WorldWideScience

Sample records for hudf team hubble

  1. Probing the Dawn of Galaxies at z~9-12: New Constraints from HUDF12/XDF and CANDELS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Oesch, P A; Illingworth, G D; Labbe, I; Franx, M; van Dokkum, P G; Trenti, M; Stiavelli, M; Gonzalez, V; Magee, D

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of z>8 galaxies based on ultra-deep WFC3/IR data. We constrain the evolution of the UV luminosity function (LF) and luminosity densities from z~11 to z~8 by exploiting all the WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field from the HUDF09 and the new HUDF12 program, in addition to the HUDF09 parallel field data, as well as wider area WFC3/IR imaging over GOODS-South. Galaxies are selected based on the Lyman Break Technique in three samples centered around z~9, z~10 and z~11, with seven z~9 galaxy candidates, and one each at z~10 and z~11. We confirm a new z~10 candidate (with z=9.8+-0.6) that was not convincingly identified in our first z~10 sample. The deeper data over the HUDF confirms all our previous z>~7.5 candidates as genuine high-redshift candidates, and extends our samples to higher redshift and fainter limits (H_160~29.8 mag). We perform one of the first estimates of the z~9 UV LF and improve our previous constraints at z~10. Extrapolating the lower redshift UV LF ...

  2. Ultradeep IRAC Imaging Over The HUDF And GOODS-South: Survey Design And Imaging Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Labbe, I; Illingworth, G D; van Dokkum, P G; Bouwens, R J; Franx, M; Carollo, C M; Trenti, M; Holden, B; Smit, R; Gonzalez, V; Magee, D; Stiavelli, M; Stefanon, M

    2015-01-01

    The IRAC ultradeep field (IUDF) and IRAC Legacy over GOODS (IGOODS) programs are two ultradeep imaging surveys at 3.6{\\mu}m and 4.5{\\mu}m with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The primary aim is to directly detect the infrared light of reionization epoch galaxies at z > 7 and to constrain their stellar populations. The observations cover the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), including the two HUDF parallel fields, and the CANDELS/GOODS-South, and are combined with archival data from all previous deep programs into one ultradeep dataset. The resulting imaging reaches unprecedented coverage in IRAC 3.6{\\mu}m and 4.5{\\mu}m ranging from > 50 hour over 150 arcmin^2, > 100 hour over 60 sq arcmin2, to 200 hour over 5 - 10 arcmin$^2$. This paper presents the survey description, data reduction, and public release of reduced mosaics on the same astrometric system as the CANDELS/GOODS-South WFC3 data. To facilitate prior-based WFC3+IRAC photometry, we introduce a new method to create high signal-to-noise PSFs fro...

  3. The GLARE Survey II. Faint z=6 Ly-alpha Line Emitters in the HUDF

    CERN Document Server

    Stanway, Elizabeth R; Glazebrook, Karl; Abraham, Roberto G; Rhoads, James; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Crampton, David; Colless, Matthew; Chiu, Kuenley; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11469.x

    2008-01-01

    The galaxy population at z~6 has been the subject of intense study in recent years, culminating in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) -- the deepest imaging survey yet. A large number of high redshift galaxy candidates have been identified within the HUDF, but until now analysis of their properties has been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining spectroscopic redshifts for these faint galaxies. Our ''Gemini Lyman-Alpha at Reionisation Era'' (GLARE) project has been designed to undertake spectroscopic follow up of faint (z'5.5, and a further nine possible line emitters with detections at lower significance. We also place tight constraints on the equivalent width of Lyman-alpha emission for a further ten i'-drop galaxies and examine the equivalent width distribution of this faint spectroscopic sample of z~6 galaxies. We find that the fraction of galaxies with little or no emission is similar to that at z~3, but that the z~6 population has a tail of sources with high rest frame equivalent widths. Possible expla...

  4. Hubble and Keck team up to find farthest known galaxy in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    most distant source currently known. However, long exposures in the optical and infrared taken with spectrographs on the 10-meter Keck telescopes suggests that the object has a redshift towards the upper end of this range, around redshift 7. Redshift is a measure of how much the wavelengths of light are shifted to longer wavelengths. The greater the shift in wavelength toward the redder regions of the spectrum, the more distant the object is. "The galaxy we have discovered is extremely faint, and verifying its distance has been an extraordinarily challenging adventure," said Dr. Kneib. "Without the 25 x magnification afforded by the foreground cluster, this early object could simply not have been identified or studied in any detail at all with the present telescopes available. Even with aid of the cosmic lens, the discovery has only been possible by pushing our current observatories to the limits of their capabilities!" Using the combination of the high resolution of Hubble and the large magnification of the cosmic lens, the astronomers estimate that this object, although very small - only 2,000 light-years across - is forming stars extremely actively. However, two intriguing properties of the new source are the apparent lack of the typically bright hydrogen emission line and its intense ultraviolet light which is much stronger than that seen in star-forming galaxies closer by. "The properties of this distant source are very exciting because, if verified by further study, they could represent the hallmark of a truly young stellar system that ended the Dark Ages" added Dr. Richard Ellis, Steele Professor of Astronomy at Caltech, and a co-author in the article. The team is encouraged by the success of their technique and plans to continue the search for more examples by looking through other cosmic lenses in the sky. Hubble's exceptional resolution makes it ideally suited for such searches. "Estimating the abundance and characteristic properties of sources at early times

  5. High Redshift Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Hathi, Nimish P

    2008-01-01

    My dissertation presents results from three recent investigations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) focusing on understanding structural and physical properties of high redshift galaxies. Here I summarize results from these studies. This thesis work was conducted at Arizona State University under the guidance of Prof. Rogier Windhorst and Prof. Sangeeta Malhotra.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAC HUDF and GOODS ultradeep surveys (Labbe+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, I.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Carollo, C. M.; Trenti, M.; Holden, B.; Smit, R.; Gonzalez, V.; Magee, D.; Stiavelli, M.; Stefanon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The IRAC ultradeep field and IRAC Legacy over GOODS programs are two ultradeep imaging surveys at 3.6 and 4.5μm with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The primary aim is to directly detect the infrared light of reionization epoch galaxies at z>7 and to constrain their stellar populations. The observations cover the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), including the two HUDF parallel fields, and the CANDELS/GOODS-South, and are combined with archival data from all previous deep programs into one ultradeep data set. The resulting imaging reaches unprecedented coverage in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5μm ranging from >50hr over 150arcmin2, >100hr over 60sq arcmin2, to ~200hr over 5-10arcmin2. This paper presents the survey description, data reduction, and public release of reduced mosaics on the same astrometric system as the CANDELS/GOODS-South Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) data. To facilitate prior-based WFC3+IRAC photometry, we introduce a new method to create high signal-to-noise PSFs from the IRAC data and reconstruct the complex spatial variation due to survey geometry. The PSF maps are included in the release, as are registered maps of subsets of the data to enable reliability and variability studies. Simulations show that the noise in the ultradeep IRAC images decreases approximately as the square root of integration time over the range 20-200hr, well below the classical confusion limit, reaching 1σ point-source sensitivities as faint as 15nJy (28.5 AB) at 3.6μm and 18nJy (28.3 AB) at 4.5μm. The value of such ultradeep IRAC data is illustrated by direct detections of z=7-8 galaxies as faint as HAB=28. (1 data file).

  7. ULTRADEEP IRAC IMAGING OVER THE HUDF AND GOODS-SOUTH: SURVEY DESIGN AND IMAGING DATA RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Stefanon, M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Oesch, P. A. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Illingworth, G. D.; Holden, B.; Magee, D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dokkum, P. G. van [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Carollo, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Trenti, M. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Smit, R. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); González, V. [University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Stiavelli, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The IRAC ultradeep field and IRAC Legacy over GOODS programs are two ultradeep imaging surveys at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The primary aim is to directly detect the infrared light of reionization epoch galaxies at z > 7 and to constrain their stellar populations. The observations cover the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), including the two HUDF parallel fields, and the CANDELS/GOODS-South, and are combined with archival data from all previous deep programs into one ultradeep data set. The resulting imaging reaches unprecedented coverage in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm ranging from >50 hr over 150 arcmin{sup 2}, >100 hr over 60 sq arcmin{sup 2}, to ∼200 hr over 5–10 arcmin{sup 2}. This paper presents the survey description, data reduction, and public release of reduced mosaics on the same astrometric system as the CANDELS/GOODS-South Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) data. To facilitate prior-based WFC3+IRAC photometry, we introduce a new method to create high signal-to-noise PSFs from the IRAC data and reconstruct the complex spatial variation due to survey geometry. The PSF maps are included in the release, as are registered maps of subsets of the data to enable reliability and variability studies. Simulations show that the noise in the ultradeep IRAC images decreases approximately as the square root of integration time over the range 20–200 hr, well below the classical confusion limit, reaching 1σ point-source sensitivities as faint as 15 nJy (28.5 AB) at 3.6 μm and 18 nJy (28.3 AB) at 4.5 μm. The value of such ultradeep IRAC data is illustrated by direct detections of z = 7–8 galaxies as faint as H{sub AB} = 28.

  8. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Beckwith, S V W; Koekemoer, A M; Caldwell, J A R; Ferguson, H C; Hook, R; Lucas, R A; Bergeron, L E; Corbin, M; Jogee, S; Panagia, N; Robberto, M; Royle, P; Somerville, R S; Sosey, M; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Caldwell, John A. R.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Hook, Richard; Lucas, Ray A.; Bergeron, Louis E.; Corbin, Michael; Jogee, Shardha; Panagia, Nino; Robberto, Massimo; Royle, Patricia; Somerville, Rachel S.; Sosey, Megan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), a one million second exposure of an 11 square minute-of-arc region in the southern sky with the Hubble Space Telescope. The exposure time was divided among four filters, F435W (B435), F606W (V606), F775W (i775), and F850LP (z850), to give approximately uniform limiting magnitudes mAB~29 for point sources. The image contains at least 10,000 objects presented here as a catalog. Few if any galaxies at redshifts greater than ~4 resemble present day spiral or elliptical galaxies. Using the Lyman break dropout method, we find 504 B-dropouts, 204 V-dropouts, and 54 i-dropouts. Using these samples that are at different redshifts but derived from the same data, we find no evidence for a change in the characteristic luminosity of galaxies but some evidence for a decrease in their number densities between redshifts of 4 and 7. The ultraviolet luminosity density of these samples is dominated by galaxies fainter than the characteristic luminosity, and the HUDF reveal...

  9. Unveiling the Galaxy Population at 1.3 < z < 4: the HUDF05 NICMOS Parallel Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Sara M.; deMello, Duilia F.; Wiklind, Tomy; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mountain, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Using the Hubble Ultra Deep Field Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (HUDF-NICMOS) UDF05 parallel fields, we cross-matched 301 out of 630 galaxies with the ACS filters V606 and z850, NICMOS filters J110 and H160, and Spitzer IRAC filters at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 , and 8.0 (mu)m. We modeled the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to estimate: photometric redshifts, dust extinction, stellar mass, bolometric luminosity, starburst age and metallicity. To validate the photometric redshifts, comparisons with 16 spectroscopic redshifts give 75% within Delta or approx. 1.3. Based on the robustness of the photometric redshifts, we analyze a subsample of the 301 galaxies at 1.3 BoI) and the star formation rate increase significantly from z approx. 1.5 to 4. The Balmer decrement is indicative of more evolved galaxies, and at high redshifts, they serve as records of some of the first galaxies. Therefore, the galaxies in this sample are great candidates for future surveys with the James Webb Space Telescope and Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

  10. A Deep ALMA Image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Although primarily designed as a high-resolution imaging spectrometer at submillimetre/millimetre wavelengths, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has a vital role to play in producing the key deep, unconfused, submillimetre/millimetre continuum surveys required to bridge the current gap in our understanding of visible and dust-obscured star formation in the young Universe. The first such survey has now been completed, comprising a mosaic of 45 ALMA pointings at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, covering the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). This deep, homogeneous ALMA survey, combined with the wealth of existing data in the HUDF, has already provided new clarity on the nature of dusty star-forming galaxies, and the relative evolution of dust-obscured and unobscured star formation over cosmic time.

  11. A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlop, J S; Biggs, A D; Geach, J E; Michalowski, M J; Ivison, R J; Rujopakarn, W; van Kampen, E; Kirkpatrick, A; Pope, A; Scott, D; Swinbank, A M; Targett, T A; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Best, P N; Bruce, V A; Chapin, E L; Charlot, S; Cirasuolo, M; Coppin, K E K; Ellis, R S; Finkelstein, S L; Hayward, C C; Hughes, D H; Ibar, E; Khochfar, S; Koprowski, M P; Narayanan, D; Papovich, C; Peacock, J A; Robertson, B; Vernstrom, T; van der Werf, P P; Wilson, G W; Yun, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first, deep ALMA imaging covering the full 4.5 sq arcmin of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) as previously imaged with WFC3/IR on HST. Using a mosaic of 45 pointings, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3mm image of the HUDF, achieving an rms sensitivity of 35 microJy, at a resolution of 0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ~50 >3.5sigma peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with flux densities S(1.3) > 120 microJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts ( = 2.15), and 12 are also detected at 6GHz in new deep JVLA imaging. Due to the wealth of supporting data in this unique field, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star-formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-z Universe; indeed at z > 2 our ALMA sample contains 7 of the 9 galaxies in the HUDF with M* > 2 x 10^10 Msun and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, re...

  12. Edwin Hubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    泓傑

    2006-01-01

    Edwin Powell Hubble(1889—1953)was an American astronomer, renowned for his discovery of galaxies beyond the Milky Way and the cosmological Redshift. Hubble was a tall,elegant,athletic man who at age 30 had an

  13. Hubble Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, S.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Initially introduced as a way to demonstrate the expansion of the universe, and subsequently to determine the expansion rate (the HUBBLE CONSTANT H0), the Hubble diagram is one of the classical cosmological tests. It is a plot of apparent fluxes (usually expressed as magnitudes) of some types of objects at cosmological distances, against their REDSHIFTS. It is used as a tool to measure the glob...

  14. VLT/XSHOOTER & Subaru/MOIRCS Spectroscopy of HUDF-YD3: No Evidence for Lyman-alpha Emission at z=8.55

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Andrew J; Wilkins, Stephen M; Stanway, Elizabeth R; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Lacy, Mark; Jarvis, Matt J; Hickey, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations with VLT/XSHOOTER and Subaru/MOIRCS of a relatively bright Y-band drop-out galaxy in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, first selected by Bunker et al. (2010), McLure et al. (2010) and Bouwens et al. (2010) to be a likely z~8-9 galaxy on the basis of its colours in the HST ACS and WFC3 images. This galaxy, HUDF.YD3 (also known as UDFy-38135539) has been targetted for VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy by Lehnert et al. (2010), who published a candidate Lyman-alpha emission line at z=8.55 from this source. In our independent spectroscopy using two different infrared spectrographs (5 hours with VLT/XSHOOTER and 11 hours with Subaru/MOIRCS) we are unable to reproduce this line. We do not detect any emission line at the spectral and spatial location reported in Lehnert et al. (2010), despite the expected signal in our combined MOIRCS & XSHOOTER data being 5-sigma. The line emission also seems to be ruled out by the faintness of this object in recently extremely deep F105W ...

  15. Optical to mid-IR observations of Lyman-alpha galaxies at redshift 5 in the HUDF: a young and low mass population

    CERN Document Server

    Pirzkal, N; Rhoads, J E; Xu, C; Pirzkal, Norbert; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Xu, Chun

    2006-01-01

    High redshift galaxies selected on the basis of their strong Lyman-alpha emission tend to be young in age and small in mass and size. We show this by analyzing spectral Energy distribution of nine Lyman-alpha emitting (LAE) galaxies at redshifts from 4.1 to 5.7 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). Restframe UV to optical (700 to 7500 Angstrom) luminosities (or upper limits) are used to constrain old stellar populations. We derive best fit, as well as maximally massive and maximally old, properties of all nine objects. We show that these objects are all very young, being most likely only a few millions years old, and not massive, the mass in stars being 1e6 to 1e8 solar masses. Deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) observations of these objects, even in cases where objects were not detected, were crucial in constraining the masses of these objects. The space density of these objects, about 1.25e-4 per comoving cubic Mpc, is comparable to previously reported space density of LAEs at moderate to high redsh...

