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Sample records for hudson bay system

  1. Lithospheric Architecture Beneath Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches 􏰂350 km thick but is thinner (􏰂200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  2. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter in the Nelson/Hayes estuarine system (Hudson Bay, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, C.; Mokhtar, M.; Perroud, A.; McCullough, G.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study (2009-2012) investigating the mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Nelson/Hayes estuary (Hudson Bay). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored DOM, and humic-like DOM decreased with increasing salinity (r2 = 0.70-0.84). Removal of DOM was noticeable at low to mid salinity range, likely due to degradation and/or adsorption to particles. DOM photobleaching rates (i.e., decrease in DOM signal resulting from exposure to solar radiation) ranged from 0.005 to 0.030 h- 1, corresponding to half-lives of 4.9-9.9 days. Dissolved organic matter from the Nelson and Hayes Rivers was more photoreactive than from the estuary where the photodegradation of terrestrial DOM decreased with increasing salinity. Coincident with the loss of CDOM absorption was an increase in spectral slope S, suggesting a decrease in DOM molecular weight. Marked differences in photoreactivity of protein- and humic-like DOM were observed with highly humidified material being the most photosensitive. Information generated by our study will provide a valuable data set for better understanding the impacts of future hydroelectric development and climate change on DOM biogeochemical dynamics in the Nelson/Hayes estuary and coastal domain. This study will constitute a reference on terrestrial DOM fate prior to building additional generating capacity on the Nelson River.

  4. Variability of an under-ice river plume in Hudson Bay

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    Ingram, R. Grant; Larouche, Pierre

    1987-08-01

    Observations of the Great Whale River plume in the coastal waters of Hudson Bay, Canada, during late winter and early spring during four different years showed its area to vary as a power of the discharge. The under-ice plume area was much larger than plume area in open water for comparable discharges. Differences in plume geometry were related to elapsed time since ice formation and low-frequency variability of the coastal circulation. The strength and orientation of the coastal motion was weakly correlated with the cross-Hudson Bay atmospheric pressure gradient. The passage of low-pressure systems over Hudson Bay is thought to generate a progressive edge wave in the absence of direct wind forcing. The amplitude of the low-frequency variations in coastal circulation decreased with the increasing spatial extent of the landfast ice in the study area.

  5. Integrating shear velocity observations of the Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Hudson Bay is the core of the Laurentia craton of North America. This region contains some of the thickest lithosphere globally, reaching 250-300 km depth. Previous studies have shown that much of this region is composed of amalgamated proto-continents including the Western Churchill and Superior provinces and that much of the structure of these constituents has been retained since the Trans-Hudson Orogen at 1.8 Ga. Using the Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment (HuBLE) and other permanent and POLARIS broadband seismic data, we image the region with S to P receiver functions, joint inversion of P to S receiver functions with surface waves, and teleseismic S and P wave travel-times. The receiver function imaging reveals a persistent mid-lithospheric layer at ~80 km depth under all stations, but a variable lithospheric thickness. The teleseismic S delay times show a pattern of early arrivals around the center of the network, beneath Hudson Bay where the lithosphere is thickest, while the P delay times are early in the Superior province relative to the Western Churchill province. This suggests higher Vp/Vs ratios in the Superior province, which is evidence that stacked oceanic plates formed this province. The relatively flat Moho imaged by earlier receiver function studies and the lower mantle Vp/Vs of the Western Churchill province provides evidence of formation by plume head extraction. The joint inversion shows an LAB that is typically a broad discontinuity spanning ~20-30 km at ~220 km depth suggesting a primarily thermal boundary zone. The mid-lithospheric layer is composed of increasing velocity from the ~40 km depth Moho defined by H-k stacking of PRFs to a broad, constant velocity lithospheric lid spanning 80-200 km depth. We suggest this mid-lithospheric layer represents the mantle lithosphere of the proto-continents prior to collision and the lid formed due to post-collisional cooling. The integration of these seismic datasets furthers our understanding of

  6. Inorganic carbon cycling and biogeochemical processes in an Arctic inland sea (Hudson Bay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, William J.; Thomas, Helmuth; Miller, Lisa A.; Granskog, Mats A.; Papakyriakou, Tim N.; Pengelly, Leah

    2016-08-01

    The distributions of carbonate system parameters in Hudson Bay, which not only receives nearly one-third of Canada's river discharge but is also subject to annual cycles of sea-ice formation and melt, indicate that the timing and magnitude of freshwater inputs play an important role in carbon biogeochemistry and acidification in this unique Arctic ecosystem. This study uses basin-wide measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA), as well as stable isotope tracers (δ18O and δ13CDIC), to provide a detailed assessment of carbon cycling processes within the bay. Surface distributions of carbonate parameters reveal the particular importance of freshwater inputs in the southern portion of the bay. Based on TA, we surmise that the deep waters in the Hudson Bay are largely of Pacific origin. Riverine TA end-members vary significantly both regionally and with small changes in near-surface depths, highlighting the importance of careful surface water sampling in highly stratified waters. In an along-shore transect, large increases in subsurface DIC are accompanied by equivalent decreases in δ13CDIC with no discernable change in TA, indicating a respiratory DIC production on the order of 100 µmol kg-1 DIC during deep water circulation around the bay.

  7. Riverine organic matter composition and fluxes to Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Z. Z. A.; Macdonald, R. W.; Goni, M. A.; Godin, P.; Stern, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    With warming in northern regions, many changes including permafrost degradation, vegetation alteration, and wildfire incidence will impact the carbon cycle. Organic carbon (OC) carried by river runoff to northern oceans has the potential to provide integrated evidence of these impacts. Here, concentrations of dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) OC are used to estimate terrestrial OC transport in 17 major rivers draining varied vegetative and permafrost conditions into Hudson Bay and compositional data (lignin and 14C) to infer OC sources. Hudson Bay lies just south of the Arctic Circle in Canada and is surrounded by a large drainage basin (3.9 × 106 km2) dominated by permafrost. Analysis of POC and DOC in the 17 rivers indicates that DOC dominates the total OC load. The southern rivers dominate. The Nelson and Churchill Rivers to the southwest are particularly important suppliers of OC partly because of large drainage basins but also perhaps because of impacts by hydroelectric development, as suggested by a 14C age of DOC in the Churchill River of 2800 years. Higher DOC and POC concentrations in the southern rivers, which have substantive areas only partially covered by permafrost, compared to northern rivers draining areas with complete permafrost cover, implies that warming - and hence permafrost thawing - will lead to progressively higher DOC and POC loads for these rivers. Lignin composition in the organic matter (S/V and C/V ratios) reveals mixed sources of OC consistent with the dominant vegetation in the river basins. This vegetation is organized by latitude with southern regions below the tree line enriched by woody gymnosperm sources (boreal forest) and northern regions enriched with organic matter from non-woody angiosperms (flowering shrubs, tundra). Acid/Aldehyde composition together with Δ14C data for selected DOC samples suggest that most of the lignin has undergone oxidative degradation, particularly the DOC component. However, high Δ14C ages

  8. Climate change and sea ice: Shipping accessibility on the marine transportation corridor through Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait (1980–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Andrews

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Shipping traffic has been increasing in Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay and the shipping route through these waters to the Port of Churchill may soon become a federally-designated transportation corridor. A dataset on passive microwave-based sea ice concentration was used to characterize the timing of the ice on the shipping corridor to the Port between 1980 and 2014. Efforts were made to produce results in a readily accessible format for stakeholders of the shipping industry; for example, open water was defined using a sea ice concentration threshold of ≤ 15% and results are presented in terms of real dates instead of anomalies. Between 1980 and 2014, the average breakup date on the corridor was July 4, the average freeze-up date was November 25, and the average length of the open water season was 145 days. However, each of these three variables exhibited significant long-term trends and spatial variability over the 34-year time period. Regression analysis revealed significant linear trends towards earlier breakup (–0.66 days year–1, later freeze-up (+0.52 days year–1, and a longer open water season (+1.14 days year–1 along the shipping corridor between 1980 and 2014. Moreover, the section of the corridor passing through Hudson Strait displayed significantly stronger trends than the two sections in Hudson Bay (i.e., “Hudson Islands” and “Hudson Bay”. As a result, sea ice timing in the Hudson Strait section of the corridor has diverged from the timing in the Hudson Bay sections. For example, the 2010–2014 median length of the open water season was 177 days in Hudson Strait and 153 days in the Hudson Bay sections. Finally, significant linear relationships were observed amongst breakup, freeze-up, and the length of the open water season for all sections of the corridor; correlation analysis suggests that these relationships have greatest impact in Hudson Strait.

  9. Estimating the Economic Value of Narwhal and Beluga Hunts in Hudson Bay, Nunavut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoover, C.; Bailey, M.L.; Higdon, J.; Ferguson, S.H.; Sumaila, R.

    2013-01-01

    Hunting of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in Hudson Bay is an important activity, providing food and income in northern communities, yet few studies detail the economic aspects of these hunts. We outline the uses of narwhal and beluga and estimate the revenues, costs,

  10. Demography and population status of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Nicholas J.; Regher, Eric V; Servanty, Sabrina; Converse, Sarah J.; Richardson, Evan S.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the demography and population status of the Western Hudson Bay (WH) polar bear subpopulation for the period 1984-2011, using live-recapture data from research studies and management actions, and dead-recovery data from polar bears harvested for subsistence purposes or removed during human-bear conflicts.

  11. The Competition of Tidal Mixing and Freshwater Forcing in Shaping the Outflow from Hudson Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Strait outflow. Journal of Marine Systems , special issue on Hudson Bay, in press. St. Laurent, P., F. Straneo, J.F. Dumais, D.G. Barber, 2011 What...is the fate of the river waters of Hudson Bay? Journal of Marine Systems , special issue on Hudson Bay, in press. Straneo, F., D. Sutherland, D

  12. Paleoproterozoic Collisional Structures in the Hudson Bay Lithosphere Constrained by Multi-Observable Probabilistic Inversion

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    Darbyshire, F. A.; Afonso, J. C.; Porritt, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleozoic Hudson Bay intracratonic basin conceals a Paleoproterozoic Himalayan-scale continental collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO), which marks an important milestone in the assembly of the Canadian Shield. The geometry of the THO is complex due to the double-indentor geometry of the collision between the Archean Superior and Western Churchill cratons. Seismic observations at regional scale show a thick, seismically fast lithospheric keel beneath the entire region; an intriguing feature of recent models is a 'curtain' of slightly lower wavespeeds trending NE-SW beneath the Bay, which may represent the remnants of more juvenile material trapped between the two Archean continental cores. The seismic models alone, however, cannot constrain the nature of this anomaly. We investigate the thermal and compositional structure of the Hudson Bay lithosphere using a multi-observable probabilistic inversion technique. This joint inversion uses Rayleigh wave phase velocity data from teleseismic earthquakes and ambient noise, geoid anomalies, surface elevation and heat flow to construct a pseudo-3D model of the crust and upper mantle. Initially a wide range of possible mantle compositions is permitted, and tests are carried out to ascertain whether the lithosphere is stratified with depth. Across the entire Hudson Bay region, low temperatures and a high degree of chemical depletion characterise the mantle lithosphere. Temperature anomalies within the lithosphere are modest, as may be expected from a tectonically-stable region. The base of the thermal lithosphere lies at depths of >250 km, reaching to ~300 km depth in the centre of the Bay. Lithospheric stratification, with a more-depleted upper layer, is best able to explain the geophysical data sets and surface observables. Some regions, where intermediate-period phase velocities are high, require stronger mid-lithospheric depletion. In addition, a narrow region of less-depleted material extends NE-SW across the Bay

  13. Multiyear total and methyl mercury exports from two major sub-Arctic rivers draining into Hudson Bay, Canada.

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    Kirk, Jane L; St Louis, Vincent L

    2009-04-01

    From 2003 to 2007, concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury (THg and MeHg) were continuously measured in two Canadian sub-Arctic rivers (the Nelson and the Churchill) that drain into western Hudson Bay. THg and MeHg concentrations were low in the Nelson River (mean i standard deviation, 0.88 +/- 0.33 and 0.05 +/- 0.03 ng L(-1), respectively). The Churchill River, however, had high concentrations of Hg, particularly MeHg (1.96 +/- 0.8 and 0.18 +/- 0.09 ng L(-1), respectively) and hence may be an important source of MeHg to organisms feeding in the Churchill River estuary. A large portion of THg in the Nelson River was particulate-bound (39 +/- 23%), while in the Churchill River, most was in the dissolved form (78 +/- 15%) and is likely dissolved organic carbon (DC)-bound Hg originating in the surrounding wetlands. In fact, both the Nelson and Churchill Rivers had high DOC concentrations and were therefore large exporters of DOC to Hudson Bay (1480 +/- 723 and 392 +/- 309 x 10(3) t year(-1), respectively) compared to rivers to the south and east Despite high Churchill River Hg concentrations, due to large Nelson River flows, average THg and MeHg exports to Hudson Bay from the Churchill River (37 +/- 28 and 4 +/- 4 kg year(-1), respectively) were about one-third and half the Nelson River exports (113 +/- 52 and 9 +/- 4 kg year(-1)). Interestingly, combined Hg exports to Hudson Bay from Nelson and Churchill River discharge are comparable to THg inputs from Hudson Bay springtime snowmelt (177 +/-140 kg year(-1)) but are approximately 13 times greater than MeHg snowmelt inputs (1 +/- 1 kg year(-1)). Although Hg inputs from rivers and snowmelt together may account for a large portion of the THg pool in Hudson Bay, these inputs account for a lesser portion of the MeHg pool, thus highlighting the importance of water column Hg(ll) methylation as a source of MeHg to Hudson Bay marine food webs.

  14. Multi Year Total and Methyl Mercury Exports from Two Major Sub Arctic Rivers Draining into Hudson Bay, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J. L.; St. Louis, V. L.

    2009-05-01

    From 2003 to 2007, concentrations of total and methyl mercury (THg and MeHg), were continuously measured in two Canadian sub Arctic rivers (the Nelson and the Churchill) that drain into western Hudson Bay. THg and MeHg concentrations were low in the Nelson River (mean ± standard deviation; 0.88±0.33 and 0.05±0.03 ng/L, respectively). The Churchill River, however, had high concentrations of Hg, particularly MeHg (1.96±0.8 and 0.18±0.09 ng/L, respectively), and hence may be an important source of MeHg to organisms feeding in the Churchill River estuary. A large portion of THg in the Nelson River was particulate- bound (39±23%), while in the Churchill River, most was in the dissolved form (78±15%) and is likely DOC-bound Hg originating in surrounding wetlands. In fact, both the Nelson and Churchill Rivers had high DOC concentrations and were therefore large exporters of DOC to Hudson Bay (1480±723 and 392±309 x 103 tonnes/year, respectively) compared to rivers to the south and east. Despite high Churchill River Hg concentrations, due to large Nelson River flows, average THg and MeHg exports to Hudson Bay from the Churchill River (37±28 and 4±4 kg/year, respectively) were ˜ one third and half Nelson River exports (113±52 and 9±4 kg/year). Interestingly, combined Hg exports to Hudson Bay from Nelson and Churchill River discharge are comparable to THg inputs from Hudson Bay spring-time snowmelt (177±140 kg/year) but are approximately 13 times greater than MeHg snowmelt inputs (1±1 kg/year). Although Hg inputs from rivers and snowmelt together may account for a large portion of the THg pool in Hudson Bay, these inputs account for a lesser portion of the MeHg pool, thus highlighting the importance of water column Hg(II) methylation as a large source of MeHg to Hudson Bay marine foodwebs.

  15. Sea Level and Paleoenvironment Control on Late Ordovician Source Rocks, Hudson Bay Basin, Canada

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    Zhang, S.; Hefter, J.

    2009-05-01

    Hudson Bay Basin is one of the largest Paleozoic sedimentary basins in North America, with Southampton Island on its north margin. The lower part of the basin succession comprises approximately 180 to 300 m of Upper Ordovician strata including Bad Cache Rapids and Churchill River groups and Red Head Rapids Formation. These units mainly comprise carbonate rocks consisting of alternating fossiliferous limestone, evaporitic and reefal dolostone, and minor shale. Shale units containing extremely high TOC, and interpreted to have potential as petroleum source rocks, were found at three levels in the lower Red Head Rapids Formation on Southampton Island, and were also recognized in exploration wells from the Hudson Bay offshore area. A study of conodonts from 390 conodont-bearing samples from continuous cores and well cuttings from six exploration wells in the Hudson Bay Lowlands and offshore area (Comeault Province No. 1, Kaskattama Province No. 1, Pen Island No. 1, Walrus A-71, Polar Bear C-11 and Narwhal South O-58), and about 250 conodont-bearing samples collected from outcrops on Southampton Island allows recognition of three conodont zones in the Upper Ordovician sequence, namely (in ascendant sequence) Belodina confluens, Amorphognathus ordovicicus, and Rhipidognathus symmetricus zones. The three conodont zones suggest a cycle of sea level changes of rising, reaching the highest level, and then falling during the Late Ordovician. Three intervals of petroleum potential source rock are within the Rhipidognathus symmetricus Zone in Red Head Rapids Formation, and formed in a restricted anoxic and hypersaline condition during a period of sea level falling. This is supported by the following data: 1) The conodont Rhipidognathus symmetricus represents the shallowest Late Ordovician conodont biofacies and very shallow subtidal to intertidal and hypersaline condition. This species has the greatest richness within the three oil shale intervals to compare other parts of Red

  16. The changing freshwater regime of the Hudson Bay Drainage Basin: from present to 2070

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    MacDonald, M. K.; Stadnyk, T. A.; Déry, S.; Braun, M.; Koenig, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Hudson Bay Drainage Basin (HBDB) drains over a third of Canada's land mass and contains important hydroelectric infrastructure. Projecting future freshwater discharge in the HBDB is critical for forecasting generating potential, and for understanding potential changes to Hudson Bay sea ice coverage, contaminant, and nutrient cycling. Anticipated changes to the HBDB freshwater regime are characterized for the 2011-2040 and 2041-2070 climate normal periods relative to the baseline period (1981-2010). Existing flow regulation practices are held constant. A regional implementation of the Arctic-HYPE continental scale hydrological model is used. Historical calibration is performed over a split-sample period from 1971-2005 to span a range of climatic conditions. Gauges selected for calibration are non-biased with respect to drainage area covered by eight flow signatures. Lakes are plentiful across the HBDB, few of which are gauged directly at their outlet. A novel approach is used to parameterize lake storage-discharge relationships. K-means cluster analysis is used to group lakes based on similar physiographic characteristics, where they are given common discharge rating curve parameters. Nineteen members of the CMIP5 climate modeling experiment are used for meteorological forcing for discharge projections. Output from the climate models span the range of projected changes to precipitation and temperature over the region. Mean annual temperature is projected to increase by 1.2°C to 5.7°C from the baseline period to 2041-2070, and mean annual precipitation is projected to increase by 3% to 18%. The ensemble mean of discharge projections shows a general increase in mean annual and peak discharge across the HBDB during 2041-2070 compared to the baseline. Peak annual discharge shows the greatest increase over most northern regions of the basin, where there are the fewest hydrometric gauges. Low flows are projected to increase the least to the west of Hudson Bay, with

  17. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice in Hudson Bay during the fall period, 1980-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheim, K. P.; Barber, D. G.

    2010-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to describe the autumn sea ice regime of Hudson Bay in the context of atmospheric forcing from 1980 to 2005. Both gridded Canadian Ice Service (CIS) data and Passive Microwave (PMW) data are used to examine the freezeup period for weeks of year (WOY) 43-52. Sea ice concentration (SIC) anomalies reveal statistically significant trends, ranging from -23.3% to -26.9% per decade, during WOY 43-48 using the CIS data and trends ranging from -12.7% to -16.8% per decade during WOY 45-50 using the PMW data. Surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies are highly correlated with SIC anomalies (r2 = 0.52-0.72) and with sea ice extents (r2 = 0.53-0.72). CIS data show that mean sea ice extents based on SICs ≥80% (consolidated ice) have decreased by 1.05 × 105 to 1.17 × 105 km2 for every 1°C increase in temperature in late November; PMW data show similar results. Regression analysis between SAT and standardized climate indices over the 1951-2005 period show that the East Pacific/North Pacific index is highly predictive of interannual SATs followed by the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation indices. The data show that the Hudson Bay area has recently undergone a climate regime shift, in the mid 1990s, which has resulted in a significant reduction in sea ice during the freezeup period and that these changes appear to be related to atmospheric indices.

  18. Hydrological Research in Hudson Bay,Canada%加拿大Hudson海湾地区的水文研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William A.Gough

    2004-01-01

    Hudson Bay streamflow represents a major component of the streamflow in Canada, approximately 30% of all river discharge enters Hudson and James Bays. Three current hydrological research issues are examined for this region. First the relationship between streamflow and local climate change is reviewed. Second the impact of river discharge in James Bay is linked to sea level variations in Churchill, Manitoba and the implications of this on Hudson Bay recirculation are explored. Finally, the historical and projected sea level variations in the Bay are examined with particular emphasis on the Churchill, Manitoba record. The report is concluded by a discussion of future directions for hydrological research in the Hudson Bay region.%Hudson海湾的河川径流量在整个加拿大河川径流量中占有很大的比例,所有河流排泄量约30%流入了Hudson和James海湾.研究了该地区河川径流与当地气候变化之间的关系;把河川向James海湾的排泄与曼尼托巴省Churchill地区海水位的变化联系起来,讨论了其对Hudson海湾再循环的影响;根据曼尼托巴省Churchill地区海水位的观测资料重点讨论了该地区海水位在历史时期的变化及未来的预测变化等三个重要水文问题.最后指出了今后在Hudson海湾地区进行水文研究的方向.

  19. Dinoflagellate cyst production in Hudson Bay, the world's largest inland sea, based on monthly sediment trap data

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    Heikkilä, Maija; Pospelova, Vera; Forest, Alexandre; Stern, Gary

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankters, microscopic primary producers of oceans are capable of responding rapidly to environmental fluctuations due to their high cell replication rates. Fast phytoplankton growth maybe balanced out by equally fast consumption by herbivorous grazers. In high-latitude marine systems, seasonal fluctuations in plankton biomass are essentially linked to light regime controlled by the waxing and waning sea-ice cover. In addition, nutrient limitation in surface waters, seasonal temperature fluctuations and changes in freshwater inputs may play important roles. In cold-water seas, many planktonic organisms cope with seasonal harshness by the production of benthic dormant stages. Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of single-celled plankton, constituting major marine primary producers, as well as herbivorous grazers of the microbial loop. Many dinoflagellate species produce highly resistant, organic-walled resting cysts that are archived in sediments and have been increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, e.g., sea-surface temperature and salinity, productivity, sea-ice cover and eutrophication. Marine sediment core sequences are characterized by slow accumulation rates and high mixing rates: the top centimeter of surface sediment from an arctic shelf may correspond to several years or decades of deposition. Consequently, sedimentary archives do not give direct information on long-term changes in seasonal bloom patterns or cues of annually recurring life-cycle events. We used two particle-intercepting sediment traps moored in eastern and western Hudson Bay, respectively, to study monthly fluctuations in dinoflagellate cyst production from October 2005 to September 2006. The traps were deployed close to the seafloor and recovered during the ArcticNet annual expeditions onboard the CCGS Amundsen in 2005 and the CCGS Pierre Radisson in 2006. We document the seasonal succession of dinoflagellate cyst taxa, together with cyst species composition

  20. Magnitude and Seasonality of Wetland Methane Emissions from the Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada)

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    Pickett-Heaps, C. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Kort, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Kaplan, J. O.; Bey, I.; Drevet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) is the second largest boreal wetland ecosystem in the world and an important natural source of global atmospheric methane. We quantify the HBL methane emissions by using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to simulate aircraft measurements over the HBL from the ARCTAS and pre-HIPPO campaigns in May-July 2008, together with continuous 2004-2008 surface observations at Fraserdale (southern edge of HBL) and Alert (Arctic background). The difference in methane concentrations between Fraserdale and Alert is shown to be a good indicator of HBL emissions, and implies a sharp seasonal onset of emissions in late May (consistent with the aircraft data), a peak in July-August, and a seasonal shut-off in September. The model, in which seasonal variation of emission is mainly driven by surface temperature, reproduces well the observations in summer but its seasonal shoulders are too broad. We suggest that this reflects the suppression of emissions by snow cover and greatly improve the model simulation by accounting for this effect. Our resulting best estimate for HBL methane emissions is 2.3 Tg/a, several-fold higher than previous estimates (Roulet et al., 1994; Worthy et al., 2000).

  1. Magnitude and seasonality of wetland methane emissions from the Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Pickett-Heaps

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL is the second largest boreal wetland ecosystem in the world and an important natural source of global atmospheric methane. We quantify the HBL methane emissions by using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to simulate aircraft measurements over the HBL from the ARCTAS and pre-HIPPO campaigns in May–July 2008, together with continuous 2004–2008 surface observations at Fraserdale (southern edge of HBL and Alert (Arctic background. The difference in methane concentrations between Fraserdale and Alert is shown to be a good indicator of HBL emissions, and implies a sharp seasonal onset of emissions in late May (consistent with the aircraft data, a peak in July–August, and a seasonal shut-off in September. The model, in which seasonal variation of emission is mainly driven by surface temperature, reproduces well the observations in summer but its seasonal shoulders are too broad. We suggest that this reflects the suppression of emissions by snow cover and greatly improve the model simulation by accounting for this effect. Our resulting best estimate for HBL methane emissions is 2.3 Tg a−1, several-fold higher than previous estimates (Roulet et al., 1994; Worthy et al., 2000.

  2. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the thyroid gland in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary and Hudson Bay, Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, I; Labelle, P; Kopal, M; De Guise, S; Martineau, D

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated thyroid gland lesions in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (n = 16) and Hudson Bay (n = 14). Follicular cysts and nodules of adenomatous hyperplasia of the thyroid gland were found in eight and nine adults from the St. Lawrence Estuary (n = 10), respectively, and in four and six adults from Hudson Bay (n = 14), respectively. The total volume of the lesions of thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia was positively correlated with age in both populations. Comparison between populations could not be performed because of differences in age structures of sample groups. Beluga whales from both populations have unique thyroid lesions among marine mammals.

  3. Groups of related belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) travel together during their seasonal migrations in and around Hudson Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Gabriel J; Duchesne, Pierre; Postma, Lianne D; Lesage, Véronique; Hammill, Mike O; Turgeon, Julie

    2013-02-07

    Social structure involving long-term associations with relatives should facilitate the learning of complex behaviours such as long-distance migration. In and around Hudson Bay (Canada), three stocks of beluga whales form a panmictic unit, but have different migratory behaviours associated with different summering areas. We analysed genetic variation at 13 microsatellite loci among 1524 belugas, to test hypotheses about social structure in belugas. We found significant proportions of mother-offspring pairs throughout the migratory cycle, but average relatedness extended beyond close kinship only during migration. Average relatedness was significantly above random expectations for pairs caught at the same site but on different days or months of a year, suggesting that belugas maintain associations with a network of relatives during migration. Pairs involving a female (female-female or male-female) were on average more related than pairs of males, and males seemed to disperse from their matrilineal group to associate with other mature males. Altogether, our results indicate that relatives other than strictly parents, and especially females, play a role in maintaining a social structure that could facilitate the learning of migration routes. Cultural conservatism may limit contributions from nearby summer stocks to endangered stocks such as the Eastern Hudson Bay beluga.

  4. The role of lichen on peatland development in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lorna; Moore, Tim; Roulet, Nigel

    2015-04-01

    Lichen (Cladina stellaris) can be a dominant vegetation cover on bogs within the extensive peatland landscape of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), northern Ontario, Canada. The unique characteristics of lichens (growth structure and function as a symbiotic organism), their ability to form thick, dense mats across the HBL bogs, and their increased tolerance of extreme environmental conditions, points to their importance as a distinct plant functional type. However, the role of lichen within the peatland ecosystem is poorly understood, particularly ecosystem interactions (vegetation associations) and peatland development (including microtopography) and the resulting carbon sink. Many studies consider the role of different plant functional types on peatland CO2 and CH4 exchange (e.g. Bubier et al., 2003; Strack et al., 2006), and this understanding is included in peatland growth and climate change models. As far as we are aware lichens are currently omitted from these models. We suggest that lichens represent a distinct plant functional type with CO2 exchange characteristics (NEE and respiration) that are quite different to vascular plants and mosses. In this study we measured lichen CO2 exchange in both natural and modified moisture conditions at field sites in the HBL over two field seasons. Our results indicate that lichen productivity is strongly influenced by abiotic factors that affect lichen moisture content, with very dry lichen exhibiting little or no photosynthetic capacity. We suggest that the low productivity of lichen mats results in lower rates of peat accumulation compared to Sphagnum-dominated peatland areas, and that this has consequences for the development of peatland microtopography (hummocks and hollows) and feedback mechanisms. To better understand the role of lichen mats on peat accumulation and to test possible feedback mechanisms we developed a model, the parameters of which are supported by data from field sites in the HBL. This dependence of

  5. Organic matter compositions of rivers draining into Hudson Bay: Present-day trends and potential as recorders of future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Pamela; Macdonald, Robie W.; Kuzyk, Zou Zou A.; Goñi, Miguel A.; Stern, Gary A.

    2017-07-01

    Concentrations and compositions of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively) and aromatic compounds including lignin were analyzed in water samples from 17 rivers flowing into Hudson Bay, northern Canada. These rivers incorporate basins to the south with no permafrost to basins in the north with continuous permafrost, and dominant vegetation systems that include Boreal Forest, the Hudson Plains, Taiga Shield, and Tundra. Major latitudinal trends in organic carbon and lignin concentrations and compositions were evident, with both DOC and dissolved lignin concentrations dominating over their particulate counterparts and exhibiting significant correlations with total dissolved and suspended solids, respectively. The composition of lignin reaction products in terms of the syringyl, cinnamyl, and vanillyl compositions indicate mixed sources of vascular land plant-derived organic carbon, with woody gymnosperms contributions dominating in the southern river basins whereas nonwoody angiosperm sources were more important in the most northerly rivers. The composition of nonlignin aromatic compounds, which provides a tracer for nonvascular plant contributions, suggests stronger contributions from Sphagnum mosses to dissolved organic matter in rivers below the tree line, including those with large peat bogs in their basins. Acid/aldehyde ratios of the lignin products together with Δ14C data for DOC in selected rivers indicate that DOC has generally undergone greater alteration than POC. Interestingly, several northern rivers exhibited relatively old DOC according to the Δ14C data suggesting that either old DOC is being released from permafrost or old DOC survives river transport in these rivers.

  6. Surface-Wave Tomographic Studies of the Hudson Bay Lithosphere: Implications for Paleoproterozoic Tectonic Processes and the Assembly of the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay is a shallow intracratonic basin that partially conceals the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO) in northern Canada. The THO is thought to be a Himalayan-scale Paleoproterozoic orogenic event that was an important component of assembly of the Canadian Shield, marking the collision of the Archean Superior and Western Churchill plates. Until recently, only global and continental-scale seismic tomographic models had imaged the upper-mantle structure of the region, giving a broad but relatively low-resolution picture of the thick lithospheric keel. The Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment (HuBLE) investigated the present-day seismic structure beneath Hudson Bay and its surroundings, using a distributed broadband seismograph network installed around the periphery of the Bay and complemented by existing permanent and temporary seismographs further afield. This configuration, though not optimal for body-wave studies which use subvertical arrivals, is well-suited to surface wave tomographic techniques, with many paths crossing the Bay. As there is little seismicity in the region around the Canadian Shield, two-station measurements of teleseismic Rayleigh wave phase velocity formed the principal data set for lithospheric studies. The interstation measurements were combined in a linearized tomographic inversion for maps of phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy at periods of 20-200 s; these maps were then used to calculate a pseudo-3D anisotropic upper-mantle shear-wavespeed model of the region. The model shows thick (~180-260 km), seismically fast lithosphere across the Hudson Bay region, with a near-vertical 'curtain' of lower wavespeeds trending NE-SW across the Bay, likely associated with more juvenile material trapped between the Archean Superior and Churchill continental cores during the THO. The lithosphere is layered, suggesting a 2-stage formation process. Seismic anisotropy patterns vary with depth; a circular pattern in the uppermost mantle wrapping around the

  7. Drought as a Disturbance: Implications for Peatland Carbon Budgets in the Hudson Bay Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, R.; Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Carbon feedbacks are of particular importance in high latitudes, both because of large circumpolar peatland carbon pools and because climate warming is occurring more rapidly at these latitudes. Longer-term net ecosystem exchange will be influenced by the capacity of plant communities to respond to changing conditions. The nature of community change and the factors inducing change are examined in this study of a disturbance generated by severe drought in 1994 causing widespread mortality in the dominant moss, Dicranum elongatum, occupying an upland tundra site within the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba. One quarter of this moss has recently died and become encrusted with the micro-lichen, Ochrolechia spp. Moss cushions affected in this manner exhibit strong allelopathic inhibition of seedling establishment progressing to complete moss decay. Chamber NEE growing-season flux measurements show an average net release of 642 mg C /m2/d from the dead moss compared to an average net uptake of 164 mg C /m2/d from completely healthy cushions. Between these two extremes, stressed living moss cushions support abundant seedling cover which increases in direct proportion with the fractional mortality. A proxy method for estimating the growth rates of cushions, based on the length of green living shoots, indicates that the moss community is uniform in age and established shortly after the most severe drought of historical record in 1966. Subsequent growth rates of cushions show a strong dependency on proximity to the water table (4.17-1.11 mm/y over 58 cm height interval). A growing-season moss water budget identifies the dominant water flow pathways and indicates capillary uptake (0.08 mm h-1) provides 64% of the storage gains, emphasizing the importance of groundwater for growth and survival. Maximum storage capacities are directly related to cushion biomass, leading to both enhanced moisture stress and increased susceptibility to mortality as cushion size

  8. Air mass distribution and the heterogeneity of the climate change signal in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Andrew; Gough, William

    2016-08-01

    The linkage between changes in air mass distribution and temperature trends from 1971 to 2010 is explored in the Hudson Bay/Foxe Basin region. Statistically significant temperature increases were found of varying spatial and temporal magnitude. Concurrent statistically significant changes in air mass frequency at the same locations were also detected, particularly in the declining frequency of dry polar (DP) air. These two sets of changes were found to be linked, and we thus conclude that the heterogeneity of the climatic warming signal in the region is at least partially the result of a fundamental shift in the concurrent air mass frequency in addition to global and regional changes in radiative forcing due to increases in long-lived greenhouse gases.

  9. Legacy and new halogenated persistent organic pollutants in polar bears from a contamination hotspot in the Arctic, Hudson Bay Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, R J; Morris, A D; Dyck, M; Sverko, E; Reiner, E J; Blair, D A D; Chu, S G; Shen, L

    2017-08-10

    A large and complex suite of 295 legacy and new halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in fat or liver tissue samples of polar bears collected in 2013-2014 from Southern (SHB) and Western (WHB) subpopulations of the Canadian Arctic contaminants hotspot of Hudson Bay. A total of 210 POPs were detected and/or quantifiable with some frequency in all fat or liver samples. POP profile and concentration differences were investigated both within (e.g. age and sex) and between the two subpopulations. Two time-point comparisons were made relative to POPs reported for Hudson Bay polar bears harvested in 2007-2008. ΣPolychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations at both time points were the most concentrated of the POP groups, and were spatially uniform with no detectable influence of sex or age, as were concentrations of the dominant congener CB153. ΣChlordanes (ΣCHLs, 74-79% oxychlordane) and the Σperfluoroalkyl substances (ΣPFASs, ≈60% perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) had the second greatest POP group concentrations in SHB and WHB respectively, with ΣPFASs and ΣCHLs being significantly influenced by age and/or sex. ΣCHLs were spatially uniform but ΣPFASs were greater in the SHB bears, as were e.g. some flame retardants, due to e.g. local contamination and/or changes in bear behavior and diet. Endosulfans and hexabromocyclododecane were detectable in samples from 2007-2008 but not from 2013-2014, which is consistent with their global POP regulations. ΣPolychlorinated naphthalenes (ΣPCNs) were consistently detected at relatively high concentrations compared to other arctic wildlife, however these concentrations were low relative to legacy POPs. ΣShort-chain chlorinated paraffins (ΣSCCPs) were major contributors to the overall POPs burden with concentrations comparable to other legacy POPs, though there was no significant difference between or within subpopulations for PCNs or SCCPs. Except for octachlorostyrene, POPs concentrations

  10. The influence of a river plume on the sea-ice meiofauna in south-eastern Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, E. H.

    1988-08-01

    Outflow from the Great Whale River produces a substantial freshwater layer (plume) beneath the winter ice cover and above water of higher salinity in south-eastern Hudson Bay. In 1983, samples of the lower-ice fauna and of zooplankton beneath the ice, were taken within, below and beyond the offshore reach of the plume. Nematodes accounted for the highest numbers (mean of 1956 1 1in the lower 3 cm of ice), and copepods, mainly Harpacticus and Halectinosoma with fewer Tisbe and Oithona, for the greatest biomass. All ice-inhabiting taxa were also found in the water below the ice, but many zooplankters occurring immediately beneath the ice did not form part of the ice fauna. No major qualitative differences were evident between the ice communities existing above the plume and offshore from it, but quantitative distinctions were readily apparent. Animals were consistently more concentrated (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) in the lower 3 cm of the ice than in the water immediately below, both over the plume and outside it. Except for the dominant rotifers in the plume, the concentration of zooplankton there was only 10% of that found in the surface water outside the plume. The river plume exerts a strong influence over the quantity of the fauna in the sea ice immediately above it. Changes in location and extent of the plume therefore may have an important effect on the food chain based in the sea ice.

  11. Divergent hydrological responses to 20th century climate change in shallow tundra ponds, western Hudson Bay Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brent B.; Light, Erin M.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Hall, Roland I.; Eichel, Kaleigh; Jasechko, Scott; White, Jerry; Fishback, LeeAnn; Edwards, Thomas W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrological fate of shallow tundra lakes and ponds under conditions of continued warming remains uncertain, but has important implications for wildlife habitat and biogeochemical cycling. Observations of unprecedented pond desiccation, in particular, signify catastrophic loss of aquatic habitat in some Arctic locations. Shallow tundra ponds are a ubiquitous feature in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), a region that has undergone intense warming over the past ˜50 years. But it remains unknown how hydrological processes in these ponds have responded. Here, we use cellulose-inferred pond water oxygen isotope records from sediment cores, informed by monitoring of modern pond water isotope compositions during the 2009 and 2010 ice-free seasons, to reconstruct hydrological conditions of four shallow tundra ponds in the western HBL over the past three centuries. Following an interval of relative hydrological stability during the early part of the records, results reveal widely differing hydrological responses to 20th century climate change among the study sites, which is largely dependent on hydrological connectivity of the basins within their respective surrounding peatlands. These findings suggest the 20th century has been characterized by an increasingly dynamic landscape that has variably influenced surface water balance - a factor that is likely to play a key role in determining the future water balance of ponds in this region.

  12. Variation of upper layer dynamics during breakup of the seasonal ice cover in Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Serge; Ingram, R. Grant

    1991-07-01

    The present study describes circulation and stratification changes associated with the melt and breakup of the seasonal ice cover in the coastal waters of southeast Hudson Day. Field work was carried out at a station located 25 km north of the Great Whale River. Buoyancy fluxes and dissipation rates were calculated as well as changes in potential energy. Surface velocity data were partitioned into frequency bands and complex demodulated. Throughout the sampling period, most of the current energy was found to be in the semi-diurnal tidal band. After ice breakup, however, low frequency and inertial motions became relatively more important in response to direct wind forcing at the sea surface. Changes in amplitudes and phases of the major tidal constituents occurred and are related to the presence of the sea ice cover. Between early April and mid-June, semi-diurnal current amplitude doubled while its phase shifted by 45 to 60 degrees. In early June, the ice cover was sufficiently dispersed to allow the surface turbulence to overcome the buoyancy flux and mix the upper water column.

  13. Impact of freshwater on a subarctic coastal ecosystem under seasonal sea ice (southeastern Hudson Bay, Canada). I. Interannual variability and predicted global warming influence on river plume dynamics and sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, R. G.; Wang, J.; Lin, C.; Legendre, L.; Fortier, L.

    1996-02-01

    Analysis of sea ice cover, runoff and air temperature observations in Hudson Bay shows marked interannual variability. This variability is thought to play a major role in determining overall productivity of the coastal ecosystem by changes to river plume extent, under-ice light conditions and nutrient levels during spring. Extensive field work off the Great Whale River in southeastern Hudson Bay has shown the importance of freshwater discharge, sea ice cover and meteorological forcing on the production of under-ice microalgae and the success of first feeding in fish larvae. Recent global climate model (GCM) results for a doubling of present atmospheric carbon dioxide indicate increases of both air temperature and precipitation in the Hudson Bay area. Predictions based on GCM results are used to estimate future changes to the sea ice and runoff regime. Sea ice breakup in the offshore is predicted to occur about one month earlier than presently. Estimates of the spring freshet in the Great Whale River indicate it will also advance by approximately one month. Onset of the spring freshet will occur about one month before Hudson Bay ice breakup, similar to present. A predicted reduction of about 35% in maximum sea ice thickness will lead to an increase in the ice-ocean interface irradiance and a decrease in melt water input to the Hudson Bay surface waters. These results are used in a discussion of potential effects of global climate change on northern coastal marine environments.

  14. Upscaling reflectance information of lichens and mosses using a singularity index: a case study of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing moisture contents of lichens and mosses using ground-based high spectral resolution spectrometers (400–2500 nm offers immense opportunities for a comprehensive monitoring of peatland moisture status by satellite/airborne imagery. This information may be valuable for present and future carbon balance modeling. Previous studies are based upon point measurements of vegetation moisture content and water table position, and therefore a detailed moisture status of entire northern peatlands is not available. Consequently, upscaling ground and remotely sensed data to the desired spatial resolutions is inevitable. This study continues our previous investigation of the impact of various moisture conditions of common sub-Arctic lichen and moss species (i.e., Cladina stellaris, Cladina rangiferina, Dicranum elongatum, and Tomenthypnum nitens upon the spectral signatures obtained in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. Upscaling reflectance measurements of the above species were conducted in the field, and reflectance analysis using a singularity index was made, since this study serves as a basis for future aircraft/satellite research. An attempt to upscale current and new spectral reflectance indices developed in our previous studies was made as well. Our findings indicate that the spectral index C. rangiferina is to a lesser amount influenced by scale since it has a small R2 values between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, reduced slopes between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, and similar slopes between log reflectance and log resolution (α of two wavelengths employed by the index. Future study should focus on concurrent monitoring of moisture variations in lichens and mosses both in situ and from satellite and airborne images, as well as analysis of fractal models in relations to the upscaling experiments.

  15. Distribution and diversity of diatom assemblages in surficial sediments of shallow lakes in Wapusk National Park (Manitoba, Canada) region of the Hudson Bay Lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Olivier; Bouchard, Frédéric; MacDonald, Lauren A; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Pienitz, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    The hydrology of shallow lakes (and ponds) located in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) is sensitive to climate warming and associated permafrost thaw. However, their biological characteristics are poorly known, which hampers effective aquatic ecosystem monitoring. Located in northern Manitoba along the southwestern coast of Hudson Bay, Wapusk National Park (WNP) encompasses numerous shallow lakes representative of the subarctic zone. We analyzed the distribution and diversity of diatom (microscopic algae; class Bacillariophyceae) assemblages in surficial sediments of 33 lakes located in three different ecozones spanning a vegetation gradient, from NE to SW: the Coastal Fen (CF), the Interior Peat Plateau (IPP), and the Boreal Spruce Forest (BSF). We found significant differences (P lakes, and CF and BSF lakes, but not between IPP and BSF lakes. These results are consistent with water chemistry measurements, which indicated distinct limnological conditions for CF lakes. Diatom communities in CF lakes were generally dominated by alkaliphilous taxa typical of waters with medium to high conductivity, such as Nitzschia denticula. In contrast, several IPP and BSF lakes were dominated by acidophilous and circumneutral diatom taxa with preference for low conductivity (e.g., Tabellaria flocculosa, Eunotia mucophila, E. necompacta var. vixcompacta). This exploratory survey provides a first detailed inventory of the diatom assemblages in the WNP region needed for monitoring programs to detect changes in shallow lake ecosystems and ecozonal shifts in response to climate variations.

  16. Constraining the Late Pleistocene history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet by dating the Missinaibi Formation, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, April S.; Finkelstein, Sarah A.; Barnett, Peter J.; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-08-01

    Well-dated paleorecords from periods prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are important for validating models of ice sheet build-up and growth. However, owing to glacial erosion, most Late Pleistocene records lie outside of the previously glaciated region, which limits their ability to inform about the dynamics of paleo-ice sheets. Here, we evaluate new and previously published chronology data from the Missinaibi Formation, a Pleistocene-aged deposit in the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), Canada, located near the geographic center of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). Available radiocarbon (AMS = 44, conventional = 36), amino acid (n = 13), uranium-thorium (U-Th, n = 14), thermoluminescence (TL, n = 15) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL, n = 5) data suggest that an ice-free HBL may have been possible during parts of Marine Isotope Stage 7 (MIS 7; ca. 243,000 to ca. 190,000 yr BP), MIS 5 (ca. 130,000 to ca. 71,000 yr BP) and MIS 3 (ca. 29,000 to ca. 57,000). While MIS 7 and MIS 5 are well-documented interglacial periods, the development of peat, forest bed and fluvial deposits dating to MIS 3 (n = 20 radiocarbon dates; 4 TL dates, 3 OSL dates), suggests that the LIS retreated and remained beyond, or somewhere within, the boundaries of the HBL during this interstadial. Ice sheet models approximate the margin of the LIS to Southern Ontario during this time, which is 700 km south of the HBL. Therefore, if correct, our data help constrain a significantly different configuration and dynamicity for the LIS than previously modelled. We can find no chronological basis to discount the MIS 3 age assignments. However, since most data originate from radiocarbon dates lying close to the reliable limit of this geochronometer, future work on dating the Missinaibi Formation using other geochronological methods (e.g. U-Th, OSL) is necessary in order to confirm the age estimates and strengthen the boundaries of the LIS during this period.

  17. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Gormezano

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1 prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  18. Impact of freshwater on a subarctic coastal ecosystem under seasonal sea ice (southeastern Hudson Bay, Canada). III. Feeding success of marine fish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, L.; Gilbert, M.; Ponton, D.; Ingram, R. G.; Robineau, B.; Legendre, L.

    1996-02-01

    We monitored the feeding success (percent feeding incidence at length and mean feeding ratio at length) of Arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida) and sand lance ( Ammodytes sp.) larvae in relation to prey density, light, temperature and potential predator density under the ice cover of southeastern Hudson Bay in the spring of 1988, 1989 and 1990. Both prey density and light limited larval fish feeding. The relationship between feeding success and actual food availability (nauplii density X irradiance) was adequately described by an Ivlev function which explained 64 and 76% of the variance in Arctic cod and sand lance feeding success respectively. By affecting both prey density and irradiance, the thickness of the Great Whale River plume (as defined by the depth of the 25 isohaline) was the main determinant of prey availability. Arctic cod and sand lance larvae stopped feeding when the depth of the 25 isohaline exceeded 9 m. Limitation of feeding success attributable to freshwater inputs occurred exclusively in 1988, the only time when the depth of the 25 isohaline exceeded the 9 m threshold. The close dependence of larval fish feeding success on the timing of the freshet and plume dynamics suggests a direct link between climate and survival of Arctic cod and sand lance larvae. The actual impact of climate fluctuations and/or hydro-electric developments on recruitment will depend on the fraction of the larval dispersal area of the two species that is affected by river plumes.

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hudson River, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Hudson River from 1942 to 2005. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  20. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-02-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds ("WAP 12", "WAP 20", and "WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of (210)Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring.

  1. Impact of freshwater on a subarctic coastal ecosystem under seasonal sea ice (southeastern Hudson Bay, Canada) II. Production and export of microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, L.; Robineau, B.; Gosselin, M.; Michel, C.; Ingram, R. G.; Fortier, L.; Therriault, J. C.; Demers, S.; Monti, D.

    1996-02-01

    In the under-ice plume of the Grande rivière de la Baleine (Great Whale River) and offshore waters of southeastern Hudson Bay (Canada), several environmental factors influence the distribution, growth, taxonomic composition and sedimentation of algae found in the sea ice, at the ice-water interface and in the underlying water column. During the spring and early summer, these factors include: salinity of bottom ice, water turbidity, nutrients and vertical stability of the water column. In the present study, relationships between three predictor variables (water salinity, river runoff and seasonal air temperature index) and biological variables are used to assess the impact of freshwater on production and export of microalgae. Relationships are derived from existing data, which were collected between 1978 and 1990. Correlations with water salinity are positive for some variables (salinity of bottom ice, phosphate, ammonium, Σ:Si, and algae in bottom ice and at the interface) and negative for others (coefficient of light attenuation, silicate, ΣN:P, ΣSi:P and water column phytoplankton). Using together salinity and the seasonal index leads to improved proportions of explained variance for nitrate, ammonium, ΣN:P and phytoplankton. The amount of sedimenting algae is positively correlated with runoff, and chemical composition (C/N) of the sedimenting material is negatively correlated with salinity. The empirical relationships are applied to the results of a model of river plume dynamics, for three runoff conditions. Seasonally averaged total Chl. a concentrations, derived from the model, are higher for maximum river runoff than for mean or minimum conditions. This is because, in the studied environment, areal concentrations of phytoplankton are higher than those of ice algae, especially under condition of maximum runoff.

