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Sample records for hudsonicus red squirrel

  1. Who's your neighbor? Acoustic cues to individual identity in red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus rattle calls

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    Shannon M. DIGWEED, Drew RENDALL, Teana IMBEAU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available North American red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus often produce a loud territorial rattle call when conspecifics enter or invade a territory. Previous playback experiments suggest that the territorial rattle call may indicate an invader's identity as squirrels responded more intensely to calls played from strangers than to calls played from neighbors. This dear-enemy effect is well known in a variety of bird and mammal species and functions to reduce aggressive interactions between known neighbors. However, although previous experiments on red squirrels suggest some form of individual differentiation and thus recognition, detailed acoustic analysis of potential acoustic cues in rattle calls have not been conducted. If calls function to aid in conspecific identification in order to mitigate aggressive territorial interactions, we would expect that individual recognition cues would be acoustically represented. Our work provides a detailed analysis of acoustic cues to identity within rattle calls. A total of 225 calls across 32 individual squirrels from Sheep River Provincial Park, Kananaskis, AB, Canada, were analyzed with discriminant function analysis for potential acoustic cues to individual identity. Initial analysis of all individuals revealed a reliable acoustic differentiation across individuals. A more detailed analysis of clusters of neighboring squirrels was performed and results again indicated a statistically significant likelihood that calls were assigned correctly to specific squirrels (55%-75% correctly assigned; in other words squirrels have distinct voices that should allow for individual identification and discrimination by conspecifics [Current Zoology 58 (5: 758–764, 2012].

  2. Modelling recolonization of second-growth forest stands by the north american red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus.

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    Nyquist, B; Tyson, R; Larsen, K

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we present a model for source-sink population dynamics where the locations of source and sink habitats change over time. We do this in the context of the population dynamics of the North American red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, within a forest environment subject to harvesting and regrowth. Harvested patches of forest are initially sinks, then eventually become source habitat again as the forest regrows. At the same time, each harvested patch is gradually recolonized by squirrels from other forest patches. We are interested in the interaction of forest harvesting dynamics with squirrel population dynamics. This depends on the harvesting schedule, and on the choices squirrels make when deciding whether to settle in a mature forest patch or in a recently harvested patch. We find that the time it takes for a second-growth forest patch to be recolonized at the mature forest level is longer than the time required for the habitat quality to be restored to the mature forest level. We also notice that recolonization pressure decreases squirrel populations in neighbouring patches. The connectivity between forest patches and the cutting schedule used also affect the time course of recolonization and steady-state population levels.

  3. Avian nestling predation by endangered Mount Graham red squirrel

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    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2007-01-01

    Studies using artificial nests or remote cameras have documented avian predation by red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although several direct observations of avian predation events are known in the northern range of the red squirrel distribution, no accounts have been reported in the southern portion. We observed predation upon a hermit thrush...

  4. Kleptoparasitic behavior and species richness at Mt. Graham red squirrel middens

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    Andrew J. Edelman; John L. Koprowski; Jennifer L. Edelman

    2005-01-01

    We used remote photography to assess the frequency of inter- and intra-specific kleptoparasitism and species richness at Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) middens. Remote cameras and conifer cones were placed at occupied and unoccupied middens, and random sites. Species richness of small mammals was higher at red squirrel...

  5. A comparison of habitat use and demography of red squirrels at the southern edge of their range

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    Katherine M. Leonard; John L. Koprowski

    2009-01-01

    Populations at the edge of their geographic range may demonstrate different population dynamics from central populations. Endangered Mt. Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), endemic to southeastern Arizona, represent the southernmost red squirrel population and are found at lower densities than conspecifics in the center of the...

  6. Caching behaviour by red squirrels may contribute to food conditioning of grizzly bears

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    Julia Elizabeth Put

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe an interspecific relationship wherein grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis appear to seek out and consume agricultural seeds concentrated in the middens of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, which had collected and cached spilled grain from a railway. We studied this interaction by estimating squirrel density, midden density and contents, and bear activity along paired transects that were near (within 50 m or far (200 m from the railway. Relative to far ones, near transects had 2.4 times more squirrel sightings, but similar numbers of squirrel middens. Among 15 middens in which agricultural products were found, 14 were near the rail and 4 subsequently exhibited evidence of bear digging. Remote cameras confirmed the presence of squirrels on the rail and bears excavating middens. We speculate that obtaining grain from squirrel middens encourages bears to seek grain on the railway, potentially contributing to their rising risk of collisions with trains.

  7. Test of the prey-base hypothesis to explain use of red squirrel midden sites by American martens

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    Dean E. Pearson; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2001-01-01

    We tested the prey-base hypothesis to determine whether selection of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) midden sites (cone caches) by American martens (Martes americana) for resting and denning could be attributed to greater abundance of small-mammal prey. Five years of livetrapping at 180 sampling stations in 2 drainages showed that small mammals,...

  8. Red squirrel middens influence abundance but not diversity of other vertebrates.

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    Erin E Posthumus

    Full Text Available Some animals modify the environment in ways that can influence the resources available to other species. Because red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus create large piles of conifer-cone debris (middens in which they store cones, squirrels concentrate resources that might affect biodiversity locally. To determine whether other animals are attracted to midden sites beyond their affinity for the same resources that attract red squirrels, we assessed associations between middens, mammals, and birds at population and community levels. We surveyed 75 middens where residency rates of red squirrels varied during the previous five years; sampling along this residency gradient permitted us to evaluate the influence of resources at middens beyond the influence of a resident squirrel. At each location, we quantified vegetation, landscape structure, abundance of conifer cones, and midden structure, and used capture-recapture, distance sampling, and remote cameras to quantify presence, abundance, and species richness of mammals and birds. Red squirrels and the resources they concentrated at middens influenced mammals and birds at the population scale and to a lesser extent at the community scale. At middens with higher residency rates of red squirrels, richness of medium and large mammals increased markedly and species richness of birds increased slightly. After accounting for local forest characteristics, however, only species richness of medium-to-large mammals was associated with a red squirrel being resident during surveys. In areas where red squirrels were resident during surveys or in areas with greater amounts of resources concentrated by red squirrels, abundances of two of four small mammal species and two of four bird species increased. We conclude that the presence of this ecosystem modifier and the resources it concentrates influence abundance of some mammals and birds, which may have implications for maintaining biodiversity across the wide

  9. Seasonal, spatial, and maternal effects on gut microbiome in wild red squirrels.

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    Ren, Tiantian; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Dantzer, Ben; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; McAdam, Andrew G; Wu, Martin

    2017-12-21

    Our understanding of gut microbiota has been limited primarily to findings from human and laboratory animals, but what shapes the gut microbiota in nature remains largely unknown. To fill this gap, we conducted a comprehensive study of gut microbiota of a well-studied North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) population. Red squirrels are territorial, solitary, and live in a highly seasonal environment and therefore represent a very attractive system to study factors that drive the temporal and spatial dynamics of gut microbiota. For the first time, this study revealed significant spatial patterns of gut microbiota within a host population, suggesting limited dispersal could play a role in shaping and maintaining the structure of gut microbial communities. We also found a remarkable seasonal rhythm in red squirrel's gut microbial composition manifested by a tradeoff between relative abundance of two genera Oscillospira and Corpococcus and clearly associated with seasonal variation in diet availability. Our results show that in nature, environmental factors exert a much stronger influence on gut microbiota than host-associated factors including age and sex. Despite strong environmental effects, we found clear evidence of individuality and maternal effects, but host genetics did not seem to be a significant driver of the gut microbial communities in red squirrels. Taken together, the results of this study emphasize the importance of external ecological factors rather than host attributes in driving temporal and spatial patterns of gut microbiota in natural environment.

  10. Stress in biological invasions: Introduced invasive grey squirrels increase physiological stress in native Eurasian red squirrels.

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    Santicchia, Francesca; Dantzer, Ben; van Kesteren, Freya; Palme, Rupert; Martinoli, Adriano; Ferrari, Nicola; Wauters, Lucas Armand

    2018-05-23

    Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). We extracted glucocorticoid metabolites from faecal samples to measure whether the presence of the invasive species causes an increase in physiological stress in individuals of the native species. We show that native red squirrels in seven sites where they co-occurred with invasive grey squirrels had glucocorticoid concentrations that were three times higher than those in five sites without the invasive species. Moreover, in a longitudinal study, stress hormones in native red squirrels increased after colonisation by grey squirrels. When we experimentally reduced the abundance of the invasive grey squirrels, the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in co-occurring red squirrels decreased significantly between pre- and postremoval periods. Hence, we found that the invasive species acts as a stressor which significantly increases the concentrations of glucocorticoids in the native species. Given that sustained elevations in glucocorticoids could reduce body growth and reproductive rate, our results are consistent with previous studies where the co-occurrence of the invasive grey squirrel was associated with smaller size and lower reproductive output in red squirrels. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society.

  11. Potential for nest site competition between native and exotic tree squirrels

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    Andrew J. Edelman; John L. Koprowski; Sadie R. Bertelsen

    2009-01-01

    In communities where strong interspecific competition between native species is lacking, exotic and native species often exhibit intense resource competition resulting in decline of native populations. We examined the potential for interspecific competition for nest sites between co-occurring native Mt. Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis...

  12. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) from Denmark

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    Madsen, Corrie Lynne; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Fernandez Garcia, Rut

    2015-01-01

    Melanistic Eurasian red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris are commonly found on the Danish island of Funen. They are thought to represent native Danish squirrel types and are presently under threat from admixture with introduced red squirrels. In response, a conservation program was started in 2009...... that involves the translocation of melanistic squirrels from Funen to the squirrel-free island of Langeland. Using mitochondrial DNA of 101 historical and modern samples from throughout Denmark, we assess for the first time population structure and mitochondrial genetic diversity of Danish squirrels compared...

  13. Habitat and Landscape Correlates of Southern Flying Squirrel Use of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Clusters

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    Susan C. Loeb; Shawna L. Reid; Donald J. Lipscomb

    2012-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can have significant negative impacts on redcockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and group size. Although direct control of southern flying squirrels may be necessary in small red-cockaded woodpecker populations (

  14. Texas ratsnake predation on southern flying squirrels in red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

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    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Josh B. Pierce; Dan Saenz; Richard N. Conner

    2009-01-01

    Elaphe spp. (ratsnakes) are frequent predators on cavity-nesting birds and other vertebrates, including Glaucomys volans (Southern Flying Squirrels). They are known predators of Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers), especially during the nestling phase. Picoides borealis cavities are frequently occupied by Southern Flying Squirrels, often several squirrels per...

  15. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels.

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    Loeb, Susan C; Ruth, Deanna L

    2004-12-31

    Loeb, Susan C., and Deanna L. Ruth. 2004. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 501-502. Abstract: Southern flying squirrels can significantly impact red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success (Laves and Loeb 1999). Thus exclusion or removal of flying squirrels from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities and clusters may be warranted in small woodpecker populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). However, development of effective and efficient protocols for southern flying squirrel control requires an understanding of the seasonal dynamics of southern flying squirrel cavity use. Most studies of southern flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities have been conducted during spring (e.g., Harlow and Lennartz 1983, Rudolph et al. 1990a, Loeb 1993) and no studies have examined the effects of long term flying squirrel control on subsequent cavity use. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) whether flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities varies with season or cavity type, and (2) the long term effect of continuous squirrel removal.

  16. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels

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    Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz

    1998-01-01

    While examining red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity contents in eastern Texas, the authors observed cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans). The tree surface around an active red-cockaded woodpecker cavity is coated with sticky resin which flows from resin wells created by the woodpecker. The southern flying squirrel...

  17. Reproductive phenology of a food-hoarding mast-seed consumer: resource- and density-dependent benefits of early breeding in red squirrels.

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    Williams, Cory T; Lane, Jeffrey E; Humphries, Murray M; McAdam, Andrew G; Boutin, Stan

    2014-03-01

    The production of offspring by vertebrates is often timed to coincide with the annual peak in resource availability. However, capital breeders can extend the energetic benefits of a resource pulse by storing food or fat, thus relaxing the need for synchrony between energy supply and demand. Food-hoarding red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) breeding in the boreal forest are reliant on cones from a masting conifer for their nutrition, yet lactation is typically completed before the annual crop of cones is available for consumption such that peaks in energy supply and demand are not synchronized. We investigated the phenological response of red squirrels to annual variation in environmental conditions over a 20-year span and examined how intra- and inter-annual variation in the timing of reproduction affected offspring recruitment. Reproductive phenology was strongly affected by past resource availability with offspring born earlier in years following large cone crops, presumably because this affected the amount of capital available for reproduction. Early breeders had higher offspring survival and were more likely to renest following early litter loss when population density was high, perhaps because late-born offspring are less competitive in obtaining a territory when vacancies are limited. Early breeders were also more likely to renest after successfully weaning their first litter, but renesting predominantly occurred during mast years. Because of their increased propensity to renest and the higher survival rates of their offspring, early breeders contribute more recruits to the population but the advantage of early breeding depends on population density and resource availability.

  18. When the ball is in the female's court: How the scramble-competition mating system of the North American red squirrel has shaped male physiology and testosterone dynamics.

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    Boonstra, Rudy; Dušek, Adam; Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan

    2017-10-01

    Male reproductive success in most mammals is determined by their success in direct inter-male competition through aggression and conflict, resulting in female-defense mating systems being predominant. This is linked to male testosterone levels and its dynamics. However, in certain environments, a scramble-competition mating system has evolved, where female reproductive behavior takes precedence and male testosterone dynamics are unlikely to be related to inter-male competition. We studied the North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a species with a well-established scramble-competition system. Using an ACTH hormonal challenge protocol as a proxy for competitive interactions, we compared the testosterone dynamics in breeding males in late winter with that in nonbreeding males in late spring in the Yukon. To gain an integrated picture of their physiological state, we also assessed changes in their stress response, body mass, energy mobilization, and indices of immune function. Testosterone levels at the base bleed were high in breeding males (2.72ng/mL) and virtually absent in non-breeding males (0.04ng/mL). Breeding males were in better condition (heavier body mass, higher hematocrit, and higher erythrocytes), had higher indices of immune function (neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio), but a similar ability to mobilize energy (glucose) compared with non-breeding males. Though total cortisol was higher in non-breeding males, free cortisol was twice as high in breeding males as their corticosteroid binding globulin levels were half as high. In response to the ACTH challenge, testosterone levels in breeding males declined 49% over the first hour and increased 36% over the next hour; in non-breeding males levels showed no change. Free cortisol increased only modestly (26% in breeding males; 23% in non-breeding males). Glucose levels changed similarly in breeding and nonbreeding males, declining for the first 30min and then increasing for the next 60min. Thus

  19. Density of red squirrels and their use of non-native tree species in the Rogów Arboretum

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    Krauze-Gryz Dagny

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the densities of red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris in the arboretum and a neighbouring forest and to investigate which tree species the squirrels used. The study was conducted in the area of the Rogów Arboretum (53.76 ha and the so-called Zimna Woda and Wilczy Dół forest complexes (altogether 536 ha, all being part of an Experimental Forest Station in Rogów. The density of squirrels in the arboretum and the neighbouring forest was estimated and compared by means of snow tracks on transect routes. Changes in the abundance of squirrels throughout one year as well as their behaviour were determined on the basis of direct observations along transects running through the arboretum. More than half of the area of the arboretum was searched in order to record feeding signs of squirrels. Additionally, trees with bark stripping were recorded.

  20. Natural infection with two genotypes of Cryptosporidium in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in Italy

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    Kváč, Martin; Hofmannová, L.; Bertolino, S.; Wauters, L.; Tosi, G.; Modrý, David

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2008), s. 95-99 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP523/07/P117; GA ČR GA524/05/0992 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * Sciurus vulgaris * 18S rRNA * oocyst morphology * infectivity * red squirrel Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  1. A review of the competitive effects of alien grey squirrels on behaviour, activity and habitat use of red squirrels in mixed, deciduous woodland in Italy

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    Luc Wauters

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The introduction of alien species can cause competitive exclusion of ecologically similar native species when there is no niche differentiation between them. Such invasive species can constitute a serious threat to biodiversity in the region where they have been introduced, causing extinction or decline of native species through competition. A well-documented case is widescale replacement of native Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris by introduced eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis on the British Isles and parts of northern Italy. Rapid increase of grey squirrel's distribution range, coincided with a dramatic decline of the native red squirrel's range, and grey squirrels have now replaced red squirrels over much of Britain and in fragmented landscapes in Piedmont, northern Italy. In this review, we consider the evidence that has been obtained from studies on competitive effects of grey squirrels on activity, habitat use, foraging behaviour and food choice of individual red squirrels in broadleaf woodlands in North-west Italy. In these habitats, there is no evidence for niche partitioning between red and grey squirrels in any of the niche parameters examined, suggesting that red squirrels are unable to adapt to avoid competition with the congener when resources become limiting. Interspecific competition seems to occur mainly for food resources that affect fitness of squirrels at crucial periods of the year, such as cached tree seeds in winter and spring. Also, the greater use of acorns by grey squirrels gives the invasive species an advantage over red squirrels in mixed deciduous woods, especially with a preponderance of oaks. This is supported by studies in Britain and Italy that show that co-existence of the two species in mixed deciduous woodlands is of short duration (e.g. less than 3-5 years with grey squirrels advantaged in resource exploitation competition, resulting in the local

  2. Loss of Octarepeats in Two Processed Prion Pseudogenes in the Red Squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris

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    Kortum, Timothy T.; Hupkes, Marlinda; Kohlen, Wouter; van Rheede, Teun; de Jong, Wilfried W.

    2010-01-01

    The N-terminal region of the mammalian prion protein (PrP) contains an ‘octapeptide’ repeat which is involved in copper binding. This eight- or nine-residue peptide is repeated four to seven times, depending on the species, and polymorphisms in repeat number do occur. Alleles with three repeats are very rare in humans and goats, and deduced PrP sequences with two repeats have only been reported in two lemur species and in the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris. We here describe that the red squirrel two-repeat PrP sequence actually represents a retroposed pseudogene, and that an additional and older processed pseudogene with three repeats also occurs in this species as well as in ground squirrels. We argue that repeat numbers may tend to contract rather than expand in prion retropseudogenes, and that functional prion genes with two repeats may not be viable. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9390-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20878152

  3. Red squirrels from south–east Iberia: low genetic diversity at the southernmost species distribution limit

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    Lucas, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available South–east Iberia is the southernmost limit of this species in Europe. Squirrels in the region mainly inhabit coniferous forests of Pinus. In this study, we analyzed the pattern of mitochondrial genetic variation of southern Iberian red squirrels. Fragments of two mitochondrial genes, a 350–base pair of the displacement loop (D–loop and a 359–bp of the cytochrome b (Cytb, were sequenced using samples collected from 88 road–kill squirrels. The genetic variation was low, possibly explained by a recent bottleneck due to historical over–exploitation of forest resources. Habitat loss and fragmentation caused by deforestation and geographic isolation may explain the strong genetic subdivision between the study regions. Six new haplotypes for the D–loop and two new haplotypes for the Cytb fragments are described. A Cytb haplotype of south–east Iberia was found to be present in Albania and Japan, suggesting local extinction of this haplotype in intermediate areas. No significant clustering was found for the south–east of Spain or for the other European populations (except Calabria in the phylogenetic analysis.

  4. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence variation and melanism in the gray (Sciurus carolinensis), fox (Sciurus niger), and red (Sciurus vulgaris) squirrel.

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    McRobie, Helen R; King, Linda M; Fanutti, Cristina; Coussons, Peter J; Moncrief, Nancy D; Thomas, Alison P M

    2014-01-01

    Sequence variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene are associated with melanism in many different species of mammals, birds, and reptiles. The gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), found in the British Isles, was introduced from North America in the late 19th century. Melanism in the British gray squirrel is associated with a 24-bp deletion in the MC1R. To investigate the origin of this mutation, we sequenced the MC1R of 95 individuals including 44 melanic gray squirrels from both the British Isles and North America. Melanic gray squirrels of both populations had the same 24-bp deletion associated with melanism. Given the significant deletion associated with melanism in the gray squirrel, we sequenced the MC1R of both wild-type and melanic fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) (9 individuals) and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) (39 individuals). Unlike the gray squirrel, no association between sequence variation in the MC1R and melanism was found in these 2 species. We conclude that the melanic gray squirrel found in the British Isles originated from one or more introductions of melanic gray squirrels from North America. We also conclude that variations in the MC1R are not associated with melanism in the fox and red squirrels.

  5. Post-weaning parental care increases fitness but is not heritable in North American red squirrels.

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    Lane, J E; McAdam, A G; Charmantier, A; Humphries, M M; Coltman, D W; Fletcher, Q; Gorrell, J C; Boutin, S

    2015-06-01

    Most empirical attempts to explain the evolution of parental care have focused on its costs and benefits (i.e. fitness consequences). In contrast, few investigations have been made of the other necessary prerequisite for evolutionary change, inheritance. Here, we examine the fitness consequences and heritability (h(2)) of a post-weaning parental care behaviour (territory bequeathal) in a wild population of North American red squirrels. Each year, a subset (average across all years = 19%) of reproductive females bequeathed their territory to a dependent offspring. Bequeathing females experienced higher annual reproductive success and did not suffer a survival cost to themselves relative to those females retaining their territory. Bequeathing females thus realized higher relative annual fitness [ω = 1.18 ± 0.03 (SE)] than nonbequeathing females [ω = 0.96 ± 0.02 (SE)]. Additive genetic influences on bequeathal behaviour, however, were not significantly different from 0 (h(2) = 1.9 × 10(-3); 95% highest posterior density interval = 3.04 × 10(-8) to 0.37) and, in fact, bequeathal behaviour was not significantly repeatable (R = 2.0 × 10(-3); 95% HPD interval = 0-0.27). In contrast, directional environmental influences were apparent. Females were more likely to bequeath in years following low food abundance and when food availability in the upcoming autumn was high. Despite an evident fitness benefit, a lack of heritable genetic variance will constrain evolution of this trait. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Replicated population divergence caused by localized coevolution? A test of three hypotheses in the red crossbill-lodgepole pine system.

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    Edelaar, P; Benkman, C W

    2006-09-01

    Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that local populations of red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) enter into a predator-prey arms race with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) in the absence of competing pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Nevertheless, the alternative hypotheses that neutral evolution or factors other than squirrels have caused crossbill population differentiation have not been thoroughly tested. We compared crossbill and pine cone morphology between island populations where squirrels are absent or present, and mainland sites where squirrels are present, in order to distinguish among these hypotheses. All comparisons supported an effect of squirrel absence, not island status, on crossbill and cone morphology. Hence our results provide further evidence that strong localized coevolutionary interactions in a geographic mosaic have driven adaptive population differentiation. In addition, vocal differentiation of crossbills was related to the absence of squirrels, but not to island status. As morphological and vocal differentiation is correlated with reproductive isolation in crossbills, the geographic mosaic of coevolution also seems to promote ecological speciation.

  7. Evidence of Red-cockaded Woodpecker nestling displacement by southern flying squirrels

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    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Brent Burt

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) are unique among woodpeckers in that they excavate their roost and nest cavities entirely within living pines (Ligon 1970). A number of secondary cavity nesters and other vertebrates are dependent on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers for the cavities they create (Rudolph et al. 1990, Loeb 1993, LaBranche and...

  8. Functional differentiation of trailing and leading forelimbs during locomotion on the ground and on a horizontal branch in the European red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia).

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    Schmidt, André

    2011-06-01

    Mammalian locomotion is characterized by the frequent use of in-phase gaits in which the footfalls of the left and right fore- or hindlimbs are unevenly spaced in time. Although previous studies have identified a functional differentiation between the first limb (trailing limb) and the second limb (leading limb) to touch the ground during terrestrial locomotion, the influence of a horizontal branch on limb function has never been explored. To determine the functional differences between trailing and leading forelimbs during locomotion on the ground and on a horizontal branch, X-ray motion analysis and force measurements were carried out in two European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia). The differences observed between trailing and leading forelimbs were minimal during terrestrial locomotion, where both limbs fulfill two functions and go through a shock-absorbing phase followed by a generating phase. During locomotion on a horizontal branch, European red squirrels reduce speed and all substrate reaction forces transmitted may be due to the reduction of vertical oscillation of the center of mass. Further adjustments during locomotion on a horizontal branch differ significantly between trailing and leading forelimbs and include limb flexion, lead intervals, limb protraction and vertical displacement of the scapular pivot. Consequently, trailing and leading forelimbs perform different functions. Trailing forelimbs function primarily as shock-absorbing elements, whereas leading forelimbs are characterized by a high level of stiffness. This functional differentiation indicates that European red squirrels 'test' the substrate for stability with the trailing forelimb, while the leading forelimb responds to or counteracts swinging or snapping branches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The occurrence of hepatozoon in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

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    Herman, C.M.; Price, D.L.

    1955-01-01

    Hepatozoon sciuri (Coles, 1914) is reported from gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Washington, D.C. and Maryland. Blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain revealed a parasitemia in 16 to 71% of the squirrels examined. A technique for laking the red cells and concentrating the white cells in blood samples demonstrated this protozoon to be present in every squirrel so tested.

  10. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

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    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  11. A role for habitat area in the geographic mosaic of coevolution between red crossbills and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepielski, A M; Benkman, C W

    2005-07-01

    Understanding how resource abundance limits adaptive evolution and influences species interactions is an important step towards developing insight into the role of microevolutionary processes in establishing macroevolutionary patterns. We examined how variation in resource abundance (forest area of lodgepole pine Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) influenced patterns of co-adaptation and coevolution between red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex) and lodgepole pine populations. First, we found that crossbill abundance increased logarithmically as forest area increased in mountain ranges lacking a preemptive competitor (pine squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Second, seed defences against predation by crossbills increased with increases in crossbill density, suggesting that seed defences have likely evolved in proportion to the intensity of selection that crossbills exert. Third, the average bill size of crossbill populations increased with increasing seed defences, which implies that crossbill offenses increased with increases in seed defences. The large bill size on the largest range is the result of coevolution with lodgepole pine with this crossbill population perhaps speciating. Local adaptation of crossbill populations on smaller ranges, however, is more likely the result of resident crossbills representing a subset of the potential colonists (phenotypic sorting) than of local evolution. In the smallest range, migration and possibly more frequent extinction likely impede local adaptation and may result in maladaptation.

  12. The Autopsy of Squirrel Doe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Timothy T.; Watson, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Introductory biology laboratory experiences frequently rely on preserved chordates for anatomical study. Unfortunately, these preserved organisms rarely reflect the appearance of a living creature. Since community colleges are generally prohibited the use of live chordates, this paper describes the autopsy of a "road kill" squirrel to facilitate…

  13. Assessing the geographic origin of the invasive grey squirrel using DNA sequencing: Implications for management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire D. Stevenson-Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The invasive grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis has become a major pest species causing negative effects to forestry and biodiversity. This study aims to assess the origin of grey squirrel within Cumbria using phylogeographic analysis to aid in management and control. The work reported analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences in the D-Loop gene of 73 grey squirrel individuals from multiple locations in the UK. The results indicate that individuals in north Cumbria are derived from individuals from Scotland and North East England. Other individuals in north Cumbria share a unique haplotype with south Cumbria and Lancashire suggesting a southerly origin and movement around or over the Cumbrian Mountain range which is thought of as a barrier to movements. The assessment of invasive species geographical origin and the identification of potential wildlife transit corridors through natural barriers are becoming more important as species shift range in response to environmental and ecological changes. With the grey squirrel population expansion also occurring in Italy, the European red squirrel may become threatened across its entire range. It is crucial to understand the population origins of the invasive grey squirrel and landscape usage to successfully manage the incursion routes and control the population.

  14. Ground squirrel shooting and potential lead exposure in breeding avian scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wagner, Mason T.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius). Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding’s ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival). Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and Swainson’s hawks (B. swainsoni) consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling’s mass, energy needs

  15. Ground Squirrel Shooting and Potential Lead Exposure in Breeding Avian Scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Herring

    Full Text Available Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius. Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding's ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival. Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos, red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis, and Swainson's hawks (B. swainsoni consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling's mass, energy

  16. Differential estimates of southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) population structure based on capture method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucmrtys volam) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides bumah) reproductive success. Southern flying...

  17. Diet and food availability of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus): implications for dispersal in a fragmented forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie E. Trapp; Winston P. Smith; Elizabeth A. Flaherty

    2017-01-01

    A history of timber harvest in West Virginia has reduced red spruce (Picea rubens) forests to < 10% of their historic range and resulted in considerable habitat fragmentation for wildlife species associated with these forests. The Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) has been described as a red...

  18. North American tree squirrels and ground squirrels with overlapping ranges host different Cryptosporidium species and genotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stenger, B.L.S.; Clark, M.E.; Kváč, Martin; Khan, E.; Giddings, C.W.; Prediger, Jitka; McEvoy, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, 2015-Dec (2015), s. 287-293 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01090S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * Tree squirrels * Ground squirrels * Host specificity * Zoonotic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2015

  19. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  20. Correlates of vulnerability in Chiricahua fox squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret S. Pasch; John L. Koprowski

    2005-01-01

    Chiricahua fox squirrels (Sciurus nayaritensis chiricahuae) are endemic to the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. A paucity of natural history information and uncertain conservation status served as impetus for us to initiate a descriptive ecological study of the species. We examined reproductive and population ecology of Chiricahua fox...

  1. Food habits of Northern Goshawks nesting in south central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires

    2000-01-01

    Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentiles) nesting in south central Wyoming consumed at least 33 species of prey; 14 were mammals and 19 were birds. Based on percent occurrence in regurgitated pellets, dominant (>10% frequency) prey species included: red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus; present in 50% of pellets), Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus; 34...

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Expansion of the Elmendorf AFB Gravel Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    portions of the herd migrate off base in fall and winter. To help reduce moose numbers on military lands, Fort Richardson held annual hunts. The...muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), snowshoe hare, river otter (Lutra canadensis

  3. Yield from an intensively hunted population of eastern fox squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; James S. Jordan

    1971-01-01

    Rates at which Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are exploited in areas open to public hunting may be useful guides for designing fall hunting seasons that are biologically defensible. However, there is a question whether the harvest of fox squirrels by public hunting will even occasionally be great enough to challenge the limit allowed by the best designed...

  4. Histological Studies of Some Organs of Squirrels ( Xerus erythropus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological Studies of Some Organs of Squirrels ( Xerus erythropus ) in Tropical Ecological Zone. ... The ground squirrels were trapped using rodent traps, anesthetized identified to species level and dissected to expose the viscera. The organs (liver brain, heart, gonads (testes and ovaries) were dissected out, clean off ...

  5. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production

  6. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Demography of northern flying squirrels informs ecosystem management of western interior forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Lehmkuhl; Keith D. Kistler; James S. Begley; John. Boulanger

    2006-01-01

    We studied northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) demography in the eastern Washington Cascade Range to test hypotheses about regional and local abundance patterns and to inform managers of the possible effects of fire and fuels management on flying squirrels. We quantified habitat characteristics and squirrel density, population trends, and...

  8. Management and conservation of tree squirrels: the importance of endemism, species richness, and forest condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Koprowski

    2005-01-01

    Tree squirrels are excellent indicators of forest health yet the taxon is understudied. Most tree squirrels in the Holarctic Region are imperiled with some level of legal protection. The Madrean Archipelago is the epicenter for tree squirrel diversity in North America with 5 endemic species and 2 introduced species. Most species of the region are poorly studied in...

  9. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  10. Equivalence Between Squirrel Cage and Sheet Rotor Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Ankita; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    Due to topological changes in dual stator induction motor and high cost of its fabrication, it is convenient to replace the squirrel cage rotor with a composite sheet rotor. For an experimental machine, the inner and outer stator stampings are normally available whereas the procurement of rotor stampings is quite cumbersome and is not always cost effective. In this paper, the equivalence between sheet/solid rotor induction motor and squirrel cage induction motor has been investigated using layer theory of electrical machines, so as to enable one to utilize sheet/solid rotor in dual port experimental machines.

  11. Using maximum entropy modeling to identify and prioritize red spruce forest habitat in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan R. Beane; James S. Rentch; Thomas M. Schuler

    2013-01-01

    Red spruce forests in West Virginia are found in island-like distributions at high elevations and provide essential habitat for the endangered Cheat Mountain salamander and the recently delisted Virginia northern flying squirrel. Therefore, it is important to identify restoration priorities of red spruce forests. Maximum entropy modeling was used to identify areas of...

  12. Final Environmental Assessment: Implementation of the Natural Resources Management Program Clear Air Force Station, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    vison ), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), short-tail weasels ( Mustela erminea), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), spruce grouse (Dendragapus...Intense or long-lasting smoke caused by large uncontrolled fire can impact air quality and seriously affect respiratory health • Destruction of valuable...canadensis), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), and least weasels ( Mustela nivalis). In addition to the large mammals and fur-bearers

  13. Anticipatory parental care: acquiring resources for offspring prior to conception.

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin, S; Larsen, K W; Berteaux, D

    2000-01-01

    Many organisms acquire and defend resources outside the breeding season and this is thought to be for immediate survival and reproductive benefits. Female red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) acquire traditional food cache sites up to four months prior to the presence of any physiological or behavioural cues associated with mating or offspring dependency. They subsequently relinquish these resources to one of their offspring at independence (ten months later). We experimentally show that a...

  14. Archaeological Investigations on the East Fork of the Salmon River, Custer County, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    coniferous environment in addition to pine marten (Martes americana), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), porcupine (Erithizon dorsatum), mountain vole...can be seen in small herds throughout the East Fork valley from the Salmon River to Big Boulder Creek. Two bands of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep...utilize the Challis Planning Unit, one on the East Fork and the other in the Birch Creek area. The East Fork herd is comprised of approximately 50-70

  15. Anophthalmia in a Wild Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Hartnett, Elizabeth A; James, Fiona M K; Grahn, Bruce H

    2017-10-01

    We describe bilateral true anophthalmia in a juvenile female eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) with histologic confirmation that orbital contents lacked ocular tissues. Additionally, the optic chiasm of the brain was absent and axon density in the optic tract adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus was reduced.

  16. List of the specimens of Squirrels in the Leyden Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1883-01-01

    The profound and extensive studies upon the American Squirrels by Allen 1) and Alston 2), have made this group, we must confess it, one of the best known among the Mammals. At the same time however the named authors have shown that it is almost an impossibility to give a good and exact diagnosis of

  17. Effects of new forest management strategies on squirrel populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Two strategies for managing forests for multiple values have achieved prominence in debates in the Pacific Northwest: (1) legacy retention with passive management and long rotations, and (2) intensive management for timber with commercial thinnings and long rotations. Northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), Townsend's chipmunks (

  18. Age determination in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus cepapi cepapi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tooth eruption and wear, measurements of skulls, eye-lens mass determination and different aspects of phallic morphology were used in an attempt at age classification in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus c. cepapi. The first method proved the most practical and allowed for three immature and three adult age classes.

