of E. annuus and S. canadensis than under independent invasion of either individual species. The co-invasion of the two invasive species had a positive synergistic effect on diversity and abundance of soil fungal communities, partly to build a soil microenvironment to enhance competitiveness of the invaders. The changed diversity and community under co-invasion could modify resource availability and niche differentiation within the soil fungal communities, mediated by differences in leaf litter quality and quantity, which can support different fungal/microbial species in the soil. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  17. The stock of invasive insect species and its economic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Invasions of nonindigenous organisms have long been linked to trade, but the contribution of individual trade pathways remains poorly understood, because species are not observed immediately upon arrival and the number of species arriving annually is unknown. Species interception records may count both new arrivals and species long introduced. Furthermore, the stock of invasive insect species already present is unknown. In this study, a state-space model is used to infer the stock of detected as well as undetected invasive insect species established in the United States. A system of equations is estimated jointly to distinguish the patterns of introduction, identification, and eradication. Introductions of invasive species are modeled as dependent on the volume of trade and arrival of people. Identifications depend on the public efforts at invasive species research, as well as on the established stock of invasive species that remain undetected. Eradications of both detected and undetected invasive species depend on containment and quarantine efforts, as well as on the stock of all established invasive species. These patterns are estimated by fitting the predicted number of invasive species detections to the observed record in the North American Non-Indigenous Arthropod Database. The results indicate that agricultural imports are the most important pathway of introduction, followed by immigration of people. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service are found to explain the species identification record well. Between three and 38 invasive insect species are estimated to be established in the United States undetected.

  18. Invasion biology meets parasitology: a case study of parasite spill-back with Egyptian Fasciola gigantica in the invasive snail Pseudosuccinea columella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Grabner

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in Africa and Asia. Cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to F. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. The introduced snail species Galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader Pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. Therefore, we investigated snails collected in irrigation canals in Fayoum governorate in Egypt for prevalence of trematodes with focus on P. columella and its role for the transmission of F. gigantica. Species were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI. Among all 689 snails found at the 21 sampling sites, P. columella was the most abundant snail with 296 individuals (42.96% and it was also the most dominant species at 10 sites. It was not found at 8 sites. Molecular detection by PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA revealed infections with F. gigantica (3.38%, Echinostoma caproni (2.36% and another echinostome (7.09% that could not be identified further according to its sequence. No dependency of snail size and trematode infection was found. Both high abundance of P. columella in the Fayoum irrigation system and common infection with F. gigantica might be a case of parasite spill-back (increased prevalence in local final hosts due to highly susceptible introduced intermediate host species from the introduced P. columella to the human population, explaining at least partly the observed increase of reported fascioliasis-cases in Egypt. Eichhornia crassipes, the invasive water hyacinth, which covers huge areas of the irrigation canals, offers safe refuges for the amphibious P. columella during molluscicide application. As a consequence, this snail dominates snail communities and efficiently transmits

  19. News from the western European invasion front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity, being particularly serious in regions with high number of endemic and endangered fishes. Portugal has currently one of the highest numbers of non-native fishes per area in western Europe and the rate of species arrival is increasing. In this review, an updated status of non-native fishes is provided with recent trends of leading vectors and routes. Non-native fish component represents 31% of the freshwater fish diversity existing in the country, totaling 20 established species out of 28 introduced species. In the last decade, the non-native fish detection rate (a proxy of introduction rate has been one new species in every two years. Most of the non-native fishes in Portugal are mainly from Central Europe and North America and were illegally introduced for sports fisheries. However, some recent records are also linked with the ornamental trade, from Asia, indicating an increase of this vector in fish introductions. The international drainages exhibit the highest number of non-native fishes due to prevalent invasion routes from Spain, although direct introductions to national drainages in spatially limited areas suggest new invasion routes caused by higher propagule pressure of leading vectors (fisheries and ornamental trade. Management options are presented in order to tackle this growing threat, namely risk assessment, enforcement and environmental education. Only a comprehensive and integrated approach at an Iberian level could reduce the current rate of non-native species arrival to this region and help us to preserve the Iberian freshwater fishes for future generations.

  20. News from the western European invasion front

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity, being particularly serious in regions with high number of endemic and endangered fishes. Portugal has currently one of the highest numbers of non-native fishes per area in western Europe and the rate of species arrival is increasing. In this review, an updated status of non-native fishes is provided with recent trends of leading vectors and routes. Non-native fish component represents 31% of the freshwater fish diversity ex...

  1. Minimally invasive surgery for esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan-Wen; Du, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Esophageal achalasia is due to the esophagus of neuromuscular dysfunction caused by esophageal functional disease. Its main feature is the lack of esophageal peristalsis, the lower esophageal sphincter pressure and to reduce the swallow's relaxation response. Lower esophageal muscular dissection is one of the main ways to treat esophageal achalasia. At present, the period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection is one of the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Combined with our experience in minimally invasive esophageal surgery, to improved incision and operation procedure, and adopts the model of the complete period of muscular layer under the thoracoscope esophagus dissection in the treatment of esophageal achalasia.

  2. Invasive Crabs in the Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda; Kourantidou, Melina

    The recent invasions of the red king crab (RKC) and the snow crab (SC) in the Barents Sea represent the sorts of integrated ecological and economic shifts we may expect as climate change affects arctic seas. Economic incentives and ecological unknowns have combined to change the current...... and potentially future productivity and profitability of the Barents ecosystem in complex and interacting ways. We examine potential ecological-economic trajectories for these crabs’ continued expansions in the Arctic and how the profitability, the joint and national management structures in Norway and Russia...

  3. Role of Seprase in Breast Cancer Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    length cDNA as quickly as possible, we have arranged to get help from Dr. Barbara L. Parsons at the National Center for Toxicological Research with...ctin Nvas si~paratcd frorn free (𔃻ýI1 by get I tra - iwtvdopodWa prateolysis )f e.TtraceLlular mnatrix~ tion osmAg sa. excellulose GS colunin (Pi.erce...invadopodia. MMP-2 is secreted istry of proteinas :. in tumor invasion. Physicl Revs 73, as a soluble enzyme that can be found within the 161-45, oytoplasm

  4. Minimally invasive splenectomy: an update and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamme, Gary; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become an established standard of care in the management of surgical diseases of the spleen. The present article is an update and review of current procedures and controversies regarding minimally invasive splenectomy. We review the indications and contraindications for LS as well as preoperative considerations. An individual assessment of the procedures and outcomes of multiport laparoscopic splenectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy, robotic splenectomy, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic splenectomy and single-port splenectomy is included. Furthermore, this review examines postoperative considerations after LS, including the postoperative course of uncomplicated patients, postoperative portal vein thrombosis, infections and malignancy. PMID:23883500

  5. Modifying gummy smile: a minimally invasive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Walid Ahmed; Khalil, Hesham S; Alhindi, Maryam M; Marzook, Hamdy

    2014-11-01

    Excessive gingival display is a problem that can be managed by variety of procedures. These procedures include non-surgical and surgical methods. The underlying cause of gummy smile can affect the type of procedure to be selected. Most patients prefer minimally invasive procedures with outstanding results. The authors describe a minimally invasive lip repositioning technique for management of gummy smile. Twelve patients (10 females, 2 males) with gingival display of 4 mm or more were operated under local anesthesia using a modified lip repositioning technique. Patients were followed up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and gingival display was measured at each follow up visit. The gingival mucosa was dissected and levator labii superioris and depressor septi muscles were freed and repositioned in a lower position. The levator labii superioris muscles were pulled in a lower position using circumdental sutures for 10 days. Both surgeon's and patient's satisfaction of surgical outcome was recorded at each follow-up visit. At early stage of follow-up the main complaints of patients were the feeling of tension in the upper lip and circum oral area, mild pain which was managed with analgesics. One month postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded to be between 2 and 4 mm with a mean of (2.6 mm). Patient satisfaction records after 1 month showed that 10 patients were satisfied with the results. Three months postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded and found to be between 2 and 5 mm with a mean of 3 mm. Patient satisfaction records showed that 8 patients were satisfied with the results as they gave scores between. Surgeon's satisfaction at three months follow up showed that the surgeons were satisfied in 8 patients. The same results were found in the 6 and 12 months follow-up periods without any changes. Complete relapse was recorded only in one case at the third postoperative month. This study showed that the proposed lip

  6. Treatment and prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Alegría, A R; Pintado, V; Barbolla, I

    2018-02-12

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a severe infection that mainly affects patients with associated comorbidity. The paediatric conjugate vaccination has resulted in a change in the adult vaccination strategy. The antibiotic resistance of pneumococcus is not currently a severe problem. Nevertheless, the World Health Organisation has included pneumococcus among the bacteria whose treatment requires the introduction of new drugs, such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole. Although the scientific evidence is still limited, the combination of beta-lactams and macrolides is recommended as empiric therapy for bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  7. Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettlich, Bianca F

    2018-01-01

    Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) seems to have many benefits for human patients and is currently used for various minor and major spine procedures. For MISS, a change in access strategy to the target location is necessary and it requires intraoperative imaging, special instrumentation, and magnification. Few veterinary studies have evaluated MISS for canine patients for spinal decompression procedures. This article discusses the general requirements for MISS and how these can be applied to veterinary spinal surgery. The current veterinary MISS literature is reviewed and suggestions are made on how to apply MISS to different spinal locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Smartphone-assisted minimally invasive neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Mauricio; Petito, Carlo Emanuel; Tutihashi, Rafael; Paiva, Wellingson; Abramovicz Mandel, Suzana; Gomes Pinto, Fernando Campos; Ferreira de Andrade, Almir; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha

    2018-03-13

    OBJECTIVE Advances in video and fiber optics since the 1990s have led to the development of several commercially available high-definition neuroendoscopes. This technological improvement, however, has been surpassed by the smartphone revolution. With the increasing integration of smartphone technology into medical care, the introduction of these high-quality computerized communication devices with built-in digital cameras offers new possibilities in neuroendoscopy. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of smartphone-endoscope integration in performing different types of minimally invasive neurosurgery. METHODS The authors present a new surgical tool that integrates a smartphone with an endoscope by use of a specially designed adapter, thus eliminating the need for the video system customarily used for endoscopy. The authors used this novel combined system to perform minimally invasive surgery on patients with various neuropathological disorders, including cavernomas, cerebral aneurysms, hydrocephalus, subdural hematomas, contusional hematomas, and spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. RESULTS The new endoscopic system featuring smartphone-endoscope integration was used by the authors in the minimally invasive surgical treatment of 42 patients. All procedures were successfully performed, and no complications related to the use of the new method were observed. The quality of the images obtained with the smartphone was high enough to provide adequate information to the neurosurgeons, as smartphone cameras can record images in high definition or 4K resolution. Moreover, because the smartphone screen moves along with the endoscope, surgical mobility was enhanced with the use of this method, facilitating more intuitive use. In fact, this increased mobility was identified as the greatest benefit of the use of the smartphone-endoscope system compared with the use of the neuroendoscope with the standard video set. CONCLUSIONS Minimally invasive approaches

  9. Biological invasions: recommendations for U.S. policy and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, David M; Williams, Susan; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Hayes, Keith R; Leung, Brian; Reichard, Sarah; Mack, Richard N; Moyle, Peter B; Smith, Maggie; Andow, David A; Carlton, James T; McMichael, Anthony

    2006-12-01

    The Ecological Society of America has evaluated current U.S. national policies and practices on biological invasions in light of current scientific knowledge. Invasions by harmful nonnative species are increasing in number and area affected; the damages to ecosystems, economic activity, and human welfare are accumulating. Without improved strategies based on recent scientific advances and increased investments to counter invasions, harm from invasive species is likely to accelerate. Federal leadership, with the cooperation of state and local governments, is required to increase the effectiveness of prevention of invasions, detect and respond quickly to new potentially harmful invasions, control and slow the spread of existing invasions, and provide a national center to ensure that these efforts are coordinated and cost effective. Specifically, the Ecological Society of America recommends that the federal government take the following six actions: (1) Use new information and practices to better manage commercial and other pathways to reduce the transport and release of potentially harmful species; (2) Adopt more quantitative procedures for risk analysis and apply them to every species proposed for importation into the country; (3) Use new cost-effective diagnostic technologies to increase active surveillance and sharing of information about invasive species so that responses to new invasions can be more rapid and effective; (4) Create new legal authority and provide emergency funding to support rapid responses to emerging invasions; (5) Provide funding and incentives for cost-effective programs to slow the spread of existing invasive species in order to protect still uninvaded ecosystems, social and industrial infrastructure, and human welfare; and (6) Establish a National Center for Invasive Species Management (under the existing National Invasive Species Council) to coordinate and lead improvements in federal, state, and international policies on invasive species

  10. Modelling plant invasion pathways in protected areas under climate change: implication for invasion management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-J. Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change may enable invasive plant species (IPS to invade protected areas (PAs, but plant invasion on a global scale has not yet been explicitly addressed. Here, we mapped the potential invasion pathways for IPS in PAs across the globe and explored potential factors determining the pathways of plant invasion under climate change. We used species distribution modelling to estimate the suitable habitats of 386 IPS and applied a corridor analysis to compute the potential pathways of IPS in PAs under climate change. Subsequently, we analysed the potential factors affecting the pathways in PAs. According to our results, the main potential pathways of IPS in PAs are in Europe, eastern Australia, New Zealand, southern Africa, and eastern regions of South America and are strongly influenced by changes in temperature and precipitation. Protected areas can play an important role in preventing and controlling the spread of IPS under climate change. This is due to the fact that measures are taken to monitor climate change in detail, to provide effective management near or inside PAs, and to control the introduction of IPS with a high capacity for natural dispersal. A review of conservation policies in PAs is urgently needed.

  11. Integrative invasion science: model systems, multi-site studies, focused meta-analysis, and invasion syndromes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kueffer, C.; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 3 (2013), s. 615-633 ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : model systems * invasion syndromes * multi-site studies Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  12. Inhibition between invasives: a newly introduced predator moderates the impacts of a previously established invasive predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Blaine D; Guy, Travis; Buck, Julia C

    2008-01-01

    1. With continued globalization, species are being transported and introduced into novel habitats at an accelerating rate. Interactions between invasive species may provide important mechanisms that moderate their impacts on native species. 2. The European green crab Carcinus maenas is an aggressive predator that was introduced to the east coast of North America in the mid-1800 s and is capable of rapid consumption of bivalve prey. A newer invasive predator, the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus, was first discovered on the Atlantic coast in the 1980s, and now inhabits many of the same regions as C. maenas within the Gulf of Maine. Using a series of field and laboratory investigations, we examined the consequences of interactions between these predators. 3. Density patterns of these two species at different spatial scales are consistent with negative interactions. As a result of these interactions, C. maenas alters its diet to consume fewer mussels, its preferred prey, in the presence of H. sanguineus. Decreased mussel consumption in turn leads to lower growth rates for C. maenas, with potential detrimental effects on C. maenas populations. 4. Rather than an invasional meltdown, this study demonstrates that, within the Gulf of Maine, this new invasive predator can moderate the impacts of the older invasive predator.

  13. Quantifying "apparent" impact and distinguishing impact from invasiveness in multispecies plant invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Ozkan Eren; Jose L. Hierro

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of invader impacts remains a major hurdle to understanding and managing invasions. Here, we demonstrate a method for quantifying the community-level impact of multiple plant invaders by applying Parker et al.'s (1999) equation (impact = range x local abundance x per capita effect or per unit effect) using data from 620 survey plots from 31...

  14. A review of invasive and non-invasive sensory feedback in upper limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pamela; Wijk, Ulrika; Björkman, Anders; Antfolk, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The constant challenge to restore sensory feedback in prosthetic hands has provided several research solutions, but virtually none has reached clinical fruition. A prosthetic hand with sensory feedback that closely imitates an intact hand and provides a natural feeling may induce the prosthetic hand to be included in the body image and also reinforces the control of the prosthesis. Areas covered: This review presents non-invasive sensory feedback systems such as mechanotactile, vibrotactile, electrotactile and combinational systems which combine the modalities; multi-haptic feedback. Invasive sensory feedback has been tried less, because of the inherent risk, but it has successfully shown to restore some afferent channels. In this review, invasive methods are also discussed, both extraneural and intraneural electrodes, such as cuff electrodes and transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrodes. The focus of the review is on non-invasive methods of providing sensory feedback to upper-limb amputees. Expert commentary: Invoking embodiment has shown to be of importance for the control of prosthesis and acceptance by the prosthetic wearers. It is a challenge to provide conscious feedback to cover the lost sensibility of a hand, not be overwhelming and confusing for the user, and to integrate technology within the constraint of a wearable prosthesis.

  15. Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Catford, J.A.; Vesk, P.A.; Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 44-62 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : level of invasion * standard metrics * abundance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.910, year: 2012

  16. Separating habitat invasibility by alien plants from the actual level of invasion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytrý, M.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Hájek, O.; Knollová, I.; Tichý, L.; Danihelka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 6 (2008), s. 1541-1553 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Grant - others:ALARM(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : archaeophyte * biological invasions * Central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.874, year: 2008

  17. Micro-managing arthropod invasions: eradication and control of invasive arthropods with microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann E. Hajek; Patrick C. Tobin

    2010-01-01

    Non-indigenous arthropods are increasingly being introduced into new areas worldwide and occasionally they cause considerable ecological and economic harm. Many invasive arthropods particularly pose problems to areas of human habitation and native ecosystems. In these cases, the use of environmentally benign materials, such as host-specific entomopathogens, can be more...

  18. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. M. Connolly; D. E. Pearson; R. N. Mack

    2014-01-01

    Seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. This filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food...

  19. Plant invasions in the Czech Republic: current state, introduction dynamics, invasive species and invaded habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Chytrý, M.; Pergl, Jan; Sádlo, Jiří; Wild, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2012), s. 575-629 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive species * invaded habitats * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  20. A Mena invasion isoform potentiates EGF-induced carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippar, Ulrike; Roussos, Evanthia T; Oser, Matthew; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Kim, Hyung-Do; Giampieri, Silvia; Wang, Yarong; Goswami, Sumanta; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John S; Gertler, Frank B

    2008-12-01

    The spread of cancer during metastatic disease requires that tumor cells subvert normal regulatory networks governing cell motility to invade surrounding tissues and migrate toward blood and lymphatic vessels. Enabled (Ena)/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins regulate cell motility by controlling the geometry of assembling actin networks. Mena, an Ena/VASP protein, is upregulated in the invasive subpopulation of breast cancer cells. In addition, Mena is alternately spliced to produce an invasion isoform, Mena(INV). Here we show that Mena and Mena(INV) promote carcinoma cell motility and invasiveness in vivo and in vitro, and increase lung metastasis. Mena and Mena(INV) potentiate epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced membrane protrusion and increase the matrix degradation activity of tumor cells. Interestingly, Mena(INV) is significantly more effective than Mena in driving metastases and sensitizing cells to EGF-dependent invasion and protrusion. Upregulation of Mena(INV) could therefore enable tumor cells to invade in response to otherwise benign EGF stimulus levels.

  1. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  2. Biological invasions and natural colonisations are different: the need for invasion science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilson, J. R. U.; García-Díaz, P.; Cassey, P.; Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr; Blackburn, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2016), s. 87-98 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * species spread * colonization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Multidetector CT of Locally Invasive Advanced Gastric Cancer: Value of Oblique Coronal Reconstructed Images for the Assessment of Local Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Ah Yong; Kim, Hye Jin; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Yu, Eun Sil; Jang, Yoon Jin; Park, Seong Ho; Shin, Yong Moon; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of oblique coronal reconstructed CT images to determine the local invasion of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Thirty-four consecutive patients, who were suspected to have locally invasive advanced gastric cancer (more than T3 stage) on a preoperative MDCT scan and underwent a diagnostic or curative laparotomy, were enrolled in this study. Two reviewers performed an independent blind review of three series of MDCT images in random order; axial (AXI), conventional coronal (CCI), and oblique coronal (OCI) (parallel to long axis of gastric body and pancreas) images. In assessing the local invasion, the reader's confidence for the local invasion of AGC was graded using a five point scale (1 = definitely negative, 5 = definitely positive: T4). With surgical findings and histopathological proofs as reference standards, the diagnostic performance of the three different plans of CT images was employed for the verification of local invasion of AGC on a preoperative CT scan using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. Agreements between the two reviewers were analyzed using weighted kappa statistics. Results: In 19 out of 34 patients, local invasion was confirmed surgically or histopathologically (13 pancreas invasion, 6 liver invasion, 4 major vascular invasion, 3 colon and mesocolon invasion, and 2 spleen invasion). The diagnostic performance of OCI was superior to AXI or CCI in the local invasion of AGC. The differences in the area under the curve of AXI (0.770 {+-} 0.087, 0.700 {+-} 0.094), CCI (0.884 {+-} 0.058, 0.958 {+-} 0.038), and OCI (0.954 {+-} 0.050, 0.956 {+-} 0.049), were statistically significant for both reviewers. Inter-observer agreement was excellent for OCI ({kappa}= .973), which was greater than CCI (({kappa}= .839), and AXI (({kappa}= .763). On a CT scan, OCI might be a useful imaging technique in evaluating locally invasive advanced gastric cancer.