  2. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-01-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds (“WAP 12”, “WAP 20”, and “WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of 210Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring. PMID:25750718

  3. Demography of an apex predator at the edge of its range: impacts of changing sea ice on polar bears in Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Nicholas J.; Servanty, Sabrina; Regehr, Eric V.; Converse, Sarah J.; Richardson, Evan S.; Stirling, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the abundance and distribution of wildlife populations are common consequences of historic and contemporary climate change. Some Arctic marine mammals, such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), may be particularly vulnerable to such changes due to the loss of Arctic sea ice. We evaluated the impacts of environmental variation on demographic rates for the Western Hudson Bay (WH), polar bear subpopulation from 1984 to 2011 using live-recapture and dead-recovery data in a Bayesian implementation of multistate capture–recapture models. We found that survival of female polar bears was related to the annual timing of sea ice break-up and formation. Using estimated vital rates (e.g., survival and reproduction) in matrix projection models, we calculated the growth rate of the WH subpopulation and projected population responses under different environmental scenarios while accounting for parametric uncertainty, temporal variation, and demographic stochasticity. Our analysis suggested a long-term decline in the number of bears from 1185 (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] = 993–1411) in 1987 to 806 (95% BCI = 653–984) in 2011. In the last 10 yr of the study, the number of bears appeared stable due to temporary stability in sea ice conditions (mean population growth rate for the period 2001–2010 = 1.02, 95% BCI = 0.98–1.06). Looking forward, we estimated long-term growth rates for the WH subpopulation of ~1.02 (95% BCI = 1.00–1.05) and 0.97 (95% BCI = 0.92–1.01) under hypothetical high and low sea ice conditions, respectively. Our findings support previous evidence for a demographic linkage between sea ice conditions and polar bear population dynamics. Furthermore, we present a robust framework for sensitivity analysis with respect to continued climate change (e.g., to inform scenario planning) and for evaluating the combined effects of climate change and management actions on the status of wildlife populations.

  4. Demography of an apex predator at the edge of its range: impacts of changing sea ice on polar bears in Hudson Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Nicholas J; Servanty, Sabrina; Regehr, Eric V; Converse, Sarah J; Richardson, Evan; Stirling, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the abundance and distribution of wildlife populations are common consequences of historic and contemporary climate change. Some Arctic marine mammals, such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), may be particularly vulnerable to such changes due to the loss of Arctic sea ice. We evaluated the impacts of environmental variation on demographic rates for the Western Hudson Bay (WH), polar bear subpopulation from 1984 to 2011 using live-recapture and dead-recovery data in a Bayesian implementation of multistate capture-recapture models. We found that survival of female polar bears was related to the annual timing of sea ice break-up and formation. Using estimated vital rates (e.g., survival and reproduction) in matrix projection models, we calculated the growth rate of the WH subpopulation and projected population responses under different environmental scenarios while accounting for parametric uncertainty, temporal variation, and demographic stochasticity. Our analysis suggested a long-term decline in the number of bears from 1185 (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] = 993-1411) in 1987 to 806 (95% BCI = 653-984) in 2011. In the last 10 yr of the study, the number of bears appeared stable due to temporary stability in sea ice conditions (mean population growth rate for the period 2001-2010 = 1.02, 95% BCI = 0.98-1.06). Looking forward, we estimated long-term growth rates for the WH subpopulation of ~1.02 (95% BCI = 1.00-1.05) and 0.97 (95% BCI = 0.92-1.01) under hypothetical high and low sea ice conditions, respectively. Our findings support previous evidence for a demographic linkage between sea ice conditions and polar bear population dynamics. Furthermore, we present a robust framework for sensitivity analysis with respect to continued climate change (e.g., to inform scenario planning) and for evaluating the combined effects of climate change and management actions on the status of wildlife populations.

  5. The role of diet on long-term concentration and pattern trends of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in western Hudson Bay polar bears, 1991-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Melissa A., E-mail: melissaamckinney@gmail.com [Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Carleton University (Raven Road), Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Stirling, Ian; Lunn, Nick J. [Wildlife Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 5320 122 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 3S5 (Canada); Peacock, Elizabeth [Department of Environment, Government of Nunavut, Igloolik, Nunavut X0A 0L0 (Canada); Letcher, Robert J., E-mail: robert.letcher@ec.gc.ca [Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Carleton University (Raven Road), Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    Adipose tissue was sampled from the western Hudson Bay (WHB) subpopulation of polar bears at intervals from 1991 to 2007 to examine temporal trends of PCB and OCP levels both on an individual and sum-({Sigma}-)contaminant basis. We also determined levels and temporal trends of emerging polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and other current-use brominated flame retardants. Over the 17-year period, {Sigma} DDT (and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT) decreased (-8.4%/year); {alpha}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({alpha}-HCH) decreased (-11%/year); {beta}-HCH increased (+ 8.3%/year); and {Sigma} PCB and {Sigma} chlordane (CHL), both contaminants at highest concentrations in all years (> 1 ppm), showed no distinct trends even when compared to previous data for this subpopulation dating back to 1968. Some of the less persistent PCB congeners decreased significantly (-1.6%/year to -6.3%/year), whereas CB153 levels tended to increase (+ 3.3%/year). Parent CHLs (c-nonachlor, t-nonachlor) declined, whereas non-monotonic trends were detected for metabolites (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane). {Sigma} chlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, {Sigma} mirex, {Sigma} MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and dieldrin did not significantly change. Increasing {Sigma} PBDE levels (+ 13%/year) matched increases in the four consistently detected congeners, BDE47, BDE99, BDE100 and BDE153. Although no trend was observed, total-({alpha})-HBCD was only detected post-2000. Levels of the highest concentration brominated contaminant, BB153, showed no temporal change. As long-term ecosystem changes affecting contaminant levels may also affect contaminant patterns, we examined the influence of year (i.e., aging or 'weathering' of the contaminant pattern), dietary tracers (carbon stable isotope ratios, fatty acid patterns) and biological (age/sex) group on congener/metabolite profiles. Patterns of PCBs, CHLs and PBDEs were correlated with

  6. The Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J.-M.; Helffrich, G. R.; Thompson, D. A.; Wookey, J.; Brisbourne, A. M.; Hawthorn, D.; Eaton, D.; Snyder, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    I D Bastow, J-M Kendall, A M Brisbourne, D B Snyder, D Thompson, D Hawthorn, G R Helffrich, J Wookey, A Horleston and D Eaton describe the motivation for - and successful operation of - a remote seismic survey in Arctic Canada.

  7. Selective analysis of power plant operation on the Hudson River with emphasis on the Bowline Point Generating Station. Volume 2. [Multiple impact of power plant once-through cooling systems on fish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L. W.; Cannon, J. B.; Christensen, S. G.

    1977-07-01

    Because of the location of the Bowline, Roseton, and Indian Point power generating facilities in the low-salinity zone of the Hudson estuary, operation of these plants with the present once-through cooling systems will adversely influence the fish populations that use the area for spawning and initial periods of growth and development. Recruitment rates and standing crops of several fish species may be lowered in response to the increased mortality caused by entrainment of nonscreenable eggs and larvae and by impingement of screenable young of the year. Entrainment and impingement data are particularly relevant for assessing which fish species have the greatest potential for being adversely affected by operation of Bowline, Roseton, and Indian Point with once-through cooling. These data from each of these three plants suggest that the six species that merit the greatest consideration are striped bass, white perch, tomcod, alewife, blueback herring, and bay anchovy. Two points of view are available for assessing the relative importance of the fish species in the Hudson River. From the fisheries point of view, the only two species of major importance are striped bass and shad. From the fish-community and ecosystem point of view, the dominant species, as determined by seasonal and regional standing crops (in numbers and biomass per hectare), are the six species most commonly entrained and impinged, namely, striped bass, white perch, tomcod, alewife, blueback herring, and anchovy.

  8. Researcher Interview: Tom Hudson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Hudson, M.D., President and Scientific Director of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, describes the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), which brings together cancer genomic data and research from across the world.

  9. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Gas System

    CERN Document Server

    Band, H R; Chu, M-C; Heeger, K M; Kwok, M W; Shih, K; Wise, T; Xiao, Q

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya...

  10. Hudson 3 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Meinholz, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide, packed with illustrations, that will help you become proficient with Hudson and able to utilize it how you want.If you are a Java developer or administrator who would to like automate some of the mundane work required to build and test software and improve software quality, this is the book for you. If you are a development manager or tester, you can also benefit from learning how Hudson works by gaining some insight into test results and historical trends.

  11. Tracklines of a multibeam survey of the Hudson Shelf Valley carried out in 1998 (polyline shapefile, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Hudson Shelf Valley is the submerged seaward extension of the ancestral Hudson River drainage system and is the largest physiographic feature on the Middle...

  12. A support system for predicting eBay end prices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. van Heijst (Dennis); R. Potharst (Rob); M.C. van Wezel (Michiel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this report a support system for predicting end prices on eBay is proposed. The end price predictions are based on the item descriptions found in the item listings of eBay, and on some numerical item features. The system uses text mining and boosting algorithms from the field of mach

  13. Field testing of behavioral barriers for fish exclusion at cooling-water intake systems, Central Hudson Gas and Electric Company Roseton Generating Station: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matousek, J.A.; Wells, A.W.; McGroddy, P.M.

    1988-09-01

    A seasonal field testing program was conducted during 1986 and 1987 to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral barriers at Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporations's Roseton Generating Station located in the euryhaline section of the Hudson River. This station was selected as representative of power plants with shoreline riverine/estuarine intake systems. Three commercially available devices (air bubble curtain, pneumatic gun, and underwater strobe light) were tested alone and in combination to determine their effectiveness in reducing impingement. The primary testing method incorporated three or four 6-h impingement collections during each test date, each consisting of two randomly assigned 3-h samples: one was an experimental test with a behavioral device in operation, the other a control test with no device operating. The effectiveness of the devices at excluding fish was determined by comparing impingement data from experimental and control periods. Results of the program do not establish that the deployment of underwater strobe lights, pneumatic guns, an air bubble curtain, or various combinations of the three devices will effectively lower fish impingement at power plants similar in design and location to the Roseton plant. Deterrent effectiveness was found to be species-specific and related to time of day. 51 refs., 67 figs., 72 tabs.

  14. AutoBayes Program Synthesis System System Internals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann Martin

    2011-01-01

    This lecture combines the theoretical background of schema based program synthesis with the hands-on study of a powerful, open-source program synthesis system (Auto-Bayes). Schema-based program synthesis is a popular approach toward program synthesis. The lecture will provide an introduction into this topic and discuss how this technology can be used to generate customized algorithms. The synthesis of advanced numerical algorithms requires the availability of a powerful symbolic (algebra) system. Its task is to symbolically solve equations, simplify expressions, or to symbolically calculate derivatives (among others) such that the synthesized algorithms become as efficient as possible. We will discuss the use and importance of the symbolic system for synthesis. Any synthesis system is a large and complex piece of code. In this lecture, we will study Autobayes in detail. AutoBayes has been developed at NASA Ames and has been made open source. It takes a compact statistical specification and generates a customized data analysis algorithm (in C/C++) from it. AutoBayes is written in SWI Prolog and many concepts from rewriting, logic, functional, and symbolic programming. We will discuss the system architecture, the schema libary and the extensive support infra-structure. Practical hands-on experiments and exercises will enable the student to get insight into a realistic program synthesis system and provides knowledge to use, modify, and extend Autobayes.

  15. Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River estuary and western Hudson Bay, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; Sandau, C.D.; Koczanski, K.; Michaud, R.; De Guise, S.; Beland, P.

    2000-05-01

    Knowledge is limited regarding methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and especially MeSo{sub 2}-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), metabolites in cetacean species. The authors hypothesized that the ability of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to biotransform PCB and DDE compounds, and to form and degrade their MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, is related to the capacity for xenobiotic metabolism. Adipose biopsies were collected from male and female beluga whale from distinct populations in the St. Lawrence River estuary (STL) and western Hudson Bay (WHB), Canada, which are contrasted by the exposure to different levels of cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing, chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants. The PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, 28 MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 14 meta-para chlorine-unsubstituted PCBs, and four MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 4,4{prime}- and 2,4{prime}-DDE were determined. The mean concentrations of total ({Sigma}-) MeSO{sub 2}-PCB in male STL beluga (230 ng/g), and ratios of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB (0.05) and {Sigma}-precursor-PCB (0.17) were approximately twofold higher, whereas the {Sigma}-precursor-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB ratio was approximately twofold lower, than in male WHB beluga. Both populations had a low formation capacity for MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs with {le} six chlorines (<4% of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs). The congener patterns were dominated by trichloro- and tetrachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs, and tetrachloro- and pentachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in WHB and STL animals, respectively. In addition to 2- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, two unknown MeSO{sub 2}-2,4{prime}-DDEs were detected. The mean 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE concentration in STL beluga (1.2 ng/g) was much greater than in WHB animals. The concentrations of 4,4{prime}-DDE, and not 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, increased with age in male STL animals. The authors demonstrated that sulfone formation and clearance is related to metabolic capacity, and thus

  16. Bathymetry of the Hudson Shelf Valley (12-m resolution Esri binary grid and 32-bit GeoTIFF, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Hudson Shelf Valley is the submerged seaward extension of the ancestral Hudson River drainage system and is the largest physiographic feature on the Middle...

  17. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  18. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Grabs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  19. SOLAR PANELS ON HUDSON COUNTY FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARRY, KEVIN

    2014-06-06

    This project involved the installation of an 83 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system tied into the energy management system of Hudson County's new 60,000 square foot Emergency Operations and Command Center and staff offices. Other renewable energy features of the building include a 15 kW wind turbine, geothermal heating and cooling, natural daylighting, natural ventilation, gray water plumbing system and a green roof. The County intends to seek Silver LEED certification for the facility.

  20. Benthic habitat classification in Lignumvitae Key Basin, Florida Bay, using the U.S. Geological Survey Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, C.D.; Zawada, D.G.; Thompson, P.R.; Reynolds, C.E.; Spear, A.H.; Umberger, D.K.; Poore, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) funded in partnership between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, South Florida Water Management District, and other Federal, local and Tribal members has in its mandate a guideline to protect and restore freshwater flows to coastal environments to pre-1940s conditions (CERP, 1999). Historic salinity data are sparse for Florida Bay, so it is difficult for water managers to decide what the correct quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of freshwater are to maintain a healthy and productive estuarine ecosystem. Proxy records of seasurface temperature (SST) and salinity have proven useful in south Florida. Trace-element chemistry on foraminifera and molluscan shells preserved in shallow-water sediments has provided some information on historical salinity and temperature variability in coastal settings, but little information is available for areas within the main part of Florida Bay (Brewster-Wingard and others, 1996). Geochemistry of coral skeletons can be used to develop subannually resolved proxy records for SST and salinity. Previous studies suggest corals, specifically Solenastrea bournoni, present in the lower section of Florida Bay near Lignumvitae Key, may be suitable for developing records of SST and salinity for the past century, but the distribution and species composition of the bay coral community have not been well documented (Hudson and others, 1989; Swart and others, 1999). Oddly, S. bournoni thrives in the study area because it can grow on a sandy substratum and can tolerate highly turbid water. Solenastrea bournoni coral heads in this area should be ideally located to provide a record (~100-150 years) of past temperature and salinity variations in Florida Bay. The goal of this study was to utilize the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS) capability to further our understanding of the abundance, distribution, and size of corals in the Lignumvitae Key Basin. The

  1. The Radon Monitoring System in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, M C; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lin, Y C; Luk, K B; Pun, C S J

    2016-01-01

    We developed a highly sensitive, reliable and portable automatic system (H$^{3}$) to monitor the radon concentration of the underground experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. H$^{3}$ is able to measure radon concentration with a statistical error less than 10\\% in a 1-hour measurement of dehumidified air (R.H. 5\\% at 25$^{\\circ}$C) with radon concentration as low as 50 Bq/m$^{3}$. This is achieved by using a large radon progeny collection chamber, semiconductor $\\alpha$-particle detector with high energy resolution, improved electronics and software. The integrated radon monitoring system is highly customizable to operate in different run modes at scheduled times and can be controlled remotely to sample radon in ambient air or in water from the water pools where the antineutrino detectors are being housed. The radon monitoring system has been running in the three experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment since November 2013.

  2. Status, trends, and changes in freshwater inflows to bay systems in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Mosier, J. G.; Bush, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to quantify current (1983–93) mean freshwater inflows to the six bay systems (open water and wetlands) in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area, to test for historical temporal trends in inflows, and to quantify historical and projected changes in inflows. The report also addresses the adequacy of existing data to estimate freshwater inflows.

  3. 77 FR 41048 - Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster Landing... Landing, NY for the 16th Annual Hudson Valley Triathlon swim event. This temporary safety zone is.... Regulatory History and Information The Hudson Valley Triathlon swim is an annual recurring event that has...

  4. Beach ridges U-Th dating in Tongoy bay and tectonic implications for a peninsula-bay system, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillard, M.; Riotte, J.; Regard, V.; Violette, A.; Hérail, G.; Audin, L.; Riquelme, R.

    2012-12-01

    Along the Chilean coast, peninsulas associated with bays seem to behave as a complex system. They act as barrier to propagation of megathrust earthquakes along strike. To better understand how such a system works from ocean side to more inland, we investigated the area between the Tongoy bay and the Altos de Talinay in northern Chile (˜30°S). It represents a forearc peninsula-bay system in which a normal fault (Puerto Aldea fault) has been described as accommodating a relative vertical motion between the two parts, the peninsula being uplifted with respect to the bay. We dated shells from beach ridges by U-Th disequilibria in order to compare the bay area to the peninsula area for which 10Be dating of wave-cut platforms are available (Saillard et al., 2009). These indicate: (1) the Puerto Aldea fault activity probably ceased since at least ˜230 ka, implying the bay and peninsula parts are evolving together since then; (2) the uplift rate is variable and has decreased from ˜0.8 m/ka to ˜0.2 m/ka between ˜300 and 100 ka.

  5. 77 FR 40518 - Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River, Upper New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Upper New York Bay, Hudson River 5.1 Brooklyn Bridge Swim Date: July 15, 2012. Rain Date: NA... Water Swim Clinics, Verrazano Bridge Swim, Rose Pitonof Swim, and Liberty to Freedom Swim. The sponsors... York Bay 2.1 Verrazano Bridge Swim Date: July 21, 2012. Rain Date: July 22, 2012. Enforcement Period...

  6. Estimation of low-flow statistics at ungaged sites on streams in the Lower Hudson River Basin, New York, from data in geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Freehafer, Douglas A.

    2017-08-02

    A variety of watershed properties available in 2015 from geographic information systems were tested in regression equations to estimate two commonly used statistical indices of the low flow of streams, namely the lowest flows averaged over 7 consecutive days that have a 1 in 10 and a 1 in 2 chance of not being exceeded in any given year (7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows). The equations were based on streamflow measurements in 51 watersheds in the Lower Hudson River Basin of New York during the years 1958–1978, when the number of streamflow measurement sites on unregulated streams was substantially greater than in subsequent years. These low-flow indices are chiefly a function of the area of surficial sand and gravel in the watershed; more precisely, 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows both increase in proportion to the area of sand and gravel deposited by glacial meltwater, whereas 7-day, 2-year low flows also increase in proportion to the area of postglacial alluvium. Both low-flow statistics are also functions of mean annual runoff (a measure of net water input to the watershed from precipitation) and area of swamps and poorly drained soils in or adjacent to surficial sand and gravel (where groundwater recharge is unlikely and riparian water loss to evapotranspiration is substantial). Small but significant refinements in estimation accuracy resulted from the inclusion of two indices of stream geometry, channel slope and length, in the regression equations. Most of the regression analysis was undertaken with the ordinary least squares method, but four equations were replicated by using weighted least squares to provide a more realistic appraisal of the precision of low-flow estimates. The most accurate estimation equations tested in this study explain nearly 84 and 87 percent of the variation in 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows, respectively, with standard errors of 0.032 and 0.050 cubic feet per second per square mile. The equations

  7. The detector system of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. P.; Bai, J. Z.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beavis, D.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Brown, R. L.; Butorov, I.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Carr, R.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, W. T.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M. J.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, X. H.; Chen, X. S.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chidzik, S.; Chow, K.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dong, L.; Dove, J.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fang, S. D.; Fu, J. Y.; Fu, Z. W.; Ge, L. Q.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gill, R.; Goett, J.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Gornushkin, Y. A.; Grassi, M.; Greenler, L. S.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Hahn, R. L.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; He, Q.; He, W. S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hinrichs, P.; Ho, T. H.; Hoff, M.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, P. W.; Huang, X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiang, W. Q.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Joseph, J.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, C. Y.; Lai, W. C.; Lai, W. H.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, M. K. P.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, B.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, J.; Li, N. Y.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. F.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. B.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, J.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. X.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y. C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, A.; Luk, K. B.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, L. H.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Mayes, B.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Mohapatra, D.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Morgan, J. E.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Newsom, C.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngai, W. K.; Nie, Y. B.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pagac, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Patton, S.; Pearson, C.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Sands, W. R.; Seilhan, B.; Shao, B. B.; Shih, K.; Song, W. Y.; Steiner, H.; Stoler, P.; Stuart, M.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tagg, N.; Tam, Y. H.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tang, W.; Tang, X.; Taychenachev, D.; Themann, H.; Torun, Y.; Trentalange, S.; Tsai, O.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Virostek, S.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, L. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X. T.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Wenman, D. L.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Whitten, C. A.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. C.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, J.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, F. F.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xiang, S. T.; Xiao, Q.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, G.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Yip, K.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q. X.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. F.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zimmerman, S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of νbare oscillations over km-baselines. Subsequent data has provided the world's most precise measurement of sin2 2θ13 and the effective mass splitting Δ mee2. The experiment is located in Daya Bay, China where the cluster of six nuclear reactors is among the world's most prolific sources of electron antineutrinos. Multiple antineutrino detectors are deployed in three underground water pools at different distances from the reactor cores to search for deviations in the antineutrino rate and energy spectrum due to neutrino mixing. Instrumented with photomultiplier tubes, the water pools serve as shielding against natural radioactivity from the surrounding rock and provide efficient muon tagging. Arrays of resistive plate chambers over the top of each pool provide additional muon detection. The antineutrino detectors were specifically designed for measurements of the antineutrino flux with minimal systematic uncertainty. Relative detector efficiencies between the near and far detectors are known to better than 0.2%. With the unblinding of the final two detectors' baselines and target masses, a complete description and comparison of the eight antineutrino detectors can now be presented. This paper describes the Daya Bay detector systems, consisting of eight antineutrino detectors in three instrumented water pools in three underground halls, and their operation through the first year of eight detector data-taking.

  8. AutoBayes Program Synthesis System Users Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Jafari, Hamed; Pressburger, Tom; Denney, Ewen; Buntine, Wray; Fischer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Program synthesis is the systematic, automatic construction of efficient executable code from high-level declarative specifications. AutoBayes is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain; in particular, it solves parameter estimation problems. It has seen many successful applications at NASA and is currently being used, for example, to analyze simulation results for Orion. The input to AutoBayes is a concise description of a data analysis problem composed of a parameterized statistical model and a goal that is a probability term involving parameters and input data. The output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code computing the values for those parameters that maximize the probability term. AutoBayes can solve many subproblems symbolically rather than having to rely on numeric approximation algorithms, thus yielding effective, efficient, and compact code. Statistical analysis is faster and more reliable, because effort can be focused on model development and validation rather than manual development of solution algorithms and code.

  9. Carbonate system biogeochemistry in a subterranean estuary - Waquoit Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Charette, Matthew A.; Breier, Crystaline F.; Henderson, Paul B.; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Martin, William; Dai, Minhan

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying carbon fluxes associated with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) remains challenging due to the complex biogeochemistry of the carbonate system in the subterranean estuary (STE). Here we conducted time series measurements of total alkalinity (TAlk) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in a well-studied coastal aquifer (Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, USA). Groundwater samples were collected monthly from May 2009 to June 2010 across the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone of the Waquoit Bay (WB) STE. The concentrations of both TAlk and DIC in zero-salinity groundwater were variable, but were lower than those in the bay water (S ∼ 28). DIC underwent slightly non-conservative mixing between low and intermediate salinities while there was an apparent additional DIC source at high salinity (>20) in all seasons. TAlk concentrations exhibited even stronger variations, with evidence of both production and consumption in high salinity zones, and consistent TAlk consumption at intermediate salinity in summer and fall (June-December, 2009). The increases in DIC and TAlk at high salinity were attributed to aerobic respiration and denitrification in WB sediments during bay water recharge of the STE. We infer that the loss of TAlk at intermediate salinity reflects H+ production as reduced compounds (e.g. Fe2+) are oxidized within the STE. In terms of impacts on surface water inorganic carbon budgets, the SGD-derived DIC flux was mainly controlled by seasonal changes in SGD while a combination of TAlk concentration variability and SGD drove the TAlk flux. SGD-derived DIC, aqueous CO2, and H+ fluxes to the bay were ∼40-50% higher in summer vs. in winter, a result of enhanced marine groundwater flux and significant TAlk removal (proton addition) during periods of high seawater intrusion. Furthermore, the SGD-derived DIC flux was consistently greater than TAlk flux regardless of season, indicating that SGD serves to reduce the CO2 buffering capacity of surface water. Our

  10. Manual Calibration System for Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Han-xiong; RUAN; Xi-chao; REN; Jie; LV; Yin-long; FAN; Cheng-jun; CHEN; Yan-nan; WANG; Zhao-hui; ZHOU; Zu-ying; HOU; Long; ZHANG; Jia-wen; ZHANG; Yin-hong; YU; Chao-ju; HE; Wei; ZHOU; Bin

    2012-01-01

    <正>The neutrino mixing angle θ13 with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations has been published by the Daya Bay anti-neutrino experiment collaboration in 2012. To understand the non-uniformity and the energy non-linearity of the anti-neutrino detector (AD), a calibration campaign for the AD1 with the Manual Calibration System (MCS) has been finished. The aim of this calibration plan is to deploy the calibration sources to any positions inside the Inner Acrylic Vessel (IAV), to study detail properties of AD.

  11. Guiding Surge Reduction Strategies via Characterization of Coastal Surge Propagation and Internal Surge Generation within a Complex Bay/Estuary System, Galveston Bay, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, B.; Torres, J.; Irza, N.; Bedient, P. B.; Dawson, C.; Proft, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, Hurricane Ike (2008) and a suite of synthetic storms are simulated in order to evaluate how different hurricane landfalls, wind intensities, and radius to maximum winds influence the surge response in complex semi-enclosed bays such as Galveston Bay, located along the Texas Gulf Coast. The Advanced CIRCulation and Simulating Waves Nearshore (ADCIRC+SWAN) models are employed to quantify surge in terms of its relative coastal contributions that propagate across barrier islands and tidal inlets and subsequently into Galveston Bay, the surge generated locally within the Bay itself, and the interaction between these coastal and local components of surge. Results from this research will further the current understanding of surge interactions in bay systems and guide coastal engineering surge reduction projects that need to consider multiple lines of defense to protect complex bay/estuary systems such as Galveston Bay, TX.

  12. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Ganju, Neil K.; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard P.

    2017-04-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (˜0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  13. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  14. Tidal Motion in a Complex Inlet and Bay System, Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tidal Motion in a Complex Inlet and Bay System, Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida 5a...investigated in Ponce de Leon (Ponce) Inlet, Florida, and its bay channels through a 10-week data-collection campaign and two-dimensional numerical...Beach, Florida Summer 2000 Tidal Motion in a Complex Inlet and Bay System, Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida Adele Militellot and Gary A. Zarillo:j: t

  15. Transitioning a Chesapeake Bay Ecological Prediction System to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Green, D. S.; Eco Forecasters

    2011-12-01

    phase, the sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) fields are generated by the Chesapeake Bay Operational Forecast System (CBOFS2), a 3-dimensional hydrodynamic model developed and operated by NOAA's National Ocean Service and run operationally at the National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Importantly, this system is readily modified to predict the probability of other important target organisms, such as harmful algal blooms, biogeochemical constituents, such as dissolved oxygen concentration, and water-borne pathogens. Extending this initial effort includes advancement of a regional coastal ocean modeling testbed and proving ground. Such formal collaboration is intended to accelerate transition to operations and increase confidence and use of forecast guidance. The outcome will be improved decision making by emergency and resource managers, scientific researchers and the general public. The presentation will describe partnership plans for this testbed as well as the potential implications for the services and research community.

  16. Hudson River Sub-Bottom Profile Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hudson River Estuary Shallow Water Surveys. Subbottom Profile Points. Subbottom data was collected November 5 to December 15, 2009, in the estuary north from...

  17. Utility company installs first Hudson River drilled crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Directionally drilling a natural gas pipe line under the Hudson River called for innovative installation techniques including an elevated pullback over a heavily traveled commuter railroad. The 3,700-ft crossing was installed for Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corp. as part of an 11-mi system to supply natural gas from the Iroquois Gas Transmission System to the utility company's Roseton Generating Station. It represents the first horizontal drilled pipe line installation of the Hudson River and the longest drilled crossing in the US Northeast. At the point of installation, the line was designed to contend with an existing glacial till geology, the river crossing, eight electric cables near the right-of-way and the high-speed Metro North Railroad on the east side of the river. Through the interconnection with Iroquois, the utility receives up to 100 MMcfd of natural gas at 750 psig. Total cost of the new system was about $13.1 million with nearly $3.2 million dedicated to the crossing. This paper describes the installation procedures used in this project.

  18. Decision Support in Heart Disease Prediction System using Naive Bayes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Subbalakshmi,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Data Mining refers to using a variety of techniques to identify suggest of information or decision making knowledge in thedatabase and extracting these in a way that they can put to use in areas such as decision support, predictions, forecasting and estimation. The healthcare industry collects huge amounts of healthcare data which, unfortunately, are not “mined” to discover hidden information for effective decision making. Discovering relations that connect variables in a database is the subject of data mining. This research has developed a Decision Support in Heart Disease Prediction System (DSHDPS using data mining modeling technique, namely, Naïve Bayes. Using medical profiles such as age, sex, blood pressure and blood sugar it can predict the likelihood of patients getting a heart disease. It is implemented as web based questionnaire application. It can serve a training tool to train nurses and medical students to diagnose patients with heart disease.

  19. Characterization of Gulf sturgeon diel and seasonal activity in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrege, Beth Marie

    2009-12-01

    We assess temporal and spatial distribution and diel variability in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida, using stationary ultrasonic telemetry. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (n = 54) migrated through the bay system in fall to wintering areas in the Gulf of Mexico and Santa Rosa Sound. In spring, sturgeon migrated back through the bay system to summering habitats in rivers. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon use East Bay and Escambia Bay primarily as migration routes between riverine areas used in spring and summer and the Gulf of Mexico used in winter. North Central Pensacola Bay was not routinely frequented. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon used specific areas within the Pensacola Bay system in summer and winter not previously documented as essential sturgeon habitat. Areas in southeastern Pensacola were used heavily during winter by a portion of the population. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon also exhibited long-term winter residency in Santa Rosa Sound. Interestingly, an area in northeastern Escambia Bay supported Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in summer. This observation was unexpected; however, the identification of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in this area at this time has important ecological and management implications. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon exhibited a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon were more active at night than during day in all seasons but summer. The use of prepositioned arrays of acoustic receivers not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but provides insights into nocturnal behavior not previously examined.

  20. Controls on residence time and exchange in a system of shallow coastal bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, I.; Wiberg, P. L.; Richardson, D. L.; Kurum, M. O.

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of transport and residence time influence the morphology, ecology and biogeochemistry of shallow coastal bay systems in important ways. To better understand the factors controlling residence time and exchange in coastal bays, a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model was set up and validated with field observations of circulation in a system of 14 shallow coastal bays on the Atlantic coast of the USA (Virginia Coast Reserve). Residence times of neutrally buoyant particles as well as exchange among the bays in the system and between the bays and the ocean were examined with Lagrangian particle tracking. There was orders of magnitude variation in the calculated residence time within most of the bays, ranging from hours in the tidally refreshed (repletion) water near the inlets to days-weeks in the remaining (residual) water away from the inlets. Residence time in the repletion waters was most sensitive to the tidal phase (low vs. high) when particles were released whereas residence time in the residual waters was more sensitive to wind forcing. Wind forcing was found to act as a diffuser that shortens particle residence within the bays; its effect was higher away from the inlets and in relatively confined bays. Median residence time in the bays significantly decreased with an increase in the ratio between open water area and total area (open water plus marsh). Exchange among the bays and capture areas of inlets (i.e., exchange between the bays and the ocean) varied considerably but were insensitive to tidal phase of release, wind, and forcing conditions in different years, in contrast to the sensitivity of residence time to these factors. We defined a new quantity, termed shortest-path residence time, calculated as distance from the closest inlet divided by root-mean-square velocity at each point in model domain. A relationship between shortest-path residence time and particle-tracking residence time provides a means of estimating residence time

  1. Whole-system metabolism and CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean Bay dominated by seagrass beds (Palma Bay, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gazeau

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic and benthic incubations (bare and Posidonia oceanica vegetated sediments were performed at monthly intervals from March 2001 to October 2002 in a seagrass vegetated area of the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain. Results showed a contrast between the planktonic compartment, which was on average near metabolic balance (−4.6±5.9 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 and the benthic compartment, which was autotrophic (17.6±8.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. During two cruises in March and June 2002, planktonic and benthic incubations were performed at several stations in the bay to estimate the whole-system metabolism and to examine its relationship with partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and apparent oxygen utilisation (AOU spatial patterns. Moreover, during the second cruise, when the residence time of water was long enough, net ecosystem production (NEP estimates based on incubations were compared, over the Posidonia oceanica meadow, to rates derived from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and oxygen (O2 mass balance budgets. These budgets provided NEP estimates in fair agreement with those derived from direct metabolic estimates based on incubated samples over the Posidonia oceanica meadow. Whereas the seagrass community was autotrophic, the excess organic carbon production therein could only balance the planktonic heterotrophy in shallow waters relative to the maximum depth of the bay (55 m. This generated a horizontal gradient from autotrophic or balanced communities in the shallow seagrass-covered areas, to strongly heterotrophic communities in deeper areas of the bay. It seems therefore that, on an annual scale in the whole bay, the organic matter production by the Posidonia oceanica may not be sufficient to fully compensate the heterotrophy of the planktonic compartment, which may require external organic carbon inputs, most likely from land.

  2. Sequence stratigraphy and depositional systems in the Paleogene, Liaodong Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Hancheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on drilling and seismic data,the Paleogene developed in Liaodong Bay can be divided into five third-order sequences bounded by six sequence boundaries.Through analyzing depositional systems in each sequence in detail,the Es-3 time was defined as fast rifting.During the deposition of the Es-3 member,the lake basin was continuous along the N-S direction but compartmentalized along the E-W direction by several N-S trending faults.Deposition was dominated by steep slope fans and fan deltas.The time of Es-2 and Es-1 was stable settling.The lake basin expanded substantially.The fan delta system and braided fluvial system were developed.Carbonate and clastic deposits were formed on the Liaoxi (west Liaohe) Rise.The time of Ed-3 time was again fast rifting.During this time,shale was deposited.In the time of Es-2,tectonic movement weakened.The basin was higher in the west and north,and lower in the east and south.A series of delta depositionai systems were developed and smallscale slumping turbidite fans were present in semi-deep lake to deep lake.In the time of Ed-1,tectonic movement stopped.Flood plain deposition occurred.Finally the paper presents the characteristics of evolution and distribution of depositional systems both vertically and horizontally.

  3. Maps showing textural characteristics of benthic sediments in the Corpus Christi Bay estuarine system, south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shideler, Gerald L.; Stelting, Charles E.; McGowen, Joseph H.

    1981-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay is a heavily used estuary on the south Texas coast in the northwest Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1).  The Bay is stressed by diverse activities which could substantially affect its ecosystem.  Such activities include shipping, resource production (oil, gas, and construction aggregate), commercial and sport fishing, and recreation.  Shipping activities alone have had a substantial impact on the bay.  For example, the past maintenance of navigation channels has required extensive dredging and spoil disposal within the estuarine system.  Numerous subaqueous spoil disposal sites and subaerial spoil banks are present throughout the bay (fig. 1), and the selection of future spoil disposal sites is becoming a critical local problem.  As activities in the bay increase, the need for effective environmental management becomes increasingly important, and effective management necessitates a good understanding of the bay's physical characteristics.  The objective of this study is to provide detailed information about the textural composition of bottom sediments within the estuarine system, information which could be used in making environmental-management decisions.  Visual descriptions of bottom sediments in Corpus Christi Bay and adjacent areas have been presented by McGowen and Morton (1979).  Additionally, a study of the textures of sediments on the Inner Continental Shelf adjacent to the bay has been presented by Shideler and Berryhill (1977).

  4. Contribution of remote sensing to understand the Bay as a system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A. B.; Anderson, D.; Bohn, C. G.; Chen, W. T.; Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The natural resource management information system concept designed specifically for use with remote sensing is discussed in terms of understanding and studying the Chesapeake Bay as a total system. The Bay is defined as a system comprising the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere, that is the vertical profile encompassed by the systems and a two dimensional plane defining the total watershed of the Bay from the headwaters of its tributaries to a distance in the ocean defined by ten tidal cycles. The Chesapeake Bay system is assumed to be the ecosystem in the largest sense. Ecological partitioning, a methodology resulting from studies of land systems for partitioning the land into geobotanical landscape units, is included along with a breakdown of LANDSAT investigations according to subject area.

  5. Whole-system metabolism and CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean Bay dominated by seagrass beds (Palma Bay, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Borges

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between whole-system metabolism estimates based on planktonic and benthic incubations (bare sediments and seagrass, Posidonia oceanica meadows, and CO2 fluxes across the air-sea interface were examined in the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain during two cruises in March and June 2002. Moreover, planktonic and benthic incubations were performed at monthly intervals from March 2001 to October 2002 in a seagrass vegetated area of the bay. From the annual study, results showed a contrast between the planktonic compartment, which was heterotrophic during most of the year, except for occasional bloom episodes, and the benthic compartment, which was slightly autotrophic. Whereas the seagrass community was autotrophic, the excess organic carbon production therein could only balance the excess respiration of the planktonic compartment in shallow waters (2 fields and fluxes across the bay observed during the two extensive cruises in 2002. Finally, dissolved inorganic carbon and oxygen budgets provided NEP estimates in fair agreement with those derived from direct metabolic estimates based on incubated samples over the Posidonia oceanica meadow.

  6. Sediment Data from the Great Bay Estuarine System acquired in 1986 (NELSON86 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The sediment data presented in this data layer were from a geochemical study sited in Great Bay estuarine system of New Hampshire. Textural data were used to support...

  7. External impacts of an intraurban air transportation system in the San Francisco Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J. Y.; Gebman, J. R.; Kirkwood, T. F.; Mcclure, P. T.; Stucker, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effects are studied of an intraurban V/STOL commuter system on the economic, social, and physical environment of the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area was chosen mainly for a case study; the real intent of the analysis is to develop methods by which the effects of such a system could be evaluated for any community. Aspects of the community life affected include: income and employment, benefits and costs, noise, air pollution, and road congestion.

  8. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  9. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  10. Implementation of the BayBIS process information system in a power station at minimal cost; Die kostenminimale Realisierung des Prozessinformationssystems BayBIS fuer einen Kraftwerksbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, W.

    2000-07-01

    BKW are currently introducing the process information system BayBIS (Bayernwerk Betriebsinformationssystem) in three of their power stations. It was developed for a BKW medium-capacity power station where it was installed one year ago. The measuring and data acquisition systems of the power stations can be utilized for BayBIS. It is based on well-establilshed methods and makes use of the available IT systems. It is applied for process monitoring, process analysis, billing, controlling and reporting. [German] Die BKW fuehrt derzeit fuer drei Kraftwerke das Prozessinformationssystem BayBIS (Bayernwerk Betriebsinformationssystem) ein. Es wurde fuer ein Mittellastkraftwerk der BKW entwickelt und ist dort bereits seit einem Jahr im Einsatz. Messtechnik und prozessnahe Datenerfassung der Leittechnik in den Kraftwerken koennen fuer BayBIS genutzt werden. Es baut auf Methoden auf, die sich in der Praxis bewaehrt haben, und nutzt die vorhandene IT-Ausstattung des Unternehmens. Anwendung findet es fuer Prozessbeobachtung, Prozessanalyse, Abrechnung, Controlling und Berichtswesen. (orig.)

  11. Analyzing a Mid-Air Collision Over the Hudson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sean; Holloway, C. Michael

    2012-01-01

    On August 8, 2009, a private airplane collided with a sightseeing helicopter over the Hudson River near Hoboken, New Jersey. All three people aboard the airplane, the pilot and two passengers, and all six people aboard the helicopter, the pilot and five passengers, were killed. The National Transportation Safety Board report on the accident identified inherent limitations of the see-and-avoid concept, inadequate regulations, and errors by the pilots and an air traffic controller as causing or contributing to the accident. This paper presents the results of analyzing the accident using the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) approach to determining accident causation.

  12. Object Motion Detection System Using Passive UHF RFID Technology For A Trauma Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ho Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been demands of context-aware systems in a hospital domain and several types of sensors have been applied as sources of medical activities. Unlike the previous passive RFID use of simply identifying objects this paper presents a system for motion detection of medical objects in a trauma bay by ranging the received signal strength indication RSSI using UHF passive RFID tags as one of those sensors that provide information on medical activities. To use passive RFID RSSI for motion detection Three different types of RSSI estimators are evaluated to process noisy RSSI and the adaptive threshold is proposed in the system to improve the resolution of detecting motion. Our system has been tested with recorded RSSI values in a laboratory and an actual trauma bay during simulated resuscitations performed by trauma teams. The proposed system has achieved 85.9 - 92.1 accuracies for most passive items that are used in a trauma bay.

  13. Sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; McKee, Lester J.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The papers in this special issue feature state-of-the-art approaches to understanding the physical processes related to sediment transport and geomorphology of complex coastal–estuarine systems. Here we focus on the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, extending from the lower San Joaquin–Sacramento Delta, through the Bay, and along the adjacent outer Pacific Coast. San Francisco Bay is an urbanized estuary that is impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities common to many large estuaries, including a mining legacy, channel dredging, aggregate mining, reservoirs, freshwater diversion, watershed modifications, urban run-off, ship traffic, exotic species introductions, land reclamation, and wetland restoration. The Golden Gate strait is the sole inlet connecting the Bay to the Pacific Ocean, and serves as the conduit for a tidal flow of ~ 8 × 109 m3/day, in addition to the transport of mud, sand, biogenic material, nutrients, and pollutants. Despite this physical, biological and chemical connection, resource management and prior research have often treated the Delta, Bay and adjacent ocean as separate entities, compartmentalized by artificial geographic or political boundaries. The body of work herein presents a comprehensive analysis of system-wide behavior, extending a rich heritage of sediment transport research that dates back to the groundbreaking hydraulic mining-impact research of G.K. Gilbert in the early 20th century.

  14. The muon system of the Daya Bay Reactor antineutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, F.P. [Institute of Modern Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Balantekin, A.B. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Band, H.R. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Blyth, S. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); National United University, Miao-Li, Taiwan (China); Brown, R.E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Butorov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cao, G.F.; Cao, J. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carr, R. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Chan, Y.L. [Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chang, J.F. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chang, L. [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y. [National United University, Miao-Li, Taiwan (China); Chasman, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Chen, H.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, H.Y. [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, Q.Y. [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, S.J. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); and others

    2015-02-11

    The Daya Bay experiment consists of functionally identical antineutrino detectors immersed in pools of ultrapure water in three well-separated underground experimental halls near two nuclear reactor complexes. These pools serve both as shields against natural, low-energy radiation, and as water Cherenkov detectors that efficiently detect cosmic muons using arrays of photomultiplier tubes. Each pool is covered by a plane of resistive plate chambers as an additional means of detecting muons. Design, construction, operation, and performance of these muon detectors are described.

  15. Land Use Changes in Pak Panang Bay using Arial Photographs and Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipop PRABNARONG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates land use changes around Pak Panang Bay, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province by using aerial photographs and geographic information system techniques. The aerial maps on 1:15,000 scale produced by The Royal Thai Survey Department in 1974, 1991 and 2003 were interpreted as a land use map in each year. The land use map of 1974 was then compared to those maps of 1999 and 2003. A prominent result of this study revealed that shrimp farm areas around the bay dramatically increased from zero hectares in 1974 to 1,954 hectares in 1995 and expanded to 2,592 hectares in 2003. An increase in shrimp farm areas in Pak Panang Bay in 2003 concurred with a decrease in 1,114 hectares of mangroves, 918 hectares of paddy fields and 560 hectares of other types of land uses in 1974, respectively. The severe expansion of shrimp farm areas into the mangrove areas has directly affected the eco-system of Pak Panang Bay, which was declared a Ramsar Site in 2000. The results of this study could be used for the management and conservation of the bay in order to meet the regulation standards of the Ramsar Site Convention.

  16. Sea-level Rise Impacts on Hudson River Marshes and their Vegetation Zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, A.; Nitsche, F. O.

    2016-12-01

    Rising sea levels may cause tidal marshes to be vulnerable to submergence and affect their ability to perform ecosystem services. However, tidal marshes are dynamic ecosystems that can adapt to sea-level rise through inland migration and vertical growth. This study examines how four tidal marshes on the Hudson River (Piermont Marsh, Iona Island Marsh, Tivoli Bays, and Stockport Flats) would be affected by 0.5m, 1m, and 1.5m of sea-level rise by 2100. Using high-resolution LiDAR elevation data and vegetation data, we mapped sea-level rise projections in GIS, accounting for current accretion rates unique to each marsh. We calculated the submerged area of each marsh and analyzed how vegetation zonation in each marsh is expected to change due to rising sea levels. We found that the steep topography of the Hudson River banks limits the marshes' ability to migrate inland, emphasizing the role of elevation-building processes in adaptation. The marshes studied would experience minimal to no inundation under lower rates of sea-level rise such as 0.5m by 2100. At higher projected rates of sea-level rise (1.5m by 2100), Piermont Marsh and Tivoli Bays would experience significant inundation while Iona Island marsh and Stockport Flats would be less affected. Overall, Stockport Flats is projected to be the marsh most resilient to sea-level rise due to its higher accretion rate and its topography. Rising sea levels are also expected to change the areas of vegetation zones, with upland, high marsh, and mid marsh zones generally declining in area and with subtidal and low marsh vegetation zones generally expanding under high rates of sea-level rise. Understanding the impacts of sea-level rise on Hudson River marshes enables long-term planning to adapt to potential changes in marsh ecosystem services and could motivate and inform conservation efforts.

  17. EPA Funds Coastal Observation System for Indicators of Ocean Acidification in Casco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provided a total of $85 thousand toward establishing a state-of-the-art coastal observing system in Casco Bay Maine to help coastal managers evaluate the threat of coastal acidification from excess CO 2.

  18. Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon across contiguous mangrove and seagrass systems (Gazi Bay, Kenya)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouillon, S.; Dehairs, F.; Velimirov, B.; Abril, G.; Borges, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the water column biogeochemistry in adjacent mangrove and seagrass systems in Gazi Bay (Kenya), with a focus on assessing the sources and cycling of organic and inorganic carbon. Mangrove and seagrass-derived material was found to be the dominant organic carbon sources in the water colu

  19. Design, characterization, and sensitivity of the supernova trigger system at Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hanyu; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin

    2015-01-01

    Providing an early warning of galactic supernova explosions from neutrino signals is important in studying supernova dynamics and neutrino physics. A dedicated supernova trigger system has been designed and installed in the data acquisition system at Daya Bay and integrated into the worldwide Supernova Early Warning System (SNEWS). Daya Bay's unique feature of eight identically-designed detectors deployed in three separate experimental halls makes the trigger system naturally robust against cosmogenic backgrounds, enabling a prompt analysis of online triggers and a tight control of the false-alert rate. The trigger system is estimated to be fully sensitive to 1987A-type supernova bursts throughout most of the Milky Way. The significant gain in sensitivity of the eight-detector configuration over a mass-equivalent single detector is also estimated. The experience of this online trigger system is applicable to future projects with spatially distributed detectors.