  19. Green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) and ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) mortality attributed to inland brevetoxin transportation at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttke, Danielle E.; Walker, Alicia; Huang, I-Shuo; Flewelling, Leanne; Lankton, Julia S.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Clapp, Travis; Lindsay, James; Zimba, Paul V.

    2018-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30–40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues. Tissue brevetoxin was also found in two dead or dying spotted ground squirrels (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) and a coyote (Canis latrans). Rainwater collected from the location of the mortality event contained brevetoxin. Mortality of green tree frog and ground squirrel mortality has not been previously attributed to brevetoxin exposure and such mortality suggested that inland toxin transport, possibly through aerosols, rainfall, or insects, may have important implications for coastal species.

  20. A Squirrel Cage Type Electric Motor Rotor Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-05

    cage motor, but also provides efficiencies approaching those of permanent magnet motors . With the above and other objects in view, as will...and active motor life relative to known permanent magnet motors . Referring to FIG. 4, there is illustrated an alternative embodiment in which...part the.known advantages of a squirrel cage motor, and further provides improved efficiencies approaching those of permanent magnet motors . It is to

  1. Native and introduced squirrels in Italy host different Cryptosporidium spp.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prediger, Jitka; Horčičková, Michaela; Hofmannová, L.; Sak, Bohumil; Ferrari, N.; Mazzamuto, M.V.; Romeo, C.; Wauters, L.A.; McEvoy, J.; Kváč, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, OCT (2017), s. 64-75 ISSN 0932-4739 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01090S; GA MŠk LTAUSA17165 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * gp60 * infection * Italy * phylogeny * tree squirrels Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2016

  2. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Evans, A.M.; Odom, Richard H.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Kelly, C.A.; Abaid, Nicole; Diggins, Corinne A.; Newcomb, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy models in the program PRESENCE for boxes surveyed in western North Carolina, 1996-2011. Our best approximating model showed CNFS denning associated with sheltered landforms and montane conifers, primarily red spruce Picea rubens. As sheltering decreased, decreasing distance to conifers was important. Area with a high probability (>0.5) of occupancy was distributed over 18662 ha of habitat, mostly across 10 mountain ranges. Because nest-box surveys underrepresented areas >1750 m and CNFS forage in conifers, we combined areas of high occupancy with conifer GIS coverages to create an additional distribution model of likely habitat. Regionally, above 1385 m, we determined that 31795 ha could be occupied by CNFS. Known occupied patches ranged from

  3. Ecological scale and forest development: squirrels, dietary fungi, and vascular plants in managed and unmanaged forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.B. Carey; J. Kershner; B. Biswell; L.S. Dominguez de Toledo

    1999-01-01

    Understanding ecological processes and their spatial scales is key to managing ecosystems for biodiversity, especially for species associated with late-seral forest. We focused on 2 species of squirrel (Sciuridae: northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus, and Townsend's chipmunk, Tamias townsendii) in a crosssectional survey of managed and natural stands in...

  4. A meta-analysis of forest age and structure effects on northern flying squirrel densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian L. Holloway; Winston P. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Research on the impact of clearcut logging and partial harvesting practices on northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) has shown inconsistent and contrary results, limiting the use of this species as a management indicator species. Much of this variability in study results is due to the labor intensive nature of studying flying squirrels,...

  5. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  6. Influence of habitat on behavior of Towndsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Peter B.; Van Horne, Beatrice

    1998-01-01

    Trade-offs between foraging and predator avoidance may affect an animal's survival and reproduction. These trade-offs may be influenced by differences in vegetative cover, especially if foraging profitability and predation risk differ among habitats. We examined above-ground activity of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) in four habitats in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southwestern Idaho to determine if behavior of ground squirrels varied among habitats, and we assessed factors that might affect perceived predation risk (i. e. predator detectability, predation pressure, population density). The proportion of time spent in vigilance by ground squirrels in winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata) and mosaic habitats of winterfat-sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) was more than twice that of ground squirrels in burned and unburned sagebrush habitats. We found no evidence for the 'many-eyes' hypothesis as an explanation for differences in vigilance among habitats. Instead, environmental heterogeneity, especially vegetation structure, likely influenced activity budgets of ground squirrels. Differences in vigilance may have been caused by differences in predator detectability and refuge availability, because ground squirrels in the winterfat and mosaic habitats also spent more time in upright vigilant postures than ground squirrels in burned-sagebrush or sagebrush habitats. Such postures may enhance predator detection in low-growing winterfat.

  7. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bonnington

    Full Text Available Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  8. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, S T; Novak, M A; Bond, M

    1998-06-01

    The authors tested orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) on object permanence tasks. In Experiment 1, orangutans solved all visible displacements and most invisible displacements except those involving movements into 2 boxes successively. In Experiment 2, performance of orangutans on double invisible displacements and control displacements (assessing simple strategies) was compared. Orangutans did not use the simple strategy of selecting the box visited last by the experimenter. Instead, poorer performance on double invisible displacements may have been related to increased memory requirements. In Experiment 3, squirrel monkeys were tested using the procedure of Experiment 1. Squirrel monkeys solved visible but did not comprehend invisible displacements. Results suggest that orangutans but not squirrel monkeys possess Stage 6 object permanence capabilities.

  9. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

  10. Home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    A field study of home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus, was conducted in semi-arid bushland near Kibwezi, Kenya. Ground squirrels lived alone or in small groups in isolated burrow systems and had broadly overlapping home ranges. They were neither territorial or colonial. Home ranges were estimated by visual observation of marked animals and those of males were considerably larger (mean=7.01 hectares (ha); n=4) than those of females (mean=1.37 ha; n-6). A continuum of agonistic behavior ranging from threat to combat is described, although actual combat was rarely observed. Sexual behavior includes a stereotypical tail display by adult males. Dominance relationships, based on 542 observed encounters between marked individuals, include a consistent male dominance over females and a fairly constant linear hierarchy among all individuals with shared home ranges. Similarities in the behavior of African ground squirrels and tree squirrels (Sciurus) are discussed.

  11. Parameters of mating effort and success in male European ground squirrels, Spermophilus citellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millesi, E; Dittami, J; Hoffmann, [No Value; Daan, S; Hoffmann, Ilse; Wickler, W.

    Behavioural and physiological changes during the reproductive period were documented in male European ground squirrels including: initiated conflict, scent marking, locomotion and range size, as well as testis size, scrotal pigmentation, testosterone levels and changes in body mass. Spring emergence

  12. Excretory urography by subcutaneous injection of iodixanol in Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalous)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veshkini, A.; Tavana, M.; Haghdost, I.S.; Masouleh, M.N.; Savojbolaghi, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    There are many indications for excretory urography in humans and animals. Intravenous urography (IVU) is the most practical method about other urography techniques are used because of difficulties for finding veins in IVU, due to small size of the patients. This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of subcutaneous injection of iodixanol in providing a safe and diagnostic urogram in Persian squirrel. Twelve clinically healthy adult Persian squirrels were prepared and kept for two weeks prior to study. Blood tests were performed 7 days prior to the study. After eighteen hour fasting, animals were sedated by using xylazine/diazepam cocktail (xylazine 5mg/kg, diazepam 30mg/kg). Lateral and ventrodorsal control radiographs were taken. Thirteen hundred and 1800 mg iodine per kilogram body weight of iodixanol was injected subcutaneously over shoulder area in Persian squirrels (each dose for six Persian squirrels). Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs were taken every 5 m

  13. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  14. Ca2+ cycling in heart cells from ground squirrels: adaptive strategies for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Li

    Full Text Available Heart tissues from hibernating mammals, such as ground squirrels, are able to endure hypothermia, hypoxia and other extreme insulting factors that are fatal for human and nonhibernating mammals. This study was designed to understand adaptive mechanisms involved in intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes from the mammalian hibernator, ground squirrel, compared to rat. Electrophysiological and confocal imaging experiments showed that the voltage-dependence of L-type Ca(2+ current (I(Ca was shifted to higher potentials in ventricular myocytes from ground squirrels vs. rats. The elevated threshold of I(Ca did not compromise the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, because a higher depolarization rate and a longer duration of action potential compensated the voltage shift of I(Ca. Both the caffeine-sensitive and caffeine-resistant components of cytosolic Ca(2+ removal were more rapid in ground squirrels. Ca(2+ sparks in ground squirrels exhibited larger amplitude/size and much lower frequency than in rats. Due to the high I(Ca threshold, low SR Ca(2+ leak and rapid cytosolic Ca(2+ clearance, heart cells from ground squirrels exhibited better capability in maintaining intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis than those from rats and other nonhibernating mammals. These findings not only reveal adaptive mechanisms of hibernation, but also provide novel strategies against Ca(2+ overload-related heart diseases.

  15. Nesting and feeding habits of Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica in Karlapat wildlife sanctuary, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica is one of four species of giant squirrels in the world. It is endemic to India and its populations are severely fragmented. The ecology of squirrels in Asia has been little studied, hindering conservation and management efforts. We studied the Indian giant squirrel’s nesting and feeding habits during spring in the Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary, India. We surveyed 122.5 km of natural trails for direct observation of these squirrels, their nests and feeding evidence, and we sampled plot–based quadrats to assess the availability of resources. We used Manly’s resource selection function and log–likelihood test ratios to analyse the data for preference. The mean encounter rate of the Indian giant squirrel was 0.57 (± 0.18 SD individuals/km. Haldinia cordifolia (Wi = 4.899, p < 0.001 and Mangifera indica (Wi = 4.322, p = 0.001 were the preferred tree for nesting, whereas Xylia xylocarpa (31.30% and Bauhinia vahlii (28.24% were the most commonly eaten plants. Nest site preference was for taller tree species. As current management practices directly damage the preferred nesting sites and food resources, our findings aim to promote effective conservation of the Indian giant squirrel.

  16. Inaccessibility of reinforcement increases persistence and signaling behavior in the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Mikel M; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2016-05-01

    Under natural conditions, wild animals encounter situations where previously rewarded actions do not lead to reinforcement. In the laboratory, a surprising omission of reinforcement induces behavioral and emotional responses described as frustration. Frustration can lead to aggressive behaviors and to the persistence of noneffective responses, but it may also lead to new behavioral responses to a problem, a potential adaptation. We assessed the responses to inaccessible reinforcement in free-ranging fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). We trained squirrels to open a box to obtain food reinforcement, a piece of walnut. After 9 training trials, squirrels were tested in 1 of 4 conditions: a control condition with the expected reward, an alternative reinforcement (a piece of dried corn), an empty box, or a locked box. We measured the presence of signals suggesting arousal (e.g., tail flags and tail twitches) and found that squirrels performed fewer of these behaviors in the control condition and increased certain behaviors (tail flags, biting box) in the locked box condition, compared to other experimental conditions. When faced with nonreinforcement, that is, frustration, squirrels increased the number of interactions with the apparatus and spent more time interacting with the apparatus. This study of frustration responses in a free-ranging animal extends the conclusions of captive studies to the field and demonstrates that fox squirrels show short-term negatively valenced responses to the inaccessibility, omission, and change of reinforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Stochastic population dynamics of a montane ground-dwelling squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Kneip, Eva; Van Vuren, Dirk H; Oli, Madan K

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of population fluctuations is a central goal of ecology. We used demographic data from a long-term (1990-2008) study and matrix population models to investigate factors and processes influencing the dynamics and persistence of a golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) population, inhabiting a dynamic subalpine habitat in Colorado, USA. The overall deterministic population growth rate λ was 0.94±SE 0.05 but it varied widely over time, ranging from 0.45±0.09 in 2006 to 1.50±0.12 in 2003, and was below replacement (λbounce back from low densities and prevented extinction. These results suggest that dynamics and persistence of our study population are determined synergistically by density-dependence, stochastic forces, and immigration.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of anticoagulant-treated baits for control of the northern palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti Wroughton.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, R. P.; Prakash, I.

    1980-01-01

    Individually caged northern palm squirrels, Funambulus pennanti, were fed with bait containing 0.025% warfarin or fumarin, 0.0075% chlorophacinone or 0.005% brodifacoum for a fixed number of days varying from 1 to 14. Brodifacoum (WBA 8119) was found most toxic since 66% and 70% of the animals died after one and two days' feeding respectively. Chlorophacinone killed 70% of the squirrels after three days' feeding. Squirrels were relatively tolerant to warfarin and fumarin since the mortality a...

  19. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Rebecca L; Koprowski, John L

    2015-01-01

    Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti) on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert's squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert's squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert's squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert's squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure.

  20. Seed Removal Increased by Scramble Competition with an Invasive Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Minor

    Full Text Available Competition for seeds has a major influence on the evolution of granivores and the plants on which they rely. The complexity of interactions and coevolutionary relationships vary across forest types. The introduction of non-native granivores has considerable potential to alter seed dispersal dynamics. Non-native species are a major cause of endangerment for native species, but the mechanisms are often unclear. As biological invasions continue to rise, it is important to understand mechanisms to build up strategies to mitigate the threat. Our field experiment quantified the impact of introduced Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti on rates of seed removal within the range of critically endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis, which consumes similar foods. In the presence of invasive Abert's squirrels, the time cones were removed was faster than when the invasive was excluded, accounting for a median removal time of cones available to red and Abert's squirrels that is 32.8% less than that of cones available only to the rare native red squirrels. Moreover, in the presence of Abert's squirrels, removal rates are higher at great distance from a territorial red squirrel larderhoard and in more open portions of the forest, which suggests differential patterns of seed dispersal. The impact on food availability as a result of cone removal by Abert's squirrels suggests the potential of food competition as a mechanism of endangerment for the Mount Graham red squirrel. Furthermore, the magnitude and differential spatial patterns of seed removal suggest that non-native granivores may have impacts on forest regeneration and structure.

  1. Differential Effects of Roads and Traffic on Space Use and Movements of Native Forest-Dependent and Introduced Edge-Tolerant Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Ling Chen

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic infrastructure such as roads and non-native species are major causes of species endangerment. Understanding animal behavioral responses to roads and traffic provides insight into causes and mechanisms of effects of linear development on wildlife and aids effective mitigation and conservation. We investigated effects of roads and traffic on space use and movements of two forest-dwelling species: endemic, forest-dependent Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis and introduced, edge-tolerant Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti. To assess the effects of roads on space use and movement patterns, we compared the probability that a squirrel home range included roads and random lines in forests, and assessed effects of traffic intensity on rate of road crossing and movement patterns. Red squirrels avoided areas adjacent to roads and rarely crossed roads. In contrast, Abert's squirrels were more likely to include roads in their home ranges compared to random lines in forests. Both red squirrels and Abert's squirrels increased speed when crossing roads, compared to before and after road crossings. Increased hourly traffic volume reduced the rate of road crossings by both species. Behavioral responses of red squirrels to roads and traffic resemble responses to elevated predation risk, including reduced speed near roads and increased tortuosity of movement paths with increased traffic volume. In contrast, Abert's squirrels appeared little affected by roads and traffic with tortuosity of movement paths reduced as distance to roads decreased. We found that species with similar body size category (<1 kg but different habitat preference and foraging strategy responded to roads differently and demonstrated that behavior and ecology are important when considering effects of roads on wildlife. Our results indicate that roads restricted movements and space use of a native forest-dependent species while creating habitat preferred

  2. Differential Effects of Roads and Traffic on Space Use and Movements of Native Forest-Dependent and Introduced Edge-Tolerant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang Ling; Koprowski, John L

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic infrastructure such as roads and non-native species are major causes of species endangerment. Understanding animal behavioral responses to roads and traffic provides insight into causes and mechanisms of effects of linear development on wildlife and aids effective mitigation and conservation. We investigated effects of roads and traffic on space use and movements of two forest-dwelling species: endemic, forest-dependent Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) and introduced, edge-tolerant Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti). To assess the effects of roads on space use and movement patterns, we compared the probability that a squirrel home range included roads and random lines in forests, and assessed effects of traffic intensity on rate of road crossing and movement patterns. Red squirrels avoided areas adjacent to roads and rarely crossed roads. In contrast, Abert's squirrels were more likely to include roads in their home ranges compared to random lines in forests. Both red squirrels and Abert's squirrels increased speed when crossing roads, compared to before and after road crossings. Increased hourly traffic volume reduced the rate of road crossings by both species. Behavioral responses of red squirrels to roads and traffic resemble responses to elevated predation risk, including reduced speed near roads and increased tortuosity of movement paths with increased traffic volume. In contrast, Abert's squirrels appeared little affected by roads and traffic with tortuosity of movement paths reduced as distance to roads decreased. We found that species with similar body size category (roads differently and demonstrated that behavior and ecology are important when considering effects of roads on wildlife. Our results indicate that roads restricted movements and space use of a native forest-dependent species while creating habitat preferred by an introduced, edge-tolerant species.

  3. Comparison of survey techniques on detection of northern flying squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Gilley, L. Michelle; Kelly, Christine A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect a species is central to the success of monitoring for conservation and management purposes, especially if the species is rare or endangered. Traditional methods, such as live capture, can be labor-intensive, invasive, and produce low detection rates. Technological advances and new approaches provide opportunities to more effectively survey for species both in terms of accuracy and efficiency than previous methods. We conducted a pilot comparison study of a traditional technique (live-trapping) and 2 novel noninvasive techniques (camera-trapping and ultrasonic acoustic surveys) on detection rates of the federally endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) in occupied habitat within the Roan Mountain Highlands of North Carolina, USA. In 2015, we established 3 5 × 5 live-trapping grids (6.5 ha) with 4 camera traps and 4 acoustic detectors systematically embedded in each grid. All 3 techniques were used simultaneously during 2 4-day survey periods. We compared techniques by assessing probability of detection (POD), latency to detection (LTD; i.e., no. of survey nights until initial detection), and survey effort. Acoustics had the greatest POD (0.37 ± 0.06 SE), followed by camera traps (0.30 ± 0.06) and live traps (0.01 ± 0.005). Acoustics had a lower LTD than camera traps (P = 0.017), where average LTD was 1.5 nights for acoustics and 3.25 nights for camera traps. Total field effort was greatest with live traps (111.9 hr) followed by acoustics (8.4 hr) and camera traps (9.6 hr), although processing and examination for data of noninvasive techniques made overall effort similar among the 3 methods. This pilot study demonstrated that both noninvasive methods were better rapid-assessment detection techniques for flying squirrels than live traps. However, determining seasonal effects between survey techniques and further development of protocols for both noninvasive techniques is

  4. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor regulation by stress inoculation in squirrel monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping in a process called stress inoculation. Stress inoculation also enhances cognitive control and response inhibition of impulsive motivated behavior. Cognitive control and motivation have been linked to striatal dopamine D2 and/or D3 receptors (DRD2/3 in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Here, we study squirrel monkeys randomized early in life to stress inoculation with or without maternal companionship and a no-stress control treatment condition. Striatal DRD2/3 availability in adulthood was measured in vivo by [11C]raclopride binding using positron emission tomography (PET. DRD2/3 availability was greater in caudate and putamen compared to ventral striatum as reported in PET studies of humans and other non-human primates. DRD2/3 availability in ventral striatum was also consistently greater in stress inoculated squirrel monkeys compared to no-stress controls. Squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation in the presence of their mother did not differ from squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation without maternal companionship. Similar effects in different social contexts extend the generality of our findings and together suggest that stress inoculation increases striatal DRD2/3 availability as a correlate of cognitive control in squirrel monkeys.

  5. Multiplex PCR assay discriminates rabbit, rat and squirrel meat in food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Mohammad Nasir Uddin; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hossain, M A Motalib; Asing, Asing; Sultana, Sharmin; Jahurul, M H A

    2017-12-01

    Rabbit meat is receiving increasing attention because it contains a high level of proteins with relatively little fat. On the other hand, squirrel meat is served in upper-class meals in certain countries, so is sold at higher prices. The other side of the coin is rat meat, which has family ties with rabbit and squirrel but poses substantial threats to public health because it is a potential carrier of several zoonotic organisms. Recently, rat meat was mislabelled and sold as lamb after chemical modification. Thus, the chances of rabbit and squirrel meat substitution by rat meat cannot be ruled out. For the first time, a multiplex PCR assay was developed in Malaysia for the discriminatory identification of rat, rabbit and squirrel in the food chain. Rabbit (123 bp), rat (108 bp) and squirrel (243 bp) targets were amplified from ATP6 and cytb genes, along with a eukaryotic internal control (141bp). The products were sequenced and cross-tested against 22 species. A total of 81 reference samples and 72 meatball specimens were screened to validate the assay. Analyte stability was evaluated through boiling, autoclaving and micro-oven cooking. The tested lower limits of detection were 0.01 ng DNA for pure meat and 0.1% for meatballs.

  6. Fox squirrels match food assessment and cache effort to value and scarcity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel M Delgado

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarders must allocate time to assess items for caching, and to carry and bury each cache. Such decisions should be driven by economic variables, such as the value of the individual food items, the scarcity of these items, competition for food items and risk of pilferage by conspecifics. The fox squirrel, an obligate scatter-hoarder, assesses cacheable food items using two overt movements, head flicks and paw manipulations. These behaviors allow an examination of squirrel decision processes when storing food for winter survival. We measured wild squirrels' time allocations and frequencies of assessment and investment behaviors during periods of food scarcity (summer and abundance (fall, giving the squirrels a series of 15 items (alternating five hazelnuts and five peanuts. Assessment and investment per cache increased when resource value was higher (hazelnuts or resources were scarcer (summer, but decreased as scarcity declined (end of sessions. This is the first study to show that assessment behaviors change in response to factors that indicate daily and seasonal resource abundance, and that these factors may interact in complex ways to affect food storing decisions. Food-storing tree squirrels may be a useful and important model species to understand the complex economic decisions made under natural conditions.

  7. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Andrew M. Evans; Richard H. Odom; Jane L. Rodrigue; Christine A. Kelly; Nicole Abaid; Corinne A. Diggins; Douglas Newcomb

    2015-01-01

    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy...

  8. Evaluation of neonatal squirrel monkeys receiving tritiated water throughout gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.C.L.; Krebs, J.S.; Sasmore, D.P.; Mitoma, C.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant squirrel monkeys received tritiated water (HTO) in the drinking water throughout gestation at levels ranging from 16 to 1000 times the permissible level for human consumption (0.003 μCi/ml), resulting in mean body water HTO levels ranging from 0.05 to 3.1 μCi/ml. There were no discernible effects of HTO administration on the newborn progeny in terms of body weight, body dimensions, selected organ weights (brain, heart, adrenal, kidney, liver, spleen), hematologic patterns, and histology of selected organs and tissues (adrenal, kidney, liver, lung, brain, pancreas, jejunum, pituitary, spleen, testes, thymus, skin) other than ovaries. The number of primary oocytes in female progeny decreased markedly with increasing levels of HTO in maternal drinking water. Quantitative analysis of neonate ovaries, testes, brain tissue, and retinal tissue is in progress. No effects of HTO administration on maternal body weight, gestation time, or maintenance of pregnancy to full term were observed. Body weights of HTO-treated inseminated females that did not deliver were less than control weights, but the lack of dose dependence implies that this effect may have been associated with a stimulus characteristic of the HTO administration rather than with irradiation

  9. Evaluation of neonate squirrel monkeys receiving tritiated water throughout gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of receiving tritiated water (HTO) throughout gestation on the developing primate was assessed by administering HTO to adult female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) as the only source of drinking water beginning with the day of insemination and continuing throughout pregnancy. For the control (tap water) and six experimental groups, the mean urinary tritium concentrations in females delivering full-term progeny were <0.004, 0.05, 0.16, 0.33, 0.75, 1.61, and 3.09 microcuries/ml. Positive bioassays for pregnancy were observed in about half of 277 inseminated females. Among pregnant females, the full-term delivery rate was 36%, the abortion rate was 7%, and the resorption rate was 58% with no discernible effect of HTO administration on any of these parameters. The 46 full-term progeny were evaluated within 2 days of birth. No effects of HTO administration were observed in terms of gestation period (median 153 days, range 141-158 days), sex distribution, body weight, body dimensions, selected organ weights, histology (except gonads), or hematologic pattern. The number of primary oocytes in female progeny decreased markedly within increasing concentrations of tritium. Specific quantification of this effect and evaluation of the neonate testes is in progress

  10. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G.; Khare, Shweta P.; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  11. Stochastic population dynamics of a montane ground-dwelling squirrel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Hostetler

    Full Text Available Understanding the causes and consequences of population fluctuations is a central goal of ecology. We used demographic data from a long-term (1990-2008 study and matrix population models to investigate factors and processes influencing the dynamics and persistence of a golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis population, inhabiting a dynamic subalpine habitat in Colorado, USA. The overall deterministic population growth rate λ was 0.94±SE 0.05 but it varied widely over time, ranging from 0.45±0.09 in 2006 to 1.50±0.12 in 2003, and was below replacement (λ<1 for 9 out of 18 years. The stochastic population growth rate λ(s was 0.92, suggesting a declining population; however, the 95% CI on λ(s included 1.0 (0.52-1.60. Stochastic elasticity analysis showed that survival of adult females, followed by survival of juvenile females and litter size, were potentially the most influential vital rates; analysis of life table response experiments revealed that the same three life history variables made the largest contributions to year-to year changes in λ. Population viability analysis revealed that, when the influences of density dependence and immigration were not considered, the population had a high (close to 1.0 in 50 years probability of extinction. However, probability of extinction declined to as low as zero when density dependence and immigration were considered. Destabilizing effects of stochastic forces were counteracted by regulating effects of density dependence and rescue effects of immigration, which allowed our study population to bounce back from low densities and prevented extinction. These results suggest that dynamics and persistence of our study population are determined synergistically by density-dependence, stochastic forces, and immigration.

  12. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of anticoagulant-treated baits for control of the northern palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti Wroughton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R P; Prakash, I

    1980-12-01

    Individually caged northern palm squirrels, Funambulus pennanti, were fed with bait containing 0.025% warfarin or fumarin, 0.0075% chlorophacinone or 0.005% brodifacoum for a fixed number of days varying from 1 to 14. Brodifacoum (WBA 8119) was found most toxic since 66% and 70% of the animals died after one and two days' feeding respectively. Chlorophacinone killed 70% of the squirrels after three days' feeding. Squirrels were relatively tolerant to warfarin and fumarin since the mortality after a period of 14 days' feeding was only 58% and 75% respectively.

  14. The northern flying squirrel as an indicator species of temperate rain forest: test of an hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    2005-01-01

    Management indicator species (MIS) often are selected because their life history and demographics are thought to reflect a suite of ecosystem conditions that are too difficult or costly to measure directly. The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) has been proposed as an MIS of temperate rain forest of southeastern Alaska based on previous...

  15. WARMING UP FOR SLEEP - GROUND-SQUIRRELS SLEEP DURING AROUSALS FROM HIBERNATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAAN, S; BARNES, BM; STRIJKSTRA, AM

    1991-01-01

    Hypothermia during mammalian hibernation is periodically interrupted by arousals to euthermy, the function of which is unknown. We report that arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) consistently sleep during these arousals, and that their EEG shows the decrease in slow wave activity

  16. Ecological correlates of flying squirrel microhabitat use and density in temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    2004-01-01

    We studied habitat relations of the Prince of Wales flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons), an endemic of the temperate, coniferous rainforest of southeastern Alaska, because of concerns over population viability from extensive clear-cut logging in the region. We used stepwise logistic regression to examine relationships between...

  17. Northern flying squirrel mycophagy and truffle production in fir forests in northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Waters; K.S. McKelvey; C.J. Zabel; D.L. Luoma

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the results of four studies in which we either examined the feeding habits of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), a mycophagous (consuming fungi) small mammal, or compared the abundance of truffles (sporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi) among different types of fir (Abies) forest....

  18. The use of GIS and modelling approaches in squirrel population management and conservation: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. W. W. Lurz; J. L. Koprowski; D. J. A. Wood

    2008-01-01

    We review modelling approaches in relation to three key areas of sciurid ecology: management, disease risk assessments and conservation. Models enable us to explore different scenarios to develop effective management and conservation strategies. They may also assist in identifying and targeting research needs for tree and flying squirrels. However, there is a need to...

  19. Behavioural correlates of urbanisation in the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Tarryn; Rymer, Tasmin; Pillay, Neville

    2012-11-01

    Urbanisation critically threatens biodiversity because of habitat destruction and novel selection pressures. Some animals can respond to these challenges by modifying their behaviour, particularly anti-predator behaviour, allowing them to persist in heavily transformed urban areas. We investigated whether the anti-predator behaviour of the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris differed in three localities that differed in their level of urbanisation. According to the habituation hypothesis, we predicted that ground squirrels in urban areas would: (a) be less vigilant and forage more; (b) trade-off flight/vigilance in favour of foraging; and (c) have shorter flight initiation distances (FID) when approached by a human observer. Observations were made in winter and summer at each locality. As expected, ground squirrels in urbanised areas were less vigilant and had shorter FIDs but did not trade-off between foraging and vigilance. In contrast, a population in a non-urbanised locality showed greater levels of vigilance, FID and traded-off vigilance and foraging. A population in a peri-urban locality showed mixed responses. Our results indicate that Cape ground squirrels reduce their anti-predator behaviour in urban areas and demonstrate a flexible behavioural response to urbanisation.

  20. Natural entrainment without dawn and dusk : The case of the European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, RA; van Oort, BEH; Daan, S; Oort, Bob E.H. van

    Observational data collected in the field and in enclosures show that diurnal, burrow-dwelling European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) never were above ground during twilight at dawn or at dusk. The animals emerged on average 4.02 h (SD = 0.45) after civil twilight at dawn and retreated in

  1. Diversity and host specificity of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in native and introduced squirrel specie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmannová, L.; Romeo, C.; Štohanzlová, L.; Jirsová, D.; Mazzamuto, M.V.; Wauters, L.A.; Ferrari, N.; Modrý, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, OCT (2016), s. 1-14 ISSN 0932-4739 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Competition * Eimeria * Sciurus carolinensis * Sciurus vulgaris * Squirrels Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2016

  2. Evidence that a Highway Reduces Apparent Survival Rates of Squirrel Gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. McCall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are prominent components of most landscapes throughout the world, and their negative effects on the natural environment can extend for hundreds or thousands of meters beyond the road. These effects include mortality of wildlife due to collisions with vehicles, pollution of soil and air, modification of wildlife behavior in response to noise, creation of barriers to wildlife movement, and establishment of dispersal conduits for some plant and animal species. In southeast Australia, much of the remaining habitat for the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, is located in narrow strips of Eucalyptus woodland that is adjacent to roads and streams, as well as in small patches of woodland vegetation that is farther from roads. We evaluated the effect of traffic volume on squirrel gliders by estimating apparent annual survival rates of adults along the Hume Freeway and nearby low-traffic-volume roads. We surveyed populations of squirrel gliders by trapping them over 2.5 years, and combined these data with prior information on apparent survival rates in populations located away from freeways to model the ratio of apparent annual survival rates in both site types. The apparent annual survival rate of adult squirrel gliders living along the Hume Freeway was estimated to be approximately 60% lower than for squirrel gliders living near local roads. The cause of the reduced apparent survival rate may be due to higher rates of mortality and/or higher emigration rates adjacent to the Hume Freeway compared with populations near smaller country roads. Management options for population persistence will be influenced by which of these factors is the primary cause of a reduced apparent survival rate.

  3. Note on breeding and parental care behaviours of albino Hoary-bellied Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Sibsagar District of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A few individuals of albino Horay-bellied Squirrels along with normal gray individuals of Callosciurus pygerythrus have been observed in Sibsagar district of Assam, India. One albino female was studied in captivity. This paper presents our observations on the breeding behaviour and the parental care exhibited by the albino squirrel in captivity. The squirrel bred twice in captivity with a normal male of the same species. In both the periods, a single male baby with normal coat colour developed. Oral dose of vitamin E has been found helpful in the breeding of the studied squirrel species. The mother squirrel exhibited parental care by carrying her baby using her mouth, to a safer place during danger. However, the observed phenomenon is unlike that of the cat species. Some of the habitat ecology and feeding habits of the albino squirrels have also been studied, both in natural and in captive conditions.

  4. Consequences of artic ground squirrels on soil carbon loss from Siberian tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N. A.; Natali, S.; Zimov, N.