  4. Freshwater ecosystems and aquatic insects: a paradox in biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, Stefano; Bonada, Núria; Guareschi, Simone; López-Rodríguez, Manuel J; Millán, Andrés; Tierno de Figueroa, J Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Biological invasions have increased significantly in response to global change and constitute one of the major causes of biodiversity loss. Insects make up a large fraction of invasive species, in general, and freshwaters are among the most invaded ecosystems on our planet. However, even though aquatic insects dominate most inland waters, have unparalleled taxonomic diversity and occupy nearly all trophic niches, there are almost no invasive insects in freshwaters. We present some hypotheses regarding why aquatic insects are not common among aquatic invasive organisms, suggesting that it may be the result of a suite of biological, ecological and anthropogenic factors. Such specific knowledge introduces a paradox in the current scientific discussion on invasive species; therefore, a more in-depth understanding could be an invaluable aid to disentangling how and why biological invasions occur. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Response of native insect communities to invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezemer, T Martijn; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Cronin, James T

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants can disrupt a range of trophic interactions in native communities. As a novel resource they can affect the performance of native insect herbivores and their natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators, and this can lead to host shifts of these herbivores and natural enemies. Through the release of volatile compounds, and by changing the chemical complexity of the habitat, invasive plants can also affect the behavior of native insects such as herbivores, parasitoids, and pollinators. Studies that compare insects on related native and invasive plants in invaded habitats show that the abundance of insect herbivores is often lower on invasive plants, but that damage levels are similar. The impact of invasive plants on the population dynamics of resident insect species has been rarely examined, but invasive plants can influence the spatial and temporal dynamics of native insect (meta)populations and communities, ultimately leading to changes at the landscape level.

  6. Techniques for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Meidert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since both, hypotension and hypertension, can potentially impair the function of vital organs such as heart, brain, or kidneys, monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a mainstay of hemodynamic monitoring in acutely or critically ill patients. Arterial BP can either be obtained invasively via an arterial catheter or non-invasively. Non-invasive BP measurement provides either intermittent or continuous readings. Most commonly, an occluding upper arm cuff is used for intermittent non-invasive monitoring. BP values are then obtained either manually (by auscultation of Korotkoff sounds or palpation or automatically (e.g., by oscillometry. For continuous non-invasive BP monitoring, the volume clamp method or arterial applanation tonometry can be used. Both techniques enable the arterial waveform and BP values to be obtained continuously. This article describes the different techniques for non-invasive BP measurement, their advantages and limitations, and their clinical applicability.

  7. Environmental Adaptations, Ecological Filtering, and Dispersal Central to Insect Invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, David; Laparie, Mathieu; McCauley, Shannon J; Bonte, Dries

    2018-01-07

    Insect invasions, the establishment and spread of nonnative insects in new regions, can have extensive economic and environmental consequences. Increased global connectivity accelerates rates of introductions, while climate change may decrease the barriers to invader species' spread. We follow an individual-level insect- and arachnid-centered perspective to assess how the process of invasion is influenced by phenotypic heterogeneity associated with dispersal and stress resistance, and their coupling, across the multiple steps of the invasion process. We also provide an overview and synthesis on the importance of environmental filters during the entire invasion process for the facilitation or inhibition of invasive insect population spread. Finally, we highlight important research gaps and the relevance and applicability of ongoing natural range expansions in the context of climate change to gain essential mechanistic insights into insect invasions.

  8. Gastric Metastasis of Triple Negative Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geredeli, Caglayan; Dogru, Osman; Omeroglu, Ethem; Yilmaz, Farise; Cicekci, Faruk

    2015-05-05

    Invasive lobular carcinomas are the second most common type (5% to 15%) of invasive breast carcinomas. The most frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis are the local and distant lymph nodes, brain, lung, liver, and bones; metastasis to the gastrointestinal system, especially to the stomach, is rare. When a mass is detected in an unusual place in a patient with invasive lobular carcinoma, it should be kept in mind that such a mass may be either a second primary carcinoma or the metastasis of an invasive lobular carcinoma. In this report, we present a case of gastric metastasis from triple-negative invasive lobular breast cancer. It is important to make an accurate diagnosis by distinguishing gastric metastasis from breast cancer in order to select the best initial treatment for systemic diseases of breast cancer. Considering our case, healthcare professionals should take into account that cases with invasive lobular breast cancer may experience unusual metastases.

  9. Readability of Invasive Procedure Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Naqvi, Syed S; Ghanian, Soha; Eberson, Craig P; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent is a pillar of ethical medicine which requires patients to fully comprehend relevant issues including the risks, benefits, and alternatives of an intervention. Given the average reading skill of US adults is at the 8th grade level, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient information materials should not exceed a 6th grade reading level. We hypothesized that text provided in invasive procedure consent forms would exceed recommended readability guidelines for medical information. To test this hypothesis, we gathered procedure consent forms from all surgical inpatient hospitals in the state of Rhode Island. For each consent form, readability analysis was measured with the following measures: Flesch Reading Ease Formula, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Linsear Write Formula. These readability scores were used to calculate a composite Text Readability Consensus Grade Level. Invasive procedure consent forms were found to be written at an average of 15th grade level (i.e., third year of college), which is significantly higher than the average US adult reading level of 8th grade (p readability guidelines for patient materials of 6th grade (p readability levels which makes comprehension difficult or impossible for many patients. Efforts to improve the readability of procedural consent forms should improve patient understanding regarding their healthcare decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Minimally invasive thyroidectomy (MIT): indications and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docimo, Giovanni; Salvatore Tolone, Salvatore; Gili, Simona; d'Alessandro, A; Casalino, G; Brusciano, L; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    To establish if the indication for different approaches for thyroidectomy and the incision length provided by means of pre-operative assessment of gland volume and size of nodules resulted in safe and effective outcomes and in any notable aesthetic or quality-of-life impact on patients. Ninehundred eightytwo consecutive patients, undergoing total thyroidectomy, were enrolled. The thyroid volume and maximal nodule diameter were measured by means of ultrasounds. Based on ultrasounds findings, patients were divided into three groups: minimally invasive video assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), minimally invasive thyroidectomy (MIT) and conventional thyroidectomy (CT) groups. The data concerning the following parameters were collected: operative time, postoperative complications, postoperative pain and cosmetic results. The MIVAT group included 179 patients, MIT group included 592 patients and CT group included 211 patients. Incidence of complications did not differ significantly in each group. In MIVAT and MIT group, the perception of postoperative pain was less intense than CT group. The patients in the MIVAT (7±1.5) and MIT (8±2) groups were more satisfied with the cosmetic results than those in CT group (5±1.3) (p= MIT is a technique totally reproducible, and easily convertible to perform surgical procedures in respect of the patient, without additional complications, increased costs, and with better aesthetic results.

  11. INVASIVE AMOEBIASIS COMPLICATING IFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziglam H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONAmoebiasis, which is caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, is a ubiquitous parasitic infection affecting approximately 10% of the world’s population and causing more deaths every year (100,000 deaths than any other parasitic infection, with the exception of malaria and schistosomiasis [1–3]. Most individuals with an E. histolytica infection are asymptomatic, but some develop severe invasive disease, such as amoebic colitis. Other manifestations, such as pulmonary, cardiac or brain involvement, are rare. Intestinal amoebiasis can probably also present as a chronic, non-dysenteric syndrome of diarrhoea, weight loss, and abdominal pain that can last for years and mimic inflammatory bowel disease. Fulminant colitis with bowel necrosis leading to perforation and peritonitis occurs in only about 0.5% of cases, but it is associated with a mortality rate of more than 40%. Patients with invasive amoebiasis living in the United Kingdom and other developed countries generally acquire the infection in another country in which the pathogenic species is endemic. Areas that have high rates of amoebic infection include India, Africa, Mexico and parts of Central and South America. Infection with pathogenic E. histolytica is not a common cause of travelers’ diarrhoea, and gastrointestinal infection is uncommon in travelers who have spent less than one month in endemic areas.

  12. Minimally invasive brow suspension for facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David H; Moche, Jason; Preminger, Aviva

    2003-01-01

    To report a new technique for unilateral brow suspension for facial paralysis that is minimally invasive, limits supraciliary scar formation, does not require specialized endoscopic equipment or expertise, and has proved to be equal to direct brow suspension in durability and symmetry. Retrospective survey of a case series of 23 patients between January 1997 and December 2000. Metropolitan tertiary care center. Patients with head and neck tumors and brow ptosis caused by facial nerve paralysis. The results of the procedure were determined using the following 3-tier rating system: outstanding (excellent elevation and symmetry); acceptable (good elevation and fair symmetry); and unacceptable (loss of elevation). The results were considered outstanding in 12 patients, acceptable in 9 patients, and unacceptable in only 1 patient. One patient developed a hematoma, and 1 patient required a secondary adjustment. The technique has proved to be superior to standard brow suspension procedures with regard to scar formation and equal with respect to facial symmetry and suspension. These results have caused us to abandon direct brow suspension and to use this minimally invasive method in all cases of brow ptosis due to facial paralysis.