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: z~4-7 Lyman break galaxies in Hubble deep fields (Harikane+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikane, Y.; Ouchi, M.; Ono, Y.; More, S.; Saito, S.; Lin, Y.-T.; Coupon, J.; Shimasaku, K.; Shibuya, T.; Price, P. A.; Lin, L.; Hsieh, B.-C.; Ishigaki, M.; Komiyama, Y.; Silverman, J.; Takata, T.; Tamazawa, H.; Toshikawa, J.

    2016-07-01

    We use 10 deep optical-near-IR imaging data sets of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)-North-Deep, GOODS-North-Wide, GOODS-South-Deep, GOODS-South-Wide, Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS)-All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), CANDELS-Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS), CANDELS-Ultra Deep Survey (UDS), Hubble Frontier Field (HFF)-Abell2744P, and HFF-MACS0416P that are taken with ACS and WFC3 on the HST. The total area of the Hubble data is ~600arcmin2. The typical FWHMs of the PSFs of ACS and WFC3 images are 0.1" and 0.2", respectively. (1 data file).

  17. Hubble, Hubble's law and the expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble's name is associated closely with the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and distances of galaxies. Hubble also did a lot of pioneering work on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at Hubble's law and discuss how it relates with models of the universe. We also give a historical perspective of the discoveries that led to the Hubble's law.

  18. Hubble, Hubble's law and the expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble's name is associated closely with the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and distances of galaxies. Hubble also did a lot of pioneering work on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at Hubble's law and discuss how it relates with models of the universe. We also give a historical perspective of the discoveries that led to the Hubble's law.

  19. Exploring for Galaxies in the First Billion Years with Hubble and Spitzer - Pathfinding for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Garth D.

    2017-01-01

    Hubble has revolutionized the field of distant galaxies through its deep imaging surveys, starting with the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) in 1995. That first deep survey revealed galaxies at redshift z~1-3 that provided insights into the development of the Hubble sequence. Each new HST instrument has explored new regimes, through the peak of star formation at z~2-3, just 2-3 billion years after the Big Bang, to our first datasets at a billion years at z~6, and then earlier to z~11. HST's survey capabilities were enhanced by 40X with ACS, and then similarly with the WFC3/IR, which opened up the first billion years to an unforeseen degree. I will discuss what we have learned from the remarkable HST and Spitzer imaging surveys (HUDF, GOODS, HUDF09/12 and CANDELS), as well as surveys of clusters like the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF). Lensing clusters provide extraordinary opportunities for characterizing the faintest earliest galaxies, but also present extraordinary challenges. Together these surveys have resulted in the measurement of the volume density of galaxies in the first billion years down to astonishingly faint levels. The role of faint galaxies in reionizing the universe is still much-discussed, but there is no doubt that such galaxies contribute greatly to the UV ionizing flux, as shown by deep luminosity function studies. Together Hubble and Spitzer have also established the stellar-mass buildup over 97% of cosmic history. Yet some of the greatest surprises have come from the discovery of very luminous galaxies at z~8-11, around 400-650 million years after the Big Bang. Spectroscopic followup by Keck of some of these very rare, bright galaxies has confirmed redshifts from z~7 to z~9, and revealed, surprisingly, strong Lyα emission near the peak of reionization when the HI fraction in the IGM is high. The recent confirmation of a z=11.1 galaxy, just 400 million years after the Big Bang, by a combination of Hubble and Spitzer data, moved Hubble into JWST territory

  20. The galaxy stellar mass function at 3.5HUDF fields

    CERN Document Server

    Grazian, A; Santini, P; Dunlop, J S; Ferguson, H C; Castellano, M; Amorin, R; Ashby, M L N; Barro, G; Behroozi, P; Boutsia, K; Caputi, K I; Chary, R R; Dekel, A; Dickinson, M A; Faber, S M; Fazio, G G; Finkelstein, S L; Galametz, A; Giallongo, E; Giavalisco, M; Grogin, N A; Guo, Y; Kocevski, D; Koekemoer, A M; Koo, D C; Lee, K -S; Lu, Y; Merlin, E; Mobasher, B; Nonino, M; Papovich, C; Paris, D; Pentericci, L; Reddy, N; Renzini, A; Salmon, B; Salvato, M; Sommariva, V; Song, M; Vanzella, E

    2014-01-01

    The galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high-z provides key information on star-formation history and mass assembly in the young Universe. We aimed to use the unique combination of deep optical/NIR/MIR imaging provided by HST, Spitzer and the VLT in the CANDELS-UDS, GOODS-South, and HUDF fields to determine the GSMF over the redshift range 3.54. These results confirm the unique synergy of the CANDELS+HUDF, HUGS, and SEDS surveys for the discovery and study of moderate/low-mass galaxies at high redshifts.

  1. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2003-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velo...

  2. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2003-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velo...

  3. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  4. Characterizing the evolving K -band luminosity function using the UltraVISTA, CANDELS and HUDF surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortlock, Alice; McLure, Ross J.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; McLeod, Derek J.; Mármol-Queraltó, Esther; Parsa, Shaghayegh; Dunlop, James S.; Bruce, Victoria A.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a new study of the K-band galaxy luminosity function (KLF) at redshifts z ≤ 3.75, based on a nested combination of the UltraVISTA, Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Legacy Extragalactic Survey and HUDF surveys. The large dynamic range in luminosity spanned by this new data set (3-4 dex over the full redshift range) is sufficient to clearly demonstrate for the first time that the faint-end slope of the KLF at z ≥ 0.25 is relatively steep (-1.3 ≤ α ≤ -1.5 for a single Schechter function), in good agreement with recent theoretical and phenomenological models. Moreover, based on our new data set, we find that a double Schechter function provides a significantly improved description of the KLF at z ≤ 2. At redshifts z ≥ 0.25, the evolution of the KLF is remarkably smooth, with little or no evolution evident at faint (MK ≥ -20.5) or bright magnitudes (MK ≤ -24.5). Instead, the KLF is seen to evolve rapidly at intermediate magnitudes, with the number density of galaxies at MK ≃-23 dropping by a factor of ≃5 over the redshift interval 0.25 ≤ z ≤ 3.75. Motivated by this, we explore a simple description of the evolving KLF based on a double Schechter function with fixed faint-end slopes (α1 = -0.5, α2 = -1.5) and a shared characteristic magnitude (MK^{star }). According to this parametrization, the normalization of the component which dominates the faint end of the KLF remains approximately constant, with φ ^{star }2 decreasing by only a factor of ≃2 between z ≃0 and 3.25. In contrast, the component which dominates the bright end of the KLF at low redshifts evolves dramatically, becoming essentially negligible by z ≃3. Finally, we note that within this parametrization, the observed evolution of MK^{star } between z ≃0 and 3.25 is entirely consistent with MK^{star } corresponding to a constant stellar mass of M⋆ ≃5 × 1010 M⊙ at all redshifts.

  5. Hubble Deep Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, H.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Deep Fields are two small areas of the sky that were carefully selected for deep observations by the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST). They represent the deepest optical observations to date and reveal galaxies as faint as V=30, 4 billion times fainter than can be seen with the unaided eye....

  6. Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and even the general public. The origins of three of the most well-known discoveries are examined: The distances to nearby spiral nebulae, the classification of extragalactic-nebulae and the Hubble constant. In the case of the first two a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place, but little credit was given. The Hubble Constant had already been estimated in 1927 by Georges Lemaitre with roughly the same value that Hubble obtained in 1929 using redshifts provided mostly by Vesto M. Slipher. These earlier estimates were not adopted or were forgotten by the astronomical community for complex scientific, sociological and psychological reasons.

  7. The Hubble effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

  8. Real or Interloper? The Redshift Likelihoods of Galaxies in the HUDF12

    CERN Document Server

    Pirzkal, Nor; Ryan, Russell; Coe, Dan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Noeske, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of spectra, fitting template model spectra to observed photometric fluxes, known as Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) fitting, has become the workhorse for identifying high-z galaxies. In this paper, we present an analysis of the most recent and possibly most distant galaxies discovered in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using a more robust method of redshift estimation based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo fitting (MCMC), rather than relying on the redshift of "best fit" models obtained using common chi^2 minimization techniques. The advantage of MCMC fitting is the ability to accurately estimate the probability density function of the redshift, as well as any other input model parameters, allowing us to derive accurate credible intervals by properly marginalizing over all other input model parameters. We apply our method to 13 recently identified sources and show that, despite claims based on chi^2 minimization, none of these sources can be securely ruled out as low redshift interlopers given the lo...

  9. Hubble's Nobel Prize

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, D S L

    2001-01-01

    Astronomy is not in the list of natural sciences aimed at by the Nobel awards. In spite of that, there were, throughout the 1930s until the early 1950s, effective moves by important scientists to distinguish Hubble with the Prize. A short report on these attempts is made as well as speculation on what would be the citation for the prize in view of the broad range of Hubble's scientific achievements. Within this context, the opportunity is also taken for publicizing the Crafoord Prize which does consider astronomy.

  10. Did Edwin Hubble plagiarize?

    CERN Document Server

    Shaviv, Giora

    2011-01-01

    Recently Block published an astro-ph [arXiv:1106.3928 (2011)] insinuating that Hubble censored a prior publication of his famous and seminal discovery of the expansion of the universe. This issue was investigated by us in detail as part of the book: The Quest for Chemical Element Genesis and What the Chemical Elements Tell about the Universe (Accepted for publication, Springer Pub. Heidelberg, 2011.) Since the book is due in few months, we extract here the relevant parts. Our summary: We exonerate Hubble from the charge that he censored or ignored or plagiarized Lemaitre's earlier theoretical discovery.

  11. Hubble 15 years of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Kornmesser, M

    2006-01-01

    Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery was a key element of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration activities for the 1990 launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. As an observatory in space, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time, both in terms of scientific output and its immediate public appeal.

  12. Delivering Hubble Discoveries to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Villard, R.; Weaver, D.; Cordes, K.; Knisely, L.

    2013-04-01

    Today's classrooms are significantly influenced by current news events, delivered instantly into the classroom via the Internet. Educators are challenged daily to transform these events into student learning opportunities. In the case of space science, current news events may be the only chance for educators and students to explore the marvels of the Universe. Inspired by these circumstances, the education and news teams developed the Star Witness News science content reading series. These online news stories (also available in downloadable PDF format) mirror the content of Hubble press releases and are designed for upper elementary and middle school level readers to enjoy. Educators can use Star Witness News stories to reinforce students' reading skills while exposing students to the latest Hubble discoveries.

  13. The Hubble Exoplanet Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura; Carson, J.; Ruwadi, D.; Low, K.; Jordan, S.; Schneider, G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a status report on the Hubble Exoplanet Classroom, an interactive website designed to engage 8-12th grade students in physical science concepts using the exciting field of exoplanet studies. Addressing national teaching standards, the webpage allows educators to enhance their physical science, physics, and astronomy curriculum with student-driven lessons. The webpage records students' performance on lessons and quizzes and compiles the results, which can be accessed by the instructor using a secure website.

  14. Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?

    CERN Document Server

    Way, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

  15. Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

  16. The Hubble Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Neal

    2015-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H0 values of around 72-74 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), with typical errors of 2-3 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) and typical errors of 1-2 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  17. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Jackson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  18. The Carnegie Hubble Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Vicky; Mnso, Andy; Persson, S. E.; Rigby, Jane; Sturch, Laura; Stetson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of 2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 micron data using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include JWST in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 microns is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 microns, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 micron observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of the Hubble constant including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We are undertaking three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, which when combined will allow a robust constraint on the effect. Finally, we are providing a new mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  20. The Carnegie Hubble Program

    CERN Document Server

    Freedman, Wendy L; Scowcroft, Vicky; Monson, Andy; Persson, S E; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane; Sturch, Laura; Stetson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of 2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 micron data using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include JWST in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 microns is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 microns, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 micron observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of the Hubble constant including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We are undertaking three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, whi...

  1. A Unique test for Hubble's new Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    In mid-October, a team from the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA will perform a difficult, never-before-done test on one of the Hubble Space Telescope's new solar array panels. Two of these panels, or arrays, will be installed by astronauts in November 2001, when the Space Shuttle Columbia visits Hubble on a routine service mission. The test will ensure that the new arrays are solid and vibration free before they are installed on orbit. The test will be conducted at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Because of the array's size, the facility's special features, and ESA's longstanding experience with Hubble's solar arrays, ESTEC is the only place in the world the test can be performed. This test is the latest chapter in a longstanding partnership between ESA and NASA on the Hubble Space Telescope. The Large Space Simulator at ESTEC, ESA's world-class test facility, features a huge vacuum chamber containing a bank of extremely bright lights that simulate the Sun's intensity - including sunrise and sunset. By exposing the solar wing to the light and temperature extremes of Hubble's orbit, engineers can verify how the new set of arrays will act in space. Hubble orbits the Earth once every 90 minutes. During each orbit, the telescope experiences 45 minutes of searing sunlight and 45 minutes of frigid darkness. This test will detect any tiny vibrations, or jitters, caused by these dramatic, repeated changes. Even a small amount of jitter can affect Hubble's sensitive instruments and interfere with observations. Hubble's first set of solar arrays experienced mild jitter and was replaced in 1993 with a much more stable pair. Since that time, advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of even more efficient arrays. In 2001, NASA will take advantage of these improvements, by fitting Hubble with a third-generation set of arrays. Though smaller, this new set generates more power than the previous

  2. Cosmology: From Hubble to HST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1997-03-01

    The Hubble constant sets the size and age of the Universe, and, together with independent determinations of the age, provides a consistency check of the standard cosmology. The Hubble constant also provides an important test of our most attractive paradigm for extending the standard cosmology, inflation and cold dark matter.

  3. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Neal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. In the last 20 years, much progress has been made and estimates now range between 60 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, with most now between 70 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, a huge improvement over the factor-of-2 uncertainty which used to prevail. Further improvements which gave a generally agreed margin of error of a few percent rather than the current 10% would be vital input to much other interesting cosmology. There are several programmes which are likely to lead us to this point in the next 10 years.

  4. THE UV CONTINUUM OF z > 1 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE ULTRAVIOLET ULTRADEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rafelski, Marc [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Acquaviva, Viviana [New York City College of Technology, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); De Mello, Duilia F. [Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Siana, Brian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We estimate the UV continuum slope, β, for 923 galaxies in the range 1 < z < 8 in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF). These data include 460 galaxies at 1 < z < 2 down to an absolute magnitude M{sub UV}=−14(∼0.006 L{sub z=1}{sup ∗};0.02 L{sub z=0}{sup ∗}), comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We combine deep HST/UVIS photometry in F225W, F275W, F336W wavebands (UVUDF) with recent data from HST/WFC3/IR (HUDF12). Galaxies in the range 1 < z < 2 are significantly bluer than local dwarf galaxies. We find their mean (median) values <β > = – 1.382(– 1.830) ± 0.002 (random) ± 0.1 (systematic). We find comparable scatter in β (standard deviation = 0.43) to local dwarf galaxies and 30% larger scatter than z > 2 galaxies. We study the trends of β with redshift and absolute magnitude for binned sub-samples and find a modest color-magnitude relation, dβ/dM = –0.11 ± 0.01, and no evolution in dβ/dM with redshift. A modest increase in dust reddening with redshift and luminosity, ΔE(B – V) ∼ 0.1, and a comparable increase in the dispersion of dust reddening at z < 2, appears likely to explain the observed trends. At z > 2, we find trends that are consistent with previous works; combining our data with the literature in the range 1 < z < 8, we find a color evolution with redshift, dβ/dz = –0.09 ± 0.01 for low luminosity (0.05 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}), and dβ/dz = –0.06 ± 0.01 for medium luminosity (0.25 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}) galaxies.