    2014-12-01

    A large pool of organic carbon (C) has been accumulating in the Arctic for thousands of years. Much of this C has been frozen in permafrost and unavailable for microbial decomposition. As the climate warms and permafrost thaws, the fate of this large C pool will be driven not only by climatic conditions, but also by ecosystem changes brought about by arctic animal populations. In this project we studied arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii), which are widely-distributed throughout the Arctic. These social mammals create subterranean burrows that mix soil layers, increase aeration, alter soil moisture and temperature, and redistribute soil nutrients, all of which may impact microbial decomposition. We examined the effects of arctic ground squirrel activity on soil C mineralization in dry heath tundra underlain by continuous permafrost in the Kolyma River watershed in northeast Siberia, Russia. Vegetation cover was greatly reduced on the ground squirrel burrows (80% of ground un-vegetated), compared to undisturbed sites (35% of ground un-vegetated). Soils from ground squirrel burrows were also significantly dryer and warmer. To examine effects of ground squirrel activity on microbial respiration, we conducted an 8-day incubation of soil fromburrows and from adjacent undisturbed tundra. In addition, we assessed the impact of nutrient addition by including treatments with low and high levels of nitrogen addition. Microbial respiration (per gram soil) was three-fold higher in incubated soils from the undisturbed sites compared to soils collected from the burrows. The lower rates of respiration from the disturbed soils may have been a result of lower carbon quality or low soil moisture. High nitrogen addition significantly increased respiration in the undisturbed soils, but not in the disturbed burrow soils, which suggests that microbial respiration in the burrow soils was not primarily limited by nitrogen. These results demonstrate the importance of wildlife

  5. Effects of drought and prolonged winter on Townsend's ground squirrel demography in shrubsteppe habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Beatrice; Olson, Gail S.; Schooley, Robert L.; Corn, Janelle G.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1997-01-01

    During a mark–recapture study of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) on 20 sites in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area, Idaho, in 1991 through 1994, 4407 animals were marked in 17639 capture events. This study of differences in population dynamics of Townsend's ground squirrels among habitats spanned a drought near the extreme of the 130-yr record, followed by prolonged winter conditions.Townsend's ground squirrels have a short active season (≈4 mo) in which to reproduce and store fat for overwintering. Their food consists largely of succulent grasses and forbs in this dry shrubsteppe and grassland habitat. The drought in the latter half of the 1992 active season produced early drying of Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa secunda) and was associated with low adult and juvenile body masses prior to immergence into estivation/hibernation. The following prolonged winter was associated with late emergence of females in 1993. Early-season body masses of adults were low in 1993 relative to 1992, whereas percentage of body fat in males was relatively high. These weather patterns in spring 1992 and winter 1993 also resulted in reduced adult persistence through the ≈7-mo inactive period, especially for adult females, and near-zero persistence of >1200 juveniles. Consequently, densities of Townsend's ground squirrels across the 20 livetrap sites declined.The demographic effects of drought and prolonged winter lasted at least through the subsequent breeding season. Adult females that survived these weather extremes produced fewer emergent young per female than did adult females prior to the event. Prior to the drought/prolonged winter, yearling female body masses were higher than, or indistinguishable from, those of adults. Females produced in 1993 had lower body masses as yearlings than did adult females.Demographic response to the drought and prolonged winter varied with habitat; ground squirrels in sagebrush habitat showed less decline

  6. Effects of near-UV radiation on the protein of the grey squirrel lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigman, S.; Paxhia, T.; Waldron, W.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo exposure of grey squirrels to 40W BLB illumination resulted in alterations in the state of the lens crystallins, mainly in the outer layer of the lens. HPLC revealed an increase of the void volume or crosslinked crystallins and an increase in peptides with molecular weights lower than 20,000 d. In vitro exposure of squirrel lens aqueous extracts to Woods lamp radiation (predominantly 365 nm) led to similar but more exaggerated changes as viewed by high performance liquid chromatography. When viewed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), soluble protein crosslinking was also observed. The near-UV absorbing chromophores of low molecular weight present in the lens served as photosensitizers that enhanced the protein changes. Sodium azide inhibited the changes, indicating a role for singlet oxygen in the crosslinking. (author)

  7. Effects of near-UV radiation on the protein of the grey squirrel lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigman, S; Paxhia, T; Waldron, W

    1988-06-01

    In vivo exposure of grey squirrels to 40W BLB illumination resulted in alterations in the state of the lens crystallins, mainly in the outer layer of the lens. HPLC revealed an increase of the void volume or crosslinked crystallins and an increase in peptides with molecular weights lower than 20,000 d. In vitro exposure of squirrel lens aqueous extracts to Woods lamp radiation (predominantly 365 nm) led to similar but more exaggerated changes as viewed by high performance liquid chromatography. When viewed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), soluble protein crosslinking was also observed. The near-UV absorbing chromophores of low molecular weight present in the lens served as photosensitizers that enhanced the protein changes. Sodium azide inhibited the changes, indicating a role for singlet oxygen in the crosslinking.

  8. Effects of near-UV radiation on the protein of the grey squirrel lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigman, S; Paxhia, T; Waldron, W

    1988-06-01

    In vivo exposure of grey squirrels to 40W BLB illumination resulted in alterations in the state of the lens crystallins, mainly in the outer layer of the lens. HPLC revealed an increase of the void volume or crosslinked crystallins and an increase in peptides with molecular weights lower than 20,000 d. In vitro exposure of squirrel lens aqueous extracts to Woods lamp radiation (predominantly 365 nm) led to similar but more exaggerated changes as viewed by high performance liquid chromatography. When viewed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), soluble protein crosslinking was also observed. The near-UV absorbing chromophores of low molecular weight present in the lens served as photosensitizers that enhanced the protein changes. Sodium azide inhibited the changes, indicating a role for singlet oxygen in the crosslinking.

  9. Autoshaping and automaintenance of a key-press response in squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamzu, E; Schwam, E

    1974-03-01

    Following exposure for a minimum of 500 to 600 trials, three of four naive squirrel monkeys eventually pressed a response key, illumination of which always preceded delivery of a food pellet. Three other naive monkeys did not press the key when the pellets were delivered randomly with respect to key illumination. Despite some similarities to autoshaping using pigeons, the data indicate many points of difference when squirrel monkeys are used as subjects. Although key-food pairings were shown to be important in the acquisition of the key-press response, they were ineffective in maintaining the response when either a negative response-reinforcer dependency was introduced, or when there was no scheduled response-reinforcer dependency (fixed trial). Not all demonstrations of autoshaping can be considered to be under the control of those processes that are primarily responsible for the phenomena obtained in pigeons.

  10. Theoretical analysis of a YBCO squirrel-cage type induction motor based on an equivalent circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, G; Nakamura, T; Muta, I

    2006-01-01

    A HTS induction motor, with a HTS squirrel-cage rotor, is analysed using an electrical equivalent circuit. The squirrel-cage winding in the rotor consists of rotor bars and end rings, and both are considered to be made of YBCO film conductors. A wide range of electric field versus current density in YBCO film is formulated based on the Weibull function, and analysed as a non-linear resistance in the equivalent circuit. It is shown that starting and accelerating torques of the HTS induction motor are improved drastically compared to those of a conventional induction motor. Furthermore, large synchronous torque can also be realized by trapping the magnetic flux in the rotor circuit because of the persistent current mode

  11. Novel rotating characteristics of a squirrel-cage-type HTS induction/synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Ogama, Y; Miyake, H; Nagao, K; Nishimura, T

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the rotating characteristics of a high-T c superconducting induction/synchronous motor, which possesses both asynchronous and synchronous torques even though its structure is exactly the same as the squirrel-cage-type induction motor. Two kinds of Bi-2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes were utilized for the secondary windings. A commercialized motor (1.5 kW) was subjected to this study. A conventional (normal conducting) stator (three-phase, four-pole) was directly utilized, and only the squirrel-cage windings were replaced with the superconducting tapes. The tests were performed after the fabricated motor was immersed in liquid nitrogen. The operating temperature was also varied by pumping out the liquid nitrogen. It is shown that the motor is successfully synchronized for the temperature range from 65 to 77 K. Detailed discussions for such novel rotating characteristics are reported based on the electrical equivalent circuit

  12. Sensorless speed detection of squirrel-cage induction machines using stator neutral point voltage harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Goran; Kilic, Tomislav; Terzic, Bozo

    2009-04-01

    In this paper a sensorless speed detection method of induction squirrel-cage machines is presented. This method is based on frequency determination of the stator neutral point voltage primary slot harmonic, which is dependent on rotor speed. In order to prove method in steady state and dynamic conditions the simulation and experimental study was carried out. For theoretical investigation the mathematical model of squirrel cage induction machines, which takes into consideration actual geometry and windings layout, is used. Speed-related harmonics that arise from rotor slotting are analyzed using digital signal processing and DFT algorithm with Hanning window. The performance of the method is demonstrated over a wide range of load conditions.

  13. COMBINATIONS OF SQUIRRELS-POLISAHARID IN WORKING OUT OF QUALITATIVE MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new multifunctional additive created in kombina-tsii of squirrels-polisaharid is developed. Results of morphological researches and technological schemes of manufacture meat produk with application of a multifunctional additive, and also a chemical compound and органолептические and physical and chemical indicators polufab-rikatov are presented.

  14. Cryptosporidium rubeyi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae in multiple Spermophilus ground squirrel species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunde Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously we reported the unique Cryptosporidium sp. “c” genotype (e.g., Sbey03c, Sbey05c, Sbld05c, Sltl05c from three species of Spermophilus ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi, Spermophilus beldingi, Spermophilus lateralis located throughout California, USA. This follow-up work characterizes the morphology and animal infectivity of this novel genotype as the final step in proposing it as a new species of Cryptosporidium. Analysis of sequences of 18S rRNA, actin, and HSP70 genes of additional Cryptosporidium isolates from recently sampled California ground squirrels (S. beecheyi confirms the presence of the unique Sbey-c genotype in S. beecheyi. Phylogenetic and BLAST analysis indicates that the c-genotype in Spermophilus ground squirrels is distinct from Cryptosporidium species/genotypes from other host species currently available in GenBank. We propose to name this c-genotype found in Spermophilus ground squirrels as Cryptosporidium rubeyi n. sp. The mean size of C. rubeyi n. sp. oocysts is 4.67 (4.4–5.0 μm × 4.34 (4.0–5.0 μm, with a length/width index of 1.08 (n = 220. Oocysts of C. rubeyi n. sp. are not infectious to neonatal BALB/c mice and Holstein calves. GenBank accession numbers for C. rubeyi n. sp. are DQ295012, AY462233, and KM010224 for the 18S rRNA gene, KM010227 for the actin gene, and KM010229 for the HSP70 gene.

  15. Tail function during arboreal quadrupedalism in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D; Thatikunta, Meena A; Chadwell, Brad A

    2015-10-01

    The need to maintain stability on narrow branches is often presented as a major selective force shaping primate morphology, with adaptations to facilitate grasping receiving particular attention. The functional importance of a long and mobile tail for maintaining arboreal stability has been comparatively understudied. Tails can facilitate arboreal balance by acting as either static counterbalances or dynamic inertial appendages able to modulate whole-body angular momentum. We investigate associations between tail use and inferred grasping ability in two closely related cebid platyrrhines-cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and black-capped squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Using high-speed videography of captive monkeys moving on 3.2 cm diameter poles, we specifically test the hypothesis that squirrel monkeys (characterized by grasping extremities with long digits) will be less dependent on the tail for balance than tamarins (characterized by claw-like nails, short digits, and a reduced hallux). Tamarins have relatively longer tails than squirrel monkeys, move their tails through greater angular amplitudes, at higher angular velocities, and with greater angular accelerations, suggesting dynamic use of tail to regulate whole-body angular momentum. By contrast, squirrel monkeys generally hold their tails in a comparatively stationary posture and at more depressed angles, suggesting a static counterbalancing mechanism. This study, the first empirical test of functional tradeoffs between grasping ability and tail use in arboreal primates, suggests a critical role for the tail in maintaining stability during arboreal quadrupedalism. Our findings have the potential to inform our functional understanding of tail loss during primate evolution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Application of novel hall sensor technique to evaluate internal defect nondestructively in squirrel cage rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myung Ju; Lee, Joon Hyun

    1998-01-01

    Development of Nondestructive Tester for industrial application to detect flaws in aluminum die-casted squirrel case rotor is reported in this paper. Electronic currents are supplied to the end-ring and Hall effect sensors are used to detect the variation of currents which flow in the bar of the rotor. Some signal processing techniques are introduced to classify the signals due to the defects in the bars

  17. The adaptive function of masturbation in a promiscuous African ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Jane M

    2010-09-28

    Studies of animal mating systems increasingly emphasize female multiple mating and cryptic sexual selection, particularly sperm competition. Males under intense sperm competition may manipulate sperm quantity and quality through masturbation, which could waste sperm and decrease fertility. I examined the factors influencing masturbation by male Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) in light of a number of functional hypotheses. Observational data on a marked population of squirrels were collected in east-central Namibia using scan and all-occurrences sampling. Masturbation was far more frequent on days of female oestrus and mostly occurred after copulation. Masturbation rates were higher in dominant males, which copulate more, than in subordinates and increased with number of mates a female accepts. These results suggest that masturbation in this species was not a response to sperm competition nor a sexual outlet by subordinates that did not copulate. Instead masturbation could function as a form of genital grooming. Female Cape ground squirrels mate with up to 10 males in a 3-hr oestrus, and by masturbating after copulation males could reduce the chance of infection. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can profoundly affect fertility, and their consequences for mating strategies need to be examined more fully.

  18. Conservatism and adaptability during squirrel radiation: what is mandible shape telling us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Casanovas-Vilar

    Full Text Available Both functional adaptation and phylogeny shape the morphology of taxa within clades. Herein we explore these two factors in an integrated way by analyzing shape and size variation in the mandible of extant squirrels using landmark-based geometric morphometrics in combination with a comparative phylogenetic analysis. Dietary specialization and locomotion were found to be reliable predictors of mandible shape, with the prediction by locomotion probably reflecting the underlying diet. In addition a weak but significant allometric effect could be demonstrated. Our results found a strong phylogenetic signal in the family as a whole as well as in the main clades, which is in agreement with the general notion of squirrels being a conservative group. This fact does not preclude functional explanations for mandible shape, but rather indicates that ancient adaptations kept a prominent role, with most genera having diverged little from their ancestral clade morphologies. Nevertheless, certain groups have evolved conspicuous adaptations that allow them to specialize on unique dietary resources. Such adaptations mostly occurred in the Callosciurinae and probably reflect their radiation into the numerous ecological niches of the tropical and subtropical forests of Southeastern Asia. Our dietary reconstruction for the oldest known fossil squirrels (Eocene, 36 million years ago show a specialization on nuts and seeds, implying that the development from protrogomorphous to sciuromorphous skulls was not necessarily related to a change in diet.

  19. The adaptive function of masturbation in a promiscuous African ground squirrel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M Waterman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of animal mating systems increasingly emphasize female multiple mating and cryptic sexual selection, particularly sperm competition. Males under intense sperm competition may manipulate sperm quantity and quality through masturbation, which could waste sperm and decrease fertility. I examined the factors influencing masturbation by male Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris in light of a number of functional hypotheses. METHODOLOGY: Observational data on a marked population of squirrels were collected in east-central Namibia using scan and all-occurrences sampling. FINDINGS: Masturbation was far more frequent on days of female oestrus and mostly occurred after copulation. Masturbation rates were higher in dominant males, which copulate more, than in subordinates and increased with number of mates a female accepts. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that masturbation in this species was not a response to sperm competition nor a sexual outlet by subordinates that did not copulate. Instead masturbation could function as a form of genital grooming. Female Cape ground squirrels mate with up to 10 males in a 3-hr oestrus, and by masturbating after copulation males could reduce the chance of infection. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs can profoundly affect fertility, and their consequences for mating strategies need to be examined more fully.

  20. The Functional Organization and Cortical Connections of Motor Cortex in Squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Dylan F.; Padberg, Jeffrey; Zahner, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Despite extraordinary diversity in the rodent order, studies of motor cortex have been limited to only 2 species, rats and mice. Here, we examine the topographic organization of motor cortex in the Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and cortical connections of motor cortex in the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi). We distinguish a primary motor area, M1, based on intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), myeloarchitecture, and patterns of connectivity. A sensorimotor area between M1 and the primary somatosensory area, S1, was also distinguished based on connections, functional organization, and myeloarchitecture. We term this field 3a based on similarities with area 3a in nonrodent mammals. Movements are evoked with ICMS in both M1 and 3a in a roughly somatotopic pattern. Connections of 3a and M1 are distinct and suggest the presence of a third far rostral field, termed “F,” possibly involved in motor processing based on its connections. We hypothesize that 3a is homologous to the dysgranular zone (DZ) in S1 of rats and mice. Our results demonstrate that squirrels have both similar and unique features of M1 organization compared with those described in rats and mice, and that changes in 3a/DZ borders appear to have occurred in both lineages. PMID:22021916

  1. Shape optimization of 3D curved slots and its application to the squirrel-cage elastic support design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Weihong; Wang, Zhenpei; Zhu, Jihong

    2010-10-01

    The squirrel-cage elastic support is one of the most important components of an aero-engine rotor system. A proper structural design will favor the static and dynamic performances of the system. In view of the deficiency of the current shape optimization techniques, a new mapping approach is proposed to define shape design variables based on the parametric equations of 3D curves and surfaces. It is then applied for the slot shape optimization of a squirrel-cage elastic support. To this end, an automatic design procedure that integrates the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is developed to solve the problem. Two typical examples with different shape constraints are considered. Numerical results provide reasonable optimum designs for the improvement of stiffness and strength of the squirrel-cage elastic support.

  2. Determination of an optimal dose of medetomidine-ketamine-buprenorphine for anaesthesia in the Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Joubert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The optimal dose of medetomidine-ketamine-buprenorphine was determined in 25 Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris undergoing surgical implantation of a temperature logger into the abdominal cavity. At the end of anaesthesia, the squirrels were given atipamezole intramuscularly to reverse the effects of medetomidine. The mean dose of medetomidine was 67.6±9.2 μg/kg, ketamine 13.6±1.9 mg/kg and buprenorphine 0.5±0.06 μg/kg. Induction time was 3.1 ± 1.4 min. This produced surgical anaesthesia for 21± 4.2 min. Atipamezole 232±92 μg/kg produced a rapid recovery. Squirrels were sternally recumbent in 3.5 ± 2.2 min.

  3. Effects of low temperature on breathing pattern and ventilatory responses during hibernation in the golden-mantled ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cheryl L; Milsom, William K

    2017-07-01

    During entrance into hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), ventilation decreases as metabolic rate and body temperature fall. Two patterns of respiration occur during deep hibernation. At 7 °C body temperature (T b ), a breathing pattern characterized by episodes of multiple breaths (20.6 ± 1.9 breaths/episode) separated by long apneas or nonventilatory periods (T nvp ) (mean = 11.1 ± 1.2 min) occurs, while at 4 °C T b , a pattern in which breaths are evenly distributed and separated by a relatively short T nvp (0.5 ± 0.05 min) occurs. Squirrels exhibiting each pattern have similar metabolic rates and levels of total ventilation (0.2 and 0.23 ml O 2 /hr/kg and 0.11 and 0.16 ml air/min/kg, respectively). Squirrels at 7 °C T b exhibit a significant hypoxic ventilatory response, while squirrels at 4 °C T b do not respond to hypoxia at any level of O 2 tested. Squirrels at both temperatures exhibit a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response, but the response is significantly reduced in the 4 °C T b squirrels. Carotid body denervation has little effect on the breathing patterns or on the hypercapnic ventilatory responses. It does reduce the magnitude and threshold for the hypoxic ventilatory response. Taken together the data suggest that (1) the fundamental rhythm generator remains functional at low temperatures; (2) the hypercapnic ventilatory response arises from central chemoreceptors that remain functional at very low temperatures; (3) the hypoxic ventilatory response arises from both carotid body and aortic chemoreceptors that are silenced at lower temperatures; and (4) there is a strong correlation between breathing pattern and chemosensitivity.

  4. Thinning of young Douglas-fir forests decreases density of northern flying squirrels in the Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Tom; Hagar, Joan C.; McComb, Brenda C.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale commercial thinning of young forests in the Pacific Northwest is currently promoted on public lands to accelerate the development of late-seral forest structure for the benefit of wildlife species such as northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and their prey, including the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). Attempts to measure the impact of commercial thinning on northern flying squirrels have mostly addressed short-term effects (2–5 years post-thinning) and the few published studies of longer-term results have been contradictory. We measured densities of northern flying squirrels 11–13 years after thinning of young (55–65 years) Douglas-fir forest stands in the Cascade Range of Oregon, as part of the Young Stand Thinning & Diversity Study. The study includes four replicate blocks, each consisting of an unthinned control stand and one stand each of the following thinning treatments: Heavy Thin; Light Thin; and Light Thin with Gaps. Thinning decreased density of northern flying squirrels, and squirrel densities were significantly lower in heavily thinned stands than in more lightly thinned stands. Regression analysis revealed a strong positive relationship of flying squirrel density with density of large (>30 cm diameter) standing dead trees and a negative relationship with percent cover of low understory shrubs. Maintaining sufficient area and connectivity of dense, closed canopy forest is recommended as a strategy to assure that long-term goals of promoting late-seral structure do not conflict with short-term habitat requirements of this important species.

  5. Integrating histology and MRI in the first digital brain of common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 μm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 μm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.

  6. Generalized two axes model of a squirrel-cage induction motor for rotor fault diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Hamdani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalized two axes model of a squirrel-cage induction motor is developed This model is based on a winding function approach and the coupled magnetic circuit theory and takes into account the stator and the rotor asymmetries due to faults. This paper presents a computer simulation and experimental dynamic characteristics for a healthy induction machine, machine with one broken bar and a machine with two broken bars. The results illustrate good agreement between both simulated and experimental results. Also, the power spectral density PSD was performed to obtain a stator current spectrum.

  7. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  8. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  9. Advanced Model of Squirrel Cage Induction Machine for Broken Rotor Bars Fault Using Multi Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Ouachtouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squirrel cage induction machine are the most commonly used electrical drives, but like any other machine, they are vulnerable to faults. Among the widespread failures of the induction machine there are rotor faults. This paper focuses on the detection of broken rotor bars fault using multi-indicator. However, diagnostics of asynchronous machine rotor faults can be accomplished by analysing the anomalies of machine local variable such as torque, magnetic flux, stator current and neutral voltage signature analysis. The aim of this research is to summarize the existing models and to develop new models of squirrel cage induction motors with consideration of the neutral voltage and to study the effect of broken rotor bars on the different electrical quantities such as the park currents, torque, stator currents and neutral voltage. The performance of the model was assessed by comparing the simulation and experimental results. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the model, and allow detection and diagnosis of these defects.

  10. Trait-specific processes of convergence and conservatism shape ecomorphological evolution in ground-dwelling squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Bryan S; Helgen, Kristofer M; Goodwin, H Thomas; Cook, Joseph A

    2018-03-01

    Our understanding of mechanisms operating over deep timescales to shape phenotypic diversity often hinges on linking variation in one or few trait(s) to specific evolutionary processes. When distinct processes are capable of similar phenotypic signatures, however, identifying these drivers is difficult. We explored ecomorphological evolution across a radiation of ground-dwelling squirrels whose history includes convergence and constraint, two processes that can yield similar signatures of standing phenotypic diversity. Using four ecologically relevant trait datasets (body size, cranial, mandibular, and molariform tooth shape), we compared and contrasted variation, covariation, and disparity patterns in a new phylogenetic framework. Strong correlations existed between body size and two skull traits (allometry) and among skull traits themselves (integration). Inferred evolutionary modes were also concordant across traits (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck with two adaptive regimes). However, despite these broad similarities, we found divergent dynamics on the macroevolutionary landscape, with phenotypic disparity being differentially shaped by convergence and conservatism. Such among-trait heterogeneity in process (but not always pattern) reiterates the mosaic nature of morphological evolution, and suggests ground squirrel evolution is poorly captured by single process descriptors. Our results also highlight how use of single traits can bias macroevolutionary inference, affirming the importance of broader trait-bases in understanding phenotypic evolutionary dynamics. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Foraging density for squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus in two forests in Puerto Lopez - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Astwood R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Forest remnants were analyzed to determine the density of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus and the degree of alteration of the forest, by selecting areas for the conservation and maintenance of the species in natural environments. Materials and methods. Linear transects were conducted on two wooden fragments, “La Reforma” and “Campo Hermoso” farms (Puerto Lopez, Meta, Colombia, recording sightings of squirrel monkeys and identifying the tree species used by the primates. Results. The fragments studied correspond to trails at the edge of water bodies with low connectivity. Highest density values were observed on the second transect of La Reforma, a possible consequence of an overcrowding phenomenon due to the high degree of isolation of the fragment. The species preferentially used as refuge and food source were: Bellucia grossularioides, Eugenia jambos, Inga alba, Mauritia flexuosa, Pseudolmedia laevis and Rollinia edulis. Conclusions. The phenology of the plant species allows for a dynamic food supply, considering the constant availability of food for the primates. Therefore, despite the evident ecological problem of these forests, it is possible to use active restoration programs to strengthen the existing dynamics and balance the biogeochemical dynamics of the ecosystem, so that socioeconomic human activities are not in conflict with conservation efforts and vice versa.

  12. Effect of Environmental Enrichment on Singly- and Group-Housed Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Sarah E.; Clifford, James O.; Tomko, David L.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Nonhuman primates display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors. Captivity changes these behaviors, and disrupts normal social hierarchies. In captivity, animals may exhibit stereotypical behaviors which are thought to indicate decreased psychological well-being (PWB). If an animal's behaviors can be made to approach those seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal it is assumed that PWB is adequate. Environmental enrichment (EE) devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act's requirement that the PWB of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether various EE devices improve the PWB of captive squirrel monkeys. The present study used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several EE devices in reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed singly or in groups. Results showed that the EE devices used did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  13. Suspension of Mitotic Activity in Dentate Gyrus of the Hibernating Ground Squirrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor I. Popov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain important for learning and memory. Hibernation in Siberian ground squirrels provides a natural model to study mitosis as the rapid fall in body temperature in 24 h (from 35-36°C to +4–6°C permits accumulation of mitotic cells at different stages of the cell cycle. Histological methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited largely to fixed tissue, and the mitotic state elucidated depends on the specific phase of mitosis at the time of day. However, using an immunohistochemical study of doublecortin (DCX and BrdU-labelled neurons, we demonstrate that the dentate gyrus of the ground squirrel hippocampus contains a population of immature cells which appear to possess mitotic activity. Our data suggest that doublecortin-labelled immature cells exist in a mitotic state and may represent a renewable pool for generation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus.

  14. Intrusion of soil covered uranium mill tailings by whitetail prairie dogs and Richardson's ground squirrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the reclamation of uranium mill tailings is the long-term isolation of the matrial from the biosphere. Fossorial and semi-fossorial species represent a potentially disruptive influence as a result of their burrowing habits. The potential for intrusion was investigated with respect to two sciurids, the whitetail prairie dog (Cynomys leucurus) and Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii). Populations of prairie dogs were established on a control area, lacking a tailings layer, and two experimental areas, underlain by a waste layer, in southeastern Wyoming. Weekly measurements of prairie dog mound surface activities were conducted to demonstrate penetration, or lack thereof, of the tailings layer. Additionally, the impact of burrowing upon radon flux was determined. Limited penetration of the waste layer was noted after which frequency of inhabitance of the intruding burrow system declined. No significant changes in radon flux were detected. In another experiment, it was found that Richardson's ground squirrels burrowed to less extreme depths when confronted by mill tailings. Additional work at an inactive tailings pile in western Colorado revealed repeated intrusion through a shallow cover, and subsequent transport of radioactive material to the ground surface by prairie dogs. Radon flux from burrow entrances was significantly greater than that from undisturbed ground. Data suggested that textural and pH properties of tailings material may act to discourage repeated intrusion at some sites. 58 references

  15. Effects of GABA[subscript A] Modulators on the Repeated Acquisition of Response Sequences in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Una C.; Winsauer, Peter J.; Stevenson, Michael W.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of positive and negative GABA[subscript A] modulators under three different baselines of repeated acquisition in squirrel monkeys in which the monkeys acquired a three-response sequence on three keys under a second-order fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of food reinforcement. In two of these baselines, the…

  16. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Henn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao. In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3: 929-938. Epub 2014 September 01.

  17. Diet and food availability: implications for foraging and dispersal of Prince of Wales northern flying squirrels across managed landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Flaherty; Merav Ben-David; Winston P. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Where dispersal is energetically expensive, feeding and food availability can influence dispersal success. The endemic Prince of Wales northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons) inhabits a landscape mosaic of old-growth, second-growth, and clearcut stands, with the latter two representing energetically expensive habitats. We...

  18. Area occupancy and detection probabilities of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) using nest-box surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Kurtis R. Moseley; Craig W. Stihler; John W. Edwards

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant with the delisting of the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in 2008, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service mandated a 10-year post-delisting monitoring effort to ensure that subspecies population and distribution stability will persist following a changed regulatory status. Although criticized for the...

  19. Effect of environmental enrichment devices on behaviors of single- and group-housed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, S. E.; Clifford, J. O.; Tomko, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors over a broad area. Captivity limits these behaviors and consequently may disrupt normal social organizations. In captivity, squirrel monkeys may exhibit stereotypical behaviors that are believed to indicate decreased psychologic well-being. When a monkey's behavior can be made to approach that seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal, it is assumed that psychologic well-being is adequate. Environmental enrichment devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act requirement that psychologic well-being of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether various environmental enrichment devices improve the psychologic well-being of captive squirrel monkeys. In the study, we used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several environmental enrichment devices for reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed alone or in groups. Analysis of our results revealed that the environmental enrichment devices did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  20. Modulation of immunity in young-adult and aged squirrel, Funambulus pennanti by melatonin and p-chlorophenylalanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rajesh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our interest was to find out whether pineal gland and their by melatonin act as modulator of immunosenescence. Parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA – a β adrenergic blocker, is known to perform chemical pinealectomy (Px by suppressing indirectly the substrate 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT for melatonin synthesis and thereby melatonin itself. The role of PCPA, alone and in combination with melatonin was recorded in immunomodulation and free radical load in spleen of young adult and aged seasonal breeder Indian palm squirrel Funambulus pennanti. Results Aged squirrel presented reduced immune parameters (i.e. total leukocyte count (TLC, Lymphocytes Count (LC, % stimulation ratio of splenocytes (% SR against T cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH to oxazolone when compared to young adult group. Melatonin administration (25 μg/100 g body mass/day significantly increased the immune parameters in aged more than the young adult squirrel while PCPA administration (4.5 mg/100 g body mass/day reduced all the immune parameters more significantly in young than aged. Combination of PCPA and melatonin significantly increased the immune parameters to the normal control level of both the age groups. TBARS level was significantly high in aged than the young group. PCPA treatment increased TBARS level of young and aged squirrels both while melatonin treatment decreased it even than the controls. Nighttime peripheral melatonin level was low in control aged group than the young group. Melatonin injection at evening hours significantly increased the peripheral level of nighttime melatonin, while combined injection of PCPA and melatonin brought it to control level in both aged and young adult squirrels. Conclusion PCPA suppressed immune status more in aged than in adult by reducing melatonin level as it did chemical Px. Melatonin level decreased in control aged squirrels and so there was a decrease in immune parameters

  1. Red Sirius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  2. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mekala; Willoughby, Janna R; Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%), and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%). A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA) on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is consistent with a weak

  3. An examination of endoparasites and fecal testosterone levels in flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp.) using high performance liquid chromatography-ultra-violet (HPLC-UV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksmonski, Sarah N; Huffman, Justin M; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels ( Glaucomys ): one known to regularly host a nematode species ( Strongyloides robustus ) without ill effects ( G. volans ) and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels ( G. sabrinus, G. volans ) with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV), and compared levels to endoparasites detected in individual squirrels. Qualitatively, we found highest levels of testosterone in male northern flying squirrels infected with Strongyloides robustus . This analytical approach represents an alternative and equally reliable method to using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for detecting and quantifying fecal testosterone levels.

  4. An examination of endoparasites and fecal testosterone levels in flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp. using high performance liquid chromatography-ultra-violet (HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N. Waksmonski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys: one known to regularly host a nematode species (Strongyloides robustus without ill effects (G. volans and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels (G. sabrinus, G. volans with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV, and compared levels to endoparasites detected in individual squirrels. Qualitatively, we found highest levels of testosterone in male northern flying squirrels infected with Strongyloides robustus. This analytical approach represents an alternative and equally reliable method to using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, for detecting and quantifying fecal testosterone levels.

  5. An examination of endoparasites and fecal testosterone levels in flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp.) using high performance liquid chromatography-ultra-violet (HPLC-UV)

    OpenAIRE

    Waksmonski, Sarah N.; Huffman, Justin M.; Mahan, Carolyn G.; Steele, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys): one known to regularly host a nematode species (Strongyloides robustus) without ill effects (G. volans) and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels (G. sabrinus, G...

  6. Demonstration of synthesis of beta-trace protein in different tissues of squirrel monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, J E; Sandberg, M [Department of Neurology, University Hospital, S-221 85 Lund, Sweden

    1975-01-01

    The sites of synthesis of the low molwculat weight beta-trace protein, present in a seven times higher concentration in normal human CSF than in normal human serum, have been studied by means of a radioactive immunoprecipitation method. Adult squirrel monkey tissue were cultured in Eagle's minium essential medium in the presence of /sup 14/C-labelled valine, threonine and leucine for 24 hours. Synthesis could be demonstrated in cultures of white CNS matter, whereas cultures of grey CNS matter, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, kidney and ovary did not show any signs of synthesis. Some cultures of spinal cord, basal ganglia, genital organs except ovary, and liver showed a probable synthesis of beta-trace protein. By means of autoradiography, the synthesis of beta-trace protein in white CNS matter could be confirmed.

  7. The influence of select losses components on induction squirrel-cage motor efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabala, K. [Electrical Machines Dept., Electrotechnical Inst., Warsaw (Poland)

    2000-07-01

    There is taken into consideration the influence of measured core and friction and windage losses on induction squirrel-cage motor in this paper. This paper presents a way of exact core losses determination in full-load motor. There are also compared efficiencies obtained for three core losses values: from no-load test (IEC 34-2); from draft IEC 2G/102/CDV; from presented in this paper method. This paper presents the influence of the friction and windage losses determined from no-load test and the mechanical losses appeared under the rated speed on the efficiency, too. There is compared the influence of the core and mechanical losses sum on the efficiency dependently on the way of this losses components determination. (orig.)

  8. Effects of symmetrical voltage sags on squirrel-cage induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, Joaquin; Sainz, Luis; Corcoles, Felipe [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    This paper analyzes the symmetrical voltage sag consequences on the induction motor behavior when single- and double-cage models are considered, namely current and torque peaks, and speed loss. These effects depend on several variables like sag type, duration and depth. Voltage sag effects are studied by using single- and double-cage models for three motors of different rated power. The double-cage model always predicts torque and current peaks higher than those of the single-cage model. The single-cage model predicts that voltage sags can produce motor instability, whereas the double-cage model is always stable. Therefore, the double-cage model must be used for the simulation of the squirrel-cage induction motor, because the single-cage model can give erroneous results in some situations. (author)

  9. Demonstration of synthesis of beta-trace protein in different tissues of squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, J.-E.; Sandberg, M.

    1975-01-01

    The sites of synthesis of the low molwculat weight beta-trace protein, present in a seven times higher concentration in normal human CSF than in normal human serum, have been studied by means of a radioactive immunoprecipitation method. Adult squirrel monkey tissue were cultured in Eagle's minium essential medium in the presence of 14 C-labelled valine, threonine and leucine for 24 hours. Synthesis could be demonstrated in cultures of white CNS matter, whereas cultures of grey CNS matter, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, kidney and ovary did not show any signs of synthesis. Some cultures of spinal cord, basal ganglia, genital organs except ovary, and liver showed a probable synthesis of beta-trace protein. By means of autoradiography, the synthesis of beta-trace protein in white CNS matter could be confirmed. (author)

  10. Dynamic modeling of an asynchronous squirrel-cage machine; Modelisation dynamique d'une machine asynchrone a cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerette, D.

    2009-07-01

    This document presented a detailed mathematical explanation and validation of the steps leading to the development of an asynchronous squirrel-cage machine. The MatLab/Simulink software was used to model a wind turbine at variable high speeds. The asynchronous squirrel-cage machine is an electromechanical system coupled to a magnetic circuit. The resulting electromagnetic circuit can be represented as a set of resistances, leakage inductances and mutual inductances. Different models were used for a comparison study, including the Munteanu, Boldea, Wind Turbine Blockset, and SimPowerSystem. MatLab/Simulink modeling results were in good agreement with the results from other comparable models. Simulation results were in good agreement with analytical calculations. 6 refs, 2 tabs, 9 figs.