  20. Retrofitting the AutoBayes Program Synthesis System with Concrete Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    AutoBayes is a fully automatic, schema-based program synthesis system for statistical data analysis applications. Its core component is a schema library. i.e., a collection of generic code templates with associated applicability constraints which are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis. Currently, AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog; the schemas thus use abstract syntax (i.e., Prolog terms) to formulate the templates. However, the conceptual distance between this abstract representation and the concrete syntax of the generated programs makes the schemas hard to create and maintain. In this paper we describe how AutoBayes is retrofitted with concrete syntax. We show how it is integrated into Prolog and describe how the seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with AutoBayes's remaining legacy meta-programming kernel based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually mitigate individual schemas without forcing a disruptive migration of the entire system to a different First experiences show that a smooth migration can be achieved. Moreover, it can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments.

  1. Budování značky Hudson Global Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Šamšulová, Kristýna

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of this bachelor thesis is Hudson brand building of the recruitment company Hudson Global Resources s.r.o. in Czech market. The aim of the thesis is to define according my own research the Hudson brand perception by clients of the company and propose a Hudson brand strategy and also to evalute which brand management tool the company should use.

  2. Status of macrobenthic community of Manifa-Tanajib Bay System of Saudi Arabia based on a once-off sampling event

    KAUST Repository

    Joydas, Thadickal Viswanathan

    2011-06-01

    Shallow water bays located in the western Arabian Gulf experience harsh environmental conditions. Some of these bays, including Manifa-Tanajib Bay System (MTBS), were also exposed to the 1991 oil pollution event. This study investigates the status of the macrobenthos in MTBS during 2006. This bay system is characterized by very shallow inner bays with elevated salinity and temperature compared to the rest of the bay area. As a result mainly of the hyper salinity, the inner bay communities are distinct from the outer bay communities. Overall, fairly high species richness with several rare species was observed. High Shannon-Wiener diversity values and ABC plots indicated the healthy status of the polychaete communities, while BOPA index indicated slightly polluted status in 20% of the stations. The oil sensitive amphipods were not completely re-colonized in 20% of the stations, even after 15. years of recovery from the 1991 oil spill. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Status of macrobenthic community of Manifa-Tanajib Bay System of Saudi Arabia based on a once-off sampling event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joydas, T V; Krishnakumar, P K; Qurban, Mohammad A; Ali, Said M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Al-Abdulkader, Khaled

    2011-06-01

    Shallow water bays located in the western Arabian Gulf experience harsh environmental conditions. Some of these bays, including Manifa-Tanajib Bay System (MTBS), were also exposed to the 1991 oil pollution event. This study investigates the status of the macrobenthos in MTBS during 2006. This bay system is characterized by very shallow inner bays with elevated salinity and temperature compared to the rest of the bay area. As a result mainly of the hyper salinity, the inner bay communities are distinct from the outer bay communities. Overall, fairly high species richness with several rare species was observed. High Shannon-Wiener diversity values and ABC plots indicated the healthy status of the polychaete communities, while BOPA index indicated slightly polluted status in 20% of the stations. The oil sensitive amphipods were not completely re-colonized in 20% of the stations, even after 15 years of recovery from the 1991 oil spill.

  4. The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector Filling System and Liquid Mass Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Band, H R; Draeger, E; Heeger, K M; Hinrichs, P; Lewis, C A; Mattison, H; McFarlane, M C; Webber, D M; Wenman, D; Wang, W; Wise, T; Xiao, Q

    2013-01-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has measured the neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13} to world-leading precision. The experiment uses eight antineutrino detectors filled with 20-tons of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator to detect antineutrinos emitted from the Daya Bay nuclear power plant through the inverse beta decay reaction. The precision measurement of sin^{2}2\\theta_{13} relies on the relative antineutrino interaction rates between detectors at near (400 m) and far (roughly 1.8 km) distances from the nuclear reactors. The measured interaction rate in each detector is directly proportional to the number of protons in the liquid scintillator target. A precision detector filling system was developed to simultaneously fill the three liquid zones of the antineutrino detectors and measure the relative target mass between detectors to <0.02%. This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of the system and the resulting precision measurement of the detectors' target liquid masses.

  5. Unmanned aircraft system measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Knuth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In September 2009, a series of long-range unmanned aircraft system (UAS flights collected basic atmospheric data over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica. Air temperature, wind, pressure, relative humidity, radiation, skin temperature, GPS, and operational aircraft data were collected and quality controlled for scientific use. The data have been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC for free access (doi:10.1594/USAP/0739464.

  6. Power System Reliability Assessment by Analysing Voltage Dips on the Blue Horizon Bay 22KV Overhead Line in the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, B. G.; Harris, R. T.; Roberts, A. G.

    2010-06-01

    Power system reliability problems are very difficult to solve because the power systems are complex and geographically widely distributed and influenced by numerous unexpected events. It is therefore imperative to employ the most efficient optimization methods in solving the problems relating to reliability of the power system. This paper presents a reliability analysis and study of the power interruptions resulting from severe power outages in the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality (NMBM), South Africa and includes an overview of the important factors influencing reliability, and methods to improve the reliability. The Blue Horizon Bay 22 kV overhead line, supplying a 6.6 kV residential sector has been selected. It has been established that 70% of the outages, recorded at the source, originate on this feeder.

  7. Analysis of Air Traffic Track Data with the AutoBayes Synthesis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann Martin Philip; Cate, Karen; Lee, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS) is aiming to provide substantial computer support for the air traffic controllers. Algorithms for the accurate prediction of aircraft movements are of central importance for such software systems but trajectory prediction has to work reliably in the presence of unknown parameters and uncertainties. We are using the AutoBayes program synthesis system to generate customized data analysis algorithms that process large sets of aircraft radar track data in order to estimate parameters and uncertainties. In this paper, we present, how the tasks of finding structure in track data, estimation of important parameters in climb trajectories, and the detection of continuous descent approaches can be accomplished with compact task-specific AutoBayes specifications. We present an overview of the AutoBayes architecture and describe, how its schema-based approach generates customized analysis algorithms, documented C/C++ code, and detailed mathematical derivations. Results of experiments with actual air traffic control data are discussed.

  8. Distribution and relative abundance of caribou in the Hudson Plains Ecozone of Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey J. Magoun

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine past distribution and relative abundance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in the Hudson Plains Ecozone (HPE of Ontario, we reviewed past HPE-wide winter systematic aerial surveys, partial winter systematic surveys, summer photographic surveys, incidental observations of caribou, and other sources of information from the period 1950—2003. We conducted new HPE-wide aerial surveys in February 2003 and 2004 to evaluate current distribution patterns. From this information, we defined 9 core wintering areas in the HPE and differentiated between 3 catego¬ries of relative abundance. Wintering areas for the January—March period have changed relatively little over the past 45 years. Summer distribution of caribou along the Hudson Bay coast apparently shifted or expanded from the area west of the Severn River to the central and eastern portions of the coast since the 1980s, and caribou observations have become much more common in the area east of the Winisk River since 1998. Because major resource development activities in the HPE are proposed and some are imminent, we recommend additional caribou surveys to document current caribou population identity, size, and distribution, and research projects to better define caribou wintering areas, calving areas, and movement patterns in the HPE.

  9. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Kirk, B.L.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1982-02-01

    This report summarizes a series of analyses of the magnitude and biological significance of the impingement of white perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Station and other Hudson River power plants. Included in these analyses were evaluations of: (1) two independent lines of evidence relating to the magnitude of impingement impacts on the Hudson River white perch population; (2) the additional impact caused by entrainment of white perch; (3) data relating to density-dependent growth among young-of-the-year white perch; (4) the feasibility of performing population-level analyses of impingement impacts on the white perch populations of Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River; and (5) the feasibility of using simple food chain and food web models to evaluate community-level effects of impingement and entrainment. Estimated reductions in the abundances of the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes, caused by impingement and entrainment, were high enough that the possibility of adverse long-term effects cannot be excluded.

  10. Habitat Mapping Cruise - Hudson Canyon (HB0904, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives are to: 1) perform multibeam mapping of transitional and deepwater habitats in Hudson Canyon (off New Jersey) with the National Institute of Undersea...

  11. Distributions of polyhalogenated compounds in Hudson River (New York, USA) fish in relation to human uses along the river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Lawrence C., E-mail: lxskinne@gw.dec.state.ny.us [New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 625 Broadway, Albany, NY 12233 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    PCBs (as Aroclor concentrations) have been extensively examined in fish along the Hudson River, but other xenobiotic chemicals in fish have had limited assessment. This study determined concentrations and congener distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in smallmouth bass and striped bass taken from a 385 km reach of the Hudson River. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in smallmouth bass, and PCBs in striped bass, were positively related to human uses of the compounds in the basin. Generally low levels of PCDD/Fs were found. One striped bass, however, contained elevated 2,3,7,8-TCDD, indicating exposure to a known source in the adjacent Newark Bay-Passaic River basin. PBDDs were generally below detection. PBDFs were present in four of 18 smallmouth bass, but were not detected in striped bass. Dioxin-like PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Highlights: > In the Hudson River, > PBDEs in smallmouth bass follow human population patterns, but do not for striped bass. > Proximity to known PCB sources govern PCB levels and patterns in fish. > PBDFs were in smallmouth bass but not striped bass. PBDDs were present in one fish. > PCDD/Fs were low in 29 of 30 fish. A 2,3,7,8-TCDD source affected one striped bass. > PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Residues of polyhalogenated compounds in resident and migratory fish from the Hudson River are compared with human uses of the compounds in the river basin.

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait and others from 1997-08-03 to 1997-08-18 (NODC Accession 0114432)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114432 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Hudson...

  13. Unmanned aircraft system measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Knuth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In September 2009, a series of long-range unmanned aircraft system (UAS flights collected basic atmospheric data over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica. Air temperature, wind, pressure, relative humidity, radiation, skin temperature, GPS, and operational aircraft data were collected and quality controlled for scientific use. The data has been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC for free access (doi:10.1594/USAP/0739464.

  14. Low complexity variational bayes iterative reviver for MIMO-OFDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Chunlin; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Xiaoying;

    2009-01-01

    A low complexity iterative receiver is proposed in this paper for MIMO-OFDM systems in time-varying multi-path channel based on the variational Bayes (VB) method. According to the VB method, the estimation algorithms of the signal distribution and the channel distribution are derived...... for the receiver. With the aid of the soft-output QRD-M algorithm, whose complexity is fixed and relatively low, the signal distribution can be obtained conveniently. In particular, a sequential channel estimation algorithm, which completely avoids the computation of matrix inversion and multiplication...

  15. Detection of dechallenge in spontaneous reporting systems: A comparison of Bayes methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bazila Banu

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Detecting dechallenge for unknown samples are essential for proper prescription. To overcome the issues exposed by Naive Bayes algorithm, Improved Naive Bayes algorithm can be used to detect dechallenge in terms of higher accuracy and minimal error.

  16. Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, Joshua A. [Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Invertebrate Zoology, 8272 Moss Landing Road, CA 95039-9647 (United States)], E-mail: jmackie@mlml.calstate.edu; Natali, Susan M.; Levinton, Jeffrey S. [Stony Brook University, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245 (United States); Sanudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A. [Stony Brook University, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245 (United States); University of Southern California, Marine and Environmental Biology, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0371 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    This study examines the effectiveness of remediating a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953-1979) and dredged in 1994-1995. Eight years after remediation, dissolved and particulate metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag) were found to be lower than levels in the lower Hudson near New York City. Levels of metals (Co, Ni, Cd) on suspended particles were comparatively high. Concentrations of surface sediment Cd throughout the marsh system remain high, but have decreased both in the dredged and undredged areas: Cd was 2.4-230 mg/kg dw of sediment in 2005 vs. 109-1500 mg/kg in the same area in 1983. The rate of tidal export of Cd from FC has decreased by >300-fold, suggesting that dredging successfully stemmed a major source of Cd to the Hudson River. - Dredging of a hotspot of metal-contaminated sediment is associated with a recognizable local and river-wide decline in cadmium in the Hudson River, New York.

  17. Seismic stratigraphic architecture of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan system, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the continental shelf bordering Baffin Bay remain poorly constrained. Then as now, fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers have played a key role for the mass balance and stability of polar ice sheets. Despite their significance for Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics and evolution, our understanding of their long-term behaviour is limited. The central West Greenland margin is characterized by a broad continental shelf where a series of troughs extend from fjords to the shelf margin, acting as focal points for trough-mouth fan (TMF) accummulations. The sea-ward bulging morphology and abrupt shelf-break of these major depositional systems is generated by prograding depocentres that formed during glacial maxima when ice streams reached the shelf edge, delivering large amounts of subglacial sediment onto the continental slope (Ó Cofaigh et al., 2013). The aim of this study is to unravel the seismic stratigraphic architecture and depositional processes of the Disko Bay TMF, aerially the largest single sedimentary system in West Greenland, using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from exploration well Hellefisk-1. The south-west Disko Bay is intersected by a deep, narrow trough, Egedesminde Dyb, which extends towards the southwest and links to the shallower and broader cross-shelf Disko Trough (maximum water depths of > 1000 m and a trough length of c. 370 km). Another trough-like depression (trough length of c. 120 km) in the northern part of the TMF, indicating a previous position of the ice stream, can be distinguished on the seabed topographic map and the seismic images. The Disko Bay TMF itself extends from the shelf edge down to the abyssal plain (abyssal floor depths of 2000 m) of the southern Baffin Bay. Based on seismic stratigraphic configurations relating to reflection terminations, erosive patterns and seismic facies (Mitchum et al., 1977), the TMF

  18. 78 FR 76140 - Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft... Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0447). The... permit to the Applicant, Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc. (CHPEI), to construct, operate,...

  19. 40 CFR 81.129 - Hudson Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.129 Hudson Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Hudson Valley Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hudson Valley Intrastate Air...

  20. 77 FR 32984 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Maine, Hudson Museum, Orono, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Maine, Hudson Museum, Orono, ME AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Maine, Hudson Museum has... contact the University of Maine, Hudson Museum. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian...

  1. 76 FR 63342 - Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project (Rockland and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project (Rockland and Westchester Counties, NY) AGENCY... Tappan Zee Hudson River crossing in Rockland and Westchester Counties, New York. The purpose of this... infrastructure of the Tappan Zee Hudson River crossing. 1. Description of the Project Area The Tappan Zee...

  2. Transport of Cerro Hudson SO2 clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Scott D.; Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Schnetzler, Charles C.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Walter, Louis S.

    The Cerro Hudson volcano in southern Chile (45.92°S, 73.0°W) emitted large ash and sulfur dioxide clouds on August 12-15, following several days of minor activity [Global Volcanism Network Bulletin, 1991]. The SO2 clouds were observed using (preliminary) near real-time data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) as they encircled the south polar region. The injection of SO2 into the stratosphere has essentially created a gigantic chemical tracer that could provide new insights into the wind patterns and seasonal circulation around the Antarctic region.around the Antarctic region. The TOMS instrument, on board the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's Nimbus 7 satellite, measures the ratio of backscattered Earth radiance to incoming solar irradiance in the ultraviolet spectrum. Although originally designed to measure ozone, it was later discovered that the TOMS instrument could also detect and quantify SO2 [Krueger, 1985]. After this discovery, measurements from TOMS were examined for SO2 emissions for all recorded volcanic eruptions since Nimbus-7 was launched in October 1978, and current data are analyzed as new eruptions occur. The satellite is in a polar, Sun-synchronous orbit so that it crosses the equator at local noon and observes the whole sunlit Earth in approximately 14 orbits each day. Total column amounts of SO2 are determined that represent the amount of gas affecting the reflection of ultraviolet light through a column of the atmosphere from the satellite to the reflecting surface, Earth, given in terms of milli atmospheres centimeter (1000 milli atm cm = a gas layer 1-cm thick at STP). The mass of SO2 is calculated by integrating over the cloud area to obtain a volume, then converting to tons.

  3. Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 μmol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 μmol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

  4. Simulation of the Great Bay Estuarine System: Tides with tidal flats wetting and drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk, Ş. N.; Bilgili, A.; Swift, M. R.; Brown, W. S.; Çelikkol, B.; Ip, J. T. C.; Lynch, D. R.

    2002-05-01

    Realistic lunar tides of the Great Bay Estuarine System have been simulated using a fixed boundary finite element numerical model as described by Ip et al. [1998]. It is a two-dimensional, nonlinear, time-stepping model with a groundwater component coupled to a kinematic force balance to facilitate the realistic drainage and filling of elements during ebb and flood, respectively. The numerical model reproduces the observed M2 tides as described by Swift and Brown [1983], and it successfully captures qualitatively correct residual currents and transports, realistic mass-conserving flooding and dewatering of the tidal flats, and current asymmetry between flood and ebb. The simulation results were sensitive to local bathymetry and the implemented friction law. The accuracy of the model is demonstrated by comparison with the 1975 Great Bay study [Swift and Brown, 1983] in terms of tidal elevations at 14 tidal stations and 4 cross-sectionally averaged current measurements in the estuary. Quantitatively, the model results show good agreement with observations, displaying correlation coefficients of >=0.96 in surface elevation and >=0.95 in averaged current, with average RMS errors of 0.12 m and 0.26 m s-1, respectively. In addition, tidal flat hydrodynamics, characteristic distributions of residual current, sediment bed load transport, and influence of topography on the overall circulation in the region are also discussed.

  5. Seismological structure of the 1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Amy; Bastow, Ian D.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2016-06-01

    Precambrian tectonic processes are debated: what was the nature and scale of orogenic events on the younger, hotter, and more ductile Earth? Northern Hudson Bay records the Paleoproterozoic collision between the Western Churchill and Superior plates—the ˜1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogeny (THO)—and is an ideal locality to study Precambrian tectonic structure. Integrated field, geochronological, and thermobarometric studies suggest that the THO was comparable to the present-day Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen (HKTO). However, detailed understanding of the deep crustal architecture of the THO, and how it compares to that of the evolving HKTO, is lacking. The joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave data provides new Moho depth estimates and shear velocity models for the crust and uppermost mantle of the THO. Most of the Archean crust is relatively thin (˜39 km) and structurally simple, with a sharp Moho; upper-crustal wave speed variations are attributed to postformation events. However, the Quebec-Baffin segment of the THO has a deeper Moho (˜45 km) and a more complex crustal structure. Observations show some similarity to recent models, computed using the same methods, of the HKTO crust. Based on Moho character, present-day crustal thickness, and metamorphic grade, we support the view that southern Baffin Island experienced thickening during the THO of a similar magnitude and width to present-day Tibet. Fast seismic velocities at >10 km below southern Baffin Island may be the result of partial eclogitization of the lower crust during the THO, as is currently thought to be happening in Tibet.

  6. Sand sources and transport pathways for the San Francisco Bay coastal system, based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Mizell, Kira; Barnard, Patrick L.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The mineralogical compositions of 119 samples collected from throughout the San Francisco Bay coastal system, including bayfloor and seafloor, area beaches, cliff outcrops, and major drainages, were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Comparison of the mineral concentrations and application of statistical cluster analysis of XRD spectra allowed for the determination of provenances and transport pathways. The use of XRD mineral identifications provides semi-quantitative compositions needed for comparisons of beach and offshore sands with potential cliff and river sources, but the innovative cluster analysis of XRD diffraction spectra provides a unique visualization of how groups of samples within the San Francisco Bay coastal system are related so that sand-sized sediment transport pathways can be inferred. The main vector for sediment transport as defined by the XRD analysis is from San Francisco Bay to the outer coast, where the sand then accumulates on the ebb tidal delta and also moves alongshore. This mineralogical link defines a critical pathway because large volumes of sediment have been removed from the Bay over the last century via channel dredging, aggregate mining, and borrow pit mining, with comparable volumes of erosion from the ebb tidal delta over the same period, in addition to high rates of shoreline retreat along the adjacent, open-coast beaches. Therefore, while previously only a temporal relationship was established, the transport pathway defined by mineralogical and geochemical tracers support the link between anthropogenic activities in the Bay and widespread erosion outside the Bay. The XRD results also establish the regional and local importance of sediment derived from cliff erosion, as well as both proximal and distal fluvial sources. This research is an important contribution to a broader provenance study aimed at identifying the driving forces for widespread geomorphic change in a heavily urbanized coastal-estuarine system.

  7. Mapping hyper-extended rift systems offshore and onshore: insights from the Bay of Biscay- Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nicolas J.; Masini, Emmanuel; Thinon, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Research conducted at present-day passive continental margins shows more varied crustal architectures than previously assumed. New seismic data together with drill-holes have revealed the occurrence of extremely thinned continental crust in the distal part of the margin as well as exhumed serpentinised sub-continental mantle oceanwards. In addition the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended rift systems has also greatly benefited from the study of onshore analogs preserved in mountain belts. The Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees correspond to a Lower Cretaceous rift system leading to the development of hyper-extended domains and ultimately oceanic crust in the Bay of Biscay. This domain represents one of the best natural laboratories to study the formation processes and evolution of hyper-extended domains. During late Cretaceous compression, these rifted domains were inverted resulting in the present-day Pyrenean mountain belt. In this contribution, we present a new paleogeographic map of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system. We integrate results from previous works and new work using different mapping methods to distinguish distinctive crustal domains related to hyper-extended systems both offshore and onshore. We combine seismic interpretations with gravity anomaly inversion and residual depth anomaly analysis to distinguish the different crustal domains across the offshore margin. Onshore, we use an innovative approach based on observations from present-day rifted margin architecture associated with classical field work to map the former hyper-extended domains. Another outcome of this work is the creation of a crustal thickness map using gravity inversion linking offshore and onshore domains from the Bay of Biscay to that of the Western-Pyrenees. This multidisciplinary approach enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Bay of Biscay rift system with the aim of better understanding the formation of hyper-extended domains

  8. Continuous, Autonomous Measurement of the CO2 System in Waquoit Bay, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, W. R.; Sayles, F. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; Weidman, C.

    2013-12-01

    The chemistry and biology of coastal systems are impacted by processes occurring on tidal, diurnal, and seasonal cycles as well as by unpredictable, discrete events. Continuous, autonomous measurements of key parameters are essential for capturing the impact of this range of processes on carbon cycling and ocean acidity. We deployed RATS, the Robotic Analyzer for the Total CO2 System in Seawater, to make continuous, high-precision, in situ measurements of pH and TCO2 for 35 days in June / July, 2013, in Waquoit Bay, MA. RATS was run with a sampling frequency of 2.5 hours, using on-board calibration. We combined these measurements with continuous salinity, temperature, water depth, and O2 measurements made by the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve and with additional WBNERR measurements of PAR, winds, and rainfall. There is a clear, diurnal signal in TCO2 and pH, whose intensity varies with incident radiation. The strongest signals in TCO2 and pH are associated with photosynthesis and respiration: pH increased and TCO2 decreased during the day, and the reverse at night. The daily ranges were as much as 600 μmol/kg in TCO2 and a factor of 10 in [H+]. Deviations from this signal, perhaps representing groundwater input, were apparent at tidal frequencies. The observed diurnal fluctuations of summertime TCO2 and pH were as large as the underlying seasonal variations in the studied area. Continuous, two-parameter carbonate system measurements are essential to quantifying the natural variability in the carbon cycle in coastal waters and to quantifying the effects of anthropogenic perturbations of the cycle, including eutrophication and ocean acidification, on coastal ecosystems.

  9. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume I. Entrainment-impact estimates for six fish populations inhabiting the Hudson River estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreman, J.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Vaughn, D.S.; Goodyear, C.P.; Christensen, S.W.; Kumar, K.D.; Kirk, B.L.; Van Winkle, W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is concerned with the estimation of the direct (or annual) entrainment impact of power plants on populations of striped bass, white perch, Alosa spp. (blueback herring and alewife), American shad, Atlantic tomcod, and bay anchovy in the Hudson River estuary. Entrainment impact results from the killing of fish eggs, larvae, and young juveniles that are contained in the cooling water cycled through a power plant. An Empirical Transport Model (ETM) is presented as the means of estimating a conditional entrainment mortality rate (defined as the fraction of a year class which would be killed due to entrainment in the absence of any other source of mortality). Most of this volume is concerned with the estimation of several parameters required by the ETM: physical input parameters (e.g., power-plant withdrawal flow rates); the longitudinal distribution of ichthyoplankton in time and space; the duration of susceptibility of the vulnerable organisms; the W-factors, which express the ratios of densities of organisms in power plant intakes to densities of organisms in the river; and the entrainment mortality factors (f-factors), which express the probability that an organism will be killed if it is entrained. Once these values are obtained, the ETM is used to estimate entrainment impact for both historical and projected conditions.

  10. Real-time Monitoring Network to Characterize Anthropogenic and Natural Events Affecting the Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. S.; Bonner, J. S.; Fuller, C.; Kirkey, W.; Ojo, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Hudson River watershed spans 34,700 km2 predominantly in New York State, including agricultural, wilderness, and urban areas. The Hudson River supports many activities including shipping, supplies water for municipal, commercial, and agricultural uses, and is an important recreational resource. As the population increases within this watershed, so does the anthropogenic impact on this natural system. To address the impacts of anthropogenic and natural activities on this ecosystem, the River and Estuary Observatory Network (REON) is being developed through a joint venture between the Beacon Institute, Clarkson University, General Electric Inc. and IBM Inc. to monitor New York's Hudson and Mohawk Rivers in real-time. REON uses four sensor platform types with multiple nodes within the network to capture environmentally relevant episodic events. Sensor platform types include: 1) fixed robotic vertical profiler (FRVP); 2) mobile robotic undulating platform (MRUP); 3) fixed acoustic Doppler current profiler (FADCP) and 4) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The FRVP periodically generates a vertical profile with respect to water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, particle concentration and size distribution, and fluorescence. The MRUP utilizes an undulating tow-body tethered behind a research vessel to measure the same set of water parameters as the FRVP, but does so 'synchronically' over a highly-resolved spatial regime. The fixed ADCP provides continuous water current profiles. The AUV maps four-dimensional (time, latitude, longitude, depth) variation of water quality, water currents and bathymetry along a pre-determined transect route. REON data can be used to identify episodic events, both anthropogenic and natural, that impact the Hudson River. For example, a strong heat signature associated with cooling water discharge from the Indian Point nuclear power plant was detected with the MRUP. The FRVP monitoring platform at Beacon, NY, located in the

  11. SF Bayweb 2009: Planting the Seeds of an Observing System in the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    UC Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 Toby Garfield SFSU Romberg Tiburon Center Tiburon, CA 94920 John Largier UC Davis / Bodega Marine Laboratory... Bodega Bay, Ca 94923 Abstract - A pilot project was recently completed in the San Francisco Bay from May 1-10, 2009, to test the use of advanced

  12. Proposed tethered unmanned aerial system for the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J.; McKay, J.; Evans, W.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This paper is based on a proposed unmanned aerial system platform that is to be outfitted with high-resolution sensors. The proposed system is to be tethered to a moveable ground station, which may be a research vessel or some form of ground vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or rover). The sensors include, at a minimum: camera, infrared sensor, thermal, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) camera, global positioning system (GPS), and a light-based radar (LIDAR). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing methods for pollution detection of failing septic systems, and to introduce the proposed system. Future work will look at the high-resolution data from the sensors and integrating the data through a process called information fusion. Typically, this process is done using the popular and well-published Kalman filter (or its nonlinear formulations, such as the extended Kalman filter). However, future work will look at using a new type of strategy based on variable structure estimation for the information fusion portion of the data processing. It is hypothesized that fusing data from the thermal and NDVI sensors will be more accurate and reliable for a multitude of applications, including the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area.

  13. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungsig Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1 a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2 co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm; and (3 a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm.

  14. Sequence stratigraphic framework and distribution of depositional systems for the Paleogene in Liaodong Bay area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With a comprehensive geological and geophysical data base,the Paleogene in the Liaodong Bay area,which consists of the Kongdian,Shahejie and Donghying Formations from the base to top,was divided into 4 second-order sequences and 8 third-order sequences based on the characteristics of the se-quence boundaries. Each third-order sequence is subdivided into the lowstand,lake transgressive and highstand systems tracts. The Lowstand systems tract (LST) is mainly composed of progradational parasequence sets,while the lake transgressive systems tract (TST) largely consists of the retrograda-tional parasequence sets and the highstand systems tract (HST) is dominated by the progradational parasequence sets. The main types of depositional systems include the shallow lake,semi-deep lake,deep lake,delta,fan delta,braided fluvial delta and nearshore subaqueous fan. The braided fluvial delta and fan delta depositional systems are mainly confined to the sequences of the lower SEs4-Ek,SEs3 and SEs1+2,while the sequences of SEd3,SEd2 and SEd1 are dominated by the delta and nearshore subaqueous fan depositional systems with the latter being developed at the downthrown side of the basin-bounding fault in each sequence. The evolution of the depositional systems is always con-trolled by the paleo-tectonic setting and the ancient landform in the space and geological time. It is concluded that the most favorable reservoirs are distributed in the Liaoxi low uplift and the central Liaozhong sag.

  15. Radionuclide distributions and sorption behavior in the Susquehanna--Chesapeake Bay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; McLean, R.I.; Domotor, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclides released into the Susquehanna--Chesapeake System from the Three Mile Island, Peach Bottom, and Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plants are partitioned among dissolved, particulate, and biological phases and may thus exist in a number of physical and chemical forms. In this project, we have measured the dissolved and particulate distributions of fallout /sup 137/Cs; reactor-released /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 58/Co; and naturally occurring /sup 7/Be and /sup 210/Pb in the lower Susquehanna River and Upper Chesapeake Bay. In addition, we chemically leached suspended particles and bottom sediments in the laboratory to determine radionuclide partitioning among different particulate-sorbing phases to complement the site-specific field data. This information has been used to document the important geochemical processes that affect the transport, sorption, distribution, and fate of reactor-released radionuclides (and by analogy, other trace contaminants) in this river-estuarine system. Knowledge of the mechanisms, kinetic factors, and processes that affect radionuclide distributions is crucial for predicting their biological availability, toxicity, chemical behavior, physical transport, and accumulation in aquatic systems. The results from this project provide the information necessary for developing accurate radionuclide-transport and biological-uptake models. 76 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Socioeconomic Response to Water Quality: a First Experience in Science and Policy Integration for the Izmit Bay Coastal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Gamze Tolun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of the Izmit Bay ecosystem, mainly caused by heavy industrialization and urbanization, has significantly impaired its beneficial use and resulted in the surrounding coastal zone losing its attractiveness for the inhabitants. An integrated coastal zone management approach has become an important requirement of future development plans to protect this fragile bay ecosystem. One of the main indicators of deterioration of the Izmit Bay coastal system is the decreasing water quality resulting from increased nutrient loads from the surrounding land.The consensus during the initial stakeholder meeting confirmed the widespread awareness of this phenomenon and "improvement of water quality in Izmit Bay" was determined as the main policy issue at stake. Public perception of and satisfaction with water quality were measured by a willingness to pay (WTP survey. The WTP for improved water quality was analyzed using the contingent valuation method. According to the questionnaire survey, 55% of the participants are willing to pay to increase the water quality. Impact of water quality on real-estate values was evaluated by hedonic pricing method, which is suitable for estimating direct and indirect use values of water resources. These results were used in a simulation model to assess coupled ecosystem, social, and economic system functioning of the Izmit Bay in response to various scenarios, and thus, to permit the necessary actions to be taken proactively. Two scenario simulations, for which domestic and runoff nitrogen loads are reduced independently, showed that hypothetical domestic wastewater treatment resulted in an improvement in simulated water transparency. The results suggest that domestic wastewater treatment should be a first priority for local administrations.

  17. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary; ,

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  18. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sumith S.; Shams, Navid; Visintainer, Paul; Nadelman, Robert B.; Hosur, Srilatha; Nelson, John; Wormser, Gary P.

    2011-01-01

    Although Lyme disease has been endemic to parts of the Lower Hudson Valley of New York, United States, for >2 decades, babesiosis has emerged there only since 2001. The number of Lower Hudson Valley residents in whom babesiosis was diagnosed increased 20-fold, from 6 to 119 cases per year during 2001–2008, compared with an ≈1.6-fold increase for the rest of New York. During 2002–2009, a total of 19 patients with babesiosis were hospitalized on 22 occasions at the regional tertiary care center. Concurrent conditions included advanced age, malignancies, splenectomy, and AIDS. Two patients acquired the infection from blood transfusions and 1 from perinatal exposure, rather than from a tick bite. One patient died. Clinicians should consider babesiosis in persons with fever and hemolytic anemia who have had tick exposure or have received blood products. PMID:21529393

  19. Development of a stormwater monitoring plan and geographic information system at Back Bay, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The initial objective of the Service's Back Bay Initiative will be to implement the first phase of a multi-year stormwater monitoring study to identify the main...

  20. Bolsa Bay, California, Proposed Ocean Entrance System Study. Report 2. Comprehensive Shoreline Response Computer Simulation, Bolsa Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    1980). 27. The success of the inlet channel at Agua Hedionda indicates that a stable non-navigable entrance at Bolsa Chica could be feasible provided a...dual jetty system similar to Agua Hedionda is incorporated into the design. However, structures that penetrate into the active surf zone are expected...and from the south in the summer months. i. The surfbreak rarely closes out. j. Surfing is best in the morning before the sea breeze becomes strong. 13

  1. North Atlantic Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Massachusetts (2001), Delaware Bay (1996), New Hampshire (2004), Hudson River (2006), and Rhode Island, Connecticut, NY/NJ Metro Area (2001) maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0020555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ESI data were collected, mapped, and digitized to provide environmental data for oil spill planning and response. The Clean Water Act with amendments by the...

  2. Comparisons process-to-bay level peer-to-peer network delay in IEC 61850 substation communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Hasan Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of IEC 61850 protocol in electrical power engineering industry for data communication systems between substations. This IEC 61850 protocol presents new challenges for real-time communication performance between Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs within substation because of the Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE messages. The analyses of substation Ethernet and WLAN (wireless LAN communication delay, its impact factors, various methods and different network topologies which can improve the real-time performance are discussed. For basic analysis of data flow within a substation, the Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET software is used. The process-to-bay level network simulation model is performed by using the OPNET software. The Ethernet delay and WLAN peer-to-peer performance of the process-to-bay level network simulation results are analyzed which is based on AP (access point, switched, shared Ethernet network or peer-to-peer network.

  3. A continuous, real-time water quality monitoring system for the coral reef ecosystems of Nanwan Bay, Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Kwee Siong; Leu, Ming-Yih; Wang, Jih-Terng; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Chung-Chi; Meng, Pei-Jie

    2014-08-30

    The coral reef ecosystems of Nanwan Bay, Southern Taiwan are undergoing degradation due to anthropogenic impacts, and as such have resulted in a decline in coral cover. As a first step in preventing the continual degradation of these coral reef environments, it is important to understand how changes in water quality affect these ecosystems on a fine-tuned timescale. To this end, a real-time water quality monitoring system was implemented in Nanwan Bay in 2010. We found that natural events, such as cold water intrusion due to upwelling, tended to elicit temporal shifts in coral spawning between 2010 and 2011. In addition, Degree Heating Weeks (DHWs), a commonly utilized predictor of coral bleaching, were 0.92 and 0.59 in summer 2010 and 2011, respectively. Though this quantity of DHW was below the presumed stress-inducing value for these reefs, a rise in DHWs in the future may stress the resident corals.

  4. Detrital carbonate peaks on the Labrador shelf, a 13-7 ka template for freshwater forcing from the Hudson Strait outlet of the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the subpolar gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John; Pearce, Christof; Wilson, Lindsay; Ólfasdótttir, Sædís

    2015-01-01

    The Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) was a large, dynamic ice sheet in the early Holocene. The glacial events through Hudson Strait leading to its eventual demise are recorded in the well-dated Labrador shelf core, MD99-2236 from the Cartwright Saddle. We develop a detailed history of the timing of ice-sheet discharge events from the Hudson Strait outlet of the LIS during the Holocene using high-resolution detrital carbonate, ice rafted detritus (IRD), δ18O, and sediment color data. Eight detrital carbonate peaks (DCPs) associated with IRD peaks and light oxygen isotope events punctuate the MD99-2236 record between 11.5 and 8.0 ka. We use the stratigraphy of the DCPs developed from MD99-2236 to select the appropriate ΔR to calibrate the ages of recorded glacial events in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait such that they match the DCPs in MD99-2236. We associate the eight DCPs with H0, Gold Cove advance, Noble Inlet advance, initial retreat of the Hudson Strait ice stream (HSIS) from Hudson Strait, opening of the Tyrrell Sea, and drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. The opening of Foxe Channel and retreat of glacial ice from Foxe Basin are represented by a shoulder in the carbonate data. ΔR of 350 years applied to the radiocarbon ages constraining glacial events H0 through the opening of the Tyrell Sea provided the best match with the MD99-2236 DCPs; ΔR values and ages from the literature are used for the younger events. A very close age match was achieved between the 8.2 ka cold event in the Greenland ice cores, DCP7 (8.15 ka BP), and the drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. Our stratigraphic comparison between the DCPs in MD99-2236 and the calibrated ages of Hudson Strait/Bay deglacial events shows that the retreat of the HSIS, the opening of the Tyrell Sea, and the catastrophic drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway at 8.2 ka are separate events that have been combined in previous estimates of the timing of the 8.2 ka event from marine records

  5. Keeping the wolves at bay: antitoxins of prokaryotic type II toxin-antitoxin systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ting eChan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I – VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA

  6. Land-ocean fluxes in the Paranaguá Bay estuarine system, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marone

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide modeling effort has been proposed by the LOICZ (Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Program to foster the acquisition of intercomparable data on land-ocean fluxes in estuaries and continental shelf ecosystems from all continental margins. As part of the South American component of this initiative, we present flux estimates of water, salt, dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and plankton for the estuarine system of Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil, based on the LOICZ modeling approach and local data obtained during the 1990's. This system is strongly influenced by a seasonal meteorological cycle, represented by the rainy/summer and dry/winter periods. Semi-diurnal tides of up to the 2.7-m range are responsible for the short time-scale dynamics. The model indicated a potential water export to the adjacent coast of up to 7 x 10(6 m³ d-1 in the dry season, and 28 x 10(6 m³ d-1 during the rainy season. The system exhibits seasonal and spatial variations in DIP and DIN fluxes. "DIP amounted to +2.3 x 10(6 mol P yr-1 and "DIN to -2.7 x 10(6 mol N yr-1, suggesting that net production of phosphate and consumption of inorganic nitrogen predominate throughout in the system. Fluxes and therefore export of DIN and eespecially of DIP are higher in the rainy season. Stoichiometric estimates based on the C:N:P ratios of the reacting particulate organic matter (mangrove and plankton detritus suggest that net denitrification predominates all over the bay, with values between -24.3 and -10.6 x 10(6 mol N year-1. Estimated seaward outflows had little effect upon the fate of the phyto- and zooplankton biomass in different sectors of the bay. This is exemplified by the low net export of algal production from the upper to the middle sectors of the estuary.Um esforço global de modelagem foi proposto pelo Programa LOICZ (Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone para promover a aquisição de dados compar

  7. The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator: Estimates of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgent, Rebecca A.; Parr, Patricia E.; Newman, Isadore; Higgins, Kristin K.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to estimate the reliability and validity of scores on the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (D. R. Riso & R. Hudson, 1999a). Results of 287 participants were analyzed. Alpha suggests an adequate degree of internal consistency. Evidence provides mixed support for construct validity using correlational and…

  8. 78 FR 20169 - Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hudson Yards Concrete...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Project in New York, New York AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Assessment for the Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Construction. SUMMARY: This notice advises the public that... coordination with Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for the construction of an underground concrete casing...

  9. 75 FR 39839 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of NY/NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... restrictions with the Kiewit and Weeks Marine contractors, and with Hudson River and Sandy Hook Pilots... transfer of the bridge span from shore to the barges has been scheduled on a weekday when it is expected to... Overtaking zones are established in areas identified by Weeks Marine, Hudson River and Sandy Hook Pilots as...

  10. Comments on James D. Brown and Thom Hudson's "The Alternatives in Language Assessment."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Anthony; Brown, James Dean; Hudson, Thom

    1999-01-01

    Anthony Bruton comments on Brown and Hudson's article "The Alternatives in Language Assessment," (v32 n4 Win 1998). Raises questions about some of their definitions and categories and suggests additional items that need to be considered by test takers. Brown and Hudson reply with clarifications of terms and definition of the scope of their paper.…

  11. 33 CFR 165.170 - Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY. 165.170 Section 165.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.170 Safety Zone: Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The...

  12. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, David; Waite, Ian

    1988-06-01

    The Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study assessed the effects of Kerr Dam operation on the fisheries of the lower Flathead ecosystem. South Bay, the southern most lobe of Flathead Lake, is the most extensive area of shallow water, and therefore, most effected by changes in lake levels. This study began in January of 1984 and was completed in early 1987. Vegetative and structural cover are relatively limited in South Bay, a condition which could contribute to lower recruitment for some fish species. Our data show that the study area contained 0.04% structural and 5.4% vegetative cover in June at full pool. Both figures are less than 1.0% at minimum pool. Structural complexity mediates the ecological interactions between littoral zone fish and their prey, and can affect local productivity and growth in fish. Structural complexity may also be important to overwinter survival of young perch in Flathead Lake. Winter conditions, including ice cover and fall drawdown, seasonally eliminate the vegetative portion of most rooted macrophytes in South Bay. This results in substantial loss of what little structural cover exists, depriving the perch population of habitat which has been occupied all summer. The loss of cover from draw-down concentrates and probably exposes perch to greater predation, including cannibalism, than would occur if structural complexity were greater. 33 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Antidiabetic Activity of Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System from Bay Leaves (Eugenia polyantha Wight) Ethyl Acetate Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihapsara, F.; Harini, M.; Widiyani, T.; Artanti, A. N.; Ani, I. L.

    2017-02-01

    Insulin resistance is caused by inability of target tissues to insulin response. Bay leaves (Eugenia polyantha Wight) fraction or extract have been used for the treatment of antidibetic mellitus type-2 resistance insulin (ADMRI) but it has low solubility and bioavailability. To overcome these problems, ethyl acetate fraction of bay leaves was formulated into self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) using Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) as a carrier oil. This study aims to produce nanoherbal medicine, determine effect of nanoherbal preparation derived from bay leaves as an anti-ADMRI. The results showed that the optimum SNEDDS formula was tween 80 : PEG 400 : Virgin Coconut Oil (30% : 60% : 10%) in 5 mL. It has emulsification time 13.00 seconds with the average of droplet size value 84.5 nanometer and zeta potential value ± 0.2 mV. Morphological observation showed the nanoemulsion particles has spherical shaped and stable in different pH media. Hypoglycaemic effect of single dose metformin, SNEDDS, combination a-half dose of SNEEDS with metformin value is 28.3%; 15.6%; 34.6% respectively.

  14. Heavy mineral analysis for assessing the provenance of sandy sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, F. L.; Woodrow, D. L.; McGann, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy minerals have been used to trace the sources and transportation of sandy sediment in San Francisco Bay and nearby coastal areas since the 1960s. We have the opportunity to sample similar environments and revisit the heavy mineral populations under the current San Francisco Coastal System study of the provenance of beach sand. Most of the sandy sediment in San Francisco Bay can be traced to distant sources including the Sierra Nevada batholith and associated terranes with local contributions from the Franciscan Complex. Heavy minerals from Sierran sources include ordinary hornblende, metamorphic amphiboles, and hypersthene while those from the Franciscan Complex include other types of pyroxene, epidote, basaltic hornblende, and glaucophane... Tertiary strata and volcanics in the surrounding hills and displaced Sierran rocks found on the continental shelf west of the San Andreas Fault Zone introduce similar minerals, but perhaps in a lesser volume to be identified as major contributors... The primary result of cluster analysis of heavy minerals separated from sand-sized sediment taken within San Francisco Bay, the adjacent continental shelf, local beaches, cliffs outside the Golden Gate, and upstream drainages indicate a widespread occurrence of sediment traceable to the Sierra Nevada. A second cluster of samples identifies samples of mixed Sierran and Franciscan lineage within the strait of the Golden Gate, on the San Francisco bar, and on coastal beaches. Sediment samples with predominantly Franciscan mineral content appear on beaches around Point Reyes, possibly transported from the Russian River. The heavy mineral composition supports transport from the east, through San Francisco Bay and out the Golden Gate to the San Francisco bar and southward.

  15. 77 FR 65929 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River.... Sec. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project located in Rockland... the following highway project in the State of New York: Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing...

  16. 78 FR 27473 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River... within the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing... FHWA published a ``Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions'' on the Tappan Zee Hudson River...

  17. Atypical ferromanganese micronodules from middle fan-valley system, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Ferromanganese micronodules having botryoidal and spheroidal morphogroups have been observed over a 0.22 million km@u2@@ area from the middle fan region of the Bay of Bengal. The bulk micronodules have 26.26% Mn, 1.02% Fe, 1.82% Ca, 0.12% Ni, 0...

  18. Winter-time circulation and sediment transport in the Hudson Shelf Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C.K.; Butman, B.; Traykovski, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Hudson Shelf Valley is a bathymetric low that extends across the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. From December 1999 to April 2000 a field experiment was carried out to investigate the transport of sediment in the shelf and valley system. Near-bed tripods and water-column moorings were deployed at water depths from 38 to 75 m in the axis of the shelf valley and at about 26 m on the adjacent shelves offshore of New Jersey and Long Island, New York. These measured suspended sediment concentrations, current velocities, waves, and water column properties. This paper analyzes observations made during December 1999 and January 2000, and presents the first direct near-bed measurements of suspended sediment concentration and sediment flux from the region. Sediment transport within the Hudson Shelf Valley was coherent over tens of kilometers, and usually aligned with the axis of the shelf valley. Down-valley (off-shore) transport was associated with energetic waves, winds from the east, moderate current velocities (5-10 cm/s), and sea level setup at Sandy Hook, NJ. Up-valley (shoreward) transport occurred frequently, and was associated with winds from the west, low wave energy, high current velocities (20-40 cm/s), and sea level set-down at the coast. Within the shelf valley, net sediment flux (the product of near-bed concentration and velocity) was directed shoreward, up the axis of the valley. Current velocities and suspended sediment fluxes on the New York and New Jersey continental shelves were lower than within the shelf valley, and exhibited greater variability in alignment. Longer term meteorological data indicate that wind, setup, and wave conditions during the study period were more conducive to up-valley transport than seasonal data suggest as average. To relate the observed up-valley sediment flux to observed accumulation of contaminants within the Hudson Shelf Valley requires consideration of transport over longer timescales than those

  19. Submarine groundwater discharge in the Sarasota Bay system: Its assessment and implications for the nearshore coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwashote, B. M.; Murray, M.; Burnett, W. C.; Chanton, J.; Kruse, S.; Forde, A.

    2013-02-01

    A study was conducted from July 2002 through June 2006 in order to assess the significance of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to Sarasota Bay (SB), Florida. The assessment approaches used in this study included manual seepage meters, geochemical tracers (radon, 222Rn and methane, CH4), and subseafloor resistivity measurements. The estimated SGD advection rates in the SB system were found to range from 0.7 to 24.0 cm/day, except for some isolated hot spot occurrences where higher rates were observed. In general, SGD estimates were relatively higher (5.9-24.0 cm/day) in the middle and south regions of the bay compared to the north region (0.7-5.9 cm/day). Average dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations within the SB water column ranged: 0.1-11 μM (NO2+NO3), 0.1-9.1 μM (NH4) and 0.2-1.4 μM (PO4). The average N/P ratio was higher in the north compared to the middle and south regions of the bay. On average, we conservatively estimate that about 27% of the total N in the SB system was derived via SGD. The prevalence of shallow embayed areas in the SB system and the presence of numerous septic tanks in the surrounding settlements enhanced the potential effects of nutrient rich seepages. Statistical comparison of the quantitative approaches revealed a good agreement between SGD estimates from manual seepage meters and those derived from the 222Rn model (p=0.67; α=0.05; n=18). CH4 was found to be useful for qualitative SGD assessments. CH4 and 222Rn were correlated (r2=0.31; α=0.05; n=54). Large scale resistivity surveys showed spatial variability that correlates more clearly with lithology than with SGD patterns.

  20. Transitions in the Colonial Hudson Valley: Capitalist, Bulk Goods, and Braudelian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Leitner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A long debate about the American “transition to capitalism” was apparently settled via a rough consensus on the gradual prevalence of rural capitalism in the north; and that even small, subsistence-oriented farm households engaged in some market exchange, while market-oriented farm households engaged in some subsistence activities. Yet certain Marxist scholars argue that even prevalent market exchange did not necessarily signify a capitalist economy.  Similarly, certain world-systems scholars see the debates as somewhat pointless, inasmuch as capitalism is a systemic characteristic that exists regardless of any individual identification. These latter notions derive in part from Braudel’s tripartite structure of early modern economic life, which sees self-sufficiency and basic daily survival existing alongside market economies and everyday forms of exchange, with the capitalist world-economy in turn overarching, yet not necessarily affecting, the other two levels.  This paper posits that colonial America’s “transition” to capitalism was effectively the gradual, often contested, and geographically uneven addition of Braudel’s second layer of economic life – the market economy – onto the first layer of self-sufficiency and basic material life; with this process arguably driven by the third layer of the larger capitalist economy, as other recent studies of the colonial Hudson Valley have focused on, albeit while ignoring the region’s diverse and uneven economic geography  It explores the notion of geographically-uneven Braudelian economic structures and transitions within the late 17th and 18th century colonial Hudson Valley, a region of four rather distinct subregions demonstrating that even within relatively small geographical spaces, at least at certain times, one can find different means of Braudelian economic life, and by extension, varying articulations with the world-economy and possible paths to eventual core emergence.