  13. [Theory and practice of minimally invasive endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H W

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of modern endodontic therapy is to achieve the long-term retention of a functional tooth by preventing or treating pulpitis or apical periodontitis is. The long-term retention of endodontically treated tooth is correlated with the remaining amount of tooth tissue and the quality of the restoration after root canal filling. In recent years, there has been rapid progress and development in the basic research of endodontic biology, instrument and applied materials, making treatment procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Thus, minimally invasive endodontics(MIE)has received increasing attention at present. MIE aims to preserve the maximum of tooth structure during root canal therapy, and the concept covers the whole process of diagnosis and treatment of teeth. This review article focuses on describing the minimally invasive concepts and operating essentials in endodontics, from diagnosis and treatment planning to the access opening, pulp cavity finishing, root canal cleaning and shaping, 3-dimensional root canal filling and restoration after root canal treatment.

  14. Invasive candidiasis in pediatric intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit; Deep, Akash

    2009-10-01

    Candidemia and disseminated candidiasis are major causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units (ICU). The incidence of invasive candidasis is on a steady rise because of increasing use of multiple antibiotics and invasive procedures carried out in the ICUs. Worldwide there is a shifting trend from C. albicans towards non albicans species, with an associated increase in mortality and antifungal resistance. In the ICU a predisposed host in one who is on broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, and central venous catheters. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The clinical clues are: unexplained fever or signs of severe sepsis or septic shock while on antibiotics, multiple, non-tender, nodular erythematous cutaneous lesions. The spectrum of infection with candida species range from superficial candidiasis of the skin and mucosa to more serious life threatening infections. Treatment of candidiasis involves removal of the most likely source of infection and drug therapy to speed up the clearance of infection. Amphotericin B remains the initial drug of first choice in hemodynamically unstable critically ill children in the wake of increasing resistance to azoles. Evaluation of newer antifungal agents and precise role of prophylactic therapy in ICU patients is needed.

  15. Non-invasive assessment of gastric activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, R.H.; Brown, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    There have been many suggestions for the routine clinical use of the electro-enterogram, but with the exception of the reported usage in the USSR no significant penetration into medical practice has been reported elsewhere. Amongst the many suggestions have been the possible application of electrical stimulation via surface electrodes to overcome post-operative inhibition of intestinal electrical activity, which can be recorded via surface electrodes. Gastric emptying studies have shown that duodenal ulceration is associated with changes in the rate and pattern of emptying of solid meals. Identifiable patterns in the electro-gastrogram following a metal might have diagnostic application. There is some evidence of correlations of electrical activity and pathology in the large intestine. In the colon diverticular disease has been shown to change the frequency content of the slow wave electrical activity and there is some evidence that this might be recorded from surface electrodes. A major obstacle to progress remains the inability to relate non-invasive recordings to intestinal motility. The best hope may be the use of direct and yet non-invasive methods of obtaining motility and in this context real-time ultrasound imaging is probably the most promising technique. The electro-gastrogram has certainly been shown to allow recording of gastric slow wave activity and there is a reasonable hope that further methods of analysis will allow inferential information on motility to be obtained. The following section makes brief mention of these techniques

  16. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K Zaas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised individuals. A number of environmental and epidemiologic risk factors for developing IA have been identified. However, genetic factors that affect risk for developing IA have not been clearly identified. We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. Computational haplotype-based genetic analysis indicated that genetic variation within the biologically plausible positional candidate gene plasminogen (Plg; Gene ID 18855 correlated with murine outcome. There was a single nonsynonymous coding change (Gly110Ser where the minor allele was found in all of the susceptible strains, but not in the resistant strains. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (Asp472Asn was also identified in the human homolog (PLG; Gene ID 5340. An association study within a cohort of 236 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients revealed that alleles at this SNP significantly affected the risk of developing IA after HSCT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasminogen directly binds to Aspergillus fumigatus. We propose that genetic variation within the plasminogen pathway influences the pathogenesis of this invasive fungal infection.

  17. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks.

  18. Unraveling the complexities of invasive multimodality neuromonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Saurabh; Hudgins, Eric; Schuster, James; Balu, Ramani

    2017-11-01

    Acute brain injuries are a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Survivors of life-threatening brain injury often face a lifetime of dependent care, and novel approaches that improve outcome are sorely needed. A delayed cascade of brain damage, termed secondary injury, occurs hours to days and even weeks after the initial insult. This delayed phase of injury provides a crucial window for therapeutic interventions that could limit brain damage and improve outcome. A major barrier in the ability to prevent and treat secondary injury is that physicians are often unable to target therapies to patients' unique cerebral physiological disruptions. Invasive neuromonitoring with multiple complementary physiological monitors can provide useful information to enable this tailored, precision approach to care. However, integrating the multiple streams of time-varying data is challenging and often not possible during routine bedside assessment. The authors review and discuss the principles and evidence underlying several widely used invasive neuromonitors. They also provide a framework for integrating data for clinical decision making and discuss future developments in informatics that may allow new treatment paradigms to be developed.

  19. Primary Intradural Hemangiopericytoma With Intramedullary Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang-Wei Chou

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma (HPC is a rare tumor of the central nervous system and is usually found intracranially. Intraspinal HPCs are very rare and mostly involve the extradural bony structures. Primary intradural HPC has only been reported in 10 cases, all of which occurred in the extramedullary region. Intramedullary invasion has never been reported. Here, we describe a case of primary intradural HPC of the thoracic spine that presented initially with paresthesia and paraplegia of both legs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed an intradural dumbbell-shaped tumor at the T10 level. The initial impression was neurogenic tumor, meningioma, or metastasis. During operation, the tumor was found to have obvious intramedullary invasion. Gross-total removal was done, and the patient's neurological function improved; there was no recurrence at the 3-year follow-up. There is no consensus as to what constitutes the optimal treatment of HPC, but most neurosurgeons will advocate gross-total resection. A comparative analysis between intradural and extradural HPCs showed a higher chance of gross-total resection for intradural HPCs, while the recurrence rates showed no difference. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy remains uncertain. Due to the high risk of recurrence and metastasis of HPCs, close follow-up for a long period is mandatory. [J Chin Med Assoc 2009;72(10:536–541

  20. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species invasions

  1. Epigenetic suppression of neprilysin regulates breast cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, H M; Khoury, R J; Majmudar, P R; Blaylock, T; Hawkins, K; Salama, M S; Scott, M D; Cosminsky, B; Utreja, N K; Britt, J; Conway, R E

    2016-03-07

    In women, invasive breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, identifying novel regulators of breast cancer invasion could lead to additional biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Neprilysin, a cell-surface enzyme that cleaves and inactivates a number of substrates including endothelin-1 (ET1), has been implicated in breast cancer, but whether neprilysin promotes or inhibits breast cancer cell progression and metastasis is unclear. Here, we asked whether neprilysin expression predicts and functionally regulates breast cancer cell invasion. RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed decreased neprilysin expression compared with normal epithelial cells. Expression was also suppressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared with normal tissue. In addition, in vtro invasion assays demonstrated that neprilysin overexpression decreased breast cancer cell invasion, whereas neprilysin suppression augmented invasion. Furthermore, inhibiting neprilysin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells increased ET1 levels significantly, whereas overexpressing neprilysin decreased extracellular-signal related kinase (ERK) activation, indicating that neprilysin negatively regulates ET1-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. To determine whether neprilysin was epigenetically suppressed in breast cancer, we performed bisulfite conversion analysis of breast cancer cells and clinical tumor samples. We found that the neprilysin promoter was hypermethylated in breast cancer; chemical reversal of methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells reactivated neprilysin expression and inhibited cancer cell invasion. Analysis of cancer databases revealed that neprilysin methylation significantly associates with survival in stage I IDC and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer subtypes. These results demonstrate that neprilysin negatively regulates the ET axis in breast cancer

  2. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species.

  3. Unusual Metastatic Patterns of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Sobinsky, Justin D.; Willson, Thomas D.; Podbielski, Francis J.; Connolly, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast has similar patterns of metastatic disease when compared to invasive ductal carcinoma; however, lobular carcinoma metastasizes to unusual sites more frequently. We present a 65-year-old female with a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma (T3N3M0) treated with modified radical mastectomy and aromatase-inhibitor therapy who underwent a surveillance PET scan, which showed possible sigmoid cancer. Colonoscopy with biopsy revealed a 3?cm sigmoid aden...

  4. Invasive Neophyten im Limmattal – status quo 2007 und Massnahmen

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, O; Burga, C A

    2010-01-01

    In the region of Dietikon-Spreitenbach-Heitersberg (Limmat Valley), invasive neophytes were analyzed and measures for dealing were proposed. For this purpose populations of invasive neophytes and phe- nomenologically defined habitats were mapped at a scale 1:10 000 in 2007. The map shows a strong concentration of invasive neophytes in the areas of settlement. 12 species that occur in the study area are from the Black List, 3 from the Watch List. The following plant species are the most widely...

  5. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  6. Invasive lionfish reduce native fish abundance on a regional scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ballew, Nicholas G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Kellison, G. Todd; Schueller, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lionfish pose an unprecedented threat to biodiversity and fisheries throughout Atlantic waters off of the southeastern United States, the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico. Here, we employ a spatially replicated Before-After-Control-Impact analysis with temporal pairing to quantify for the first time the impact of the lionfish invasion on native fish abundance across a broad regional scale and over the entire duration of the lionfish invasion (1990?2014). Our results suggest that 1) ...

  7. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species

  8. To tilfaelde af invasive infektioner med Haemophilus influenzae type f

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jette Dettmann; Lind, Jens Wentzel; Bruun, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan...

  9. To tilfaelde af invasive infektioner med Haemophilus influenzae type f

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jette Dettmann; Lind, Jens; Bruun, Brita

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-19...

  10. [Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.D.; Lind, J.W.; Bruun, B.

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/19...

  11. Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Pernille; Worm, Signe Westring; Lundgren, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection...... with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among adults diagnosed...