  11. Dynamics of regional distribution and ecology investigation of rare mammals of taiga Eurasia (case study of flying squirrel Pteromys volans, Rodentia, Pteromyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri P. Kurhinen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of the spatial distribution and ecology of the flying squirrel during the turn of the 20th century provides a description of new methods and techniques for detecting and accounting flying squirrels in the forest zone of Eurasia. The flying squirrel population area covers the territory of 61 regions of Russia, including Kamchatsky Krai and Chukotka Autonomous District. The number of flying squirrels in Karelia especially to the east – in the Arkhangelsk region and Western Siberia – significantly exceeds that of Finland, but considerable spatial variability in the number is obvious through all the regions: there are areas where this animal is quite abundant, or inhabits all the territory rather evenly, and there are areas where it is completely absent in vast territories even with seemingly favourable conditions. The flying squirrel is quite difficult to study and the reasons of its absence in obviously favourable areas are still to be explained. Some reasons are: the specificity of favourable landscape, forest coverage pattern, trophic relationships with predators and genetic aspect. A number of hypotheses are supposed to be tested in the nearest future.

  12. An invasive mammal (the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis) commonly hosts diverse and atypical genotypes of the zoonotic pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millins, Caroline; Magierecka, Agnieszka; Gilbert, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    and may support host specific strains. This study examined the role of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), (n=679), an invasive species in the United Kingdom (UK), as B. burgdorferi s.l. hosts. We found that grey squirrels were frequently infested with Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of B. burgdorferi...

  13. Demography of a population collapse: the Northern Idaho ground squirrel (Spermophilus brunneus brunneus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, P.W.; Runge, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the demography of a population of Northern Idaho ground squirrels (Spermophilus brunneus brunneus) in Adams Co., Idaho. The population was completely censused yearly from 1987 to 1999, during which time it declined from 272 to 10 animals. The finite population growth rate, based on a Leslie matrix model of average life-history parameters, was only 0.72 (i.e., significantly conifers to encroach on inhabited meadows, shrinking them and closing dispersal routes. The proximate cause of the population's collapse was mortality of older breeding females, which reduced the mean age of breeders. Younger females had lower average pregnancy rates and litter sizes. To place our results in context we developed a new, general classification of anthropogenic population declines, based on whether they are caused by changes in the means of the life-history parameters (blatant disturbances), their variances (inappropriate variations), or the correlations among them (evolutionary traps). Many S. b. brunneus populations have disappeared in recent years, apparently due to blatant disturbances, especially loss of habitat and changes in food-plant composition, resulting in inadequate prehibernation nutrition and starvation overwinter. In addition, our study population may have been caught in an evolutionary trap, because the vegetational cues that could potentially enable the animals to adjust reproduction to the anticipated food supply no longer correlate with availability of fat-laden seeds.

  14. Multilevel landscape utilization of the Siberian flying squirrel: Scale effects on species habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remm, Jaanus; Hanski, Ilpo K; Tuominen, Sakari; Selonen, Vesa

    2017-10-01

    Animals use and select habitat at multiple hierarchical levels and at different spatial scales within each level. Still, there is little knowledge on the scale effects at different spatial levels of species occupancy patterns. The objective of this study was to examine nonlinear effects and optimal-scale landscape characteristics that affect occupancy of the Siberian flying squirrel, Pteromys volans , in South- and Mid-Finland. We used presence-absence data ( n  = 10,032 plots of 9 ha) and novel approach to separate the effects on site-, landscape-, and regional-level occupancy patterns. Our main results were: landscape variables predicted the placement of population patches at least twice as well as they predicted the occupancy of particular sites; the clear optimal value of preferred habitat cover for species landscape-level abundance is a surprisingly low value (10% within a 4 km buffer); landscape metrics exert different effects on species occupancy and abundance in high versus low population density regions of our study area. We conclude that knowledge of regional variation in landscape utilization will be essential for successful conservation of the species. The results also support the view that large-scale landscape variables have high predictive power in explaining species abundance. Our study demonstrates the complex response of species occurrence at different levels of population configuration on landscape structure. The study also highlights the need for data in large spatial scale to increase the precision of biodiversity mapping and prediction of future trends.

  15. Stator and Rotor Faults Diagnosis of Squirrel Cage Motor Based on Fundamental Component Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, stator current analysis used for detecting the incipient fault in squirrel cage motor has received much attention. However, in the case of interturn short circuit in stator, the traditional symmetrical component method has lost the precondition due to the harmonics and noise; the negative sequence component (NSC is hard to be obtained accurately. For broken rotor bars, the new added fault feature blanked by fundamental component is also difficult to be discriminated in the current spectrum. To solve the above problems, a fundamental component extraction (FCE method is proposed in this paper. On one hand, via the antisynchronous speed coordinate (ASC transformation, NSC of extracted signals is transformed into the DC value. The amplitude of synthetic vector of NSC is used to evaluate the severity of stator fault. On the other hand, the extracted fundamental component can be filtered out to make the rotor fault feature emerge from the stator current spectrum. Experiment results indicate that this method is feasible and effective in both interturn short circuit and broken rotor bars fault diagnosis. Furthermore, only stator currents and voltage frequency are needed to be recorded, and this method is easy to implement.

  16. Radiosensitivity of ileum crypt cells in hibernating, arousing, and awake ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroslow, B.N.; Michael Fry, R.J.; Suhrbier, K.M.; Sallese, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of ileal crypt cells, to 60 Co gamma radiation, was studied in ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus) during hibernation, arousal, and the euthermic state. Survival of ileal crypt cells, assayed by the microcolony technique from stained transverse sections of ileum, was greater in animals irradiated in hibernation or 1 hr after initiation of arousal from hibernation. Crypt survival returned to the level of irradiated nonhibernating controls in animals irradiated 3 to 7 hr after initiation of arousal. Over the exposure range of 1500 to 2400 R, the survival of crypt cells for euthermic controls gave a D 0 = 133 +- 12 R and for animals irradiated in hibernation it gave a D 0 = 487 +- 92 R. In animals irradiated 1 hr after initiation of arousal, when core temperature is within the range of euthermic controls, crypt survival was almost as high as in the hibernators. These results suggest that the increased resistance of ileal crypt cells in hibernating animals could be due to hypoxia, although not direct evidence for hypoxia in hibernation was established. The changes in mitotic index of ileal crypt cells during hibernation and arousal indicate an alteration in the distribution of cells in the phases of the cycle. This change in distribution may also have contributed to the increased radioresistance of hibernators

  17. [14C]2-deoxyglucose uptake in ground squirrel brain during hibernation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilduff, T.S.; Sharp, F.R.; Heller, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Autoradiographic patterns of [14C]2-deoxyglucose uptake are described throughout the brains of hibernating and euthermic ground squirrels. Autoradiographs of the brains of hibernating animals are generally homogeneous in comparison to euthermic animals; hence, the relative 2-deoxyglucose uptake (R2DGU) of gray to white matter for the majority of the 85 neural structures examined decreases during hibernation. Two categories of structures are identified as potentially important in hibernation: (1) structures that have the highest R2DGU during hibernation (cochlear nucleus, paratrigeminal nucleus, and superior colliculus) and (2) structures that undergo the least reduction in R2DGU in the transition from euthermia to hibernation (suprachiasmatic nucleus and lateral septal nucleus). The percentage of reduction in R2DGU that a structure undergoes in the transition from euthermia to hibernation is proportional to the R2DGU of that structure during euthermia. The suprachiasmatic, paratrigeminal, and cochlear nuclei undergo less of a reduction than would be predicted from this relationship and may be particularly important during hibernation. Sensory nuclei that receive primary afferent projections are among the structures with the highest R2DGU during hibernation. These metabolically active structures may be responsible for the sensitivity of the hibernator to environmental stimuli

  18. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  19. Cytoskeletal Regulation Dominates Temperature-Sensitive Proteomic Changes of Hibernation in Forebrain of 13-Lined Ground Squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy – wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins dihydropyrimidinase

  20. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson G Hindle

    Full Text Available 13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins

  1. Do black-furred animals compensate for high solar absorption with smaller hairs? A test with a polymorphic squirrel species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. FRATTO, Andrew K. DAVIS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In polymorphic mammalian species that display multiple color forms, those with dark, or melanic pelage would be prone to overheating, especially if they live in warm climates, because their fur absorbs solar energy at a higher rate. However, experimental studies indicate that certain physical properties of fur of dark individuals appear to prevent, or minimize heat stress, although it is not clear what properties do so. Here, we tested the possibility that black-furred individuals simply have shorter or thinner hair fibers, which would create a lighter (in terms of weight coat or one that allows greater air flow for evaporative coo- ling. We examined museum specimens of eastern fox squirrels Sciurus niger, a species native to the United States and one that displays brown, grey or all-black pelage color, and used image analysis procedures to quantify hairs from the dorsal surface and tail. From examination of 43 specimens (19 brown, 9 black and 15 grey, and 1,720 hairs, we found no significant difference in hair lengths across color morphs, but significant differences in hair fiber widths. Black squirrels had thinner body hairs than other forms (7% thinner, but thicker tail hairs (9% thicker than the others. Given that the dorsal surface would be directly exposed to solar radiation, we interpret this to be an adaptation to prevent heat stress during the day. The thicker tail hairs may be an adaptation for nighttime thermoregulation, since squirrels sleep with their tails wrapped around their bodies. These results add to a growing literature body of the functional significance of mammalian pelage [Current Zoology 57 (6: 731–736, 2011].

  2. Metabolism of (125I)tyramine cellobiose-labeled low density lipoproteins in squirrel monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portman, O.W.; Alexander, Manfred

    1985-01-01

    Low density lipoproteins labeled with ( 125 I)tyramine cellobiose (( 125 I)TC-LDL) were removed from the circulation of squirrel monkeys at a similar but slightly slower rate than LDLs labeled with 125 I, ( 125 I)hydroxypenyl propionic acid, or ( 3 H)leucine. After the simultaneous injection of (( 125 I)TC-LDL) and ( 131 I)LDL labeled with 131 ICI, the 125 I was also removed at a slightly slower rate than 131 I. Most of the radioactivity was retained in tissues and not excreted during the 24 h after injection of ( 125 I)TC-LDL. This finding supports the claim of Pittman et al. (18) that ( 125 I)TC-LDL can be used to determine the irreversible uptake of LDL by different tissues. The liver cleared more LDL than any other organ, but the adrenals and ovaries were more active per gram. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitated more than 80% of the radioactivity in the tissues that had low 125 I uptake, but only about 50% of the 125 I in more active tissues (liver, adrenals, ovaries and spleen). Only a small percentage of 125 I in urine and bile was TCA-precipitable. In the dual label experiment with ( 125 I)TC-LDL and ( 131 I)LDL there was a selective retention of 125 I in samples from liver, spleen, adrenals, and perhaps testes, and an almost complete selectivity for 125 I in bile and feces. The aortic intima plus inner media (AIM) cleared much less LDL than other tissues, but the uptake by the entire AIM was proportional to the cholesterol concentration and weight of the total AIM. There was, however, no correlation between either of the latter two measurements and the uptake of LDL per pram of AIM. (author)

  3. Up-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 in Hibernating Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques J. Frigault

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation is associated with multiple physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that allow animals to endure colder temperatures. We hypothesize that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, a group of non-coding transcripts with diverse functions, are differentially expressed during hibernation. In this study, expression levels of lncRNAs H19 and TUG1 were assessed via qRT-PCR in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. TUG1 transcript levels were significantly elevated 1.94-fold in skeletal muscle of hibernating animals when compared with euthermic animals. Furthermore, transcript levels of HSF2 also increased 2.44-fold in the skeletal muscle in hibernating animals. HSF2 encodes a transcription factor that can be negatively regulated by TUG1 levels and that influences heat shock protein expression. Thus, these observations support the differential expression of the TUG1–HSF2 axis during hibernation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs in torpid ground squirrels, adding lncRNAs as another group of transcripts modulated in this mammalian species during hibernation.

  4. Up-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 in Hibernating Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigault, Jacques J; Lang-Ouellette, Daneck; Morin, Pier

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian hibernation is associated with multiple physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that allow animals to endure colder temperatures. We hypothesize that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a group of non-coding transcripts with diverse functions, are differentially expressed during hibernation. In this study, expression levels of lncRNAsH19 and TUG1 were assessed via qRT-PCR in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). TUG1 transcript levels were significantly elevated 1.94-fold in skeletal muscle of hibernating animals when compared with euthermic animals. Furthermore, transcript levels of HSF2 also increased 2.44-fold in the skeletal muscle in hibernating animals. HSF2 encodes a transcription factor that can be negatively regulated by TUG1 levels and that influences heat shock protein expression. Thus, these observations support the differential expression of the TUG1-HSF2 axis during hibernation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs in torpid ground squirrels, adding lncRNAs as another group of transcripts modulated in this mammalian species during hibernation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Individual differences in zoo-housed squirrel monkeys' (Saimiri sciureus) reactions to visitors, research participation, and personality ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Zita; Wood, Lara; Haskell, Marie J

    2017-05-01

    Understanding individual differences in captive squirrel monkeys is a topic of importance both for improving welfare by catering to individual needs, and for better understanding the results and implications of behavioral research. In this study, 23 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), housed in an environment that is both a zoo enclosure and research facility, were assessed for (i) the time they spent by an observation window under three visitor conditions: no visitors, small groups, and large groups; (ii) their likelihood of participating in voluntary research; and (iii) zookeepers, ratings of personality. A Friedman's ANOVA and Wilcoxon post-hoc tests comparing mean times found that the monkeys spent more time by the window when there were large groups present than when there were small groups or no visitors. Thus, visitors do not seem to have a negative effect and may be enriching for certain individuals. Through GLMM and correlational analyses, it was found that high scores on the personality trait of playfulness and low scores on cautiousness, depression, and solitude were significant predictors of increased window approach behavior when visitors were present. The GLMM and correlational analyses assessing the links between personality traits and research participation found that low scores of cautiousness and high scores of playfulness, gentleness, affection, and friendliness, were significant predictors. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to selection bias and its potential confounding effect on cognitive studies with voluntary participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Differential regulation of glomerular and interstitial endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the kidney of hibernating ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Maria; Henning, Robert H; Hut, Roelof A; Strijkstra, Arjen M; Epema, Anne H; van Goor, Harry; Deelman, Leo E

    2004-09-01

    Hibernating animals transiently reduce renal function during their hypothermic periods (torpor), while completely restoring it during their periodical rewarming to euthermia (arousal). Moreover, structural integrity of the kidney is preserved throughout the hibernation. Nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a crucial vasodilatory mediator and a protective factor in the kidney. We investigated renal NOS expression in hibernating European ground squirrels after 1 day and 7 days of torpor (torpor short, TS, and torpor long, TL, respectively), at 1.5 and at 10 h of rewarming (arousal short, AS, and arousal long, AL, respectively), and in continuously euthermic animals after hibernation (EU). For that purpose, we performed NOS activity assay, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed a decreased glomerular eNOS expression in hibernating animals (TS, TL, AS, and AL) compared to non-hibernating animals (EU, p EU. In all methods used, torpid and aroused squirrels did not differ. These results demonstrate differential regulation of eNOS in glomeruli and interstitium of hibernating animals, which is unaffected during arousal. The differential regulation of eNOS may serve to reduce ultrafiltration without jeopardizing tubular structures during hibernation.

  7. Complementary Network-Based Approaches for Exploring Genetic Structure and Functional Connectivity in Two Vulnerable, Endemic Ground Squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria H. Zero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of small populations is influenced by genetic structure and functional connectivity. We used two network-based approaches to understand the persistence of the northern Idaho ground squirrel (Urocitellus brunneus and the southern Idaho ground squirrel (U. endemicus, two congeners of conservation concern. These graph theoretic approaches are conventionally applied to social or transportation networks, but here are used to study population persistence and connectivity. Population graph analyses revealed that local extinction rapidly reduced connectivity for the southern species, while connectivity for the northern species could be maintained following local extinction. Results from gravity models complemented those of population graph analyses, and indicated that potential vegetation productivity and topography drove connectivity in the northern species. For the southern species, development (roads and small-scale topography reduced connectivity, while greater potential vegetation productivity increased connectivity. Taken together, the results of the two network-based methods (population graph analyses and gravity models suggest the need for increased conservation action for the southern species, and that management efforts have been effective at maintaining habitat quality throughout the current range of the northern species. To prevent further declines, we encourage the continuation of management efforts for the northern species, whereas conservation of the southern species requires active management and additional measures to curtail habitat fragmentation. Our combination of population graph analyses and gravity models can inform conservation strategies of other species exhibiting patchy distributions.

  8. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  9. Morphology and mitochondrial phylogenetics reveal that the Amazon River separates two eastern squirrel monkey species: Saimiri sciureus and S. collinsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercês, Michelle P; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Ferreira, Wallax A S; Harada, Maria L; Silva Júnior, José S

    2015-01-01

    Saimiri has a complicated taxonomic history, and there is continuing disagreement about the number of valid taxa. Despite these controversies, one point of consensus among morphologists has been that the eastern Amazonian populations of squirrel monkeys form a single terminal taxon, Saimiri sciureus sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758). This group is distributed to both the north and south of the middle to lower Amazon River and in the Marajó Archipelago. However, a recent molecular study by Lavergne and colleagues suggested that the Saimiri sciureus complex (comprised of S. s. sciureus sensu lato, S. s. albigena, S. s. macrodon, and S. s. cassiquiarensis) was paraphyletic. The discordance between morphological and molecular studies prompted us to conduct a new multidisciplinary analysis, employing a combination of morphological, morphometric, and molecular markers. Our results suggest the currently recognized taxon S. s. sciureus contains two distinct species, recognized by the Phylogenetic Species Concept: Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Saimiri collinsi Osgood, 1916. East Amazonian squirrel monkeys north of the Amazon have a gray crown (S. sciureus), and south of the Amazon, the crown is yellow (S. collinsi). Morphometric measurements also clearly distinguish between the two species, with the most important contributing factors including width across upper canines for both sexes. For males, the mean zygomatic breadth was significantly wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi, and for females, the width across the upper molars was wider in S. sciureus compared to S. collinsi. Mitochondrial phylogenetic analyses support this separation of the eastern Amazonian squirrel monkeys into two distinct taxa, recovering one clade (S. sciureus) distributed to the north of the Amazon River, from the Negro River and Branco River to the Guiana coast and the Brazilian state of Amapá, and another clade (S. collinsi) south of the Amazon River, from the region of the Tapaj

  10. How far could a squirrel travel in the treetops? A prehistory of the southern forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel; Edward R. Buckner

    1998-01-01

    Conservation activities aimed at protecting old-growth forests; at maintaining populations of desired species groups, such as oaks (Quercus sp.), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), other game species or Neotropical migratory birds; and at increasing populations of endangered species, such as red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), Bachman's warblers (...

  11. Sliding Mode Control of a Variable- Speed Wind Energy Conversion System Using a Squirrel Cage Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zribi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control of a variable-speed wind energy conversion (WEC system using a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG connected to the grid through a back-to-back three phase (AC-DC-AC power converter. The sliding mode control technique is used to control the WEC system. The objective of the controllers is to force the states of the system to track their desired states. One controller is used to regulate the generator speed and the flux so that maximum power is extracted from the wind. Another controller is used to control the grid side converter, which controls the DC bus voltage and the active and reactive powers injected into the grid. The performance of the controlled wind energy conversion system is verified through MATLAB simulations, which show that the controlled system performs well.

  12. The operation of a single-sided linear induction motor with squirrel-cage and solid-steel reaction rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, A. R.; Katz, R. M.

    1980-09-01

    Two test programs have been conducted to evaluate the performance of a single-sided linear induction motor with a squirrel-cage reaction rail and with a solid steel reaction rail. A 1.73-m-long six-pole stator interacted with the rails mounted on the rim of a 7.6-m-diam wheel. A 64-channel data acquisition system allowed tests to be performed over a wide range of operating conditions at speeds up to 20 m/sec. Typical test results which compare and contrast the mechanical, electrical and magnetic behavior of the SLIMs are presented. The test data are being used to assess the SLIM as an integrated suspension/propulsion system and for other transportation applications.

  13. Life on the edge: squirrel-cage fringe fields and their effects in the MBE-4 combiner experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawley, W.M.

    1996-02-01

    The MBE-4 combiner experiment employs an electrostatic combined-function focusing/bending element, the so-called ''squirrel-cage'' just before the actual merging region. There has been concern that non-linear fields, primarily in the fringe regions at the beginning and end of the cage, may be strong enough to lead to significant emittance degradation. This note present the results of numerical calculations which determined the anharmonic, non-linear components of the 3D fields in the cage and the resultant, orbit-integrated effects upon the MBE-4 beamlets. We find that while the anharmonic effects are small compared to the dipole deflection, the resultant transverse emittance growth is significant when compared to the expected value of the initial emittance of the individual beamlets

  14. Autoradiographic studies on the effect of allopurinol on 14C-hydpoxanthine metabolism in the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Yoshimasa; Miyazaki, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Masahisa

    1980-01-01

    The Effect of orally given allopurinol on the distribution of intravenously administered 14 C-hypoxanthine radioactivity was studied in squirrel monkeys 8 hr after administration of the label by the whole body autoradiography. Although the distribution of radioactivity in the normal and allopurinol-treated animals was essentially similar to each other, more intense radioactivity was noted in the latter monkey; salvage of 14 C-hypoxanthine was enhanced. Similarly to our previous observation in mice, significant radioactivity in monkeys was seen in tissues undergoing rapid nucleic acid synthesis except for slight species differences in some organs. 14 C-Allantoin alone was the urinary metabolite of the hypoxanthine in the normal monkey whereas significant amounts of 14 C-hypoxanthine and 14 C-xanthine as well were detected in the urine of the drug-treated animal. (author)

  15. Certain biochemical changes in the trachea, lungs, and heart of squirrels exposed to three principal air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, S V; Gautam, R K; Agrawal, V P

    1979-01-01

    The fate of total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in the trachea, lungs, and heart of the common ground squirrel, Funambulus pennanti, have been determined after separate exposure to three principal air pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/). Exposure to all of these gases produced edematous conditions; however, the moisture content of heart muscle was reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) and NO/sub 2/ are more toxic to pulmonary lipids than SO/sub 2/. The lipid of the heart decreased, least effects noted with SO/sub 2/ treatment. Mechanical properties of the lungs were changed by alteration of the lung lipids causing changes in the surface tension. Changes in protein content were caused by altered membrane permeability. Comparative data on the carbohydrates indicated adverse effects by the pollutants.

  16. Biogeography of squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri): South-central Amazon origin and rapid pan-Amazonian diversification of a lowland primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Boubli, Jean P; Paim, Fernanda P; Ribas, Camila C; Silva, Maria Nazareth F da; Messias, Mariluce R; Röhe, Fabio; Mercês, Michelle P; Silva Júnior, José S; Silva, Claudia R; Pinho, Gabriela M; Koshkarian, Gohar; Nguyen, Mai T T; Harada, Maria L; Rabelo, Rafael M; Queiroz, Helder L; Alfaro, Michael E; Farias, Izeni P

    2015-01-01

    The squirrel monkey, Saimiri, is a pan-Amazonian Pleistocene radiation. We use statistical phylogeographic methods to create a mitochondrial DNA-based timetree for 118 squirrel monkey samples across 68 localities spanning all Amazonian centers of endemism, with the aim of better understanding (1) the effects of rivers as barriers to dispersal and distribution; (2) the area of origin for modern Saimiri; (3) whether ancestral Saimiri was a lowland lake-affiliated or an upland forest taxa; and (4) the effects of Pleistocene climate fluctuation on speciation. We also use our topology to help resolve current controversies in Saimiri taxonomy and species relationships. The Rondônia and Inambari centers in the southern Amazon were recovered as the most likely areas of origin for Saimiri. The Amazon River proved a strong barrier to dispersal, and squirrel monkey expansion and diversification was rapid, with all speciation events estimated to occur between 1.4 and 0.6Ma, predating the last three glacial maxima and eliminating climate extremes as the main driver of squirrel monkey speciation. Saimiri expansion was concentrated first in central and western Amazonia, which according to the "Young Amazon" hypothesis was just becoming available as floodplain habitat with the draining of the Amazon Lake. Squirrel monkeys also expanded and diversified east, both north and south of the Amazon, coincident with the formation of new rivers. This evolutionary history is most consistent with a Young Amazon Flooded Forest Taxa model, suggesting Saimiri has always maintained a lowland wetlands niche and was able to greatly expand its range with the transition from a lacustrine to a riverine system in Amazonia. Saimiri vanzolinii was recovered as the sister group to one clade of Saimiri ustus, discordant with the traditional Gothic vs. Roman morphological division of squirrel monkeys. We also found paraphyly within each of the currently recognized species: S. sciureus, S. ustus, and S

  17. Metabolic hormone FGF21 is induced in ground squirrels during hibernation but its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany T Nelson

    Full Text Available Hibernation is a natural adaptation that allows certain mammals to survive physiological extremes that are lethal to humans. Near freezing body temperatures, heart rates of 3-10 beats per minute, absence of food consumption, and depressed metabolism are characteristic of hibernation torpor bouts that are periodically interrupted by brief interbout arousals (IBAs. The molecular basis of torpor induction is unknown, however starved mice overexpressing the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 promote fat utilization, reduce body temperature, and readily enter torpor-all hallmarks of mammalian hibernation. In this study we cloned FGF21 from the naturally hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus and found that levels of FGF21 mRNA in liver and FGF21 protein in serum are elevated during hibernation torpor bouts and significantly elevated during IBAs compared to summer active animals. The effects of artificially elevating circulating FGF21 concentrations 50 to 100-fold via adenoviral-mediated overexpression were examined at three different times of the year. This is the first time that a transgenic approach has been used in a natural hibernator to examine mechanistic aspects of hibernation. Surgically implanted transmitters measured various metrics of the hibernation phenotype over a 7-day period including changes in motor activity, heart rate and core body temperature. In April fed-state animals, FGF21 overexpression decreased blood insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, effects similar to those seen in obese mice. However, elevated FGF21 concentrations did not cause torpor in these fed-state animals nor did they cause torpor or affect metabolic parameters in fasted-state animals in March/April, August or October. We conclude that FGF21 is strongly regulated during torpor and IBA but that its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor in naturally hibernating ground squirrels.

  18. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir.

  19. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  20. Predictive Value of Parkinsonian Primates in Pharmacologic Studies: A Comparison between the Macaque, Marmoset, and Squirrel Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyres, Nicolas; Hamadjida, Adjia; Huot, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned primate is the gold-standard animal model of Parkinson disease (PD) and has been used to assess the effectiveness of experimental drugs on dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and psychosis. Three species have been used in most studies-the macaque, marmoset, and squirrel monkey-the last much less so than the first two species; however, the predictive value of each species at forecasting clinical efficacy, or lack thereof, is poorly documented. Here, we have reviewed all the published literature detailing pharmacologic studies that assessed the effects of experimental drugs on dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and psychosis in each of these species and have calculated their predictive value of success and failure at the clinical level. We found that, for dyskinesia, the macaque has a positive predictive value of 87.5% and a false-positive rate of 38.1%, whereas the marmoset has a positive predictive value of 76.9% and a false-positive rate of 15.6%. For parkinsonism, the macaque has a positive predictive value of 68.2% and a false-positive rate of 44.4%, whereas the marmoset has a positive predictive value of 86.9% and a false-positive rate of 41.7%. No drug that alleviates psychosis in the clinic has shown efficacy at doing so in the macaque, whereas the marmoset has 100% positive predictive value. The small number of studies conducted in the squirrel monkey precluded us from calculating its predictive efficacy. We hope our results will help in the design of pharmacologic experiments and will facilitate the drug discovery and development process in PD. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Comparative Morphology and Histology of the Nasal Fossa in Four Mammals: Gray Squirrel, Bobcat, Coyote, and White-Tailed Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karen K; Craven, Brent A; Wysocki, Charles J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2016-07-01

    Although the anatomy of the nasal fossa is broadly similar among terrestrial mammals, differences are evident in the intricacies of nasal turbinal architecture, which varies from simple scroll-like to complex branching forms, and in the extent of nonsensory and olfactory epithelium covering the turbinals. In this study, detailed morphological and immunohistochemical examinations and quantitative measurements of the turbinals and epithelial lining of the nasal fossa were conducted in an array of species that include the gray squirrel, bobcat, coyote, and white-tailed deer. Results show that much more of the nose is lined with olfactory epithelium in the smallest species (gray squirrel) than in the larger species. In two species with similar body masses, bobcat and coyote, the foreshortened felid snout influences turbinal size and results in a decrease of olfactory epithelium on the ethmoturbinals relative to the longer canine snout. Ethmoturbinal surface area exceeds that of the maxilloturbinals in all four sampled animals, except the white-tailed deer, in which the two are similar in size. Combining our results with published data from a broader array of mammalian noses, it is apparent that olfactory epithelial surface area is influenced by body mass, but is also affected by aspects of life history, such as diet and habitat, as well as skull morphology, itself a product of multiple compromises between various functions, such as feeding, vision, and cognition. The results of this study warrant further examination of other mammalian noses to broaden our evolutionary understanding of nasal fossa anatomy. Anat Rec, 299:840-852, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  3. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  4. Groundwater quality, age, and susceptibility and vulnerability to nitrate contamination with linkages to land use and groundwater flow, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2016-03-03

    The Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin is located about 25 kilometers east of Colorado Springs, Colorado. The primary aquifer is a productive section of unconsolidated deposits that overlies bedrock units of the Denver Basin and is a critical resource for local water needs, including irrigation, domestic, and commercial use. The primary aquifer also serves an important regional role by the export of water to nearby communities in the Colorado Springs area. Changes in land use and development over the last decade, which includes substantial growth of subdivisions in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, have led to uncertainty regarding the potential effects to water quality throughout the basin. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Cherokee Metropolitan District, El Paso County, Meridian Service Metropolitan District, Mountain View Electric Association, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Groundwater Management District, Woodmen Hills Metropolitan District, Colorado State Land Board, and Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the stakeholders represented in the Groundwater Quality Study Committee of El Paso County conducted an assessment of groundwater quality and groundwater age with an emphasis on characterizing nitrate in the groundwater.

  5. State-dependent variation in the inhibitory effect of (D-Ala sup 2 , D-Leu sup 5 )-enkephalin on hippocampal serotonin release in ground squirrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramarova, L.I.; Lee, T.F.; Cui, Y.; Wang, L.C.H. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has suggested that increased endogenous opioid activities may facilitate the onset of hibernation either directly or possibly through modulation of other neurotransmitter systems. The seasonal change of (D-Ala{sup 2}, D-Leu{sup 5})-enkephalin (DADLE), a {delta} receptor agonist, in modulating K{sup +}-induced ({sup 3}H)-5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from the hippocampal and hypothalamic slices of euthermic and hibernating Richardsons' ground squirrels was therefore investigated. DADLE had no effect on 5-HT release in the hypothalamic slices but elicited a dose-related inhibition on ({sup 3}H)-5-HT release from the hippocampal slices of the euthermic ground squirrel. The inhibitory effect of DADLE was completely reversed by naloxone, but not by tetrodotoxin. In contrast, DADLE failed to alter the K{sup +}-induced 5-HT release from the hippocampal slices of the hibernating ground squirrel. This state-dependent reduction in responsiveness to an opioid is consistent with the hypothesis that enhanced endogenous opioid activity in the hibernating phase could lead to down regulation of the opioid receptors and minimize its inhibition on hippocampal serotonergic activity. A high 5-HT activity would inhibit midbrain reticular activating system indirectly through non-serotonergic fibers, which in turn facilitate the onset or maintenance of hibernation.

  6. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  7. Biochemical adaptations of mammalian hibernation: exploring squirrels as a perspective model for naturally induced reversible insulin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C-W.; Biggar, K.K.; Storey, K.B. [Carleton University, Department of Biology, Institute of Biochemistry, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2013-01-28

    An important disease among human metabolic disorders is type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder involves multiple physiological defects that result from high blood glucose content and eventually lead to the onset of insulin resistance. The combination of insulin resistance, increased glucose production, and decreased insulin secretion creates a diabetic metabolic environment that leads to a lifetime of management. Appropriate models are critical for the success of research. As such, a unique model providing insight into the mechanisms of reversible insulin resistance is mammalian hibernation. Hibernators, such as ground squirrels and bats, are excellent examples of animals exhibiting reversible insulin resistance, for which a rapid increase in body weight is required prior to entry into dormancy. Hibernator studies have shown differential regulation of specific molecular pathways involved in reversible resistance to insulin. The present review focuses on this growing area of research and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis, and explores the roles of the Akt signaling pathway during hibernation. Here, we propose a link between hibernation, a well-documented response to periods of environmental stress, and reversible insulin resistance, potentially facilitated by key alterations in the Akt signaling network, PPAR-γ/PGC-1α regulation, and non-coding RNA expression. Coincidentally, many of the same pathways are frequently found to be dysregulated during insulin resistance in human type 2 diabetes. Hence, the molecular networks that may regulate reversible insulin resistance in hibernating mammals represent a novel approach by providing insight into medical treatment of insulin resistance in humans.

  8. Biochemical adaptations of mammalian hibernation: exploring squirrels as a perspective model for naturally induced reversible insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C-W.; Biggar, K.K.; Storey, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    An important disease among human metabolic disorders is type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder involves multiple physiological defects that result from high blood glucose content and eventually lead to the onset of insulin resistance. The combination of insulin resistance, increased glucose production, and decreased insulin secretion creates a diabetic metabolic environment that leads to a lifetime of management. Appropriate models are critical for the success of research. As such, a unique model providing insight into the mechanisms of reversible insulin resistance is mammalian hibernation. Hibernators, such as ground squirrels and bats, are excellent examples of animals exhibiting reversible insulin resistance, for which a rapid increase in body weight is required prior to entry into dormancy. Hibernator studies have shown differential regulation of specific molecular pathways involved in reversible resistance to insulin. The present review focuses on this growing area of research and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis, and explores the roles of the Akt signaling pathway during hibernation. Here, we propose a link between hibernation, a well-documented response to periods of environmental stress, and reversible insulin resistance, potentially facilitated by key alterations in the Akt signaling network, PPAR-γ/PGC-1α regulation, and non-coding RNA expression. Coincidentally, many of the same pathways are frequently found to be dysregulated during insulin resistance in human type 2 diabetes. Hence, the molecular networks that may regulate reversible insulin resistance in hibernating mammals represent a novel approach by providing insight into medical treatment of insulin resistance in humans

  9. Effects of prenatal 60Co irradiation on postnatal neural, learning, and hormonal development of the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordy, J.M.; Brizzee, K.R.; Dunlap, W.P.; Knight, C.