  1. Interseismic interactions in geometrically complex fault systems: Implications for San Francisco Bay Area fault creep and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. L.; Meade, B. J.; Loveless, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    Fault systems at active plate boundaries accommodate the differential motion of tectonic plates through slip on anastomosing faults within the seismogenic upper crust. The partitioning of slip across fault systems can be inferred from models of space-based geodetic measurements to estimate both fault slip rates and interseismic fault creep. Covariance between slip rate estimates on sub-parallel faults may be significant but can be reduced with the addition of the fundamental constraint that total slip across a fault system must sum to the differential plate motion rate. The importance of ensuring such kinematic consistency becomes increasingly important in strike-slip fault systems such as in the San Francisco Bay Area, where slip is localized across 4-8 sub-parallel faults with San Francisco Bay Area constrained by both GPS and InSAR observations and find that this effect may lead to a substantial revision of interseismic creep estimates on the Hayward fault by as much as 6 mm/yr at depth.

  2. Short Communication: Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKIMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sukiman, Faturrahman, Rohyani IS, Ahyadi H. 2014. Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 82-85. Eucheuma cottonii is a seaweed commodity that has a high economic value because it contains compounds used as raw materials for industries. Various methods of seaweed farming have been developed, one of which is a system of cultivation Multi Trophic Sea Farming. This study aimed to analyze the growth of E. cottonii by observing the production of biomass in four trophic combinations in the system Multi Trophic Sea Farming. The study was conducted in the area of the marine aquaculture Gerupuk bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Experiments were performed on four plots cages with trophic combination treatment as follows: K1 (E. cottonii-lobster-abalone, K2 (E. cottonii-abalone-red carp, K3 (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper, and K4 (E. cottonii-abalone-pomfret fish. Seedling of E. cottonii weighing 50 g was tied to a rope and placed at a depth of 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm. Measurement of biomass production was done every ten days until the thirtieth day. The highest biomass production of E. cottonii was obtained in K3 trophic combination (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper fish with a depth of seedlings of 5 cm. The combination of K3 trophic is recommended for cultivation of seaweed in the MTSF system.

  3. Sub-glacial Origin of the Hot Springs Bay Valley hydrothermal System, Akutan, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling, P. L.; Tobin, B.; Knapp, P.

    2015-12-01

    Exploration for geothermal energy in Hot Springs Bay Valley (HSBV) on Akutan Island, Alaska, has revealed a rich hydrothermal history, including what appears to be a stage of peak activity during a significant glacial period. Alteration mineralogy observed in 754 m of drill core recovered from the outflow zone is dominated by chlorite and includes minor smectite clays, a suite of zeolite species and several moderately high-temperature hydrothermal minerals (epidote/clinozoisite, prehnite, adularia and wairakite). The latter minerals each have minimum formation temperatures exceeding 200 oC, and fluid inclusion results in related calcite crystals indicate temperatures of formation to be as high as 275 oC, some 100 oC hotter than the modern boiling point with depth (BPD) curve at that depth (>62 m). In order to maintain liquid temperatures this high, the pressure during mineralization must have been substantially greater (~680 bar), a pressure change equivalent to erosion of ~280 m of rock (ρ=2.5 g/cm3). Although glacial erosion rates are too low (0.034 mm/yr; Bekele et al., 2003) for this amount of erosion to occur in a single glaciation, glacial melting and ablation are substantially more rapid (~100 mm/yr; Bekele et al., 2003; Person et al., 2012). Thus, a more probable scenario than pure erosion is that peak hydrothermal conditions occurred during a large glacial event, with the added pressure from the overlying ice allowing the high temperature minerals to form closer to the ground surface. Subsequent melting of the ice eroded upper tributary valleys and upper levels of the originally smectite-rich alteration assemblage, explaining the paucity of swelling clays in the region. We present mineralogical, fluid inclusion and geochronologic evidence to support these conclusions, and discuss the general implications of sub-glacial hydrothermal system formation and geothermal resource potential. References: Bekele, E., Rostron, B. and Person, M. (2003) Fluid pressure

  4. Biogeochemical study of water and bottom sediments from the Khai river - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, Natalia; Lobys, Nikolay; Drozdova, Anastasia; Peresypkin, Valery

    2014-05-01

    in Nha Trang bay area is 36-118 g/m^2/day in summer season. Sedimentary TOC (%) in samples varies in the range 0.50 - 1.95 in 2010, 0.22 - 1.84 in 2011 and 0.27 - 1.94 in 2012. This variations associated with differences in grain size distribution of sediments and intensity of anthropogenic influence. Mercury (Hg) concentration in the bottom sediments of aquatic systems varies from 2 to 108 ng/g of dry weight. Low concentration of the metal is typical for sediments, where OM is mainly represented by remains of aquatic organisms, while high concentration are common for river- and seaport areas with mainly terrestrial origin. Our study shows terrigenous organic matter is an important agent in the transfer of mercury from land to water ecosystems and Hg migrates in dissolved forms mainly. The reported study was supported by RFBR, research project No:14-05-31059-mol_a.

  5. The soluble guanylate cyclase activator BAY 58-2667 protects against morbidity and mortality in endotoxic shock by recoupling organ systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Vandendriessche

    Full Text Available Sepsis and septic shock are associated with high mortality rates and the majority of sepsis patients die due to complications of multiple organ failure (MOF. The cyclic GMP (cGMP producing enzyme soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC is crucially involved in the regulation of (microvascular homeostasis, cardiac function and, consequently, organ function. However, it can become inactivated when exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS. The resulting heme-free sGC can be reactivated by the heme- and nitric oxide (NO-independent sGC activator BAY 58-2667 (Cinaciguat. We report that late (+8 h post-treatment with BAY 58-2667 in a mouse model can protect against lethal endotoxic shock. Protection was associated with reduced hypothermia, circulating IL-6 levels, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and mortality. In contrast to BAY 58-2667, the sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 and the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor Sildenafil did not have any beneficial effect on survival, emphasizing the importance of the selectivity of BAY 58-2667 for diseased vessels and tissues. Hemodynamic parameters (blood pressure and heart rate were decreased, and linear and nonlinear indices of blood pressure variability, reflective for (uncoupling of the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the heart, were improved after late protective treatment with BAY 58-2667. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the pivotal role of the NO/sGC axis in endotoxic shock. Stabilization of sGC function with BAY 58-2667 can prevent mortality when given in the correct treatment window, which probably depends on the dynamics of the heme-free sGC pool, in turn influenced by oxidative stress. We speculate that, considering the central role of sGC signaling in many pathways required for maintenance of (microcirculatory homeostasis, BAY 58-2667 supports organ function by recoupling inter-organ communication pathways.

  6. Sea Level, Land Motion, and the Anomalous Tide at Churchill, Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of the tide gauge at Churchill, Manitoba, cannot be overstated. It is the only permanently operating tide gauge in the central Canadian Arctic, and it sits on a prime spot for monitoring the mantle's rebound from the Laurentide ice loss. Yet interpretation of the sea-level time series at Churchill has long been problematic, going back even to early work by Gutenberg in the 1940s. The long-term relative sea-level rates are inconsistent: approximately -4, -19, -5 ± 1 mm/y for the periods 1940-1970, 1970-1990, 1990-2014 respectively. Annual mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW) reflect these trends until around 1990, after which MLW leveled off and is now nearly unchanging. Slightly later, around 2000, the semidiurnal tides became very anomalous, with falling amplitudes and slightly increasing phase lags. The amplitude of M2 was approximately 154 cm before 2000; it dropped to about 146 cm by 2010 and reached an all-time low of 142 cm in 2014. Satellite altimeter estimates of the tide in this region, although challenging because of seasonal ice cover, show no comparable M2 changes, so the tidal changes must be localized to the near vicinity of the gauge (or to the gauge itself if caused by a malfunction). On the other hand, altimetry confirms the post-1992 Churchill measurements of mean sea level, thanks to the long time series of land motion measurements obtained at GPS station CHUR, which gives a vertical uplift of 10.1 mm/y. Combining satellite altimeter data with the Churchill tide-gauge data gives an implied vertical crustal rate of about 9.0 ± 0.8 mm/y, in reasonable agreement with the GPS. In summary, we have still anomalous MSL measurements at the Churchill gauge for the intermediate 1970-1990 era, and very anomalous tidal measurements since 2000, but we have apparently quite reliable MSL rates since 1990.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of methane emissions from a subarctic fen in the Hudson Bay Lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Hanis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-scale methane (CH4 flux (FCH4 over a subarctic fen at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada was measured to understand the magnitude of emissions during spring and fall shoulder seasons, and the growing season in relation to physical and biological conditions. FCH4 was measured using eddy covariance with a closed-path analyzer in four years (2008–2011. Cumulative measured annual FCH4 (shoulder plus growing seasons ranged from 3.0 to 9.6 g CH4 m−2 yr−1 among the four study years, with a mean of 6.5 to 7.1 g CH4 m−2 yr−1 depending upon gap-filling method. Soil temperatures to depths of 50 cm and air temperature were highly correlated with FCH4, with near surface soil temperature at 5 cm most correlated across spring, fall, and the whole season. The response of FCH4 to soil temperature at the 5 cm depth and air temperature was more than double in spring to that of fall. Emission episodes were generally not observed during spring thaw. Growing season emissions also depended upon soil and air temperatures but water table also exerted influence with FCH4 highest when water was 2–13 cm below and least when it was at or above the mean peat surface.

  8. Estimation of arboreal lichen biomass available to woodland caribou in Hudson Bay lowland black spruce sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Proceviat

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An arboreal lichen index to be utilized in assessing woodland caribou habitat throughout northeastern Ontario was developed. The "index" was comprised of 5 classes, which differentiated arboreal lichen biomass on black spruce trees, ranging from maximal quantities of arboreal lichen (class 5 to minimal amounts of arboreal lichen (class 1. This arboreal lichen index was subsequently used to estimate the biomass of arboreal lichen available to woodland caribou on lowland black spruce sites ranging in age from 1 year to 150 years post-harvest. A total of 39 sites were assessed and significant differences in arboreal lichen biomass were found, with a positive linear relationship between arboreal lichen biomass and forest age. It is proposed that the index be utilized by government and industry as a means of assessing the suitability of lowland black spruce habitat for woodland caribou in this region.

  9. Seismological Structure of the 1.8Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America and its affinity to present-day Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    How tectonic processes operated and changed through the Precambrian is debated: what was the nature and scale of orogenic events and were they different on the younger, hotter, more ductile Earth? The geology of northern Hudson Bay records the Paleoproterozoic collision between the Western Churchill and Superior plates: the 1.8Ga Trans-Hudson Orogeny (THO) and is thus an ideal study locale to address this issue. It has been suggested, primarily on the strength of traditional field geology, that the THO was comparable in scale and style to the present-day Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen (HKTO). However, understanding of the deep crustal architecture of the THO, and how it compares to the evolving HKTO is presently lacking. Through joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave data, we obtain new Moho depth estimates and shear velocity models for the crust and upper mantle. Archean crust in the Rae, Hearne and Churchill domains is thin and structurally simple, with a sharp Moho; upper crustal wavespeed variations are readily attributed to post-formation events. However, the Paleoproterozoic Quebec-Baffin segment of the THO has a deeper Moho and more complex crustal structure. Our observations are strikingly similar to recent models, computed using the same methods, of the HKTO lithosphere, where deformation also extends >400km beyond the collision front. On the strength of Moho character, present-day crustal thickness, and metamorphic grade, we thus propose that southern Baffin experienced uplift of a similar magnitude and spatial extent to the Himalayas during the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogeny.

  10. A Community Terrain-Following Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    coarser DOPPIO grid-a with an averaged resolution of 7km is the donor to the Hudson Canyon grid-b and the Chesapeake-Delaware Bays grid-d. The...ROMS nested grid application for the U.S. East Coast: (a) DOPPIO coarse grid, (b) Hudson Canyon refinement grid (1:3 ratio from a), (c) PIONEER array...temperature (upper panel; Celsius) and surface salinity (lower panel) for 31-Jan-2014. The refined solution for the Hudson Canyon grid is overlaid on

  11. Communities recognition in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem by dynamical clustering algorithms based on different oscillators systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pluchino, Alessandro; Latora, Vito

    2008-01-01

    We have recently introduced an efficient method for the detection and identification of modules in complex networks, based on the de-synchronization properties (dynamical clustering) of phase oscillators. In this paper we apply the dynamical clustering tecnique to the identification of communities of marine organisms living in the Chesapeake Bay food web. We show that our algorithm is able to perform a very reliable classification of the real communities existing in this ecosystem by using different kinds of dynamical oscillators. We compare also our results with those of other methods for the detection of community structures in complex networks.

  12. Redox states of underground brine system along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xueyan; YU Zhigang; NING Jinsong; CHEN Hongtao; MI Tiezhu

    2008-01-01

    Underground brine samples were collected along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay,Shangdong,China in two field investigations in 2003.The brines are confined in the Quaternary sediment and underwent a series of geochemical changes.The redox states of these brines were assessed qualitatively based on the measurements of Eh and redox-sensitive species such as DO,NO NO3,Mn2+,Fe2+,SO2-4 in the brines.The redox condition of the underground brine is anoxic,and the redox reactions that controlled the redox potential of brines should be Fe (Ⅲ) reduction and sulfate reduction.

  13. Rock Engineering Design by Xiating Feng and John A Hudson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.T.Brown

    2012-01-01

    This highly original and innovative book is the outcome of the work of the Commission on Rock Engineering Design Methodology of the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) in the period 2007-2011.The work of the Commission was managed by the authors,Professor John A Hudson,ISRM President for 2007-2011,and Professor Xiating Feng,ISRM President for 2011-2015,in association with the Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering.Recently,this reviewer (2011) has argued that the work of its Commissions has been among the major achievements of the ISRM in the 50 years since its foundation in 1962.This book adds to that impressive record of achievement.

  14. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region....

  15. Integration of bed characteristics, geochemical tracers, current measurements, and numerical modeling for assessing the provenance of beach sand in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hein, James R.; McGann, Mary; Mizell, Kira; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Takesue, Renee K.; Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Over 150 million m3 of sand-sized sediment has disappeared from the central region of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half century. This enormous loss may reflect numerous anthropogenic influences, such as watershed damming, bay-fill development, aggregate mining, and dredging. The reduction in Bay sediment also appears to be linked to a reduction in sediment supply and recent widespread erosion of adjacent beaches, wetlands, and submarine environments. A unique, multi-faceted provenance study was performed to definitively establish the primary sources, sinks, and transport pathways of beach-sized sand in the region, thereby identifying the activities and processes that directly limit supply to the outer coast. This integrative program is based on comprehensive surficial sediment sampling of the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, including the seabed, Bay floor, area beaches, adjacent rock units, and major drainages. Analyses of sample morphometrics and biological composition (e.g., Foraminifera) were then integrated with a suite of tracers including 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopes, rare earth elements, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogy, and heavy minerals, and with process-based numerical modeling, in situ current measurements, and bedform asymmetry to robustly determine the provenance of beach-sized sand in the region.

  16. Study on headland-bay sandy coast stability in South China coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Tao; Chen, Zi-Shen

    2011-03-01

    Headland-bay beach equilibrium planform has been a crucial problem abroad to long-term sandy beach evolution and stabilization, extensively applied to forecast long-term coastal erosion evolvement and the influences of coastal engineering as well as long-term coastal management and protection. However, little concern focuses on this in China. The parabolic relationship is the most widely used empirical relationship for determining the static equilibrium shape of headland-bay beaches. This paper utilizes the relation to predict and classify 31 headland-bay beaches and concludes that these bays cannot achieve the ultimate static equilibrium planform in South China. The empirical bay equation can morphologically estimate beach stabilization state, but it is just a referential predictable means and is difficult to evaluate headland-bay shoreline movements in years and decades. By using Digital Shoreline Analysis System suggested by USGS, the rates of shoreline recession and accretion of these different headland-bay beaches are quantitatively calculated from 1990 to 2000. The conclusions of this paper include that (a) most of these 31 bays maintain relatively stable and the rates of erosion and accretion are relatively large with the impact of man-made constructions on estuarine within these bays from 1990 to 2000; (b) two bays, Haimen Bay and Hailingshan Bay, originally in the quasi-static equilibrium planform determined by the parabolic bay shape equation, have been unstable by the influence of coastal engineering; and (c) these 31 bays have different recession and accretion characters occurring in some bays and some segments. On the one hand, some bays totally exhibit accretion, but some bays show erosion on the whole. Shanwei Bay, Houmen Bay, Pinghai Bay and Yazhou Bay have the similar planforms, characterized by less accretion on the sheltering segment and bigger accretion on the transitional and tangential segments. On the other hand, different segments of some

  17. Distributions and pollution assessment of heavy metals Pb, Cd and Cr in the water system of Kendari Bay, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armid, A.; Shinjo, R.; Ruslan, R.; Fahmiati

    2017-02-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals Pb, Cd and Cr in the coastal waters of Kendari Bay were analyzed to assess their pollution status. Water samples from 32 sampling points were analyzed for dissolved heavy metals concentrations by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The RSD(%) of each metal was accounted to analyze the diversity of the heavy metals among 32 sampling points. The results demonstrate that the dissolved heavy metal Pb had the highest concentrations (0.009 to 0.549 μg/L, average = 0.210 μg/L) followed by Cr (0.085 to 0.386 μg/L, average = 0.149 μg/L), and Cd (0.001 to 0.015 μg/L, average = 0.008 μg/L). Based on the the RSD values (Pb = 87.8%, Cd = 45.2% and Cr = 41.3%), it is suggested that the antropogenic activities controls the high diversity of concentrations for heavy metal Pb relative to those of Cd and Cr. Comparing the data with the mean oceanic concentrations, only the concentrations of Pb exceed the mean oceanic level (210 folds). Therefore, the water system of Kendari Bay is severely polluted with heavy metal Pb. More management and treatment should be introduced to protect the marine environment in the study area, especially from Pb pollution.

  18. The anti-inflammatory drug BAY 11-7082 suppresses the MyD88-dependent signalling network by targeting the ubiquitin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickson, Sam; Campbell, David G.; Emmerich, Christoph H.; Knebel, Axel; Plater, Lorna; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Shpiro, Natalia; Cohen, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The compound BAY 11-7082 inhibits IκBα [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)α] phosphorylation in cells and has been used to implicate the canonical IKKs (IκB kinases) and NF-κB in >350 publications. In the present study we report that BAY 11-7082 does not inhibit the IKKs, but suppresses their activation in LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-stimulated RAW macrophages and IL (interleukin)-1-stimulated IL-1R (IL-1 receptor) HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. BAY 11-7082 exerts these effects by inactivating the E2-conjugating enzymes Ubc (ubiquitin conjugating) 13 and UbcH7 and the E3 ligase LUBAC (linear ubiquitin assembly complex), thereby preventing the formation of Lys63-linked and linear polyubiquitin chains. BAY 11-7082 prevents ubiquitin conjugation to Ubc13 and UbcH7 by forming a covalent adduct with their reactive cysteine residues via Michael addition at the C3 atom of BAY 11-7082, followed by the release of 4-methylbenzene-sulfinic acid. BAY 11-7082 stimulated Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chain formation in cells and protected HIF1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) from proteasomal degradation, suggesting that it inhibits the proteasome. The results of the present study indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of BAY 11-7082, its ability to induce B-cell lymphoma and leukaemic T-cell death and to prevent the recruitment of proteins to sites of DNA damage are exerted via inhibition of components of the ubiquitin system and not by inhibiting NF-κB. PMID:23441730

  19. 2012 FEMA Topographic Lidar: Hudson-Hoosic and Deerfield Watersheds, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Hudson-Hoosic and Deerfield project area. The entire survey area for Massachusetts is...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  1. Hudson River Sub_Bottom Profile Data - Raw SEG-Y Files (*.sgy)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hudson River Estuary Shallow Water Surveys. Subbottom data was collected November 5 to December 15, 2009, in the estuary north from Saugerties to Troy. Data...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  3. 2012 FEMA Topographic Lidar: Hudson-Hoosic and Deerfield Watersheds, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Hudson-Hoosic and Deerfield project area. The entire survey area for Massachusetts is...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Hudson...

  7. Holocene paleoclimate records from a large California estuarine system and its watershed region: linking watershed climate and bay conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud-Roam, Frances P.; Lynn Ingram, B.; Hughes, Malcolm; Florsheim, Joan L.

    2006-07-01

    The San Francisco Bay-Delta system includes a watershed that covers a large area of California and provides water to two-thirds of the State's population. Climate over the estuary and its watershed in the dry summer months is controlled by the subtropical high which dominates and deflects storms from California. The subtropical high weakens and migrates south as the Aleutian Low strengthens, bringing wet winter storms to the region. Paleoclimatic records from the Bay and its greater watershed, spanning the Holocene, are reviewed here in order to better understand natural variations of precipitation and runoff and the linkages between those variations and the salinity and ecosystems of the estuary. To better understand regional-scale climate patterns, paleoclimate records from coastal California and the Great Basin are also considered. Large fluctuations in climate have occurred during the period of interest, and there is generally good agreement between the paleoclimate records from different regions. Early Holocene climate throughout California was marked by rising temperatures and reduced moisture as seen in fire records from the watershed. This warmth and aridity peaked about 5000-7000 years ago and was followed by a cooling trend, with variable moisture conditions. The Estuary formed relatively rapidly in response to a high rate of sea level rise that dominated the Holocene until about 6000 years ago, and the subsequent reduced rate of inundation allowed vast tidal marshes to form along the edges of the estuary, which have since been recording changes in environmental conditions. The impacts of changing regional climate patterns are experienced in the San Francisco Bay-Delta system, as altered fresh water flows result in altered estuary salinity. For example, approximately 3800 cal yr B.P., records from throughout the state indicate a cool, moist period, and Bay salinity was reduced; this period was followed by a general drying trend throughout California over

  8. Three-Dimensional Scale-Model Tank Experiment of the Hudson Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Three-Dimensional Scale-Model Tank Experiment of the Hudson Canyon Region Jason D. Sagers Applied Research Laboratories at The University of...planning for future experiments in ocean environments with slopes and canyons . APPROACH The development of fully 3D numerical acoustic propagation models...Experiment of the Hudson Canyon Region 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  9. Hydroelectric Optimized System Sensitivity to Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. C.; Howard, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    This paper compares the response of a large hydro system, globally optimized for daily operations, under a range of reservoir system inflows. The modeled system consists of Projects and hydro operating constraints on the South Saskatchewan River, Lake Winnipeg, Southern Indian Lake, Churchill Diversion, Red River, Winnipeg River, and the Nelson River. The river system is continental in scale, stretching from the Rocky Mountains to Hudson Bay. The hydro storage is large enough to operate with a two year cycle, which includes freezeup conditions. The objective is to maximize seasonal value of energy generation over a two year time horizon. Linear and quadratic constraints represent reservoir stage-storage curves, tailwater stage-discharge curves, transient river routing, and seasonally dependent environmental constraints on operations. This paper describes the optimization modeling approaches used to represent an actual physical system and to accommodate uncertainties in the historical datasets used for calibration. The results are hypothetical, not a forecast.

  10. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hudson River included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Hudson River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). A composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of Hudson River sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed with three species. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  11. Migration of the Pee Dee River system inferred from ancestral paleochannels underlying the South Carolina Grand Strand and Long Bay inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, W.E.; Morton, R.A.; Putney, T.R.; Katuna, M.P.; Harris, M.S.; Gayes, P.T.; Driscoll, N.W.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Several generations of the ancestral Pee Dee River system have been mapped beneath the South Carolina Grand Strand coastline and adjacent Long Bay inner shelf. Deep boreholes onshore and high-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore allow for reconstruction of these paleochannels, which formed during glacial lowstands, when the Pee Dee River system incised subaerially exposed coastal-plain and continental-shelf strata. Paleochannel groups, representing different generations of the system, decrease in age to the southwest, where the modern Pee Dee River merges with several coastal-plain tributaries at Winyah Bay, the southern terminus of Long Bay. Positions of the successive generational groups record a regional, southwestward migration of the river system that may have initiated during the late Pliocene. The migration was primarily driven by barrier-island deposition, resulting from the interaction of fluvial and shoreline processes during eustatic highstands. Structurally driven, subsurface paleotopography associated with the Mid-Carolina Platform High has also indirectly assisted in forcing this migration. These results provide a better understanding of the evolution of the region and help explain the lack of mobile sediment on the Long Bay inner shelf. Migration of the river system caused a profound change in sediment supply during the late Pleistocene. The abundant fluvial source that once fed sand-rich barrier islands was cut off and replaced with a limited source, supplied by erosion and reworking of former coastal deposits exposed at the shore and on the inner shelf.

  12. Communities recognition in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem by dynamical clustering algorithms based on different oscillators systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, A.; Rapisarda, A.; Latora, V.

    2008-10-01

    We have recently introduced [Phys. Rev. E 75, 045102(R) (2007); AIP Conference Proceedings 965, 2007, p. 323] an efficient method for the detection and identification of modules in complex networks, based on the de-synchronization properties (dynamical clustering) of phase oscillators. In this paper we apply the dynamical clustering tecnique to the identification of communities of marine organisms living in the Chesapeake Bay food web. We show that our algorithm is able to perform a very reliable classification of the real communities existing in this ecosystem by using different kinds of dynamical oscillators. We compare also our results with those of other methods for the detection of community structures in complex networks.

  13. Automated Calibration System for a High-Precision Measurement of Neutrino Mixing Angle $\\theta_{13}$ with the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Carr, R; Dwyer, D A; Gu, W Q; Li, G S; Qian, X; McKeown, R D; Tsang, R H M; Wang, W; Wu, F F; Zhang, C

    2013-01-01

    We describe the automated calibration system for the antineutrino detectors in the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. This system consists of 24 identical units instrumented on 8 identical 20-ton liquid scintillator detectors. Each unit is a fully automated robotic system capable of deploying an LED and various radioactive sources into the detector along given vertical axes. Selected results from performance studies of the calibration system are reported.

  14. Automated calibration system for a high-precision measurement of neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} with the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J., E-mail: jianglai.liu@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Cai, B.; Carr, R. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Dwyer, D.A. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gu, W.Q.; Li, G.S. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Qian, X. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); McKeown, R.D. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Tsang, R.H.M. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, W. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wu, F.F. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhang, C. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We describe the automated calibration system for the antineutrino detectors in the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment. This system consists of 24 identical units instrumented on 8 identical 20-ton liquid scintillator detectors. Each unit is a fully automated robotic system capable of deploying an LED and various radioactive sources into the detector along given vertical axes. Selected results from performance studies of the calibration system are reported.

  15. Introduction of structural health and safety monitoring warning systems for Shenzhen-Hong Kong Western Corridor Shenzhen Bay Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhou, X. T.; Leng, J.; Liang, Z.; Zheng, C.; Sun, X. F.

    2008-03-01

    Though the brief introduction of the completed structural health and safety monitoring warning systems for Shenzhen-Hongkong western corridor Shenzhen bay highway bridge (SZBHMS), the self-developed system frame, hardware and software scheme of this practical research project are systematically discussed in this paper. The data acquisition and transmission hardware and the basic software based on the NI (National Instruments) Company virtual instruments technology were selected in this system, which adopted GPS time service receiver technology and so on. The objectives are to establish the structural safety monitoring and status evaluation system to monitor the structural responses and working conditions in real time and to analyze the structural working statue using information obtained from the measured data. It will be also provided the scientific decision-making bases for the bridge management and maintenance. Potential technical approaches to the structural safety warning systems, status identification and evaluation method are presented. The result indicated that the performance of the system has achieved the desired objectives, ensure the longterm high reliability, real time concurrence and advanced technology of SZBHMS. The innovate achievement which is the first time to implement in domestic, provide the reference for long-span bridge structural health and safety monitoring warning systems design.

  16. THE ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE COMPLEX AMPLITUDE IN A COUPLED BAY-RIVER SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou-de Han; Xin Wen

    2004-01-01

    We consider the numerical approximations of the complex amplitude in a coupled bay-river system in this work. One half-circumference is introduced as the artificial boundary in the open sea, and one segment is introduced as the artificial boundary in the river if the river is semi-infinite. On the artificial boundary a sequence of high-order artificial boundary conditions are proposed. Then the original problem is solved in a finite computational domain, which is equivalent to a variational problem. The numerical approximations for the original problem are obtained by solving the variational problem with the finite element method. The numerical examples show that the artificial boundary conditions given in this work are very effective.

  17. Linking fish species traits to environmental conditions in the Jakarta Bay-Pulau Seribu coral reef system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel F R

    2017-09-15

    Coral reefs around the globe have been subjected to a wide range of stressors. In the present study, fish species were recorded across a pronounced in-to-offshore gradient in the Jakarta Bay-Pulau Seribu reef system. In addition to this, fish species traits were obtained from FishBase. RLQ analysis revealed a significant association between fish species traits and environmental variables. Fish species associated with perturbed, inshore waters were resilient to disturbance, had higher mortality rates, higher growth rates and mainly consumed animals. In contrast, fish species associated with less perturbed, mid- and offshore waters had greater life expectancy, higher age at maturity, greater life span, greater generation time and mainly fed on plants or plants and animals. Eutrophication, pollution and physical destruction of coral substrate in inshore waters has thus selected for a low biomass and depauperate fish community characterised by fast growing and short lived species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  19. Nitrogen transfers off Walvis Bay: a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical modeling approach in the Namibian upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, E.; Dadou, I.; Marchesiello, P.; Cambon, G.; Le Vu, B.; Sudre, J.; Garçon, V.; Machu, E.; Rixen, T.; Kock, A.; Flohr, A.; Paulmier, A.; Lavik, G.

    2013-06-01

    Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) are regions of high primary production often associated with oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). They represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N) cycle. By exporting organic matter (OM) and nutrients produced in the coastal region to the open ocean, EBUS can play an important role in sustaining primary production in subtropical gyres. However, losses of fixed inorganic N through denitrification and anammox processes take place in oxygen depleted environments such as EBUS, and can potentially mitigate the role of these regions as a source of N to the open ocean. EBUS can also represent a considerable source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, affecting the atmospheric budget of N2O. In this paper a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical model (ROMS/BioEBUS) is used to investigate the N budget in the Namibian upwelling system. The main processes linked to EBUS and associated OMZs are taken into account. The study focuses on the northern part of the Benguela upwelling system (BUS), especially the Walvis Bay area (between 22° S and 24° S) where the OMZ is well developed. Fluxes of N off the Walvis Bay area are estimated in order to understand and quantify (1) the total N offshore export from the upwelling area, representing a possible N source that sustains primary production in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre; (2) export production and subsequent losses of fixed N via denitrification and anammox under suboxic conditions (O2 < 25 mmol O2 m-3); and (3) the N2O emission to the atmosphere in the upwelling area. In the mixed layer, the total N offshore export is estimated as 8.5 ± 3.9 × 1010 mol N yr-1 at 10° E off the Walvis Bay area, with a mesoscale contribution of 20%. Extrapolated to the whole BUS, the coastal N source for the subtropical gyre corresponds to 0.1 ± 0.04 mol N m-2 yr-1. This N flux represents a major source of N for the gyre compared with other N sources, and contributes 28% of the new primary

  20. Nitrogen transfers off Walvis Bay: a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical modeling approach in the Namibian upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gutknecht

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS are regions of high primary production often associated with oxygen minimum zones (OMZs. They represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N cycle. By exporting organic matter (OM and nutrients produced in the coastal region to the open ocean, EBUS can play an important role in sustaining primary production in subtropical gyres. However, losses of fixed inorganic N through denitrification and anammox processes take place in oxygen depleted environments such as EBUS, and can potentially mitigate the role of these regions as a source of N to the open ocean. EBUS can also represent a considerable source of nitrous oxide (N2O to the atmosphere, affecting the atmospheric budget of N2O. In this paper a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical model (ROMS/BioEBUS is used to investigate the N budget in the Namibian upwelling system. The main processes linked to EBUS and associated OMZs are taken into account. The study focuses on the northern part of the Benguela upwelling system (BUS, especially the Walvis Bay area (between 22° S and 24° S where the OMZ is well developed. Fluxes of N off the Walvis Bay area are estimated in order to understand and quantify (1 the total N offshore export from the upwelling area, representing a possible N source that sustains primary production in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre; (2 export production and subsequent losses of fixed N via denitrification and anammox under suboxic conditions (O2 2 m−3; and (3 the N2O emission to the atmosphere in the upwelling area. In the mixed layer, the total N offshore export is estimated as 8.5 ± 3.9 × 1010 mol N yr−1 at 10° E off the Walvis Bay area, with a mesoscale contribution of 20%. Extrapolated to the whole BUS, the coastal N source for the subtropical gyre corresponds to 0.1 ± 0.04 mol N m−2 yr−1. This N flux represents a major source of N for the gyre compared with other N sources, and contributes 28% of the new primary

  1. Sea-Level Rise Impacts on Hudson River Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, A.; Nitsche, F. O.

    2015-12-01

    The response of tidal marshes to increasing sea-level rise is uncertain. Tidal marshes can adapt to rising sea levels through vertical accretion and inland migration. Yet tidal marshes are vulnerable to submergence if the rate of sea-level rise exceeds the rate of accretion and if inland migration is limited by natural features or development. We studied how Piermont and Iona Island Marsh, two tidal marshes on the Hudson River, New York, would be affected by sea-level rise of 0.5m, 1m, and 1.5m by 2100. This study was based on the 2011-2012 Coastal New York LiDAR survey. Using GIS we mapped sea-level rise projections accounting for accretion rates and calculated the submerged area of the marsh. Based on the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Vegetation 2005 dataset, we studied how elevation zones based on vegetation distributions would change. To evaluate the potential for inland migration, we assessed land cover around each marsh using the National Land Cover Database 2011 Land Cover dataset and examined the slope beyond the marsh boundaries. With an accretion rate of 0.29cm/year and 0.5m of sea-level rise by 2100, Piermont Marsh would be mostly unchanged. With 1.5m of sea-level rise, 86% of Piermont Marsh would be flooded. For Iona Island Marsh with an accretion rate of 0.78cm/year, sea-level rise of 0.5m by 2100 would result in a 4% expansion while 1.5m sea-level rise would cause inundation of 17% of the marsh. The results indicate that Piermont and Iona Island Marsh may be able to survive rates of sea-level rise such as 0.5m by 2100 through vertical accretion. At rates of sea-level rise like 1.5m by 2100, vertical accretion cannot match sea-level rise, submerging parts of the marshes. High elevations and steep slopes limit Piermont and Iona Island Marsh's ability to migrate inland. Understanding the impacts of sea-level rise on Piermont and Iona Island Marsh allows for long-term planning and could motivate marsh conservation programs.

  2. Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Seawater Intrusion into the Monterey Bay Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidlisecky, A; Moran, T; Hansen, B; Knight, R

    2016-03-01

    We use electrical resistivity tomography to obtain a 6.8-km electrical resistivity image to a depth of approximately 150 m.b.s.l. along the coast of Monterey Bay. The resulting image is used to determine the subsurface distribution of saltwater- and freshwater-saturated sediments and the geologic controls on fluid distributions in the region. Data acquisition took place over two field seasons in 2011 and 2012. To maximize our ability to image both vertical and horizontal variations in the subsurface, a combination of dipole-dipole, Wenner, Wenner-gamma, and gradient measurements were made, resulting in a large final dataset of approximately 139,000 data points. The resulting resistivity section extends to a depth of 150 m.b.s.l., and is used, in conjunction with the gamma logs from four coastal monitoring wells to identify four dominant lithologic units. From these data, we are able to infer the existence of a contiguous clay layer in the southern portion of our transect, which prevents downward migration of the saltwater observed in the upper 25 m of the subsurface to the underlying freshwater aquifer. The saltwater and brackish water in the northern portion of the transect introduce the potential for seawater intrusion into the hydraulically connected freshwater aquifer to the south, not just from the ocean, but also laterally from north to south.

  3. Deposition of large organic particles (macrodetritus in a sandy beach system (Puck Bay, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kotwicki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of organic macrodetritus deposited on the sandy shores of the southern Baltic, and to determine the type of washout material and their chemical composition (carbon and nitrogen.     Over 900 samples of macrodetritus (particles retained on a 0.5 mm sieve were collected from seven sampling locations along a 120 km stretch of coastline in Poland at monthly intervals in 2002. Analysis of the C and N content of several categories of detritus supplied information about seasonal changes in and the ageing of algal debris, and indicated that the amount of carrion is constant; the latter is apparently always metabolised very rapidly. The annual deposition of macroalgal detritus on this coast was estimated at 15 000 tonnes fresh weight, that is around 75% of the primary production of filamentous macroalgae in Puck Bay.     In comparison with the amounts of kelp deposited on sandy beaches in South Africa (Griffiths & Stenton-Dozey 1981, the massive seaweed washouts on Mediterranean beaches (Morand & Briand 1996, or the deposition of algal mats in the northern Baltic (Norkko & Bonsdorff 1996a, the quantities of macrodetritus on the shore in the study area are average, even allowing for the fact that the Baltic Sea is highly eutrophic (HELCOM 2005.

  4. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  5. Orbital modulation of millennial-scale climate variability in an earth system model of intermediate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Friedrich

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of orbital variations on simulated millennial-scale variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC is studied using the earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM. It is found that for present-day topographic boundary conditions low obliquity values (~22.1° favor the triggering of internally generated millennial-scale variability in the North Atlantic region. Reducing the obliquity leads to changes of the pause-pulse ratio of the corresponding AMOC oscillations. Stochastic excitations of the density-driven overturning circulation in the Nordic Seas can create regional sea-ice anomalies and a subsequent reorganization of the atmospheric circulation. The resulting remote atmospheric anomalies over the Hudson Bay can release freshwater pulses into the Labrador Sea leading to a subsequent reduction of convective activity. The millennial-scale AMOC oscillations disappear if LGM bathymetry (with closed Hudson Bay is prescribed. Furthermore, our study documents the marine and terrestrial carbon cycle response to millennial-scale AMOC variability. Our model results support the notion that stadial regimes in the North Atlantic are accompanied by relatively high levels of oxygen in thermocline and intermediate waters off California – in agreement with paleo-proxy data.

  6. Galveston Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary is located on the upper Texas Gulf coast (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). It is composed of four major sub-bays—Galveston, Trinity, East, and West Bays. It is Texas’ largest estuary on the Gulf Coast with a total area of 155,399 hectares (384,000 acres) and 1,885 km (1,171 miles) of shoreline (Burgan and Engle, 2006). The volume of the bay has increased over the past 50 years due to subsidence, dredging, and sea level rise. Outside of ship channels, the maximum depth is only 3.7 m (12 ft), with the average depth ranging from 1.2 m (4 ft) to 2.4 m (8 ft)— even shallower in areas with widespread oyster reefs (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). The tidal range is less than 0.9 m (3 ft), but water levels and circulation are highly influenced by wind. The estuary was formed in a drowned river delta, and its bayous were once channels of the Brazos and Trinity Rivers. Today, the watersheds surrounding the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, along with many other smaller bayous, feed into the bay. The entire Galveston Bay watershed is 85,470 km2 (33,000 miles2 ) large (Figure 1). Galveston Island, a 5,000 year old sand bar that lies at the western edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf of Mexico, impedes the freshwater flow of the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers into the Gulf, the majority of which comes from the Trinity. The Bolivar Peninsula lies at the eastern edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf. Water flows into the Gulf at Bolivar Roads, 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 Galveston Pass, between Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula, and at San Luis Pass, between the western side of Galveston Island and Follets Island.

  7. Latest Holocene evolution and human disturbance of a channel segment in the Hudson River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, A.D.; Sommerfield, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    The latest Holocene sedimentary record of a cohesive channel and subtidal shoal in the lower Hudson River Estuary was examined to elucidate natural (sea-level rise, sediment transport) and anthropogenic (bulkheading, dredging) influences on the recent morphodynamic evolution of the system. To characterize the seafloor and shallow subbottom, ??? 100 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles (chirp) were collected within a 20-km reach of the estuary and correlated with sediment lithologies provided by eight vibracores recovered along seismic lines. Sediment geochronology with 137Cs and 14C was used to estimate intermediate and long-term sedimentation rates, respectively, and historical bathymetric data were analyzed to identify regional patterns of accretion and erosion, and to quantify changes in channel geometry and sediment volume. The shoal lithosome originated around 4 ka presumably with decelerating eustatic sea level rise during the latest Holocene. Long-term sedimentation rates on the shoal (2.3-2.6 mm/yr) are higher than in the channel (2 mm/yr) owing to hydrodynamic conditions that preferentially sequester suspended sediment on the western side of the estuary. As a result, the shoal accretes oblique to the principal axis of tidal transport, and more rapidly than the channel to produce an asymmetric cross-section. Shoal deposits consist of tidally bedded muds and are stratified by minor erosion surfaces that seismic profiles reveal to extend for 10s of meters to kilometers. The frequency and continuity of these surfaces suggest that the surficial shoal is catastrophically stripped on decadal-centennial time scales by elevated tidal flows; tidal erosion maintains the shoal at a uniform depth below sea level and prevents it from transitioning to an intertidal environment. Consequently, the long-term sedimentation rate approximates the rate of sea-level rise in the lower estuary (1-3 mm/yr). After the mid 1800s, the natural geometry of the lower Hudson

  8. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Hudson River Estuary based on dynamic tsunami-tide simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Michael; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Grilli, Annette R.

    2016-12-01

    This work is part of a tsunami inundation mapping activity carried out along the US East Coast since 2010, under the auspice of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation program (NTHMP). The US East Coast features two main estuaries with significant tidal forcing, which are bordered by numerous critical facilities (power plants, major harbors,...) as well as densely built low-level areas: Chesapeake Bay and the Hudson River Estuary (HRE). HRE is the object of this work, with specific focus on assessing tsunami hazard in Manhattan, the Hudson and East River areas. In the NTHMP work, inundation maps are computed as envelopes of maximum surface elevation along the coast and inland, by simulating the impact of selected probable maximum tsunamis (PMT) in the Atlantic ocean margin and basin. At present, such simulations assume a static reference level near shore equal to the local mean high water (MHW) level. Here, instead we simulate maximum inundation in the HRE resulting from dynamic interactions between the incident PMTs and a tide, which is calibrated to achieve MHW at its maximum level. To identify conditions leading to maximum tsunami inundation, each PMT is simulated for four different phases of the tide and results are compared to those obtained for a static reference level. We first separately simulate the tide and the three PMTs that were found to be most significant for the HRE. These are caused by: (1) a flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV) in the Canary Islands (with a 80 km3 volume representing the most likely extreme scenario); (2) an M9 coseismic source in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT); and (3) a large submarine mass failure (SMF) in the Hudson River canyon of parameters similar to the 165 km3 historical Currituck slide, which is used as a local proxy for the maximum possible SMF. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear and dispersive long wave model FUNWAVE-TVD, in a series of nested grids of increasing resolution towards the coast, by one

  9. The mechanism behind internally generated centennial-to-millennial scale climate variability in an earth system model of intermediate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Friedrich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism triggering centennial-to-millennial-scale variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC in the earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM is investigated. It is found that for several climate boundary conditions such as low obliquity values (~22.1° or LGM-albedo, internally generated centennial-to-millennial-scale variability occurs in the North Atlantic region. Stochastic excitations of the density-driven overturning circulation in the Nordic Seas can create regional sea-ice anomalies and a subsequent reorganization of the atmospheric circulation. The resulting remote atmospheric anomalies over the Hudson Bay can release freshwater pulses into the Labrador Sea and significantly increase snow fall in this region leading to a subsequent reduction of convective activity. The millennial-scale AMOC oscillations disappear if LGM bathymetry (with closed Hudson Bay is prescribed or if freshwater pulses are suppressed artificially. Furthermore, our study documents the process of the AMOC recovery as well as the global marine and terrestrial carbon cycle response to centennial-to-millennial-scale AMOC variability.

  10. The Bible and mission in faith perspective: J.Hudson Taylor and the early China Inland Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigram, C.E.M.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis 'The Bible and Mission in Faith Perspective: J.Hudson Taylor and the Early China Inland Mission' by Christopher E.M. Wigram analysis the hermeneutical assumptions that underlay Hudson Taylor's approach to biblical interpretation, and the significance of his approach for the mission which

  11. Concept relation extraction using Naïve Bayes classifier for ontology-based question answering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suresh kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Domain ontology is used as a reliable source of knowledge in information retrieval systems such as question answering systems. Automatic ontology construction is possible by extracting concept relations from unstructured large-scale text. In this paper, we propose a methodology to extract concept relations from unstructured text using a syntactic and semantic probability-based Naïve Bayes classifier. We propose an algorithm to iteratively extract a list of attributes and associations for the given seed concept from which the rough schema is conceptualized. A set of hand-coded dependency parsing pattern rules and a binary decision tree-based rule engine were developed for this purpose. This ontology construction process is initiated through a question answering process. For each new query submitted, the required concept is dynamically constructed, and ontology is updated. The proposed relation extraction method was evaluated using benchmark data sets. The performance of the constructed ontology was evaluated using gold standard evaluation and compared with similar well-performing methods. The experimental results reveal that the proposed approach can be used to effectively construct a generic domain ontology with higher accuracy. Furthermore, the ontology construction method was integrated into the question answering framework, which was evaluated using the entailment method.

  12. Effects of recreational flow releases on natural resources of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Central Adirondack Mountains, New York, 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Mulvihill, C.I.; Ernst, A.G.; Boisvert, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), and Cornell University carried out a cooperative 2-year study from the fall of 2004 through the fall of 2006 to characterize the potential effects of recreational-flow releases from Lake Abanakee on natural resources in the Indian and Hudson Rivers. Researchers gathered baseline information on hydrology, temperature, habitat, nearshore wetlands, and macroinvertebrate and fish communities and assessed the behavior and thermoregulation of stocked brown trout in study reaches from both rivers and from a control river. The effects of recreational-flow releases (releases) were assessed by comparing data from affected reaches with data from the same reaches during nonrelease days, control reaches in a nearby run-of-the-river system (the Cedar River), and one reach in the Hudson River upstream from the confluence with the Indian River. A streamgage downstream from Lake Abanakee transmitted data by satellite from November 2004 to November 2006; these data were used as the basis for developing a rating curve that was used to estimate discharges for the study period. River habitat at most study reaches was delineated by using Global Positioning System and ArcMap software on a handheld computer, and wetlands were mapped by ground-based measurements of length, width, and areal density. River temperature in the Indian and Hudson Rivers was monitored continuously at eight sites during June through September of 2005 and 2006; temperature was mapped in 2005 by remote imaging made possible through collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology. Fish communities at all study reaches were surveyed and characterized through quantitative, nearshore electrofishing surveys. Macroinvertebrate communities in all study reaches were sampled using the traveling-kick method and characterized using standard indices. Radio telemetry was used to track the movement and persistence of

  13. Geographic Information System (GIS) characterization of historical extent of seagrass beds in Tampa Bay, Florida (NODC Accession 0000613)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The coverage is the historical extent of seagrass beds in Tampa Bay. Vector coverage was rasterized using ELAS software. The project was completed by US Fish and...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay - 1998, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0036884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay, California maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  16. Applying Integrated ITS Technologies to Parking Management Systems: A Transit-Based Case Study in the San Francisco Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan; Rodier, Caroline J.; Eaken, Amanda M.

    2004-01-01

    California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways has teamed with the California Department of Transportation, the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District, ParkingCarmaâ„¢, and Quixote Corporation to launch a smart parking research demonstration at the Rockridge BART station in the East San Francisco Bay Area (California, USA). The results of an extensive literature review demonstrate that different smart parking applications implemented worldwide can ease traveler delays, increase transit...

  17. A statistical forecast model for Tropical Cyclone Rainfall and flood events for the Hudson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Francesco; Conticello, Federico; Hall, Thimoty; Lall, Upmanu; Orton, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) lead to potentially severe coastal flooding through wind surge and also through rainfall-runoff processes. There is growing interest in modeling these processes simultaneously. Here, a statistical approach that can facilitate this process is presented with an application to the Hudson River Basin that is associated with the New York City metropolitan area. Three submodels are used in sequence. The first submodel is a stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones developed by Hall and Yonekura (2011). It uses archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and of sea surface temperature (SST). The second submodel translates the attributes of a tropical cyclone simulated by the first model to rainfall intensity at selected stations within the watershed of Hudson River. Two different approaches are used and compared: artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN). Finally, the third submodel transforms, once again, by using an ANN approach and KNN, the rainfall intensities, calculated for the ensemble of the stations, to the streamflows at specific points of the tributaries of the Hudson River. These streamflows are to be used as inputs in a hydrodynamic model that includes storm surge surge dynamics for the simulation of coastal flooding along the Hudson River. Calibration and validation of the model is carried out by using, selected tropical cyclone data since 1950, and hourly station rainfall and streamflow recorded for such extreme events. Four stream gauges (Troy dam, Mohawk River at Cohoes, Mohawk River diversion at Crescent Dam, Hudson River above lock one nr Waterford), a gauge from a tributary in the lower Hudson River, and over 20 rain gauges are used. The performance of the proposed model as tool for storm events is then analyzed and discussed.