  12. Predicting invasive fungal pathogens using invasive pest assemblages: testing model predictions in a virtual world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean R Paini

    Full Text Available Predicting future species invasions presents significant challenges to researchers and government agencies. Simply considering the vast number of potential species that could invade an area can be insurmountable. One method, recently suggested, which can analyse large datasets of invasive species simultaneously is that of a self organising map (SOM, a form of artificial neural network which can rank species by establishment likelihood. We used this method to analyse the worldwide distribution of 486 fungal pathogens and then validated the method by creating a virtual world of invasive species in which to test the SOM. This novel validation method allowed us to test SOM's ability to rank those species that can establish above those that can't. Overall, we found the SOM highly effective, having on average, a 96-98% success rate (depending on the virtual world parameters. We also found that regions with fewer species present (i.e. 1-10 species were more difficult for the SOM to generate an accurately ranked list, with success rates varying from 100% correct down to 0% correct. However, we were able to combine the numbers of species present in a region with clustering patterns in the SOM, to further refine confidence in lists generated from these sparsely populated regions. We then used the results from the virtual world to determine confidences for lists generated from the fungal pathogen dataset. Specifically, for lists generated for Australia and its states and territories, the reliability scores were between 84-98%. We conclude that a SOM analysis is a reliable method for analysing a large dataset of potential invasive species and could be used by biosecurity agencies around the world resulting in a better overall assessment of invasion risk.

  13. Predicting invasive fungal pathogens using invasive pest assemblages: testing model predictions in a virtual world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Northfield, Tobin D; De Barro, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Predicting future species invasions presents significant challenges to researchers and government agencies. Simply considering the vast number of potential species that could invade an area can be insurmountable. One method, recently suggested, which can analyse large datasets of invasive species simultaneously is that of a self organising map (SOM), a form of artificial neural network which can rank species by establishment likelihood. We used this method to analyse the worldwide distribution of 486 fungal pathogens and then validated the method by creating a virtual world of invasive species in which to test the SOM. This novel validation method allowed us to test SOM's ability to rank those species that can establish above those that can't. Overall, we found the SOM highly effective, having on average, a 96-98% success rate (depending on the virtual world parameters). We also found that regions with fewer species present (i.e. 1-10 species) were more difficult for the SOM to generate an accurately ranked list, with success rates varying from 100% correct down to 0% correct. However, we were able to combine the numbers of species present in a region with clustering patterns in the SOM, to further refine confidence in lists generated from these sparsely populated regions. We then used the results from the virtual world to determine confidences for lists generated from the fungal pathogen dataset. Specifically, for lists generated for Australia and its states and territories, the reliability scores were between 84-98%. We conclude that a SOM analysis is a reliable method for analysing a large dataset of potential invasive species and could be used by biosecurity agencies around the world resulting in a better overall assessment of invasion risk.

  14. Acidity generated by the tumor microenvironment drives local invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Veronica; Chen, Tingan; Lloyd, Mark; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan; Cornnell, Heather H; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Bailey, Kate; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Rothberg, Jennifer M; Sloane, Bonnie F; Johnson, Joseph; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    The pH of solid tumors is acidic due to increased fermentative metabolism and poor perfusion. It has been hypothesized that acid pH promotes local invasive growth and metastasis. The hypothesis that acid mediates invasion proposes that H(+) diffuses from the proximal tumor microenvironment into adjacent normal tissues where it causes tissue remodeling that permits local invasion. In the current work, tumor invasion and peritumoral pH were monitored over time using intravital microscopy. In every case, the peritumoral pH was acidic and heterogeneous and the regions of highest tumor invasion corresponded to areas of lowest pH. Tumor invasion did not occur into regions with normal or near-normal extracellular pH. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that cells in the invasive edges expressed the glucose transporter-1 and the sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1, both of which were associated with peritumoral acidosis. In support of the functional importance of our findings, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate was sufficient to increase peritumoral pH and inhibit tumor growth and local invasion in a preclinical model, supporting the acid-mediated invasion hypothesis. Cancer Res; 73(5); 1524-35. ©2012 AACR. ©2012 AACR.

  15. The clinical pathologic research of invasive pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingchuan; Zheng Yushuang; Wang Shouli; Hui Guozhen; Li Xiangdong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological morphologic characteristics of invasive pituitary tumor and the affect of vascularization to the tumor's invasion. Methods: One hundred and thirty cases of pituitary adenoma patients were divided into two groups, including invasive pituitary adenomas and non-invasive pituitary adenomas, and the clinical data of two groups were analysed and compared. Results : The difference was statistically significant between the invasive group and the non-invasive group in the incidence rate of pathological morphologic characteristics such as high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, cell pleomorphism, nuclear atypia and nucleoli appearance (P<0.05); there were nuclear atypia and nucleolus margination in the invasive group through electron microscopy. And there was statistical significant difference in rate of MVD expression which was higher in the invasive group than that of noninvasive group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The pathological morphologic characteristics of pituitary tumor and the high expression of MVD are significantly reference valuable in tumor aggression diagnosis, which provides valuable indicators for early clinical diagnosis of tumor invasion. (authors)

  16. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis. (orig.) [de

  17. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-05-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis.

  18. A conceptual framework for invasion in microbial communities

    KAUST Repository

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Proctor, Caitlin; Hammes, Frederik; Johnson, David; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Graham, David; Daffonchio, Daniele; Fodelianakis, Stylianos; Hahn, Nicole; Boon, Nico; Smets, Barth F

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in controlling-promoting or avoiding-the invasion of microbial communities by new community members. Resource availability and community structure have been reported as determinants of invasion success. However, most invasion studies do not adhere to a coherent and consistent terminology nor always include rigorous interpretations of the processes behind invasion. Therefore, we suggest that a consistent set of definitions and a rigorous conceptual framework are needed. We define invasion in a microbial community as the establishment of an alien microbial type in a resident community and argue how simple criteria to define aliens, residents, and alien establishment can be applied for a wide variety of communities. In addition, we suggest an adoption of the community ecology framework advanced by Vellend (2010) to clarify potential determinants of invasion. This framework identifies four fundamental processes that control community dynamics: dispersal, selection, drift and diversification. While selection has received ample attention in microbial community invasion research, the three other processes are often overlooked. Here, we elaborate on the relevance of all four processes and conclude that invasion experiments should be designed to elucidate the role of dispersal, drift and diversification, in order to obtain a complete picture of invasion as a community process.

  19. Disturbance promotes non-indigenous bacterial invasion in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Manqiang; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Invasion-biology is largely based on non-experimental observation of larger organisms. Here, we apply an experimental approach to the subject. By using microbial-based microcosm-experiments, invasion-biology can be placed on firmer experimental, and hence, less anecdotal ground. A better...... understanding of the mechanisms that govern invasion-success of bacteria in soil communities will provide knowledge on the factors that hinder successful establishment of bacteria artificially inoculated into soil, e.g. for remediation purposes. Further, it will yield valuable information on general principles...... of invasion biology in other domains of life....

  20. A conceptual framework for invasion in microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Proctor, Caitlin; Hammes, Frederik; Johnson, David; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Graham, David; Daffonchio, Daniele; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Hahn, Nicole; Boon, Nico; Smets, Barth F

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in controlling—promoting or avoiding—the invasion of microbial communities by new community members. Resource availability and community structure have been reported as determinants of invasion success. However, most invasion studies do not adhere to a coherent and consistent terminology nor always include rigorous interpretations of the processes behind invasion. Therefore, we suggest that a consistent set of definitions and a rigorous conceptual framework are needed. We define invasion in a microbial community as the establishment of an alien microbial type in a resident community and argue how simple criteria to define aliens, residents, and alien establishment can be applied for a wide variety of communities. In addition, we suggest an adoption of the community ecology framework advanced by Vellend (2010) to clarify potential determinants of invasion. This framework identifies four fundamental processes that control community dynamics: dispersal, selection, drift and diversification. While selection has received ample attention in microbial community invasion research, the three other processes are often overlooked. Here, we elaborate on the relevance of all four processes and conclude that invasion experiments should be designed to elucidate the role of dispersal, drift and diversification, in order to obtain a complete picture of invasion as a community process. PMID:27137125

  1. A conceptual framework for invasion in microbial communities

    KAUST Repository

    Kinnunen, Marta

    2016-05-03

    There is a growing interest in controlling-promoting or avoiding-the invasion of microbial communities by new community members. Resource availability and community structure have been reported as determinants of invasion success. However, most invasion studies do not adhere to a coherent and consistent terminology nor always include rigorous interpretations of the processes behind invasion. Therefore, we suggest that a consistent set of definitions and a rigorous conceptual framework are needed. We define invasion in a microbial community as the establishment of an alien microbial type in a resident community and argue how simple criteria to define aliens, residents, and alien establishment can be applied for a wide variety of communities. In addition, we suggest an adoption of the community ecology framework advanced by Vellend (2010) to clarify potential determinants of invasion. This framework identifies four fundamental processes that control community dynamics: dispersal, selection, drift and diversification. While selection has received ample attention in microbial community invasion research, the three other processes are often overlooked. Here, we elaborate on the relevance of all four processes and conclude that invasion experiments should be designed to elucidate the role of dispersal, drift and diversification, in order to obtain a complete picture of invasion as a community process.

  2. Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) Approaches to Thoracolumbar Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Ian David; Passias, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques offer promising improvements in the management of thoracolumbar trauma. Recent advances in MIS techniques and instrumentation for degenerative conditions have heralded a growing interest in employing these techniques for thoracolumbar trauma. Specifically, surgeons have applied these techniques to help manage flexion- and extension-distraction injuries, neurologically intact burst fractures, and cases of damage control. Minimally invasive surgical techniques offer a means to decrease blood loss, shorten operative time, reduce infection risk, and shorten hospital stays. Herein, we review thoracolumbar minimally invasive surgery with an emphasis on thoracolumbar trauma classification, minimally invasive spinal stabilization, surgical indications, patient outcomes, technical considerations, and potential complications.