    1982-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the effects of 0, 50, and 100 rad of 60 Co administered prenatally on postnatal development of neuromuscular coordination, visual discrimination learning, spontaneous light-dark stabilimeter activity, plasma cortisol, and somatometric growth rates of diurnal squirrel monkeys from birth to 90 days. In terms of accuracy, completeness, and time required for performance of reflexes and neuromuscular coordination, the performance of 50- and 100-rad offspring was less accurate and poorly coordinated and required more time for completion to that of controls. In visual orientation, discrimination, and reversal learning, the percentage correct responses of the 50- and 100-rad offspring were significantly lower than those of controls. Spontaneous light-dark stabilimeter activity of 50- and 100-rad offspring was significantly higher in the dark session than that of controls. Plasma cortisol was significantly higher in 100-rad infants than in controls. Comparisons of somatometric growth rates indicated that postnatal head circumference, crown-rump length, and to a lesser extent body weight increased at significantly slower rates in 50- and 100-rad offspring. These findings should provide essential information for formulating and carrying out multivariate behavioral, biochemical, and morphometric assessments of low-dose effects on the brain of primate offspring within demonstrable dose-response curves

  10. Astrophysics of Red Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-12-01

    'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.

  11. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  12. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data....... With the availability of RED-ML, it is now possible to conveniently make RNA editing a routine analysis of RNA-seq. We believe this can greatly benefit the RNA editing research community and has profound impact to accelerate our understanding of this intriguing posttranscriptional modification process....

  13. Densities of breeding birds and changes in vegetation in an alaskan boreal forest following a massive disturbance by spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.; Ruthrauff, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    We examined bird and plant communities among forest stands with different levels of spruce mortality following a large outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) in the Copper River Basin, Alaska. Spruce beetles avoided stands with black spruce (Picea mariana) and selectively killed larger diameter white spruce (Picea glauca), thereby altering forest structure and increasing the dominance of black spruce in the region. Alders (Alnus sp.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) were more abundant in areas with heavy spruce mortality, possibly a response to the death of overstory spruce. Grasses and herbaceous plants did not proliferate as has been recorded following outbreaks in more coastal Alaskan forests. Two species closely tied to coniferous habitats, the tree-nesting Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) and the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a major nest predator, were less abundant in forest stands with high spruce mortality than in low-mortality stands. Understory-nesting birds as a group were more abundant in forest stands with high levels of spruce mortality, although the response of individual bird species to tree mortality was variable. Birds breeding in stands with high spruce mortality likely benefited reproductively from lower squirrel densities and a greater abundance of shrubs to conceal nests from predators.

  14. Powassan Virus: Persistence of Virus Activity During 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Donald M.; Cobb, Cathron; Gooderham, Susan E.; Smart, Carol A.; Wilson, A. G.; Wilson, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 102.5 to 106.0 TCD50 for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

  15. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W

    2016-02-27

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  16. Defining landscape resistance values in least-cost connectivity models for the invasive grey squirrel: a comparison of approaches using expert-opinion and habitat suitability modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire D Stevenson-Holt

    Full Text Available Least-cost models are widely used to study the functional connectivity of habitat within a varied landscape matrix. A critical step in the process is identifying resistance values for each land cover based upon the facilitating or impeding impact on species movement. Ideally resistance values would be parameterised with empirical data, but due to a shortage of such information, expert-opinion is often used. However, the use of expert-opinion is seen as subjective, human-centric and unreliable. This study derived resistance values from grey squirrel habitat suitability models (HSM in order to compare the utility and validity of this approach with more traditional, expert-led methods. Models were built and tested with MaxEnt, using squirrel presence records and a categorical land cover map for Cumbria, UK. Predictions on the likelihood of squirrel occurrence within each land cover type were inverted, providing resistance values which were used to parameterise a least-cost model. The resulting habitat networks were measured and compared to those derived from a least-cost model built with previously collated information from experts. The expert-derived and HSM-inferred least-cost networks differ in precision. The HSM-informed networks were smaller and more fragmented because of the higher resistance values attributed to most habitats. These results are discussed in relation to the applicability of both approaches for conservation and management objectives, providing guidance to researchers and practitioners attempting to apply and interpret a least-cost approach to mapping ecological networks.

  17. Defining landscape resistance values in least-cost connectivity models for the invasive grey squirrel: a comparison of approaches using expert-opinion and habitat suitability modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Holt, Claire D; Watts, Kevin; Bellamy, Chloe C; Nevin, Owen T; Ramsey, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Least-cost models are widely used to study the functional connectivity of habitat within a varied landscape matrix. A critical step in the process is identifying resistance values for each land cover based upon the facilitating or impeding impact on species movement. Ideally resistance values would be parameterised with empirical data, but due to a shortage of such information, expert-opinion is often used. However, the use of expert-opinion is seen as subjective, human-centric and unreliable. This study derived resistance values from grey squirrel habitat suitability models (HSM) in order to compare the utility and validity of this approach with more traditional, expert-led methods. Models were built and tested with MaxEnt, using squirrel presence records and a categorical land cover map for Cumbria, UK. Predictions on the likelihood of squirrel occurrence within each land cover type were inverted, providing resistance values which were used to parameterise a least-cost model. The resulting habitat networks were measured and compared to those derived from a least-cost model built with previously collated information from experts. The expert-derived and HSM-inferred least-cost networks differ in precision. The HSM-informed networks were smaller and more fragmented because of the higher resistance values attributed to most habitats. These results are discussed in relation to the applicability of both approaches for conservation and management objectives, providing guidance to researchers and practitioners attempting to apply and interpret a least-cost approach to mapping ecological networks.

  18. Background and stimulus-induced patterns of high metabolic activity in the visual cortex (area 17) of the squirrel and macaque monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, A.L.; Hendrickson, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    We have used 2-deoxy-D-[ 14 C]glucose (2-DG) autoradiography and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry to examine background and stimulus-induced patterns of metabolic activity in monkey striate cortex. In squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that binocularly or monocularly viewed diffuse white light or binocularly viewed bars of many orientations and spatial frequencies, 2-DG consumption was not uniform across the cortex but consisted of regularly spaced radial zones of high uptake. The zones extended through all laminae except IVc beta and, when viewed tangentially, formed separate patches 500 microns apart. The cytochrome oxidase stain in these animals also revealed patches of high metabolism which coincided with the 2-DG patches. Squirrel monkeys binocularly viewing vertical stripes showed parallel bands of increased 2-DG uptake in the cortex, while the cytochrome label in these animals remained patchy. When monkeys were kept in the dark during 2-DG exposure, 2-DG-labeled patches were not seen but cytochrome oxidase-positive patches remained. In macaque (Macaca nemestrina) monkeys, binocular stimulation with many orientations and spatial frequencies produced radial zones of high 2-DG uptake in layers I to IVa and VI. When viewed tangentially, these zones formed a dots-in-rows pattern with a spacing of 350 X 500 microns; cytochrome oxidase staining produced an identical pattern. Macaca differed from Saimiri in that monocular stimulation labeled alternate rows. These results indicate that there are radial zones of high background metabolism across squirrel and macaque monkey striate cortex. In Saimiri these zones do not appear to be related to an eye dominance system, while in Macaca they do. The presence of these zones of high metabolism may complicate the interpretation of 2-DG autoradiographs that result from specific visual stimuli

  19. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S.; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C.; Chen, Li min; Landman, Bennett A.; Anderson, Adam W.

    2016-03-01

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  20. A thermal and electrical dynamic mathematical model for squirrel cage induction motors; Modelamento matematico dinamico termico e eletrico de motores de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Ronaldo Martins de

    1996-01-01

    A thermal and electrical dynamic mathematical model for squirrel cage induction motors is presented. The electrical model is described by Park equation and the torque equation, while the thermal model is described by a system of four first order differential equations that represent the motor heat transfer process. The model presented can be used to determine thermal and electrical performance for any operation condition. However, it is suitable mainly for machines operating under continuously transient condition. The presented mathematical model also incorporate variation of rotor winding electrical parameters due to skin effect. (author)

  1. Using dynamic N-mixture models to test cavity limitation on northern flying squirrel demographic parameters using experimental nest box supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priol, Pauline; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis; Drapeau, Pierre; Trudeau, Caroline; Ramière, Jessica

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic N-mixture models have been recently developed to estimate demographic parameters of unmarked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. We propose an application of the Dail and Madsen (2011: Biometrics, 67, 577-587) dynamic N-mixture model in a manipulative experiment using a before-after control-impact design (BACI). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis of cavity limitation of a cavity specialist species, the northern flying squirrel, using nest box supplementation on half of 56 trapping sites. Our main purpose was to evaluate the impact of an increase in cavity availability on flying squirrel population dynamics in deciduous stands in northwestern Québec with the dynamic N-mixture model. We compared abundance estimates from this recent approach with those from classic capture-mark-recapture models and generalized linear models. We compared apparent survival estimates with those from Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models. Average recruitment rate was 6 individuals per site after 4 years. Nevertheless, we found no effect of cavity supplementation on apparent survival and recruitment rates of flying squirrels. Contrary to our expectations, initial abundance was not affected by conifer basal area (food availability) and was negatively affected by snag basal area (cavity availability). Northern flying squirrel population dynamics are not influenced by cavity availability at our deciduous sites. Consequently, we suggest that this species should not be considered an indicator of old forest attributes in our study area, especially in view of apparent wide population fluctuations across years. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were similar to those from capture-mark-recapture models, although the latter had greater precision. Generalized linear mixed models produced lower abundance estimates, but revealed the same relationship between abundance and snag basal area. Apparent survival estimates from N-mixture models were higher and less precise

  2. Scale-dependent effects of a heterogeneous landscape on genetic differentiation in the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Blair

    Full Text Available Landscape genetic studies offer a fine-scale understanding of how habitat heterogeneity influences population genetic structure. We examined population genetic structure and conducted a landscape genetic analysis for the endangered Central American Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri oerstedii that lives in the fragmented, human-modified habitats of the Central Pacific region of Costa Rica. We analyzed non-invasively collected fecal samples from 244 individuals from 14 groups for 16 microsatellite markers. We found two geographically separate genetic clusters in the Central Pacific region with evidence of recent gene flow among them. We also found significant differentiation among groups of S. o. citrinellus using pairwise F(ST comparisons. These groups are in fragments of secondary forest separated by unsuitable "matrix" habitats such as cattle pasture, commercial African oil palm plantations, and human residential areas. We used an individual-based landscape genetic approach to measure spatial patterns of genetic variance while taking into account landscape heterogeneity. We found that large, commercial oil palm plantations represent moderate barriers to gene flow between populations, but cattle pastures, rivers, and residential areas do not. However, the influence of oil palm plantations on genetic variance was diminished when we restricted analyses to within population pairs, suggesting that their effect is scale-dependent and manifests during longer dispersal events among populations. We show that when landscape genetic methods are applied rigorously and at the right scale, they are sensitive enough to track population processes even in species with long, overlapping generations such as primates. Thus landscape genetic approaches are extremely valuable for the conservation management of a diverse array of endangered species in heterogeneous, human-modified habitats. Our results also stress the importance of explicitly considering the heterogeneity of

  3. Impacts of late Quaternary environmental change on the long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus) in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Bryan S; Nyamsuren, Batsaikhan; Tchabovsky, Andrey; Cook, Joseph A

    2018-03-08

    Impacts of Quaternary environmental changes on mammal faunas of central Asia remain poorly understood due to a lack of geographically comprehensive phylogeographic sampling for most species. To help address this knowledge gap, we conducted the most extensive molecular analysis to date of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus Pallas 1778) in Mongolia, a country that comprises the southern core of this species' range. Drawing on material from recent collaborative field expeditions, we genotyped 128 individuals at 2 mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I; 1 797 bp total). Phylogenetic inference supports the existence of two deeply divergent infraspecific lineages (corresponding to subspecies U. u. undulatus and U. u. eversmanni), a result in agreement with previous molecular investigations but discordant with patterns of range-wide craniometric and external phenotypic variation. In the widespread western eversmanni lineage, we recovered geographically-associated clades from the: (a) Khangai, (b) Mongolian Altai, and (c) Govi Altai mountain ranges. Phylogeographic structure in U. u. eversmanni is consistent with an isolation-by-distance model; however, genetic distances are significantly lower than among subspecies, and intra-clade relationships are largely unresolved. The latter patterns, as well as the relatively higher nucleotide polymorphism of populations from the Great Lakes Depression of northwestern Mongolia, suggest a history of range shifts into these lowland areas in response to Pleistocene glaciation and environmental change, followed by upslope movements and mitochondrial lineage sorting with Holocene aridification. Our study illuminates possible historical mechanisms responsible for U. undulatus genetic structure and contributes to a framework for ongoing exploration of mammalian response to past and present climate change in central Asia.

  4. Metabolic changes associated with the long winter fast dominate the liver proteome in 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Grabek, Katharine R; Epperson, L Elaine; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Martin, Sandra L

    2014-05-15

    Small-bodied hibernators partition the year between active homeothermy and hibernating heterothermy accompanied by fasting. To define molecular events underlying hibernation that are both dependent and independent of fasting, we analyzed the liver proteome among two active and four hibernation states in 13-lined ground squirrels. We also examined fall animals transitioning between fed homeothermy and fasting heterothermy. Significantly enriched pathways differing between activity and hibernation were biased toward metabolic enzymes, concordant with the fuel shifts accompanying fasting physiology. Although metabolic reprogramming to support fasting dominated these data, arousing (rewarming) animals had the most distinct proteome among the hibernation states. Instead of a dominant metabolic enzyme signature, torpor-arousal cycles featured differences in plasma proteins and intracellular membrane traffic and its regulation. Phosphorylated NSFL1C, a membrane regulator, exhibited this torpor-arousal cycle pattern; its role in autophagosome formation may promote utilization of local substrates upon metabolic reactivation in arousal. Fall animals transitioning to hibernation lagged in their proteomic adjustment, indicating that the liver is more responsive than preparatory to the metabolic reprogramming of hibernation. Specifically, torpor use had little impact on the fall liver proteome, consistent with a dominant role of nutritional status. In contrast to our prediction of reprogramming the transition between activity and hibernation by gene expression and then within-hibernation transitions by posttranslational modification (PTM), we found extremely limited evidence of reversible PTMs within torpor-arousal cycles. Rather, acetylation contributed to seasonal differences, being highest in winter (specifically in torpor), consistent with fasting physiology and decreased abundance of the mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Metabolic changes associated with the long winter fast dominate the liver proteome in 13-lined ground squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Grabek, Katharine R.; Epperson, L. Elaine; Karimpour-Fard, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Small-bodied hibernators partition the year between active homeothermy and hibernating heterothermy accompanied by fasting. To define molecular events underlying hibernation that are both dependent and independent of fasting, we analyzed the liver proteome among two active and four hibernation states in 13-lined ground squirrels. We also examined fall animals transitioning between fed homeothermy and fasting heterothermy. Significantly enriched pathways differing between activity and hibernation were biased toward metabolic enzymes, concordant with the fuel shifts accompanying fasting physiology. Although metabolic reprogramming to support fasting dominated these data, arousing (rewarming) animals had the most distinct proteome among the hibernation states. Instead of a dominant metabolic enzyme signature, torpor-arousal cycles featured differences in plasma proteins and intracellular membrane traffic and its regulation. Phosphorylated NSFL1C, a membrane regulator, exhibited this torpor-arousal cycle pattern; its role in autophagosome formation may promote utilization of local substrates upon metabolic reactivation in arousal. Fall animals transitioning to hibernation lagged in their proteomic adjustment, indicating that the liver is more responsive than preparatory to the metabolic reprogramming of hibernation. Specifically, torpor use had little impact on the fall liver proteome, consistent with a dominant role of nutritional status. In contrast to our prediction of reprogramming the transition between activity and hibernation by gene expression and then within-hibernation transitions by posttranslational modification (PTM), we found extremely limited evidence of reversible PTMs within torpor-arousal cycles. Rather, acetylation contributed to seasonal differences, being highest in winter (specifically in torpor), consistent with fasting physiology and decreased abundance of the mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3. PMID:24642758

  6. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of nicotine-induced dopamine release in squirrel monkeys using [18F]Fallypride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Jennifer E; Hiranita, Takato; Matazel, Katelin S; Zhang, Xuan; Paule, Merle G; Goodwin, Amy K

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine, the principal psychoactive tobacco constituent, is thought to produce its reinforcing effects via actions within the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of nicotine on DA D 2 /D 3 receptor availability in the nonhuman primate brain with the use of the radioligand [ 18 F]fallypride and positron emission tomography (PET). Ten adult male squirrel monkeys were used in the current study. Each subject underwent two PET scans, one with an injection (IV) of saline and subsequently one with an injection of nicotine (0.032mg/kg). The DA D 2 /D 3 antagonist, [ 18 F]fallypride, was delivered IV at the beginning of each scan, and nicotine or saline was delivered at 45min into the scan. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn on specific brain regions and these were used to quantify standard uptake values (SUVs). The SUV is defined as the average concentration of radioactivity in the ROI x body weight/injected dose. Using the cerebellum as a reference region, SUV ratios (SUV ROI /SUV cerebellum ) were calculated to compare saline and nicotine effects in each ROI. Two-way repeated ANOVA revealed a significant decrease of SUV ratios in both striatal and extrastriatal regions following an injection of nicotine during the PET scans. Like other drugs of abuse, these results indicate that nicotine administration may produce DA release, as suggested by the decrease in [ 18 F]fallypride signal in striatal regions. These findings from a nonhuman primate model provide further evidence that the mesolimbic DA system is affected by the use of products that contain nicotine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Vestibulo-ocular reflex of the squirrel monkey during eccentric rotation with centripetal acceleration along the naso-occipital axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfeld, D. M.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) are determined not only by angular acceleration, but also by the presence of gravity and linear acceleration. This phenomenon was studied by measuring three-dimensional nystagmic eye movements, with implanted search coils, in four male squirrel monkeys. Monkeys were rotated in the dark at 200 degrees/s, centrally or 79 cm off-axis, with the axis of rotation always aligned with gravity and the spinal axis of the upright monkeys. The monkey's position relative to the centripetal acceleration (facing center or back to center) had a dramatic influence on the VOR. These studies show that a torsional response was always elicited that acted to shift the axis of eye rotation toward alignment with gravito-inertial force. On the other hand, a slow phase downward vertical response usually existed, which shifted the axis of eye rotation away from the gravito-inertial force. These findings were consistent across all monkeys. In another set of tests, the same monkeys were rapidly tilted about their interaural (pitch) axis. Tilt orientations of 45 degrees and 90 degrees were maintained for 1 min. Other than a compensatory angular VOR during the rotation, no consistent eye velocity response was ever observed during or following the tilt. The absence of any response following tilt proves that the observed torsional and vertical responses were not a positional nystagmus. Model simulations qualitatively predict all components of these eccentric rotation and tilt responses. These simulations support the conclusion that the VOR during eccentric rotation may consist of two components: a linear VOR and a rotational VOR. The model predicts a slow phase downward, vertical, linear VOR during eccentric rotation even though there was never a change in the force aligned with monkey's spinal (Z) axis. The model also predicts the torsional components of the response that shift the rotation axis of the angular VOR toward alignment with gravito-inertial force.

  8. Effects of drugs of abuse and cholinergic agents on delayed matching-to-sample responding in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudzik, T J; Wenger, G R

    1993-04-01

    To study how drugs may disrupt short-term memory function, squirrel monkeys were trained to respond under a titrating delayed matching-to-sample schedule of reinforcement. Monkeys could respond on each of three keys in an operant chamber. At the start of each trial, the 30th response on the center key illuminated each of the side keys, one of which matched the stimulus presented on the center key (simultaneous matching). A response to the correct (matching) side key turned off all stimuli and initiated a delay, the length of which varied as a function of ongoing performance. After the delay, stimuli were randomly presented on two of the three keys. A response to the key which matched the color on the center key before the delay resulted in delivery of a food pellet (delayed matching). Incorrect simultaneous or delayed matching responses initiated a timeout. Under this procedure, diazepam and scopolamine decreased delayed matching accuracy at one or more doses that did not significantly decrease mean delay values, but only scopolamine decreased matching accuracy at a dose that did not significantly decrease response rates. Cocaine decreased mean delay values after the highest dose without affecting matching accuracy. Pentobarbital and methylscopolamine decreased matching accuracy and mean and maximum delay values after the highest doses. Nicotine and phencyclidine produced small decreases in delayed matching accuracy without affecting mean and maximum delay values. Caffeine, morphine, physostigmine and neostigmine did not alter matching performance even after doses that markedly decreased rates of responding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Attenuating Nicotine Reinforcement and Relapse by Enhancing Endogenous Brain Levels of Kynurenic Acid in Rats and Squirrel Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secci, Maria E; Auber, Alessia; Panlilio, Leigh V; Redhi, Godfrey H; Thorndike, Eric B; Schindler, Charles W; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R; Justinova, Zuzana

    2017-07-01

    The currently available antismoking medications have limited efficacy and often fail to prevent relapse. Thus, there is a pressing need for newer, more effective treatment strategies. Recently, we demonstrated that enhancing endogenous levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA, a neuroinhibitory product of tryptophan metabolism) counteracts the rewarding effects of cannabinoids by acting as a negative allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic receptors (α7nAChRs). As the effects of KYNA on cannabinoid reward involve nicotinic receptors, in the present study we used rat and squirrel monkey models of reward and relapse to examine the possibility that enhancing KYNA can counteract the effects of nicotine. To assess specificity, we also examined models of cocaine reward and relapse in monkeys. KYNA levels were enhanced by administering the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor, Ro 61-8048. Treatment with Ro 61-8048 decreased nicotine self-administration in rats and monkeys, but did not affect cocaine self-administration. In rats, Ro 61-8048 reduced the ability of nicotine to induce dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell, a brain area believed to underlie nicotine reward. Perhaps most importantly, Ro 61-8048 prevented relapse-like behavior when abstinent rats or monkeys were reexposed to nicotine and/or cues that had previously been associated with nicotine. Ro 61-8048 was also effective in monkey models of cocaine relapse. All of these effects of Ro 61-8048 in monkeys, but not in rats, were reversed by pretreatment with a positive allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. These findings suggest that KMO inhibition may be a promising new approach for the treatment of nicotine addiction.

  10. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  11. Fault Diagnosis of Broken Rotor Bars in Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor of Hoister Based on Duffing Oscillator and Multifractal Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhike Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to propose a novel fault diagnosis method for broken rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction motor of hoister, which is based on duffing oscillator and multifractal dimension. Firstly, based on the analysis of the structure and performance of modified duffing oscillator, the end of transitional slope from chaotic area to large-scale cycle area is selected as the optimal critical threshold of duffing oscillator by bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponent. Secondly, the phase transformation duffing oscillator from chaos to intermittent chaos is sensitive to the signals, whose frequency difference is quite weak from the reference signal. The spectrums of the largest Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams of the duffing oscillator are utilized to analyze the variance in different parameters of frequency. Finally, this paper is to analyze the characteristics of both single fractal (box-counting dimension and multifractal and make a comparison between them. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is applied to detect extra frequency component of current signal. Experimental results reveal that the method is effective for early detection of broken rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction motor of hoister.

  12. Accumulation of trace elements used in semiconductor industry in Formosan squirrel, as a bio-indicator of their exposure, living in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Watanabe, Izumi; Oshida, Tatsuo; Chen, Yen-Jean; Lin, Liang-Kong; Wang, Yu-Huang; Yang, Kouh-Cheng; Kuno, Katsuji

    2007-07-01

    Concentrations of 17 trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in Formosan squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) of Taiwan and Japan to document trace element pollution in Taiwan. High concentrations of elements used to produce semiconductors - Ga, As, Cd, In and Tl - were found in animals captured in Miaoli County, which is the nearest site to Hsinchu City, a chief city of Taiwan's semiconductor industry. Significant correlations between Ga, As, In and Tl were found in the kidney, liver, lung and muscle tissues of Taiwanese squirrels. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that Ga, As, In and Tl were of the same clade, indicating that Ga, As, In and Tl were discharged from an identical origin. Molar ratios of Ga/As concentration in lungs of animals captured in Miaoli resembled those of animals after intratracheal administration of particulate gallium arsenide (GaAs). This result might indicate that the higher concentrations of Ga and As in the specimens in Miaoli resulted from atmospheric exposure to GaAs.

  13. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of 14 C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers

  14. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  15. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  16. Red giants seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  17. Multiplicar la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología comunicacional nos ha conducido precipitadamente a una existencia completamente nueva. En la carrera por crear una sociedad sustentable, una "red de redes mundiales" de computadoras personales que puedan ofrecer la primera esperanza real de acelerar ampliamente las comunicaciones. Las redes computacionales no solo sirven como un sistema de comunicación interactivo, rápido sino también como una herramienta de investigación de poderes insospechados.

  18. Reciprocal selection causes a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkman, Craig W; Parchman, Thomas L; Favis, Amanda; Siepielski, Adam M

    2003-08-01

    Few studies have shown both reciprocal selection and reciprocal adaptations for a coevolving system in the wild. The goal of our study was to determine whether the patterns of selection on Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta spp. latifolia) and red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) were concordant with earlier published evidence of reciprocal adaptations in lodgepole pine and crossbills on isolated mountain ranges in the absence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). We found that selection (directional) by crossbills on lodgepole pine where Tamiasciurus are absent was divergent from the selection (directional) exerted by Tamiasciurus on lodgepole pine. This resulted in divergent selection between areas with and without Tamiasciurus that was congruent with the geographic patterns of cone variation. In the South Hills, Idaho, where Tamiasciurus are absent and red crossbills are thought to be coevolving with lodgepole pine, crossbills experienced stabilizing selection on bill size, with cone structure as the agent of selection. These results show that crossbills and lodgepole pine exhibit reciprocal adaptations in response to reciprocal selection, and they provide insight into the traits mediating and responding to selection in a coevolutionary arms race.

  19. RedNemo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkan, Ferhat; Erten, Cesim

    2017-01-01

    is their erroneous nature; they contain false-positive interactions and usually many more false-negatives. Recently, several computational methods have been proposed for network reconstruction based on topology, where given an input PPI network the goal is to reconstruct the network by identifying false...... material including source code, useful scripts, experimental data and the results are available at http://webprs.khas.edu.tr/∼cesim/Red Nemo. tar.gz CONTACT: cesim@khas.edu.tr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online....

  20. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  1. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  2. Two models of the sound-signal frequency dependence on the animal body size as exemplified by the ground squirrels of Eurasia (mammalia, rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skii, A A

    2017-11-01

    Dependence of the sound-signal frequency on the animal body length was studied in 14 ground squirrel species (genus Spermophilus) of Eurasia. Regression analysis of the total sample yielded a low determination coefficient (R 2 = 26%), because the total sample proved to be heterogeneous in terms of signal frequency within the dimension classes of animals. When the total sample was divided into two groups according to signal frequency, two statistically significant models (regression equations) were obtained in which signal frequency depended on the body size at high determination coefficients (R 2 = 73 and 94% versus 26% for the total sample). Thus, the problem of correlation between animal body size and the frequency of their vocal signals does not have a unique solution.

  3. Number-related discrimination and summation by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus sciureus and S. boliviensus boliviensus) on the basis of the number of sides of polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, D F; Thomas, R K

    1990-09-01

    In Experiment 1, with the number of sides or angles of irregular polygons as cues, programmed training, and a 90% correct criterion (36 of 40), 2 squirrel monkeys' (Saimiri sciureus sciureus and S. boliviensus boliviensus) best performances were to discriminate heptagons from octagons, a 3rd's best was hexagons from heptagons, and a 4th's best was pentagons from heptagons. In Experiment 2, on most trials 2 polygons on one or both discriminanda had to be summed to determine which discrimination had the total fewer sides. Only 1 monkey met criterion (27 of 30) on the 2 tasks, 6 vs. 8 and 7 vs. 8 sides, but the other 3 performed better than chance on the 6 vs. 8 task. We conclude that previous studies of animals' discrimination of polygons in terms of complexity were minimally relevant to this work, and counting and subitizing were rejected in favor of a prototype-matching process to explain our monkeys' performances.

  4. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  5. Home-range use patterns and movements of the Siberian flying squirrel in urban forests: Effects of habitat composition and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkeläinen, Sanna; de Knegt, Henrik J; Ovaskainen, Otso; Hanski, Ilpo K

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes modification, fragmentation and loss of native habitats. Such landscape changes threaten many arboreal and gliding mammals by limiting their movements through treeless parts of a landscape and by making the landscape surrounding suitable habitat patches more inhospitable. Here, we investigate the effects of landscape structure and habitat availability on the home-range use and movement patterns of the Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans) at different spatial and temporal scales. We followed radio-tagged individuals in a partly urbanized study area in Eastern Finland, and analysed how landscape composition and connectivity affected the length and speed of movement bursts, distances moved during one night, and habitat and nest-site use. The presence of urban habitat on movement paths increased both movement lengths and speed whereas nightly distances travelled by males decreased with increasing amount of urban habitat within the home range. The probability of switching from the present nest site to another nest site decreased with increasing distance among the nest sites, but whether the nest sites were connected or unconnected by forests did not have a clear effect on nest switching. Flying squirrels preferred to use mature forests for their movements at night. Our results suggest that the proximity to urban habitats modifies animal movements, possibly because animals try to avoid such habitats by moving faster through them. Urbanization at the scale of an entire home range can restrict their movements. Thus, maintaining a large enough amount of mature forests around inhabited landscape fragments will help protect forest specialists in urban landscapes. The effect of forested connections remains unclear, highlighting the difficulty of measuring and preserving connectivity in a species-specific way.

  6. The use of climatic niches in screening procedures for introduced species to evaluate risk of spread: a case with the American Eastern grey squirrel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Di Febbraro

    Full Text Available Species introduction represents one of the most serious threats for biodiversity. The realized climatic niche of an invasive species can be used to predict its potential distribution in new areas, providing a basis for screening procedures in the compilation of black and white lists to prevent new introductions. We tested this assertion by modeling the realized climatic niche of the Eastern grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis. Maxent was used to develop three models: one considering only records from the native range (NRM, a second including records from native and invasive range (NIRM, a third calibrated with invasive occurrences and projected in the native range (RCM. Niche conservatism was tested considering both a niche equivalency and a niche similarity test. NRM failed to predict suitable parts of the currently invaded range in Europe, while RCM underestimated the suitability in the native range. NIRM accurately predicted both the native and invasive range. The niche equivalency hypothesis was rejected due to a significant difference between the grey squirrel's niche in native and invasive ranges. The niche similarity test yielded no significant results. Our analyses support the hypothesis of a shift in the species' climatic niche in the area of introductions. Species Distribution Models (SDMs appear to be a useful tool in the compilation of black lists, allowing identifying areas vulnerable to invasions. We advise caution in the use of SDMs based only on the native range of a species for the compilation of white lists for other geographic areas, due to the significant risk of underestimating its potential invasive range.

  7. Early and late changes in the distal forelimb representation of the supplementary motor area after injury to frontal motor areas in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner-Janowicz, Ines; Barbay, Scott; Hoover, Erica; Stowe, Ann M; Frost, Shawn B; Plautz, Erik J; Nudo, Randolph J

    2008-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies in stroke survivors have suggested that adaptive plasticity occurs following stroke. However, the complex temporal dynamics of neural reorganization after injury make the interpretation of functional imaging studies equivocal. In the present study in adult squirrel monkeys, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) techniques were used to monitor changes in representational maps of the distal forelimb in the supplementary motor area (SMA) after a unilateral ischemic infarct of primary motor (M1) and premotor distal forelimb representations (DFLs). In each animal, ICMS maps were derived at early (3 wk) and late (13 wk) postinfarct stages. Lesions resulted in severe deficits in motor abilities on a reach and retrieval task. Limited behavioral recovery occurred and plateaued at 3 wk postinfarct. At both early and late postinfarct stages, distal forelimb movements could still be evoked by ICMS in SMA at low current levels. However, the size of the SMA DFL changed after the infarct. In particular, wrist-forearm representations enlarged significantly between early and late stages, attaining a size substantially larger than the preinfarct area. At the late postinfarct stage, the expansion in the SMA DFL area was directly proportional to the absolute size of the lesion. The motor performance scores were positively correlated to the absolute size of the SMA DFL at the late postinfarct stage. Together, these data suggest that, at least in squirrel monkeys, descending output from M1 and dorsal and ventral premotor cortices is not necessary for SMA representations to be maintained and that SMA motor output maps undergo delayed increases in representational area after damage to other motor areas. Finally, the role of SMA in recovery of function after such lesions remains unclear because behavioral recovery appears to precede neurophysiological map changes.

  8. Red - take a closer look.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L Buechner

    Full Text Available Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure or approach of reward (e.g., mating depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers' attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation.

  9. Listening to Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinazo Mtshemla

    Full Text Available Following a distinction John Mowitt draws between hearing (and phonics, and listening (and sonics, this article argues that the dominant notion of listening to sound was determined by the disciplinary framework of South African history and by the deployment of a cinematic documentary apparatus, both of which have served to disable the act of listening. The conditions of this hearing, and a deafness to a reduced or bracketed listening (Chion via Schaeffer that would enable us to think the post in post-apartheid differently, is thus at the centre of our concerns here. We stage a series of screenings of expected possible soundtracks for Simon Gush's film and installation Red, simultaneously tracking the ways that sound - and particularly music and dialogue - can be shown to hold a certain way of thinking both the political history of South Africa and the politics of South African history. We conclude by listening more closely to hiss and murmur in the soundtrack to Red and suggest this has major implications for considering ways of thinking and knowing.

  10. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longbine, David F

    2008-01-01

    .... Key aspects of the Army red teaming definition are its emphasis on independent thinking, challenging organizational thinking, incorporating alternative perspectives, and incorporating alternative analysis...

  11. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  12. Squirrels With Scissors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerning, Halfdan; Clemmensen, Louise Thorsø

    2016-01-01

    Reviews the film Me and Earl and the Dying Girl (2015) directed by Alfonso Gomez-Rejon (2015). The film portrays the development of a friendship between three young people, one of them newly diagnosed with cancer. The film is a humorous declaration of love and the power of friendship. It is about...... meaning in a meaningless situation by selflessly giving to another person in ways that we all can give. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)...