  18. Numerical modeling of tides in the Great Bay Estuarine System: dynamical balance and spring-neap residual modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J. W.; Bilgili, A.; Lynch, D. R.

    2003-05-01

    The Great Bay Estuarine System, in New Hampshire, USA, has been the focus area for an attempt to develop a robust finite element method model for estuarine hydrodynamics. Past studies used a nonlinear, time stepping, kinematic model with limited success (Ip et al. Advances in fluid mechanics III, WIT, Southampton (2000) 569; Bilgili et al. J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans 107 (2002); Ertürk et al. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 47 (1998) 119). We add dynamic physics (that is, local accelerations) for deep-water areas and keep kinematic physics (that is, without local and advective accelerations), with the inclusion of a porous medium beneath the open channel, for shallow and dewatering areas. The choice of which physics set to apply is made on an elemental depth dependent basis. The addition of the local acceleration terms for deep-water areas is seen to greatly improve accuracy in matching of tidal phasing over previous studies. Simulations involving M 2/M 4/M 6 tidal constituents result in strong agreement to observed data from the 1975 Great Bay field program (Swift & Brown, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 17 (1983) 297), in terms of both tidal heights and cross-section averaged velocities. Comparisons with 10 tidal elevation observation stations and four cross-section averaged current transects show good agreement, displaying average normalized root mean square misfit values of 0.08 and 0.25, respectively. Study of the simulated momentum balance shows the size of the contributions from acceleration terms to be on the order of a third the size of the contributions from the pressure gradient and bottom stress terms. Although relatively small, they are observed to peak at the crucial time of tidal reversal. Application of the model for long-term simulation using an M 2/N 2/S 2 forcing shows the ability to realistically capture the spring-neap cycle. The tidally rectified flow is generally described as a constant spatial pattern with overall amplitude modulation following the

  19. Quantum Random Walks and their Convergence to Evans-Hudson Flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lingaraj Sahu

    2008-08-01

    Using coordinate-free basic operators on toy Fock spaces, quantum random walks are defined following the ideas of Attal and Pautrat. Extending the result for one dimensional noise, strong convergence of quantum random walks associated with bounded structure maps to Evans–Hudson flow is proved under suitable assumptions. Starting from the bounded generator of a given uniformly continuous quantum dynamical semigroup on a von Neumann algebra, we have constructed quantum random walks which converges strongly and the strong limit gives an Evans–Hudson dilation for the semigroup.

  20. How can climate change and engineered water conveyance affect sediment dynamics in the San Francisco Bay-Delta system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, Fernanda; Van der Wegen, Mick; Roelvink, Jan Adriaan; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Suspended sediment concentration is an important estuarine health indicator. Estuarine ecosystems rely on the maintenance of habitat conditions, which are changing due to direct human impact and climate change. This study aims to evaluate the impact of climate change relative to engineering measures on estuarine fine sediment dynamics and sediment budgets. We use the highly engineered San Francisco Bay-Delta system as a case study. We apply a process-based modeling approach (Delft3D-FM) to assess the changes in hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics resulting from climate change and engineering scenarios. The scenarios consider a direct human impact (shift in water pumping location), climate change (sea level rise and suspended sediment concentration decrease), and abrupt disasters (island flooding, possibly as the results of an earthquake). Levee failure has the largest impact on the hydrodynamics of the system. Reduction in sediment input from the watershed has the greatest impact on turbidity levels, which are key to primary production and define habitat conditions for endemic species. Sea level rise leads to more sediment suspension and a net sediment export if little room for accommodation is left in the system due to continuous engineering works. Mitigation measures like levee reinforcement are effective for addressing direct human impacts, but less effective for a persistent, widespread, and increasing threat like sea level rise. Progressive adaptive mitigation measures to the changes in sediment and flow dynamics resulting from sea level rise may be a more effective strategy. Our approach shows that a validated process-based model is a useful tool to address long-term (decades to centuries) changes in sediment dynamics in highly engineered estuarine systems. In addition, our modeling approach provides a useful basis for long-term, process-based studies addressing ecosystem dynamics and health.

  1. Temporal and spatial changes of cadmium in the near-bottom suspended matter of the Pomeranian Bay - Arkona Deep system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Staniszewski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high toxicity of cadmium (Cd towards biota and the considerable quantities of this element entering the environment from anthropogenic sources, interest in its biogeochemistry is increasing. This is also true for the marine environment, which serves as a sink for both natural and anthropogenic Cd loads entering the hydrosphere and the atmosphere. The distribution of Cd in the coastal zone of the marine environment is governed primarily by the flux of the so-called fluffy layer suspended matter (FLSM, which spreads across the top of the sea floor as a several-centimetre-thick layer containing highly concentrated suspended matter. Both total contents and solid speciation of Cd was measured in FLSM collected in the Pomeranian Bay - Arkona Deep system (Western Baltic Proper in the course of the three-year-long study. Seasonal changes in the total Cd content (0.5-1.8 µg g–1 dry matter were attributed to the contribution of organic suspensions originating from algal blooms. The decreasing content of Cd in FLSM offshore is due to the input of Cd-rich suspended matter from the River Odra (Oder, and the decreasing organic matter content in FLSM with increasing depth. The contribution of labile fractions (adsorbed and bound to iron III hydroxides was found to be from 50 to 75% of the total content. In view of the substantial mobility and bioavailability of the fractions, this is a highly alarming feature.

  2. Sediments of Narragansett Bay acquired in 1960 (MCMASTER60 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Gravel, sand, silt, and clay contents were determined for samples from Narragansett Bay and the adjacent Rhode Island Shelf. In the Narragansett Bay system, clayey...

  3. U. S. groups fight James Bay II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This article reviews the opposition program to the James Bay II hydroelectric project. The environmental costs of the first phase of James Bay, the La Grande project, have been huge, resulting in massive alterations of the environment and causing widespread mercury poisoning of fish, loss of wetlands and disruption of caribou calving grounds. Start-up of the Great Whale project is imminent, and will result in the flooding of ca 5,000 square kilometers of wilderness. The environmental costs of phases 2 and 3 will be even larger than for the first phase, with potential for significant disruption of fresh-water input into James and Hudson Bays. Drastic changes in the volume and salinity of the water will jeopardize the life patterns of many migratory birds, polar bears, beluga wales, seals and other wildlife. These, along with other social costs, are prohibitive for the Cree. The Cree have been actively opposing the project in the United States, and a groundswell of American opposition has been building. The Cree have been successful in persuading Bangor, Maine, to cancel a proposed contract with Hydro Quebec, on economic grounds. Opposition is building in Burlington, Vermont, to a contract with Hydro Quebec for the planned purchase of 15 MW of power from Hydro Quebec. Secret contracts between Hydro Quebec and thirteen multinational aluminum corporations, to supply power at below cost, have been publicized. The signing of an energy contract between New York and Quebec has been delayed for one year due to the inability of Hydro Quebec to make progress on the project in the face of opposition at home.

  4. Proposed additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System : Part 33 : Back Bay Wilderness

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is one of the Presidential Transmittals proposing additions to the National Wilderness Preservation System. This particular transmittal focuses on the...

  5. Abrupt Atmospheric Methane Increases Associated With Hudson Strait Heinrich Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, R.; Brook, E.; Chiang, J. C. H.; Blunier, T.; Maselli, O. J.; McConnell, J. R.; Romanini, D.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The drivers of abrupt climate change during the Last Glacial Period are not well understood. While Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles are thought to be linked to variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC), it is not clear how or if Heinrich Events—extensive influxes of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean that impacted global climate and biogeochemistry—are related. An enduring problem is the difficultly in dating iceberg rafted debris deposits that typically lack foraminifera. Here we present an ultra-high resolution record of methane from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core at unprecedented, continuous temporal resolution from 67.2-9.8 ka BP, which we propose constrains the timing of Heinrich events. Our methane record essentially mirrors Greenland ice core stable isotope variability across D-O events, except during Heinrich stadials 1, 2, 4 and 5. Partway through these stadials only, methane increases abruptly and rapidly, as at the onset of a D-O event but Greenland temperature exhibits no equivalent response. Speleothem records exhibit signatures of drought in the Northern extra-tropics and intensified monsoonal activity over South America at these times. We use a simple heuristic model to propose that cold air temperatures and extensive sea ice in the North, resulting from Heinrich events, caused extreme reorganization of tropical hydroclimate. This involved curtailment of the seasonal northerly migration of tropical rain belts, leading to intensification of rainfall over Southern Hemisphere tropical wetlands, thus allowing production of excess methane relative to a 'normal' Greenland stadial. We note that this mechanism can operate if AMOC is already in a slowed state when a Heinrich event occurs, as paleo-evidence suggests it was. Heinrich events and associated sea ice cover would therefore act to prolong the duration of this AMOC state. Our findings place the big four Heinrich events of Hudson Strait origin

  6. Past leaded gasoline emissions as a nonpoint source tracer in riparian systems: A study of river inputs to San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, C.E.; Bouse, R.; Flegal, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of lead in 1995-1998 river waters flowing into San Francisco Bay trace the washout of lead deposited in the drainage basin from leaded gasoline combustion. At the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers where they enter the Bay, the isotopic compositions of lead in the waters define a linear trend away from the measured historical compositions of leaded gas in California. The river waters are shifted away from leaded gasoline values and toward an isotopic composition similar to Sierra Nevadan inputs which became the predominant source of sedimentation in San Francisco Bay following the onset of hydraulic gold mining in 1853. Using lead isotopic compositions of hydraulic mine sediments and average leaded gasoline as mixing end members, we calculate that more than 50% of the lead in the present river water originated from leaded gasoline combustion. The strong adsorption of lead (log K(d) > 7.4) to particulates appears to limit the flushing of gasoline lead from the drainage basin, and the removal of that lead from the system may have reached an asymptotic limit. Consequently, gasoline lead isotopes should prove to be a useful nonpoint source tracer of the environmental distribution of particle- reactive anthropogenic metals in freshwater systems.

  7. Impacts of Nitrogen Removal and Re-Application on N2O fluxes from Narragansett Bay: Contrasting Turfgrasses, Salt Marshes, and Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, E.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Quinn, R. K.; Amador, J.; Brown, R.; Lancellotti, B.; Glennon, K.; Celeste, G.; Craver, V.

    2016-12-01

    Narragansett Bay in Rhode Island is characterized by a substantial, historic bay-wide nitrogen (N) gradient. Centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a major anthropogenic N source. Onsite wastewater treatments systems (OWTS), which serve 1/3 of all households in the state, are another anthropogenic N source. Recent state regulation has prompted upgrades to both WWTPs and OWTS to increase N removal capacities. Although this should lower N loads to Narragansett Bay, it has the potential to increase the flux of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. We measured summer-time (2016) N2O fluxes of a major WWTP (biological N removal system at Field's Point in Providence) and three of the most common advanced OWTS in the Narragansett Bay watershed (Orenco Advantex AX20, BioMicrobics FAST, SeptiTech D Series). We also tested impacts of application of recovered N (biosolids from wastewater sludge) on N2O fluxes from a turfgrass (Schedonerus arundinaceus) and dominant native coastal cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in mesocosm experiments. Preliminary results indicate that the largest N2O fluxes (245 ± 72 µmol N2O m-2 h-1) were from the Field's Point WWTP. Significant, but smaller N2O fluxes (6 ± 3 µmol N2O m-2 h-1 were also measured from the OWTS. In contrast, N2O fluxes from the N-enriched native coastal cordgrass and turfgrass mesocosms were often non-detectable. However, fluxes from a few mesocosms (max. of 25 µmol N2O m-2 h-1) were on the same order of magnitude as fluxes from the OWTS. A state-wide budget of N2O emissions from turfgrasses, intertidal marshes, and OWTS will be estimated to determine their significance as sources relative to the Field's Point WWTP. This data will be used to identify areas where N2O fluxes can be minimized in the state of RI.

  8. Inherent and apparent optical measurements in the Hudson/Raritan estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, S.; Rijkeboer, M.; Gons, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    During an August, 1999 field campaign, measurements were made to establish hydrologic optical properties of the Hudson/Raritan Estuary (New York-New Jersey): 1) concurrent above-and below-surface spectral irradiance; 2) sampling for laboratory determination of inherent optical properties; and 3) con

  9. Library Resources in the Mid-Hudson Valley: Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Felix; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to "survey the library resources in the eight Mid-Hudson Counties of Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, and Ulster in order to develop a plan of service in which assets would be shared, resources developed, and services extended." Survey data were collected by six questionnaires;…

  10. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  11. 77 FR 46613 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman US Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...) entitled 2012 Ironman US Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ in the Federal Register (77 FR 34285...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman US Championship Swim,...

  12. 77 FR 41271 - Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register CFR Code of Federal Regulations NPRM... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson... Newburgh, NY for the annual Newburgh Beacon Swim event. This temporary safety zone is necessary to...

  13. 75 FR 10229 - Application for Presidential Permit; Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Connecticut. CHPEI proposes to construct and operate a primarily underground and submarine high-voltage direct... underground cables connected as a bipole pair. Each bipole will at all times utilize its partner in the bipole... railroad ROW for a distance of approximately 69.9 miles (107.7 km). The cables would re-enter the Hudson...

  14. Fusing Bayes Nets using Formal Argumentation in Multi-agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Parsons, Simon

    2006-01-01

    We consider a multi-agent system where each agent is equipped with a Bayesian network, and present an open framework for the agents to compromise on a possible consensus network. The framework builds on formal argumentation, and unlike previous solutions on graphical consensus belief...

  15. Simulating the Effects of Sea Level Rise on the Resilience and Migration of Tidal Wetlands along the Hudson River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Nava M; Laba, Magdeline; Spector, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) caused by climate change is impacting coastal wetlands around the globe. Due to their distinctive biophysical characteristics and unique plant communities, freshwater tidal wetlands are expected to exhibit a different response to SLR as compared with the better studied salt marshes. In this study we employed the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which simulates regional- or local-scale changes in tidal wetland habitats in response to SLR, and adapted it for application in a freshwater-dominated tidal river system, the Hudson River Estuary. Using regionally-specific estimated ranges of SLR and accretion rates, we produced simulations for a spectrum of possible future wetland distributions and quantified the projected wetland resilience, migration or loss in the HRE through the end of the 21st century. Projections of total wetland extent and migration were more strongly determined by the rate of SLR than the rate of accretion. Surprisingly, an increase in net tidal wetland area was projected under all scenarios, with newly-formed tidal wetlands expected to comprise at least 33% of the HRE's wetland area by year 2100. Model simulations with high rates of SLR and/or low rates of accretion resulted in broad shifts in wetland composition with widespread conversion of high marsh habitat to low marsh, tidal flat or permanent inundation. Wetland expansion and resilience were not equally distributed through the estuary, with just three of 48 primary wetland areas encompassing >50% of projected new wetland by the year 2100. Our results open an avenue for improving predictive models of the response of freshwater tidal wetlands to sea level rise, and broadly inform the planning of conservation measures of this critical resource in the Hudson River Estuary.

  16. Simulating the Effects of Sea Level Rise on the Resilience and Migration of Tidal Wetlands along the Hudson River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava M Tabak

    Full Text Available Sea Level Rise (SLR caused by climate change is impacting coastal wetlands around the globe. Due to their distinctive biophysical characteristics and unique plant communities, freshwater tidal wetlands are expected to exhibit a different response to SLR as compared with the better studied salt marshes. In this study we employed the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, which simulates regional- or local-scale changes in tidal wetland habitats in response to SLR, and adapted it for application in a freshwater-dominated tidal river system, the Hudson River Estuary. Using regionally-specific estimated ranges of SLR and accretion rates, we produced simulations for a spectrum of possible future wetland distributions and quantified the projected wetland resilience, migration or loss in the HRE through the end of the 21st century. Projections of total wetland extent and migration were more strongly determined by the rate of SLR than the rate of accretion. Surprisingly, an increase in net tidal wetland area was projected under all scenarios, with newly-formed tidal wetlands expected to comprise at least 33% of the HRE's wetland area by year 2100. Model simulations with high rates of SLR and/or low rates of accretion resulted in broad shifts in wetland composition with widespread conversion of high marsh habitat to low marsh, tidal flat or permanent inundation. Wetland expansion and resilience were not equally distributed through the estuary, with just three of 48 primary wetland areas encompassing >50% of projected new wetland by the year 2100. Our results open an avenue for improving predictive models of the response of freshwater tidal wetlands to sea level rise, and broadly inform the planning of conservation measures of this critical resource in the Hudson River Estuary.

  17. Water Quality in the Integrated Mariculture Pond Systems (IMPS) at Makoba Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mmochi, A.J.; Mwandya, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Makoba integrated mariculture pond system project (IMPS) has been on-going since 1998. Except for a period from mid 1999 to 2001, various water quality parameters, namely temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved inorganic nutrients and dissolved oxygen concentration and saturation, have been monitored continuously. In 2002, measurement of sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and consumption of oxygen by sediments was initiated. Dissolved oxygen concentration varied from the highest mon...

  18. Bayes and empirical Bayes: do they merge?

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Sonia; Scricciolo, Catia

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian inference is attractive for its coherence and good frequentist properties. However, it is a common experience that eliciting a honest prior may be difficult and, in practice, people often take an {\\em empirical Bayes} approach, plugging empirical estimates of the prior hyperparameters into the posterior distribution. Even if not rigorously justified, the underlying idea is that, when the sample size is large, empirical Bayes leads to "similar" inferential answers. Yet, precise mathematical results seem to be missing. In this work, we give a more rigorous justification in terms of merging of Bayes and empirical Bayes posterior distributions. We consider two notions of merging: Bayesian weak merging and frequentist merging in total variation. Since weak merging is related to consistency, we provide sufficient conditions for consistency of empirical Bayes posteriors. Also, we show that, under regularity conditions, the empirical Bayes procedure asymptotically selects the value of the hyperparameter for ...

  19. Variability and trends of ocean acidification in the Southern California Current System: A time series from Santa Monica Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, A.; Gruber, N.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the temporal variability and trends of pH and of the aragonite saturation state, Ωarag, in the southern California Current System on the basis of a 6 year time series from Santa Monica Bay, using biweekly observations of dissolved inorganic carbon and combined calculated and measured alkalinity. Median values of pH and Ωarag in the upper 20 m are comparable to observations from the subtropical gyres, but the temporal variability is at least a factor of 5 larger, primarily driven by short-term upwelling events and mesoscale processes. Ωarag and pH decrease rapidly with depth, such that the saturation horizon is reached already at 130 m, on average, but it occasionally shoals to as low as 30 m. No statistically significant linear trends emerge in the upper 100 m, but Ωarag and pH decrease, on average, at rates of -0.009±0.006 yr-1 and -0.004±0.003 yr-1 in the 100-250 m depth range. These are somewhat larger, but not statistically different from the expected trends based on the recent increase in atmospheric CO2. About half of the variability in the deseasonalized data can be explained by the El Niño Southern Oscillation, with warm phases (El Niño) being associated with above normal pH and Ωarag. The observed variability and trend in Ωarag and pH is well captured by a multiple linear regression model on the basis of a small number of readily observable independent variables. This permits the estimation of these variables for related sites in the region.

  20. Spatial patterns in soil biogeochemical process rates along a Louisiana wetland salinity gradient in the Barataria Bay estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. J.; Rich, M. W.; Sullivan, H. L.; Bledsoe, R.; Dawson, M.; Donnelly, B.; Marton, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Louisiana has the highest rates of coastal wetland loss in the United States. In addition to being lost, Louisiana wetlands experience numerous other environmental stressors including changes in salinity regime (both increases from salt water intrusion and decreases from the creation of river diversions) and climate change induced changes in vegetation (e.g. the northward expansion of Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) into salt marshes). In this study, we examined how these changes might influence biogeochemical process rates important in regulating carbon balance and the cycling, retention, and removal of nutrients in Louisiana wetlands. Specifically, we measured net soil greenhouse gas fluxes and collected cores for the determination of rates of greenhouse gas production, denitrification potential, nitrification potential, iron reduction, and phosphorus sorption from surface (0-5cm) and subsurface (10-15cm) depths for three plots in each of 4 sites along the salinity gradient: a freshwater marsh site, a brackish (7 ppt) marsh site, a salt marsh (17 ppt), and a Avicennia germinans stand (17 ppt; adjacent to salt marsh site) in the Barataria Bay estuarine system. Most biogeochemical processes displayed similar spatial patterns with salt marsh rates being lower than rates in freshwater and/or brackish marsh sites and not having significantly different rates than in Avicennia germinans stands. Rates in surface soils were generally higher than in subsurface soils. These patterns were generally consistent with spatial patterns in soil properties with soil water content, organic matter quantity and quality, and extractable nutrients generally being higher in freshwater and brackish marsh sites than salt marsh and Avicennia germinans sites, especially in surface soils. These spatial patterns suggest that the ability of coastal wetlands to retain and remove nutrients might change significantly in response to future climate changes in the region and that these

  1. Simulations of Severe Tropical Cyclone Nargis over the Bay of Bengal Using RIMES Operational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. V. S.; Potty, Jayaraman; Mohanty, U. C.

    2012-10-01

    The Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System (RIMES), an international, intergovernmental organization based in Thailand is engaged in disaster risk reduction over the Asia-Pacific region through early warning information. In this paper, RIMES' customized Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model has been used to evaluate the simulations of cyclone Nargis which hit Myanmar on 2 May 2008, the most deadly severe weather event in the history of Myanmar. The model covers a domain of 35ºE to 145ºE in the east—west direction and 12ºS to 40ºN in the north—south direction in order to cover Asia and east Africa with a resolution of 9 km in the horizontal and 28 vertical levels. The initial and boundary conditions for the simulations were provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction-Global Forecast System (NCEP-GFS) available at 1º lon/lat resolution. An attempt is being made to critically evaluate the simulation of cyclone Nargis by seven set of simulations in terms of track, intensity and landfall time of the cyclone. The seven sets of model simulations were initialized every 12 h starting from 0000 UTC 28 April to 01 May 2008. Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) precipitation (mm) is used to evaluate the performance of the simulations of heavy rainfall associated with the tropical cyclone. The track and intensity of the simulated cyclone are compared by making use of Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) data sets. The results indicate that the landfall time, the distribution and intensity of the rainfall, pressure and wind field are well simulated as compared with the JTWC estimates. The average landfall track error for all seven simulations was 64 km with an average time error of about 5 h. The average intensity error of central pressure in all the simulations were found out to be approximately 6 hPa more than the JTWC estimates and in the case of wind, the simulations under predicted it by an average of 12 m s-1.

  2. Watershed nutrient inputs, phytoplankton accumulation, and C stocks in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, T. R.; Boynton, W. R.; Hagy, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Inputs of N and P to Chesapeake Bay have been enhanced by anthropogenic activities. Fertilizers, urbanization, N emissions, and industrial effluents contribute to point and diffuse sources currently 2-7X higher for P and 5-20X higher for N than those from undisturbed watersheds. Enhanced nutrient inputs cause phytoplankton blooms which obscure visibility, eliminate submerged grasses, and influence the distribution of C within the Bay. Accumulations of dissolved organic and particulate organic C lead to enhanced microbial respiration in isolated bottom waters, and dissolved oxygen is seasonally reduced to trace levels during summer. Cultural eutrophication is not unique to Chesapeake Bay. Although some estuaries such as the Delaware, Hudson, and San Francisco Bay also have high anthropogenic inputs, these estuaries have much shorter residence times, and much of the N and P may be exported to the coastal ocean. However, in Chesapeake Bay, with residence times >2 months, internal processing of watershed inputs results in local algal blooms within the estuary. Watershed restoration strategies for Chesapeake watersheds have had limited success to date. Groundwaters are enriched with nitrate, and the long residence times of groundwaters mean slow responses to watershed improvements. The few successes in the Chesapeake have been associated with point source reductions, although continued human population growth can easily override restoration efforts. Widespread improvement in water quality has yet to occur, but the limited successes show that the Bay responds to load changes.

  3. 深圳湾体育中心屋面系统的设计%ROOF SYSTEM DESIGN OF SHENZHEN BAY SPORTS CENTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶志青

    2011-01-01

    Shenzhen Bay Sports Center adopts special irregular hyperboloidal roofing system, so the waterproof and drainage design of roofing system are difficult. Most area of the roofing system adopts open structure,both upper and lower surfaces bear the wind pressure and the load distribution on the surfaces is very complcated During design, the wind load on the roofing system is selected according to the Report on Wind Tunnel Test of Shenzhen Bay Sports Center, and extreme pressure which appears once every 100 years is used for structural calculation of the standard value of wind load on roofing system.%深圳湾体育中心屋面系统造型为异型不规则双曲面,屋面系统防水和排水设计难度较大,且罩棚大部分区域为开放式结构,上下表面均承受风压,表面荷载分布极为复杂.设计时屋面系统风荷载根据选取,采用100年重现期的极值压力值作为屋面系统风荷载标准值进行结构计算.

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small terrestrial mammals (woodrats, myotis, muskrat, mink) for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in...

  5. 77 FR 22525 - Safety Zone; Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...) Ederle Swim: Within the waters of the Hudson River between North Cove Marina, New York, NY and Sandy Hook... patrol vessel or may be on shore and will communicate with vessels via VHF-FM radio or loudhailer. In...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: WETLANDS (Environmental Sensitivity Index Wetland Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing coastal wetland habitats for the Hudson River classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  7. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the toxicity of sediments was performed by NOAA's National Status and Trends (NSandT) Program throughout the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. The objectives of...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine mammals (seals) in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  9. 'Celebrities of the future’:fame and notability in Henry James’s Roderick Hudson and the American

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on two of Henry James’s earliest novels, Roderick Hudson (1875) and The American (1877), this essay explores the ways in which James’s initial formulation of his signature ‘international theme’ intersects with nineteenth-century discourses on fame. Roderick Hudson positions the eponymous American sculptor as a lion and notable in Europe, and then shows his fatal attempts to transcend the objectification and commodification that accompany fame. In The American the protagonist, Christo...

  10. The Border Ranges fault system in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska: Evidence for major early Cenozoic dextral strike-slip motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, K.J.; Pavlis, T.L.; Sisson, V.B.; Roeske, S.M.; Snee, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Border Ranges fault system of southern Alaska, the fundamental break between the arc basement and the forearc accretionary complex, is the boundary between the Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia terrane and the Chugach terrane. The fault system separates crystalline rocks of the Alexander terrane from metamorphic rocks of the Chugach terrane in Glacier Bay National Park. Mylonitic rocks in the zone record abundant evidence for dextral strike-slip motion along north-northwest-striking subvertical surfaces. Geochronologic data together with regional correlations of Chugach terrane rocks involved in the deformation constrain this movement between latest Cretaceous and Early Eocene (???50 Ma). These findings are in agreement with studies to the northwest and southeast along the Border Ranges fault system which show dextral strike-slip motion occurring between 58 and 50 Ma. Correlations between Glacier Bay plutons and rocks of similar ages elsewhere along the Border Ranges fault system suggest that as much as 700 km of dextral motion may have been accommodated by this structure. These observations are consistent with oblique convergence of the Kula plate during early Cenozoic and forearc slivering above an ancient subduction zone following late Mesozoic accretion of the Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia terrane to North America.

  11. Provenance of sand on the Poverty Bay shelf, the link between source and sink sectors of the Waipaoa River sedimentary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Julie G.; Marsaglia, Kathleen M.; Rivera, Kevin S.; Dawson, Shelby T.; Walsh, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Poverty Shelf, North Island, New Zealand, is a segment of the Waipaoa Sedimentary System (WSS), a MARGINS Source-to-Sink focus site. Our petrographic analysis of sand from shelf core samples indicates that the sand fraction is mainly derived from intra- and potentially extrabasinal sources, but surprisingly, the major fluvial system that drains into Poverty Bay, the Waipaoa River (mean %QFL = xQyFzL), is not the dominant source. Only one vibracore at the mouth of Poverty Bay contained sand (%QFL = xQyFzL) potentially derived from the Waipaoa River. The shelf sand (mean %QFL = xQyFzL) more strongly resembles beach sand (mean %QFL = xQyFzL) collected along the coast, which is likely sourced from pervasive local cliff erosion of Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary units that exhibit similar sandstone detrital modes (mean %QFL = xQyFzL). Texturally, coarser, more poorly sorted and more angular sand is located along the outer shelf, while finer, well-sorted sand characterizes the mid-shelf. These findings suggest a shorter transport history for the material near the outer-shelf bathymetric high areas, and this observation along with the composition data suggests that they were sourced by erosion of locally exposed Miocene-Pliocene units. A potential extrabasinal source of shelf sediment is indicated by anomalous prolate and equant-shaped greywacke (Torlesse) and minor red chert pebbles collected in two outer-shelf box cores on the Lachlan anticline; these are not lithologies found within the terrestrial segment of the WSS or strata comprising the outer-shelf highs. The clast shapes are also distinctly different from the oblate-shaped, pebble-sized greywacke gravel clasts on beaches in Hawke Bay. Rather, these sediments are more similar to Torlesse stream gravel. Seismic and multibeam data support the possibility that during the most recent sea-level lowstand, the Hawke Bay fluvial system flowed into Poverty Canyon, bringing these unique gravels onto what is now the Poverty

  12. Environmental influences on the trawl catches in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.; Dalal, S.G.; Ingole, B.S.; Chatterji, A.

    , 1989; Blaber & Blaber, 1980; Blaber & Milton, 1990; Day & Yanez-Arancibia, 1985; Lenanton, 1982; Potter, Beckley, Whitefield, & Lenanton, 1990; Qasim, 1973). Almost 60% of the world fish catch is taken from these coastal ecosystems (Lie, 1983...). The structure and abundance of bay-estuarine fish communities are greatly influenced by a wide variety ofenvironmentalvariables.Amongabioticfactors,salin- ity (Allen, 1982; Cyrus & Blaber, 1987; Kinne, 1964; Loneragan, Potter, Lenanton, & Caputi, 1986; Potter...

  13. Bioremediation using Gracilaria chouae co-cultured with Sparus macrocephalus to manage the nitrogen and phosphorous balance in an IMTA system in Xiangshan Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hailong; Huo, Yuanzi; Han, Fang; Liu, Yuanyuan; He, Peimin

    2015-02-15

    A cage experiment using the red alga Gracilaria chouae co-cultured with the black seabream Sparus macrocephalus in Xiangshan Bay, China was conducted to measure the nutrient flux of the integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system. Results showed that trash fish were the main nutrient input contributor and adult fish were the main nutrient output contributor in the system. Contents of N and P in adult fish accounted for 54.45% and 59.48% of N and P in trash fish and fry, which suggests that 45.55% of N and 40.52% of P generated by fish farming were released into to the water. G. chouae proved to be an efficient bioremediation species in this IMTA system. To balance the excess nutrients generated by the system, 231.09 kg of seedlings should be cultured and 5315.07 kg of adult seaweed should be harvested.

  14. Measurement Error Affects Risk Estimates for Recruitment to the Hudson River Stock of Striped Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis J. Dunning; Ross, Quentin E.; Munch, Stephan B.; Ginzburg, Lev R.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years). Measurement error, estimat...

  15. Public support for ecosystem restoration in the Hudson River Valley, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; Knuth, Barbara A; Kay, David L

    2002-04-01

    We applied the Theory of Planned Behavior to help understand the relationships between environmental beliefs, support for ecosystem restoration actions, and willingness to pay (WTP) for restoration and protection goals in the Hudson River estuary, New York State, USA. We conducted a mail survey with 3,000 randomly-chosen local residents of the Hudson River estuary in the fall of 1999. As hypothesized, the broad ecosystem restoration goals of the Hudson River Estuary Action Plan were more strongly supported than the corresponding specific implementation actions. We found that beliefs and past behavior were better explanatory variables than sociodemographic characteristics for explaining people's support for ecosystem restoration actions and WTP for restoration and protection goals. Because ecosystem restoration goals appear to be more generally acceptable than specific restoration actions, proponents of restoration programs should not become complacent about the need for active public outreach and involvement even if initial restoration program discussions have been low in controversy. Efforts to assess and foster support for ecosystem restoration should be targeted toward audiences identified on the basis of beliefs and past behaviors rather than on sociodemographic characteristics.

  16. Linking habitat use of Hudson River striped bass to accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Secor, D.H.; Zlokovitz, E.; Wales, S.Q.; Baker, J.E.

    2000-03-15

    Since 1976, the commercial striped bass fishery in the Hudson River (NY) has been closed due to total polychlorinated biphenyl (t-PCB) concentrations that exceed the US Food and Drug Administration's advisory level of 2 {micro}g/g-wet weight. Extensive monitoring of Hudson River striped bass demonstrated much more variability in t-PCB levels among individual striped bass than could be explained by their age, sex, or lipid contents. To investigate the possible role of differential habitat use among subpopulations of striped bass in controlling their PCB exposures, 70 fish collected throughout the Hudson River estuary and Long Island Sound in 1994--1995 were analyzed for PCB congeners, and their lifetime migration behaviors were estimated by otolith microchemistry. The mean salinity encountered during the fish's last growth season prior to capture was inversely correlated with the t-PCB body burden. Striped bass permanently residing in fresh and oligohaline portions of the estuary adjacent to known PCB sources had elevated t-PCB levels and congeneric patterns with higher proportions of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls. Conversely, fish spending the majority of their life in more saline waters of the estuary or migrating frequently throughout the salinity gradient contained lower PCB levels composed of more highly chlorinated congeners. The approach used in this study allows habitat use to be incorporated into exposure assessments for anadromous fish species such as striped bass.

  17. Differential productivity of Bristol Bay spawning grounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay escapement surveys covering a period of several years show that, irrespective of fluctuations in total numbers on a system, certain grounds display a...

  18. Study on Headland-Bay Sandy Coast Stability in South China Coasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ji-tao; CHEN Zi-shen

    2011-01-01

    Headland-bay beach equilibrium planform has been a crucial problem abroad to long-term sandy beach evolution and stabilization,extensively applied to forecast long-term coastal erosion evolvement and the influences of coastal engineering as well as long-term coastal management and protection.However,little concern focuses on this in China.The parabolic relationship is the most widely used empirical relationship for determining the static equilibrium shape of headland-bay beaches.This paper utilizes the relation to predict and classify 31 headland-bay beaches and concludes that these bays cannot achieve the ultimate static equilibrium planform in South China.The empirical bay equation can morphologically estimate beach stabilization state,but it is just a referential predictable means and is difficult to evaluate headland-bay shoreline movements in years and decades.By using Digital Shoreline Analysis System suggested by USGS,the rates of shoreline recession and accretion of these different headland-bay beaches are quantitatively calculated from 1990 to 2000.The conclusions of this paper include that(a)most of these 31 bays maintain relatively stable and the rates of erosion and accretion are relatively large with the impact of man-made constructions on estuarine within these bays from 1990 to 2000;(b)two bays,Haimen Bay and Hailingshan Bay,originally in the quasi-static equilibrium planform determined by the parabolic bay shape equation,have been unstable by the influence of coastal engineering;and(c)these 31 bays have different recession and accretion characters occurring in some bays and some segments.On the one hand,some bays totally exhibit accretion,but some bays show erosion on the whole.Shanwei Bay,Houmen Bay,Pinghai Bay and Yazhou Bay have the similar planfotms,characterized by less accretion on the sheltering segment and bigger accretion on the transitional and tangential segments.On the other hand,different segments of some bays have two dissimilar

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in spotted sandpiper eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia) were studied on the Hudson River near Fort Edward south to New Baltimore, NY and on two river drainages that flow into the Hudson River. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 160 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 17 dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) congeners were quantified in eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. The pattern of organochlorine pesticides and PCDD-F congeners did not differ significantly between eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. In contrast, the pattern of PCB congeners differed significantly between the Hudson River and other rivers. Total PCBs were significantly greater in eggs from the Hudson River (geometric mean = 9.1 ??g PCBs/g wet weight) than from the other two rivers (0.6 and 0.6 ??g PCBs/g wet weight). Seven of 35 (20%) eggs exceeded 20 ??g PCBs/g wet weight, the estimated threshold for reduced hatching in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and some raptor species; the maximum concentration was 72.3 ??g PCBs/g wet weight. Models that predicted nest survival and egg success (the proportion of eggs hatching in a clutch if at least one egg hatched) as functions of contaminant levels were poorly distinguished from models that presumed no such associations. While small sample size could have contributed to the inability to distinguish among contaminant and no toxicant models, we cannot rule out the possibility that contaminant concentrations on the Hudson River were not sufficiently high to demonstrate a relationship between contaminant concentrations and reproductive success. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Views of the OSS-1 Experiment Pallet installed in the Cargo Bay for STS-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Views of the OSS-1 Experiment Pallet installed in the Cargo Bay for STS-3. Photos include view of the OSS-1 inside the payload bay of the Columbia before the bay doors were closed in flight configuration. Along the bay's edge is the remote manipulator system (RMS) (26910); Wide angle view of the payload bay including the OSS-1 and RMS (26911); high angle view of the OSS-1 inside the payload bay before the bay doors were closed. Also seen along the edge is the RMS (26912).

  1. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Gates'' that will be strategically placed in the water to form the race course. The event organizer will... will issue maritime advisories widely available to users of the waterway. If you think that your... think it qualifies and how and to what degree this rule would economically affect it. Assistance...

  2. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Bay Anchovy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Laguna Madre of Pearcy, W., and S.W. Richards. 1962. Texas . Publ. Inst. Mar. Sc. Univ. Distribution and ecology of fishes Tex. 4(2):156-200. of the Mystic...ppt) in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Upper Laguna Madre , Texas (Simmons Hudson River estuary were almost 1957). In the Mid-Atlantic Region...Seasonal abundance and distribution of marine fishes at a hot-water Fish . Serv. Fish . Bull. discharge in Galveston Bay, Texas . 76(2):438-487. Contrib. Mar

  3. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  4. How Sensitive is the Asian Monsoon System to Remote Forcing?: A Perspective from the late Quaternary Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, H. M.; Vance, D.; Arevalos, A.; Shimizu, N.; Burke, A.; Ziveri, P.

    2007-12-01

    Over the Quaternary has the Asian monsoon system responded predominantly to regional climate drivers such as orbital changes in summer insolation and the land-sea pressure gradient, or global climate boundary conditions such as the extent of northern hemisphere(NH) ice sheets and snow cover? Our paleorecords from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea reveal contrasting influence of the NH ice sheets. Seawater Nd isotopic ratios in the northern Bay of Bengal, reconstructed from planktic foraminifera, are sensitive to the degree of northward penetration of the Asian summer monsoon precipitation into the nonradiogenic terranes of the Himalayas. Shifts in river sources from the more northerly Ganges-Brahmaputra watershed to the more southerly Arakan coastal river systems respond dominantly to ITCZ movement driven by Northern Hemisphere cooling during 100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles. A nonlinear correlation of epsilon Nd with ice volume suggests that ITCZ movement responds to aerial coverage of ice sheets and snow rather than to ice thickness and volume as expected from albedo forcing. These data add support to recent general circulation models of which in this region show strong ITCZ response to Northern Hemisphere ice coverage. A small component of Nd isotopic variation on precessional timescales corresponds to ITCZ movement within the southern Irrawaddy and Arakan coastal systems. There is a strong connection between ITCZ movement and productivity even in a non-upwelling system such as the Bay of Bengal. In the northernmost Bay of Bengal, productivity indicators from Sr-Ca ratios in coccoliths and from Ba-Ti ratios of sediments exhibit principally glacial-interglacial variability consistent with the epsilon Nd record. Higher productivity during interglacials may reflect either higher riverine nutrient sources or stronger wind- driven eddy pumping. In the more southerly Andaman Sea, Sr-Ca ratios in coccoliths reveal productivity variations dominantly on precessional

  5. Bayes and empirical Bayes iteration estimators in two seemingly unrelated regression equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Lichun

    2005-01-01

    For a system of two seemingly unrelated regression equations given by {y1=X1β+ε1,y2=X2γ+ε2, (y1 is an m × 1 vector and y2 is an n × 1 vector, m≠ n), employing the covariance adjusted technique, we propose the parametric Bayes and empirical Bayes iteration estimator sequences for regression coefficients. We prove that both the covariance matrices converge monotonically and the Bayes iteration estimator squence is consistent as well. Based on the mean square error (MSE) criterion, we elaborate the superiority of empirical Bayes iteration estimator over the Bayes estimator of single equation when the covariance matrix of errors is unknown. The results obtained in this paper further show the power of the covariance adjusted approach.

  6. The simulated effects of wastewater-management actions on the hydrologic system and nitrogen-loading rates to wells and ecological receptors, Popponesset Bay Watershed, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of excess nitrogen into Popponesset Bay, an estuarine system on western Cape Cod, has resulted in eutrophication and the loss of eel grass habitat within the estuaries. Septic-system return flow in residential areas within the watershed is the primary source of nitrogen. Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for nitrogen have been assigned to the six estuaries that compose the system, and local communities are in the process of implementing the TMDLs by the partial sewering, treatment, and disposal of treated wastewater at wastewater-treatment facilities (WTFs). Loads of waste-derived nitrogen from both current (1997–2001) and future sources can be estimated implicitly from parcel-scale water-use data and recharge areas delineated by a groundwater-flow model. These loads are referred to as “instantaneous” loads because it is assumed that the nitrogen from surface sources is delivered to receptors instantaneously and that there is no traveltime through the aquifer. The use of a solute-transport model to explicitly simulate the transport of mass through the aquifer from sources to receptors can improve implementation of TMDLs by (1) accounting for traveltime through the aquifer, (2) avoiding limitations associated with the estimation of loads from static recharge areas, (3) accounting more accurately for the effect of surface waters on nitrogen loads, and (4) determining the response of waste-derived nitrogen loads to potential wastewater-management actions. The load of nitrogen to Popponesset Bay on western Cape Cod, which was estimated by using current sources as input to a solute-transport model based on a steady-state flow model, is about 50 percent of the instantaneous load after about 7 years of transport (loads to estuary are equal to loads discharged from sources); this estimate is consistent with simulated advective traveltimes in the aquifer, which have a median of 5 years. Model-calculated loads originating from recharge areas reach 80

  7. Impact of a river system on carbon sedimentation and sequestration in Cook's Bay of Lake Simcoe, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodau, Christian; Agethen, Svenja; Spangenberg, Ines; Broder, Tanja; Gimbel, Nicole; Strauss, Harald; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    The influence of sedimentation rates and organic matter quality on carbon sequestration and mineralization at the land-water interface of lakes is not well understood. To study this issue we investigated shallow Cook's Bay of temperate Lake Simcoe in southern Ontario. The elongated bay provides gradients in morphometry, trophic level, and distance to a major tributary as a potential point source of nutrients and terrestrial organic carbon. At five sampling sites of increasing distance to the river outlet the water column was examined during stratification regarding physio-chemical parameters, dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics, sedimentation rates and mineralization of settling material and sediments. To quantify actual organic carbon burial, sedimentation rates and mineralization were determined in situ and by diffusive flux modeling. Long-term carbon burial and sedimentation rates were determined using 210Pb dated sediment cores. Organic carbon quality and origin were analyzed in water samples via fluorescence spectroscopy, solid DOM and settling particles via elemental analysis and 13C isotopic data. Results showed that actual and long-term carbon burial were highest at the central sites of the transect (52-63%) and lowest at the profundal sites (0-25%). Current organic carbon deposition was highest near the river outlet (max. 0.3 g C m-2 d-1) and there the settling material reaching the sediments and in the sediments was also most highly decomposable. Total sedimentation rates and organic carbon burial were closely related. Compared to the outer sites, the DOM quality was significantly different at the site closest to the river outlet but already strongly influenced by lacustrine carbon cycling. Permanent organic carbon burial was mainly influenced by sedimentation related to lake morphometry and dependent parameters. The relation between sedimentation and carbon burial rates underlined the importance of oxygen exposure time and burial for

  8. Short- and long-term monitoring of underwater sound levels in the Hudson River (New York, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S Bruce; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing body of research on natural and man-made sounds that create aquatic soundscapes. Less is known about the soundscapes of shallow waters, such as in harbors, rivers, and lakes. Knowledge of soundscapes is needed as a baseline against which to determine the changes in noise levels resulting from human activities. To provide baseline data for the Hudson River at the site of the Tappan Zee Bridge, 12 acoustic data loggers were deployed for a 24-h period at ranges of 0-3000 m from the bridge, and four of the data loggers were re-deployed for three months of continuous recording. Results demonstrate that this region of the river is relatively quiet compared to open ocean conditions and other large river systems. Moreover, the soundscape had temporal and spatial diversity. The temporal patterns of underwater noise from the bridge change with the cadence of human activity. Bridge noise (e.g., road traffic) was only detected within 300 m; farther from the bridge, boating activity increased sound levels during the day, and especially on the weekend. Results also suggest that recording near the river bottom produced lower pseudo-noise levels than previous studies that recorded in the river water column.

  9. Isolation of a flavonoid, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subspecies longifolia and its genotoxic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Yanmis, Derya; Arasoglu, Tulin; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Demirezer, Lutfiye Omur

    2015-09-01

    Mentha is a medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family, which is widely used in food, flavor, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, it has been found that the use of Mentha as a pharmaceutical source is based on its phytochemical constituents that have far been identified as tannins, saponins, phenolic acids and flavonoids. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-glucoside (A7G), a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subspecies longifolia (ML). The possible antimutagenic potential of A7G was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate and acridine in an eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and 9-aminoacridine in S. typhimurium TA1537. According to our findings, any concentrations of the A7G used did not show mutagenic activity but exerted strong antimutagenic activities at tested concentrations. The inhibition rates for the Ames test ranged from 27.2% (S. typhimurium TA1535: 0.4 μM/plate) to 91.1% (S. typhimurium TA1537: 0.2 μM/plate) and for the yeast deletion assay from 4% to 57.7%. This genotoxicological study suggests that a flavonoid from ML owing to antimutagenic properties is of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial to industries producing food additives, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals products.

  10. CASCO BAY PLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  11. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  12. Measurement error affects risk estimates for recruitment to the Hudson River stock of striped bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Dennis J; Ross, Quentin E; Munch, Stephan B; Ginzburg, Lev R

    2002-06-07

    We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years). Measurement error, estimated using two abundance indices from independent beach seine surveys conducted on the Hudson River, accounted for 50% of the variability in one index and 56% of the variability in the other. If a measurement error of 50% was ignored and all of the variability in abundance was attributed to natural causes, the risk that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more after 15 years was 0.308 at the current level of entrainment mortality (11%). However, the risk decreased almost tenfold (0.032) if a measurement error of 50% was considered. The change in risk attributable to decreasing the entrainment mortality rate from 11 to 0% was very small (0.009) and similar in magnitude to the change in risk associated with an action proposed in Amendment #5 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic striped bass (0.006)--an increase in the instantaneous fishing mortality rate from 0.33 to 0.4. The proposed increase in fishing mortality was not considered an adverse environmental impact, which suggests that potentially costly efforts to reduce entrainment mortality on the Hudson River stock of striped bass are not warranted.

  13. Measurement Error Affects Risk Estimates for Recruitment to the Hudson River Stock of Striped Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Dunning

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years. Measurement error, estimated using two abundance indices from independent beach seine surveys conducted on the Hudson River, accounted for 50% of the variability in one index and 56% of the variability in the other. If a measurement error of 50% was ignored and all of the variability in abundance was attributed to natural causes, the risk that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more after 15 years was 0.308 at the current level of entrainment mortality (11%. However, the risk decreased almost tenfold (0.032 if a measurement error of 50% was considered. The change in risk attributable to decreasing the entrainment mortality rate from 11 to 0% was very small (0.009 and similar in magnitude to the change in risk associated with an action proposed in Amendment #5 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic striped bass (0.006— an increase in the instantaneous fishing mortality rate from 0.33 to 0.4. The proposed increase in fishing mortality was not considered an adverse environmental impact, which suggests that potentially costly efforts to reduce entrainment mortality on the Hudson River stock of striped bass are not warranted.