  3. Multiple mechanisms enable invasive species to suppress native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alison E; Thomsen, Meredith; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2011-07-01

    Invasive plants represent a significant threat to ecosystem biodiversity. To decrease the impacts of invasive species, a major scientific undertaking of the last few decades has been aimed at understanding the mechanisms that drive invasive plant success. Most studies and theories have focused on a single mechanism for predicting the success of invasive plants and therefore cannot provide insight as to the relative importance of multiple interactions in predicting invasive species' success. We examine four mechanisms that potentially contribute to the success of invasive velvetgrass Holcus lanatus: direct competition, indirect competition mediated by mammalian herbivores, interference competition via allelopathy, and indirect competition mediated by changes in the soil community. Using a combination of field and greenhouse approaches, we focus on the effects of H. lanatus on a common species in California coastal prairies, Erigeron glaucus, where the invasion is most intense. We found that H. lanatus had the strongest effects on E. glaucus via direct competition, but it also influenced the soil community in ways that feed back to negatively influence E. glaucus and other native species after H. lanatus removal. This approach provided evidence for multiple mechanisms contributing to negative effects of invasive species, and it identified when particular strategies were most likely to be important. These mechanisms can be applied to eradication of H. lanatus and conservation of California coastal prairie systems, and they illustrate the utility of an integrated set of experiments for determining the potential mechanisms of invasive species' success.

  4. Cavernous sinus invasion by pituitary adenomas. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging findings and histologically verified dural invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daita, Go; Yonemasu, Yukichi; Nakai, Hirofumi; Takei, Hidetoshi; Ogawa, Katsuhiro [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings and histologically verified invasion of the cavernous sinus by tumor cells was studied in 26 patients treated surgically for pituitary adenoma. Dural invasion of the sellar floor by tumor cells was found in 10 cases (38%). All patients were classified according to MR imaging findings into three types. Type I showed a gadolinium-enhanced stripe medial to the carotid artery (5 patients), none of which showed dural invasion. Type II showed no enhanced stripe (17 patients), six of which showed dural invasion. Within this type, tumor size and dural invasion showed no correlation. Type III showed displacement or encasement of the carotid artery by the tumor with or without extracranial extension (4 patients), all of which showed massive infiltration of the tumor cells into the dura mater. This study shows that preoperative MR imaging can provide information for assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus in patients with pituitary adenoma. (author).

  5. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L D

    2012-01-01

    Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC) invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully...... characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1) and five...... pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant...

  6. Two non-invasive diagnostic tools for invasive aspergilosis: (1-3)-beta-D-glucan and the galactomannan assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Prompt and non-invasive methods for diagnosing IA are needed to improve the management of this life-threatening infection in patients with hematological disorders. In summary, this retrospective review of studies performed on the two assays finds that both assays have high sensitivity and specificity but are more useful when used together as a diagnostic strategy for patients with invasive aspergillosis.

  7. Ancestral origins and invasion pathways in a globally invasive bird correlate with climate and influences from bird trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hazel; Strubbe, Diederik; Tollington, Simon; Prys-Jones, Robert; Matthysen, Erik; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species present a major threat to global biodiversity. Understanding genetic patterns and evolutionary processes that reinforce successful establishment is paramount for elucidating mechanisms underlying biological invasions. Among birds, the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is one of the most successful invasive species, established in over 35 countries. However, little is known about the evolutionary genetic origins of this species and what population genetic signatures tell us about patterns of invasion. We reveal the ancestral origins of populations across the invasive range and explore the potential influence of climate and propagule pressure from the pet trade on observed genetic patterns. Ring-necked parakeet samples representing the ancestral native range (n = 96) were collected from museum specimens, and modern samples from the invasive range (n = 855) were gathered from across Europe, Mauritius and Seychelles, and sequenced for two mitochondrial DNA markers comprising 868 bp of cytochrome b and control region, and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. Invasive populations comprise birds that originate predominantly from Pakistan and northern areas of India. Haplotypes associated with more northerly distribution limits in the ancestral native range were more prevalent in invasive populations in Europe, and the predominance of Asian haplotypes in Europe is consistent with the higher number of Asian birds transported by the pet trade outside the native range. Successful establishment of invasive species is likely to be underpinned by a combination of environmental and anthropogenic influences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. State-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain: invasive and non-invasive techniques for monitoring respiratory variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Christian; Blanch, Lluis; Murias, Gaston; Luján, Manel

    2010-01-01

    The interest in measuring physiological parameters (especially arterial blood gases) has grown progressively in parallel to the development of new technologies. Physiological parameters were first measured invasively and at discrete time points; however, it was clearly desirable to measure them continuously and non-invasively. The development of intensive care units promoted the use of ventilators via oral intubation ventilators via oral intubation and mechanical respiratory variables were progressively studied. Later, the knowledge gained in the hospital was applied to out-of-hospital management. In the present paper we review the invasive and non-invasive techniques for monitoring respiratory variables.

  9. Systems for tracking minimally invasive surgical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmarra, M K; Grimbergen, C A; Dankelman, J

    2007-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (e.g. laparoscopy) requires special surgical skills, which should be objectively assessed. Several studies have shown that motion analysis is a valuable assessment tool of basic surgical skills in laparoscopy. However, to use motion analysis as the assessment tool, it is necessary to track and record the motions of laparoscopic instruments. This article describes the state of the art in research on tracking systems for laparoscopy. It gives an overview on existing systems, on how these systems work, their advantages, and their shortcomings. Although various approaches have been used, none of the tracking systems to date comes out as clearly superior. A great number of systems can be used in training environment only, most systems do not allow the use of real laparoscopic instruments, and only a small number of systems provide force feedback.

  10. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.Keywords: acne scars, ice pick scars, boxcar scars, fillers 

  11. Application of Contrast Echocardiography in Invasive Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bulut

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast echocardiography by rendering better imaging of the borders of cardiac chambers is a useful tool for evaluating cardiac function, mass, myocardial vascularization, microvascular structure (small vessel vasculature and viability. Contrast was first started to be used for patients with suboptimal image quality. It can be used in detecting defects in myocardial blood supply in patients with chest pain and determining the success of interventionalprocedures. It can also be of help in demonstrating myocardial viability after reperfusion treatment in patients who had myocardial infarction. It is expected to be used more widely in invasive cardiology for decision making, guiding and determining the success of the procedures. Advances in imaging techniques , development of contrast materials for evaluation of left system, contrast echocardiography may become a routine clinical practice.

  12. [Invasive mould disease in haematological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMI) are a persistent problem with high morbidity and mortality rates among patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Management of IMI in this setting has become increasingly complex with the advent of new antifungal agents and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies (prophylactic, empirical, pre-emptive, and directed). A proper assessment of the individual risk for IMI appears to be critical in order to use the best prophylactic and therapeutic approach and increase the survival rates. Among the available antifungal drugs, the most frequently used in the hematologic patient are fluconazole, mould-active azoles (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole), candins (anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin), and lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Specific recommendations for their use, and criteria for selecting the antifungal agents are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  13. Minimally invasive hysterectomy in Coatis ( Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno W. Minto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some wildlife species, such as coatis, have a high degree of adaptability to adverse conditions, such as fragmented urban forests, increasingly common on the world stage. The increase in the number of these mesopredators causes drastic changes in the communities of smaller predators, interferes with reproductive success of trees, as well as becoming a form of exchange between domestic and wild areas, favoring the transmission of zoonosis and increasing the occurrence of attacks to animals or people. This report describes the use of minimally invasive hysterectomy in two individuals of the species Nasua nasua, which can be accomplished through the use of hook technique, commonly used to castrate dogs and cats. The small incision and healing speed of incised tissues are fundamental in wild life management since the postoperative care is limited by the behavior of these animals. This technique proved to be effective and can greatly reduce the morbidity of this procedure in coatis.

  14. Danish surgeons' views on minimally invasive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Hellen; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Advancements in minimally invasive surgery have led to increases in popularity of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and natural orifice translumenal surgery (NOTES(®); American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy [Oak Brook, IL] and Society of American...... Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons [Los Angeles, CA]) due to their postulated benefits of better cosmesis, less pain, and quicker recovery. This questionnaire-based study investigated Danish surgeons' attitudes toward these new procedures. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A 26-item questionnaire was developed...... and distributed electronically via e-mail to a total of 1253 members of The Danish Society of Surgeons and The Danish Society of Young Surgeons. RESULTS: In total, 352 (approximately 30%) surgeons completed the questionnaire, 54.4% were over 50 years of age, and 76.6% were men. When choosing surgery, the most...

  15. Primary invasive squamous carcinoma of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pride, G.L.; Schultz, A.E.; Chuprevich, T.W.; Buchler, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-three cases of primary vaginal squamous cell cancer were treated at the University of Wisconsin Hospital between 1956 and 1971. These cases comprised of 1.2% of patients admitted to the University Hospital with female genital tract cancer. Evidence is presented to support a modification of the currently accepted FIGO staging system for vaginal carcinoma (Stage II disease). Radiation therapy using both external beam and brachyradium equivalents or interstitial implantation of suitable isotopes was an effective method for the treatment of patients having early and locally advanced invasive vaginal cancer. The 5-year absolute survival rate for the entire series was 37.2%. Absolute survival rate by modified FIGO clinical staging was 66% for Stages I and IIA, 31% for Stage IIB, 25% for Stage III, and 0% for Stage IV

  16. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  17. Non-invasive assessment of coronary calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oei, Hok-Hay S.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jackqueline C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Electron-beam tomography (EBT) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enable the noninvasive assessment of coronary calcification. The amount of coronary calcification, as detected by EBT, has a close relation with the amount of coronary atherosclerosis, which is the substrate for the occurrence of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Calcification of the coronary arteries can be seen as a cumulative measure of life-time exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies have shown that the amount of coronary calcification is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Therefore, coronary calcification is a promising method for non-invasive detection of asymptomatic subjects at high risk of developing coronary heart disease. Whether measurement of coronary calcification also increases the predictive power of coronary events based on cardiovascular risk factors is topic of current research

  18. Uprooting and burial of invasive alien plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Frandsen, Sally I.

    2011-01-01

    (Japanese Rose), an invasive shrub in north-western Europe with negative effects on coastal biodiversity. Two months after uprooting and burial in dunes of north-eastern Denmark, 89% of the 58 shrubs resprouted from roots and rhizomes; on average 41 resprouts per shrub. Resprout density was twice as high...... at former shrub margins compared with the center; resprouts were taller and originated from more superficial soil layers at the margin than in the center. Resprouting was negatively correlated with fragment depth, and no resprouts were observed from greater than 15 cm depth. The number of resprouts...... increased with fragment dry mass (0.5–168.5 g). After 18 months with harrowing the species was still resprouting, flowering, and fruiting, albeit with no difference between shrub margin and center. Resprouts were taller (26 cm) and coverage was higher (0–4%) after two compared with three times harrowing...