  13. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  14. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  15. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  16. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Study of some parameters affecting the in vitro cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum within saimiri sciureus red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fandeur

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro growth and multiplication of the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum within Saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey red blood cells have been studied. Various parameters, such as the origin of the red blood cells and serum supplement, nature of the buffer, influence of the final pH of the medium, role of proteose peptone and glucose addition, were investigated. The selection of the best culture conditions led to the obtention of a reproducible in vitro growth of two parasite cycles in Saimiri erythrocytes, which is an useful achievement for in vitro studies. Our failure to establish a continuous culture line for longer than 19 days, could be explained by a dramatic increasing of osmotic fragility of the Saimiri red blood cells related to their small size.O crescimento e a multiplicação dos estágios eritrocíticos do Plasmodium falciparum in vitro foi estudado em cultivos com hemácias do Saimiri sciureus (macaco de cheiro. Foram investigados vários parâmetros tais como, origem das hemácias e suplementação de soro, tipo de tampão, influência do pH final do meio, papel da proteose-peptona e da glicose adicionados. A seleção das condições ideais de cultivo permitiram, de maneira reprodutível, a obtenção de crescimento do parasita durante dois ciclos nas hemácias do Saimiri. Nosso fracasso em estabelecer uma linhagem contínua de cultivo por mais de 19 dias poderia ser explicado pelo aumento dramático da fragilidade osmótica das hemácias do Saimiri relacionado com seu pequeno tamanho.

  18. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  19. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  20. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  1. Silvical characteristics of red maple (Acer rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik; Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is also known as Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple. Taxonomists recognize several varieties of red maple. The most common is Drummond red maple (Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Hook, & Arn.) Sarg.).

  2. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  3. Reduced-Capacity Inrush Current Suppressor Using a Matrix Converter in a Wind Power Generation System with Squirrel-Cage Induction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Shibata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the reduced capacity of the inrush current suppressor using a matrix converter (MC in a large-capacity wind power generation system (WPGS with two squirrel-cage induction machines (SCIMs. These SCIMs are switched over depending on the wind speed. The input side of the MC is connected to the source in parallel. The output side of the MC is connected in series with the SCIM through matching transformers. The modulation method of the MC used is direct duty ratio pulse width modulation. The reference output voltage of the MC is decided by multiplying the SCIM current with the variable control gain. Therefore, the MC performs as resistors for the inrush current. Digital computer simulation is implemented to confirm the validity and practicability of the proposed inrush current suppressor using PSCAD/EMTDC (power system computer-aided design/electromagnetic transients including DC. Furthermore, the equivalent resistance of the MC is decided by the relationship between the equivalent resistance and the capacity of the MC. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed inrush current suppressor can suppress the inrush current perfectly.

  4. Measurement of free glucocorticoids: quantifying corticosteroid-binding globulin binding affinity and its variation within and among mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delehanty, Brendan; Hossain, Sabrina; Jen, Chao Ching; Crawshaw, Graham J; Boonstra, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Plasma glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly used as measures of stress in wildlife. A great deal of evidence indicates that only free GC (GC not bound by the specific binding protein, corticosteroid-binding globulin, CBG) leaves the circulation and exerts biological effects on GC-sensitive tissues. Free hormone concentrations are difficult to measure directly, so researchers estimate free GC using two measures: the binding affinity and the binding capacity in plasma. We provide an inexpensive saturation binding method for calculating the binding affinity (equilibrium dissociation constant, K d) of CBG that can be run without specialized laboratory equipment. Given that other plasma proteins, such as albumin, also bind GCs, the method compensates for this non-specific binding. Separation of bound GC from free GC was achieved with dextran-coated charcoal. The method provides repeatable estimates (12% coefficient of variation in the red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and there is little evidence of inter-individual variation in K d (range 2.0-7.3 nM for 16 Richardson's ground squirrels, Urocitellus richardsonii). The K d values of 28 mammalian species we assessed were mostly clustered around a median of 4 nM, but five species had values between 13 and 61 nM. This pattern may be distinct from birds, for which published values are more tightly distributed (1.5-5.1 nM). The charcoal separation method provides a reliable and robust method for measuring the K d in a wide range of species. It uses basic laboratory equipment to provide rapid results at very low cost. Given the importance of CBG in regulating the biological activity of GCs, this method is a useful tool for physiological ecologists.

  5. DAVs: Red Edge and Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As established by ground based surveys, white dwarfs with hydrogen atmospheres pulsate as they cool across the temperature range, 12500Kred edge is a two-decade old puzzle. Recently, Kepler discovered a number of cool DAVs exhibiting sporadic outbursts separated by days, each lasting several hours, and releasing \\sim 10^{33}-10^{34} {erg}. We provide quantitative explanations for both the red edge and the outbursts. The minimal frequency for overstable modes rises abruptly near the red edge. Although high frequency overstable modes exist below the red edge, their photometric amplitudes are generally too small to be detected by ground based observations. Nevertheless, these overstable parent modes can manifest themselves through nonlinear mode couplings to damped daughter modes which generate limit cycles giving rise to photometric outbursts.

  6. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  7. Red de senderos universitarios inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra-Berrocal, I.J.; Romero, J.; Pérez, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: El Proyecto de red de senderos universitarios inteligentes UR se inspira en tres realidades, la red de senderos europeos ya existentes y su importancia en el fomento de la actividad deportiva y los hábitos saludables, la creciente importancia de la implantación, intercambio y difusión de políticas y planes de acción en materia de sostenibilidad ambiental en el ámbito universitario europeo, y por último, el uso y desarrollo de infraestructuras y aplicaciones, cada vez más impresc...

  8. Seguridad en una red universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal España, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Las redes de comunicaciones son muy importantes para las empresas. Se solicita una red de altas prestaciones que pueda llevar muchos sistemas sobre ella (cámaras de seguridad, video, voz, datos, SCADA, wifi). Ahora también necesitamos que la red sea segura. Cuando hablamos de seguridad no solo nos referimos a evitar ataques o virus, también hablamos de cómo puede afectarnos el incendio de un centro de proceso de datos. Basándonos en la ISO 27001:2013 daremos las principales pau...

  9. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan; Xi Yugeng

    2004-01-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED

  10. Nonlinear analysis of RED - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kai; Wang Xiaofan E-mail: xfwang@sjtu.edu.cn; Xi Yugeng

    2004-09-01

    Random Early Detection (RED) is an active queue management (AQM) mechanism for routers on the Internet. In this paper, performance of RED and Adaptive RED are compared from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. In particular, we reveal the relationship between the performance of the network and its nonlinear dynamical behavior. We measure the maximal Lyapunov exponent and Hurst parameter of the average queue length of RED and Adaptive RED, as well as the throughput and packet loss rate of the aggregate traffic on the bottleneck link. Our simulation scenarios include FTP flows and Web flows, one-way and two-way traffic. In most situations, Adaptive RED has smaller maximal Lyapunov exponents, lower Hurst parameters, higher throughput and lower packet loss rate than that of RED. This confirms that Adaptive RED has better performance than RED.

  11. A contribution to the study of the thermal behavior and of the electric performance of squirrel-cage induction motors; Uma contribuicao ao estudo do comportamento termico e do desempenho eletrico de motores de inducao com rotor em gaiola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avolio, Edwin

    1992-03-01

    A thermal-electric mathematical model for a squirrel cage induction motors which permits to specify the best motor for specific drive, under thermal and electric aspects based, only on manufacturer technical bulletins and technical information is presented. Changes of rotor parameters due Skin Effect and changes of winding resistances (both stator and rotor) with the temperature are considered. The accuracy of this model is appraised using experimental results. The thermal behavior and electric performance for some motors are obtained for continuos and intermittent duties with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal voltages. (author)

  12. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  13. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  14. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring alternatives. The purpose of this monograph is to examine historical and...Planning and Orders Production, introduces red team principles into the army problem solving method.14 Additionally, TRADOC staffed and funded the...organization, incorporating alternative perspectives in an attempt to eliminate cultural and ethnocentric bias, and a focus on fully exploring

  15. The red-blue conundrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Mikkel Johansen

    2017-01-01

    Plants from the Rubiaceae family (Rubia, Galium, and Asperula) are often grouped together as madder because they have been used for dyeing red since at least the Bronze Age. The English plant name madder can be traced through the Germanic language all the way back to Proto-Indo-European (PIE), as...

  16. Energy regulation in context: Free-living female arctic ground squirrels modulate the relationship between thyroid hormones and activity among life history stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Buck, C Loren; Barnes, Brian M; Williams, Cory T

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), key regulators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, are likely modulators of energy allocation within and among animal life history stages. Despite their role in modulating metabolism, few studies have investigated whether THs vary among life history stages in free-living animals or if they exhibit stage-specific relationships to total energy expenditure and activity levels. We measured plasma total triiodothyronine (tT3) and thyroxine (tT4) at four, discrete life history stages of female arctic ground squirrels from two different populations in northern Alaska to test whether plasma THs correlate with life history stage-specific changes in metabolic rate and energy demand. We also tested whether THs explained individual variation in aboveground activity levels within life history stages. T3 peaked during lactation and was lowest during pre-hibernation fattening, consistent with known changes in basal metabolism and core body temperature. In contrast, T4 was elevated shortly after terminating hibernation but remained low and stable across other life-history stages in the active season. THs were consistently higher in the population that spent more time above-ground but the relationship between THs and activity varied among life history stages. T3 was positively correlated with activity only during lactation (r(2)=0.50) whereas T4 was positively correlated with activity immediately following lactation (r(2)=0.48) and during fattening (r(2)=0.53). Our results support the hypothesis that THs are an important modulator of basal metabolism but also suggest that the relationship between THs and activity varies among life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional Characteristics of the Flying Squirrel's Cecal Microbiota under a Leaf-Based Diet, Based on Multiple Meta-Omic Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Pei Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian herbivores rely on microbial activities in an expanded gut chamber to convert plant biomass into absorbable nutrients. Distinct from ruminants, small herbivores typically have a simple stomach but an enlarged cecum to harbor symbiotic microbes; however, knowledge of this specialized gut structure and characteristics of its microbial contents is limited. Here, we used leaf-eating flying squirrels as a model to explore functional characteristics of the cecal microbiota adapted to a high-fiber, toxin-rich diet. Specifically, environmental conditions across gut regions were evaluated by measuring mass, pH, feed particle size, and metabolomes. Then, parallel metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were used to detect microbial functions corresponding to the cecal environment. Based on metabolomic profiles, >600 phytochemical compounds were detected, although many were present only in the foregut and probably degraded or transformed by gut microbes in the hindgut. Based on metagenomic (DNA and metatranscriptomic (RNA profiles, taxonomic compositions of the cecal microbiota were dominated by bacteria of the Firmicutes taxa; they contained major gene functions related to degradation and fermentation of leaf-derived compounds. Based on functional compositions, genes related to multidrug exporters were rich in microbial genomes, whereas genes involved in nutrient importers were rich in microbial transcriptomes. In addition, genes encoding chemotaxis-associated components and glycoside hydrolases specific for plant beta-glycosidic linkages were abundant in both DNA and RNA. This exploratory study provides findings which may help to form molecular-based hypotheses regarding functional contributions of symbiotic gut microbiota in small herbivores with folivorous dietary habits.

  18. Impacts of climate change and renewable energy development on habitat of an endemic squirrel, Xerospermophilus mohavensis, in the Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Leitner, Philip; Matocq, Marjorie D.; Weisberg, Peter J.; Dilts, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting changes in species distributions under a changing climate is becoming widespread with the use of species distribution models (SDMs). The resulting predictions of future potential habitat can be cast in light of planned land use changes, such as urban expansion and energy development to identify areas with potential conflict. However, SDMs rarely incorporate an understanding of dispersal capacity, and therefore assume unlimited dispersal in potential range shifts under uncertain climate futures. We use SDMs to predict future distributions of the Mojave ground squirrel, Xerospermophilus mohavensis Merriam, and incorporate partial dispersal models informed by field data on juvenile dispersal to assess projected impact of climate change and energy development on future distributions of X. mohavensis. Our models predict loss of extant habitat, but also concurrent gains of new habitat under two scenarios of future climate change. Under the B1 emissions scenario- a storyline describing a convergent world with emphasis on curbing greenhouse gas emissions- our models predicted losses of up to 64% of extant habitat by 2080, while under the increased greenhouse gas emissions of the A2 scenario, we suggest losses of 56%. New potential habitat may become available to X. mohavensis, thereby offsetting as much as 6330 km2 (50%) of the current habitat lost. Habitat lost due to planned energy development was marginal compared to habitat lost from changing climates, but disproportionately affected current habitat. Future areas of overlap in potential habitat between the two climate change scenarios are identified and discussed in context of proposed energy development.

  19. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore

  20. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week

  1. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    Full Text Available This issue of Kronos is dedicated to Terry Flynn, assistant curator at the Ann Bryant Art Gallery, who was instrumental in the successful installing of 'Red Assembly' there in 2015. Friend, colleague, artist and inspiration. Hamba Kahle. The work that emerged from the encounter with Red, an art installation by Simon Gush and his collaborators, in the workshop 'Red Assembly', held in East London in August 2015, is assembled here in Kronos, the journal of southern African histories based at the University of the Western Cape, and previously in parallax, the cultural studies journal based at the University of Leeds published in May 2016. What is presented there and here is not simply more work, work that follows, or even additional works. Rather, it is the work that arises as a response to a question that structured our entire project: does Red, now also installed in these two journals, have the potential to call the discourse of history into question? This article responds to this question through several pairings: theft - gift; copy - rights; time - history; kronos - chronos. Here we identify a reversal in this installation of the gift into the commodity, and another with regard to conventional historical narratives which privilege the search for sources and origins. A difference between (the historian's search for origination and (the artist's originality becomes visible in a conversation between and over the historic and the artistic that does not simply try to rescue History by means of the work of art. It is in this sense that we invite the displacements, detours, and paths made possible through Simon Gush's Red, the 'Red Assembly' workshop and the work/gift of installation and parallaxing. To gesture beyond 'histories' is the provocation to which art is neither cause nor effect. Thinking with the work of art, that is, grasping thought in the working of art, has extended the sense of history's limit and the way the limit of history is

  2. Red alder: a state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...

  3. Red and green fluorescence from oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Krom, B.P.; Janus, M.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis.

  4. A comparative analysis of the categorization of multidimensional stimuli: I. Unidimensional classification does not necessarily imply analytic processing; evidence from pigeons (Columba livia), squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, A J; Lea, Stephen E G; Leaver, Lisa A; Osthaus, Britta; Ryan, Catriona M E; Suret, Mark B; Bryant, Catherine M L; Chapman, Sue J A; Millar, Louise

    2009-11-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and undergraduates (Homo sapiens) learned discrimination tasks involving multiple mutually redundant dimensions. First, pigeons and undergraduates learned conditional discriminations between stimuli composed of three spatially separated dimensions, after first learning to discriminate the individual elements of the stimuli. When subsequently tested with stimuli in which one of the dimensions took an anomalous value, the majority of both species categorized test stimuli by their overall similarity to training stimuli. However some individuals of both species categorized them according to a single dimension. In a second set of experiments, squirrels, pigeons, and undergraduates learned go/no-go discriminations using multiple simultaneous presentations of stimuli composed of three spatially integrated, highly salient dimensions. The tendency to categorize test stimuli including anomalous dimension values unidimensionally was higher than in the first set of experiments and did not differ significantly between species. The authors conclude that unidimensional categorization of multidimensional stimuli is not diagnostic for analytic cognitive processing, and that any differences between human's and pigeons' behavior in such tasks are not due to special features of avian visual cognition.

  5. Feeding habits and comparative feeding rates of three southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food utilization by three arboreal squirrels was studied with regard to feeding habits and efficiency, food preferences and chemical analyses of the food. Food selected in the field by the two forest subspecies the Ngoye red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus ornatus and the Tonga red squirrel, P. p. tongensis are listed.

  6. Allergic reactions in red tattoos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Køcks, M; Sepehri, M

    2016-01-01

    to be feasible for chemical analysis of red pigments in allergic reactions. Raman spectroscopy has a major potential for fingerprint screening of problematic tattoo pigments in situ in skin, ex vivo in skin biopsies and in tattoo ink stock products, thus, to eliminate unsafe ink products from markets.......AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as a screening technique for chemical characterisation of tattoo pigments in pathologic reacting tattoos and tattoo ink stock products to depict unsafe pigments and metabolites of pigments. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve...... dermatome shave biopsies from allergic reactions in red tattoos were analysed with Raman spectroscopy (A 785-nm 300 mW diode laser). These were referenced to samples of 10 different standard tattoo ink stock products, three of these identified as the culprit inks used by the tattooist and thus by history...

  7. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  8. Resveratrol: Chemoprevention with red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2007-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, western diet has disadvantages because of cancer prevalence more than Mediterranean or Asia people who consume more vegetables and fruits. Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene) which is highly found in grapes, berries has received attention for its potential chemopreventive and antitumor effects in experimental systems. Because of high resveratrol content, researchers noted that red wine has multidimensional benefits for ...

  9. Electromagnetic modeling of the rings of the squirrel cage of an induction motor; Modelado electromagnetico de los anillos de la jaula de ardilla de un motor de induccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limones Montoya, Juan Carlos

    2004-03-15

    An electromagnetic lineal model of a three-phase induction motor was developed in this thesis. The Finite element method in two dimensions was used. The model formulation takes into account the coupling with the stator wires and solid conductors of the rotor. In other words, the stator phases and squirrel-cage end-rings are considered in the model. The resulting set of electric-circuit and magnetic-field equations are solved simultaneously with the Incomplete Cholesky Bi-Conjugate Gradient Method using a matrix storage technique known as symmetric coordinate storage. The model was programmed in the C programming language. The magnetic field model is represented by the diffusion equation, which allows to compute the induced Eddy currents in the conducting material due to the sinusoidal stator excitation. The modelled induction motor has a rated power of 2.2 kW, 220 V, 9.6/11.0 A, 60 Hz and it can be operated at the speeds of 1750/1150 rpm. It is located in the Laboratorio de Propulsion at the Instituto Tecnologico de la Laguna. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se desarrollo un modelo electromagnetico lineal de un motor de induccion trifasico utilizando el Metodo de Elemento Finito en dos dimensiones, en el cual se incluye la formulacion de sistemas acoplados para los conductores delgados y gruesos presentes en el estator y rotor respectivamente. Es decir, se incluyen en el modelo las fases de alimentacion y los anillos de cortocircuito del rotor de jaula de ardilla. Las ecuaciones electricas y magneticas derivadas del modelo se resuelven de manera acoplada con el Metodo del Gradiente BiConjugado con Precondicionamiento de Cholesky Incompleto empleando el sistema de Empaquetamiento de Coordenadas, cuyo codigo se desarrollo en el lenguaje de programacion C. En este modelo se resuelve la ecuacion de difusion, mediante la cual se determinan las corrientes de Eddy que se inducen en el material conductor debido a la presencia de fuentes de alimentacion senoidales. El

  10. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.

  11. Red giants: then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  12. Iridotomy with red krypton laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassur, Y; David, R; Rosenblatt, I; Marmour, U

    1986-01-01

    Iridotomy with red krypton laser instead of blue-green argon laser was performed on 68 eyes with various types of angle-closure glaucoma. Patent iridotomy was obtained in all the eyes, mostly in one working session. In eight eyes secondary closure by pigment needed reopening with a few applications at the iridotomy site. There were no immediate or late complications of importance, the main advantage of the technique being the avoidance of the corneal epithelial and endothelial burns which commonly occur during argon laser iridotomy, particularly when the anterior chamber is shallow. PMID:3964628

  13. Red is Romantic, but Only for Feminine Females: Sexual Dimorphism Moderates Red Effect on Sexual Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  14. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  15. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  16. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  17. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  18. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  19. Environmental Impact Research Program. Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Section 4.7.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Palmetto Sabal spp. Pawpaw Asimina triloba Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Pine Pinus app. Loblolly pine P. taeda Red mulberry...grandifotia Bitter pecan Carya aquatica Blackberry Rubus app. Black cherry Prunus serotina Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Black walnut Jugtans nigra Blueberry...americana Hickory Carya Spp. Bitternut hickory C. cordiformis Shagbark hickory C. ovata Shellbark hickory C. Zaciniosa Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana

  20. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related

  1. When red means go : non-normative effects of red under sensation seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, R.; Demmers, J.; van Dolen, W.M.; Weinberg, C.B.

    Although previous research has identified red as the color of compliance, the current work proposes that this effect of red may not hold under high sensation-seeking propensity conditions. It is argued that the color red has the capability to induce arousal, which in turn has been shown to enhance a

  2. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  3. Nitrogen depletion in field red giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masseron, T.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    , the behaviour of nitrogen data along the evolution confirms the existence of non-canonical extramixing on the red giant branch (RGB) for all low-mass stars in the field. But more surprisingly, the data indicate that nitrogen has been depleted between the RGB tip and the red clump. This may suggest that some...

  4. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  5. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  6. Moving Forward with Computational Red Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Red Teaming is used across both public and private sectors and is not the sole domain of the military. Red Team Consulting (2011) notes that “the use...open for review. Consider also the context of application. Oh (2009) explains how globalisation , the rise of emerging powers, environmental

  7. Seeing red to being red: conserved genetic mechanism for red cone oil droplets and co-option for red coloration in birds and turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Hanlu; Valenzuela, Nicole; Literman, Robert; Andersson, Staffan; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-08-17

    Avian ketocarotenoid pigments occur in both the red retinal oil droplets that contribute to colour vision and bright red coloration used in signalling. Turtles are the only other tetrapods with red retinal oil droplets, and some also display red carotenoid-based coloration. Recently, the CYP2J19 gene was strongly implicated in ketocarotenoid synthesis in birds. Here, we investigate CYP2J19 evolution in relation to colour vision and red coloration in reptiles using genomic and expression data. We show that turtles, but not crocodiles or lepidosaurs, possess a CYP2J19 orthologue, which arose via gene duplication before turtles and archosaurs split, and which is strongly and specifically expressed in the ketocarotenoid-containing retina and red integument. We infer that CYP2J19 initially functioned in colour vision in archelosaurs and conclude that red ketocarotenoid-based coloration evolved independently in birds and turtles via gene regulatory changes of CYP2J19 Our results suggest that red oil droplets contributed to colour vision in dinosaurs and pterosaurs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  9. Red Sea as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    King-Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is located on the shores of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea is well known for its unique environment, harboring various microbes capable of surviving in salty brines. We collected

  10. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  11. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  12. Human Red Cells With Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purified cells were used as hosts for the culture of P.falciparum in vitro. Results show that GPI-linked molecules on the red cell surface are not required for the efficient entry of the parasites, and that the PNH red cells are competent to sustain the growth of P.falciparum. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol ...

  13. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip The hazardous child labor network (Red Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.In the world, approximately 351.7 millions children between 5 and 17 years old work. Of them, 170,5 millions (48.5% work at the hazardous child labor forms. A high percentage is in agriculture, others in mines, manufactures, brick makers, predominantly in informal economy. The 138 Convention of ILO and the 182 Convention, define as hazardous child labor activities that can affect the health, safety and morality of the children. Studies on the children at work point out their particular susceptibility to some occupational risks, increasing the danger for their normal development and growth. "They are not little adults". The occupational health

  14. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  15. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  16. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  17. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Krom, Bastiaan P; Janus, Marleen M; Ten Cate, Jacob M; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  19. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M C Volgenant

    Full Text Available Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation. Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries.

  20. Red Misfits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: properties of star-forming red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Fraser A.; Parker, Laura C.; Roberts, Ian D.

    2018-06-01

    We study Red Misfits, a population of red, star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. We classify galaxies based on inclination-corrected optical colours and specific star formation rates derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Although the majority of blue galaxies are star-forming and most red galaxies exhibit little to no ongoing star formation, a small but significant population of galaxies (˜11 per cent at all stellar masses) are classified as red in colour yet actively star-forming. We explore a number of properties of these galaxies and demonstrate that Red Misfits are not simply dusty or highly inclined blue cloud galaxies or quiescent red galaxies with poorly constrained star formation. The proportion of Red Misfits is nearly independent of environment, and this population exhibits both intermediate morphologies and an enhanced likelihood of hosting an active galactic nucleus. We conclude that Red Misfits are a transition population, gradually quenching on their way to the red sequence and this quenching is dominated by internal processes rather than environmentally driven processes. We discuss the connection between Red Misfits and other transition galaxy populations, namely S0s, red spirals, and green valley galaxies.

  1. Reaching for the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  2. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  3. Red Shifts and Existing Speculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2009-03-01

    There are many current flaws, mysteries, and errors in the standard model of the universe - all based upon speculative interpretation of many excellent and verified observations. The most serious cause of some errors is the speculation about the meaning of the redshifts observed in the 1930s by Hubble. He ascribed the redshifts as due to ``an apparent Doppler effect''. This led to speculation that the remote stars were receding, and the universe was expanding -- although without observational proof of the actual receding velocity of the stars. The age of the universe, based upon the Hubble constant is pure speculation because of lack of velocity demonstration. The belief in expansion, the big bang, and of inflation should be reexamined. Also, the redshift cannot always be used as a distance measure, particularly for photons from quasars containing massive black holes that can reduce photon energy through gravitational attraction. If the linear Hubble constant is extrapolated to the most remote super novae and beyond, it would eventually require that the corresponding photon energy go to zero or become negative -- according to Hubble linear relationship. This should require a reexamination of the meaning of the red shift and the speculative consequences and give a model with fewer mysteries.

  4. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  5. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  6. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-01-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37 0 C in the presence of 14 C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14 C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  7. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2015-12-15

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  8. RED ONE kuvaajan työkaluna

    OpenAIRE

    Käki, Ossi

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni projektiosa, 30-minuuttinen lyhytelokuva Huomisen Muisto – Memory of Tomorrow kuvattiin RED ONE -kameralla vuosina 2008-2009. Opinnäytetyöni kirjallinen osuus tutkii miten RED ONE soveltuu kuvaajan työvälineeksi lyhytelokuvassa. Huomisen Muisto oli ensimmäinen Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulussa RED ONE:lla kuvattu elokuva ja koko tekninen workflow piti kehittää lähes nollasta. Paljon kuvan digitaalista jälkikäsittelyä sisältävänä science fiction -elokuvana Huomisen Muisto asetti i...

  9. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2005-05-19

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.

  10. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin. PMID:19325788

  12. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  13. sample data Red River_2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — OK Fish Kill data from Red River 2011-2013. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Jones-Lepp, T., V. Taguchi, W. Sovocool, D. Betowski, P....

  14. Raoul Kurvitz esitleb : "Armastusest" & "RED" / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus "Armastusest" Vaal-galeriis, näituse avamine toimus kunstniku performance'iga. Sõnumina mainitakse Raoul Kurvitza kuraatoriprojekti "RED" Mustpeade Maja valges saalis, loetletud eksponeeritud kunstnikud

  15. Li'l Red Schoolhouse workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Education specialists at Stennis conduct staff development workshops for elementary and secondary teachers of math, science and technology and other subjects as well as specialized workshops conducted in the NASA Li'l Red Schoolhouse.

  16. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing them to lose work or to have low self-esteem,” says Dr. Richard Gallo, a skin expert at the University of California, San Diego. “Many psychological problems are the consequence of having this red, puffy ...

  17. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  18. NOAA NCCOS: New England Red Tide Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alexandrium blooms are one of several algal bloom types often called "red tides," but more correctly referred to as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Alexandrium produces...

  19. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  20. Comparative metagenomics of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-26

    Metagenome produces a tremendous amount of data that comes from the organisms living in the environments. This big data enables us to examine not only microbial genes but also the community structure, interaction and adaptation mechanisms at the specific location and condition. The Red Sea has several unique characteristics such as high salinity, high temperature and low nutrition. These features must contribute to form the unique microbial community during the evolutionary process. Since 2014, we started monthly samplings of the metagenomes in the Red Sea under KAUST-CCF project. In collaboration with Kitasato University, we also collected the metagenome data from the ocean in Japan, which shows contrasting features to the Red Sea. Therefore, the comparative metagenomics of those data provides a comprehensive view of the Red Sea microbes, leading to identify key microbes, genes and networks related to those environmental differences.

  1. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  2. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  3. Photometry of Southern Hemisphere red dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistrop, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a photometric investigation of a spectroscopically selected sample of red dwarf stars in the Southern Hemisphere. Absolute magnitudes and distances for the stars are estimated from broadband red colors. Three stars which may be subluminous are identified, as are several stars which may be within 25 pc. The tangential velocity and velocity dispersion of the sample are similar to values found in other studies of nearby late-type stars.

  4. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as a...

  5. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-01-01

    Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose o...

  6. Clinical implications of The Red Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliford, Penny

    2012-09-01

    This presentation stresses the uniqueness of both the therapist's and patient's personal experience in clinical work and relates this to the significance of The Red Book as Jung's personal odyssey and for me personally as an analyst. I consider The Red Book's enduring relevance alongside recent psychological theories, neuroscience and early mystical writings, and conclude with a clinical vignette of a patient's response to a piece of choral music and subsequent use of active imagination. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUGGAN, RUTH A.; WOOD, BRADLEY

    1999-01-01

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper

  8. The Red Book through the ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  9. A Review of Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in Artistic (Synchronized) Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sherry; Mountjoy, Margo

    2018-05-03

    The syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a clinical entity characterized by low energy availability (LEA), which can negatively affect the health and performance of both male and female athletes. The underlying mechanism of RED-S is an inadequacy of dietary energy to support optimal health and performance. This syndrome refers to impaired physiological function including metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health, with psychological consequences which can either precede (through restrictive dietary habits) or result from RED-S. The term RED-S extends beyond the condition termed the "Female Athlete Triad". Formerly known as synchronized swimming, artistic swimming is an Olympic sport requiring a high level of fitness as well as technical skill and artistry. The risk of RED-S is high in artistic swimming as it is an aesthetic, judged sport with an emphasis on a lean physique. RED-S is of significant concern in the sport of artistic swimming because of the potential negative effects on physical and mental health as well as consequences on athletic performance. This paper reviews health and performance consequences associated with LEA resulting in RED-S in artistic swimming. Medical and nutritional considerations specific to artistic swimming are reviewed and methods to help detect and manage RED-S are discussed. Prevention and management of RED-S in this athlete population should be a priority for coaches and the sport medicine professionals working with artistic swimming athletes should utilize the RED-S CAT, a Clinical Assessment Tool for screening and managing RED-S.

  10. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hill Douglas County... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red Hill...

  11. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin

    2018-02-01

    Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars. However, alternative mechanisms also exist to explain their red colors: (i) an intrinsically red continuum; (ii) an unusual high covering factor of the hot dust component, that is, CFHD = LHD/Lbol, where the LHD is the luminosity from the hot dust component and the Lbol is the bolometric luminosity; and (iii) a moderate viewing angle. In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0.3 and 0.7, where the usage of the NIR spectra allowed us to look into red quasar properties in ways that are little affected by dust extinction. The Paschen to Balmer line ratios were derived for 13 red quasars and the values were found to be 10 times higher than unobscured type 1 quasars, suggesting a heavy dust extinction with AV > 2.5 mag. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios, computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars (by factors of 3-5), and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A31

  12. Ecological consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreaks for wildlife in western North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Victoria A.; Latif, Quresh S.; Rowland, Mary M.; Johnson, Tracey N.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Heyward, Joslin E.; Dresser, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    outbreaks on red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). However, there is evidence that red squirrels can persist after an outbreak under some conditions, e.g., when nonhost tree species are present. For small mammal species associated with forest understories, responses may be most pronounced during the postepidemic period (>6 years after the peak of beetle-induced tree mortality) when snags fall to produce coarse woody debris. Postoutbreak salvage logging studies (n = 6) reported results that lacked consensus. Postoutbreak salvage logging may have an impact on fewer wildlife species than postfire salvage logging, probably because only host-specific tree species are removed after beetle outbreaks.

  13. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  14. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  15. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinge, Dennis C. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Michael E. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  16. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  17. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  18. Shape memory of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas M

    2004-05-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spheres. Shape excursions were induced by shear flow. In virtually all red cells, a shape memory was found. After stop of flow and during the return of the latex spheres to the original location, the red cell shape was biconcave. The return occurred by a tank-tread motion of the membrane. The memory could not be eliminated by deforming the red cells in shear flow up to 4 h at room temperature as well as at 37 degrees C. It is suggested that 1). the characteristic time of stress relaxation is >80 min and 2). red cells in vivo also have a shape memory.

  19. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  20. Male red ornamentation is associated with female red sensitivity in sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingolf P Rick

    Full Text Available Sexual selection theory proposes correlated evolutionary changes in mating preferences and secondary sexual characters based on a positive genetic correlation between preference and the preferred trait. Empirical work has provided support for a genetic covariation between female preference and male attractiveness in several taxa. Here, we study parent and offspring visual traits in threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. While focusing on the proximate basis of mating preferences, we compare the red breeding coloration of males, which strongly contributes to female choice, with their daughters' red sensitivity measured by optomotor response thresholds. We show that the red color expression of fathers correlates well with their daughters' red sensitivity. Given that a within-population genetic correlation between signal and preference was experimentally confirmed for the red coloration in sticklebacks, our results indicate a proximate mechanism in terms of perceptual sensitivity being involved in the co-evolution of female preferences and male mating signals.

  1. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  2. Factors driving territory size and breeding success in a threatened migratory songbird, the Canada Warbler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Tyler Flockhart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful conservation of migratory birds demands we understand how habitat factors on the breeding grounds influences breeding success. Multiple factors are known to directly influence breeding success in territorial songbirds. For example, greater food availability and fewer predators can have direct effects on breeding success. However, many of these same habitat factors can also result in higher conspecific density that may ultimately reduce breeding success through density dependence. In this case, there is a negative indirect effect of habitat on breeding success through its effects on conspecific density and territory size. Therefore, a key uncertainty facing land managers is whether important habitat attributes directly influence breeding success or indirectly influence breeding success through territory size. We used radio-telemetry, point-counts, vegetation sampling, predator observations, and insect sampling over two years to provide data on habitat selection of a steeply declining songbird species, the Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis. These data were then applied in a hierarchical path modeling framework and an AIC model selection approach to determine the habitat attributes that best predict breeding success. Canada Warblers had smaller territories in areas with high shrub cover, in the presence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, at shoreline sites relative to forest-interior sites and as conspecific density increased. Breeding success was lower for birds with smaller territories, which suggests competition for limited food resources, but there was no direct evidence that food availability influenced territory size or breeding success. The negative relationship between shrub cover and territory size in our study may arise because these specific habitat conditions are spatially heterogeneous, whereby individuals pack into patches of preferred breeding habitat scattered throughout the landscape, resulting in reduced

  3. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  4. Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, F.; Hoteit, I.; Koehl, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonal overturning circulation. In winter, a typical two-layer exchange structure, with a fresher inflow from the Gulf of Aden on top of an outflow from the Red Sea, is established. In summer months (June to September) this circulation pattern is changed to a three-layer structure: a surface outflow from the Red Sea on top of a subsurface intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water and a weakened deep outflow. This seasonal variability is studied using a general circulation model, MITgcm, with 6 hourly NCEP atmospheric forcing. The model is able to reproduce the observed seasonal variability very well. The forcing mechanisms of the seasonal variability related to seasonal surface wind stress and buoyancy flux, and water mass transformation processes associated with the seasonal overturning circulation are analyzed and presented.