  14. Diatoms as Proxies for Abrupt Events in the Hudson River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorski, W.; Abbott, D. H.; Recasens, C.; Breger, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Hudson River estuary has been subject to many abrupt events throughout its history including hurricanes, droughts and pluvials. Hurricanes in particular are rare, discrete events that if fingerprinted can be used to develop better age models for Hudson River sediments. Proxies use observed physical characteristics or biological assemblages (e.g. diatom and foraminiferal assemblages) as tools to reconstruct past conditions prior to the modern instrumental record. Using a sediment core taken from the Hudson River (CDO2-29A), in New York City, drought and pluvial layers were selected based on Cs-137 dating while hurricane layers were determined from occurrences of tropical to subtropical foraminifera. Contrary to previous studies (Weaver, 1970, Weiss et al, 1978), more than sixty different diatom species have been identified using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cosmopolitan, hurricane and drought assemblages have begun to be identified after observing multiple layers (Table 1). Tropical foraminifera dominated by Globigerinoides ruber pink were also found in a hurricane layer that we infer was deposited during Hurricane Belle in 1976. More diatom abundance analyses and cataloged SEM pictures will provide further insight into these proxies. Table 1 Diatom Genera and Species Environment Clarification Cyclotella caspia Planktonic, marine-brackish Cosmopolitan Karayevia clevei Freshwater Cosmopolitan Melosira sp Planktonic, marine Cosmopolitan Thalassiosira sp Marine, brackish Cosmopolitan Staurosirella leptostauron Benthic, freshwater Cosmopolitan Actinoptychus senarius Planktonic or benthic, freshwater to brackish Hurricane and pluvial layers Amphora aff. sp Benthic, marine or freshwater Hurricane layers only Nitzschia sp Benthic, marine or freshwater Hurricane layers only Gomphonema sp Freshwater Hurricane layers only Surirella sp Marine-brackish Drought layer only Triceratium sp Marine Drought layer only Other Genera and species Environment Clarification

  15. Suspended sediment transport in the freshwater reach of the Hudson river estuary in eastern New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, G.R.; Nystrom, E.A.; Litten, S.

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of Hudson River sediment into New York Harbor interferes with navigation lanes and requires continuous dredging. Sediment dynamics at the Hudson estuary turbidity maximum (ETM) have received considerable study, but delivery of sediment to the ETM through the freshwater reach of the estuary has received relatively little attention and few direct measurements. An acoustic Doppler current profiler was positioned at the approximate limit of continuous freshwater to develop a 4-year time series of water velocity, discharge, suspended sediment concentration, and suspended sediment discharge. This data set was compared with suspended sediment discharge data collected during the same period at two sites just above the Hudson head-of-tide (the Federal Dam at Troy) that together represent the single largest source of sediment entering the estuary. The mean annual suspended sediment-discharge from the freshwater reach of the estuary was 737,000 metric tons. Unexpectedly, the total suspended sediment discharge at the study site in November and December slightly exceeded that observed during March and April, the months during which rain and snowmelt typically result in the largest sediment discharge to the estuary. Suspended sediment discharge at the study site exceeded that from the Federal Dam, even though the intervening reach appears to store significant amounts of sediment, suggesting that 30-40% of sediment discharge observed at the study site is derived from tributaries to the estuary between the Federal Dam and study site. A simple model of sediment entering and passing through the freshwater reach on a timescale of weeks appears reasonable during normal hydrologic conditions in adjoining watersheds; however, this simple model may dramatically overestimate sediment delivery during extreme tributary high flows, especially those at the end of, or after, the "flushing season" (October through April). Previous estimates of annual or seasonal sediment delivery

  16. Effectiveness of a pressurized stormwater filtration system in Green Bay, Wisconsin: a study for the environmental technology verification program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwatich, J.A.; Corsi, Steven R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2004-01-01

    A pressurized stormwater filtration system was installed in 1998 as a stormwater-treatment practice to treat runoff from a hospital rooftop and parking lot in Green Bay, Wisconsin. This type of filtration system has been installed in Florida citrus groves and sewage treatment plants around the United States; however, this installation is the first of its kind to be used to treat urban runoff and the first to be tested in Wisconsin. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored the system between November 2000 and September 2002 to evaluate it as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Fifteen runoff events were monitored for flow and water quality at the inlet and outlet of the system, and comparison of the event mean concentrations and constituent loads was used to evaluate its effectiveness. Loads were decreased in all particulate-associated constituents monitored, including suspended solids (83 percent), suspended sediment (81 percent), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (26 percent), total phosphorus (54 percent), and total recoverable zinc (62 percent). Total dissolved solids, dissolved phosphorus, and nitrate plus nitrite loads remained similar or increased through the system. The increase in some constituents was most likely due to a ground-water contribution between runoff events. Sand/silt split analysis resulted in the median silt content of 78 percent at the inlet, 87 percent at the outlet, and 3 percent at the flow splitter.

  17. Investigation of late Quaternary fault block uplift along the Motagua/Swan Islands fault system: Implications for seismic/tsunami hazard for the Bay of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Randel Tom; Lumsden, David N.; Gough, Kevin; Lloyd, Roger; Talnagi, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Uplifted and warped coastal landforms (fossil coral reef and beachrock, wave-cut and beach terraces) on the western part of Roatan Island off the northern Honduran coast record at least two late Holocene earthquakes that we estimate to have had magnitudes of > M7. Uplift has been primarily related to a fault that follows the southern coast of western Roatan, herein termed the "Flowers Bay fault", a subsidiary fault of the Motagua/Swan Islands Fault System which marks the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Using electron spin resonance (ESR) and radiocarbon ages of calcium carbonate samples and a late Quaternary sea level elevation curve that is compatible with Caribbean sea level data, we constrain the ages and long-term uplift rates of the displaced landforms on Roatan caused by the vertical component of slip on the Flowers Bay fault. The fossil reef that is uplifted along the fault grew between 43 and 34 ka, and the beachrock horizon and lowest uplifted terrace along the southern and western coasts developed between 1000 and 1700 AD. We describe evidence of one earthquake that raised the south coast ~ 3 m (as much as 5 m locally) and that post-dates 1700 AD. We interpret this event to be the great earthquake of August 1856 that generated a tsunami which ran as much as 24 km onto the mainland. Another earthquake circa 900 AD produced a similar amount of uplift as the 1856 event and likely generated a similar tsunami. The age and elevation of the fossil reef suggest a long-term uplift rate of 3 mm/year, consistent with a recurrence interval of ~ 1000 years for these large earthquakes.

  18. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... regularization of the log-likelihood estimate based on differential geometrical properties of teeth surfaces, and we show general conditions under which this may be considered a Bayes prior.Finally we use Bayes method to propose the reconstruction of missing data, for e.g. finding the most probable shape...

  19. A NEW TSUNAMI RISK SCALE FOR WARNING SYSTEMS - APPLICATION TO THE BAY OF ALGIERS IN ALGERIA, WEST MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Amir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Algiers and the surrounding coastal areas in northern Algeria are vulnerable to earthquakes which range from moderate to severe. In 2006, using several possible earthquake scenarios for the Western Mediterranean, the Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Algerian National Seismic Engineering Research Center predicted that heavy damage could occur in the Algiers region. Algerian Civil Defense authorities are particularly concerned by the threat of near-field earthquakes, associated slides and rock falls, as well as for tsunamis that can be generated. The present study proposes a new tsunami risk scale that provides information about the exposed communities and infrastructure, which can be used for regional tsunami alerts and warnings. Furthermore, it evaluates the vulnerability along the Bay of Algiers from tsunamigenic earthquakes. The JMA seismic intensity scale (Shindo scale and the corresponding seismic peak ground accelerations are used in the evaluation. The results of tsunami modeling studies and of earthquake vulnerability assessment described by the present study, emphasize the significance of public education and preparedness in efforts to mitigate loss of life and damage to property.

  20. Geochemistry of petroleum systems in the Niuzhuang South Slope of Bohai Bay basin - pt. 1: source rock characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumei Li [Petroleum University, Beijing (China). Chinese Ministry of Education; Geological Survey of Canada, Alberta (Canada); Xionqi Pang; Zhijun Jin [Petroleum University, Beijing (China). Chinese Ministry of Education; Maowen Li [Geological Survey of Canada, Alberta (Canada)

    2003-03-01

    Detailed mapping of the Tertiary strata of the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin reveals that oil shales and dark mudstones in the Es{sub 4} and Es{sub 3} members of the Eocene-Oligocene Shahejie Formation have excellent potential as petroleum source rocks. Regional distributions of total organic carbon content, kerogen type and thermal maturation indicate that abundant mature source rocks are present in the Niuzhuang Sag, whereas source rocks along the Niuzhuang South Slope are currently immature or marginally mature for the generation of conventional oils. This study examined the molecular characteristics for a number of biomarker compound classes, and related these to either source facies change or different burial and thermal maturation. An important observation made during this study is the significant variation in the relative distributions and absolute concentrations of a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon markers in the rock extracts as a function of burial depth. This variation may potentially explain the uncertainty associated with the maturity assessment and genetic modeling for so-called ''immature oils'' that are usually defined on the basis of alkane biomarker isomerization ratios and the presence of biomarkers with ''biological'' configurations. (author)

  1. 基于贝叶斯网络的高铁系统概率安全评估方法研究%RESEARCH ON PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT IN RAILWAY SYSTEM BASED ON BAYES NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海宏; 徐中伟; 梅萌; 祝玉军

    2011-01-01

    It is of great importance for the safety assessment of high speed railway control system. In this paper, the Bayes network technology is introduced which takes advantage of traditional event tree and fault tree that are good at analysis. The fault trees at each safety stage of the event tree are turned into Bayes network respectively, then are merged into an integrated Bayes network by logical relations.Through the integrated Bayes network, not only can the safety of the railway control system be analyzed, but also other useful probabilistic reasoning information can be obtained.%高速铁路控制系统的安全性评估非常重要,引入贝叶斯网络技术,充分利用传统事件树、故障树的分析优势,将事件树中各安全环节的故障树分别转化为贝叶斯网络,并按逻辑关系最终融合为一张完整的贝叶斯网.通过整合的贝叶斯网络不仅可以分析列控系统的安全性,同时还能得出其他有用的概率推理信息.

  2. Carbonate Chemistry Dynamics in an Area of Active Gas Seepage: the Hudson Canyon, US Atlantic Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Tigreros Kodovska, F.; Kessler, J. D.; Leonte, M.; Chepigin, A.; Kellermann, M. Y.; Arrington, E. C.; Valentine, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The fate of oceanic methane and its impact on the global climate has been of particular interest to the global community. The potential for vast amounts of methane to be emitted from the seafloor into the atmosphere due to gas hydrate decomposition has been under scientific evaluation. However, despite the great extent of these geological reservoirs, much of the methane released from the seafloor in deep ocean environments does not reach the atmosphere. Once dissolved in ocean water, the emitted methane can be microbially converted to either carbon dioxide or assimilated to biomass. Here, we will present results from a research cruise to the Hudson Canyon, northern US Atlantic Margin, where we investigated changes in ocean water carbonate chemistry induced by the oxidation of methane released from gas seeps. We will be presenting high precision pH data as well as methane and DIC concentrations, natural stable isotopes, and methane oxidation rates collected inside and adjacent to the Hudson Canyon in the summer of 2014.

  3. Low PCB concentrations observed in American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in six Hudson River tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, K.E.; Machut, L.S.; Jeffers, P.; Schmidt, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed 73 eels, collected in 2004 and 2005 above the head of tide in six Hudson River tributaries, for total PCBs, length, weight, age, and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (??15N). Mean total PCB concentration (wet weight basis) was 0.23 ppm ?? 0.08 (standard error), with a range of 0.008 to 5.4 ppm. A majority of eels (84) had concentrations below 0.25 ppm, and only seven eels (10%) had concentrations exceeding 0.5 ppm. Those eels with higher PCB concentrations were ???12 yr; there was a weak correlation of PCB concentration with ??15N and also with weight. Compared to recent (2003) data from the mainstem of the Hudson River estuary, these results indicate that tributaries are generally much less contaminated with PCBs. We hypothesize that those tributary eels with high PCB concentrations were relatively recent immigrants from the mainstem. Given concern over the possible adverse effects of PCBs on eel reproduction, these tributaries may serve as refugia. Therefore, providing improved access to upland tributaries may be critically important to this species. ?? 2008 Northeastern Naturalist.

  4. Hudson River Paleoclimate, Sea Level, and Human Impact: A Record From Piermont Marsh, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdyla; Peteet, Dorothy; Liberman, Louisa; Sugar; Wong; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A 13.77 meter sediment core from Piermont Marsh, NY (40 00 N, 73 55W) records the local and regional vegetational and foraminiferal history of the Hudson Estuary. The sediments were sampled every 4 cm, which represents a decadal to centuryscale resolution. Basal sediment dating is in progress, and the 11-m depth represents about 4000 years. Changes in plant macrofossils and charcoal appear to indicate differences in salinIty and drought, suggesting changes in climate. Scirpus, Salicornia, and high levels of charcoal seem to indicate drier/more saline conditions, while lack of these macrofossils and increases in Chara/Nitella, aquatic leaves, and very little charcoal suggests wetter conditions. Other macrofossils include Carex, Juncus, Polygonum, Zanichellia, Ruppia. High resolution AMS dating of plant macrofossils is in progress, and will be compared with changes in Hudson River sediment cores offshore. Foraminiferal assemblages from key intervals of the core will be presented. Human impact in the upper sediments is visible from the influx of grass seeds, primarily Phragmites, and the ragweed pollen rise.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Upper Hudson River Basin, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 production and domestic wells in the Upper Hudson River Basin (north of the Federal Dam at Troy, New York) in New York in August 2012 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Upper Hudson River Basin covers 4,600 square miles in upstate New York, Vermont, and Massachusetts; the study area encompasses the 4,000 square miles that lie within New York. The basin is underlain by crystalline and sedimentary bedrock, including gneiss, shale, and slate; some sandstone and carbonate rocks are present locally. The bedrock in some areas is overlain by surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel. Eleven of the wells sampled in the Upper Hudson River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and nine are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Upper Hudson River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was moderately hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 7 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Two pesticides, an herbicide degradate and an insecticide degredate, were detected in two samples at trace levels; seven VOCs, including chloroform, four solvents, and the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,900 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well; the median radon activity was higher in samples from bedrock wells than in samples from sand and gravel wells. Coliform bacteria were

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Hydrocarbon Expulsion of Petroleum Systems in the Niuzhuang Sag,Bohai Bay Basin,East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi; LI Sumei; JIN Zhijun; BAI Guoping

    2004-01-01

    Based on a detailed survey of the distribution and organic geochemical characteristics of potential source rocks in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China, a new approach to assess the amount of hydrocarbons generated and expelled has been developed. The approach is applicable to evaluate hydrocarbons with different genetic mechanisms. The results show that the models for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion vary with potential source rocks, depending on thermal maturity, types of organic matter and paleoenvironment. Hydrocarbons are mostly generated and expelled from source rocks within the normal oil window. It was calculated that the special interval (algal-rich shales of the Es4 member formed in brackish environments) in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag has a much higher potential of immature oil generation than the other intervals in the area. This suggests that hydrocarbons can definitely be generated in early diagenesis, especially under certain special geological settings. The proportion of hydrocarbons generated and expelled from the Es4 shales in the early diagenetic stage is up to 26.75% and 17.36%,respectively. It was also observed that laminated shales have a much higher expulsion efficiency than massive mudstones.In contrast, the special interval of the Es4 shales proposed from previous studies is probably not the whole rock for oil in the South Slope of the Niuzhuang Sag because of the small proportion of the gross volume and corresponding low percentage of hydrocarbons generated and expelled. A much lower expulsion efficiency of the source rock during the early stage relative to that within the normal oil window has been calculated. Our results indicate that the Es4 mudstones rather than the shales deposited in the Niuzhuang and Guangli Sag are the main source rocks for the oil discovered.

  7. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  8. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  9. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  10. Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies were developed by the seven watershed jurisdictions and outlined the river basin-specific implementation activities to reduce nutrient and sediment pollutant loads from point and nonpoint sources.

  11. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  12. De vluchtige olie van enkele chemotypen van mentha suaveolens EHRH. en van hybriden met mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hindrik

    1974-01-01

    De opvatting dat Mentha x piperita L. een bastaard zou zijn van Mentha spicata L. en Mentha aquatica L. werd nader besproken. Hierbij werd Mentha spicata beschouwd als een bastaard van Mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON en Mentha suaveolens EHRH. ... Zie: Samenvatting.

  13. De vluchtige olie van enkele chemotypen van mentha suaveolens EHRH. en van hybriden met mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hindrik

    1974-01-01

    De opvatting dat Mentha x piperita L. een bastaard zou zijn van Mentha spicata L. en Mentha aquatica L. werd nader besproken. Hierbij werd Mentha spicata beschouwd als een bastaard van Mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON en Mentha suaveolens EHRH. ... Zie: Samenvatting.

  14. 77 FR 34285 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan now to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship Swim, Hudson... vicinity of Englewood Cliffs and Fort Lee, NJ for the 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship swim event....

  15. 77 FR 66215 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing Project in New York Correction In notice document 2012-26799, appearing on page 65929 in the...

  16. 78 FR 59231 - Regulated Navigation Area-Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--Tappan Zee Bridge... area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River surrounding the Tappan Zee Bridge. This... situation created by the construction of the Tappan Zee Bridge. The Coast Guard has discussed this...

  17. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company......’s purpose: selling millions of goods, some of which are ‘designer’ items and some of which are considered design icons....

  18. A retrospective streamflow ensemble forecast for an extreme hydrologic event: a case study of Hurricane Irene and on the Hudson River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Firas; Ramaswamy, Venkatsundar; Georgas, Nickitas; Blumberg, Alan F.; Pullen, Julie

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the uncertainties in hourly streamflow ensemble forecasts for an extreme hydrological event using a hydrological model forced with short-range ensemble weather prediction models. A state-of-the art, automated, short-term hydrologic prediction framework was implemented using GIS and a regional scale hydrological model (HEC-HMS). The hydrologic framework was applied to the Hudson River basin ( ˜ 36 000 km2) in the United States using gridded precipitation data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and was validated against streamflow observations from the United States Geologic Survey (USGS). Finally, 21 precipitation ensemble members of the latest Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS/R) were forced into HEC-HMS to generate a retrospective streamflow ensemble forecast for an extreme hydrological event, Hurricane Irene. The work shows that ensemble stream discharge forecasts provide improved predictions and useful information about associated uncertainties, thus improving the assessment of risks when compared with deterministic forecasts. The uncertainties in weather inputs may result in false warnings and missed river flooding events, reducing the potential to effectively mitigate flood damage. The findings demonstrate how errors in the ensemble median streamflow forecast and time of peak, as well as the ensemble spread (uncertainty) are reduced 48 h pre-event by utilizing the ensemble framework. The methodology and implications of this work benefit efforts of short-term streamflow forecasts at regional scales, notably regarding the peak timing of an extreme hydrologic event when combined with a flood threshold exceedance diagram. Although the modeling framework was implemented on the Hudson River basin, it is flexible and applicable in other parts of the world where atmospheric reanalysis products and streamflow data are available.

  19. 3D architecture of a complex transcurrent rift system: The example of the Bay of Biscay-Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Suzon; Tiberi, Christel; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2010-06-01

    The Parentis and Arzacq-Mauléon basins located in front of the V-shaped oceanic propagator in the Bay of Biscay present evidence for extreme crustal thinning. In this paper we investigate the 3D structure of these rift basins, based on field observations and the interpretation of seismic data. We compare these results with those obtained from two different and independent inversion methods: first a 3D gravity inversion and second the standard Euler deconvolution. For the Mauléon Basin our results show that the positive gravimetric anomaly identified above its southern margin is the consequence of two shallower high density bodies that are separated by the Pamplona fault and a deeper high density body. The high density bodies can be explained by the presence of mid-crustal and mantle rocks that were exhumed or uplifted at shallower depth during Early Cretaceous rifting before they were reworked and integrated to the Pyrenean chain during compression phase. Also, during this reactivation phase, some slices of the exhumed mid-crustal and mantle rocks were sheared off and were integrated in the present-day thrust belt in the Mauléon basin. For the Parentis Basin we can demonstrate, based on seismic data and gravimetric inversion methods, a decrease in extension from west to east, which is compatible with the V-shape geometry of the overall basin. Along strike, a change in the fault geometry from downward concave top-basement detachment faults to upward concave high-angle faults can be observed eastwards, i.e. towards the termination of the basin. A key structure, controlling the evolution of the Parentis Basin, is the east-west trending Ibis fault. We interpret this fault to have initially formed as a strike slip fault before it was reactivated during later crustal thinning. At present, it forms the limit between an upper plate sag basin to the north and a lower plate sag basin, floored at least locally by a top-basement detachment faults to the south. The strong

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska, Prince William Sound-2000, Aleutians-2001, Bristol Bay-2004, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), and Bristol Bay (2004). ESI data...

  1. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  2. Module bay with directed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  3. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  4. Bayes' theorem: scientific assessment of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Rutten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy is based on experience and this is a scientific procedure if we follow Bayes' theorem. Unfortunately this is not the case at the moment. Symptoms are added to our materia medica based on absolute occurrence, while Bayes theorem tells us that this should be based on relative occurrence. Bayes theorem can be applied on prospective research, but also on retrospective research and consensus based on a large number of cases. Confirmation bias is an important source of false data in experience based systems like homeopathy. Homeopathic doctors should become more aware of this and longer follow-up of cases could remedy this. The existing system of adding symptoms to our materia medica is obsolete.

  5. A 210Pb sediment budget and granulometric record of sediment fluxes in a subarctic deltaic system: The Great Whale River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülse, Peter; Bentley, Samuel J.

    2012-08-01

    To elucidate how modern river discharge conditions of the Great Whale River (GWR) are represented in the marine sedimentary record, eight box and gravity cores were examined in terms of 210Pb and 137Cs radiochemistry, granulometry and physical sedimentary structures. These data were analyzed to provide insights into sedimentary processes and patterns at the study site. Sediment accumulation in the study area appears to be a relatively steady process over time-scales of 50-100 yr, allowing biological activity to overprint the primary depositional fabric. Subtle differences between 137Cs and 210Pb sediment accumulation rates (SARs) suggest an offshore shift in the locus of fine sediment deposition during the past ˜150 yr, which may be a result of ongoing climatic warming leading to decreasing sea-ice coverage and a more energetic marine environment. Under present day conditions 23% (40,000 t/yr) of the discharged sediment appear to accumulate in a 25 km2 area off the river mouth. The remaining 77% (136,000 t/yr) are either deposited further offshore, possibly along the northeastern shore as a result of Hudson Bay's counterclockwise circulation, or dispersed into the Hudson Bay system. Grain diameter frequency analyses suggest that environmental processes controlling sediment transport and deposition vary over decadal time scales. Although, we cannot define an exact cause for this pattern, these shifts may be related to variations in river discharge, wave climate, possibly due to windier conditions or less sea-ice dampening, bioturbation or a combination of all. This suggests that also longer term river discharge signals are preserved in the marine sedimentary record offshore the Great Whale River. In summary, no major change in sediment discharge over the past ˜150 yr was observed. However, the offshore shift in the locus of sediment deposition suggests, that a warming climate will lead to more energetic marine conditions, less sea-ice coverage, and an increased

  6. 78 FR 15715 - Excelerate Liquefaction Solutions I, LLC; Lavaca Bay Pipeline System, LLC; Notice of Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... generation system; A cooling water system and instrument air package; A cold vent/ground flare; A fire water... spend researching proceedings by automatically providing you with notification of these filings...

  7. Nutrient and physical profile data from four Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (MECCAS) cruises collected aboard the R/V Gyre at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and northern Atlantic Ocean from February 17, 1985 to September 7, 1986 (NODC Accession 8800324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (MECCAS) cruise data collected aboard the R/V Gyre at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and northern...

  8. Large-scale right-slip displacement on the East San Francisco Bay Region fault system, California: Implications for location of late Miocene to Pliocene Pacific plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sliter, W.V.; Sorg, D.H.; Russell, P.C.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    A belt of northwardly younging Neogene and Quaternary volcanic rocks and hydrothermal vein systems, together with a distinctive Cretaceous terrane of the Franciscan Complex (the Permanente terrane), exhibits about 160 to 170 km of cumulative dextral offset across faults of the East San Francisco Bay Region (ESFBR) fault system. The offset hydrothermal veins and volcanic rocks range in age from .01 Ma at the northwest end to about 17.6 Ma at the southeast end. In the fault block between the San Andreas and ESFBR fault systems, where volcanic rocks are scarce, hydrothermal vein system ages clearly indicate that the northward younging thermal overprint affected these rocks beginning about 18 Ma. The age progression of these volcanic rocks and hydrothermal vein systems is consistent with previously proposed models that relate northward propagation of the San Andreas transform to the opening of an asthenospheric window beneath the North American plate margin in the wake of subducting lithosphere. The similarity in the amount of offset of the Permanente terrane across the ESFBR fault system to that derived by restoring continuity in the northward younging age progression of volcanic rocks and hydrothermal veins suggests a model in which 80-110 km of offset are taken up 8 to 6 Ma on a fault aligned with the Bloomfield-Tolay-Franklin-Concord-Sunol-Calaveras faults. An additional 50-70 km of cumulative slip are taken up ??? 6 Ma by the Rogers Creek-Hayward and Concord-Franklin-Sunol-Calaveras faults. An alternative model in which the Permanente terrane is offset about 80 km by pre-Miocene faults does not adequately restore the distribution of 8-12 Ma volcanic rocks and hydrothermal veins to a single northwardly younging age trend. If 80-110 km of slip was taken up by the ESFBR fault system between 8 and 6 Ma, dextral slip rates were 40-55 mm/yr. Such high rates might occur if the ESFBR fault system rather than the San Andreas fault acted as the transform margin at this time

  9. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM-BASED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR SITE SELECTION OF GREEN MUSSEL, Perna viridis, MARICULTURE IN LADA BAY, PANDEGLANG, BANTEN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Radiarta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel is one of important species cultured in Lada Bay, Pandeglang. To provide a necessary guidance regarding green mussel mariculture development, finding suitable site is an important step. This study was conducted to identify suitable site for green mussel mariculture development using geographic information system (GIS based models. Seven important parameters were grouped into two submodels, namely environmental (water temperature, salinity, suspended solid, dissolve oxygen, and bathymetry and infrastructural (distance to settlement and pond aquaculture. A constraint data was used to exclude the area from suitability maps that cannot be allowed to develop green mussel mariculture, including area of floating net fishing activity and area near electricity station. Analyses of factors and constraints indicated that about 31% of potential area with bottom depth less than 25 m had the most suitable area. This area was shown to have an ideal condition for green mussel mariculture in this study region. This study shows that GIS model is a powerful tool for site selection decision making. The tool can be a valuable tool in solving problems in local, regional, and/or continent areas.

  10. Study on Commercialization of Biogasification Systems in Ishikari Bay New Port Area - Proposal of Estimation Method of Collectable Amount of Food Waste by using Binary Logit Model -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sho; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    This study proposed an estimation method for collectable amount of food waste considering the food waste generator's cooperation ratio ant the amount of food waste generation, and clarified the factors influencing the collectable amount of food waste. In our method, the cooperation ratio was calculated by using the binary logit model which is often used for the traffic multiple choice question. In order to develop a more precise binary logit model, the factors influencing on the cooperation ratio were extracted by a questionnaire survey asking food waste generator's intention, and the preference investigation was then conducted at the second step. As a result, the collectable amount of food waste was estimated to be 72 [t/day] in the Ishikari bay new port area under a condition of current collection system by using our method. In addition, the most critical factor influencing on the collectable amount of food waste was the treatment fee for households, and was the permitted mixture degree of improper materials for retail trade and restaurant businesses

  11. La foresta tropicale come paradiso perduto: Green Mansions di W.H. Hudson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Brazzelli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In W.H. Hudson’s Green Mansions (1904 the mysterious and enchanting quality of the natural world is represented through the writer’s powerful imagination, and the exotic landscape of the South American rainforest is related to British territorial expansion: according to a long-standing literary tradition, the European colonial desire is projected onto remote, unknown places. On the one hand, the pristine forest appears a pure space, a site unspoiled by colonial expansion, the primitive and sacred world nourishing Western exotic dreams. On the other hand, by revisiting the myth of the lost paradise, Hudson conveys the late nineteenth-early twentieth century European perception of the tropical world, a patchwork of Charles Darwin’s theories, Biblical echoes and colonial ideology. Abel surrenders to the influence of the wild, ventures into the weird and entangled forest, seemingly refusing male invasion and domination. Rima’s subsequent death symbolizes the ecological catastrophe brought about by the Europeans in the primitive world of South America: the feathered bird-girl is assimilated to an Edenic being at the mercy of destructive forces. At the same time, Abel’s wish to possess the land reinforces the colonial viewpoint of the narration, while the movement from civilization to the wilderness implies the representation of a Darwinian struggle. Hudson frames the tropical space as substantially ambiguous, attractive and destructive for both colonizers and colonized, and through his narrative he introduces the fear of natural loss in the extreme form of the extinction of the green world.

  12. The Fermi's Bayes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, G

    2005-01-01

    It is curious to learn that Enrico Fermi knew how to base probabilistic inference on Bayes theorem, and that some influential notes on statistics for physicists stem from what the author calls elsewhere, but never in these notes, {\\it the Bayes Theorem of Fermi}. The fact is curious because the large majority of living physicists, educated in the second half of last century -- a kind of middle age in the statistical reasoning -- never heard of Bayes theorem during their studies, though they have been constantly using an intuitive reasoning quite Bayesian in spirit. This paper is based on recollections and notes by Jay Orear and on Gauss' ``Theoria motus corporum coelestium'', being the {\\it Princeps mathematicorum} remembered by Orear as source of Fermi's Bayesian reasoning.

  13. Bayes' theorem and early solar short-lived radionuclides: the case for an unexceptional origin for the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Edward D

    2016-01-01

    The presence of excesses of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system evidenced in meteorites has been taken as testament to close encounters with exotic nucleosynthetic sources, including supernovae or AGB stars. An analysis of the likelihoods associated with different sources of these extinct nuclides in the early solar system indicates that rather than being exotic, their abundances were typical of star-forming regions like those observed today in the Galaxy. The radiochemistry of the early solar system is therefore unexceptional, being the consequence of extensive averaging of molecular cloud solids.

  14. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  15. Endocrine disrupter - estradiol - in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabawila, Nelum [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Gupta, Gian [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States)]. E-mail: gcgupta@umes.edu

    2005-04-11

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17{beta}-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l{sup -1}. E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound - Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l{sup -1}. Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l{sup -1}.

  16. Padilla Bay: The Estuary Guide. Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesem, Judy; Lynn, Valerie, Ed.

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the middle school level is designed for use with the on-site program developed by the Padilla Bay National Esturine Research Reserve (Washington). The guide…

  17. Mechanisms Responsible for the Observed Thermodynamic Structure in a Convective Boundary Layer Over the Hudson Valley of New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Jeffrey M.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2017-02-01

    We examine cases of a regional elevated mixed layer (EML) observed during the Hudson Valley Ambient Meteorology Study (HVAMS) conducted in New York State, USA in 2003. Previously observed EMLs referred to topographic domains on scales of 105 -106 km2 . Here, we present observational evidence of the mechanisms responsible for the development and maintenance of regional EMLs overlying a valley-based convective boundary layer (CBL) on much smaller spatial scales (deployed during the HVAMS, we show that cross-valley horizontal advection, along-valley channelling, and fog-induced cold-air pooling are responsible for the formation and maintenance of the EML and valley-CBL coupling over New York State's Hudson Valley. The upper layer stability of the overlying EML constrains growth of the valley CBL, and this has important implications for air dispersion, aviation interests, and fog forecasting.

  18. OTOLITH MICROCHEMISTRY INDICATES UNEXPECTED PATTERNS OF RESIDENCY AND ANADROMY IN BLUEBACK HERRING, ALOSA AESTIVALIS, IN THE HUDSON AND MOHAWK RIVERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMBURG K. E.

    2001-07-01

    PIXE, providing a detailed time series of data on the Sr:Ca, and thus habitat use history, of the fish. We also analyzed otoliths of Mohawk and Hudson River young-of-year (YOY. The Sr:Ca ratios of Mohawk YOY are slightly but significantly higher than those of Hudson YOY. Life history transects for 51 adults show complex patterns of Sr:Ca, indicating that many of the fish move into salt water at least for brief periods. However, many fish appear to spend extended parts of their post-YOY lives in fresh water, and at least two adults (caught in the Mohawk near Rome, NY appear never to have changed habitats at all. This is thus the first demonstration of residency in Mohawk River herring.

  19. Fuel Cell Power System and Equipment Bay for High Altitude, Super- Pressured, Powered Aerostat (HASPA) Operational Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-20

    Identify hy block number) Fuel cell High altitude Power system Aerostat f HASPA Manual .A8SRACt (Continue on reverse aide If rI coeeary and identify...Control Unit 37 VI. Pin Identification - Fuel Cell Control Unit 38 VIH . Pin Identification - Fuel Cell Auxiliary Data Unit 39 - VIII. HASPA - Equipment

  20. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the adequate provision for waste disposal is an essential part of the infrastructure needed in the development of Richards Bay as a deepwater harbour and industrial/metropolitan area. Having considered various options for waste...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from the Hudson River, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sean S; Skinner, Lawrence C

    2016-09-01

    The Hudson River, NY, USA is contaminated for over 300 km with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) released from two General Electric (GE) capacitor plants. We collected adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from four different areas of the river; an area upstream of the GE plants (n = 38), two areas directly downstream of the GE plants (n = 41, n = 38), and an area more than 100 km downstream in the freshwater tidal river (n = 20). Collections occurred during July and August (2008) when ducks were flightless to ensure ducks were "resident" and exposures were local. Fat and muscle tissue were analyzed for PCBs. PCBs were detected in all samples, and mallards below the GE plant sites on the Hudson River had orders of magnitude higher concentrations of PCBs than those above the plants. Juvenile mallards from areas directly downstream of the GE plant sites tended to have higher PCB concentrations in fat than adults. The patterns of PCB congeners and homolog groups varied across the study areas, with areas directly downstream of the GE plants dominated by tetra-chloro biphenyls whereas samples from upstream and the freshwater tidal river tended towards higher chlorinated congeners. Congener patterns between male and female and juvenile and adult mallards were generally similar within study areas, with the exception of one area downstream of the GE plants where adult birds exhibited different patterns than juveniles. Evidence of PCBs from the GE plant sites was detected in the tidal Hudson River, more than 100 km downstream of the plant sites. More than 90% of the ducks collected in areas downstream of the GE plants but above the tidally influenced river exceed the USFDA tolerance level for PCBs in poultry, which should be a concern for consumers of waterfowl taken in proximity to the upper Hudson River.

  2. Catastrophic meltwater discharge down the Hudson Valley: a potential trigger for the Intra-Allerød cold period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Driscoll, Neal W.; Uchupi, Elazar; Keigwin, Loyd D.; Schwab, William C.; Thieler, E. Robert; Swift, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    Glacial freshwater discharge to the Atlantic Ocean during deglaciation may have inhibited oceanic thermohaline circulation, and is often postulated to have driven climatic fluctuations. Yet attributing meltwater-discharge events to particular climate oscillations is problematic, because the location, timing, and amount of meltwater discharge are often poorly constrained. We present evidence from the Hudson Valley and the northeastern U.S. continental margin that establishes the timing of the catastrophic draining of Glacial Lake Iroquois, which breached the moraine dam at the Narrows in New York City, eroded glacial lake sediments in the Hudson Valley, and deposited large sediment lobes on the New York and New Jersey continental shelf ca. 13,350 yr B.P. Excess 14C in Cariaco Basin sediments indicates a slowing in thermohaline circulation and heat transport to the North Atlantic at that time, and both marine and terrestrial paleoclimate proxy records around the North Atlantic show a short-lived (<400 yr) cold event (Intra-Aller??d cold period) that began ca. 13,350 yr B.P. The meltwater discharge out the Hudson Valley may have played an important role in triggering the Intra-Aller??d cold period by diminishing thermohaline circulation. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  3. Mass balances and dynamic changes of the Bering, Malaspina, and Icy Bay glacier systems of Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Reginald R.

    The Bering and the Malaspina Glacier systems of south-central Alaska, U.S.A., and southwest Yukon Territory, Canada, in the Saint Elias Mountains constitute the two largest temperate surge-type piedmont glaciers on Earth. This is largest region of glaciers and icefields in continental North America. Determining and understanding the causes of wastage of these two glaciers is important to understanding the linkages of glacier mass balance to climate change, glacier dynamics, and the contributions of the glaciers of northwestern North America to rising sea level. Presented are the first detailed estimate of the net mass balances of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems, the effects of glacier dynamics on their accumulation areas, and the wastage of the tidewater glaciers of Icy Bay. The combined wastage of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems from 1972 to 2003, 254 +/- 16 km 3 water equivalent over a glacier area of 7734 km2, is equivalent to an area-average mass balance of -1.06 +/- 0.07 m/y over that time period. This represents a contribution to global sea-level rise of 0.70 +/- 0.05 mm, 0.023 +/- 0.002 mm/yr from 1972 to 2003. This is roughly 0.8% of the modern sea-level rise as estimated from tide-gauges and satellites, and roughly 9% of the contribution from non-polar glaciers and ice caps. Glacier wastage has been caused by climate warming (negative mass balance) superimposed on the effects of glacier dynamics. Near-concurrent surge of the three largest glaciers of the Malaspina Glacier piedmont were observed during 1999 to 2002. In addition, the tidewater Tyndall Glacier, whose retreat since 1910 was interrupted in 1964 by a major surge, also surged during 1999 to 2002. These four surges have occurred roughly 23 years after the 1976/77 shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its current warm-wet phase. Despite the increase of high-elevation snow accumulation observed on Mt. Logan, the accumulation areas of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems

  4. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-river system in a century of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Cloern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010-2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21(st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1 an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2 varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3 inevitability of

  5. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco bay-delta-river system in a century of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Knowles, N.; Brown, L.R.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Morgan, T.L.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Stacey, M.T.; van der Wegen, M.; Wagner, R.W.; Jassby, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings: We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010-2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance: Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  6. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a century of continuing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Dettinger, Michael D.; Morgan, Tara L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R. Wayne; Jassby, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  7. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — One of the most important functions of the southern Monterey Bay coastal system is its role as a habitat for a unique flora and fauna. The beaches are habitat for...

  8. View of Spacelab 2 pallet in the open payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    View of the Spacelab 2 pallet in the open payload bay. The solar telescope on the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) is fully deployed. The Solar UV high resolution Telescope and Spectrograph are also visible.

  9. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Kachemak Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Kachemak Bay system in...

  10. Modeling Total Suspended Solids (TSS) Concentrations in Narragansett Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work covers mechanistic modeling of suspended particulates in estuarine systems with an application to Narragansett Bay, RI. Suspended particles directly affect water clarity and attenuate light in the water column. Water clarity affects both phytoplankton and submerged aqua...

  11. Hudson Canyon benthic habitats characterization and mapping by integrated analysis of multidisciplinary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdomenico, Martina; Guida, Vincent G.; Rona, Peter A.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Scranton, Mary I.; Asper, Vernon; Diercks, Arne

    2013-04-01

    Hudson Canyon, about 180 km SE of New York City, is the largest eastern U.S. submarine canyon and is under consideration for HAPC (Habitat Area of Particular Concern) status, representing a fisheries and biodiversity hot spot. Interest in the area, within the perspective of ecosystem based management, marine spatial planning, habitat and species conservation, led to a joint project between NOAA Northeast Fisheries, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Mississippi Mineral Research Institute (MMRI), National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST), Stony Brook and Rutgers Universities for the study of benthic habitats, that includes the assembly of existing data with newly collected ones: acoustic mapping, visual ground-truthing, hydrographic, sedimentological, and trawl data collections. Acoustic mapping, performed using AUV-mounted multibeam sonar, provided ultra-high resolution bathymetric and backscatter imagery (3m and 1m respectively) at all water depths for identification of geomorphological features and for the characterization of surficial sediments along the two thirds of the shelf portion of the canyon. Identification of benthic and demersal communities was accomplished by visual ground thruthing with underwater vehicle video and still cameras, and from trawl catch data. A CTD-rosette sampler provided water column salinity-temperature profiles and water samples for dissolved methane analysis in the vicinity of suspected bottom sources. Analysis of data revealed a complex of topographic structures and hydrological patterns that provide a wide range of physical habitats in a relatively small area. A mosaic of sandy and muddy substrates, gravel beds, rock outcrops, and semilithified clay outcrops host rich and varied faunal assemblages, including deepwater corals and sponge communities. Pockmark fields, occurring below 300 m depth, suggest that methane-based chemosynthetic carbonate deposition contributes to creation of specific hard bottom habitats

  12. Baseline levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in species from a subtropical estuarine system (Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Adriana E; Renaud, Paul E; da Cunha Lana, Paulo; Camus, Lionel

    2016-12-15

    Offshore petroleum exploration has increased the risks of oil spills in coastal tropical and subtropical habitats. Monitoring tools are needed to assess and protect environmental health. We determined baseline values of antioxidant biomarkers (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST, MDA) for five ecologically relevant species in a subtropical system in southern Brazil. Regional baseline levels are compared with literature data as a basis to eventually test their efficacy as post-spill monitoring tools. Differences in the antioxidant response among species, contamination, and seasons were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses. The bivalves Anomalocardia flexuosa and Crassostrea rhizophorae and the catfish Genidens genidens emerge as suitable sentinel species. Seasonality is the main factor accounting for biomarkers variability, and not background contamination level. However, interactions between season and contamination level are also significant, indicating that biomarkers respond to complex environmental settings, a fact that needs to be fully understood for designing proper monitoring programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dispersive Tidal Plume Modeling of Brine Discharge from Reverse Osmosis (RO) Desalination System, Coral Bay, St. John, USVI using Finite Segment Steady-state Response Matrix (SSRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Shahvari, A.

    2011-12-01

    This characterization and modeling study of dispersive tidal plume of brine discharge from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system is a part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) for a new reverse osmosis system in the Coral Bay, St. John, USVI (US Virgin Island). Main foci are on developing the tidal longitudinal (perpendicular to the shoreline) and lateral (parallel to the shoreline) dispersion coefficients and subsequently characterize dispersion and mixing characterization of the negatively buoyant brine discharge plume from the proposed reverse osmosis plant to evaluate the level of salinity variations in the nearshore mixing plume in regard to existing coral reef ecosystem. An in situ dye study was conducted by a marine biologist for this purpose to estimate brine discharge plume dispersion coefficients under oscillatory tidal transport and fate flux for current and proposed plant configuration. Additional tidal and surface runoff hydrologic data, bathymetric data and brine discharge characteristics in the vicinity of the brine discharge location are reflected in this study. With estimated dispersion coefficients, eighteen brine discharge scenarios were evaluated to model anticipated dispersive characteristics under varying operational conditions and ambient tidal current conditions for average measured salinity of 33.27 PSU in loco as well as a standard 35 PSU for typical nearshore water salinity variations. Modeling results indicated that the dispersive tidal plume of design brine discharge from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system at a discharge of 150,000 gpd would raise salinity no higher than 0.0123 PSU in receiving nearshore estuarine water (Maximum concentration at the segment 3 = 33.2822 PSU at Δt = 12 hrs and 24 hrs in diurnal tidal cycle under when the brine discharge with Base+25% concentration, 81.25 PSU at brine discharge rate of 0.0066 m3/sec, and with a minimum direct overland flow efflux at 0.003 m3/sec - this is a "worst-case" operating

  14. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  15. Bathymetric controls on sediment transport in the Hudson River estuary: Lateral asymmetry and frontal trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, David K.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Warner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of field observations and numerical model results have identified that sediment transport in the Hudson River estuary is laterally segregated between channel and shoals, features frontal trapping at multiple locations along the estuary, and varies significantly over the spring-neap tidal cycle. Lateral gradients in depth, and therefore baroclinic pressure gradient and stratification, control the lateral distribution of sediment transport. Within the saline estuary, sediment fluxes are strongly landward in the channel and seaward on the shoals. At multiple locations, bottom salinity fronts form at bathymetric transitions in width or depth. Sediment convergences near the fronts create local maxima in suspended-sediment concentration and deposition, providing a general mechanism for creation of secondary estuarine turbidity maxima at bathymetric transitions. The lateral bathymetry also affects the spring-neap cycle of sediment suspension and deposition. In regions with broad, shallow shoals, the shoals are erosional and the channel is depositional during neap tides, with the opposite pattern during spring tides. Narrower, deeper shoals are depositional during neaps and erosional during springs. In each case, the lateral transfer is from regions of higher to lower bed stress, and depends on the elevation of the pycnocline relative to the bed. Collectively, the results indicate that lateral and along-channel gradients in bathymetry and thus stratification, bed stress, and sediment flux lead to an unsteady, heterogeneous distribution of sediment transport and trapping along the estuary rather than trapping solely at a turbidity maximum at the limit of the salinity intrusion.

  16. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in american shad during their migration in the Hudson River, spring 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, M; Bush, B; Kim, J S

    1980-06-01

    Fifty-two female American shad (Alosa sapidissima) were collected during the spring of 1977 at two sites on the lower Hudson River, 27 miles and 75 miles from the river mouth. The fish were extracted with hexane, and the extracts were analyzed by electron-capture gas chromatography (EC-GC) and by GC/mass spectrometry (MS), PCBs were quantitated by EC-GC, and the concentrations were compared by fish length and by site. Fish collected from the downstream site contained a mean PCB concentration of 2.0 +/- 1.0 microgram/g, wet weight; fish from the upstream site contained a mean PCB concentration of 6.1 +/- 2.6 microgram/g, wet weight. Aliquots of the hexane extracts were fractionated before analysis by GC/MS. The presence of PCBs was confirmed, and DDE and the alkane series from C22 through C26 were detected. American shad are saltwater fish that only enter fresh water to spawn. Because they do not feed in fresh water before spawning, they may be used as an indicator of water contamination.

  17. A simulation of the Cerro Hudson SO[sub 2] cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeberl, M.R.; Lait, L.R.; Newman, P.A.; Krueger, A.J. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Doiron, S.D. (Hughes STX Corp., Lanham, MD (United States))

    1993-02-20

    An isentropic trajectory model is used to simulate the evolution of the southern hemisphere SO[sub 2] cloud associated with the eruption of Cerro Hudson. By matching the parcel trajectories with total ozone mapping spectrometer SO[sub 2] retrievals, the principal stratospheric injection region is determined to be between 11 and 16 km in altitude. This region is characterized by weak wind shears and is located just poleward of the subtropical jet in the outer fringe of the stratospheric polar vortex. The lack of wind shear in the injection region explains the slow zonal dispersal of the SO[sub 2] cloud which was still clearly observed 19 days after the eruption. The trajectory model simulation of the SO[sub 2] cloud shows good agreement with observations for 7 days after the eruption. Using the potential vorticity and potential temperature estimates of the initial eruption cloud, the cloud position relative to the polar night jet is shown to be nearly fixed up to September 2, 1991, which was as long as the cloud was observed. This result suggests that the lower stratopsheric polar and mid-latitude regions are nearly isolated from each other during the late August period. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Concept and evaluation of bay health:the role of numerical model in the Yueqing Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dacheng; SUN Zhilin; HUANG Yu; HUANG Saihua; LI Li

    2016-01-01

    To better evaluate the three-dimensional bay health and predict the dynamic bay health conditions, a concept of numerical bay health was introduced and a method of numerical bay health evaluation (NBHE) was developed. To support the NBHE method, a numerical bay health index (NBHI) system was constructed, which assess the natural and socio-economic effects on the entire bay. Five index groups are combined to formulate the NBHI, including geometry, hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics, bio-ecology, water quality and socio-economy. Each group has different number of indices selected and weighted using AHP method according to their importance. Data were mainly synthesized from a variety of numerical models together with monitoring programs, which provide superior to other approaches in discriminating data integrity and predicting data in future. The NBHE method using NBHI system was applied in the Yueqing Bay during spring tide in April 2007. According to the NBHE results, Sta. A, at the surface level of the estuarine mouth, has a healthy geometry condition, sub-healthy hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic condition, and unhealthy water quality and bio-ecology conditions. The integrated healthy score at Sta. A indicates its sub-healthy condition.

  19. Remarks on kernel Bayes' rule

    OpenAIRE

    Johno, Hisashi; Nakamoto, Kazunori; Saigo, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Kernel Bayes' rule has been proposed as a nonparametric kernel-based method to realize Bayesian inference in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. However, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the prediction result by kernel Bayes' rule is in some cases unnatural. We consider that this phenomenon is in part due to the fact that the assumptions in kernel Bayes' rule do not hold in general.

  20. Geochemical baseline data, Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Johnson, V.G.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1975-04-01

    This report comprises one part of a final report to the Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay''. The data reported herein are the product of the geochemical baseline section of the project. The primary objectives of the geochemical study were: to provide a baseline record of fluoride and selected trace metal levels in Youngs Bay bottom sediment, to identify areas that might function as heavy metal traps, to attempt to determine the recent depositional history of sediment in the bay. In addition to these primary objectives, a number of secondary tasks were undertaken during the study. While time did not allow these additional studies to be carried to completion, preliminary results are included herein because of their potential usefulness in assessing the impact of environmental releases of fluoride to aquatic systems in the vicinity of Youngs Bay or elsewhere. This report is made up of two major sections. In the first, a description of sample collection and analytical procedures is followed by a discussion of the baseline results. Obvious vertical and horizontal patterns of elemental distribution are identified and their origins considered. Problems needed further research are also discussed. In the second section, the data are presented in interpretive, graphical form, as well as in tables. 35 refs., 29 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  2. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  3. The Application of MVC Design Pattern in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment's Online Safety Trainning System%MVC框架在大亚湾中微子实验在线安全培训系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冠川; 初元萍

    2011-01-01

    The article made an introduction to MVC, which is an architectural pattern used in software engineering. It specified the advantages and disadvantages of MVC and also the application of MVC in Daya Bay nuclear reactor neutrino experiment online safety trainning system.%主要阐述了MVC设计模式的原理、优点、不足,以及MVC在中国科学院高能物理研究所大亚湾反应堆中微子实验在线安全知识培训系统中的具体应用.