  19. Sublethal irradiation promotes invasiveness of neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigerer, Lothar; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hecht, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Despite multiple clinical efforts, clinical outcome has remained poor. Neuroblastoma is considered to be radiosensitive, but some clinical studies including the German trial NB90 failed to show a clinical benefit of radiation therapy. The mechanisms underlying this apparent discrepancy are still unclear. We have therefore investigated the effects of radiation on neuroblastoma cell behaviour in vitro. We show that sublethal doses of irradiation up-regulated the expression of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met in some neuroblastoma cell lines. The increase in HGF/c-Met expression was correlated with enhanced invasiveness and activation of proteases degrading the extracellular matrix. Thus, irradiation at sublethal doses may promote the metastatic dissemination of neuroblastoma cells through activating the HGF/c-Met pathway and triggering matrix degradation

  20. Survival of mutations arising during invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith R

    2010-03-01

    When a neutral mutation arises in an invading population, it quickly either dies out or 'surfs', i.e. it comes to occupy almost all the habitat available at its time of origin. Beneficial mutations can also surf, as can deleterious mutations over finite time spans. We develop descriptive statistical models that quantify the relationship between the probability that a mutation will surf and demographic parameters for a cellular automaton model of surfing. We also provide a simple analytic model that performs well at predicting the probability of surfing for neutral and beneficial mutations in one dimension. The results suggest that factors - possibly including even abiotic factors - that promote invasion success may also increase the probability of surfing and associated adaptive genetic change, conditioned on such success.

  1. Injectable biomaterials for minimally invasive orthopedic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, M; Shalumon, K T; Mitha, M K

    2009-06-01

    Biodegradable and injectable hydroxy terminated-poly propylene fumarate (HT-PPF) bone cement was developed. The injectable formulation consisting HT-PPF and comonomer, n-vinyl pyrrolidone, calcium phosphate filler, free radical catalyst, accelerator and radiopaque agent sets rapidly to hard mass with low exothermic temperature. The candidate bone cement attains mechanical strength more than the required compressive strength of 5 MPa and compressive modulus 50 MPa. The candidate bone cement resin elicits cell adhesion and cytoplasmic spreading of osteoblast cells. The cured bone cement does not induce intracutaneous irritation and skin sensitization. The candidate bone cement is tissue compatible without eliciting any adverse tissue reactions. The candidate bone cement is osteoconductive and inductive and allow osteointegration and bone remodeling. HT-PPF bone cement is candidate bone cement for minimally invasive radiological procedures for the treatment of bone diseases and spinal compression fractures.

  2. Nucleostemin expression in invasive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Masutomi, Kenkichi; Tamura, Kenji; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Yamasaki, Tamio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Shunji; Yamamoto, Junji; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the cancer stem cell hypothesis has become widely accepted. Cancer stem cells are thought to possess the ability to undergo self-renewal and differentiation, similar to normal stem cells. Nucleostemin (NS), initially cloned from rat neural stem cells, binds to various proteins, including p53, in the nucleus and is thought to be a key molecule for stemness. NS is expressed in various types of cancers; therefore, its role in cancer pathogenesis is thought to be important. This study was conducted to clarify the clinicopathological and prognostic impact of NS in invasive breast cancers. The correlation between NS immunoreactivity and clinicopathological parameters was examined in 220 consecutive surgically resected invasive breast cancer tissue samples by using tissue microarrays. The presence of nuclear NS and p53 immunoreactivity in 10% or more of cancer cells was considered as a positive result. Among the 220 patients, 154 were hormone-receptor (HR)-positive, 22 HER2-positive/HR-negative, and 44 HR-negative/HER2-negative. One hundred and forty-two tumors (64.5%) showed NS positivity, and this positivity was significantly correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) (P = 0.050), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (P = 0.021), and p53 (P = 0.031) positivity. The patients with NS-positive tumors showed significantly shorter disease-free survival than those with NS-negative tumors. Furthermore, the patient group with NS- and p53-positive tumors showed significantly poorer prognosis than other patient groups. Multivariate analysis showed that NS status was an independent prognostic indicator. NS may play a significant role in the determination of breast cancer progression in association with p53 alterations. The NS status of patients with luminal and HER2 type breast cancers may be a useful prognostic marker

  3. Invasive strategy for treatment of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, B; von Pölnitz, A

    1990-01-01

    The classical approach to the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has been one of stabilization and complication management. In an effort to optimize treatment, the initiation of the cardiac care unit and the use of antiarrhythmic therapy have succeeded in lowering the mortality rate substantially. More modern concepts are aimed at limiting infarct size and preserving myocardial function. These aims can be achieved medically using intravenous (i.v.) thrombolysis or invasively either with intracoronary (i.c.) thrombolysis, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or bypass surgery. Although i.c. thrombolysis is more effective than the i.v. route, the necessity for acute coronary catheterization makes it incompatible and difficult for routine use, and thus is usually reserved for cases in which i.v. lysis has failed. Intravenous thrombolysis is becoming the standard approach to MI, and the remaining questions are those of which drug and dosage are optimal and how to approach the patient after thrombolysis. In this regard, we favor a symptom-guided approach, as shown by the TIMI-IIA and European cooperative studies. In patients with ongoing ischemia postlysis, heart catheterization is indicated and a decision regarding PTCA or surgery is then made, depending on anatomy. In patients remaining stable after acute lysis, a predischarge stress may help in selecting patients requiring catheterization. As an alternative invasive approach to acute MI, PTCA may be the quickest and most effective method to recanalize a vessel, but, again, logistical problems make it incompatible in the acute setting. The same is true for bypass surgery, and although extensive improvements have been made in intraoperative myocardial preservation so that a 2% mortality is achievable, it is reserved for patients with extensive ischemia and anatomy unsuitable for PTCA (extensive multivessel or left main disease).

  4. Immune Infiltration in Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Christine; Salgado, Roberto; Fornili, Marco; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Van den Eynden, Gert; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Rothé, Françoise; Buisseret, Laurence; Garaud, Soizic; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Brown, David; Bareche, Yacine; Rouas, Ghizlane; Galant, Christine; Bertucci, François; Loi, Sherene; Viale, Giuseppe; Di Leo, Angelo; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A; Larsimont, Denis; Biganzoli, Elia; Sotiriou, Christos

    2018-02-20

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is the second most common histological subtype of breast cancer after invasive ductal cancer (IDC). Here, we aimed at evaluating the prevalence, levels, and composition of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their association with clinico-pathological and outcome variables in ILC, and to compare them with IDC. We considered two patient series with TIL data: a multicentric retrospective series (n = 614) and the BIG 02-98 study (n = 149 ILC and 807 IDC). We compared immune subsets identified by immuno-histochemistry in the ILC (n = 159) and IDC (n = 468) patients from the Nottingham series, as well as the CIBERSORT immune profiling of the ILC (n = 98) and IDC (n = 388) METABRIC and The Cancer Genome Atlas patients. All ILC/IDC comparisons were done in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors. All statistical tests were two-sided. TIL levels were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC (fold-change = 0.79, 95% confidence interval = 0.70 to 0.88, P lobular series, although they did not reach statistical significance in the latter. The Nottingham series revealed that the levels of intratumoral but not total CD8+ were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC. Comparison of the CIBERSORT profiles highlighted statistically significant differences in terms of immune composition. This study shows differences between the immune infiltrates of ER-positive/HER2-negative ILC and IDC in terms of prevalence, levels, localization, composition, and clinical associations.

  5. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally invasive

  6. Depletion of heterogeneous source species pools predicts future invasion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Mark Kimberley; Jacqueline Beggs

    2017-01-01

    Predicting how increasing rates of global trade will result in new establishments of potentially damaging invasive species is a question of critical importance to the development of national and international policies aimed at minimizing future invasions. Centuries of historical movement and establishment of invading species may have depleted the supply of species...

  7. Alien conifer invasions in South America: short fuse burning?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richardson, DM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available conifers has a much shorter history in South America, and invasions are a recent phenomenon. A workshop was convened in Argentina in May 2007 to discuss the rapid emergence of problems with invasive conifers in South America. Workshop delegates agreed that...

  8. Management of invasive thymoma at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen patients (median age 55 years; range 23 - 69 years) with macroscopic invasive thymoma or thymic carcinoma were treated at Groote Schuur Hospital between 1969 and 1988. Stage 3 (macroscopically invasive) disease was present in 12 patients (80%) and stage 4 (metastatic disease) in 3 (20%). Ten of the patients ...

  9. 77 FR 23494 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... human health impacts that invasive species cause. NISC is Co-chaired by the Secretaries of the Interior... coordinated network to document, evaluate, and monitor impacts from invasive species; and facilitates... management and restoration; animal health protection; shipping, tourism, highways, and other transportation...

  10. Invasive soil organisms and their effects on belowground processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik Lilleskov; Jr. Mac A. Callaham; Richard Pouyat; Jane E. Smith; Michael Castellano; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge; Rachel Arango; Frederick. Green

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species have a wide range of effects on soils and their inhabitants. By altering soils, through their direct effects on native soil organisms (including plants), and by their interaction with the aboveground environment, invasive soil organisms can have dramatic effects on the environment, the economy and human health. The most widely recognized effects...

  11. Severe plant invasions can increase mycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Gibbons, Sean; Rosendahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Invasions by non-native plants can alter ecosystem functions and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effect on belowground microbial communities. We show that invasions by knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula, hereafter spurge...... plant provenance.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 14 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.41....

  12. Invasion of Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa, by Mytilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1992 the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis began establishing beds on the centre sandbanks of Langebaan Lagoon. This global invader had previously been restricted to rocky shores along the South African coastline. In order to investigate the effect of the invasion on naturally-occurring communities, ...

  13. Inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion of human non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of phlomisoside F (PMF) on the proliferation, migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and explore the possible mechanisms. Methods: The anti-proliferative effect of PMF on A549 cells was determined by CCK-8. Subsequently, migration and invasion were ...

  14. Pathologic Pattern of Invasive Bladder Carcinoma: Impact of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the pathologic pattern of invasive bladder carcinoma in cystectomy specimens in relation to bilharziasis. Patients and Methods: Between April 2002 and October 2006, 148 consecutive patients with invasive bladder cancer were subjected to radical cystectomy and orthotopic sigmoid bladder ...