  5. 'Rosy Red' Soil in Phoenix's Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows fine-grained material inside the Robotic Arm scoop as seen by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on June 25, 2008, the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. The image shows fine, fluffy, red soil particles collected in a sample called 'Rosy Red.' The sample was dug from the trench named 'Snow White' in the area called 'Wonderland.' Some of the Rosy Red sample was delivered to Phoenix's Optical Microscope and Wet Chemistry Laboratory for analysis. The RAC provides its own illumination, so the color seen in RAC images is color as seen on Earth, not color as it would appear on Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Red textures and the work of juxtaposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne A. Kratz

    Full Text Available Simon Gush's evocative work Red is an installation, an exhibit, a film, a website, and a provocation to think about what these different forms convey and do, and how they do so. What kinds of engagement, work and knowledge production are involved in curating, designing and creating work in different formats, each of which combines varied media and forms of expression? This article considers the design and interpretive possibilities of Red's different forms, paying particular attention to juxtaposition as a fundamental technique in designing and constructing exhibits, films and websites. The analysis examines the layerings, interactions, timings and textures involved and draws in other exhibitions to highlight the ways that Red and history museums approach their work and relations to time, history and historiography.

  7. Infrared Model Spectra for Evolving Red Supergiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The space and ground based infrared spectra of red supergiants are modeled and arranged in order of their evolutionary status with their theoretical model parameters. The chemical compositions of the dust shells around red supergiants are affected by the nuclear reaction and dredge-up processes of the cental stars. The processes are sensitively dependent on the initial mass, the initial chemical composition, and the evolutionary status. Miras, infrared carbon stars, and OH/IR stars have close link in their evolution in manu aspects, i,e., the chemical composition, the optical depths and the mass loss rates. The evolutionary tracks for the three classes of red supergiants on infrared two-color diagrams have been made from model calculations and IRAS observational data.

  8. Lógicas para la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia HUERTAS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Tim Berners-Lee y sus colegas del World Wide Web Consortium (W3C llamaron «Semantic Web» al que sería el siguiente estadio de desarrollo de la red (inevitablemente traducido al castellano como Web Semántica. La idea detrás de esta evolución de la red es extender con metadatos y reglas lógicas la red basada en el lenguaje html, con el objetivo de que la infraestructura resultante permita a las máquinas entender los datos de la red de la misma forma que los entendemos los humanos. Así, añadir lógica a la red permitiría a los ordenadores tomar decisiones, hacer inferencias y responder preguntas. En este texto se pretende revisar las lógicas que han sido propuestas para permitir esta nueva web inteligente y repasar las cuestiones teóricas y pragmáticas más importantes de la corta pero intensa historia de las lógicas para la red.ABSTRACT: Tim Berners-Lee and their colleagues of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C called «Semantic Web» the next development of the Web. The idea behind this evolution of the Web is to extend the present network based on the HTML language with metadata and logical rules, with the aim of the resulting infrastructure allowing machines to understand Web data in the same way that human beings understand them. Thus, adding logic to the Web would allow the computers to take decisions, to do inferences and to answer questions. In this paper it is intended to revise the logics that have been suggested to allow this new intelligent Web and to revise the most important theoretical and pragmatic questions of the short but intense history of logics for the Web.

  9. Radio universitaria: trabajo en red como imperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Cavallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trabajo en red es un concepto clave en la radio universitaria, tanto desde el punto de vista individual como del colectivo. A través de dos estudios de caso, enfocados en la radio universitaria de Italia y de Colombia, este artículo muestra cómo el trabajo en red ha sido decisivo para el fortalecimiento de su función, la ampliación de su impacto, la conformación de su identidad y el crecimiento de su visibilidad en las sociedades en las cuales desarrollan su labor.

  10. Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, R; Mullen, W; Khan, N Q; Marks, S C; Wood, E G; Carrier, M J; Crozier, A

    2006-11-30

    Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show that they are present at higher concentrations in wines from areas of southwestern France and Sardinia, where traditional production methods ensure that these compounds are efficiently extracted during vinification. These regions also happen to be associated with increased longevity in the population.

  11. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose of this current study is to summarize the clinical features and laboratory investigations that could help the differential diagnosis of acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 57-62

  12. Incorporation of flat glass in red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, T.C.C.; Morais, A.S.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work have as objective evaluate the effect of incorporation of up to 10% by weight of powdered flat glass , from civil industry, in red ceramic. The bodies were obtained by uniaxial pressing at 20 MPa and fired at temperatures of 850 ° C and 1050 ° C. The parameters studied were linear firing shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption and flexural rupture stress for the evaluation of the mechanical physical properties. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy and phase identification was performed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the waste changes the microstructure and properties of red ceramics. (author)

  13. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  14. Recovery of rare earths from red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The prospect for the recovery of rare earths from red mud, the bauxite tailings from the production of alumina is examined. The Jamaican red mud by far has the higher trace concentrations of lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, and yttrium. Scandium is also present. The dissolution of the rare earth is a major extraction problem because of the large volume of other materials. The recovery processes that have been proposed include the production of co-products such as iron, alumina, and titanium concentrates, with the rare earths going with the titanium. In this paper a critical examination of the possible processes are presented with the recommended research projects to be carried out

  15. Evaluation of Red Light Camera Enforcement at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman AlJanahi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to find the effectiveness of adopting red light cameras in reducing red light violators. An experimental approach was adopted to investigate the use of red light cameras at signalized intersections in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study locations were divided into three groups. The first group was related to the approaches monitored with red light cameras. The second group was related to approaches without red light cameras, but located within an intersection that had one of its approaches monitored with red light cameras. The third group was related to intersection approaches located at intersection without red light cameras (controlled sites. A methodology was developed for data collection. The data were then tested statistically by Z-test using proportion methods to compare the proportion of red light violations occurring at different sites. The study found that the proportion of red light violators at approaches monitored with red light cameras was significantly less than those at the controlled sites for most of the time. Approaches without red light cameras located within intersections having red light cameras showed, in general, fewer violations than controlled sites, but the results were not significant for all times of the day. The study reveals that red light cameras have a positive effect on reducing red light violations. However, these conclusions need further evaluations to justify their safe and economic use.

  16. ESR analysis of irradiated red peppers and commercial red peppers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2011-01-01

    ESR analysis of γ-ray irradiated and being treated with different processing red pepper was studied. All the red peppers were commercial expect irradiated one. Processing treatment of red pepper was sun drying, mechanical processing (heating sterilization and powdering treatment). All the samples were weighted and analyzed. The ESR spectrum of the red pepper is composed of a singlet at g=2.00. This signal was originated from organic free radical. It is suggested the effect of heating treatment on the radical formation is not so large and powdering treatment will promote the radical formation of red pepper. ESR singlet signal of the irradiated red pepper showed the large signal intensity and the dose-dependence. The singlet signal intensity of irradiated powder sample showed the almost same value as compared with that of the powder sample with heating treatment. Relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) of the singlet signal were calculated. The relaxation behavior and relaxation times of the irradiated sample were different from that of the non-irradiated sample. The value of T 1 , the spin lattice relaxation time, of irradiated sample was increased and T 2 , the spin-spin relaxation time, of irradiated sample was decreased. We concluded that the radical formation of the red pepper is mainly depended on the powdering treatment and irradiation. (author)

  17. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  18. Thermal degradation of glucosinolates in red cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, K.; Barrett, D.M.; Bosch Suades, C.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal degradation of individual glucosinolates within the plant matrix was studied. Red cabbage samples were heated at different temperatures for various times. To rule out the influence of enzymatic breakdown and to focus entirely on the thermal degradation of glucosinolates, myrosinase was

  19. South African red data book - Aves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siegfried, WR

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided on 101 South African bird species thought to be eligible for conservation attention. A list is also provided of 35 species which might qualify for inclusion in a revised South African Red Data Book....

  20. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. PMID:29084143

  1. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Siga Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  2. Chemical basal treatment to control red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1956-01-01

    A key to better restocking of conifers on recently cutover forest land in the Oregon Coast Range is the elimination of competition from red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). This can be readily accomplished with a foliage spray containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D). Tests in 1954 and 1955 on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest have shown that...

  3. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.G. Botden (Ilse)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-10-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  5. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  6. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  7. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  8. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  9. Science responses to IUCN Red Listing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaric, Ivan; Roberts, D.L.; Gessner, J.; Solow, A.R.; Courchamp, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, NOV (2017), č. článku e4025. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : data deficient * critically endangered * IUCN Red List * endangered species * extinction risk Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  10. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  11. Kepler Asteroseismology of Red-giant Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler mission, launched in March 2009, has revolutionized asteroseismology, providing detailed observations of thousands of stars. This has allowed in-depth analyses of stars ranging from compact hot subdwarfs to red giants, and including the detection of solar-like oscillations in hundreds ...

  12. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke [College of Physics and Electronic information, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yu, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Dou, Xianghua, E-mail: ning_gai@163.com, E-mail: tyk450@163.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biophysics, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China)

    2017-02-10

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M {sub ⊙}, the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ , which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν diagram.

  13. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  14. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each other, as follows: (1) The Red Cross will use Form 3575, Change of Address Order, as a standard... disaster relief efforts, the Postal Service will establish a separate file of change of address forms... and complete the forms, it will distribute the forms to disaster victims who need them, and it will...

  15. Virtualización en red

    OpenAIRE

    Pallàs Blanco, Leopoldo

    2010-01-01

    En el TFC titulado "Virtualización en Red (agregación de enlaces multichasis)" se realizará tanto el análisis como la comparativa de distintas tecnologías actuales centradas en la agregación de enlaces entre equipos de comunicación.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  17. The Red Shoes : Motion picture (1948)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2011-01-01

    Black Swan : A ballet dancer wins the lead in "Swan Lake" and is perfect for the role of the delicate White Swan - Princess Odette - but slowly loses her mind as she becomes more and more like Odile, the Black Swan. The Red Shoes : A young ballet dancer is torn between the man she loves and her pursuit to become a prima ballerina.

  18. Book Review: Greening in the Red Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. Falxa-Raymond

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of a crisis, local, often spontaneous stewardship of nature provides a source of social-ecological resilience to individuals, communities, and ecosystems. This is the concept behind Greening in the Red Zone, and one that may be intuitive to many working in urban forestry, community greening, or any of the local nonprofits or...

  19. Biology and ecology of red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    Red alder is the most common hardwood in the Pacific Northwest with a range stretching from coastal southeast Alaska to southern California and east to isolated populations in Idaho. Soil moisture during the growing season influences where it grows and its growth rates; it can tolerate poor drainage but not droughty, hot sites. Due to its tolerance of wet soil...

  20. Red alder: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles F. Heebner; Mary Jane Bergener

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography lists 661 references to world literature through Hay 1978 containing information about red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Included are publications about its taxonomy, biology and silvics, chemical and physical information about its wood and fiber, studies on its nitrogen fixing properties, and reports on industrial uses and economic...

  1. Artificial Red Cells with Polyhemoglobin Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Y. Reciprocal binding of oxygen and diphosphoglycerate by human hemoglobin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59:526-532, 1968. 12. Bunn, H. F., Seal, U. S...and Scott, A. F. The role of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate in mediating hemoglobin function of mammalian red cells. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sciences 241:498-519

  2. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-01-01

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a ∼ 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that ∼> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K (le) 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%

  3. Big Red: A Development Environment for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faithfull, Alexander John; Perrone, Gian David; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present Big Red, a visual editor for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems, based upon Eclipse. The editor integrates with several existing bigraph tools to permit simulation and model-checking of bigraphical models. We give a brief introduction to the bigraphs formalism, and show how...

  4. Amdoparvovirus Infection in Red Pandas ( Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Charles E; Kubiski, Steven V; Li, Linlin; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Wack, Raymund F; McCarthy, Megan A; Pesavento, Joseph B; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda ( Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics. The authors analyzed the prevalence, tissue distribution, and disease association by PCR, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and histology in a group of 6 red pandas from a single zoological collection. The study incorporates a fecal shedding survey and analysis of tissues from 4 necropsied animals over a 12-year span. The tentatively named red panda amdoparvovirus (RpAPV) was detected in the feces and/or tissues of all animals tested. At necropsy of 1 geriatric animal, infection was associated with pyogranulomatous peritonitis, pancreatitis, and myocarditis. Other animals had detectable low-level viral nucleic acid in lymph nodes and both oral and intestinal epithelium at the time of necropsy. Full-length genome sequences of RpAPV strains from 2 animals had 12% sequence divergence, demonstrating genetic diversity even among in-contact animals. RpAPV is a persistent infection in this cohort of red pandas, and has variable clinical expression.

  5. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red

  6. Antiproliferative and antibacterial activity evaluation of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of these extracts was also tested against Salmonella choleraesuis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. All extracts were obtained from lyophilized biomass of red microalgae. Extract A was obtained using 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography with G-25 ...

  7. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  8. Why Rudolph's nose is red: Observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ince (Can); A.-M. van Kuijen (Anne-Marijevan); D.M.J. Milstein (Dan); K. Yuruk (Koray); L.P. Folkow (Lars P); W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A.S. Blix (Arnoldus S)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Claus's sleigh, is due to the presence of

  9. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  10. Climatology of the autumn Red Sea trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the Sudan low and the associated Red Sea trough (RST) are objectively identified using the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis dataset covering the period 1955-2015. The Sudan low was detected in approximately 60.6% of the autumn periods, and approximately 83% of the detected low-pressure systems extended into RSTs, with most generated at night and during cold months. The distribution of the RSTs demonstrated that Sudan, South Sudan and Red Sea are the primary development areas of the RSTs, generating 97% of the RSTs in the study period. In addition, the outermost areas affected by RSTs, which include the southern, central and northern Red Sea areas, received approximately 91% of the RSTs originating from the primary generation areas. The synoptic features indicated that a Sudan low developed into an RST when the Sudan low deepened in the atmosphere, while the low pressures over the southern Arabian Peninsula are shallow and the anticyclonic systems are weakened over the northern Red Sea. Moreover, stabile areas over Africa and Arabian Peninsula form a high stability gradient around the Red Sea and the upper maximum winds weaken. The results of the case studies indicate that RSTs extend northward when the upper cyclonic and anticyclonic systems form a high geopotential gradient over Arabian Peninsula. Furthermore, the RST is oriented from the west to the east when the Azores high extends eastward and the Siberian high shrinks eastward or shifts northward.

  11. Observations of the summer Red Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at exploring and understanding the summer circulation in the Red Sea, a cruise was conducted in the basin during the summer of 2001 involving hydrographic, meteorological, and direct current observations. The most prominent feature, characteristic of the summer circulation and exchange with the Indian Ocean, is a temperature, salinity, and oxygen minimum located around a depth of 75 m at the southern end of the basin, associated with Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water inflowing from the Gulf of Aden during the summer season as an intruding subsurface layer. Stirring and mixing with ambient waters lead to marked increases in temperature (from 16.5 to almost 33°C) and salinity (from 35.7 to more than 38 psu) in this layer by the time it reaches midbasin. The observed circulation presents a very vigorous pattern with strong variability and intense features that extend the width of the basin. A permanent cyclone, detected in the northern Red Sea, verifies previous observations and modeling studies, while in the central sector of the basin a series of very strong anticyclones were observed with maximum velocities exceeding 1 m/s. The three-layer flow pattern, representative of the summer exchange between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, is observed in the strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the southern part of the basin the layer flow is characterized by strong banking of the inflows and outflows against the coasts. Both surface and intermediate water masses involved in the summer Red Sea circulation present prominent spatial variability in their characteristics, indicating that the eddy field and mixing processes play an important role in the summer Red Sea circulation.

  12. Glacial conditions in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohling, Eelco J.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, results from previous studies on planktonic foraminifera, δ18O, and global sea level are combined to discuss climatic conditions in the Red Sea during the last glacial maximum (18,000 B.P.). First, the influence of 120-m sea level lowering on the exchange transport through the strait of Bab-el-Mandab is considered. This strait is the only natural connection of the Red Sea to the open ocean. Next, glacial Red Sea outflow salinity is estimated (about 48 parts per thousand) from the foraminiferal record. Combined, these results yield an estimate of the glacial net water deficit, which appears to have been quite similar to the present (about 2 m yr-1). Finally, budget calculation of δ18O fluxes suggests that the glacial δ18O value of evaporation was about 50% of the present value. This is considered to have resulted from substantially increased mean wind speeds over the glacial Red Sea, which would have caused a rapid drop in the kinematic fractionation factor for 18O. The sensitivity of the calculated values for water deficit and isotopic fractionation to the various assumptions and estimates is evaluated in the discussion. Improvents are to be expected especially through research on the glacial salinity contrast between the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. It is argued, however, that such future improvement will likely result in a worsening of the isotopic discrepancy, thus increasing the need for an additional mechanism that influenced fractionation (such as mean wind speed). This study demonstrates the need for caution when calculating paleosalinities from δ18O records under the assumption that the modern S∶δ18O relation has remained constant through time. Previously overlooked factors, such as mean wind speed, may have significantly altered that relation in the past.

  13. A review of elasmobranch research in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Given the global concern about the status of elasmobranch fishes, the paucity of information on elasmobranchs in the Red Sea is worrisome. Management of elasmobranchs in areas other than the Red Sea has been helped by research on population ecology

  14. Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food composition of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes populations in different habitats in Egypt is ..... The dietary choices of small carnivores such as the Red Fox will depend primarily ... Similarly, feeding on carrion would be most cost effective. The.

  15. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  16. Studies on cytotoxicity and antitumor screening of red and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... 2Department of Botany, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Salem – 636 007, Tamilnadu, India. ... namely red and black coloured seeds (red form) and the ... development induced by Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites.

  17. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bitsch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp. in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine and 0.23% (red grape juice of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity.

  18. Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121°C and their red fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wainwright, Milton; Kumar, A. Santhosh; Louis, Godfrey

    2010-09-01

    We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121°C . Under these conditions daughter cells appear within the original mother cells and the number of cells in the samples increases with length of exposure to 121°C. No such increase in cells occurs at room temperature, suggesting that the increase in daughter cells is brought about by exposure of the Red Rain cells to high temperatures. This is an independent confirmation of results reported earlier by two of the present authors, claiming that the cells can replicate under high pressure at temperatures upto 300°C. The flourescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectagle planetary nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin.

  19. Seeing Red: Inside the Science and Politics of the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Red List of Threatened Species™ (hereafter Red List is the International Union for the Conservation of Nature′s most recognisable product. The Red List categorises the conservation status of species on a global scale using ′the most objective, scientifically-based information′. Completing Red List assessments is the job of the Species Survival Commission (SSC, and assessments are most often conducted by species specialist groups within the SSC. In the SSC′s Marine Turtle Specialist Group (MTSG, assessments have been contested. Debate is often couched in scientific terms, focused on data availability and the relevance of Red List criteria for marine turtles. However, given the potential conservation impacts of such listings, much more is at stake. In this paper, I analyse an exchange among MTSG members that resulted when the draft Red List assessment for the hawksbill sea turtle was circulated to the group in June 2007. The suggested listing of hawksbill turtles as ′critically endangered′ sparked an email exchange that highlighted not only the scientific, but also the political, economic, and value-based dimensions of the debate. I draw on ideas of co-production and boundary work to analyse both the debate and the MTSG′s response to an associated crisis of legitimacy, and to provide insights into the science-policy interface in conservation.

  20. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  1. Comparative Study of Betacyanin Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Red Pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yi Yi; Dykes, Gary; Lee, Sui Mae; Choo, Wee Sim

    2017-03-01

    Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation (solvent partitioning) on betacyanin content in both plants. Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach. Sub-fractionated red pitahaya and red spinach had 23.5 and 121.5 % more betacyanin content, respectively, than those without sub-fractionation. Sub-fractionation increased the betanin and decarboxy-amaranthine content in red pitahaya and red spinach, respectively. The betacyanin fraction from red spinach (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] values: 0.78-3.13 mg/mL) demonstrated a better antimicrobial activity profile than that of red pitahaya (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against nine Gram-positive bacterial strains. Similarly, the red spinach fraction (MIC values: 1.56-3.13 mg/mL) was more active than the red pitahaya fraction (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against five Gram-negative bacterial strains. This could be because of a higher amount of betacyanin, particularly amaranthine in the red spinach.

  2. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  3. Diseño de una red WAN

    OpenAIRE

    Labella Sanz, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Disseny d'una xarxa WAN, formada per una xarxa d'Accés HFC, una xarxa de Commutació ATM i una xarxa de Transport SDH. Diseño de una red WAN, formada por una red de Acceso HFC, una red de Conmutación ATM y una red de Transporte SDH. WAN network design consisting of a HFC access network, an ATM switching network and a SDH transport network.

  4. Experience Reverses the Red Effect among Chinese Stockbrokers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tengxiao; Han, Buxin

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychologi...

  5. Far red bioluminescence from two deep-sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, E A; Latz, M I; Herring, P J; Case, J F

    1984-08-03

    Spectral measurements of red bioluminescence were obtained from the deep-sea stomiatoid fishes Aristostomias scintillans (Gilbert) and Malacosteus niger (Ayres). Red luminescence from suborbital light organs extends to the near infrared, with peak emission at approximately 705 nanometers in the far red. These fishes also have postorbital light organs that emit blue luminescence with maxima between 470 and 480 nanometers. The red bioluminescence may be due to an energy transfer system and wavelength-selective filtering.

  6. Maxillofacial and mandibular phenotypes in the skulls of red Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examined phenotypic expressions in the anatomy of the mandible and maxillofacial region of the Red Sokoto and Sahel goats in Nigeria. The infraorbital foramen was placed above premolar two (PM2) in Red Sokoto but above premolar one (PM1) in Sahel. The Red Sokoto displayed interdigital septa (ruggae) ...

  7. EST data - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...st.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/red/LATEST/red_est.zip File size: 629 KB Simple search U...ase Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us EST data - RED | LSDB Archive ...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3068 - Tannish-red color (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tannish-red color (FR). 29.3068 Section 29.3068 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Type 93) § 29.3068 Tannish-red color (FR). A light red shaded toward tan. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR...

  11. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  12. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud

  13. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  14. Zonal surface wind jets across the Red Sea due to mountain gap forcing along both sides of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Houshuo; Farrar, J. Thomas; Beardsley, Robert C.; Chen, Ru; Chen, Changsheng

    2009-01-01

    [1] Mesoscale atmospheric modeling over the Red Sea, validated by in-situ meteorological buoy data, identifies two types of coastal mountain gap wind jets that frequently blow across the longitudinal axis of the Red Sea: (1) an eastward

  15. Flaring red dwarf stars: news from Crimea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershberg, Roald E

    1998-01-01

    Important phenomena are briefly described which have recently been discovered in the Crimean studies of flaring red dwarf stars believed to be the most common type of variable stars in the Galaxy. These phenomena include (i) long-lived radiation from a blueshifted component in the ionized-helium λ 4686 A emission line in the active state of one such star, (ii) a long-lived absorption component in the stellar flare light curves with a lifetime exceeding that of the conventional flare emission, and (iii) solarcycle-like activity periodicity of the star EV Lac, whose mass is only 0.3 solar masses. In theoretical terms, a red dwarf star spot model is constructed which, in contrast to the commonly accepted model, agrees well with the solar spot picture. (physics of our days)

  16. Flaring red dwarf stars: news from Crimea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershberg, Roald E [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchnyi, Crimea (Ukraine)

    1998-08-31

    Important phenomena are briefly described which have recently been discovered in the Crimean studies of flaring red dwarf stars believed to be the most common type of variable stars in the Galaxy. These phenomena include (i) long-lived radiation from a blueshifted component in the ionized-helium {lambda} 4686 A emission line in the active state of one such star, (ii) a long-lived absorption component in the stellar flare light curves with a lifetime exceeding that of the conventional flare emission, and (iii) solarcycle-like activity periodicity of the star EV Lac, whose mass is only 0.3 solar masses. In theoretical terms, a red dwarf star spot model is constructed which, in contrast to the commonly accepted model, agrees well with the solar spot picture. (physics of our days)

  17. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels, decreasing platelet aggregation, by antioxidant effects, and by restoration of endothelial function. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence that suggests that red wine possesses a diverse range of biological actions and may be beneficial in the prevention of CVD. PMID:21264180

  19. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bü ttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schä tzle, Simone; Wö rheide, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  20. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    KAUST Repository

    Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2016-01-07

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters.

  1. Improvements to the Red List Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart H M Butchart

    Full Text Available The Red List Index uses information from the IUCN Red List to track trends in the projected overall extinction risk of sets of species. It has been widely recognised as an important component of the suite of indicators needed to measure progress towards the international target of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. However, further application of the RLI (to non-avian taxa in particular has revealed some shortcomings in the original formula and approach: It performs inappropriately when a value of zero is reached; RLI values are affected by the frequency of assessments; and newly evaluated species may introduce bias. Here we propose a revision to the formula, and recommend how it should be applied in order to overcome these shortcomings. Two additional advantages of the revisions are that assessment errors are not propagated through time, and the overall level extinction risk can be determined as well as trends in this over time.

  2. Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, J.E.; Weiss, R.F.; Craig, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that He isotope studies of terrestrial samples have shown the existence of two He components that are clearly distinct from atmospheric He. These are termed 'crustal' He and 'mantle' He; the latter was discovered as 'excess 3 He' in deep ocean water and attributed to a flux of primordial He from the mantle. Studies of the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in deep Pacific water and in He trapped in submarine basalt glasses showed that this 'mantle' component is characterised by ratios about ten times the atmospheric ratio and 100 times the ratio in 'crustal' He. Basalt glasses from other deep sea waters also showed similar ratios, and it is indicated that 'mantle' He in areas in which new lithosphere is being formed has a unique and uniform isotopic signature. Measurements of He and Ne are here reported that reveal additional information on the origin of Red Sea brines and their relationship to the Red Sea rifts. (U.K.)

  3. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  4. [Red lip defects. Reconstructive techniques and indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E; Stricker, M; Duroure, F

    2002-10-01

    The attractive color of the red lip must be the object of very meticulous reconstruction in their form and pigmentation. This can be done only by using the buccal mucosa. The graf is less indicated. There are multiple local flaps that have been proposed using the same lip, the jugal mucosa and the tongue. The authors will show the principal procedures found in the literature.

  5. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-de...

  6. Red Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Function

    OpenAIRE

    Botden, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHippocrates, the father of modern medicine, said many centuries ago: “let food be your medicine.” Today, this quote still shows its value, amongst others by the !nding that red wine consumption attributes to a healthy life style, reducing the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in many economically developed countries as well as in emerging economies.1 It has become a global epidemic problem, with type 2 diabetes,...

  7. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been ...

  8. Quality Characteristics of Appalachian Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Red oak lumber defect information derived from a well-constructed board data bank was analyzed. The potential utility of No. 1 Common and No. 2A Common lumber is indicated by the finding that 23 percent of the No. 1 Common boards and 35 percent of the No. 2A Common boards in the data bank contain clear-face cutting percentages that meet the minimum requirement for the...

  9. 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber is a collection of fully described FAS, Selects, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards (a total of 1,578 at present). The data bank has two unique features to aid in sample selection. The first feature is the double grading of FAS, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards to reflect the surface area in grading cuttings when grading...

  10. Red junglefowl have individual body odors

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminat...

  11. Diseño de red WAN

    OpenAIRE

    Spadaro, Gustavo Fabián

    2012-01-01

    Diseño de una Red WAN, para un operador de nivel internacional, con cobertura mundial, para brindar servicios de VPN, internet para empresas. Disseny d'una Xarxa WAN, per a un operador de nivell internacional, amb cobertura mundial, per brindar serveis de VPN, internet per a empreses. WAN Network Design for an international operator with global coverage, to provide VPN services, Internet for companies.

  12. The Red Book and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygott, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Jung's work is fundamentally an experience, not an idea. From this perspective, I attempt to bridge conference, consulting room and living psyche by considering the influence of the 'Red Book' on clinical practice through the subtle and imaginal. Jung's journey as a man broadens out to have relevance for women. His story is individual but its archetypal foundation finds parallel expression in analytic practice today. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  13. Formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ping; Bower, Amy S.; Smethie, William M.; Pratt, Larry J.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrographic data, chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) measurements collected in March 2010 and September-October 2011 in the Red Sea, as well as an idealized numerical experiment are used to study the formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) in the Red Sea. Analysis of inert tracers, potential vorticity distributions, and model results confirm that RSOW is formed through mixed-layer deepening caused by sea surface buoyancy loss in winter in the northern Red Sea and reveal more details on RSOW spreading rates, pathways, and vertical structure. The southward spreading of RSOW after its formation is identified as a layer with minimum potential vorticity and maximum CFC-12 and SF6. Ventilation ages of seawater within the RSOW layer, calculated from the partial pressure of SF6 (pSF6), range from 2 years in the northern Red Sea to 15 years at 17°N. The distribution of the tracer ages is in agreement with the model circulation field which shows a rapid transport of RSOW from its formation region to the southern Red Sea where there are longer circulation pathways and hence longer residence time due to basin wide eddies. The mean residence time of RSOW within the Red Sea estimated from the pSF6 age is 4.7 years. This time scale is very close to the mean transit time (4.8 years) for particles from the RSOW formation region to reach the exit at the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the numerical experiment.

  14. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. - Highlights: •First assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia •Rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections •Assessment of 28S 'C-Region' for demosponge barcoding •Data for a future comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea

  15. Alcohol, red wine and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, S D; Jones, P J

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the existing literature concerning the effects and mechanisms of action of red wine consumption vs. other alcoholic beverages on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Of particular interest is the form and quantity of alcohol consumed. This relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality is well supported by epidemiologic studies, which have suggested that different forms of alcohol alter the relative risk values for mortality from CVD. Although not without exception, current evidence from epidemiologic and experimental studies suggests a protective effect against the development of CVD with moderate consumption of red wine. The exact nature of the protective effect remains to be established. However, mechanisms including LDL oxidation and alterations in hemostatic variables are being increasingly recognized as contributory. Key components of red wine thought to be responsible for the protective effects include phenolic compounds and alcohol content. Despite the research presented, some questions relating to the current recommendations regarding moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health remain. However, collectively, the literature aids in understanding some of the ways in which alcoholic beverages and their components affect the health of our population.

  16. Red Sea as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-12-12

    King-Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is located on the shores of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea is well known for its unique environment, harboring various microbes capable of surviving in salty brines. We collected sediment samples from brine pool adjacent to the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea. The taxonomic analysis showed the diversity and abundance of bacterial and archaeal operational taxonomic units (OUT). Recently we established in the laboratory a microdroplet technology to encapsulate single cells. This technology enables us to analyze single-cell genomes and perform the high-throughput screening. The genomes of both cultivable and uncultivable organisms can be analyzed. We envision the collection of complimentary data, obtained by various techniques, such as single-cell genomics, metagenomics, and transcriptomics. That will enable us not only to understand the environment and microorganism communities but also will allow to discover the previously unknown genes, pathways, and whole genomes. These data will facilitate the enhancement of biological and chemical producers, and pave the way for bioprospecting.

  17. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, D. E.

    2011-07-19

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  18. Red junglefowl have individual body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds.

  19. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  20. Red Dragon drill missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Stoker, Carol R.; Gonzales, Andrew; McKay, Christopher P.; Davila, Alfonso; Glass, Brian J.; Lemke, Larry L.; Paulsen, Gale; Willson, David; Zacny, Kris

    2017-12-01

    We present the concept of using a variant of a Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) Dragon space capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander (dubbed ;Red Dragon;) for scientific and human precursor missions. SpaceX initially designed the Dragon capsule for flight near Earth, and Dragon has successfully flown many times to low-Earth orbit (LEO) and successfully returned the Dragon spacecraft to Earth. Here we present capsule hardware modifications that are required to enable flight to Mars and operations on the martian surface. We discuss the use of the Dragon system to support NASA Discovery class missions to Mars and focus in particular on Dragon's applications for drilling missions. We find that a Red Dragon platform is well suited for missions capable of drilling deeper on Mars (at least 2 m) than has been accomplished to date due to its ability to land in a powered controlled mode, accommodate a long drill string, and provide payload space for sample processing and analysis. We show that a Red Dragon drill lander could conduct surface missions at three possible targets including the ice-cemented ground at the Phoenix landing site (68 °N), the subsurface ice discovered near the Viking 2 (49 °N) site by fresh impact craters, and the dark sedimentary subsurface material at the Curiosity site (4.5 °S).

  1. Red mud flocculation process in alumina production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, E. R.; Firsov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    The process of thickening and washing red mud is a gooseneck of alumina production. The existing automated systems of the thickening process control involve stabilizing the parameters of the primary technological circuits of the thickener. The actual direction of scientific research is the creation and improvement of models and systems of the thickening process control by model. But the known models do not fully consider the presence of perturbing effects, in particular the particle size distribution in the feed process, distribution of floccules by size after the aggregation process in the feed barrel. The article is devoted to the basic concepts and terms used in writing the population balance algorithm. The population balance model is implemented in the MatLab environment. The result of the simulation is the particle size distribution after the flocculation process. This model allows one to foreseen the distribution range of floccules after the process of aggregation of red mud in the feed barrel. The mud of Jamaican bauxite was acting as an industrial sample of red mud; Cytec Industries of HX-3000 series with a concentration of 0.5% was acting as a flocculant. When simulating, model constants obtained in a tubular tank in the laboratories of CSIRO (Australia) were used.