  5. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  6. Planck Scale to Hubble Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    1998-01-01

    Within the context of the usual semi classical investigation of Planck scale Schwarzchild Black Holes, as in Quantum Gravity, and later attempts at a full Quantum Mechanical description in terms of a Kerr-Newman metric including the spinorial behaviour, we attempt to present a formulation that extends from the Planck scale to the Hubble scale. In the process the so called large number coincidences as also the hitherto inexplicable relations between the pion mass and the Hubble Constant, pointed out by Weinberg, turn out to be natural consequences in a consistent description.

  7. HUBBLE VIEWS ANCIENT STORM IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF JUPITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph. The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself. The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color, sometimes dramatically. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 and 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The mosaic presents a series of pictures of the Red Spot obtained by Hubble between 1992 and 1999. Astronomers study weather phenomena on other planets in order to gain a greater understanding of our own Earth's climate. Lacking a solid surface, Jupiter provides us with a laboratory experiment for observing weather phenomena under very different conditions than those prevailing on Earth. This knowledge can also be applied to places in the Earth's atmosphere that are over deep oceans, making them more similar to Jupiter's deep atmosphere. The Hubble images were originally collected by Amy Simon (Cornell U.), Reta Beebe (NMSU), Heidi Hammel (Space Science Institute, MIT), and their collaborators, and have been

  8. UV Luminosity Functions at z~4, 5, and 6 from the HUDF and other Deep HST ACS Fields: Evolution and Star Formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwens, Rychard J; Franx, Marijn; Ford, Holland

    2007-01-01

    We use the ACS BViz data from the HUDF and all other deep HST ACS fields (including the wide-area GOODS fields) to find large samples of star-forming galaxies at z~4 and z~5 and to extend our previous z~6 sample. These samples contain 4671, 1416, and 627 B, V, and i dropouts, respectively, and reach to extremely low luminosities (0.01-0.04 L* or M(UV)~-16 to -17), allowing us to determine the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF) and faint-end slope alpha at z~4-6 to high accuracy. We find faint-end slopes alpha of -1.73+/-0.05 at z~4, -1.66+/-0.09 at z~5, and -1.74+/-0.16 at z~6 -- suggesting that the faint-end slope is very steep and shows little evolution with cosmic time. We find that M*(UV) brightens considerably in the 0.7 Gyr from z~6 to z~4 (by ~0.7 mag from M*=-20.24+/-0.19 to M*=-20.98+/-0.10). The observed increase in the characteristic luminosity over this range is almost identical to that expected for the halo mass function -- suggesting that the observed evolution is likely due to the hierarchi...

  9. The age of the universe, the Hubble constant, the accelerated expansion and the Hubble effect

    OpenAIRE

    Soares,Domingos

    2009-01-01

    The idea of an accelerating universe comes almost simultaneously with the determination of Hubble's constant by one of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Projects. The age of the universe dilemma is probably the link between these two issues. In an appendix, I claim that "Hubble's law" might yet to be investigated for its ultimate cause, and suggest the "Hubble effect" as the searched candidate.

  10. The age of the universe, the Hubble constant, the accelerated expansion and the Hubble effect

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Domingos

    2009-01-01

    The idea of an accelerating universe comes almost simultaneously with the determination of Hubble's constant by one of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Projects. The age of the universe dilemma is probably the link between these two issues. In an appendix, I claim that "Hubble's law" might yet to be investigated for its ultimate cause, and suggest the "Hubble effect" as the searched candidate.

  11. The 1% concordance Hubble constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L. [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hinshaw, G., E-mail: cbennett@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-10-20

    The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. A precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H {sub 0}/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.

  12. Hubble Law: Measure and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturel, Georges; Teerikorpi, Pekka; Baryshev, Yurij

    2017-09-01

    We have had the chance to live through a fascinating revolution in measuring the fundamental empirical cosmological Hubble law. The key progress is analysed: (1) improvement of observational means (ground-based radio and optical observations, space missions); (2) understanding of the biases that affect both distant and local determinations of the Hubble constant; (3) new theoretical and observational results. These circumstances encourage us to take a critical look at some facts and ideas related to the cosmological red-shift. This is important because we are probably on the eve of a new understanding of our Universe, heralded by the need to interpret some cosmological key observations in terms of unknown processes and substances.

  13. Hubble multi-scalar inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Abedi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Multiple field models of inflation exhibit new features than single field models. In this work, we study the hierarchy of parameters based on Hubble expansion rate in curved field space and derive the system of flow equations that describe their evolution. Then we focus on obtaining derivatives of number of $e$-folds with respect to scalar fields during inflation and at hypersurface of the end of inflation.

  14. The Hubble Catalog of Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K.; Bonanos, A.; Gavras, P.; Yang, M.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Moretti, M. I.; Karampelas, A.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Spetsieri, Z.; Pouliasis, E.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Charmandaris, V.; Tsinganos, K.; Laskaris, N.; Kakaletris, G.; Nota, A.; Lennon, D.; Arviset, C.; Whitmore, B.; Budavari, T.; Downes, R.; Lubow, S.; Rest, A.; Strolger, L.; White, R.

    2017-09-01

    We aim to construct an exceptionally deep (V ≲ 27) catalog of variable objects in selected Galactic and extragalactic fields visited multiple times by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). While HST observations of some of these fields were searched for specific types of variables before (most notably, the extragalactic Cepheids), we attempt a systematic study of the population of variable objects of all types at the magnitude range not easily accessible with ground-based telescopes. The variability timescales that can be probed range from hours to years depending on how often a particular field has been visited. For source extraction and cross-matching of sources between visits we rely on the Hubble Source Catalog which includes 107 objects detected with WFPC2, ACS, and WFC3 HST instruments. The lightcurves extracted from the HSC are corrected for systematic effects by applying local zero-point corrections and are screened for bad measurements. For each lightcurve we compute variability indices sensitive to a broad range of variability types. The indices characterize the overall lightcurve scatter and smoothness. Candidate variables are selected as having variability index values significantly higher than expected for objects of similar brightness in the given set of observations. The Hubble Catalog of Variables will be released in 2018.

  15. The Hubble Catalog of Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolovsky K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to construct an exceptionally deep (V ≲ 27 catalog of variable objects in selected Galactic and extragalactic fields visited multiple times by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST. While HST observations of some of these fields were searched for specific types of variables before (most notably, the extragalactic Cepheids, we attempt a systematic study of the population of variable objects of all types at the magnitude range not easily accessible with ground-based telescopes. The variability timescales that can be probed range from hours to years depending on how often a particular field has been visited. For source extraction and cross-matching of sources between visits we rely on the Hubble Source Catalog which includes 107 objects detected with WFPC2, ACS, and WFC3 HST instruments. The lightcurves extracted from the HSC are corrected for systematic effects by applying local zero-point corrections and are screened for bad measurements. For each lightcurve we compute variability indices sensitive to a broad range of variability types. The indices characterize the overall lightcurve scatter and smoothness. Candidate variables are selected as having variability index values significantly higher than expected for objects of similar brightness in the given set of observations. The Hubble Catalog of Variables will be released in 2018.

  16. The Hubble-Depth Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbom Park

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante una simulaci n de N cuerpos de un modelo ACDM hemos desarrollado una b squeda de galaxias ficticias hasta la profundidad del Hubble. Para encontrar las galaxias en la distribuci on de part culas, identificamos los halos estables y autoligados mediante un m todo de b squeda de halos en el espacio real y en el cono de luz. Suponemos que cada halo contiene solamente una galaxia con un brillo monot nicamente proporcional a la masa del halo, para as ajustar la funci n de masa con la funci n de luminosidad gal actica obtenida en el Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS. Despu s de aplicar la correcciones K, y de evoluci n a las luminosidades observadas de las galaxias ficticias, hicimos estudios del corrimiento al rojo bajo varias restricciones observacionales. En particular, proponemos un nuevo estudio de corrimientos al rojo, llamado el Hubble Depth Survey, el cual est limitado hasta la magnitud r = 22 y alcanza la distancia de Hubble dH = 3000 h -1 Mpe

  17. Mothers of Invention: Hubble Engineers Push Robotic 'Evolution' to Save Telescope, Enable New Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Robotic technology being developed out of necessity to keep the Hubble Space Telescope operating could also lead to new levels of man-machine team-work in deep-space exploration down the road-if it survives the near-term scramble for funding. Engineers here who have devoted their NASA careers to the concept of humans servicing the telescope in orbit are planning modifications to International Space Station (ISS) robots that would leave the humans on the ground. The work. forced by post-Columbia flight rules that killed a planned shuttle-servicing mission to Hubble, marks another step in the evolution of robot-partners for human space explorers. "Hubble has always been a pathfider for this agency," says Mike Weiss. Hubble deputy program manager technical. "When the space station was flown and assembled, Hubble was the pathfinder. not just for modularity, but for operations, for assembly techniques. Exploration is the next step. Things we're going to do on Hubble are going to be applied to exploration. It's not just putting a robot in space. It's operating a robot in space. It's adapting that robot to what needs to be done the next time you're up there."

  18. HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Cloud, because its chemical composition is different from that of the Milky Way. All of the chemical elements, other than hydrogen and helium, have only about one-tenth the abundances seen in our own galaxy. The study of N81 thus provides an excellent template for studying the star formation that occurred long ago in very distant galaxies, before nuclear reactions inside stars had synthesized the elements heavier than helium. The Small Magellanic Cloud, named after the explorer Ferdinand Magellan, lies 200,000 light-years away, and is visible only from the Earth's southern hemisphere. N 81 is the 81st nebula cataloged in a survey of the SMC carried out in the 1950's by astronomer Karl Henize, who later became an astronomer-astronaut who flew into space aboard NASA's space shuttle. The Hubble Heritage image of N 81 is a color representation of data taken in September, 1997, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Color filters were used to sample light emitted by oxygen ([O III]) and hydrogen (H-alpha, H-beta). N 81 is the target of investigations by European astronomers Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri from the Paris Observatory in France; Michael Rosa from the Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility in Munich, Germany; Hans Zinnecker of the Astrophysical Institute in Potsdam, Germany; Lise Deharveng of Marseille Observatory, France; and Vassilis Charmadaris of Cornell University, USA (formerly at Paris Observatory). Members of this team are interested in understanding the formation of hot, massive stars, especially under conditions different from those in the Milky Way. Image Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgement: Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France) EDITOR'S

  19. Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

  20. Friedmann equation and Hubble condition

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgaertel, Hellmut

    2014-01-01

    The note presents results on the solutions of the Friedmann equation, which satisfy the Hubble condition, where the radiation term is taken into account. For these solutions the equation $\\sigma=\\sigma_{cr}$, where $\\sigma$ is the radiation invariant of the Friedmann equation and $\\sigma_{cr}$ the "critical radiation parameter", introduced in [5], is an analytic relation between the matter density and the radiation density at the present time and the cosmological constant which can be represented by two function branches, expressing the cosmological constant as unique functions of the matter and radiation density. These functions are the "frontier lines" between regions of constant type.

  1. Modified Hubble law, the time-varying Hubble parameter and the problem of dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian-Miin

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the solvable model of cosmology constructed in the Earth-related coordinate system, we derive the modified Hubble law. This law carries the slowly time-varying Hubble parameter. The modified Hubble law eliminates the need for dark energy.

  2. Modified Hubble law, the time-varying Hubble parameter and the problem of dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian-Miin

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the solvable model of cosmology constructed in the Earth-related coordinate system, we derive the modified Hubble law. This law carries the slowly time-varying Hubble parameter. The modified Hubble law eliminates the need for dark energy.

  3. Hubble 2008: Science Year in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Hubbles remarkable mission has now spanned 18 years. During that time, it has been at the nexus of perhaps the most exciting period of discovery in the history of astronomy. Simultaneously, Hubble has offered up some of the most daunting engineering challenges to humans working in space, and success in meeting those challenges has been among NASAs greatest triumphs.

  4. Management Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Belbin, R Meredith Meredith

    2012-01-01

    Meredith Belbin's work on teams has become part of everyday language in organizations all over the world. All kinds of teams and team behaviours are covered. At the end of the book is a self-perception inventory so that readers can match their own personalities to particular team roles. Management Teams is required reading for managers concerned with achieving results by getting the best from their key personnel.

  5. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani Pohan; Djamaludin Ancok

    2015-01-01

    This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...

  6. Hubble Frontier Fields First Complete Cluster Data: Faint Galaxies at $z\\sim 5-10$ for UV Luminosity Functions and Cosmic Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Oguri, Masamune; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ono, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    We present the comprehensive analyses of faint dropout galaxies up to $z\\sim 10$ with the first full-depth data set of Abell 2744 lensing cluster and parallel fields completed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program in July 2014. We identify $54$ dropouts at $z \\sim 5-10$ in the HFF fields, and strikingly enlarge the size of $z\\sim 9$ galaxy sample obtained to date. Although the number of highly magnified ($\\mu \\sim 10$) galaxies is small due to the tiny survey volume of strong lensing, our study reaches the galaxies' intrinsic luminosities comparable to the deepest-field HUDF studies. We derive UV luminosity functions with these faint dropouts, carefully evaluating the combination of observational incompleteness and lensing effects in the image plane by intensive simulations including magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images, with the evaluations of mass model dependences. Our results confirm that the faint-end slope, $\\alpha$, is as steep as $-2$ at $z \\sim 6-8$, and significantly strengt...

  7. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N Z; Blain, A W; Calzetti, D; Comastri, A; Capak, P; Carilli, C; Carlstrom, J E; Carollo, C M; Colbert, J; Daddi, E; Ellis, Richard S; Elvis, M; Ewald, S P; Fall, M; Franceschini, A; Giavalisco, M; Green, W; Griffiths, R E; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Kneib, J P; Koda, J; Koekemoer, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S; Liu, C T; McCracken, H J; Massey, R; Mellier, Y; Miyazaki, S; Mobasher, B; Mould, J; Norman, C; Réfrégier, A; Renzini, A; Rhodes, J; Rich, M; Sanders, D B; Schiminovich, D; Schinnerer, E; Scodeggio, M; Sheth, K; Shopbell, P L; Taniguchi, Y; Tyson, N; Urry, C M; Van Waerbeke, L; Vettolani, P; White, S D M; Yan, L

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) was initiated with an extensive allocation (590 orbits in Cycles 12-13) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for high resolution imaging. Here we review the characteristics of the HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and parallel observations with NICMOS and WFPC2. A square field (1.8$\\sq$\\deg) has been imaged with single-orbit ACS I-F814W exposures with 50% completeness for sources 0.5\\arcsec in diameter at I$_{AB} $ = 26.0 mag. The ACS imaging is a key part of the COSMOS survey, providing very high sensitivity and high resolution (0.09\\arcsec FWHM, 0.05\\arcsec pixels) imaging and detecting a million objects. These images yield resolved morphologies for several hundred thousand galaxies. The small HST PSF also provides greatly enhanced sensitivity for weak lensing investigations of the dark matter distribution.

  8. The Hubble Sphere Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, J B; Pen, U L; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Bandura, Kevin; Pen, Ue Li

    2006-01-01

    An all sky redshift survey, using hydrogen 21 cm emission to locate galaxies, can be used to track the wavelength of baryon acoustic oscillations imprints from z ~ 1.5 to z = 0. This will allow precise determination of the evolution of dark energy. A telescope made of fixed parabolic cylindrical reflectors offers substantial benefit for such a redshift survey. Fixed cylinders can be built for low cost, and long cylinders also allow low cost fast fourier transform techniques to be used to define thousands of simultaneous beams. A survey made with fixed reflectors naturally covers all of the sky available from it's site with good uniformity, minimizing sample variance in the measurement of the acoustic peak wavelength. Such a survey will produce about a billion redshifts, nearly a thousand times the number available today. The survey will provide a three dimensional mapping of a substantial fraction of the Hubble Sphere.