  15. Plant invasions in mountains: global lessons for better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith L. McDougall; Anzar A. Khuroo; Lloyd L. Loope; Catherine G. Parks; Anibal Pauchard; Zafar A. Reshi; Ian Rushworth; Christoph. Kueffer

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive management, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and predictions are...

  16. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease. National Epidemiology and Genetic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaminckx, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Infections with group A streptococci (GAS), or S. pyogenes, range from mild and superficial to very severe and lethal invasive disease. In severe invasive GAS infections, hypotension and multiorgan failure may develop rapidly resulting in the development of toxic shock-like syndrome (TSS). In the

  17. Private forest owners and invasive plants: risk perception and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Susan Charnley

    2012-01-01

    We investigated nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners' invasive plant risk perceptions and mitigation practices using statistical analysis of mail survey data and qualitative analysis of interview data collected in Oregon's ponderosa pine zone. We found that 52% of the survey sample was aware of invasive plant species considered problematic by local...

  18. 78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ..., on a broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing... outlined in the 2008-2012 National Invasive Species Management Plan. The meeting agenda is now available on... be no committee business conducted during the orientation session, which is closed to the public...

  19. Reply to Keller and Springborn: No doubt about invasion debt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essl, F.; Dullinger, S.; Rabitsch, W.; Hulme, P. E.; Hülber, K.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kleinbauer, I.; Krausmann, F.; Kühn, I.; Nentwig, W.; Vila, M.; Genovesi, P.; Gherardi, F.; Desprez-Loustau, M.-L.; Roques, A.; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 25 (2011), s. 221-221 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * invasion debt * economics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 9.681, year: 2011

  20. Invasive Species Working Group: Research Summary and Expertise Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Butler; Dean Pearson; Mee-Sook Kim

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) personnel have scientific expertise in widely ranging disciplines and conduct multidisciplinary research on invasive species issues with emphasis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats throughout the Interior West, Great Plains, and related areas (fig. 1; Expertise Directory; appendix). RMRS invasive species research covers an array...

  1. Global networks for invasion science: benefits, challenges and guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Packer, Jasmin G.; Meyerson, Laura A.; Richardson, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Much has been done to address the challenges of biological invasions, but fundamental questions (e.g., which species invade? Which habitats are invaded? How can invasions be effectively managed?) still need to be answered before the spread and impact of alien taxa can be effectively managed. Ques...

  2. The invasive alien tree Falcataria moluccana: its impacts and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint Hughes; Tracy Johnson; Amanda Uowolo

    2013-01-01

    Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby and Grimes is a large tree that has become invasive in forests and developed landscapes across many Pacific islands. A fast-growing nitrogenfixing species, it transforms invaded ecosystems by dramatically increasing nutrient inputs, suppressing native species and facilitating invasion by other weeds. Individuals rapidly reach heights...

  3. Defining a regional approach for invasive plant research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven R. Radosevich; Bryan A. Endress; Catherine G. Parks

    2005-01-01

    Invasive plants are now recognized as a serious threat to most extensive management systems, such as forests, meadows, deserts, and riparian areas [1-3]. Vitousek et al. [3] described exotic plant invasion as a significant element of global environmental change because exotic plants can alter primary productivity, decomposition, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and natural...

  4. Synergy Between Pathogen Release and Resource Availability in Plant Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why do some exotic plant species become invasive? Two common hypotheses, increased resource availability and enemy release, may more effectively explain invasion if they favor the same species, and therefore act in concert. This would be expected if plant species adapted to high levels of available ...

  5. Freshwater crayfish invasions in South Africa: past, present and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater crayfish invasions have been studied around the world, but less so in Africa, a continent devoid of native freshwater crayfish. The present study reviews historical and current information on alien freshwater crayfish species introduced into South Africa and aims to indicate which areas are at risk from invasion.

  6. Alterations in integrin expression modulates invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors mediating the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells through the extracellular matrix (ECM) are not fully understood. METHODS: In this study, sub-populations of the human pancreatic cancer cell line, MiaPaCa-2 were established which displayed differences in invasion, adhesion, anoikis, anchorage-independent growth and integrin expression. RESULTS: Clone #3 displayed higher invasion with less adhesion, while Clone #8 was less invasive with increased adhesion to ECM proteins compared to MiaPaCa-2. Clone #8 was more sensitive to anoikis than Clone #3 and MiaPaCa-2, and displayed low colony-forming efficiency in an anchorage-independent growth assay. Integrins beta 1, alpha 5 and alpha 6 were over-expressed in Clone #8. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), integrin beta1 knockdown in Clone #8 cells increased invasion through matrigel and fibronectin, increased motility, decreased adhesion and anoikis. Integrin alpha 5 and alpha 6 knockdown also resulted in increased motility, invasion through matrigel and decreased adhesion. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that altered expression of integrins interacting with different extracellular matrixes may play a significant role in suppressing the aggressive invasive phenotype. Analysis of these clonal populations of MiaPaCa-2 provides a model for investigations into the invasive properties of pancreatic carcinoma.

  7. Digestive efficiency of indigenous and invasive avian species fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Knysna (Tauraco corythaix) and Purple-crested (Gallirex porphyreolophus) Turacos and invasive alien Rose-ringed Parakeets (Psittacula krameri) met their energy demands when fed fruits of four fleshyfruited invasive alien plant species: Solanum mauritianum, Cinnamomum camphora, Psidium guajava and Morus alba.

  8. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  9. Hypoxia stimulates invasion and migration of human cervical cancer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we show that hypoxiaincreases tumour cell invasion and migration by the modulation of Rab11, an important molecule for vesicular trafficking.In our study, we found that Rab11, together with the activation of Rac1, could stimulate invasion and migration of cervicalcancer cell lines HeLa/SiHa in hypoxia. Activation of ...

  10. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brønfort, Gert; Haas, Mitchell; Evans, Roni L.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; Bouter, Lex M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. Objectives: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. Search methods: We searched the

  11. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronfort, G.; Nilsson, N.; Haas, M.; Evans, R.; Goldsmith, C. H.; Assendelft, W. J.; Bouter, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. OBJECTIVES: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the

  12. Rarity of invasiveness in right-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Syed T; Shrestha, Nabin K; Witten, James

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The rarity of invasiveness of right-sided infective endocarditis (IE) compared with left-sided has not been well recognized and evaluated. Thus, we compared invasiveness of right- versus left-sided IE in surgically treated patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2002 to January 20...

  13. Host defence against disseminated and invasive candida albicans infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating

  14. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derk M. Johnson; Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin; Ottar N. Bjornstad

    2006-01-01

    Biological invasions pose considerable threats to the world's ecosystems and cause substantial economic losses. A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth in the United States, for which more than $194 million was spent on management and monitoring between 1985 and 2004 alone. The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most...

  15. Science priorities for reducing the threat of invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. A. Chornesky; A. M. Bartuska; G. H. Aplet; J. Cummings-Carlson; F. W. Davis; J. Eskow; D. R. Gordon; K. W. Gottschalk; R. A. Haack; A. J. Hansen; R. N. Mack; F. J. Rahel; M. A. Shannon; L. A. Wainger; T. B. Wigley

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species pose a major, yet poorly addressed, threat to sustainable forestry. Here we set forth an interdisciplinary science strategy of research, development, and applications to reduce this threat. To spur action by public and private entities that too often are slow, reluctant, or unable to act, we recommend (a) better integrating invasive species into...

  16. Cancer invasion and the microenvironment: plasticity and reciprocity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.H.A.; Alexander, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer invasion is a cell- and tissue-driven process for which the physical, cellular, and molecular determinants adapt and react throughout the progression of the disease. Cancer invasion is initiated and maintained by signaling pathways that control cytoskeletal dynamics in tumor cells and the

  17. Reproducibility of measurement of myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, L.J.M. van der; Vijver, K. van der; Bartosch, C.; Davidson, B.; Gatius, S.; Matias-Guiu, X.; McCluggage, W.G.; Toledo, G.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2017-01-01

    Myometrial invasion (MI) as a percentage (%MI), categorized into <50 or >/=50 %, is an important predictor of prognosis in endometrial carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that tumor-free distance (TFD) to serosa and the absolute depth of invasion (DOI) might be stronger predictors of prognosis.

  18. Wildland fire in ecosystems: fire and nonnative invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Zouhar; Jane Kapler Smith; Steve Sutherland; Matthew L. Brooks

    2008-01-01

    This state-of-knowledge review of information on relationships between wildland fire and nonnative invasive plants can assist fire managers and other land managers concerned with prevention, detection, and eradication or control of nonnative invasive plants. The 16 chapters in this volume synthesize ecological and botanical principles regarding relationships between...

  19. SNAI2/Slug promotes growth and invasion in human gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong Wei; Menon, Lata G; Black, Peter M; Carroll, Rona S; Johnson, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Numerous factors that contribute to malignant glioma invasion have been identified, but the upstream genes coordinating this process are poorly known. To identify genes controlling glioma invasion, we used genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of primary human glioblastomas to develop an expression-based rank ordering of 30 transcription factors that have previously been implicated in the regulation of invasion and metastasis in cancer. Using this approach, we identified the oncogenic transcriptional repressor, SNAI2/Slug, among the upper tenth percentile of invasion-related transcription factors overexpressed in glioblastomas. SNAI2 mRNA expression correlated with histologic grade and invasive phenotype in primary human glioma specimens, and was induced by EGF receptor activation in human glioblastoma cells. Overexpression of SNAI2/Slug increased glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and promoted angiogenesis and glioblastoma growth in vivo. Importantly, knockdown of endogenous SNAI2/Slug in glioblastoma cells decreased invasion and increased survival in a mouse intracranial human glioblastoma transplantation model. This genome-scale approach has thus identified SNAI2/Slug as a regulator of growth and invasion in human gliomas

  20. Predicting the dynamics of local adaptation in invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    An invasive plant species may restrict its spread to only one habitat, or, after some time, may continue to spread into a different, secondary, habitat. The question of whether evolution is required for an invasive species to spread from one habitat to another is currently hotly debated. In order fo...