  2. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  3. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  4. The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschow, Oliver; Reutner, Leonie; Wänke, Michaela

    2012-04-01

    Based on evidence that the color red elicits avoidance motivation across contexts (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), two studies investigated the effect of the color red on snack food and soft drink consumption. In line with our hypothesis, participants drank less from a red labeled cup than from a blue labeled cup (Study 1), and ate less snack food from a red plate than from a blue or white plate (Study 2). The results suggest that red functions as a subtle stop signal that works outside of focused awareness and thereby reduces incidental food and drink intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional profile of edible red marine seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Guedes Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity represents an exceptional source of natural resources. Their use in a sustainable way may ensure alternative food sources for human consumption, which scarcity is anticipated. Macroalgae, also known as seaweed, are an outstanding example of this biodiversity and are considered an excellent source of a wide number of chemical compounds with beneficial health effects [1]. According to their pigmentation, they can be distinguished in green (Chlorophytaea, brown (Phaeophytaea and red (Rhodophytaea, showing differences in nutritional and chemical compositions [1]. Some macroalgae are widely used as food ingredients in oriental countries as a good source of fiber and protein. Alternatively, they are also considered a source of nutraceuticals, providing health benefits such as anti-inflamatory, anti-allergic, antimutagenic, antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihyperthensive and neuroprotective properties [2]. Indeed, macroalgae are a very attractive material for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. According to some studies red seaweeds seem to be the most suitable source of proteins for human nutrition [3]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of the most consumed species of red seaweed that are commercially available in the market. Red species as Palmaria palmata (Dulse, Porphyra tenera (Nori and Eisenia bicyclis (Arame, were analyzed. Moisture determination was performed using a Scaltec SMO01 moisture analyzer. The ashes were obtained by incineration at 500ºC. The protein content was determined using the Kjeldahl procedure and total fat was measured through Soxhlet method. The carbohydrates were calculated indirectly by difference. In addition, chlorides were volumetrically determined and vitamin E profile was analysed by HPLC/DAD/FLD. The algae samples are commercialized dry, so the moisture content was very low, around 10%. The ash content was around 10-17%. Protein levels ranged from

  6. red - an R package to facilitate species red list assessments according to the IUCN criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List is the most useful database of species that are at risk of extinction worldwide, as it relies on a number of objective criteria and is now widely adopted. The R package red – IUCN Redlisting Tools - performs a number of spatial analyses based on either observed occurrences or estimated ranges. Functions include calculating Extent of Occurrence (EOO, Area of Occupancy (AOO, mapping species ranges, species distribution modelling using climate and land cover and calculating the Red List Index for groups of species. The package allows the calculation of confidence limits for all measures. Spatial data of species occurrences, environmental or land cover variables can be either given by the user or automatically extracted from several online databases. It outputs geographical range, elevation and country values, maps in several formats and vectorial data for visualization in Google Earth. Several examples are shown demonstrating the usefulness of the different methods. The red package constitutes an open platform for further development of new tools to facilitate red list assessments.

  7. red - an R package to facilitate species red list assessments according to the IUCN criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List is the most useful database of species that are at risk of extinction worldwide, as it relies on a number of objective criteria and is now widely adopted. The R package red - IUCN Redlisting Tools - performs a number of spatial analyses based on either observed occurrences or estimated ranges. Functions include calculating Extent of Occurrence (EOO), Area of Occupancy (AOO), mapping species ranges, species distribution modelling using climate and land cover and calculating the Red List Index for groups of species. The package allows the calculation of confidence limits for all measures. Spatial data of species occurrences, environmental or land cover variables can be either given by the user or automatically extracted from several online databases. It outputs geographical range, elevation and country values, maps in several formats and vectorial data for visualization in Google Earth. Several examples are shown demonstrating the usefulness of the different methods. The red package constitutes an open platform for further development of new tools to facilitate red list assessments.

  8. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). et al.

    2016-05-30

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sam- ple of constant comoving density. Additionally, we demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range z ϵ [0.2,0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec zphoto) and scatter (σz=(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively.The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1% level.

  9. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  10. Perceived Organizational Red Tape and Organizational Performance in Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Jakobsen, Mads Leth

    2018-01-01

    The claim that perceived organizational red tape hampers public services has become a central theme in public administration research. Surprisingly, however, few scholars have empirically examined the impact of perceived red tape on organizational performance. This study empirically analyzes how...... perceived organizational red tape among managers and frontline staff relates to objectively measured performance. The data consists of survey responses from teachers and principals at Danish upper secondary schools combined with grade-level administrative performance data. Based on theories of red tape...... and motivation crowding, we hypothesize that perceived organizational red tape reduces performance within such organizations. The empirical result is a small, negative relationship between staff perception of red tape and performance, and no relationship between manager-perceived red tape and performance....

  11. Biological oceanography of the red oceanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Hjalmar; Weikert, Horst

    1. In 1977, 1979 and 1980-81, investigations were carried out which aimed at evaluating the potential risks from mining metalliferous muds precipating in the Atlantis II Deep of the central Red Sea. This environmental research was initiated by the Saudi Sudanese Red Sea Joint Commission in order to avoid any danger for the Red Sea ecosystem. The broad environmental research programme coherent studies in physical, chemical, biological, and geological oceanography as well as toxicological investigations in the oceanic and in reef zones. We summarise the results from our biological fiels studies in the open sea. 2. The biological investigations were concentrated on the area of the Atlantis II Deep. Benthos was sampled between 700-2000m. For comparison a few samples were also taken further north in the central Red Sea, and to east and west along the flanking deep terraces (500-1000m). Plankton studies covered the total water column above the Deep, and were extended along the axial through to north and south. 3. Benthos sampling was carried out using a heavy closing trawl, a large box grab (box size 50 × 50 cm), Van Veen grabs and traps; photographic surveys were made a phototrap and a photosled. Community respiration was measured with a ship-board method using grab subsamples. Nutrient concentrations, seston and phytoplankton standing stocks as well as in situ primary production were determined from hydrocast samples. Data on zooplankton and micronekton composition and standing stock were obtained from samples collected using different multiple opening-and-closing nets equipped with 100 μm, 300 μm, and 1000 μm mesh sizes. Daily and ontogenetical vertical migration patterns were studied by comparisons of data from midday and midnight tows. 4. Throughout the whole area the sediment is a pteropod ooze containing low contentrations of organic matter; measured organic carbon and nitrogen contents were 0.5 and 0.05% respectively, and chloroplastic pigment equivalents

  12. Mechanisms of immune red cell destruction, and red cell compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garratty, G.

    1983-01-01

    The immune destruction of red cells can occur as a complement-mediated intravascular process, or extravascularly, where the red cells are destroyed by macrophages following interaction with cell-bound IgG1, IgG3, and/or C3b. Many of the factors that affect this in vivo destruction are not taken into account during in vitro pretransfusion compatibility testing. At present, even by use of more elaborate tests, it is difficult to accurately predict the fate of a transfused unit of blood. By using some simple information, such as antibody specificity and thermal range, it is sometimes possible to predict the outcome of transfusing a unit of blood that is incompatible in vitro. At other times it may be necessary to utilize 51 Cr-labeled red cells to determine the risk of transfusing such units. Because of the paucity of reported clinical correlations, macrophage/monocyte monolayer assays are of little practical value at present

  13. Can Lutjanus purpureus (South red snapper be "legally" considered a red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Red snappers (Lutjanus purpureus in Brazil and Lutjanus campechanus in USA and Gulf of Mexico are both under clear effect of overfishing. Because of their high morphological similarity it has already been suggested that they could possibly be considered as a single species. To investigate the degree of similarity and the genetic structure of red snapper populations we constructed a common dataset of partial D-loop mtDNA sequences of L. purpureus from Brazil (Amapá, Pará and Maranhão and L. campechanus from the Atlantic coast of the USA (Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses surprisingly depicted high similarity between L. campechanus and L. purpureus, compatible with the hypothesis of a single species of red snapper for the Western Atlantic Ocean. These preliminary but very curious findings open an important discussion regarding the legislation involved on the capture of this overexploited fish resources as well as regarding their taxonomy.

  14. Tests of two convection theories for red giant and red supergiant envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.; Chin, Chao-Wen

    1995-01-01

    Two theories of stellar envelope convection are considered here in the context of red giants and red supergiants of intermediate to high mass: Boehm-Vitense's standard mixing-length theory (MLT) and Canuto & Mazzitelli's new theory incorporating the full spectrum of turbulence (FST). Both theories assume incompressible convection. Two formulations of the convective mixing length are also evaluated: l proportional to the local pressure scale height (H(sub P)) and l proportional to the distance from the upper boundary of the convection zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red phase of core helium burning. Since the theoretically predicted effective temperatures for cool stars are known to be sensitive to the assigned value of the mixing length, this quantity has been individually calibrated for each evolutionary sequence. The calibration is done in a composite Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the red giant and red supergiant members of well-observed Galactic open clusters. The MLT model requires the constant of proportionality for the convective mixing length to vary by a small but statistically significant amount with stellar mass, whereas the FST model succeeds in all cases with the mixing lenghth simply set equal to z. The structure of the deep stellar interior, however, remains very nearly unaffected by the choices of convection theory and mixing lenghth. Inside the convective envelope itself, a density inversion always occurs, but is somewhat smaller for the convectively more efficient MLT model. On physical grounds the FST model is preferable, and seems to alleviate the problem of finding the proper mixing length.

  15. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  16. Red wines good, white wines bad?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velden, D.P.; Mansvelt, E.P.G.; Troup, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 1994, free radicals were discovered in red wines, but only in whites exposed to skins and seeds, and/or oak. The radicals are on the phenolics, and therefore a measure of phenolic content. In 1995, Fuhrman, Levy and Aviram published a study showing antioxidant effects of red wine in the standard Israeli diet, but pro-oxidant effects of the white wine used. No phenolic analysis was done, but low or no phenolics were suspected. Letters to the winery used by Aviram proved fruitless. In 2001, Aviram admits that to see a significant antioxidant effect from white wine, he must make his own, giving it skin and seed contact, and adding alcohol to the fermenting stage, to leach out more tannin from the seeds. This would be unsaleable as a table wine, but not as a 'fortified' or 'dessert' wine. A completely independent study by van Velden in South Africa, with phenol analysis of wines, shows pro- oxidant behaviour of white wines low or lacking in phenolic content. This will be summarised. A Japanese study of the antioxidant properties of some wines shows none for wines low or lacking in catechin content. In the 1950's, two similar but independent studies on different laboratory animals showed no ill effects from 10% alcohol red wine in their diet, but serious effects from 10% pure alcohol - water mix. Conclusion. Drinking only of white wines lacking in phenols, either due to 'fining', or to deliberate avoidance in making, at the recommended 'moderate' drinking level, may be deleterious to cardiovascular health, because of their pro-oxidant action, now established

  17. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated memory impairment in aged mice, was quantified using Y-maze test, novel objective test, and Morris water maze. Red ginseng ameliorated age-related declines in learning and memory in older mice. In addition, red ginseng's effect on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines was investigated in the hippocampus of aged mice. Red ginseng treatment suppressed the production of age-processed inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β expressions. Moreover, it was observed that red ginseng had an antioxidative effect on aged mice. The suppressed glutathione level in aged mice was restored with red ginseng treatment. The antioxidative-related enzymes Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased with red ginseng treatment. The results revealed that when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated through anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Thrombocytopenia responding to red blood cell transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, Ahmad A.; Awidi, Abdalla; Rasul, Kakil I.; Al-Homsi, Ussama

    2004-01-01

    Three patients with severe symptomatic iron defficiency anemia and thrombocytopenia had a significant rise in the platelet count a few days following packed red blood cell transfusion. Pretransfusion platelet count of of patient one was 17x10/L. 22x10/Lin patient two and 29x10/L in patient three. On the 6th day of post tranfusion, the platelet count rose to 166x10/Lin patient one, 830x10/L in patient two and 136x10/L in patient three. The possible mechcnism behind such an unreported observation are discussed. (author)

  20. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. Indeed, people of France and Italy, the two major wine-producing European countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in North-America or in the northern regions of Europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. For a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "French paradox". Researchers now have turned their investigations towards a family of natural substances called "polyphenols", which are only found in plants and are abundant in grapes. It is well known that these molecules behave as radical scavengers and antioxidants, and it has been demonstrated that they can protect cholesterol in the LDL species from oxidation, a process thought to be at the origin of many fatal heart attacks. However, taken one by one, it remains difficult to demonstrate which are the best polyphenols as far as their antioxidant activities are concerned. The main obstacle in that kind of research is not the design of the chemical and biological tests themselves, but surprisingly enough, the limited access to chemically pure and structurally elucidated polyphenolic compounds. In this article, particular attention will be paid to polyphenols of red wine made from Vitis vinifera cultivars. With respect to the "French paradox", we address the following question: are wine polyphenolic compounds identical to those found in grapes (skin, pulp and seed), or are there biochemical modifications specifically taking place on the native flavonoids when a wine ages? Indeed, structural changes occur during wine conservation, and one of the most studied of those changes concerns red wine colour evolution, called "wine ageing". As a wine ages, it has been demonstrated that the initially present grape pigments slowly turn into new more stable red pigments. That phenomenon goes on

  1. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  2. Synthesis of the ICT4RED initiative

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available on Sustainability and how value is derived through improved decision-making. The issue of sustainability, and how it plays an important role in the ICT4RED initiative, is discussed. Total Cost of Ownership-, Cost utility- and Tablet selection-models, which were...&E), models, guidelines and tools. Arranged access to digital content on the content servers at each school which teachers and learners can download via Wi-Fi to their tablets. Access to McMillan and Pearson e-books. Developed processes...

  3. Ciudad Mercado, infraestructura en red. Madrid.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    Los mercados de abastos de Madrid atraviesan uno profunda crisis que conlleva su decadencia arquitectónica. Si bien han sido una pieza el clave en la construcción social y urbana de Madrid. no son considerados una infraestructura, lo cual repercute en el tipo y calidad de intervenciones a los que se los somete. Recuperar su condición infraestructura, supone pensar en los mercados como red, enfocándose en las interacciones que plantean con el entorno a múltiples escalas. Éstas, pueden deber...

  4. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  5. Red ocean vs blue ocean strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Λαΐνος, Ιάσονας

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the strategies that a company can adopt in order to get a competitive advantage over its rivals, and thus be successful (Red Ocean Strategies). We also tried to explain what actually entrepreneurship is, to be able to understand why the corporate strategies are formed as they do, and why companies are choosing to follow them. The following project is a part of our master thesis that we will present for the University of Piraeus for the MBA-TQM master department. The thesis...

  6. Use of red ochre by early Neanderthals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Kellberg

    2012-01-01

    The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60–40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute t...... dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200–250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record)....

  7. Shape Memory of Human Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spher...

  8. Arsenobetaine in the red crab, Chionoecetes opilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuto, S.; Stockton, R.A.; Irgolic, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The meat of the red crab, Chionoecetes opilio, caught near the central coast the Japan Sea, was extracted with methanol. The arsenic compounds were isolated from this extract and purified by anion and cation exchange chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Three arsenic compounds were detected. The major arsenic compound, identified as arsenobetaine by TLC, proton NMR spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography with an atomic absorption spectrometer as an arsenic-specific detector, accounted for 90% of the total arsenic in the crab meat. The other two arsenic compounds could not be identified because of insufficient amounts available for analysis.

  9. North American montane red foxes: expansion, fragmentation, and the origin of the Sacramento Valley red fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin N. Sacks; Mark J. Statham; John D. Perrine; Samantha M. Wisely; Keith B. Aubry

    2010-01-01

    Most native red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the western contiguous United States appear to be climatically restricted to colder regions in the major mountain ranges and, in some areas, have suffered precipitous declines in abundance that may be linked to warming trends. However, another population of unknown origin has occurred in arid habitats in the...

  10. Comparative characterization of extractives in Alaskan Yellow, Eastern Red, and Western Red Cedars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderquita K. Moore; Doreen Mann; Gabriel Epstein; Phoebe Wagner; Brett Hinkforth; Jun Hyunji

    2017-01-01

    Softwoods, more specifically Cedars, are a set of tree species known to have extractive components with many different biological activities. Research has shown that certain compounds in Cedars are able to resist various forms of attack (microbial, fungal, insect, etc.). Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar, Cupressus/Chamacyparis...

  11. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A

    2014-11-01

    To describe the successful management of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in a red panda. Clinical report. Red panda diagnosed with GDV. A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetence, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. GDV should be considered as a differential diagnosis for red pandas presenting with acute onset of unspecific signs such as collapse, inappetence, and abdominal distension. GDV in red pandas can be diagnosed and successfully treated as described in dogs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Red cell concentrate storage and transport temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, V; Cardigan, R; Thomas, S

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the current U.K. guidelines for storage and transport of red cell concentrates (RCC) in saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol (SAGM). The guidelines stipulate storage at 2-6 °C but allow exposure to between 1-10 °C core temperature in a single occurrence of less than 5 h and a surface temperature of 2-10 °C for no more than 12 h during transportation. Twenty RCC units in SAGM were selected on the day of blood collection (day 0) and in vitro quality was tested pre- and post-temperature deviation at 10 °C and up to day 42 of storage. Each group of 10 RCC units was incubated for either 12 h or for both 5 and 12 h. Haemolysis was below the 0·8% U.K. limit at day 42 in all units, although there was an unexpected trend towards lower haemolysis in packs incubated for 5 and 12 h rather than just 12 h alone. Supernatant potassium was significantly higher than reference data on day 35 (P levels of adenosine triphosphate and, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate to reference data from previous studies, throughout storage. These results suggest that exposure to 10 °C for 12 h or for 5 and 12 h did not adversely affect in vitro red cell quality for the remainder of the components shelf life. © 2011 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2011 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Radionuclide sorption studies on abyssal red clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1979-01-01

    The radionuclide sorption properties of a widely distributed abyssal red clay are being experimentally investigated using batch equilibration techniques. This paper summarizes sorption equilibrium data obtained when 0.68 N NaCl solutions containing either Tc, U, Pu, Am or Cm were contacted with samples of the red clay and also summarizes some initial results from experiments designed to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for various nuclides. Under mildly oxidizing conditions, the sorption equilibrium distribution coefficients for technetium were essentially zero. At solution-phase nuclide concentrations on the order of 10 -6 M and less and at solution pH values of about 6.9, the distribution coefficients for plutonium were about 3 x 10 3 m1/gm and for uranium, americium, and curium were about 10 5 ml/gm or greater. However, at solution pH values of about 2.7, the distribution coefficients for each of the nuclides were greatly diminished. Initial experiments conducted in order to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for cesium, barium, and cerium, indicated that the silicate phases in the clay were selective for cesium over barium and cerium. These experiments also indicated that the hydrous oxide phases were selective for cerium over barium and for barium over cesium

  15. Experimental evidence for the cardioprotective effects of red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Samarjit; Santani, Dev D; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2007-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary ...

  16. RED AND PROCESSED MEAT AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    ATALIĆ, BRUNO; TOTH, JURICA; ATALIĆ, VLASTA; RADANOVIĆ, DANIJELA; MIŠKULIN, MAJA; LUČIN, ANA

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was cond...

  17. Simulating Coral Reef Connectivity in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yixin

    2018-05-01

    Connectivity is an important component of coral reef studies for its role in the enhancement of ecosystem resilience. Previous genetic structure and physical circulation studies in the Red Sea reveal a homogeneity within the coral reef complexes in the central and northern parts of the basin. Yet, genetic isolation and relatively low connectivity has been observed in the southern Red Sea. Raitsos et al. (2017) recently hypothesized that coral reefs in the southern Red Sea are more connected with regions outside the basin, rather than with the central and northern Red Sea. Using a physical circulation approach based on a 3-D backward particle tracking simulation, we further investigate this hypothesis. A long-term (> 10 years), very high resolution (1km) MITgcm simulation is used to provide detailed information on velocity in the complex coastal regions of the Red Sea and the adjacent narrow Bab-El-Mandeb Strait. The particle tracking simulation results support the initial hypothesis that the coastal regions in the southern Red Sea exhibit a consistently higher connectivity with the regions outside the Bab-El-Mandeb Strait, than with the central and northern Red Sea. Substantially high levels of connectivity, facilitated by the circulation and eddies, is observed with the coastal regions in the Gulf of Aden. A strong seasonality in connectivity, related to the monsoon-driven circulation, is also evident with the regions outside of the Red Sea. The winter surface intrusion plays a leading role in transporting the particles from the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean into the Red Sea, while the summer subsurface intrusion also supports the transport of particles into the Red Sea in the intermediate layer. In addition, the connectivity with the central and northern Red Sea is more affected by the intensity of the eddies. Evidence also suggests that potential connectivity exists between the coastal southern Red Sea and the coasts of Oman, Socotra, Somalia, Kenya

  18. Application of various technological processes in red clover seed processing

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Marković, Jordan; Radivojević, Gordana; Anđelković, Bojan; Barać, Saša

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the processing of natural red clover seed on the processing equipment using different technological methods. Red clover seed, for the establishment and crop utilization, must be of high purity, germination, and high genetic values. These requirements are achieved by processing, or removing impurities and poor quality seeds. Red clover seed processing involves a number of operations, of which the most important are: cleaning, packaging, labeling and storage. ...

  19. A review of elasmobranch research in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2012-01-30

    Given the global concern about the status of elasmobranch fishes, the paucity of information on elasmobranchs in the Red Sea is worrisome. Management of elasmobranchs in areas other than the Red Sea has been helped by research on population ecology, reproductive biology and resource partitioning, subjects that are virtually absent in the Red Sea elasmobranch literature. This review provides the first comprehensive summary of elasmobranch biology in the Red Sea with the aim of facilitating research in a region that remains remarkably under-studied. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  1. Cytotoxicity of Phenol Red in Toxicity Assays for Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the novel properties of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs in nanotoxicity assays, the adsorption of phenol red (a pH indicator for culture medium by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs and three kinds of carbon blacks (CBs with nanosize, and its effects on cytotoxicity were studied. Results indicated that the phenol red adsorbed and delivered into cells by CBs was responsible for the toxicity to Hela cells in the medium without serum. The cellular uptake of phenol red was verified using 125I-labeling techniques. The size-dependent cytotoxicity of CBs was found to closely correlate to adsorption of phenol red, cellular uptake of phenol red-CB complexes and the amount of phenol red delivered into the cells by CBs. Although the CBs were either nontoxic or slightly toxic, as vehicles of phenol red, they played an essential role in the cytotoxicity induced by phenol red. However, MWNTs showed an intrinsic cytotoxicity independent of phenol red. The implications associated with these findings are discussed.

  2. Spectrally adapted red flare tracers with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of bright light, with vivid color, is the primary purpose of signaling, illuminating devices, and fire control purposes. This study, reports on the development of red flame compositions with enhanced performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed red flame compositions to standard NATO red tracer (R-284 NATO were measured using digital luxmeter, and UV–Vis. spectrometer. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity of standard NATO red tracer was increased by 72%, the color quality was also improved by 60% (over the red band from 650 to 780 nm. This enhanced spectral performance was achieved by means of deriving the combustion process to maximize the formation of red color emitting species in the combustion flame. Thanks to the optimum ratio of color source to color intensifier using aluminum metal fuel; this approach offered the highest intensity and color quality. Upon combustion, aluminum was found to maximize the formation SrCL (the main reactive red color emitting species and to minimize the interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO and SrO. Quantification of active red color emitting species in the combustion flame was conducted using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT. The improvement in red flare performance, established the rule that the color intensifier should be in the range from 10 to 15 Wt % of the total composition.

  3. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  5. Experience reverses the red effect among Chinese stockbrokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tengxiao; Han, Buxin

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the color red influences psychological functioning. Red is hypothesized to be linked to aggression and danger in evolution, and these links are enhanced by culture-specific uses of red. Thus, color meanings are thought to be grounded in biologically based proclivities and learned associations. However, to date, there has been no direct evidence for the influence of experience on the red effect. This study focused on whether experience could change the psychological effects of the color red. In the context of the Chinese stock market, contrary to the meaning generally associated with red as negative and green as positive, red represents a rise in stock price and green stands for a decrease. An experiment using a 2×2 between subjects factorial design demonstrated that red (compared with green) impaired Chinese college students' performance on an IQ test (in accordance with the red effect), but the opposite effect was found among stockbrokers. These results provide direct evidence of learned color meanings, in support of the general model of color effect.

  6. Antimicrobial and Anti-biofilm Activities of Betacyanin Fractions from Red Pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and Red Spinach (Amaranthus dubius)

    OpenAIRE

    YI YI YONG

    2018-01-01

    This thesis examines the ability of betacyanin, a natural red-violet pigment from red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius)in inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause diseases and bacteria attached to surfaces such as glass, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polypropylene, and silicone rubber. Extraction was optimized to produce a betacyanin fraction and various assays were carried out to identify the best betacyanin formulation against a polymi...

  7. Noncytotoxic orange and red/green derivatives of DsRed-Express2 for whole-cell labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glick Benjamin S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-cell labeling is a common application of fluorescent proteins (FPs, but many red and orange FPs exhibit cytotoxicity that limits their use as whole-cell labels. Recently, a tetrameric red FP called DsRed-Express2 was engineered for enhanced solubility and was shown to be noncytotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. Our goal was to create derivatives of this protein with different spectral properties. Results Building on previous studies of DsRed mutants, we created two DsRed-Express2 derivatives: E2-Orange, an orange FP, and E2-Red/Green, a dual-color FP with both red and green emission. We show that these new FPs retain the low cytotoxicity of DsRed-Express2. In addition, we show that these new FPs are useful as second or third colors for flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Conclusion E2-Orange and E2-Red/Green will facilitate the production of healthy, stably fluorescent cell lines and transgenic organisms for multi-color labeling studies.

  8. Red man syndrome caused by vancomycin powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasunori; VanBeek, Marta J; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2018-04-01

    Red man syndrome (RMS) is a well-known hypersensitivity reaction caused by intravenous administration of vancomycin, with symptoms ranging from flushing, erythematous rash, pruritus, mild to profound hypotension, and even cardiac arrest. RMS has not previously been described from local application of vancomycin powder in a surgical wound, a technique increasingly utilized for infection prophylaxis in many surgical disciplines including neurosurgery. We describe the first reported case of RMS as a result of local intra-wound application of vancomycin powder for infection prophylaxis. A 73-year-old male with a history of Parkinson's disease underwent 2-stage deep brain stimulation implantation surgeries. Vancomycin powder was applied locally in the surgical wounds for infection prophylaxis during both of the surgeries. The patient developed a well-demarcated, geometric erythematous pruritic rash following the second surgery that was clinically diagnosed as RMS and resolved without sequelae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The RED extinction model. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulda, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bragg diffraction in nearly perfect crystals is treated within the framework of the random elastic deformation (RED) model. Similar to the previous applications it is again assumed that each individual reflection event takes place within an elastically deformed domain and hence may be described by either an exact or a quasiclassical solution to the Takagi-Taupin equations. But because of the high degree of perfection and/or small thickness of the crystal the interaction is confined to one single domain so that the total reflected intensity is obtained just by summing up the contributions from the whole ensemble of domains characterized by different values of the deformation gradient and thickness. The present approach profoundly differs from Kato's statistical dynamical theory which starts with the averaging procedure within the Takagi-Taupin equations before solving them. (orig.)

  10. Science responses to IUCN Red Listing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jarić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is often advocated as a tool to assist decision-making in conservation investment and research focus. It is frequently suggested that research efforts should prioritize species in higher threat categories and those that are Data Deficient (DD. We assessed the linkage between IUCN listing and research effort in DD and Critically Endangered (CR species, two groups generally advocated as research priorities. The analysis of the change in the research output following species classification indicated a listing effect in DD species, while such effect was observed in only a minority of CR species groups. DD species, while chronically understudied, seem to be recognized as research priorities, while research effort for endangered species appears to be driven by various factors other than the IUCN listing. Optimized conservation research focus would require international science planning efforts, harmonized through international mechanisms and promoted by financial and other incentives.

  11. Metabolism of radiocaesium in red grouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.; Horrill, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Red grouse eat a natural diet mostly of heather, a dwarf shrub which accumulates radiocaesium. Captive grouse were fed a diet, comprising 60% heather contaminated with Chernobyl radiocaesium, containing about 1500 Bq kg -1 of radiocaesium. Intake and excretion of radiocaesium reached equilibrium after 20-23 days and its biological half-life was 10-11 days, with about 23% of the radiocaesium in the diet being absorbed by the bird. Transfer coefficients for both captives and wild birds were about 10 days kg -1 . Radiocaesium activity concentrations in wild birds reflected those in their diet and it is suggested that the sampling of birds shot for sport could form an efficient means of monitoring radiocaesium levels in heather-dominated uplands in the UK. (Author)

  12. The evolution of red supergiants to supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasor, Emma R.; Davies, Ben

    2017-11-01

    With red supergiants (RSGs) predicted to end their lives as Type IIP core collapse supernova (CCSN), their behaviour before explosion needs to be fully understood. Mass loss rates govern RSG evolution towards SN and have strong implications on the appearance of the resulting explosion. To study how the mass-loss rates change with the evolution of the star, we have measured the amount of circumstellar material around 19 RSGs in a coeval cluster. Our study has shown that mass loss rates ramp up throughout the lifetime of an RSG, with more evolved stars having mass loss rates a factor of 40 higher than early stage RSGs. Interestingly, we have also found evidence for an increase in circumstellar extinction throughout the RSG lifetime, meaning the most evolved stars are most severely affected. We find that, were the most evolved RSGs in NGC2100 to go SN, this extra extinction would cause the progenitor's initial mass to be underestimated by up to 9M⊙.

  13. Biological activities of red propolis: a rewiew

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Sonia M; de Freitas, Marcia Christina Dornelas; de Oliveira, Daiana Teixeira; de Miranda, Marina Barcelos; Vieira-Filho, Sidney Augusto; Caligiorne, Rachel Basques

    2018-02-23

    • Background: The red propolis (RdProp) is a resin produced by Apis mellifera bees, which collect the reddish exudate on the surface of its botanic source, the species Dalbergiae castophyllum, popularly known in Brazil as "rabo de bugio". Considered as the 13th type of Brazilian propolis, this resin has been gaining prominence due to its natural composition, rich in bioactive substances not found in other types of propolis. • Objective: This review aims to address the most important characteristics of PV, its botanical origin, the main constituents, its biological properties and the patents related to this natural product. • Method: By means of the SciFinder, Google Patents, Patus® and Spacenet, scientific articles and patents involving the term "red propolis" were searched until August 2017 • Results: A number of biological properties, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, antitumor, antioxidant, metabolic and nutraceutical activities are attributed to RdProp, demonstrating the great potential of its use in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. • Conclusion: The available papers are associated to pharmacological potential of RdProp, but the molecular mechanisms or bioactive compounds responsible for each activity have not yet been fully elucidated. The RdProp patents currently found are directed to components for the pharmaceutical industry (EP2070543A1; WO2014186851A1; FR3006589A1; CN1775277A; CN105797149A; CN1879859A), cosmetic (JP6012138B2; JP2008247830A; JP6012138B2) and food (JP5478392B2; CN101380052A; WO2006038690A1). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Metabolite Profiling of Red Sea Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Ortega, Jovhana Alejandra

    2016-12-01

    Looking at the metabolite profile of an organism provides insights into the metabolomic state of a cell and hence also into pathways employed. Little is known about the metabolites produced by corals and their algal symbionts. In particular, corals from the central Red Sea are understudied, but interesting study objects, as they live in one of the warmest and most saline environments and can provide clues as to the adjustment of corals to environmental change. In this study, we applied gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC–MS) metabolite profiling to analyze the metabolic profile of four coral species and their associated symbionts: Fungia granulosa, Acropora hemprichii, Porites lutea, and Pocillopora verrucosa. We identified and quantified 102 compounds among primary and secondary metabolites across all samples. F. granulosa and its symbiont showed a total of 59 metabolites which were similar to the 51 displayed by P. verrucosa. P. lutea and A. hemprichii both harbored 40 compounds in conjunction with their respective isolated algae. Comparing across species, 28 metabolites were exclusively present in algae, while 38 were exclusive to corals. A principal component and cluster analyses revealed that metabolite profiles clustered between corals and algae, but each species harbored a distinct catalog of metabolites. The major classes of compounds were carbohydrates and amino acids. Taken together, this study provides a first description of metabolites of Red Sea corals and their associated symbionts. As expected, the metabolites of coral hosts differ from their algal symbionts, but each host and algal species harbor a unique set of metabolites. This corroborates that host-symbiont species pairs display a fine-tuned complementary metabolism that provide insights into the specific nature of the symbiosis. Our analysis also revealed aquatic pollutants, which suggests that metabolite profiling might be used for monitoring pollution levels and assessing

  15. Observadores Distribuidos Garantistas para Sistemas en Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón A. García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se propone un observador distribuido garantista para sistemas en red, considerando de forma explícita el problema de los retardos variables en las comunicaciones. Se asume que la información intercambiada entre agentes llega siempre a su destino, si bien las comunicaciones están sujetas a retardos variables, cuyo valor máximo se supone conocido. Cada observador trabaja con información parcial, y necesita comunicarse con observadores vecinos para llevar a cabo una estimación del estado completo del sistema. Para representar a los conjuntos garantistas, cuya función es acotar en tiempo real la región en la que se encuentra el estado del sistema, se ha optado por la utilización de zonotopos. Esto permite integrar de forma sencilla la información recibida por cada agente. Finalmente se presentan resultados de simulación para validar el algoritmo propuesto. Abstract: This paper proposes a guaranteed distributed observer for networked systems, taking into account the problem of the variable delays in communications. We assume that the information exchanged among the agents always arrives to its destination, although the communication are subject to variable delays, whose maximum value is known. Each observer works with partial information, and needs to communicate with neighbouring observers to carry out an estimation of the complete state of the system. The guaranteed sets, whose function is to delimit in real time the region in which the state of the system belong to, are represented by zonotopes. This kind of sets allows a simple integration of the information received by each agent. Finally some results obtained with the proposed algorithm are shown in simulations. Palabras clave: Estimación Distribuida, Observadores de Estado, Sistemas con Retardos, Sistemas en red, Zonotopos, Keywords: Distributed Estimation, State Observers, Delays Systems, Networked systems, Zonotopes

  16. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...... proteome have been confirmed here. This comparison sheds light on several open issues in RBC biology and provides a departure point for more comprehensive understanding of RBC function....

  17. A Dendrochronological Analysis of Red Oak Borer Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Richard P. Guyette

    2004-01-01

    Unprecedented outbreaks of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldemann) have occurred in the lower Midwestern United States. Although generally not a mortality agent, red oak borer appears to contribute to general oak decline and mortality. The objective of this project was to explore dendrochronology as a means of determining the role of tree age,...

  18. Pioneering the red planet; adventures on Martian soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Peijl, I.; Veraart, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mars has always obsessed humankind - the Red planet, the ‘New Earth’. And with the recent successful landing of NASA’s Curiosity rover, Mars is closer than ever. Ever since 1960, we have actively been sending probes and rovers to observe the planet, but not without defeat. The road to the red planet

  19. Growth Performance of Red Sokoto Bucks Fed Inclusion levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance of red Sokoto bucks fed two (2) inclusion levels of rawwater soaked and lime soaked Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds in rice offal based diets. A total of twenty one (21) red Sokoto bucks were randomly allotted into seven treatments with three (3) bucks per group while ...

  20. Weevil - red rot associations in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Clifford H. Foster

    1957-01-01

    The presence of red rot (Fomes pini) in pruned white pine stands has often been attributed to the act of pruning. This assumption may well be true for heavily stocked stands where thinning has been neglected and pruning scars are slow to heal. The question then arises: How do we account for the red rot often found in vigorous unpruned white pine stands? Evidence...