  9. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Van Der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gordon, K. D.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Doradus) in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most famous objects in astronomy, with first astronomical references being more than 150 years old. Today the Tarantula Nebula and its ionizing cluster R136 are considered one of the few known starburst regions in the Local Group and an ideal test bed to investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of a prototypical starburst on a sub-cluster scale. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is a panchromatic imaging survey of the stellar populations and ionized gas in the Tarantula Nebula that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (eBook that explains how stars form and evolve using images from HTTP. The eBook utilizes emerging technology that works in conjunction with the built-in accessibility features in the Apple iPad to allow totally blind users to interactively explore complex astronomical images.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  11. Hubble Gallery of Jupiter's Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This is a Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of the four largest moons of Jupiter, first observed by the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei nearly four centuries ago. Located approximately one-half billion miles away, the moons are so small that, in visible light, they appear as fuzzy disks in the largest ground-based telescopes. Hubble can resolve surface details seen previously only by the Voyager spacecraft in the early 1980s. While the Voyagers provided close-up snapshots of the satellites, Hubble can now follow changes on the moons and reveal other characteristics at ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths.Over the past year Hubble has charted new volcanic activity on Io's active surface, found a faint oxygen atmosphere on the moon Europa, and identified ozone on the surface of Ganymede. Hubble ultraviolet observations of Callisto show the presence of fresh ice on the surface that may indicate impacts from micrometeorites and charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere.Hubble observations will play a complementary role when the Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter in December of this year.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  12. Teaming up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    Questions we care about (Objectives): When students have to work on challenging tasks, as it is often the case in entrepreneurship classrooms that leverage experiential learning, team success becomes central to the students learning. Yet, the formation of teams is often left up to the students...... or pre-arranged at random. Therefore we investigate the importance of team formation in the entrepreneurial classroom and ask: (i) What are the underlying factors that influence outcomes of teamwork in student groups? (ii) How does team formation influence student perception of learning?, and (iii) Do...... functioning entrepreneurial student teams as most teams lack personal chemistry which makes them anchor their work too much in a pre-defined project. In contrast, we find that students that can form their own teams aim for less diverse teams than what is achieved by random assignment. However, the homophily...

  13. Hubble expansion is not a velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we clarify the difference between the Hubble expansion and the Doppler shift pedagogically and illustrate both physically and mathematically why the Hubble expansion cannot be regarded as a velocity. Therefore, we suggest to replace the misleading word ‘recession velocity’ to be ‘Hubble recession’ to describe the cosmic expansion. We further derive how the peculiar velocity of a galaxy is related to its observed redshift and proper distance, which has practical use in the galaxy redshift and distance surveys.

  14. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosenfield, Philip; Weisz, Daniel R.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Gogarten, Stephanie M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lang, Dustin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lauer, Tod R.; Dong Hui [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kalirai, Jason S.; Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dorman, Claire E.; Guhathakurta, Puragra [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2012-06-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury program to image {approx}1/3 of M31's star-forming disk in six filters, spanning from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR). We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to resolve the galaxy into millions of individual stars with projected radii from 0 to 20 kpc. The full survey will cover a contiguous 0.5 deg{sup 2}area in 828 orbits. Imaging is being obtained in the F275W and F336W filters on the WFC3/UVIS camera, F475W and F814W on ACS/WFC, and F110W and F160W on WFC3/IR. The resulting wavelength coverage gives excellent constraints on stellar temperature, bolometric luminosity, and extinction for most spectral types. The data produce photometry with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4 at m{sub F275W} = 25.1, m{sub F336W} = 24.9, m{sub F475W} = 27.9, m{sub F814W} = 27.1, m{sub F110W} = 25.5, and m{sub F160W} = 24.6 for single pointings in the uncrowded outer disk; in the inner disk, however, the optical and NIR data are crowding limited, and the deepest reliable magnitudes are up to 5 mag brighter. Observations are carried out in two orbits per pointing, split between WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR cameras in primary mode, with ACS/WFC run in parallel. All pointings are dithered to produce Nyquist-sampled images in F475W, F814W, and F160W. We describe the observing strategy, photometry, astrometry, and data products available for the survey, along with extensive testing of photometric stability, crowding errors, spatially dependent photometric biases, and telescope pointing control. We also report on initial fits to the structure of M31's disk, derived from the density of red giant branch stars, in a way that is independent of assumed mass-to-light ratios and is robust to variations in dust extinction. These fits also show that the 10 kpc ring is not just a region of enhanced recent star formation, but is instead a dynamical

  15. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury

    CERN Document Server

    Dalcanton, J J; Lang, D; Lauer, T R; Kalirai, J S; Seth, A C; Dolphin, A; Rosenfield, P; Weisz, D R; Bell, E F; Bianchi, L C; Boyer, M L; Caldwell, N; Dong, H; Dorman, C E; Gilbert, K M; Girardi, L; Gogarten, S M; Gordon, K D; Guhathakurta, P; Hodge, P W; Holtzman, J A; Johnson, L; Larsen, S S; Lewis, A; Melbourne, J L; Olsen, K A G; Rix, H -W; Rosema, K; Saha, A; Sarajedini, A; Skillman, E D; Stanek, K Z

    2012-01-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) is an on-going HST Multicycle Treasury program to image ~1/3 of M31's star forming disk in 6 filters, from the UV to the NIR. The full survey will resolve the galaxy into more than 100 million stars with projected radii from 0-20 kpc over a contiguous 0.5 square degree area in 828 orbits, producing imaging in the F275W and F336W filters with WFC3/UVIS, F475W and F814W with ACS/WFC, and F110W and F160W with WFC3/IR. The resulting wavelength coverage gives excellent constraints on stellar temperature, bolometric luminosity, and extinction for most spectral types. The photometry reaches SNR=4 at F275W=25.1, F336W=24.9, F475W=27.9, F814W=27.1, F110W=25.5, and F160W=24.6 for single pointings in the uncrowded outer disk; however, the optical and NIR data are crowding limited, and the deepest reliable magnitudes are up to 5 magnitudes brighter in the inner bulge. All pointings are dithered and produce Nyquist-sampled images in F475W, F814W, and F160W. We describe the...

  16. Hubble Views Ancient Storm in the Atmosphere of Jupiter - Montage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph.The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself.The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color, sometimes dramatically. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 & 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The mosaic presents a series of pictures of the Red Spot obtained by Hubble between 1992 and 1999 (see PIA01594 thru PIA01599 and PIA02400 thru PIA02402 for individual images).Astronomers study weather phenomena on other planets in order to gain a greater understanding of our own Earth's climate. Lacking a solid surface, Jupiter provides us with a laboratory experiment for observing weather phenomena under very different conditions than those prevailing on Earth. This knowledge can also be applied to places in the Earth's atmosphere that are over deep oceans, making them more similar to Jupiter's deep atmosphere.

  17. New Explanation of Hubble's Red Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong

    2016-03-01

    The balance system between dark massenergy (with a spacetime center) and stellar massenergy (with a massenergy center) cause a flat universe. In the flat universe, the Hubble 's redshift is caused by the Lorentz transformation (Einstein transformation). This paper will discuss about the relationship among Einstein transformation, Doppler effect, and Hubble 's redshift under the balanced and flat universe model. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2014.APR.Y9.1

  18. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  19. The Hubble Space Telescope Education and Public Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teays, T. J.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, J.; Amazing Space Team

    2001-05-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has conducted a long-standing and vigorous program in education and public outreach. This program uses a variety of methods to reach a broad spectrum of audiences. Education products are developed in a team environment that partners educators, curriculum experts, scientists, and production experts, such as graphic artists, Web designers, programmers, and education evaluators. A popular Web site is maintained, and has been substantially augmented in the past year. The Amazing Space program consists of a suite of online, interactive modules for use in the kindergarten through 12th grade classroom. The program is rooted in the national education standards and benefits from a robust evaluation process. The HST images and data are used to engage students in learning basic science and mathematics concepts. The activity/lessons include extensive, online assistance for educators, so that they can be readily used in the classroom. Hardcopy products such as posters, lithographs, teacher guides, and trading cards are generally tied to online products, to provide multiple entries to the material. We also provide training for teachers in the use of our products, as appropriate. Informal science education is supported by providing services to museums, planetariums, libraries and related institutions. The very popular ViewSpace, a computer-based video service is being used by many informal science facilities. In addition, HST has supported the creation of both permanent and traveling exhibits about HST. The Space Telescope Science Institute operates the Hubble Space Telescope for NASA.

  20. Team cohesiveness, team size and team performance in team-based learning teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Haidet, Paul; Borges, Nicole J; Carchedi, Lisa R; Roman, Brenda J B; Townsend, Mark H; Butler, Agata P; Swanson, David B; Anderson, Michael P; Levine, Ruth E

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among variables associated with teams in team-based learning (TBL) settings and team outcomes. We administered the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Psychiatry Subject Test first to individuals and then to teams of Year three students at four medical schools that used TBL in their psychiatry core clerkships. Team cohesion was analysed using the Team Performance Scale (TPS). Bivariate correlation and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the relationships among team-level variables (mean individual TPS scores for each team, mean individual NBME scores of teams, team size, rotation and gender make-up) and team NBME test scores. A hierarchical linear model was used to test the effects of individual TPS and individual NBME test scores within each team, as well as the effects of the team-level variables of team size, team rotation and gender on team NBME test scores. Individual NBME test and TPS scores were nested within teams and treated as subsampling units. Individual NBME test scores and individual TPS scores were positively and statistically significantly (p team NBME test scores, when team rotation, team size and gender make-up were controlled for. Higher team NBME test scores were associated with teams rotating later in the year and larger teams (p teams at four medical schools suggest that larger teams on later rotations score higher on a team NBME test. Individual NBME test scores and team cohesion were positively and significantly associated with team NBME test scores. These results suggest the need for additional studies focusing on team outcomes, team cohesion, team size, rotation and other factors as they relate to the effective and efficient performance of TBL teams in health science education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Team Learning Ditinjau dari Team Diversity dan Team Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani Pohan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total of the respondents were 70. Collected data were examined by using multiple regression analysis. Based on the hypothesis, it can be concluded that the team diversity and team efficacy can be used as indicators to predict the arousal of team learning level in teams (fcount = 5.924; p=0.004 or p < 0.05 and the value of adjusted r square = 0.125. Moreover, the result demonstrated that team diversity made a significant contribution to team learning level (r = 0.105; p < 0.05 while on the other hand, team efficacy did not affect team learning significantly. The equation of the regression line for team learning on team diversity and team efficacy was team learning = 30.362 + (0.377 team diversity + (0.187 team efficacy. Suggested areas for future research were to confirm this research model using the team level analysis, to thoroughly determine the type of teams and to do research in the self‐managed team‐based organizations.

  2. The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Borncamp, David; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Martlin, Catherine; Porterfield, Blair; Sunnquist, Ben; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Grogin, Norman A.; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Ogaz, Sara; Robberto, Massimo; Sembach, Kenneth; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt

    2017-08-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The entire program has now completed successfully for all 6 clusters, namely Abell 2744, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223,. Each of these was observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, obtaining images in ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W) on both the main cluster and the parallel field in all cases. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including cumulative-depth data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth releases after the completion of each epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected drizzled mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The full set of resulting high-level science products and mosaics are publicly delivered to the community via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  3. European astronomers' successes with the Hubble Space Telescope*

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    [Figure: Laguna Nebula] Their work spans all aspects of astronomy, from the planets to the most distant galaxies and quasars, and the following examples are just a few European highlights from Hubble's second phase, 1994-96. A scarcity of midget stars Stars less massive and fainter than the Sun are much numerous in the Milky Way Galaxy than the big bright stars that catch the eye. Guido De Marchi and Francesco Paresce of the European Southern Observatory as Garching, Germany, have counted them. With the wide-field WFPC2 camera, they have taken sample censuses within six globular clusters, which are large gatherings of stars orbiting independently in the Galaxy. In every case they find that the commonest stars have an output of light that is only one-hundredth of the Sun's. They are ten times more numerous than stars like the Sun. More significant for theories of the Universe is a scarcity of very faint stars. Some astronomers have suggested that vast numbers of such stars could account for the mysterious dark matter, which makes stars and galaxies move about more rapidly than expected from the mass of visible matter. But that would require an ever-growing count of objects at low brightnesses, and De Marchi and Paresce find the opposite to be the case -- the numbers diminish. There may be a minimum size below which Nature finds starmaking difficult. The few examples of very small stars seen so far by astronomers may be, not the heralds of a multitude of dark-matter stars, but rareties. Unchanging habits in starmaking Confirmation that very small stars are scarce comes from Gerry Gilmore of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge (UK). He leads a European team that analyses long-exposure images in the WFPC2 camera, obtained as a by-product when another instrument is examining a selected object. The result is an almost random sample of well-observed stars and galaxies. The most remarkable general conclusion is that the make-up of stellar populations never seems to

  4. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, Bradley C; Budavari, Tamas; Casertano, Stefano; Downes, Ronald A; Donaldson, Thomas; Fall, S Michael; Lubow, Stephen H; Quick, Lee; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wallace, Geoff; White, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Source Catalog is designed to help optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by combining the tens of thousands of visit-based source lists in the Hubble Legacy Archive into a single master catalog. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog includes WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR photometric data generated using SExtractor software to produce the individual source lists. The catalog includes roughly 80 million detections of 30 million objects involving 112 different detector/filter combinations, and about 160 thousand HST exposures. Source lists from Data Release 8 of the Hubble Legacy Archive are matched using an algorithm developed by Budavari & Lubow (2012). The mean photometric accuracy for the catalog as a whole is better than 0.10 mag, with relative accuracy as good as 0.02 mag in certain circumstances (e.g., bright isolated stars). The relative astrometric residuals are typically within 10 mas, with a value for the mode (i.e., most common value) of 2.3 mas. The absolute astro...

  5. Team Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, L. W.

    The purpose of this study was to review current developments in team teaching and to assess its potential in the Calgary, Alberta, schools. An investigation into team teaching situations in schools in the eastern half of the United States and Canada revealed characteristics common to successful programs (e.g., charismatic leadership and innovative…

  6. Testing the Copernican Principle with Hubble Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Tong-Jie; Ma, Cong

    2012-01-01

    By way of expressing the Hubble expansion rate for the general Lema\\^{i}tre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric as a function of cosmic time, we test the scale on which the Copernican Principle holds in the context of a void model. By performing parameter estimation on the CGBH void model, we show the Hubble parameter data favors a void with characteristic radius of $2 \\sim 3$ Gpc. This brings the void model closer, but not yet enough, to harmony with observational indications given by the background kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and the normalization of near-infrared galaxy luminosity function. However, the test of such void models may ultimately lie in the future detection of the discrepancy between longitudinal and transverse expansion rates, a touchstone of inhomogeneous models. With the proliferation of observational Hubble parameter data and future large-scale structure observation, a definitive test could be performed on the question of cosmic homogeneity.

  7. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Popularity ofteams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting theirwork done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that thecollective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances.Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensionsand qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as teamperformance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, teamefficiency, team decision making and team conflicts and Qualitative dimensionsof teams such as team communication, team coordination, team cooperation, teamcohesion, team climate, team creativity, team leadership and team conflictshave been discussed in this article.

  8. Virtual Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)

  9. The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau

  10. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This picture shows a Hubble Space Telescope image of the inner parts of the Crab. The pulsar itself is visible as the left of the pair of stars near the center of the frame. Surrounding the pulsar is a complex of sharp knots and wisp-like features. This image is one of a sequence of Hubble images taken over the course of several months. This sequence shows that the inner part of the Crab Nebula is far more dynamic than previously understood. The Crab literally 'changes it stripes' every few days as these wisps stream away from the pulsar at half the speed of light. The Hubble Space Telescope photo was taken Nov. 5, 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 at a wavelength of around 550 nanometers, in the middle of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  11. The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau in

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  13. Dark Energy and the Hubble Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    The Big Bang predicted by Friedmann could not be empirically discovered in the 1920th, since global cosmological distances (more than 300-1000 Mpc) were not available for observations at that time. Lemaitre and Hubble studied receding motions of galaxies at local distances of less than 20-30 Mpc and found that the motions followed the (nearly) linear velocity-distance relation, known now as Hubble's law. For decades, the real nature of this phenomenon has remained a mystery, in Sandage's words. After the discovery of dark energy, it was suggested that the dynamics of local expansion flows is dominated by omnipresent dark energy, and it is the dark energy antigravity that is able to introduce the linear velocity-distance relation to the flows. It implies that Hubble's law observed at local distances was in fact the first observational manifestation of dark energy. If this is the case, the commonly accepted criteria of scientific discovery lead to the conclusion: In 1927, Lemaitre discovered dark energy and Hubble confirmed this in 1929.