  4. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  5. Monitoring dolphins in an urban marine system: total and effective population size estimates of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina C Ansmann

    Full Text Available Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia is an area of high biodiversity and conservation value and home to two sympatric sub-populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus. These dolphins live in close proximity to major urban developments. Successful management requires information regarding their abundance. Here, we estimate total and effective population sizes of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay using photo-identification and genetic data collected during boat-based surveys in 2008-2010. Abundance (N was estimated using open population mark-recapture models based on sighting histories of distinctive individuals. Effective population size (Ne was estimated using the linkage disequilibrium method based on nuclear genetic data at 20 microsatellite markers in skin samples, and corrected for bias caused by overlapping generations (Ne c. A total of 174 sightings of dolphin groups were recorded and 365 different individuals identified. Over the whole of Moreton Bay, a population size N of 554 ± 22.2 (SE (95% CI: 510-598 was estimated. The southern bay sub-population was small at an estimated N = 193 ± 6.4 (SE (95% CI: 181-207, while the North sub-population was more numerous, with 446 ± 56 (SE (95% CI: 336-556 individuals. The small estimated effective population size of the southern sub-population (Ne c = 56, 95% CI: 33-128 raises conservation concerns. A power analysis suggested that to reliably detect small (5% declines in size of this population would require substantial survey effort (>4 years of annual mark-recapture surveys at the precision levels achieved here. To ensure that ecological as well as genetic diversity within this population of bottlenose dolphins is preserved, we consider that North and South sub-populations should be treated as separate management units. Systematic surveys over smaller areas holding locally-adapted sub-populations are suggested as an alternative method for increasing ability to detect

  6. The northwest trending north Boquerón Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone; A through going active fault system in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig‐Silva, Coral Marie; Asencio, Eugenio; Joyce, James

    2013-01-01

    The North Boquerón Bay–Punta Montalva fault zone has been mapped crossing the Lajas Valley in southwest Puerto Rico. Identification of the fault was based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images, and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (local magnitude greater than 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east–west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults striking mostly toward the northeast. Northeast-trending fractures and normal faults can be found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, an east–west-trending 30-km-long fault-controlled depression. Areas of preferred erosion within the alluvial fan trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the onland projection of the North Boquerón Bay fault. The North Boquerón Bay fault aligns with the Punta Montalva fault southeast of the Lajas Valley. Both faults show strong southward tilting of Miocene strata. On the western end, the Northern Boquerón Bay fault is covered with flat-lying Holocene sediments, whereas at the southern end the Punta Montalva fault shows left-lateral displacement of stream drainage on the order of a few hundred meters.

  7. Ground-Water Quality in the Upper Hudson River Basin, New York, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 25 production and domestic wells in the Upper Hudson River Basin (north of the Federal Dam at Troy, N.Y.) from August through November 2007 to characterize the ground-water quality. The Upper Hudson River Basin covers 4,600 square miles in upstate New York, Vermont, and Massachusetts; the study area encompasses the 4,000 square miles that lie within New York. The basin is underlain by crystalline and sedimentary bedrock, including gneiss, shale, and slate; some sandstone and carbonate rocks are present locally. The bedrock in some areas is overlain by surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel. Of the 25 wells sampled, 13 were finished in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 were finished in bedrock. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 225 physical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were: color (1 sample), pH (2 samples), sodium (5 samples), nitrate plus nitrite (2 samples), aluminum (3 samples), iron (1 sample), manganese (7 samples), radon-222 (11 samples), and bacteria (1 sample). Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in samples from wells finished in sand and gravel [median 5.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] were greater than those from wells finished in bedrock (median 0.4 mg/L). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.6); the median water temperature was 9.7 deg C. The ions with the highest concentrations were bicarbonate (median 123 mg/L) and calcium (median 33.9 mg/L). Ground water in the basin is generally soft to moderately hard (less than or equal to 120 mg/L as CaCO3) (median hardness 110 mg/L as CaCO3). Concentrations of

  8. The Bayes Inference Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  9. Sedimentary facies, geomorphic features and habitat distribution at the Hudson Canyon head from AUV multibeam data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdomenico, Martina; Guida, Vincent G.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Chiocci, Francesco L.; Rona, Peter A.; Scranton, Mary I.; Asper, Vernon; Diercks, Arne

    2015-11-01

    Mapping of physical benthic habitats at the head of Hudson Canyon was performed by means of integrated analysis of acoustic data, video surveys and seafloor sampling. Acoustic mapping, performed using AUV-mounted multibeam sonar, provided ultra-high resolution bathymetric and backscatter imagery for the identification of geomorphological features and the characterization of surficial sediments. Habitat characterization in terms of seafloor texture and identification of benthic and demersal communities was accomplished by visual analysis of still photographs from underwater vehicles. Habitat classes were defined on the basis of the seafloor texture observed on photos and then compared with the geophysical data in order to associate habitats to acoustic classes and/or geomorphological features. This enabled us to infer habitat distribution on the basis of morpho-acoustic classes and extrapolate results over larger areas. Results from bottom trawling were used to determine the overall biodiversity within the identified habitats. Our analysis revealed a variety of topographic and sedimentological structures that provide a wide range of physical habitats. A variety of sandy and muddy substrates, gravel patches and mudstone outcrops host rich and varied faunal assemblages, including cold-water corals and sponge communities. Pockmark fields below 300 m depth suggest that methane-based chemosynthetic carbonate deposition may contributes to creation of specific benthic habitats. Hummocky terrain has been delineated along the canyon rims and associated with extensive, long-term burrowing activity by golden tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps). These results show the relationships of physical features to benthic habitat variation, support the notion of the area as a biodiversity hotspot and define essential habitats for planning of sustainable regional fisheries.

  10. The vertical structure of the circulation and dynamics in Hudson Shelf Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Steven J.; Butman, Bradford; Harris, Courtney K.

    2014-01-01

    Hudson Shelf Valley is a 20–30 m deep, 5–10 km wide v-shaped submarine valley that extends across the Middle Atlantic Bight continental shelf. The valley provides a conduit for cross-shelf exchange via along-valley currents of 0.5 m s−1 or more. Current profile, pressure, and density observations collected during the winter of 1999–2000 are used to examine the vertical structure and dynamics of the flow. Near-bottom along-valley currents having times scales of a few days are driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients setup by wind stresses, with eastward (westward) winds driving onshore (offshore) flow within the valley. The along-valley momentum balance in the bottom boundary layer is predominantly between the pressure gradient and bottom stress because the valley bathymetry limits current veering. Above the bottom boundary layer, the flow veers toward an along-shelf (cross-valley) orientation and a geostrophic balance with some contribution from the wind stress (surface Ekman layer). The vertical structure and strength of the along-valley current depends on the magnitude and direction of the wind stress. During offshore flows driven by westward winds, the near-bottom stratification within the valley increases resulting in a thinner bottom boundary layer and weaker offshore currents. Conversely, during onshore flows driven by eastward winds the near-bottom stratification decreases resulting in a thicker bottom boundary layer and stronger onshore currents. Consequently, for wind stress magnitudes exceeding 0.1 N m−2, onshore along-valley transport associated with eastward wind stress exceeds the offshore transport associated with westward wind stress of the same magnitude.

  11. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, John; Palmer, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    A pilot Coastal Observatory has been established in Liverpool Bay which integrates (near) real-time measurements with coupled models and whose results are displayed on the web. The aim is to understand the functioning of coastal seas, their response to natural forcing and the consequences of human activity. The eastern Irish Sea is an apt test site, since it encompasses a comprehensive range of processes found in tidally dominated coastal seas, including near-shore physical and biogeochemical processes influenced by estuarine inflows, where both vertical and horizontal gradients are important. Applications include hypernutrification, since the region receives significantly elevated levels of nutrient inputs, shoreline management (coastal flooding and beach erosion/accretion), and understanding present conditions to predict the impact of climate change (for instance if the number and severity of storms, or of high or low river flows, change). The integrated measurement suite which started in August 2002 covers a range of space and time scales. It includes in situ time series, four to six weekly regional water column surveys, an instrumented ferry, a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves, coastal tide gauges and visible and infra-red satellite data. The time series enable definition of the seasonal cycle, its inter-annual variability and provide a baseline from which the relative importance of events can be quantified. A suite of nested 3D hydrodynamic, wave and ecosystem models is run daily, focusing on the observatory area by covering the ocean/shelf of northwest Europe (at 12-km resolution) and the Irish Sea (at 1.8 km), and Liverpool Bay at the highest resolution of 200 m. The measurements test the models against events as they happen in a truly 3D context. All measurements and model outputs are displayed freely on the Coastal Observatory website (http://cobs.pol.ac.uk) for an audience of researchers, education, coastal managers and the

  12. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    manage data resources, work more efficiently with partners, and facilitate holistic watershed science. It is now the goal of the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies to implement an enhanced and all-encompassing approach to data management. This report discusses preliminary efforts to implement a physical data management system for program data that is not replicated nationally through other USGS databases.

  13. Interpretación de algunas cárices (Carex L.) de la Flora Anglica de W. Hudson y tipificación de tres nombres relacionados

    OpenAIRE

    Molina González, Ana María; Acedo, Carmen; Llamas García, Félix

    2007-01-01

    Se discute la identidad de once especies y seis taxones infraespecíficos del género Carex tratados por Hudson en la Flora Anglica. Se estudia la obra de este autor, comparándola con los protólogos de Linneo y otros botánicos contemporáneos y se indica en cada caso el nombre en uso actual. Cinco especies, que Hudson llamó Carex acuta, C. brizoides, C. inflata en el sentido de la segunda edición , C. muricata y C. saxatilis, corresponden a taxones sin describir en aquel momento y actualmente s...

  14. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  15. Bayes Multiple Decision Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wensong

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach for this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for the use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow in this paper a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through...

  16. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  17. Movements of brown bullheads in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, M.J.; Smith, D.R.; Obert, E.; Grazio, J.; Bartron, M.L.; Wellington, C.; Grise, S.; Rafferty, S.; Wellington, R.; Julian, S.

    2009-01-01

    Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, was listed as an Area of Concern (AOC) by the International Joint Commission in part because of the high incidence of external tumor in brown bullheads. Verifying the source of the possible contaminant exposure is critical to addressing the AOC designation. We used telemetry tracking (n = 49 fish) to test the hypothesis that adult bullheads captured within the bay during spawning season do not exit the bay during the post-spawning summer and fall months. We analyzed genetic variation at 15 microsatellite loci for 112 adult fish from 5 locations, 4 inside the bay and 1 outside, in order to test for possible differences. Data from fixed-station receivers suggested fish did not leave Presque Isle Bay during the study period. Predicted locations outside Presque Isle Bay were only 0.1% of all predicted locations and were below the 0.2% error rate based on known manual relocations. However, there was evidence for movement within Presque Isle Bay. Most movement was between Misery Bay or Lagoons and the open bay area. Whereas telemetry results showed tendency for adult site fidelity, genetic results showed no differences among locations, indicating that there is a single panmictic population. Our telemetry data suggest that brown bullheads are likely a useful indicator species for environmental conditions in Presque Isle Bay, since adults likely are retained in the system.

  18. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  19. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  20. Operational modal identification using variational Bayes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2017-05-01

    Operational modal analysis is the primary tool for modal parameter identification in civil engineering. Bayesian statistics offers an ideal framework for analyzing uncertainties associated with the identified modal parameters. However, the exact Bayesian formulation is usually intractable due to the high computational demand in obtaining the posterior distributions of modal parameters. In this paper, the variational Bayes method is employed to provide an approximate solution. Unlike the Laplace approximation and Monte Carlo sampling, the variational Bayes approach provides a gradient-free algorithm to analytically approximate the posterior distributions. Working with the state-space representation of a dynamical system, the variational Bayes approach for identification of modal parameters is derived by ignoring statistical correlation between latent variables and the model parameters. In this approach, the joint distribution of the state-transition and observation matrices as well as the joint distribution of the process noise and measurement error are firstly calculated analytically using conjugate priors. The distribution of modal parameters is extracted from these obtained joint distributions using a first-order Taylor series expansion. A robust implementation of the method is discussed by using square-root filtering and Cholesky decomposition. The proposed approach is illustrated by its application to an example mass-spring system and the One Rincon Hill Tower in San Francisco.

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in silver contamination and toxicity in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, A R; Brown, C L; Squire, S; Ross, J R M; Scelfo, G M; Hibdon, S

    2007-09-01

    Although San Francisco Bay has a "Golden Gate", it may be argued that it is the "Silver Estuary". For at one time the Bay was reported to have the highest levels of silver in its sediments and biota, along with the only accurately measured values of silver in solution, of any estuarine system. Since then others have argued that silver contamination is higher elsewhere (e.g., New York Bight, Florida Bay, Galveston Bay) in a peculiar form of pollution machismo, while silver contamination has measurably declined in sediments, biota, and surface waters of the Bay over the past two to three decades. Documentation of those systemic temporal declines has been possible because of long-term, ongoing monitoring programs, using rigorous trace metal clean sampling and analytical techniques, of the United States Geological Survey and San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring Program that are summarized in this report. However, recent toxicity studies with macro-invertebrates in the Bay have indicated that silver may still be adversely affecting the health of the estuarine system, and other studies have indicated that silver concentrations in the Bay may be increasing due to new industrial inputs and/or the diagenetic remobilization of silver from historically contaminated sediments being re-exposed to overlying surface waters and benthos. Consequently, the Bay may not be ready to relinquish its title as the "Silver Estuary".

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in silver contamination and toxicity in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, A.R.; Brown, C.L.; Squire, S.; Ross, J.R.M.; Scelfo, G.M.; Hibdon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Although San Francisco Bay has a "Golden Gate", it may be argued that it is the "Silver Estuary". For at one time the Bay was reported to have the highest levels of silver in its sediments and biota, along with the only accurately measured values of silver in solution, of any estuarine system. Since then others have argued that silver contamination is higher elsewhere (e.g., New York Bight, Florida Bay, Galveston Bay) in a peculiar form of pollution machismo, while silver contamination has measurably declined in sediments, biota, and surface waters of the Bay over the past two to three decades. Documentation of those systemic temporal declines has been possible because of long-term, ongoing monitoring programs, using rigorous trace metal clean sampling and analytical techniques, of the United States Geological Survey and San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring Program that are summarized in this report. However, recent toxicity studies with macro-invertebrates in the Bay have indicated that silver may still be adversely affecting the health of the estuarine system, and other studies have indicated that silver concentrations in the Bay may be increasing due to new industrial inputs and/or the diagenetic remobilization of silver from historically contaminated sediments being re-exposed to overlying surface waters and benthos. Consequently, the Bay may not be ready to relinquish its title as the "Silver Estuary". ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  4. Circulation in the Hudson Shelf Valley: MESA Physical Oceanographic Studies in New York Bight, 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Dennis A.; Han, Gregory C.; Hansen, Donald V.

    1982-11-01

    Over 900 days of current velocity data were obtained at mainly two locations in the inner and outer Hudson Shelf Valley (HSV). The large cross-axis depth gradients in the HSV, together with the strong winter cyclones and the baroclinic density distribution over the shelf, are primarily responsible for the major circulation features observed in the valley. CSTD data from 12 cruises and meteorological data from JFK International Airport and an environmental buoy were collected concurrently with the current meter data. Although the mean cross-shelf pressure gradient is generally seaward in the Middle Atlantic Bight, it is shoreward in the HSV below the level of the adjacent continental shelf (shelf horizon), thus imposing a bias toward upvalley flow. The average velocity below the surrounding shelf horizon in the HSV is upvalley or shoreward (west-northwestward ≈ 290° T) in the range of 2-5 cm/s. The circulation in the HSV is seasonal and individual events can drastically alter the mean picture. The several day average upvalley flow can sometimes approach 20 cm/s when intense winter cyclones pass over the bight and can sometimes also be directed downvalley depending upon the path of the winter cyclone. A topographically controlled barotropic flow commonly opposes the dominant (southeast-ward) wind direction even near the surface in the winter. In the context of circulation on the open shelf, upvalley (downvalley) flow events generated by winter cyclones are associated with reduced (enhanced) southwestward flow or flow reversals that are northeastward in the lower half of the water column at LTM, a typical mid/shelf site (Mayer et al., 1979). Current meter data suggest that whether or not reversals occur on the open shelf depends upon the interannual variability of the winter wind regime. Upvalley flow events are not confined only to the winter (unstratified) season but are stronger in the winter and can last for several days and longer. During the summer

  5. Building sustainable communities using sense of place indicators in three Hudson River Valley, NY, tourism destinations: An application of the limits of acceptable change process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Sullivan; Rudy M. Schuster; Diane M. Kuehn; Cheryl S. Doble; Duarte. Morais

    2010-01-01

    This study explores whether measures of residents' sense of place can act as indicators in the Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) process to facilitate tourism planning and management. Data on community attributes valued by residents and the associated values and meanings were collected through focus groups with 27 residents in three Hudson River Valley, New York,...

  6. Computer simulation model for the striped bass young-of-the-year population in the Hudson River. [Effects of entrainment and impingement at power plants on population dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Van Winkle, W.; Sharp, R.D.; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Rush, R.M.; Fulkerson, W.

    1975-09-01

    This report presents a daily transient (tidal-averaged), longitudinally one-dimensional (cross-section-averaged) computer simulation model for the assessment of the entrainment and impingement impacts of power plant operations on young-of-the-year populations of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in the Hudson River.

  7. Vapor Intrusion Facilities - South Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — POINT locations for the South Bay Vapor Instrusion Sites were derived from the NPL data for Region 9. One site, Philips Semiconductor, was extracted from the...

  8. Annual report, Bristol Bay, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Bristol Bay for 1958, including lists of operators, extensive statistics, and descriptions of enforcement activities.

  9. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  10. CHWAKA BAY MANGROVE SEDIMENTS, ZANZIBAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed-Studies on Benthic denitrification in the Chwaka bay mangrove. Extensive mangrove ... In this case, six sediment cores were taken randomly from the three study sites as above and a ..... Academic Press. Orlando. pp. 277-293.

  11. Annual report, Bristol Bay, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Bristol Bay for 1955, including lists of operators, extensive statistics, descriptions of enforcement activities, and...

  12. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  13. Past and Future Climatic Conditions in the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba and Implications for the Fate of Shallow Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, M. L.; Duguay, C. R.; Brown, L.; Svacina, N. A.; Parrott, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent ground-based and remote sensing observations have shown a general decreasing trend in arctic lake/pond surface area over the past 50 years, suggesting that small water bodies at high latitudes are drying. This study aims to answer three key questions regarding the water balance of subarctic ponds to climate change from the second half of the 20th century to the end of the 21st century: 1) Have there been changes in precipitation quantity and distribution, annual and seasonal air temperature, and the duration of the ice-free season in the 1943-2008 observational period?; 2) Are these trends expected to continue until the end of the 21st century based on regional climate model (RCM) scenarios?; and 3) What are the implications of climate change for pond sustainability in the Churchill region? Climatic change and changes to pond hydrologic storage over the past 65 years were examined using a combination of field methods/instrumental records and modelling. Results show that annual precipitation has increased by 25% over the past 65 years. Annual rainfall during the period has increased by 50%, while annual snowfall has decreased by 17%, suggesting that snowfall is being replaced by rainfall in this region. Much of the increased annual rainfall has been observed in the months of August and September, where rainfall has increased by 60% and 88%, respectively. Mean annual air temperature has increased by approximately 1C between 1943-2008. Significant (p0.05). A comparison of modelled and observed precipitation and air temperature between 1961-2008 produced similar trends. The Canadian RCM projections indicate that both precipitation and air temperature will continue to increase for the remainder of the 21st century. Trends observed over the past 65 years and simulations of future scenarios show that rainfall is increasing at a faster rate than evaporation, causing a lessening of the summer moisture deficit that persists in this region. Consequently, conditions are becoming more wet and ponds do not appear to be at increased risk for drying. This has strong implications for pond hydrologic storage, growth and connectivity in this region.

  14. Climatic characterization of the Banderas Bay Region using Köppen’s system modified by García and Geographic Information Systems techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Velázquez Ruiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of different climatic zones can be an important factor for decision-makers in various fields such as urban planning and agricultural alternatives. In order to characterize the climates of the region of Bahía de Banderas (BB Mexico, we adopted a methodology that combines the use of the Köppen climate classification modified by Garc.a for Mexico and methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS. We used simple regression between temperature (dependent variable and height as independent variable. Multiple regressions were applied for rainfall (dependent variable and geographical data as independent variables (thermal continentality, thermopluviometric index and slope. The temperature and precipitation data were obtained from the Comisión Nacional del Agua, and ERIC III, 2006 database. Information from geographical variables was obtained from a Digital Elevation Model and Gorzynski’s Index of Continentality. The coefficients of simple and multiple regressions were used to construct digital maps of annual temperature and precipitation via GIS. With these maps and using the CCK-EG tool, we generated the final map of climatic characterization. The result was highly representative. The determination coefficients were 0.82 and 0.39 for temperature and precipitation respectively. The resulting classification for each of the stations was located in their corresponding climate zone on the final map. Zones and climatic limits were identified for this study region.

  15. The ecology of open-bay bottoms of Texas: A community profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, N.E.

    1987-05-01

    Open-bay bottoms represent one of the most extensive habitats in any estuarine system, especially in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico estuaries of Texas. Seven major estuarine systems are found here (Sabine Lake, Galveston Bay, Matagorda Bay, San Antonio Bay, Copano-Aransas Bays, Corpus Christi Bay, and the Laguna Madre), along with three minor riverine estuaries (Brazos, San Bernard, and Rio Grande) which long ago filled. These bays are typically broad and shallow with average depths of 1.2 to 2.4 m and a total surface area of 624,000 ha. Salt marshes and seagrass beds are small. The structure and function of the benthic communities in these Texas estuaries are examined by reviewing and integrating data from a number of past and ongoing studies. While studies in these systems have not been as numerous as in other estuaries, the patterns of structure and function are beginning to emerge. The key functions of the benthic system are production of biomass as food resources for higher trophic levels; bioturbation, which enhances nutrient regeneration; and nutrient regeneration itself. Benthic nutrient regeneration in the shallow waters of Texas estuaries may play a key role in regulating primary production in the estuaries. Managers of these estuaries must consider the open-bay bottom systems as a critical part of the overall function of these estuaries.

  16. Assessing change of environmental dynamics by legislation in Japan, using red tide occurrence in Ise Bay as an indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chika

    2016-01-30

    Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay, and the Seto Inland Sea are the total pollutant load control target areas in Japan. A significant correlation between the incidence of red tides and water quality has been observed in the Seto Inland Sea (Honjo, 1991). However, while red tides also occur in Ise Bay and Tokyo Bay, similar correlations have not been observed. Hence, it is necessary to understand what factors cause red tides to effectively manage these semi-closed systems. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the dynamics of the Red Tide Index and nitrogen regulation as well as phosphorus regulation, even in Ise Bay where, unlike Tokyo Bay, there are few observation items, by selecting a suitable objective variable. The introduction of a new technique that uses the Red Tide Index has revealed a possibility that the total pollution load control has influenced the dynamics of red tide blooms in Ise Bay.

  17. Hierarchical Bayes Ensemble Kalman Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyrulnikov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF), when applied to high-dimensional systems, suffers from an inevitably small affordable ensemble size, which results in poor estimates of the background error covariance matrix ${\\bf B}$. The common remedy is a kind of regularization, usually an ad-hoc spatial covariance localization (tapering) combined with artificial covariance inflation. Instead of using an ad-hoc regularization, we adopt the idea by Myrseth and Omre (2010) and explicitly admit that the ${\\bf B}$ matrix is unknown and random and estimate it along with the state (${\\bf x}$) in an optimal hierarchical Bayes analysis scheme. We separate forecast errors into predictability errors (i.e. forecast errors due to uncertainties in the initial data) and model errors (forecast errors due to imperfections in the forecast model) and include the two respective components ${\\bf P}$ and ${\\bf Q}$ of the ${\\bf B}$ matrix into the extended control vector $({\\bf x},{\\bf P},{\\bf Q})$. Similarly, we break the traditional backgrou...

  18. 75 FR 15721 - Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, City of Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, City of Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Fish... environmental assessment (EA) for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for a 30-day public review and comment... by the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 (Improvement......

  19. Groundwater quality in the Lower Hudson River Basin, New York, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 32 production and domestic wells in the study area from August through November 2008 to characterize the groundwater quality. The study area, which covers 5,607 square miles, encompasses the part of the Lower Hudson River Basin that lies within New York plus the parts of the Housatonic, Hackensack, Bronx, and Saugatuck River Basins that are in New York. The study area is underlain by mainly clastic bedrock, predominantly shale, with carbonate and crystalline rock present locally. The bedrock is generally overlain by till, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Of the 32 wells sampled, 16 were finished in sand and gravel deposits and 16 were finished in bedrock. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 225 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs); indicator bacteria were collected and analyzed by New York State Department of Health procedures. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State primary or secondary drinking-water standards; the standards exceeded were color (2 samples), pH (6 samples), sodium (8 samples), fluoride (1 sample), aluminum (3 samples), arsenic (1 sample), iron (7 samples), manganese (14 samples), radon-222 (17 samples), tetrachloroethene (1 sample), and bacteria (7 samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.2); the median water temperature was 11.8 degrees C. The ions with the highest concentrations were bicarbonate [median 167 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] and calcium (median 38.2 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area ranged from very soft to very hard, but more samples were classified as very hard (181 mg/L as CaCO3 or more) than soft (60 mg/L as CaCO3 or

  20. The distribution and composition characteristics of siliceous rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, South China: constraint on the tectonic evolution of plates in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Zhou, Yongzhang; Yang, Zhijun; He, Junguo; Liang, Jin; Zhou, Liuyu

    2013-01-01

    The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak.

  1. The Distribution and Composition Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks from Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay Joint Belt, South China: Constraint on the Tectonic Evolution of Plates in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt is a significant tectonic zone between the Yangtze and Cathaysian plates, where plentiful hydrothermal siliceous rocks are generated. Here, the authors studied the distribution of the siliceous rocks in the whole tectonic zone, which indicated that the tensional setting was facilitating the development of siliceous rocks of hydrothermal genesis. According to the geochemical characteristics, the Neopalaeozoic siliceous rocks in the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt denoted its limited width. In comparison, the Neopalaeozoic Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt was diverse for its ocean basin in the different segments and possibly had subduction only in the south segment. The ocean basin of the north and middle segments was limited in its width without subduction and possibly existed as a rift trough that was unable to resist the terrigenous input. In the north segment of the Qinzhou Bay-Hangzhou Bay joint belt, the strata of hydrothermal siliceous rocks in Dongxiang copper-polymetallic ore deposit exhibited alternative cycles with the marine volcanic rocks, volcanic tuff, and metal sulphide. These sedimentary systems were formed in different circumstances, whose alternative cycles indicated the release of internal energy in several cycles gradually from strong to weak.

  2. Dreamers in dialogue: evolution, sex and gender in the utopian visions of William Morris and William Henry Hudson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Novák

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the parallels between two late-nineteenth-century utopias,William Henry Hudsons A Crystal Age (1882 and William Morriss News from Nowhere (1891. Itaims to explore how these two works respond to the transition from a kinetic to a static conception ofutopia that under pressure from evolutionary and feminist discourses took place during the period.Particular focus lies on the way in which this is negotiated through the depiction of evolution, sexuality,and gender roles in the respective novels, and how the depiction of these disruptive elements may workas a means of ensuring the readers active engagement in political, intellectual and emotional terms.

  3. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River, Eastern Lake Ontario, and Lower Hudson River Basins, New York, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Reddy, James E.

    2015-11-10

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, water samples were collected from 4 production wells and 4 domestic wells in the Chemung River Basin, 8 production wells and 7 domestic wells in the Eastern Lake Ontario Basin, and 12 production wells and 13 domestic wells in the Lower Hudson River Basin (south of the Federal Lock and Dam at Troy) in New York. All samples were collected in June, July, and August 2013 to characterize groundwater quality in these basins. The samples were collected and processed using standard USGS procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  4. Geology of the Monterey Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Gary

    1977-01-01

    Geophysical data and sea floor samples collected from the continental shelf and slope between Ano Nuevo Point and Point Sur, California indicate that the Monterey Bay region has had a complex late Cenozoic tectonic history. Uplift and depression have produced a succession of regressive and transgressive sedimentary units, while contemporaneous right-slip along faults of the San Andreas system have offset major structural and lithologic elements. This deformation produced three regional and several local unconformities within upper Tertiary rocks and initiated development of a canyon system that today includes the Monterey, Ascension, Carmel, and other large submarine canyons. The Tertiary stratigraphy of the offshore Monterey Bay area is divided into two provinces by a major structural boundary, the north-trending Palo Colorado-San Gregorio fault zone. East of this zone in the offshore are four seismically distinct sequences that can be correlated with major sequences onshore. These sequences comprise (1) pre-Tertiary basement, and (2) middle Miocene, (3) upper Miocene to Pliocene, and (4) upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary intervals. Each of the latter three sequences is bounded by unconformities, as is its counterpart on land. Only Neogene sedimentary rocks are present offshore; Paleogene units, if originally present, have been removed completely by pre-middle Miocene erosion. An extensive erosional surface was cut during Zemorrian time into the late Mesozoic granitic basement rocks. Incised into this surface are the ancestral Monterey Canyon and an unnamed canyon. Marine sedimentary rocks of upper Miocene and Pliocene age overlie this unconformably and fill the unnamed canyon. Similar rocks also may have once filled Monterey Canyon. Near shore these strata are covered by terrestrial alluvial and eolian deposits, deltaic deposits, marine canyon fill, landslide and slump deposits, and unconsolidated sediments that range in age from upper Pliocene to Holocene

  5. Immersion in a Hudson Valley Tidal Marsh and Climate Research Community - Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    A primary advantage of place-based research is the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research that can be applied to a single locale, with a depth of continued study through time. Through the last decade, Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program (SSFRP) has promoted scientific inquiry, mostly among groups under-represented in STEM fields, in Piermont Marsh, a federally protected marsh in the Hudson estuary. At the same time, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) scientists have become more involved, through mentoring by researchers, postdocs and graduate students, often paired with high school teachers. The sustained engagement of high school students in a natural environment, experiencing the Hudson River and its tidal cycles, protection of coastline, water quality improvement, native and invasive plant communities, is fundamental to their understanding of the importance of wetlands with their many ecosystem services. In addition, the Program has come to see "place" as inclusive of the Observatory itself. The students' work at Lamont expands their understanding of educational opportunities and career possibilities. Immersing students in a research atmosphere brings a level of serious inquiry and study to their lives and provides them with concrete contributions that they make to team efforts. Students select existing projects ranging from water quality to Phragmites removal, read papers weekly, take field measurements, produce lab results, and present their research at the end of six weeks. Ongoing results build from year to year in studies of fish populations, nutrients, and carbon sequestration, and the students have presented at professional scientific meetings. Through the Program students gain a sense of ownership over both their natural and the academic environments. Challenges include sustained funding of the program; segmenting the research for reproducible, robust results; fitting the projects to PIs' research goals, time

  6. Review of Oceanographic and Geochemical Data Collected in Massachusetts Bay during a Large Discharge of Total Suspended Solids from Boston's Sewage-Treatment System and Ocean Outfall in August 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford; Casso, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During the period August 14-23, 2002, the discharge of total suspended solids (TSS) from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority sewage-treatment plant ranged from 32 to 132 milligrams per liter, causing the monthly average discharge to exceed the limit specified in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. Time-series monitoring data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in western Massachusetts Bay were examined to evaluate changes in environmental conditions during and after this exceedance event. The rate of sediment trapping and the concentrations of near-bottom suspended sediment measured near the outfall in western Massachusetts Bay increased during this period. Because similar increases in sediment-trapping rate were observed in the summers of 2003 and 2004, however, the increase in 2002 cannot be definitively attributed to the increased TSS discharge. Concentrations of copper and silver in trapped sediment collected 10 and 20 days following the 2002 TSS event were elevated compared to those in pre-event samples. Maximum concentrations were less than 50 percent of toxicity guidelines. Photographs of surficial bottom sediments obtained before and after the TSS event do not show sediment accumulation on the sea floor. Concentrations of silver, Clostridium perfringens, and clay in surficial bottom sediments sampled 10 weeks after the discharge event at a depositional site 3 kilometers west of the outfall were unchanged from those in samples obtained before the event. Simulation of the TSS event by using a coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment-transport model could enhance understanding of these observations and of the effects of the exceedance on the local marine environment.

  7. Oceanographic Data from Winter and Spring Circulation and Sediment Transport Studies in the Hudson Shelf Valley collected in December-April (1999/2000) and April-June 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field experiments to understand the transport of sediments and associated contaminants in the Hudson Shelf Valley,...

  8. Temperature, salinity, and C14 profiles from bottle casts in the North Atlantic, Arctic, and other locations from the HUDSON, YMER (1980), and other platforms from 22 February 1973 to 19 September 1991 (NODC Accession 0000446)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottle and other data were collected in the the North Atlantic, Arctic, and other locations from the HUDSON, YMER (1980), and other platforms from 22 February 1973...

  9. Microstructure, CTD and ADCP data collected from R/V ONRUST in Hudson River Estuary during 6 short cruises from 1994-05-19 to 2001-05-01 (NCEI Accession 0146260)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations of turbulent mixing, stratification and currents in the Hudson River Estuary made in 6 short cruises in 1994/1995 and 2001 were assembled. The lower...

  10. Oceanographic Data from Winter and Spring Circulation and Sediment Transport Studies in the Hudson Shelf Valley collected in December-April (1999/2000) and April-June 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field experiments to understand the transport of sediments and associated contaminants in the Hudson Shelf Valley,...

  11. Oceanographic profile data collected from sound velocimeter casts aboard NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 5 as part of project S-B916-NRT5-10 in the Hudson River on 2010-11-26 (NCEI Accession 0130785)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130785 includes physical and profile data collected aboard the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 5 during project S-B916-NRT5-10 in the Hudson River near...

  12. 75 FR 36292 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... of Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, near Erie, Pennsylvania between 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. on June 26, 2010.... The safety zone will encompass specified waters of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania starting at... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA...

  13. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim...

  14. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ..., Erie, PA in the Federal Register (77 FR 18739). We received no letters commenting on the proposed rule... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim V swimming event. The...

  15. 78 FR 34575 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... portion of Presque Isle bay during the Bay Swim VI swimming event. This temporary safety zone is...

  16. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  17. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  18. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  19. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  20. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  1. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  2. Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands – an Earth system model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Schuldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Last Glacial Maximum, boreal wetlands have accumulated substantial amounts of peat, estimated at 180–621 Pg of carbon. Wetlands have significantly affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas composition in the past and will play a significant role in future changes of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In order to investigate those changes with an Earth system model, biogeochemical processes in boreal wetlands need to be accounted for. Thus, a model of peat accumulation and decay was developed and included in the land surface model JSBACH of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM. Here we present the evaluation of model results from 6000 yr BP to the pre-industrial period. Over this period of time, 240 Pg of peat carbon accumulated in the model in the areas north of 40° N. Simulated peat accumulation rates agree well with those reported for boreal wetlands. The model simulates CH4 emissions of 49.3 Tg CH4 yr−1 for 6000 yr BP and 51.5 Tg CH4 yr−1 for pre-industrial times. This is within the range of estimates in the literature, which range from 32 to 112 Tg CH4 yr−1 for boreal wetlands. The modelled methane emission for the West Siberian Lowlands and Hudson Bay Lowlands agree well with observations. The rising trend of methane emissions over the last 6000 yr is in agreement with measurements of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores.

  3. The Design Scheme of KKO4 System Integrated Automation in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant%大亚湾核电站KKO4系统综合自动化方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁忠英; 张奇

    2012-01-01

    针对大亚湾核电站开关站仪表和控制系统(KKO4)现状以及运行中存在的实际问题,提出了大亚湾核电站KKO4系统综合自动化设计方案.基于该设计方案,介绍了KKO4综合自动化系统的结构及基本功能,分析了KKO4系统升级后的特点,并提出了核电站KKO4系统未来的发展趋势.%According to the status and the operation problems of I&C system (KKO4) of the main substation in Daya Bay nuclear power plant, this paper presents an integrated automation design scheme. Based on the design scheme, this paper introduces the structure and basic function of KKO4 integrated automation system, analyses the characteristics of upgraded KKO4 system, and presents future developing trend of KKO4 system in nuclear power plants.

  4. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  5. Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Steinwand, D.

    2005-01-01

    Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of urbanization and associated land use and land cover change in the Tampa Bay area. To reduce processing time and complete the modeling process within an acceptable period, the model is recoded and ported to a Beowulf cluster. The parallel-processing computer system accomplishes the massive amount of computation the modeling simulation requires. SLEUTH calibration process for the Tampa Bay urban growth simulation spends only 10 h CPU time. The model predicts future land use/cover change trends for Tampa Bay from 1992 to 2025. Urban extent is predicted to double in the Tampa Bay watershed between 1992 and 2025. Results show an upward trend of urbanization at the expense of a decline of 58% and 80% in agriculture and forested lands, respectively. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and... Coast Guard District § 165.1122 San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches—Regulated navigation... waters of San Diego Bay, Mission Bay, and their approaches encompassed by a line commencing at Point La...

  7. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  8. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  9. Decision Bayes Criteria for Optimal Classifier Based on Probabilistic Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wissal Drira; Faouzi Ghorbel

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the high dimension sample problem in discriminate analysis under nonparametric and supervised assumptions. Since there is a kind of equivalence between the probabilistic dependence measure and the Bayes classification error probability, we propose to use an iterative algorithm to optimize the dimension reduction for classification with a probabilistic approach to achieve the Bayes classifier. The estimated probabilities of different errors encountered along the different phases of the system are realized by the Kernel estimate which is adjusted in a means of the smoothing parameter. Experiment results suggest that the proposed approach performs well.

  10. Identification of chlorophyll ( with application of IRS-P4 OCM data and Geographical Information System - a case study of part of Bay of Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Dayaker, T.

    2002-05-01

    As 60 - 70 % of the world's population live within 20 - 30 km of the coastline, coastal zone management and optimisation of ocean resources have grown in of importance. The study of the ocean encompasses its physical chemical, biological properties and its interaction with land and biological productivity. Mapping of coastal zone gives us insight about how to conserve its eco-balance and implement effective coastal zone management. Effective Coastal Zone Management will need accurate and comprehensive scientific data, on which decisions can be based. In the present study Ocean Color Monitor ( OCM ) data is used for identification of chlorophyll, which inturn indicates the presence of phytoplankton, which is the primary producer in the food chain, and also to fish . The study area is part of Bay of Bengal Sea near the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Remote sensing in optical region is found useful in understanding the spatial distribution of ocean water constituents, in which phytoplankton pigment which impart a green colour to the sea water, has a definite response in the visible region, which enables plant material to be distinguished from the other suspended matter. Normalised Differential Vegetative Index ( NDVI ), which is mainly used on land applications for the identification of vegetation based on chlorophyll absorption, is used on water surface in the present study. The positive value of NDVI is an indication of the presence of pigment concentration / chlorophyll / phytoplankton / fish. The successful launch of the IRS - P4 satellite which provides us a challenging opportunity to study ocean resources and its characteristics and see how best we can benefit, over a period of time, in several areas of human survival specifically related to food security on a sustained basis. This study is first of its kind in utilising the latest technology to explore the marine resources for mapping the fishing zones and the results, clearly indicate that NDVI can

  11. Magna Carta for Community: Bay Mills Charters Schools throughout Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    For most of a full career in sociology and education, Aaron Tadgerson has dwelt on the relationship between communities and the school systems that purport to serve them. The special problems of Indian education derive from that relationship. Tadgerson serves as the recruiter, retention, and land grant development coordinator for Bay Mills…

  12. The Foraminifera of Piscadera Bay, Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofker, J.

    1971-01-01

    Piscadera Bay is situated 4 km West of Willemstad, Curaçao, between two limestone hills which have a height of about 100 m. It is a drowned river system, the entrance of which is almost completely blocked by a bar of coral debris reaching to about 2 meters above sea level. The following parts may be

  13. View of OMS burn from the payload bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    View of Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) burn from the payload bay. The closed cradles which held the communication satellites Columbia deployed are visible in the center of the frame. Parts of the spacecraft's wings can be seen on both the port and starboard sides can be seen. The vertical stabilizer is flanked by the twin OMS pods.

  14. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-01-01

    On 28–30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  15. Selective analysis of power plant operation on the Hudson River with emphasis on the Bowline Point Generating Station. Volume 1. [Effects on striped bass population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L. W.; Cannon, J. B.; Christensen, S. G.

    1977-07-01

    A comprehensive study of the effects of power plant operation on the Hudson River was conducted. The study included thermal, biological, and air quality effects of existing and planned electrical generating stations. This section on thermal impacts presents a comprehensive mathematical modeling and computer simulation study of the effects of heat rejection from the plants. The overall study consisted of three major parts: near-field analysis; far-field analysis; and zone-matched near-field/far-field analysis. Near-field analyses were completed for Roseton, Danskammer, and Bowline Point Generating Stations, and near-field dilution ratios range from a low of about 2 for Bowline Point and 3 for Roseton to a maximum of 6 for both plants. The far-field analysis included a critical review of existing studies and a parametric review of operating plants. The maximum thermal load case, based on hypothetical 1974 river conditions, gives the daily maximum cross-section-averaged and 2-mile-segment-averaged water temperatures as 83.80/sup 0/F in the vicinity of the Indian Point Station and 83.25/sup 0/F in the vicinity of the Bowline Station. This maximum case will be significantly modified if cooling towers are used at certain units. A full analysis and discussion of these cases is presented. A study of the Hudson River striped bass population is divided into the following eight subsections: distribution of striped bass eggs, larvae, and juveniles in the Hudson River; entrainment mortality factor; intake factor; impingement; effects of discharges; compensation; model estimates of percent reduction; and Hudson River striped bass stock.

  16. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  17. Oceanic Mixing Processes in Disko Bay-Ilulissat Icefjord System: Can We Quantify the Heat Loss from the Atlantic Water Layer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoumna, G.; Holland, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ilulissat Icefjord (IIF) has been the site of few hydrographic observations. Recent hydrographic data from Disko Bay (DB) showed a significant warming from the below of the cold Polar Water entering DB from the mid-to-late 19901990s onward, and the sill at the fjord mouth prevented the modified West Greenland Irminger Waters (WGIW) to fill the IIF basin. Here we identify and attempt to quantify the fluxes associated with the small-scale processes that contribute to the upward diapycnal fluxes of heat, salt and from the modified WGIW to the surface-mixed layer using five years of summer data (2009 - 2013). The interaction between the WGIW and Egedesminde Dyb trough cutting across the continental shelf from the shelf break into DB creates the cold/warm layering of water masses which contribute to the formation of double diffusive thermohaline staircases. We found evidence of thermohaline staircase consists of series of sharp interfaces across which both TT and SS increase with depth separated by thick well-defined convective layers. We hypothesize that the warming of the PW layer in DB may have been caused by the upward heat fluxes from the AW driven double diffusive convection. Vertical heat fluxes estimated from laboratory-based flux laws for the diffusive regime of double diffusive convection were up to 0.20.2Wm-2^{-2}. The other major player responsible for the Atlantic water heat loss is shear instabilities in the internal wave and tides generated by barotropic tidal flow over the Egedesminde Dyb trough, the continental shelf and across the sill at the entrance of IIF. Using moored pressure data, we found that the fjord could be described as a wave-fjord during neap tide and turns into a tidal jet-fjord during spring tide, therefore a weak nonlinear response due to supercritical conditions with flow separation over the sill and a linear baroclinic tidal response due to the deeper right side of the sill could be expected. We found enhanced eddy diffusivity K

  18. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  19. Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) — A component of the Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D R Sikka; P Sanjeeva Rao

    2000-06-01

    The Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP) focuses on the study of climate variability and its impact on agriculture. To address the role of the Bay of Bengal in monsoon variability, a process study was organised during July-August 1999, deploying research ships, buoys, INSAT, coastal radar and conventional observational systems to collect information about the coupled ocean-atmosphere system over the warm waters of the Bay of Bengal. The paper gives the background of the ICRP and the organisation and implementation of the Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) in its field phase.

  20. Bottom Photographs in JPEG format acquired using a SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) within Barnegat Bay New Jersey by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2012, and 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water quality in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the...

  1. SHIP NAVIGATION: ANSI Text File of the Navigation and Bathymetry Recorded by the Ship's Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay from Sept. 6 to Sept. 8, 2006 - USGS Cruise 06018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  2. SHIP NAVIGATION: ANSI Text File of the Navigation and Bathymetry Recorded by the Ship's Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) in the Potomac River/Chesapeake Bay from Sept. 6 to Sept. 8, 2006 - USGS Cruise 06018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow under and into Chesapeake Bay, geophysical surveys were conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists on...

  3. Contenido de metales en Cancer polyodon (Crustacea: Decapoda en un sistema de bahías del norte de Chile (27°S Metal contents in Cancer polyodon (Crustacea: Decapoda in a bay system of northern Chile (27°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Castillo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Fe, Al y Ni fue analizado en tejido muscular de Cancer polyodon en las bahías de Caldera, Calderilla, Inglesa y Salada (Atacama, Chile. Los resultados fueron comparados con estudios similares desarrollados por otros autores y la normativa de carácter nacional e internacional relacionada con el contenido de metales pesados en crustáceos para consumo humano. El orden de abundancia de los metales analizados en C. polyodon fue CdThe contents of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Fe, Al and Ni in the muscle tissue of Cancer polyodon from Caldera, Calderilla, Inglesa, and Salada bays (Atacama, Chile were quantified. The results were compared with similar studies by other authors and with the national and international regulatory standards for heavy metal contents in crustaceans for human consumption. In increasing order, the metal contents in C. polyodon were: Cd< Ni< Cu< Pb< ZnBay: Cu and Ni were highest in Caldera Bay; and Zn was highest in Inglesa Bay. All the metals except Cu differed significantly (P < 0.05 among the analyzed bays. Of the seven metals analyzed, Pb, Fe, and Al concentrations in C. polyodon were higher than those reported for other coastal systems. Concentrations of Cu (except Calderilla, Cd (except Caldera and Inglesa, and Pb exceeded the threshold values indicated by the national and international standards, suggesting that the presence of these metals in C. polyodon represents a potential risk for human health.

  4. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results for all counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  5. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  6. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Chesapeake Bay Summary Database (1998-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Chesapeake Bay system...

  7. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system...

  8. Nekton usage in a Caminda Bay Saltmarsh at Grand Isle LA July and October 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During July and October 1988, a total of 42 samples were collected in salt marsh habitats of the Caminada Bay system near Grand Isle, Louisiana to evaluate the use...

  9. 渤海湾盆地应用增强型地热系统(EGS)的地质分析%Geologic Analysis on the Prospects of the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) in the Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋林; 季建清; 徐芹芹

    2013-01-01

    Great amounts of thermal energy is stored ubiquitously in rocks with high temperature and low permeability seated 3 ~ 10km deep, and can be exploited by the enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This paper reviews the research advances and experiences learnt from the EGS studies in recent years, and makes a geologic analysis and finite element simulation of the geothermal field to explore its feasibility in the Bohai Bay basin, Noth China. The Bohai Bay basin is situated in decratonized crust thinned lithosphere with high terristial heat flow, and is abundant of geothermal resources. The finite element analysis down to 10km depth below the surface, with a model incorporating the lithospheric and basement relief, shows that the temperature at a depth of 5km is between 150 - 180℃ , and the isotherm changes with the basement relief. Compared with the EGS projects in the U. S. and Europe, the Bohai Bay basin exhibits a similar geologic and geothermal setting, which makes it suitable for the EGS development. EGS resources in the basin are estimated to be 3775GW,, through calculation block by block, indicating a quite good propect.%全球地下3~ 10 km普遍分布的高温低渗岩体中蕴藏着巨大的热能,利用增强型地热系统(EGS)技术可以实现这部分热能的开发.本文通过对近年增强型地热系统的研究进展和经验的综述,结合区域地质分析和有限元模拟,探讨了渤海湾盆地应用增强型地热系统开发的可行性.我国渤海湾盆地处于岩石圈减薄区,区域大地热流值高,地热资源丰富;基于该区的岩石圈热状态、基底构造形态对渤海湾盆地典型剖面地下10 km内的地温场进行了有限元模拟,结果表明,在基底凹陷区埋深5 km处地温可达150 ~180℃,地温等温线随基底起伏而变化.相比美国、欧洲现有的EGS开发地区,渤海湾盆地具有相似的地温条件和地质条件,适于开发增强型地热系统.通过分区块的资源概算,

  10. Optimization of Cargo Bay Allocation in Manufacturing Storage Systems Based on Numerical Simulation%基于数值仿真的仓储系统货位分配优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小改

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a process for the optimization of the cargo bay allocation of the manufacturing storage systems and then through an empirical example, demonstrated the effect of the optimization.%主要研究了如何对制造业仓储系统的货位进行分配优化的问题,首先对货位进行数学建模,建立基于出入库距离H和货物重心高度Sy的目标函数,然后采用变邻域搜索算法和Matlab软件对货位进行优化分配,从而得到所需要的理想货位。实例分析证明,对仓库进行优化分配后,无论是仓库面积还是出入库时间都明显的减少,为仓库货位的分配优化提供了参考。

  11. Lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, D. W.; Uman, M. A.; Wilcox, C. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A commercial lightning-locating system (LLS) was employed in the study of lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. The LLS output included the time, location, number of strokes per flash, and initial peak magnetic field value of first strokes for lightning ground flashes lowering negative charge. Attention is given to the design and the operation of the LLS, and the experimental results. Measured properties of each of 111 storms are given in a number of tables. It was observed that the apparent motion associated with the lightning activity in storm systems was not due to the motion of the individual single-peak and multiple-peak storms but rather to the successive growth of new storms near previously active storms.

  12. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils Obtained from Mentha longifolia L. Hudson, Dryed by Three Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Stanisavljević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of drying the fresh herbal material influences the chemical content and the biological activities of their essential oils. The influence of the different drying methods of the herb Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracted essential oils has been analyzed in this study. Drying has been carried out in three ways: in the natural way, in the laboratory oven (45°C and in the absorptional low-temperature condensational drier (35°C. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil has been estimated by FRAP and DPPH assays, while the antimicrobial activity has been estimated by the diffusible and micro-delusional method, testing on the nine types of bacteria and two types of fungi. The essential oil obtained from the herb dried in the natural way has shown the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest from the herb dried in the laboratory oven. Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis have shown the highest sensitivity on the three samples. The oil obtained from the herb dried in the absorptional low-temperature drier has shown the strongest antimicrobial effect.

  13. Impact of the Clean Water Act on the levels of toxic metals in urban estuaries: The Hudson River estuary revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S.A.; Gill, G.A.

    1999-10-15

    To establish the impact of the Clean Water Act on the water quality of urban estuaries, dissolved trace metals and phosphate concentrations were determined in surface waters collected along the Hudson River estuary between 1995 and 1997 and compared with samples collected in the mid-1970s by Klinkhammer and Bender. The median concentrations along the estuary have apparently declined 36--56% for Cu, 55--89% for Cd, 53--85% for Ni, and 53--90% for Zn over a period of 23 years. These reductions appear to reflect improvements in controlling discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants since the Clean Water Act was enacted in 1972. In contrast, levels of dissolved nutrients (PO{sub 4}) have remained relatively constant during the same period of time, suggesting that wastewater treatment plant improvements in the New York/New Jersey Metropolitan area have not been as effective at reducing nutrient levels within the estuary. While more advanced wastewater treatment could potentially reduce the levels of Ag and PO{sub 4} along the estuary, these improvements would have a more limited effect on the levels of other trace metals.

  14. Lithostratigraphic, borehole-geophysical, hydrogeologic, and hydrochemical data from the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Orlando, Patricia v.P.; Borchers, James W.; Everett, Rhett; Solt, Michael; McGann, Mary; Lowers, Heather; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District, carried out an investigation of aquifer-system deformation associated with groundwater-level changes at the Bayside Groundwater Project near the modern San Francisco Bay shore in San Lorenzo, California. As a part of the Bayside Groundwater Project, East Bay Municipal Utility District proposed an aquifer storage and recovery program for 1 million gallons of water per day. The potential for aquifer-system compaction and expansion, and related subsidence, uplift, or both, resulting from aquifer storage and recovery activities were investigated and monitored in the Bayside Groundwater Project. In addition, baseline analysis of groundwater and substrata properties were performed to assess the potential effect of such activities. Chemical and physical data, obtained from the subsurface at four sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay in the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California, were collected during the study. The results of the study were provided to the East Bay Municipal Utility District and other agencies to evaluate the chemical and mechanical responses of aquifers underlying the East Bay Plain to the future injection and recovery of imported water from the Sierra Nevada of California.

  15. Probability Theory without Bayes' Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriques, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Kolmogorov theory of probability, Bayes' rule allows one to perform statistical inference by relating conditional probabilities to unconditional probabilities. As we show here, however, there is a continuous set of alternative inference rules that yield the same results, and that may have computational or practical advantages for certain problems. We formulate generalized axioms for probability theory, according to which the reverse conditional probability distribution P(B|A) is no...

  16. Zooplankton Biomass Data from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska 2010-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes zooplankton biomass from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska. Zooplankton were sampled with a ring net (0.6 m diameter with...

  17. Simulation of Pollutant Transport in Marmaris Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lale BALAS

    2001-01-01

    The circulation pattern and the pollutant transport in the Marmaris Bay are simulated by the developed three-dimensional baroclinic model. The Marmaris Bay is located at the Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey. Since the sp ring tidal range is typically 20~30 cm, the dominant forcing for the circulation and water exchange is due to the wind action. In the Marmaris Bay, there is sea outfall discharging directly into the bay, and that threats the bay water quality significantly. The current patterns in the vicinity of the outfall have been observed by tracking drogues which are moved by currents at different water depths. In the simulations of pollutant transport, the coliforms-counts is used as the tracer.The model provides realistic predictions for the circulation and pollutant transport in the Marmaris Bay. The transport model component predictions well agree with the results of a laboratory model study.

  18. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina Bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is...

  20. 76 FR 75601 - Lake State Railway Company-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Saginaw Bay Southern Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lake State Railway Company--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Saginaw Bay Southern Railway Company Lake State Railway Company (LSRC) and Saginaw Bay Southern Railway... railway accounting purposes, LSRC functions today as an Interline Settlement System (ISS) carrier, while...

  1. Tidal Mixing Box Submodel for Tampa Bay: Calibration of Tidal Exchange Flows with the Parameter Estimation Tool (PEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the mid-1990s the Tampa Bay Estuary Program proposed a nutrient reduction strategy focused on improving water clarity to promote seagrass expansion within Tampa Bay. A System Dynamics Model is being developed to evaluate spatially and temporally explicit impacts of nutrient r...

  2. Hydrodynamic Aspects at Vitória Bay Mouth, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA A.A. GARONCE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understading the hydrodynamic behavior and suspended particulated matter (SPM transport are of great importance in port regions such as Vitória Harbor, which is located at Vitória Bay, Vitória – ES, Brazil. Vitória Bay is an estuary that has not been systematically assessed through a temporal analysis in order to identify its hydrodynamics characteristics and SPM exchange. This study aims to investigate salt and suspended particulate matter flux at the estuarine mouth of Vitória Bay by understanding the temporal variation of salinity, temperature and tidal currents within the water column and at the channel crosssection. Results showed that the estuarine mouth tended to present partial stratification periods during neap tides and little stratification in spring tides. The circulation pattern was mainly influenced by the tide, with little influence from river discharge. With regard to the SPM, the mouth of the estuary tended to show low concentrations, with the highest values occurring during the dry season. A close relationship between momentary discharge, SPM and salt fluxes was observed. Despite all the data was collected at the mouth of the estuary, the system showed an importation trend of salt in all cycles and SPM importation for three of the four studied tidal cycles. Thus, Vitoria Bay is not exporting SPM to the adjacent inner shelf.

  3. Interferometric Sidescan Bathymetry, Sediment and Foraminiferal Analyses; a New Look at Tomales Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anima, Roberto J.; Chin, John L.; Finlayson, David P.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with Point Reyes National Sea Shore (PRNS), and the Tomales Bay Watershed Council [http://www.tomalesbaywatershed.org/] has completed a detailed bathymetric survey, and sediment and foraminiferal analyses of the floor of Tomales Bay, California. The study goals are to detail the submarine morphology, the sediment distribution, sedimentary features, and distribution of foraminifera to provide a framework for future studies. The USGS collected swath bathymetric data with a SEA SWATHplus interferometric sidescan sonar system (2004, 2005) and an echo sounder system (2006). The data were processed into continuous mosaic images that show bathymetric detail of the bay floor with 0.2-m vertical and 4.0-m horizontal resolution. Acoustic backscatter data from the 2004 and 2005 surveys were processed into 2-m resolution grids. In addition, 27 sediment samples were collected from various parts of the bay for grain size analyses and a comprehensive study of the distribution of foraminifera in Tomales Bay. The foraminiferal analysis determined that the invasive foraminifera Trochammina hadai from Japan was present in Tomales Bay. The project was conducted in response to a request from the National Park Service, and the Tomales Bay Watershed Council who voiced a need to look at the environmental impacts of human input to the surrounding watersheds that ultimately flow into the bay. The mapping, sediment, and foraminiferal data establish a baseline survey for future comparisons of possible geologic and anthropogenic changes that might occur due to changes in land use or development in the surrounding watershed. These data may also aid in determining the possible pathways of pollutants entering the bay from the surrounding watersheds.

  4. Geomorphic change in Dingzi Bay, East China since the 1950s: impacts of human activity and fluvial input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing; Wang, Qing; Liu, Yalong

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the geomorphic evolution of Dingzi Bay, East China in response to human activity and variations in fluvial input since the 1950s. The analysis is based on data from multiple mathematical methods, along with information obtained from Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System and Global Position System technology. The results show that the annual runoff and sediment load discharged into Dingzi Bay display significant decreasing trends overall, and marked downward steps were observed in 1966 and 1980. Around 60%-80% of the decline is attributed to decreasing precipitation in the Wulong River Basin. The landform types in Dingzi Bay have changed significantly since the 1950s, especially over the period between 1981 and 1995. Large areas of tidal flats, swamp, salt fields, and paddy fields have been reclaimed, and aquaculture ponds have been constructed. Consequently, the patterns of erosion and deposition in the bay have changed substantially. Despite a reduction in sediment input of 65.68% after 1966, low rates of sediment deposition continued in the bay. However, deposition rates changed significantly after 1981 owing to large-scale development in the bay, with a net depositional area approximately 10 times larger than that during 1961-1981. This geomorphic evolution stabilized following the termination of large-scale human activity in the bay after 1995. Overall, Dingzi Bay has shown a tendency towards silting-up during 1952-2010, with the bay head migrating seaward, the number of channels in the tidal creek system decreasing, and the tidal inlet becoming narrower and shorter. In conclusion, largescale development and human activity in Dingzi Bay have controlled the geomorphic evolution of the bay since the 1950s.

  5. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1114 San Pedro Bay—Anaheim Bay,...

  6. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is...

  7. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... of Neskowin, Oregon. Neskowin Marsh incorporates unique freshwater wetland and bog habitats and... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz...

  8. 78 FR 39610 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA... temporary safety zones upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay for the annual Port of San Diego... Sector San Diego, Coast Guard; telephone 619-278-7261, email d11marineeventssd@uscg.mil . If you have...

  9. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... establish four temporary safety zones upon the navigable waters of San Diego ] Bay for the Port of San Diego... Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego; telephone (619) 278-7261, email John.E.Bannon@uscg.mil . If...

  10. Nutrient Subsidies to Hanalei Bay, Kauai, HI From Submarine Groundwater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, K.; Santoro, A.; Street, J.; Boehm, A.; Berg, C.; Paytan, A.

    2005-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been shown to be a potentially important source of freshwater, nutrients, and pollutants to many coastal areas, including some locations in Hawaii. This study investigated the importance of SGD in Hanalei Bay, a northward-opening, half-moon shaped bay approximately 2 km in diameter, located on the northern shore of the island of Kauai. High fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) counts at Hanalei beaches sparked concern that nutrients and/or bacteria might be leaching into groundwater from septic systems and cesspools and making their way to the coastal ocean. Sampling was conducted in March and June 2005 at 3 local beaches, 3 streams, the Hanalei River, several groundwater pits, and the open bay. Radium was used as a groundwater tracer. Salinity, water temperature, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, total coliform, Enterococcus, and E. coli were measured. The ratio of 223Ra (half life = 11.4 days) to 224Ra (half life = 3.66 days) was relatively constant across samples from groundwater and the bay, indicating that the residence time of water in the bay was less than one day during the study period. Groundwater had lower concentrations of all FIB than the Hanalei River, the streams, or the bay, indicating that SGD was not contributing bacteria directly to the coastal zone over the course of this study. However, E. coli was detected at relative high levels in groundwater seaward of a cesspool, suggesting that during periods of high discharge, SGD could transport fecal bacteria to the bay. Concentrations of all nutrients were higher in groundwater than in Hanalei Bay, and nitrate concentrations were higher in groundwater than in the Hanalei River or the streams. Additionally, nitrate concentrations in groundwater and in Hanalei Bay were coupled with radium activities, suggesting a common source, most likely SGD. Mass balance calculations, based on residence times of 2 and 6 hours for the surf zone, indicate that the SGD

  11. Holocene depositional history of a large glaciated estuary, Penobscot Bay, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from seismic-reflection profiles, sidescan sonar images, and sediment samples reveal the Holocene depositional history of the large (1100 km2) glaciated Penobscot Bay estuary of coastal Maine. Previous work has shown that the late Wisconsinan ice sheet retreated from the three main passages of the bay between 12,700 and 13,500 years ago and was accompanied by a marine transgression during which ice and sea were in contact. Isostatic recovery of the crust caused the bay to emerge during the immediate postglacial period, and relative sea level fell to at least -40 m sometime between 9000 and 11,500 years ago. During lowered sea level, the ancestral Penobscot River flowed across the subaerially exposed head of the bay and debouched into Middle Passage. Organic-matter-rich mud from the river was deposited rapidly in remnant, glacially scoured depressions in the lower reaches of Middle and West Passages behind a shallow (???20 m water depth) bedrock sill across the bay mouth. East Passage was isolated from the rest of the bay system and received only small amounts of locally derived fine-grained sediments. During the Holocene transgression that accompanied the eustatic rise of sea level, the locus of sedimentation shifted to the head of the bay. Here, heterogeneous fluvial deposits filled the ancestral valley of the Penobscot River as base level rose, and the migrating surf zone created a gently dipping erosional unconformity, marked by a thin (Graded sediments within this stratum began to accumulate early in the transgression, and they record both the decrease in energy conditions and the waning influence of the Penobscot River at the head of the bay. In contrast, relatively thick (up to 25 m) silty clays accumulated within a subbottom trough in the western half of the bay head. This deposit apparently developed late in the transgression after sea level had reached -20 m and after the westward transport of fine-grained sediments from the Penobscot River had been

  12. Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues Estudo preliminar da atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de Mentha x villosa Hudson, rotundifolona e seus análogos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thúlio. A. Arruda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils present antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts, including species resistant to antibiotics and antifungicals. In this context, this work aims at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa Hudson ("hortelã da folha miúda", its major component (rotundifolone and four similar analogues of rotundifolone (limonene oxide, pulegone oxide, carvone epoxide and (+-pulegone against strain standards of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomona aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 and one strain of meticilin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (171c from human clinic. The method of the diffusion in plates with solid medium was used. The results showed that the oil of Mentha x villosa, rotundifolone, limonene oxide and (+-pulegone, are similar regarding the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains of S. aureus and C. albicans. All of the products present antimocrobial potential with antibacterial activity for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and antifungal activity for C. albicans ATCC 76645. None of the products presented antimicrobial activity for the strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, representatives of the Gram negative bacteria.Os óleos essenciais apresentam atividade antimicrobiana contra uma variedade de bactérias e fungos, incluindo espécies resistentes a antibióticos e antimicóticos. Neste contexto, este trabalho objetiva a avaliação da atividade de antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de Mentha x villosa Hudson (hortelã-da-folha-miúda - seu componente majoritário (rotundifolona e quatro análogos sintéticos da rotundifolona (epóxi-limoneno epóxi-pulegona, epóxi-carvona e (+-pulegona frente a cepas padrão de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 e uma cepa de Staphylococcus aureus meticilina - resistente

  13. LONG-TERM ECOSYSTEM CHANGE IN JIAOZHOU BAY AND ITS CATCHMENT: THE DPSIR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjun Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiaozhou Bay is a semi-closed embayment, affected by anthropogenic factors around Qingdao, China. This article illustrates the long-term change in the Bay and its catchment using the driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR approach. Under the Chinese national macro-socioeconomic policy, rapid development and massive urbanization occurred in Qingdao that has resulted in the serious reduction and quality deterioration of its arable land and the variation in water resources. The production and consumption pattern changed with population growth and an increasing demand for water and food as well as pollutants emissions. The pressure alteration in the Bay and its catchment has created far-reaching impacts on the ecosystem. These changes include: significant deterioration in water quality of the catchment; decreased river runoff into the bay; shift in the nutrient regime of the Bay; decreased tidal prism in the Bay; increased eutrophication in the Bay; fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of biodiversity. Relevant policies aimed to formulate the promotion of the water quality have been done in the system. However, the deterioration trend has not yet been halted or reversed. Hence new management mechanisms are under discussion to improve the ecosystem in this area.

  14. Improving Naive Bayes with Online Feature Selection for Quick Adaptation to Evolving Feature Usefulness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

    2007-09-19

    The definition of what makes an article interesting varies from user to user and continually evolves even for a single user. As a result, for news recommendation systems, useless document features can not be determined a priori and all features are usually considered for interestingness classification. Consequently, the presence of currently useless features degrades classification performance [1], particularly over the initial set of news articles being classified. The initial set of document is critical for a user when considering which particular news recommendation system to adopt. To address these problems, we introduce an improved version of the naive Bayes classifier with online feature selection. We use correlation to determine the utility of each feature and take advantage of the conditional independence assumption used by naive Bayes for online feature selection and classification. The augmented naive Bayes classifier performs 28% better than the traditional naive Bayes classifier in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! RSS feeds.

  15. A Contribution to Mitigating Seismic Risk in the Bay Area: The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) GPS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlie, N.; Romanowicz, B.; Hellweg, P.

    2007-05-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), two million people live in a geologically complex, tectonically active region that has experienced several historic earthquakes, including the 1868 Hayward, the 1906 San Francisco, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. Geodetic measurements, which are especially useful for detecting deformation and strain on deep structures throughout the seismic cycle, show that Bay Area deformation is both spatially complex and varying with time. Increasingly, GPS data can also be used in real time to complement seismic data in providing robust real-time earthquake information, and, potentially, early warning. The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network of permanent, continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers monitors crustal deformation in the Bay Area and northern California. BARD is a network collocated with several seismic networks (BDSN, NHFN, mini-PBO) operating in Northern California. As the local determination of magnitude is problematic for large earthquakes, the GPS will provide strong constraints on rupture geometry and amount of slip along the slipping fault. Thus, the collocation of all the networks will help mitigate earthquake- related risks associated with an earthquake in the SFBA or in northern California.

  16. A relative Potential Erosion Detection (PED) model for the upper Buff Bay catchment, parish of Portland, Jamaica: A Geographical Information System application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacGillivray, C.M.I.; Donovan, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    This research introduces a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) model that predicts the location and relative susceptibility of humid subtropical hillslopes to sheetwash erosion. The extent of the erosion was based on the conservation potential of the existing vegetation cover. This is an original

  17. A Relative Potential Erosion Detection (PED) model for the upper Buff Bay catchment, parish of Portland, Jamaica: A Geographical Information System application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacGillivray, C.M.I.; Donovan, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    This research introduces a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) model that predicts the location and relative susceptibility of humid subtropical hillslopes to sheetwash erosion. The extent of the erosion was based on the conservation potential of the existing vegetation cover. This is an original

  18. Improving the operational forecasting system of the stratified flow in Osaka Bay using an ensemble Kalman filter–based steady state Kalman filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Serafy, G.Y.H.; Mynett, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical models of a water system are always based on assumptions and simplifications that may result in errors in the model's predictions. Such errors can be reduced through the use of data assimilation and thus can significantly improve the success rate of the predictions and operational forecast

  19. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  20. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Julie W.; Cloern, James E.; Hutchinson, Anne

    1985-01-01

    The two estuarine systems composing San Francisco Bay have distinct zooplankton communities and seasonal population dynamics. In the South Bay, a shallow lagoon-type estuary, the copepods Acartia spp. and Oithona davisae dominate. As in estuaries along the northeast coast of the U.S., there is a seasonal succession involving the replacement of a cold-season Acartia species (A. clausi s.l.) by a warm-season species (A. californiensis), presumably resulting from the differential production and hatching of dormant eggs. Oithona davisae is most abundant during the fall. Copepods of northern San Francisco Bay, a partially-mixed estuary of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers, organize into discrete populations according to salinity distribution: Sinocalanus doerrii (a recently introduced species) at the riverine boundary, Eurytemora affinis in the oligohaline mixing zone, Acartia spp. in polyhaline waters (18–30\\%), and neritic species (e.g., Paracalanus parvus) at the seaward boundary. Sinocalanus doerrii and E. affinis are present year-round. Acartia clausi s.l.is present almost year-round in the northern reach, and A. californiensis occurs only briefly there in summer-fall. The difference in succession of Acartia species between the two regions of San Francisco Bay may reflect differences in the seasonal temperature cycle (the South Bay warms earlier), and the perennial transport of A. clausi s.l. into the northern reach from the seaward boundary by nontidal advection.

  1. Marine biodiversity assessment indicator systems and their application in Quanzhou Bay%海洋生物多样性评价指标体系的研究及在泉州湾的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞炜炜; 陈彬; 周娟; 黄浩; 杜建国

    2011-01-01

    Based on a summary of related biodiversity assessment studies, principles and methods for selecting marine biodiversity indicators were systematically discussed. A pressure-state-response (PSR) framework was then introduced to establish an indicator system for marine biodiversity assessment, including: pressure indicators in terms of habitat physical destruction, marine pollution, invasive species and over-fishing; state indicators in terms of ecosystem integrity, habitat diversity, species diversity, and rare and endangered species; and response indicators in terms of environmental responses, and social and economic response. Further, the above indictor system was applied to assess the marine biodiversity of Quanzhou Bay. The study found that during 1984 ~ 2008 and 2001 ~ 2008, most pressure indicators showed deterioration and indicated that the pressure of biodiversity had gradually increased. These included factors such as landscape naturalness, coastline artificialization index, and area of invasive alien species. Most state indicators showed deterioration and indicated that the biodiversity was declining, such as marine trophic index, Simpson' s diversity index of phytoplankton, species number, and distribution of rare and endangered species. Most response indicators showed improvement, indicating that the effort to protect and restore biodiversity was continually increasing, such as the area of habitat restoration and treated coastal sewage. In summary , although efforts for marine biodiversity conservation and restoration in Quanzhou Bay have increased, threats leading to a decline in biodiversity were intensifying rather than mitigating, and marine biodiversity was still declining.%在总结国内外生物多样性评价相关研究的基础上,系统地探讨了海洋生物多样性评价指标的选取原则与思路,并基于压力-状态-响应(PSR)的评价框架,分别从生境物理破坏、海洋污染、外来种入侵和过度捕捞4个方面选

  2. TREATMENTS OF PLASMA CORONA RADIATION ON SEAWEED Gracilaria Verrucosa (HUDSON PAPENFUSS: Efforts to increase growth and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filemon Jalu N Putra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson Papenfuss has great potential to be farmed in the water resources in Indonesia. As natural resource, the weed has a major contribution in the field of industry both for human food and health. Efforts have been done intensively to increase the production capacity to meet the market demand especially gelatin, both national and international market. One of them is the application of plasma corona irradiation treatments on the weed to improve developmental pathways. The concept of plasma irradiation performed at atmospheric conditions may impact on nitrogen intrusion pathway that is important element in the growth of the weed. The aims of this study are to assess the potential impact of plasma irradiation in improving the growth of G. verrucosa and thus increase their biomass production. The treatments were done using five different duration of plasma irradiation, which were 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes at a 0,5mA stable source of voltage and 8kV of electrical current. Observations of growth rate include thallus length and biomass of G. verrucosa , that was observed every week for 28 days. The result showed that the growth of weed exhibited better than those without radiation. The best growth was reached in the group of treatment of 8 minutes irradiation, exhibited 65,91g of biomass and 9.5515% growth rate and length of thallus reached 22,33 cm and daily growth rate of 2.9759%. The lowest growth of the weed occurred in the treatment of 10 minutes irradiation, which was 44,82 g biomass, 8.123% growth rate, 17,13 cm thallus length with a daily growth rate of 1.9942%

  3. Radioisotopic data of sediment collected in Mobile and Bon Secour Bays, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was to determine the extent of natural and (or) anthropogenic impacts on the sedimentary records of Mobile and Bon Secour Bays, Alabama during the last 150 years. These bays are unique in that anthropogenic activities are generally widespread and span both the eastern and western shorelines. However, there is a clear distinction in the types of human development and infrastructure between the western and eastern shorelines. These activities and the differences in land-use and -change influence the overall supply and remobilization of sediment to and within the bay. These factors could subsequently threaten the health and integrity of these environments and their ability to mitigate against long-term processes associated with climate change. In an attempt to characterize long-term accretion rates within the Mobile Bay Estuarine System (MBES), seven box cores were collected and analyzed for excess lead-210 (210Pbxs, the difference between total and supported 210Pb) and cesium-137 (137Cs) activities. The MBES receives sediment and water from the Alabama and Tombigbee River watersheds, which converge into the Mobile-Tensaw River (MTR) system just prior to discharging into Mobile Bay. Riverine discharge from the MTR system to the bay is second only to the Mississippi River discharge to the Gulf of Mexico for the conterminous United States.

  4. Sediment environmental capacity of 137Cs in Daya Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junli; CHEN Jiajun; XU Jialin; LI Yuanxin; HUANG Naiming

    2007-01-01

    Sediment environmental capacity of pollutants is very important for marine environmental management.Based on the methodology of a study on water,soil environmental capacity,and mass conservation theory in a system,the concept and model on sediment environmental capacity for 137Cs in Daya Bay were developed.The static capacity for 137Cs in the upper sediment near the shore at a shallow area was calculated,and the annual dynamic capacity and total dynamic capacity were also calculated through determination of the typical biomass in the sediment.The results showed that the estimated environmental capacity for 137Cs in sediments was approximately equal to the current input of 137Cs into the sediments.Controlling the input of 137Cs in the sediments within the environmental capacity guarantees the sustainability of the current situation of the Daya Bay ecosystem and avoidance of a significant degradation of the system.

  5. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on reproduction and offspring growth and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and mortality were evaluated. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). The percentage of stillborn kits per litter was significantly increased by dietary concentrations of 4.5 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater. All offspring exposed to dietary concentrations of 4.5 and 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 and 38 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 10 weeks of age, and all offspring exposed to 1.5 and 2.8 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (10 and 18 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 31 weeks of age, leaving juveniles in the control and 0.72 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (0.41- and 4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) groups only. The dietary concentration predicted to result in 20% kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age was 0.34 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed). The corresponding maternal hepatic concentration was 0.80 µg ∑PCBs/g liver, wet weight (13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver, wet wt). Mink residing in the upper Hudson River would be expected to consume species of fish that contain an average of 4.0 µg ∑PCBs/g tissue. Thus, a daily diet composed of less than 10% Hudson River fish could provide a dietary concentration of ∑PCBs that resulted in 20% kit mortality in the present study.

  6. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon...

  7. Instrumental Variable Bayesian Model Averaging via Conditional Bayes Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, Anna; Lenkoski, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We develop a method to perform model averaging in two-stage linear regression systems subject to endogeneity. Our method extends an existing Gibbs sampler for instrumental variables to incorporate a component of model uncertainty. Direct evaluation of model probabilities is intractable in this setting. We show that by nesting model moves inside the Gibbs sampler, model comparison can be performed via conditional Bayes factors, leading to straightforward calculations. This new Gibbs sampler is...

  8. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe...... an instance are conditionally independent given the class of that instance. When this assumption is violated (which is often the case in practice) it can reduce classification accuracy due to “information double-counting” and interaction omission. In this paper we focus on a relatively new set of models......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  9. Bottom Photographs in JPEG format acquired using a SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) within Barnegat Bay New Jersey by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2012, and 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water quality in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the U.S....

  10. Bottom Photographs in JPEG format acquired using a SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) within Barnegat Bay New Jersey by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2012, and 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water quality in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the U.S....

  11. Locations of photographs acquired using a SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) within Barnegat Bay New Jersey by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2012, and 2013 (Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water quality in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the U.S....

  12. Locations of photographs acquired using a SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) within Barnegat Bay New Jersey by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2012, and 2013 (Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water quality in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary along the New Jersey coast is the focus of a multidisciplinary research project begun in 2011 by the U.S....

  13. Building America Case Study: Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes, Hudson, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Columbia County (New York) Habitat for Humanity built a pair of townhomes to Passive House criteria with the purpose of exploring approaches for achieving Passive House performance and to eventually develop a prototype design for future projects. The project utilized a 2x6 frame wall with a structural insulated panel curtain wall and a ventilated attic over a sealed OSB ceiling air barrier. Mechanical systems include a single head, wall mounted ductless mini-split heat pump in each unit and a heat recovery ventilator. Costs were $26,000 per unit higher for Passive House construction compared with the same home built to ENERGY STAR version 3 specifications, representing about 18 percent of total construction cost. This report discusses the cost components, energy modeling results and lessons from construction. Two alternative ventilation systems are analyzed: a central system; and, a point-source system with small through-wall units distributed throughout the house. The report includes a design and cost analysis of these two approaches.

  14. Modelling the transport of radionuclides released in the Ilha Grande bay (Brazil) after a Large Break Loca ion the primary system of a PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Soares, Abner Duarte; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b, E-mail: asoares@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LIMA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    It was postulated, in the cooling system of the core, a LOCA, where 431 m{sup 3} of soda almost instantaneously was lost. This inventory contained 1.87x10{sup 10} Bq/m{sup 3} of tritium, 2.22x10{sup 7} Bq/m{sup 3} of cobalt,3.48x10{sup 8} Bq/m{sup 3} of cesium and 3.44x10{sup 10} Bq/m{sup 3} of iodine and was released in liquid form near the Itaorna cove, Angra dos Reis - RJ. Applying the model in the proposed scenario (Angra 1 and 2 in operation and Angra 3 progressively reducing the capture and discharge after the accident), the simulated dilution of the specific activity of radionuclide spots, reached values much lower than report levels for seawater (1,1x10{sup 6} Bq/m{sup 3}, 1,11x10{sup 4} Bq/m{sup 3} and 1,85x10{sup 3} Bq/m{sup 3}) after 22 hours, respectively for {sup 3}H, {sup 60}Co, {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. From the standpoint of public exposure to radionuclide dispersion, the results of activity concentration obtained by the model suggest that the observed radiological impact is negligible. Based on these findings, we conclude that there would be no radiological impact related to a further release of controlled effluent discharges into Itaorna cove. (author)

  15. Importance of Carolina Bays to the Avifauna of Pinelands in the Southeastern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapka, Stephen, J.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2011-07-01

    Abstract - Past anthropogenic activity has led to the destruction or alteration of Carolina bay wetlands throughout the southeastern United States. Presently, urban development, combined with a 2001 ruling by the US Supreme Court relaxing protection of isolated wetlands, poses an increasing threat to these and other isolated wetland systems; however, little information exists on the importance of these wetland systems to birds. We compared breeding and wintering bird communities of upland pine (Pinus spp.) forests with and without Carolina bays. Estimated species richness was greater in pine forests with Carolina bays than without during the winter (31.7 ± 1.3 [mean ± SE] vs. 26.9 ± 1.2; P = 0.027), but not in the breeding season (27.9 ± 2.2 vs. 26.3 ± 2.2; P = 0.644). Total relative abundance did not differ between pine forests with Carolina bays and those without in either the breeding (148.0 ± 16.0 vs. 129.4 ± 10.4 birds/40 ha; P = 0.675) or winter (253.0 ± 36.4 vs. 148.8 ± 15.1 birds/40 ha; P = 0.100) seasons. However, 23 species, 43% of which were wetland-dependent, were observed only in pine forests with bays during the breeding season, and 20 species, 30% of which were wetland-dependent, were observed only in such sites during winter. In contrast, only 6 and 1 species were observed only in pine forests without bays during the breeding and winter seasons, respectively, indicating that few species were negatively affected by the presence of bays. Thus, Carolina bays appear to enrich the avifauna of pine forests in the southeastern United States.

  16. Guide to the littoral zone vascular flora of Carolina bay lakes (U.S.A.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Nathan; Krings, Alexander; Braham, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Carolina bays are elliptic, directionally aligned basins of disputed origin that occur on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Georgia. In southeastern North Carolina, several large, natural, lacustrine systems (i.e., Carolina bay lakes) exist within the geomorphological features known as Carolina bays. Within the current distribution of Carolina bays, Bladen and Columbus counties (North Carolina) contain the only known examples of Carolina bay lakes. The Carolina bay lakes can be split into two major divisions, the "Bladen Lakes Group" which is characterized as being relatively unproductive (dystrophic - oligotrophic), and Lake Waccamaw, which stands alone in Columbus County and is known for its high productivity and species richness. Although there have been several studies conducted on these unique lentic systems, none have documented the flora comprehensively. Over the 2013-2014 growing seasons, the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes was surveyed and vouchered. Literature reviews and herbarium crawls complemented this fieldwork to produce an inventory of the vascular plant species. This survey detected 205 taxa (species/subspecies and varieties) in 136 genera and 80 vascular plant families. Thirty-one species (15.2%) are of conservation concern. Lake Waccamaw exhibited the highest species richness with 145 catalogued taxa and 26 species of conservation concern. Across all sites, the Cyperaceae (25 spp.), Poaceae (21 spp.), Asteraceae (13 spp.), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Juncaceae (8 spp.), and Lentibulariaceae (6 spp.) were the six most species-rich vascular plant families encountered. A guide to the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes is presented herein, including dichotomous keys, species accounts (including abundance, habitat, phenology, and exsiccatae), as well as images of living species and vouchered specimens.

  17. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  18. Using Natural Geochemical Tracers to Discern the Dominant Sources of Freshwater into Biscayne Bay, Southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, J. C.; Price, R. M.; Swart, P. K.

    2005-05-01

    Biscayne Bay is a sub-tropical estuary located on the carbonate platform of south Florida. The water occupying Biscayne Bay is a balance of saltwater influx from the open ocean and freshwater inputs from precipitation, surface water runoff, and submarine groundwater discharge. The bays watershed includes a total of 3 million inhabitants, the major urban centers of Miami and Ft. Lauderdale, as well as the Everglades system. With the development of south Florida, the natural diffuse groundwater and stream flow into the bay has been replaced by a large system of canals and levees in an effort to control flooding and drain swampland. The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan includes changes in the freshwater deliveries to Biscayne Bay from point-source discharges via canals to non-point source discharges via wetlands and groundwater flow. The balance of salinity in Biscayne Bay effects sensitive seagrass and tidal ecosystems including numerous species of corals and other biota. A comprehensive understanding of the flow of freshwater into the bay is crucial to future planned developments and restorations. The goal of this study is to use naturally occurring geochemical constituents as tracers to identify and quantify the sources of freshwater, i.e. rainfall, canal flow, and groundwater, discharge to Biscayne Bay. In this study, discrete samples of precipitation, canal water, terrestrial groundwater, marine groundwater, and bay surface water are collected monthly and analyzed for the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen as well as for major cations and anions. Initial results indicate that fresh groundwater has an isotopic signature (del 18O = -2.66 per mil, del D, -7.60 per mil) similar to rainfall (del 18O = -2.86 per mil, del D =-4.78 per mil). In contrast canal water has a heavy isotopic signature (del 18O = -0.46 per mil, del D = -2.48 per mil) due to evaporation. Thus it is possible to use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen to separate canal water from

  19. Evaluation of the quality of ambient vibration monitoring data from the Henry Hudson Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qin; Grimmelsman, Kirk A.; Prader, John; Aktan, A. E.

    2006-03-01

    The quality of test data is an important consideration in conducting field experiments on civil infrastructure. In addition to possible errors due to the experimental setup, the uncertainties due to incomplete knowledge of a structure's behavior and its interactions with the natural environment greatly affect the reliability of the system identification results. This paper discusses the uncertainties related to ambient vibration testing of a long-span steel arch bridge and possible ways to mitigate them. The consistency of the identified parameters is examined through statistical analyses.

  20. Tracing water and suspended matter in Raritan and Lower New York Bays using dissolved and particulate elemental concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical tracers were used to examine the mixing of water and particles in Lower New York and Raritan Bays in August 1999 during low-flow conditions. Four brackish water masses (20 ≤ S ≤ 28) originating in the Raritan and Shrewsbury Rivers, Arthur Kill, and Upper New York Bay were characterized by their dissolved metals concentrations. The mixing lines of dissolved Cu, Ni, and Pb in Lower New York Bay were similar to those in Upper New York Bay, the source of most of the freshwater to the system. Dissolved Cd and Mn seemed to have been removed by particles in several regions of the study. Dissolved Cu, Ni and Pb in the Raritan River fell below the mixing lines of the Lower New York Bay. In contrast, the concentrations of dissolved Co and Mn in the Raritan River were distinctly higher than those in the Lower New York Bay, while dissolved Cu and Ni were elevated in the Arthur Kill. A plot of dissolved Co versus dissolved Ni clearly differentiated among three water masses: (1) Upper and Lower New York Bays and Sandy Hood Bay, (2) the Raritan River, and (3) Arthur Kill–Raritan Bay–Shrewsbury River.

  1. Organochlorine residues in harp seals, Phoca groenlandica, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait: An evaluation of contaminant concentrations and burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, G.G.; Smith, T.G. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)); Addison, R.F. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Organochlorine contaminant concentrations and burdens were evaluated in blubber samples from 50 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) obtained from the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait, Canada between December 1988 and December 1989. The concentration and burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) increased significantly during the winter months for males occupying the St. Lawrence estuary. The potential for rapid accumulation of contaminants in the estuary was also observed among females: nine postpartum females (1 month after weaning) had higher organochlorine levels than prepartum females from the same location. The lowest observed contaminant concentrations and burdens were in seals from Hudson Strait in autumn. In winter specimens, males had DDT and PCB concentrations about 4 and 2 times as great, respectively, as females of similar age distribution and collection date. Congeners with IUPAC Nos. 138 and 153 accounted for more than 50% of total identifiable PCBs, which is consistent with their prevalence in other marine biota. The concentration of PCBs has declined and the percent p,p'-DDE of total DDT has increased between 1982 and the present study. Unlike the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), harp seals occupy the more polluted waters of the estuary only seasonally, and this may account for their lower residue concentrations. 59 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. A coastal acoustic tomography experiment in the Tokyo Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANEKO Arata; HACHIYA Hiroyuki; HASHIMOTO Noriaki; YAMAGUCHI Keisuke; YAMAMOTO Tokuo; GOHDA Noriaki; ZHENG Hong; SYAMSUDIN Fadli; LIN Ju; NGUYEN Hong-Quang; MATSUYAMA Masaji

    2005-01-01

    Eight sets of coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) systems were deployed during November 29 to December 10, 2002 at the coasts on both sides of Tokyo Bay to measure tidal current structures at 15-min interval. Sound transmission across the Tokyo Bay (between Yokohama and Chiba)was successfully traced,even under severe interference from ship generated wakes and bubbles. Tidal current fields changing from northward to southward flow are well reconstructed by the inverse analysis of travel-time difference data for a period with the best sound transmission condition. It is suggested that the CAT is the most powerful tool to continuously map tidal current fields in the coastal seas with heavy shipping traffic and fisheries activity.

  3. Landscape controls on total and methyl mercury in the upper Hudson River basin of New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D. A.; Murray, K. R.; Bradley, P. M.; Brigham, M. E.; Aiken, G.; Smith, M.

    2010-12-01

    High levels of mercury (Hg) in aquatic biota have been identified in surface waters of the Adirondack region of New York, and factors such as the prevalence of wetlands, extensive forest cover, and oligotrophic waters promote Hg bioaccumulation in this region. Past research in this region has focused on improved understanding of the Hg cycle in lake ecosystems. In the study described herein, the landscape controls on total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in riverine ecosystems were explored through synoptic surveys of 27 sites in the upper Hudson River basin of the Adirondack region. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for total Hg, MeHg, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) during spring and summer of 2006-08. Landscape indices including many common land cover, hydrographic, and topographic-based measures were explored as predictors of Hg through multivariate linear regression. Multivariate models that included a wetland or riparian area-based metric, an index for open water area, and in some cases a topographic metric such as the wetness index explained 55 to 65 percent of the variation in MeHg concentrations, and 55 to 80 percent of the variation in total Hg concentrations. An open water index (OWI) was developed that incorporated both the basin area drained by ponded water and the surface area of these ponds. This index was inversely related to concentrations of total Hg and MeHg. This OWI was also inversely related to specific ultra-violet absorbance, consistent with previous studies showing that open water increases the influence of algal-derived carbon on DOC, decreasing aromaticity, which should decrease the ability of the dissolved carbon pool to bind Hg. The OWI was not significant in models for total Hg that also included UV254 as a predictive variable, but the index did remain significant in similar models for MeHg suggesting that biogeochemical factors in addition to decreasing carbon

  4. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L; Ramana, M.V; Subrahmanyam, V; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    -1 J. Ind. Geophys. Union (2000) Vol. 4, No.2, pp. 185-190 Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal K.V.L.N.S.Sarma, M.V.Ramana1 , V.Subrahmanyam1 K.S.Krishna1, T.Ramprasad1 and Maria Desa1 National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre 176... of magnetic anomalies, Ramana et al. (1994) inferred some fracture zones. Due to huge sediment overburden in the Bay of Bengal surface expression of these 185 K.V.L.N.S.Sarma et al. Figure la. Bathymetry map of the Bay of Bengal. Contour interval 500 m...

  5. Analysis and Applications API eBay

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIK, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis "Analysis and Applications API eBay" is to create application based on the use of Application Programming Interface (API), released by eBay. The theoretical part is focused on explaining the fundamental issue of Internet auctions, e-commmerce, comparsion of auction portals and term "trust" as a key attribute of e-commerce. The practical part is based on analyse of principles and instruments of eBay API and create an application based on this interface. The ...

  6. THz identification and Bayes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2017-05-01

    THz Identification is a developing technology. Sensing in the THz range potentially gives opportunity for short range radar sensing because THz waves can better penetrate through obscured atmosphere, such as fog, than visible light. The lower scattering of THz as opposed to the visible light results also in significantly better imaging than in IR spectrum. A much higher contrast can be achieved in medical trans-illumination applications than with X-rays or visible light. The same THz radiation qualities produce better tomographical images from hard surfaces, e.g. ceramics. This effect comes from the delay in time of reflected THz pulses detection. For special or commercial applications alike, the industrial quality control of defects is facilitated with a lower cost. The effectiveness of THz wave measurements is increased with computational methods. One of them is Bayes modeling. Examples of this kind of mathematical modeling are considered.

  7. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  8. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day...

  9. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the...

  10. Revisiting the 1899 Earthquakes of Yakutat Bay, Alaska Using New and Existing Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M. A. L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    North of Yakutat Bay in southeastern Alaska, the subducting Yakutat Block intersects with the Fairweather transform fault system. A series of large earthquakes occurred in the region in September of 1899, including a Mw 8.2 event on 10 September that resulted in >14 m of coseismic uplift and a 6 m tsunami in Yakutat Bay. Despite recurrence risk of the 1899 or similar events in the region, the fault(s) that ruptured in 1899 remain unidentified. Previous efforts to map active Yakutat Bay faults carried out by Plafker and Thatcher (2008) used post-1899 bedrock uplift measurements to infer the location of potentially important structures, including the Esker Creek and Bancas Point thrusts. As measurement error was not assessed in their study, we revisit the uplift measurements by quantifying uncertainty due to glacial isostatic adjustment, tidal range, and specific benchmark methods. We also combine new seismic reflection data with existing topography, bathymetry, GPS, and satellite photo data to update the original fault map. Our reevaluation of uplift measurements suggests that primary slip and uplift during the 10 September earthquake was limited to northwest of Yakutat Bay. Additionally, a high-resolution seismic reflection survey we conducted in Yakutat Bay during August 2012 constrains faulting to on- or near-shore based on the absence of bay-crossing faults. Collectively, our results imply that predominantly strike-slip and transpressive horsetail-type faults are southeast of Yakutat Bay, with compressional structures related to Yakutat Block subduction/collision to the northwest. We interpret the 10 September 1899 event to be the result of complex rupture somewhere within the Yakutat subduction/collision system. Based on our updated map of coseismic uplift and fault structure, we favor a rupture model where primary slip occurred along the Esker Creek system locally with possible induced coseismic slip along the neighboring Boundary transpressive fault system.

  11. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  12. MONT95C - Bathymetry contours of the southern Monterey Bay area between Moss Landing and Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric grids and derived contours are from data collected by the USGS with a multibeam (Simrad EM1000) sidescan sonar system in the southern Monterey Bay...

  13. Biological, chemical, and physical data collected in Delaware Bay from 2 Sep 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 (NODC Accession 0118720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  14. MONT95C - Bathymetry contours of the southern Monterey Bay area between Moss Landing and Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric grids and derived contours are from data collected by the USGS with a multibeam (Simrad EM1000) sidescan sonar system in the southern Monterey Bay...

  15. Cathodic protection of mild steel and copper in deep waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Performance of cathodic protection system to mild steel and copper in deep (> 1000 m) oceanic waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal has been assessed using aluminium and mild steel sacrificial anodes. The corrosion rates of unprotected metals...

  16. Delineation of high water line and seasonal beach profiling at Kalbadevi Bay, Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    collected by using highly sophisticated instruments like Laser Trak, DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) and Automatic level (Carl Zeiss Make) following the standard survey techniques. Beach profiles at three sites in Kalbadevi bay has clearly...

  17. Environmental Quality of the Pensacola Bay System ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scattered environmental information for the PBS which is essential for understanding its current environmental condition and trend and needed for future cost-effective and science-based resource management. The management and regulatory response to the on-going influx of anthropogenic contaminants, the effects of episodic events (hurricanes, oil spills) and the effects of climate change depend upon technically-based information such as that contained in a current state-of-the-science synthesis report. Many environmental reviews are available for the PBS (examples, Pratt et al. 1990; Thorpe et al. 1997; BARC et al. 1998; WFRPC et al. 2005) but many are limited in scope, most are outdated, and none have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. This review provides an updated and critical appraisal of the environmental condition of the PBS based on consolidation and integration of historical, recently published, and unpublished information reflective of current chemical and biological assessment methodologies. The review also includes summaries for ecological information lacking or under-reported in previous reviews. This includes information for biodiversity, non-nutrient contaminant concentrations in surface water and sediment, sediment phytotoxicity and genotoxicity, bioaccumulation, use of colonized periphyton as bioindicators, organism and wildlife health, economic value for ecological services, climate c

  18. Biscayne Bay Dolphin Photo ID System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — It has been shown through a variety of photo-identification studies that populations of bottlenose dolphin inhabit the various embayments along the coast of Florida....

  19. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  20. Tectonic Origin of the 1899 Yakutat Bay Earthquakes, Alaska, and Insights into Future Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, S. S.; LeVoir, M. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Saustrup, S.

    2012-12-01

    On September 10th the largest of four earthquakes (Mw 8.2) that occurred in southeast Alaska on 1899 produced a 6 m tsunami and may have produced as much as 14 m of co-seismic uplift. This earthquake had an epicenter somewhere near Yakutat or Disenchantment Bays. These bays lie at the transition between the Fairweather Fault (the Pacific-North American strike-slip plate boundary), and the Yakutat Terrane-North American subduction zone. The deformation front of this subduction zone is thought to include the eastern fault in the Pamplona Zone offshore, the Malaspina Fault onshore, and the Esker Creek Fault near Yakutat Bay. The 10 September 1899 event could have taken place on a Yakutat-North American megathrust that daylights in Yakutat or Disenchantment Bay. Alternatively, the 10 September 1899 earthquake could have originated from the Fairweather-Boundary and Yakutat faults, transpressive components of the Fairweather strike-slip system present in the Yakutat Bay region, or from thrusting along the Yakutat and Otemaloi Faults on the southeast flank of Yakutat Bay. Characterizing fault slip during the Alaskan earthquakes of 1899 is vital to assessing both subduction zone structure and seismic hazards in the Yakutat Bay area. Each possible fault model has a different implication for modern hazards. These results will be used to update seismic hazard and fault maps and assess future risk to the Yakutat Bay and surrounding communities. During Aug. 6-17th, we anticipate acquiring high-resolution, marine multichannel seismic data aboard the USGS vessel Alaskan Gyre in Yakutat and Disenchantment Bays to search for evidence of recent faulting and directly test these competing theories for the 10 September 1899 event. This survey uses the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics' mini-GI gun, 24-channel seismic streamer, portable seismic compressor system, and associated gun control and data acquisition system to acquire the data. The profiles have a nominal common