  14. Local gravitational physics of the Hubble expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We study physical consequences of the Hubble expansion of FLRW manifold on measurement of space, time and light propagation in the local inertial frame. We analyse the solar system radar ranging and Doppler tracking experiments, and time synchronization. FLRW manifold is covered by global coordinates (t,y^i), where t is the cosmic time coinciding with the proper time of the Hubble observers. We introduce local inertial coordinates x^a=(x^0,x^i) in the vicinity of a world line of a Hubble observer with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and is materialized by the congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers being at rest with respect to the local spatial coordinates x^i. We consider geodesic motion of test particles and notice that the local coordinate time x^0=x^0(t) taken as a parameter along the world line of particle, is a function of the Hubble's observer time t. This function changes smoothly from x^0=t for a particle at rest (observer's c...

  15. HUBBLE SEES A VAST 'CITY' OF STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In these pictures, a 'city' of a million stars glitters like a New York City skyline. The images capture the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Tucana. Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers went hunting in this large city for planetary companions: bloated gaseous planets that snuggle close to their parent stars, completing an orbit in a quick three to five days. To their surprise, they found none. This finding suggests that the cluster's environment is too hostile for breeding planets or that it lacks the necessary elements for making them. The picture at left, taken by a terrestrial telescope, shows most of the cluster, a tightly packed group of middle-aged stars held together by mutual gravitational attraction. The box near the center represents the Hubble telescope's view. The image at right shows the Hubble telescope's close-up look at a swarm of 35,000 stars near the cluster's central region. The stars are tightly packed together: They're much closer together than our Sun and its closest stars. The picture, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, depicts the stars' natural colors and tells scientists about their composition and age. For example, the red stars denote bright red giants nearing the end of their lives; the more common yellow stars are similar to our middle-aged Sun. Most of the stars in the cluster are believed to have formed about 10 billion years ago. The bright, blue stars -- thought to be remnants of stellar collisions and mergers -- provide a few rejuvenated, energetic stars in an otherwise old system. The Hubble picture was taken in July 1999. Credits for Hubble image: NASA and Ron Gilliland (Space Telescope Science Institute) Credits for ground-based image: David Malin, c Anglo-Australian Observatory

  16. PACMan to Help Sort Hubble Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Every year, astronomers submit over a thousand proposals requesting time on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Currently, humans must sort through each of these proposals by hand before sending them off for review. Could this burden be shifted to computers?A Problem of VolumeAstronomer Molly Peeples gathered stats on the HST submissions sent in last week for the upcoming HST Cycle 25 (the deadline was Friday night), relative to previous years. This years proposal round broke the record, with over 1200 proposals submitted in total for Cycle 25. [Molly Peeples]Each proposal cycle for HST time attracts on the order of 1100 proposals accounting for far more HST time than is available. The proposals are therefore carefully reviewed by around 150 international members of the astronomy community during a six-month process to select those with the highest scientific merit.Ideally, each proposal will be read by reviewers that have scientific expertise relevant to the proposal topic: if a proposal requests HST time to study star formation, for instance, then the reviewers assigned to it should have research expertise in star formation.How does this matching of proposals to reviewers occur? The current method relies on self-reported categorization of the submitted proposals. This is unreliable, however; proposals are often mis-categorized by submitters due to misunderstanding or ambiguous cases.As a result, the Science Policies Group at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) which oversees the review of HST proposals must go through each of the proposals by hand and re-categorize them. The proposals are then matched to reviewers with self-declared expertise in the same category.With the number of HST proposals on the rise and the expectation that the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will elicit even more proposals for time than Hubble scientists at STScI and NASA are now asking: could the human hours necessary for this task be spared? Could a computer program

  17. Learning about teams by participating in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrane, Diane; Khan, Omar; Pigeon, Yvette; Leadley, Jennifer; Grigsby, R Kevin

    2010-08-01

    As the work of academic health centers becomes increasingly oriented toward teams and collaboration, professional development in effective team skills becomes increasingly important. The authors sought to determine whether a transdisciplinary program for enhancing teamwork was effective in educating individual team members to translate lessons into productive outcomes of their own institutions' teams. Between 2006 and 2008, the authors used the Learning in Teams model of collaborative team development to design and implement two applications of a national professional development program for members of academic organizations' teams. The purpose of the program was to foster individual skill development in collaborative teamwork. Using pre/post surveys to determine changes in team functioning over the course of the program, the authors evaluated participants' perceptions of the effectiveness of their professional development programs' learning teams and of their home institutions' teams. They analyzed narrative reports of participants' institutional teams' progress for elements including team task management, member dynamics, and institutional outcomes. Pre/post self-assessments of team performance and participants' progress reports on their home teams revealed enhancement of team skills, including clarifying team charge, exploring team purpose, and evaluating team process. Program participants improved their team skills and enhanced productivity of their institutions' teams. The Learning in Teams model can support individual team skills development, enhance institutional team performance in academic health centers, and provide a basis for research in team skills development and team process improvement. It can be adapted to various programs to enhance skills in teamwork.

  18. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR

    2014-01-01

    Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...

  19. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhakar, Goparaju Purna

    2013-01-01

    Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...

  20. HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS FIRST COMPLETE CLUSTER DATA: FAINT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 5-10 FOR UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND COSMIC REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kawamata, Ryota; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Oguri, Masamune, E-mail: ishigaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-20

    We present comprehensive analyses of faint dropout galaxies up to z ∼ 10 with the first full-depth data set of the A2744 lensing cluster and parallel fields observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program. We identify 54 dropouts at z ∼ 5-10 in the HFF fields and enlarge the size of the z ∼ 9 galaxy sample obtained to date. Although the number of highly magnified (μ ∼ 10) galaxies is small because of the tiny survey volume of strong lensing, our study reaches the galaxies' intrinsic luminosities comparable to the deepest-field HUDF studies. We derive UV luminosity functions with these faint dropouts, carefully evaluating by intensive simulations the combination of observational incompleteness and lensing effects in the image plane, including magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images, with the evaluation of mass model dependencies. Our results confirm that the faint-end slope, α, is as steep as –2 at z ∼ 6-8 and strengthen the evidence for the rapid decrease of UV luminosity densities, ρ{sub UV}, at z > 8 from the large z ∼ 9 sample. We examine whether the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease trend can be reconciled with the large Thomson scattering optical depth, τ{sub e}, measured by cosmic microwave background experiments, allowing a large space of free parameters, such as an average ionizing photon escape fraction and a stellar-population-dependent conversion factor. No parameter set can reproduce both the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease and the large τ {sub e}. It is possible that the ρ{sub UV} decrease moderates at z ≳ 11, that the free parameters significantly evolve toward high z, or that there exist additional sources of reionization such as X-ray binaries and faint active galactic nuclei.

  1. Team Learning and Team Composition in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Olaf; Van Linge, Roland; Van Petegem, Peter; Elseviers, Monique; Denekens, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research utilising exploratory…

  2. Team Learning and Team Composition in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Olaf; Van Linge, Roland; Van Petegem, Peter; Elseviers, Monique; Denekens, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research utilising exploratory…

  3. Alma And Jvla Imaging Of Intense Galaxy-Wide Star Formation In Z 2 Galaxies In The Hudf: Bridging Smgs To The Main Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu

    2017-06-01

    We present 0.4'' resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 main-sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z 2. These galaxies are selected from deep ALMA and JVLA surveys of the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at 1.3 mm and 5 cm. Morphological classification performed on spatially-resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray AGN. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distribution, with a median r_e = 2.4 kpc, thereby providing direct evidence of galaxy-wide star formation in z 2 main-sequence SFGs. In X-ray AGN where radio emission is enhanced over the level associated with star formation, the radio excess pinpoints the AGN, which are found to be cospatial with star formation. The median extinction-independent size of main-sequence SFGs is 2x larger than those of luminous SMGs, providing a constraint on the characteristic SFR of 300 Msun/yr above which a significant population of more compact SFGs appears to emerge, possibly bridging the populations of SMGs to main-sequence SFGs.

  4. Team Building

    OpenAIRE

    Galan, Adriana; Scintee, Silvia-Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    Because there are no pure formal or informal organisations in real world, one may conclude that an organisation is a mix of formal and informal groups. Thus, its performance depends on the management ability to recognise the existence of these groups, to transform them from groups into working teams, to motivate and stimulate them to achieve organisation’s goals. We must differentiate the concept of group versus the concept of team. A simple definition of the group can be: two or more persons...

  5. HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER This stunningly beautiful image [right] taken with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows the heart of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The ongoing violent star formation due to an ancient encounter with its large galactic neighbor, M81, gives this galaxy its disturbed appearance. The smaller picture at upper left shows the entire galaxy. The image was taken in December 1994 by the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope. Hubble's view is represented by the white outline in the center. In the Hubble image, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the huge lanes of dust that crisscross M82's disk are another telltale sign of the flurry of star formation. Below the center and to the right, a strong galactic wind is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas. More than 100 super star clusters -- very bright, compact groupings of about 100,000 stars -- are seen in this detailed Hubble picture as white dots sprinkled throughout M82's central region. The dark region just above the center of the picture is a huge dust cloud. A collaboration of European and American scientists used these clusters to date the ancient interaction between M82 and M81. About 600 million years ago, a region called 'M82 B' (the bright area just below and to the left of the central dust cloud) exploded with new stars. Scientists have discovered that this ancient starburst was triggered by the violent encounter with M81. M82 is a bright (eighth magnitude), nearby (12 million light-years from Earth) galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major (the Great Bear). The Hubble picture was taken Sept. 15, 1997. The natural-color composite was constructed from three Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures, which were combined in chromatic order: 4,250 seconds through a blue filter (428 nm); 2,800 seconds through a green filter (520 nm); and 2,200 seconds through a red (820 nm) filter. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of

  6. TEAM ORGANISERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie; Haugaard, Lena

    2004-01-01

    organisation som denne? Når teams i samtiden anses for at være en organisationsform, der fremmer organisatorisk læring, beror det på, at teamet antages at udgøre et ikke-hierarkisk arbejdsfællesskab, hvor erfaringer udveksles og problemer løses. Teamorganisering kan imidlertid udformes på mange forskellige...

  7. Hubble tracks down a galaxy cluster's dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    total, the image measures 27 arc-minutes across, slightly smaller than the diameter of the Moon. The observed warped shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies have been converted into a unique map of the dark matter in the cluster. The images were taken through a red filter and have been reduced a factor of two in size. Ground-based image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 hi-res Size hi-res: 4699 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Ground-based image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 This is a colour image of the galaxy cluster C10024+1654 obtained with the CFHT12k camera at the Canada France Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea (Hawaii). The cluster clearly appears as a concentration of yellow galaxies in the centre of this image although cluster galaxies actually extend at least to the edge of this image. This image measures 21 x 21 arc-minutes. Clusters of galaxies are the largest stable systems in the Universe. They are like laboratories for studying the relationship between the distributions of dark and visible matter. In 1937, Fritz Zwicky realised that the visible component of a cluster (the thousands of millions of stars in each of the thousands of galaxies) represents only a tiny fraction of the total mass. About 80-85% of the matter is invisible, the so-called 'dark matter'. Although astronomers have known about the presence of dark matter for many decades, finding a technique to view its distribution is a much more recent development. Led by Drs Jean-Paul Kneib (from the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, United States), Richard Ellis and Tommaso Treu (both Caltech, United States), the team used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to reconstruct a unique 'mass map' of the galaxy cluster CL0024+1654. It enabled them to see for the first time on such large scales how mysterious dark matter is distributed with respect to galaxies. This comparison gives new clues on how such

  8. Frames of most uniform Hubble flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kraljic, David

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that the locally measured Hubble parameter converges quickest to the background value and the dipole structure of the velocity field is smallest in the reference frame of the Local Group of galaxies. We study the statistical properties of Lorentz boosts with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background frame which make the Hubble flow look most uniform around a particular observer. We use a very large N-Body simulation to extract the dependence of the boost velocities on the local environment such as underdensities, overdensities, and bulk flows. We find that the observation is not unexpected if we are located in an underdensity, which is indeed the case for our position in the universe. The amplitude of the measured boost velocity for our location is consistent with the expectation in the standard cosmology.

  9. Hubble parameter data constraints on dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yun, E-mail: chenyun@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Ratra, Bharat, E-mail: ratra@phys.ksu.edu [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2011-09-20

    We use Hubble parameter versus redshift data from Stern et al. (2010) and Gaztanaga et al. (2009) to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmological models. These constraints are consistent with (through not as restrictive as) those derived from supernova Type Ia magnitude-redshift data. However, they are more restrictive than those derived from galaxy cluster angular diameter distance, and comparable with those from gamma-ray burst and lookback time data. A joint analysis of the Hubble parameter data with more restrictive baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale and supernova Type Ia apparent magnitude data favors a spatially-flat cosmological model currently dominated by a time-independent cosmological constant but does not exclude time-varying dark energy.

  10. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  11. Cosmic Supernova Rates and the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F

    2006-01-01

    We compute the type Ia, Ib/c and II supernova (SN) rates as functions of the cosmic time for galaxies of different morphological types. We use four different chemical evolution models, each one reproducing the features of a particular morphological type: E/S0, S0a/b, Sbc/d and Irr galaxies. We essentially describe the Hubble sequence by means of decreasing efficiency of star formation and increasing infall timescale. These models are used to study the evolution of the SN rates per unit luminosity and per unit mass as functions of cosmic time and as functions of the Hubble type. Our results indicate that: (i) the observed increase of the SN rate per unit luminosity and unit mass from early to late galaxy types is accounted for by our models. Our explanation of this effect is related to the fact that the latest Hubble types have the highest star formation rate per unit mass; (ii) By adopting a Scalo (1986) initial mass function in spiral disks, we find that massive single stars ending their lives as Wolf-Rayet ...

  12. Managing a Product Development Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Kenneth E.; Barrett, Larry

    2003-01-01

    Orbiting 380 miles above the earth, NASA s Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has returned a wealth of scientific data about our universe and galaxies beyond highlighted by spectacular images of the birth and death of stars, colliding galaxies, and other extra-worldly events. Despite its tremendous success for almost two decades, the HST ground support system experienced down-to-earth problems prior to the turn of the century, namely budgetary ones. To keep HST operating efficiently to 201 2 and beyond, the Vision 2000 project was conceived with the primary goal of substantially reducing the costs of operating and maintaining the spacecraft ground systems. Taking advantage of this atypical management opportunity, a set of Product Development Teams (PDTs) were established, whose charter was to re-engineer the ground system, and in doing so, reduce the remaining life-of-mission operating and maintenance costs, while providing improved reliability and increased capabilities.

  13. Team responsibility structure and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Hootegem, G. van; Huys, R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose is to analyse the impact of team responsibility (the division of job regulation tasks between team leader and team members) on team performance. It bases an analysis on 36 case studies in The Netherlands which are known to have implemented team-based work. The case studies were executed

  14. Team responsibility structure and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Hootegem, G. van; Huys, R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose is to analyse the impact of team responsibility (the division of job regulation tasks between team leader and team members) on team performance. It bases an analysis on 36 case studies in The Netherlands which are known to have implemented team-based work. The case studies were executed

  15. Virtual teams

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes some early results from observing and interviewing groups working to achieve intellectually complex tasks that required the use of computers, WWW and other research resources. Three groups were virtual (they were working at a distance and rarely meeting face to face) and two groups were simple control groups They were real groups (working in relatively close proximity so that face to face contact was possible most of the time). All five teams completed their tasks but a s...

  16. 'Hubble-bubble leads to trouble'--waterpipe smoking and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Savan B; Chestnutt, Ivor G; Lewis, Michael A O

    2013-12-01

    Waterpipes are used to smoke tobacco by more than 100 million people worldwide. Use is not restricted to any single racial, ethnic, or cultural group, and dentists are almost certain to encounter waterpipe users amongst their patients. This article describes what the practice involves and seeks to inform members of the dental team of the significantly detrimental impacts of waterpipe smoking on both general and oral health and how'hubble-bubble really can lead to trouble'. Advising patients on ceasing waterpipe use is also discussed. This paper explains what smoking a waterpipe involves, the associated misconceptions of safety amongst users and the dangers to health.

  17. Interferometric Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, G. F.; McArthur, B. E.; Franz, O. G.; Wasserman, L. H.; Henry, T. J.; Takato, T.; Strateva, I.

    2000-05-01

    We review recent results from fringe tracking (POS) and fringe scanning (TRANS) mode astrometry using Fine Guidance Sensor 3 aboard Hubble Space Telescope. The relatively large field of regard, faint limiting magnitude, and raw resolution of FGS 3 have allowed us to obtain sub-millisecond of arc precision parallaxes for several Cataclysmic Variables ( RW Tri & TV Col), a fundamental distance scale calibrator (RR Lyr), a Planetary Nebula central star (NGC 6853), and a hot White Dwarf binary (Feige 24). We have determined parallaxes, orbital parameters, and masses for low-mass binaries critical to the lower main sequence Mass-Luminosity Relationship (Gl 791.2, Wolf 1062, Gl 623). The Astrometry Science Team presently consists of W. H. Jefferys, P.I., G. F. Benedict, Deputy P.I., B. McArthur, O.G. Franz, L. H. Wasserman, L. W. Fredrick, W. van Altena, E. Nelan, R. Duncombe, P. J. Shelus, and P. D. Hemenway. This research had the support of NASA Grants NAS5-1603 (GSFC), and GO-06036.01-94A, GO-07491.01-97A (STScI).

  18. Hubble Space Telescope ACS mosaic of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82

    CERN Document Server

    Mutchler, M; Christian, C A; Frattare, L M; Hamilton, F; Januszewski, W; Levay, Z G; Mountain, M; Noll, K S; Royle, P; Gallagher, J S; Puxley, P

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, the Hubble Heritage Team obtained a large four-filter (B, V, I, and H-alpha) six-point mosaic dataset of the prototypical starburst galaxy NGC 3034 (M82), with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The resulting color composite Heritage image was released in April 2006, to celebrate Hubble's 16th anniversary. Cycle 15 HST proposers were encouraged to submit General Observer and Archival Research proposals to complement or analyze this unique dataset. Since our M82 mosaics represent a significant investment of expert processing beyond the standard archival products, we will also release our drizzle combined FITS data as a High Level Science Product via the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST) on December 31, 2006. This paper documents the key aspects of the observing program and image processing: calibration, image registration and combination (drizzling), and the rejection of cosmic rays and detector artifacts. Our processed FITS mosaics and related inf...

  19. Hubble gets revitalised in new Servicing Mission for more and better science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    As a unique collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA), and NASA, Hubble has had a phenomenal scientific impact. The unsurpassed sharp images from this space observatory have penetrated into the hidden depths of space and revealed breathtaking phenomena. But Hubble's important contributions to science have only been possible through a carefully planned strategy to service and upgrade Hubble every two or three years. ESA, the European Space Agency has a particular role to play in this Servicing Mission. One of the most exciting events of this mission will come when the ESA-built solar panels are replaced by newer and more powerful ones. The new panels, developed in the US, are equipped with ESA developed drive mechanisms and were tested at the facilities at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. This facility is the only place in the world where such tests can be performed. According to Ton Linssen, HST Project Manager at ESA, who supervised all ESA involvement in the new solar panels development including the test campaign at Estec - "a particularly tense moment occurs when the present solar panels have to be rolled up to fit into the Shuttle's cargo bay. The hard environment of space has taken its toll on the panels and it will be a very delicate operation to roll them up. Our team will be waiting and watching with bated breath. If the panels can't be rolled up they will possibly have to be left in space." "With this Servicing Mission Hubble is once again going to be brought back to the frontline of scientific technology", says Piero Benvenuti, Hubble Project Scientist at ESA. "New super-advanced instrumentation will revitalise the observatory. For example, Hubble's new digital camera - The new Advanced Camera for Surveys, or ACS - can take images of twice the area of the sky and with five times the sensitivity of Hubble's previous instruments, therefore increasing by ten times Hubble's discovery capability! The

  20. The type Ia supernovae and the Hubble's constant

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Hubble's constant is usually surmised to be a constant; but the experiments show a large spread and conflicting estimates. According to the plasma-redshift theory, the Hubble's constant varies with the plasma densities along the line of sight. It varies then slightly with the direction and the distance to a supernova and a galaxy. The relation between the magnitudes of type Ia supernovae and their observed redshifts results in an Hubble's constant with an average value in intergalactic sp...

  1. Hubble Deep Fever A faint galaxy diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, S P

    1998-01-01

    The longstanding faint blue galaxy problem is gradually subsiding as a result of technological advancement, most notably from high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging. In particular two categorical facts have recently been established, these are: 1) The excess faint blue galaxies are of irregular morphologies, and, 2) the majority of these irregulars occur at redshifts 1 2. Taking these facts together we favour a scenario where the faint blue excess is primarily due to the formation epoch of spiral systems via merging at redshifts 1 < z < 2. The final interpretation now awaits refinements in our understanding of the local galaxy population !

  2. Hubble Parameter in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Wahba, M

    2009-01-01

    We discuss influences of bulk viscosity on the Early Universe, which is modeled by Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and Einstein field equations. We assume that the matter filling the isotropic and homogeneous background is relativistic viscous characterized by ultra-relativistic equations of state deduced from recent lattice QCD simulations. We obtain a set of complicated differential equations, for which we suggest approximate solutions for Hubble parameter $H$. We find that finite viscosity in Eckart and Israel-Stewart fluids would significantly modify our picture about the Early Universe.

  3. Hubble Parameter Corrected Interactions in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sadeghi

    2014-01-01

    character opening a room for different kinds of manipulations. In this paper we will consider a modification of an interaction Q, where we accept that interaction parameter b1 (order of unity in Q=3Hb1ρ is time dependent and presented as a linear function of Hubble parameter H of the form b0+btH, where b and b0 are constants. We consider two different models including modified Chaplygin gas and polytropic gas which have bulk viscosity. Then, we investigate problem numerically and analyze behavior of different cosmological parameters concerning fluids and behavior of the universe.

  4. Astronomers celebrate a year of new Hubble results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    "We are beginning to understand that because of these observations we are going to have to change the way we look at the Universe," said ESA's Dr Duccio Macchetto, Associate Director for Science Programs at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The European Space Agency plays a major role in the Hubble Space Telescope programme. The Agency provided one of the telescope's four major instruments, called the Faint Object Camera, and two sets of electricity-generating solar arrays. In addition, 15 ESA scientific and technical staff work at the STScI. In return for this contribution, European astronomers are entitled to 15 percent of the telescope's observing time, although currently they account for 20 percent of all observations. "This is a testimony to the quality of the European science community", said Dr Roger Bonnet, Director of Science at ESA. "We are only guaranteed 15 percent of the telescope's use, but consistently receive much more than that." Astronomers from universities, observatories and research institutes across Europe lead more than 60 investigations planned for the telescope's fifth observing cycle, which begins this summer. Many more Europeans contribute to teams led by other astronomers. Looking back to the very start of time European astronomer Dr Peter Jakobsen used ESA's Faint Object Camera to confirm that helium was present in the early Universe. Astronomers had long predicted that 90 percent of the newly born Universe consisted of hydrogen, with helium making up the remainder. Before the refurbished Hubble came along, it was easy to detect the hydrogen, but the primordial helium remained elusive. The ultraviolet capabilities of the telescope, combined with the improvement in spatial resolution following the repair, made it possible for Dr Jakobsen to obtain an image of a quasar close to the edge of the known Universe. A spectral analysis of this picture revealed the quasar's light, which took 13 billion years

  5. Globular Cluster Systems along the Hubble Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Edwin

    1996-07-01

    Globular Cluster Systems {GCSs} provide a powerful tool to differentiate between competing galaxy formation- and evolution scenarios. However, our current knowledge of GCS in spiral galaxies is based mainly on studies of the Galaxy and M31. Even though GCSs have been detected in other spiral galaxies, ground-based observations barely reach the peak of the Globular-Cluster luminosity function, and do not provide accurate colors. We propose a systematic study of the GCSs in 6 edge-on L* spiral galaxies beyond the Local Group, using WFPC2. These galaxies were carefully selected to meet several stringent criteria. With the new dithering techniques, it will be possible to resolve any faint background galaxies and obtain a clean sample of globular clusters for all galaxies in our sample. This will allow us to study the complete luminosity functions, {V-I} color distributions, and GCS richness for L* galaxies as a function of Hubble type {Sa, Sb, Sc}. These data will be used to study the relations between the galaxies' bulge and {thin/thick} disk properties and their GCSs. If, for example, GCS properties correlate with bulge properties, this will rule out any strong evolution along the Hubble Sequence towards earlier type spirals, from Sc to Sa, as has recently been proposed by Pfenniger et al. {1994}.

  6. Is Hubble's Expansion due to Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, R C

    2010-01-01

    {\\it The universe is expanding} is known (through Galaxy observations) since 1929 through Hubble's discovery ($V = H D$). Recently in 1999, it is found (through Supernovae observations) that the universe is not simply expanding but is accelerating too. We, however, hardly know only $4\\%$ of the universe. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite observational data suggest $73\\%$ content of the universe in the form of dark-energy, $23\\%$ in the form of non-baryonic dark-matter and the rest $4\\%$ in the form of the usual baryonic matter. The acceleration of the universe is ascribed to this dark-energy with bizarre properties (repulsive-gravity). The question is that whether Hubble's expansion is just due to the shock of big-bang & inflation or it is due to the repulsive-gravity of dark-energy? Now, it is believed to be due to dark-energy, say, by re-introducing the once-discarded cosmological-constant $\\Lambda$. In the present paper, it is shown that `the formula for acceleration due to dark...

  7. Cosmological test with the QSO Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Corredoira, M; Lusso, E; Risaliti, G

    2016-01-01

    A Hubble diagram (HD) has recently been constructed in the redshift range 099% C.L. The Quasi-Steady State Model is excluded at >95% C.L. The remaining four models (Lambda-CDM/wCDM, the R_h=ct Universe, the Friedmann open universe and a Static universe with a linear Hubble law) all pass the test. However, only Lambda-CDM/wCDM and $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ also pass the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test. The optimized parameters in Lambda-CDM/wCDM are Omega_m=0.20^{+0.24}_{-0.20} and w_{de}=-1.2^{+1.6}_{-infinity} (the dark-energy equation-of-state). Combined with the AP test, these values become Omega_m=0.38^{+0.20}_{-0.19} and w_{de}=-0.28^{+0.52}_{-0.40}. But whereas this optimization of parameters in Lambda-CDM/wCDM creates some tension with their concordance values, the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe has the advantage of fitting the QSO and AP data without any free parameters.

  8. Inverse Hubble Flows in Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Toalá, Jesús A; Colín, Pedro; Gómez, Gilberto C

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent numerical simulations of molecular cloud (MC)evolution, in which the clouds engage in global gravitational contraction, and local collapse events culminate significantly earlier than the global collapse, we investigate the growth of density perturbations embedded in a collapsing background, to which we refer as an Inverse Hubble Flow (IHF). We use the standard procedure for the growth of perturbations in a universe that first expands (the usual Hubble Flow) and then recollapses (the IHF). We find that linear density perturbations immersed in an IHF grow faster than perturbations evolving in a static background (the standard Jeans analysis). A fundamental distinction between the two regimes is that, in the Jeans case, the time $\\tau_\\mathrm{nl}$ for a density fluctuation to become nonlinear increases without limit as its initial value approaches zero, while in the IHF case $\\tau_\\mathrm{nl} \\le \\tau_\\mathrm{ff}$ always, where $\\tau_\\mathrm{ff}$ is the free-fall time of the background densit...

  9. HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a nearly face-on view of a swirling disk of dust and gas surrounding a developing star called AB Aurigae. The Hubble telescope image, taken in visible light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, shows unprecedented detail in the disk, including clumps of dust and gas that may be the seeds of planet formation. Normally, a young star's bright light prevents astronomers from seeing material closer to it. That's why astronomers used a coronograph in these two images of AB Aurigae to block most of the light from the star. The rest of the disk material is illuminated by light reflected from the gas and dust surrounding the star. The image on the left represents the best ground-based coronographic observation of AB Aurigae. Paul Kalas of the Space Telescope Science Institute took the image with the University of Hawaii's 2.2-meter telescope. The telescope's coronograph eclipsed a 33.5-billion-mile (53.6-billion-kilometer) area centered on the star. This area is nine times larger than our solar system. The picture shows that the star resides in a region of dust clouds - the semicircular-shaped material to the left of the star. The Hubble telescope image on the right shows a windowpane-shaped occulting bar -- the dark bands running vertically through the middle of the image and horizontally across the upper part of it. The occulting bar covers the innermost part of the disk and star, about 7.1 billion miles (11.5 billion kilometers) or 1.4 times our solar system's diameter. The diagonal lines are the remnants of the diffraction spikes produced in Hubble telescope images of bright stars. The disk is extremely wide: its diameter is roughly 1,300 times Earth's distance from the Sun. The disk material seen in this image is at a distance equivalent to well beyond Pluto's orbit. One faint background star is visible at 5 o'clock. The star's disk shows a wealth of structure, with bright spiral-shaped bands from 9 o'clock to 6 o

  10. Astronauts give Hubble a new lease of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Astronauts successfully repaired and upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope last month by performing five space walks each lasting more than six hours. The mission will improve Hubble's "observational power" by up to a factor of 100. The upgrade will also enable the 19-year-old instrument to carry on obtaining images of the early universe until 2014.

  11. Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls.

  12. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  13. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  14. The Gamma Ray Bursts Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Dainotti, M G; De Laurentis, M; Izzo, L; Perillo, M

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to their enormous energy release, Gamma Rays Bursts (GRBs) have recently attracted a lot of interest to probe the Hubble diagram (HD) deep into the matter dominated era and hence complement Type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa). We consider here three different calibration methods based on the use of a fiducial LCDM model, on cosmographic parameters and on the local regression on SNeIa to calibrate the scaling relations proposed as an equivalent to the Phillips law to standardize GRBs finding any significant dependence. We then investigate the evolution of these parameters with the redshift to obtain any statistical improvement. Under this assumption, we then consider possible systematics effects on the HDs introduced by the calibration method, the averaging procedure and the homogeneity of the sample arguing against any significant bias.

  15. Disk heating agents across the Hubble sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Gerssen, J

    2012-01-01

    We measure the shape of the velocity ellipsoid in two late-type spiral galaxies (Hubble types Sc and Scd) and combine these results with our previous analyses of six early-type spirals (Sa to Sbc) to probe the relation between galaxy morphology and the ratio of the vertical and radial dispersions. We confirm at much higher significance (99.9 percent) our prior detection of a tight correlation between these quantities. We explore the trends of the magnitude and shape of the velocity ellipsoid axes with galaxy properties (colour, gas surface mass density, and spiral arm structure). The observed relationships allow for an observational identification of the radial and vertical disk heating agents in external disk galaxies.

  16. The Hubble Deep Field South STIS Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, J P; Brown, T M; Carollo, C M; Christensen, J; Dashevsky, I; Dickinson, M E; Espey, B R; Ferguson, H C; Fruchter, A S; Gonnella, A M; González-Lopezlira, R A; Hook, R N; Kaiser, M E; Martin, C L; Sahu, K C; Savaglio, S; Smith, T E; Teplitz, H I; Williams, R E; Wilson, J

    1999-01-01

    We present the imaging observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph of the Hubble Deep Field - South. The field was imaged in 4 bandpasses: a clear CCD bandpass for 156 ksec, a long-pass filter for 22-25 ksec per pixel typical exposure, a near-UV bandpass for 23 ksec, and a far-UV bandpass for 52 ksec. The clear visible image is the deepest observation ever made in the UV-optical wavelength region, reaching a 10 sigma AB magnitude of 29.4 for an object of area 0.2 square arcseconds. The field contains QSO J2233-606, the target of the STIS spectroscopy, and extends 50"x50" for the visible images, and 25"x25" for the ultraviolet images. We present the images, catalog of objects, and galaxy counts obtained in the field.

  17. Bianchi I meets the Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Schucker, Thomas; Valent, Galliano

    2014-01-01

    We improve existing fits of the Bianchi I metric to the Hubble diagram of supernovae and find an intriguing yet non-significant signal for anisotropy that should be verified or falsified in the near future by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Since the literature contains two different formulas for the apparent luminosity as a function of time of flight in Bianchi I metrics, we present an independent derivation confirming the result by Saunders (1969). The present fit differs from earlier ones by Koivisto & Mota and by Campanelli et al. in that we use Saunders' formula, a larger sample of supernovae, Union 2 and JLA, and we use the general Bianchi I metric with three distinct eigenvalues.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope: A cosmic time machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, J. A.; Harms, R. J.; Brandt, J. C.; Bless, R. C.; Macchetto, F. D.; Jefferys, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is to explore the expanding and evolving universe. During the 3,000 operating hours every year for the next 15 years or more, the HST will be used to study: galaxies; pulsars; globular clusters; neighboring stars where planets may be forming; binary star systems; condensing gas clouds and their chemical composition; and the rings of Saturn and the swirling ultraviolet clouds of Venus. The major technical achievements - its nearly perfect mirrors, its precise guidance system of rate gyroscopes, reaction wheels, star trackers, and fine guidance sensors are briefly discussed. The scientific instruments on board HST are briefly described. The integration of the equipment and instruments is outlined. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has approved time for 162 observations from among 556 proposals. The mission operation and data flow are explained.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Battery Capacity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Orbital battery performance for the Hubble Space Telescope is discussed and battery life is predicted which supports decision to replace orbital batteries by 2009-2010 timeframe. Ground characterization testing of cells from the replacement battery build is discussed, with comparison of data from battery capacity characterization with cell studies of Cycle Life and 60% Stress Test at the Naval Weapons Surface Center (NWSC)-Crane, and cell Cycle Life testing at the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC). The contents of this presentation includes an update to the performance of the on-orbit batteries, as well as a discussion of the HST Service Mission 4 (SM4) batteries manufactured in 1996 and activated in 2000, and a second set of SM4 backup replacement batteries which began manufacture Jan 11, 2007, with delivery scheduled for July 2008.

  20. Teams and team management in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M

    1992-04-01

    Nursing traditionally relied upon power-coercive and status-oriented management styles similar to those which have underpinned failing British industry but team work and team management styles underpin the success and excellence of organisations in industry and commerce. The author argues that such team work and team management can create the dynamic 'problem-solving' style required for the management of complex issues such as exist within nurse education today. The author presents an outline of teams, their characteristics and the models currently available for managing, building and maintaining teams.

  1. Better team management--better team care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, P; Powney, B

    1994-01-01

    Team building should not be a 'bolt-on' extra, it should be a well planned, integrated part of developing teams and assisting their leaders. When asked to facilitate team building by a group of NHS managers we developed a framework which enabled individual members of staff to become more effective in the way they communicated with each other, their teams and in turn within the organization. Facing the challenge posed by complex organizational changes, staff were able to use 3 training days to increase and develop their awareness of the principles of teamwork, better team management, and how a process of leadership and team building could help yield better patient care.

  2. HUBBLE WATCHES STAR TEAR APART ITS NEIGHBORHOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a view of a stellar demolition zone in our Milky Way Galaxy: a massive star, nearing the end of its life, tearing apart the shell of surrounding material it blew off 250,000 years ago with its strong stellar wind. The shell of material, dubbed the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), surrounds the 'hefty,' aging star WR 136, an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star called a Wolf-Rayet. Hubble's multicolored picture reveals with unprecedented clarity that the shell of matter is a network of filaments and dense knots, all enshrouded in a thin 'skin' of gas [seen in blue]. The whole structure looks like oatmeal trapped inside a balloon. The skin is glowing because it is being blasted by ultraviolet light from WR 136. Hubble's view covers a small region at the northeast tip of the structure, which is roughly three light-years across. A picture taken by a ground-based telescope [lower right] shows almost the entire nebula. The whole structure is about 16 light-years wide and 25 light-years long. The bright dot near the center of NGC 6888 is WR 136. The white outline in the upper left-hand corner represents Hubble's view. Hubble's sharp vision is allowing scientists to probe the intricate details of this complex system, which is crucial to understanding the life cycle of stars and their impact on the evolution of our galaxy. The results of this study appear in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal. WR 136 created this web of luminous material during the late stages of its life. As a bloated, red super-giant, WR 136 gently puffed away some of its bulk, which settled around it. When the star passed from a super-giant to a Wolf-Rayet, it developed a fierce stellar wind - a stream of charged particles released from its surface - and began expelling mass at a furious rate. The star began ejecting material at a speed of 3.8 million mph (6.1 million kilometers per hour), losing matter equal to that of our Sun's every 10

  3. Cooperative Team Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    effectiveness, and the ability to experimentally manipulate endogenous team processes . She reviewed the results of a set of experiments in the Hidden...Profile paradigm of team research that examine how endogenous communication processes influence emergent network structure and team performance...experimentally manipulate endogenous team processes . She reviewed the results of a set of experiments in the Hidden Profile paradigm of team research

  4. Hubble Camera Resumes Science Operation With Picture Of 'Butterfly' In Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    nitrogen atoms. Scientists are still testing and calibrating the newly installed instruments on Hubble , the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These instruments will be ready to make observations in a few weeks. Credit: Massimo Stiavelli (STScI), and NASA other team member: Inge Heyer (STScI) Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  5. Hubble Camera Resumes Science Operation With Picture Of 'Butterfly' In Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    nitrogen atoms. Scientists are still testing and calibrating the newly installed instruments on Hubble , the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These instruments will be ready to make observations in a few weeks. Credit: Massimo Stiavelli (STScI), and NASA other team member: Inge Heyer (STScI) Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  6. Employability Development Teams: Team Member Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Mary L.; Lewis, Meharry H.

    1972-01-01

    The authors point out that team roles are designed to be complementary, but much of the frustration that develops among team members is due to lack of role definition and too much overlapping of responsibility. (Author)

  7. Your cancer care team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000929.htm Your cancer care team To use the sharing features on this page, ... help your body heal. Working with Your Care Team Each member of your care team plays an ...

  8. PLANCK and WMAP constraints on generalised Hubble flow inflationary trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contaldi, Carlo R.; Horner, Jonathan S., E-mail: c.contaldi@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.horner11@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    We use the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to constrain the space of possible single field, inflationary Hubble flow trajectories when compared to the WMAP and PLANK satellites Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) results. This method yields posteriors on the space of Hubble Slow Roll (HSR) parameters that uniquely determine the history of the Hubble parameter during the inflating epoch. The trajectories are used to numerically determine the observable primordial power spectrum and bispectra that can then be compared to observations. Our analysis is used to infer the most likely shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) and also yields a prediction for, B, the dimensionless amplitude of the non-Gaussian bispectrum.

  9. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  10. Work team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBE Editorial

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Work Team 2016 (Jan-Jul1. Editorial TeamChief-editorsBayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química (USP, BrasilEduardo Galembeck, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp, Brasil Co-editorsGabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas (Unifal-MG, BrasilVera Maria Treis Trindade, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Brasil Editorial BoardAdriana Cassina, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayAngel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, SpainAndré Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, BrasilDenise Vaz de Macedo, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilEneida de Paula, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilJose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, ChileJosep Maria Fernández Novell, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, SpainLeila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (USP, BrasilManuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, PortugalMaria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, BrasilMaría Noel Alvarez, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayMiguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, SpainNelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (USP, BrasilPaulo De Avila Junior, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC

  11. HUBBLE CAPTURES THE HEART OF STAR BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) has captured a flurry of star birth near the heart of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1808. On the left are two images, one superimposed over the other. The black-and-white picture is a ground-based view of the entire galaxy. The color inset image, taken with the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), provides a close-up view of the galaxy's center, the hotbed of vigorous star formation. The ground-based image shows that the galaxy has an unusual, warped shape. Most spiral galaxies are flat disks, but this one has curls of dust and gas at its outer spiral arms (upper right-hand corner and lower left-hand corner). This peculiar shape is evidence that NGC 1808 may have had a close interaction with another nearby galaxy, NGC 1792, which is not in the picture Such an interaction could have hurled gas towards the nucleus of NGC 1808, triggering the exceptionally high rate of star birth seen in the WFPC2 inset image. The WFPC2 inset picture is a composite of images using colored filters that isolate red and infrared light as well as light from glowing hydrogen. The red and infrared light (seen as yellow) highlight older stars, while hydrogen (seen as blue) reveals areas of star birth. Colors were assigned to this false-color image to emphasize the vigorous star formation taking place around the galaxy's center. NGC 1808 is called a barred spiral galaxy because of the straight lines of star formation on both sides of the bright nucleus. This star formation may have been triggered by the rotation of the bar, or by matter which is streaming along the bar towards the central region (and feeding the star burst). Filaments of dust are being ejected from the core into a faint halo of stars surrounding the galaxy's disk (towards the upper left corner) by massive stars that have exploded as supernovae in the star burst region. The portion of the galaxy seen in this 'wide-field' image is

  12. Hubble Case Studies of Transiting Giant Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Barker, Adrian; Benneke, Björn; Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michaël; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Jehin, Emmanuel; Knutson, Heather; Lewis, Nikole K.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Mandell, Avi; McCullough, Peter R.; Wakeford, Hannah R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of planets around other stars has entered a science-rich era of characterization, in which detailed information about individual planets can be inferred from observations beyond mere detection, which only yields bulk properties like mass or radius. Characterization probes more revealing quantities such as chemical abundances, albedo, and temperature/pressure profiles, which allow us to address larger questions of planet formation mechanisms, planetary evolution, and, eventually, habitability and presence of biosignature gases. The primary method for characterization of close-in planets is transit spectroscopy. This dissertation talk will focus on transiting exoplanet case studies with the Hubble Space Telescope’ Wide-Field Camera-3 (WFC-3) as a tool of exoplanet characterization in a near-infrared band dominated by strong water features. I will first present a characterization the WFC-3 systematic effects that must be mitigated to extract the incredibly small (tens to 200 parts per million) signals, and then a study of four transiting giant planets (HATS-7b, HAT-p-3b, HD 149026b, and WASP-18b) in transmission, and two (WASP-18b and CoRoT-2b) in eclipse. Finally, I will discuss the role of transit timing monitoring of WASP-18b with HST and other observatories as another clue to its evolution as a close-in, massive planet. The five planets range from Neptune-class to Super-Jupiter-class in size/mass. Though these planets may be relatively rare, their observability represents a unique opportunity to probe planet formation and evolution, as well as atmospheric structures in a high-irradiation environment. These observations also yield insights into aerosols (i.e. clouds/hazes) in the atmosphere; clouds and/or hazes should significantly impact atmospheric chemistry and observational signatures, and we as a community must get a better handle on the phenomenon of aerosols in advance of the next generation of space observatories, including JWST and WFIRST

  13. Weary Astronauts Return From Hubble Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Broward; Liston; 姜其宝

    2002-01-01

    在完成了对“哈勃”太空望远镜大修后,“带病”工作的美国“哥伦比亚”号航天飞机3月12日安全返回肯尼迪航天中心。在“哥伦比亚”号为期11天的飞行期间,宇航员为“哈勃”更换了电池板、电力控制装置等,并给望远镜装上功能更强的照相机。他们还创造了航天飞机一次飞行中,宇航员太空行走总时间最长的新记录。本文有两句写得颇有诗意: As Columbia’s wheels touched down on the three - mile landing strip(飞机的起落跑道) at Florida’s Kennedy Space Center, Hubble was flying more than 350miles above the Pacific Ocean, its systems performing well, NASA said。 译文:当“哥伦比亚”号航天飞机的轮子接触在佛罗里达州的肯尼迪航天中心3英里长的起落跑道时,哈勃望远镜正在太平洋上空350英里处飞行,它的系统工作正常。美国国家航空和宇宙航行局如是说。 注:上句所以如此具有文采,是因为使用了“对照”(contrast)的修辞手法。特别是其中两个数字的运用,真可咀嚼! 另一处是: Hubble has really opened our eyes to what the universe is made of , its struc-ture, and has helped us learn how little we know about the universe。 佳句!又使用了“对照”(contrast)的修辞手法!且更具哲理,发?

  14. Team Learning in Teacher Teams: Team Entitativity as a Bridge between Teams-in-Theory and Teams-in-Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate team learning in the context of teacher teams in higher vocational education. As teacher teams often do not meet all criteria included in theoretical team definitions, the construct "team entitativity" was introduced. Defined as the degree to which a group of individuals possesses the quality of being a…

  15. Team Learning in Teacher Teams: Team Entitativity as a Bridge between Teams-in-Theory and Teams-in-Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate team learning in the context of teacher teams in higher vocational education. As teacher teams often do not meet all criteria included in theoretical team definitions, the construct "team entitativity" was introduced. Defined as the degree to which a group of individuals possesses the quality of being a…

  16. The Hubble Relation for a Comprehensive Sample of QSOs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Basu

    2003-03-01

    A correlation between redshifts () and apparent magnitudes () (Hubble relation) of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSOs) has long been sought. Such a correlation exists for galaxies whose redshifts are of cosmological origin. However, a plot of the two quantities representing the Hubble diagram for QSOs exhibits, in general, a wild scatter. This raises the question whether redshifts of QSOs are cosmological. On the other hand, most luminous QSOs in groups, and subsamples with particular properties, have been reported to show the Hubble relation. In the present paper, we analyse all optically non-variable QSOs in a comprehensive sample. In our analysis we grouped the objects into certain intervals of apparent magnitudes. Correlations obtained between redshifts and magnitudes are all statistically robust. Also, the Hubble relation in the usual form = 5 log +C is obeyed very convincingly for QSOs with < 19.5.

  17. How Long Can the Hubble Space Telescope Operate Reliably?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Jordan, T.; Poivey, C.; Lum, G.; Haskins, D. N.; Pergosky, A. M.; Smith, D. C.; LaBel, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Total ionizing dose exposure of electronic parts in the Hubble Space Telescope is analyzed using 3-D ray trace and Monte Carlo simulations. Results are discussed along with other potential failure mechanisms for science operations.

  18. Carnegie Hubble Program: A Mid-Infrared Calibration of the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Burns, Chris; Monson, Andy; Persson, S. Eric; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Using a mid-infrared calibration of the Cepheid distance scale based on recent observations at 3.6 micrometers with the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have obtained a new, high-accuracy calibration of the Hubble constant. We have established the mid-IR zero point of the Leavitt law (the Cepheid period-luminosity relation) using time-averaged 3.6 micrometers data for 10 high-metallicity, MilkyWay Cepheids having independently measured trigonometric parallaxes. We have adopted the slope of the PL relation using time-averaged 3.6micrometers data for 80 long-period Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids falling in the period range 0.8 Hubble Space Telescope Key Project has decreased by over a factor of three. Applying the Spitzer calibration to the Key Project sample, we find a value of H(sub 0) = 74.3 with a systematic uncertainty of +/-2.1 (systematic) kilometers per second Mpc(sup -1), corresponding to a 2.8% systematic uncertainty in the Hubble constant. This result, in combination with WMAP7measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and assuming a flat universe, yields a value of the equation of state for dark energy, w(sub 0) = -1.09 +/- 0.10. Alternatively, relaxing the constraints on flatness and the numbers of relativistic species, and combining our results with those of WMAP7, Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations yield w(sub 0) = -1.08 +/- 0.10 and a value of N(sub eff) = 4.13 +/- 0.67, mildly consistent with the existence of a fourth neutrino species.

  19. Team coordination dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Cooke, Nancy J

    2010-07-01

    Team coordination consists of both the dynamics of team member interaction and the environmental dynamics to which a team is subjected. Focusing on dynamics, an approach is developed that contrasts with traditional aggregate-static concepts of team coordination as characterized by the shared mental model approach. A team coordination order parameter was developed to capture momentary fluctuations in coordination. Team coordination was observed in three-person uninhabited air vehicle teams across two experimental sessions. The dynamics of the order parameter were observed under changes of a team familiarity control parameter. Team members returned for the second session to either the same (Intact) or different (Mixed) team. 'Roadblock' perturbations, or novel changes in the task environment, were introduced in order to probe the stability of team coordination. Nonlinear dynamic methods revealed differences that a traditional approach did not: Intact and Mixed team coordination dynamics looked very different; Mixed teams were more stable than Intact teams and explored the space of solutions without the need for correction. Stability was positively correlated with the number of roadblock perturbations that were overcome successfully. The novel and non-intuitive contribution of a dynamical analysis was that Mixed teams, who did not have a long history working together, were more adaptive. Team coordination dynamics carries new implications for traditional problems such as training adaptive teams.

  20. Featured Image: Mapping Jupiter with Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Zonal wind profile for Jupiter, describing the speed and direction of its winds at each latitude. [Simon et al. 2015]This global map of Jupiters surface (click for the full view!) was generated by the Hubble Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program, which aims to createnew yearly global maps for each of the outer planets. Presented in a study led by Amy Simon (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), the map above is the first generated for Jupiter in the first year of the OPAL campaign. It provides a detailed look at Jupiters atmospheric structure including the Great Red Spot and allowed the authors to measure the speed and direction of the wind across Jupiters latitudes, constructing an updated zonal wind profile for Jupiter.In contrast to this study, the Juno mission (which will be captured into Jupiters orbit today after a 5-year journey to Jupiter!) will be focusing more on the features below Jupiters surface, studying its deep atmosphere and winds. Some of Junos primary goals are to learn about Jupiters composition, gravitational field, magnetic field, and polar magnetosphere. You can follow along with the NASATV livestream as Juno arrives at Jupiter tonight; orbit insertion coverage starts at 10:30 EDT.CitationAmy A. Simon et al 2015 ApJ 812 55. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/1/55

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident, NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. The HST SM4 was subsequently reinstated and flown as Space Transportation System (STS)-125 because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damaged thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a viable crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of STS-125, the viability of the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For STS-125, there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue due to limited consumables (power, oxygen, etc.) available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depended upon several factors, including when a problem was identified; when and what actions, such as powering down, were begun to conserve consumables; and where the Launch on Need (LON) vehicle was in its ground processing cycle. Crew rescue success also needed to be weighed against preserving the Orbiter s ability to have a landing option in case there was a problem with the LON vehicle. This paper focuses on quantifying the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down strategies. Results from this effort supported NASA s decision to proceed with STS-125, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  2. UV/Visible Telescope with Hubble Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Submission Overview: Our primary objective is to convey a sense of the significant advances possible in astrophysics investigations for major Cosmic Origins COR program goals with a 2.4m telescope asset outfitted with one or more advanced UV visible instruments. Several compelling science objectives were identified based on community meetings these science objectives drove the conceptual design of instruments studied by the COR Program Office during July September 2012. This RFI submission encapsulates the results of that study, and suggests that a more detailed look into the instrument suite should be conducted to prove viability and affordability to support the demonstrated scientific value. This study was conducted in the context of a larger effort to consider the options available for a mission to dispose safely of Hubble hence, the overall architecture considered for the mission we studied for the 2.4m telescope asset included resource sharing. This mitigates combined cost and risk and provides naturally for a continued US leadership role in astrophysics with an advanced, general-purpose UV visible space telescope.

  3. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA (color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This colorful photo shows a ground-based image of the entire Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion witnessed over 900 years ago. The nebula, which is 10 light-years across, is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. The green, yellow and red filaments concentrated toward the edges of the nebula are remnants of the star that were ejected into space by the explosion. At the center of the Crab Nebula lies the Crab Pulsar -- the collapsed core of the exploded star. The Crab Pulsar is a rapidly rotating neutron star -- an object only about six miles across, but containing more mass than our Sun. As it rotates at a rate of 30 times per second the Crab Pulsar's powerful magnetic field sweeps around, accelerating particles, and whipping them out into the nebula at speeds close to that of light. The blue glow in the inner part of the nebula -- light emitted by energetic electrons as they spiral through the Crab's magnetic field -- is powered by the Crab Pulsar. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  4. Type Ia Supernovae and the Hubble Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, D

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this review is the work that has been done during the 1990s on using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to measure the Hubble constant ($H_0$). SNe Ia are well suited for measuring $H_0$. A straightforward maximum-light color criterion can weed out the minority of observed events that are either intrinsically subluminous or substantially extinguished by dust, leaving a majority subsample that has observational absolute-magnitude dispersions of less than $\\sigma_{obs}(M_B) \\simeq \\sigma_{obs}(M_V) \\simeq 0.3$ mag. Correlations between absolute magnitude and one or more distance-independent SN Ia or parent-galaxy observables can be used to further standardize the absolute magnitudes to better than 0.2 mag. The absolute magnitudes can be calibrated in two independent ways --- empirically, using Cepheid-based distances to parent galaxies of SNe Ia, and physically, by light curve and spectrum fitting. At present the empirical and physical calibrations are in agreement at $M_B \\simeq M_V \\simeq -19.4$ or -19....

  5. The Hubble Deep Field South Flanking Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, R A; Brown, T M; Casertano, S; Conselice, C J; De Mello, D F; Dickinson, M E; Ferguson, H C; Fruchter, A S; Gardner, J P; Gilmore, D; González-Lopezlira, R A; Heyer, I; Hook, R N; Kaiser, M E; Mack, J; Makidon, R B; Martin, C L; Mutchler, M Y; Smith, T E; Stiavelli, M; Teplitz, H I; Wiggs, M S; Williams, R E; Zurek, D R; Lucas, Ray A.; Baum, Stefi A.; Brown, Thomas M.; Casertano, Stefano; Conselice, Chris; Mello, Duilia de; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gilmore, Diane; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.; Heyer, Inge; Hook, Richard N.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Mack, Jennifer; Makidon, Russell; Martin, Crystal L.; Mutchler, Max; Stiavelli, Massimo; Teplitz, Harry I.; Wiggs, Michael S.; Williams, Robert E.; Zurek, David R.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Hubble Deep Field South program, a set of shorter 2-orbit observations were obtained of the area adjacent to the deep fields. The WFPC2 flanking fields cover a contiguous solid angle of 48 square arcminutes. Parallel observations with the STIS and NICMOS instruments produce a patchwork of additional fields with optical and near-infrared (1.6 micron) response. Deeper parallel exposures with WFPC2 and NICMOS were obtained when STIS observed the NICMOS deep field. These deeper fields are offset from the rest, and an extended low surface brightness object is visible in the deeper WFPC2 flanking field. In this data paper, which serves as an archival record of the project, we discuss the observations and data reduction, and present SExtractor source catalogs and number counts derived from the data. Number counts are broadly consistent with previous surveys from both ground and space. Among other things, these flanking field observations are useful for defining slit masks for spectroscopic follow-up o...

  6. HUBBLE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT CONSTRAINTS ON DARK ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Omer; Mania, Data; Ratra, Bharat, E-mail: omer@phys.ksu.edu, E-mail: mania@phys.ksu.edu, E-mail: ratra@phys.ksu.edu [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    We use 21 Hubble parameter versus redshift data points from Simon et al., Gaztanaga et al., Stern et al., and Moresco et al. to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. The inclusion of the eight new measurements results in H(z) constraints more restrictive than those derived by Chen and Ratra. These constraints are now almost as restrictive as those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude versus redshift data, which now more carefully account for systematic uncertainties. This is a remarkable result. We emphasize, however, that SNIa data have been studied for a longer time than the H(z) data, possibly resulting in a better estimate of potential systematic errors in the SNIa case. A joint analysis of the H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially flat cosmological model currently dominated by a time-independent cosmological constant but does not exclude slowly evolving dark energy.

  7. Hubble parameter measurement constraints on dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Omer; Ratra, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    We use 21 Hubble parameter versus redshift data points, from Gazta\\~{n}aga et al. (2009), Stern et al. (2010), and Moresco et al. (2012), to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. This is the largest set of H(z) data considered to date. The inclusion of the 8 new Moresco et al. (2012) measurements results in H(z) constraints more restrictive than those derived by Chen & Ratra (2011b). These constraints are now almost as restrictive as those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude versus redshift data (Suzuki et al. 2012), which now more carefully account for systematic uncertainties. This is a remarkable result. We emphasize however that SNIa data have been studied for a longer time than the H(z) data, possibly resulting in a better estimate of potential systematic errors in the SNIa case. A joint analysis of the H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially-flat cosmological model cu...

  8. Determination of the Hubble Constant Using Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Sabour, Mohamed; Issa, Issa Ali; El-Nawawy, Mohamed Saleh; Kordi, Ayman; Almostafa, Zaki; El-Said, Ahmad Essam; Ali, Gamal Bakr

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a statistical treatment to use Cepheid variable stars as distance indicators. The expansion rate of the Universe is also studied here through deriving the value of the Hubble constant H0. A Gaussian function approximation is proposed to fit the absolute magnitude and period of Cepheid variables in our galaxy. The calculations are carried out on samples of Cepheids observed in 23 galaxies to derive the distance modulus (DM) of these galaxies based on the frequency distributions of their periods and intrinsic apparent magnitudes. The DM is the difference between the apparent magnitude for extragalactic Cepheids and the absolute magnitude of the galactic Cepheids at maximum number. It is calculated by using the comparison of the period distribution of Cepheids in our galaxy and in other galaxies. This method is preferred due to its simplicity to use and its efficiency in providing reliable DM. A linear fit with correlation coefficient of 99.68% has been found between the published distance ...

  9. Local Hubble Expansion: Current State of the Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2016-01-01

    We present a brief qualitative overview of the current state of the problem of Hubble expansion at the sufficiently small scales (e.g., in planetary systems or local intergalactic volume). The crucial drawbacks of the available theoretical treatments are emphasized, and the possible ways to avoid them are outlined. Attention is drawn to a number of observable astronomical phenomena that could be naturally explained by the local Hubble expansion.

  10. Replacement vs. Renovation: The Reincarnation of Hubble Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    At the original Hubble Middle School, neither the views (a congested Roosevelt Road and glimpses of downtown Wheaton) nor the century-old facility that offered them was very inspiring. Built at the start of the 20th century, the 250,000-square-foot building was converted from Wheaton Central High School to Hubble Middle School in the early 1980s.…

  11. Speeding Up Team Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)

  12. Dialogue in team formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F; Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R; Dignum, F; Chaib-Draa, B; Weigand, H

    1999-01-01

    The process of cooperative problem solving can be divided into four stages. First, finding potential team members, then forming a team followed by constructing a plan for that team. Finally, the plan is executed by the team. Traditionally, very simple protocols like the Contract Net protocol are use

  13. Critical Care Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients and Families > About Critical Care > Team Tweet Team Page Content ​The critical care team is a group of specially trained caregivers who ... help very ill patients get better. The care team often teach the patient and family strategies that ...

  14. Dialogue in team formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F; Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R; Dignum, F; Chaib-Draa, B; Weigand, H

    1999-01-01

    The process of cooperative problem solving can be divided into four stages. First, finding potential team members, then forming a team followed by constructing a plan for that team. Finally, the plan is executed by the team. Traditionally, very simple protocols like the Contract Net protocol are

  15. Instructional Design Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Judith A.; Collins, Keith

    1974-01-01

    An instructional design team, composed of experts in nursing, education, and media production, is used at the University of Wisconsin School of Nursing, Madison, to produce instructional units for a new curriculum. The authors summarize steps of team/faculty communications, team methodology, and factors influencing the team's effectiveness. (EA)

  16. The Discipline of Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Jon R.; Smith, Douglas K.

    1993-01-01

    Teams share commitment, translate purpose into performance goals, and have members be accountable with and to their teammates. Types of teams are those that recommend, make or do things, and run things. The distinction between teams and other working groups is performance: an effective team is worth more than the sum of its parts. (SK)

  17. Speeding Up Team Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)

  18. Evolution in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    David P. Myatt; Chris Wallace

    2003-01-01

    Team formation will often involve a coordination problem. If no-one else is contributing to a team, there is little point in an agent exerting any effort. Similarly, once a team is formed, an agent within the team will not leave, as to do so would result in team collapse; non-contributing agents would not join, as they currently receive the benefits of the team`s efforts whilst paying none of the costs. The methods of the stochastic adjustment dynamics literature can help select between these...

  19. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...

  20. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.;

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...

  1. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-01-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader’s verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time. PMID:28490856

  2. Team Leader Structuring for Team Effectiveness and Team Learning in Command-and-Control Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien

    2017-04-01

    Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader's verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time.

  3. Carnegie Hubble Program: A Mid-Infrared Calibration of the Hubble Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Freedman, Wendy L; Scowcroft, Victoria; Burns, Chris; Monson, Andy; Persson, S Eric; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Using a mid-infrared calibration of the Cepheid distance scale based on recent observations at 3.6 um with the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have obtained a new, high-accuracy calibration of the Hubble constant. We have established the mid-IR zero point of the Leavitt Law (the Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation) using time-averaged 3.6 um data for ten high-metallicity, Milky Way Cepheids having independently-measured trigonometric parallaxes. We have adopted the slope of the PL relation using time-averaged 3.6 um data for 80 long-period Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids falling in the period range 0.8 < log(P) < 1.8. We find a new reddening-corrected distance to the LMC of 18.477 +/- 0.033 (systematic) mag. We re-examine the systematic uncertainties in H0, also taking into account new data over the past decade. In combination with the new Spitzer calibration, the systematic uncertainty in H0 over that obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Key Project has decreased by over a factor of three. App...

  4. Propositional Team Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan; Väänänen, Jouko

    2016-01-01

    We consider team semantics for propositional logic, continuing our previous work (Yang & V\\"a\\"an\\"anen 2016). In team semantics the truth of a propositional formula is considered in a set of valuations, called a team, rather than in an individual valuation. This offers the possibility to give meaning to concepts such as dependence, independence and inclusion. We define an expressively maximal propositional team logic, called full propositional team logic. This requires going beyond the logic...

  5. Effective School Counseling Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Lilley, Stacey Custer

    2007-01-01

    Despite much attention given to effective teams in the workplace, school counseling teams have been neglected in the research. The primary purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn what characteristics secondary counselors perceive contribute to an effective school counseling team. The first research phase conducted six team interviews; themes emerging from the interviews yielded the development of the Effective School Counseling Team Questionnaire (ESCTQ). The following research quest...

  6. Team Exploratory Testing Sessions

    OpenAIRE

    Soili Saukkoriipi; Ilkka Tervonen

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory testing (ET) is popular, especially among agile development teams. In this paper, we study the team aspect in the ET context and explore how to use ET in team sessions to complement other testing activities. The goal was to define a team exploratory testing (TET) session approach and to provide evidence that the approach is worth using. A TET session approach is defined by means of parameters, roles, and process. Also, instructions for using the approach are given. The team is the...

  7. HUBBLE PROVIDES COMPLETE VIEW OF JUPITER'S AURORAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured a complete view of Jupiter's northern and southern auroras. Images taken in ultraviolet light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) show both auroras, the oval- shaped objects in the inset photos. While the Hubble telescope has obtained images of Jupiter's northern and southern lights since 1990, the new STIS instrument is 10 times more sensitive than earlier cameras. This allows for short exposures, reducing the blurring of the image caused by Jupiter's rotation and providing two to five times higher resolution than earlier cameras. The resolution in these images is sufficient to show the 'curtain' of auroral light extending several hundred miles above Jupiter's limb (edge). Images of Earth's auroral curtains, taken from the space shuttle, have a similar appearance. Jupiter's auroral images are superimposed on a Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image of the entire planet. The auroras are brilliant curtains of light in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Jovian auroral storms, like Earth's, develop when electrically charged particles trapped in the magnetic field surrounding the planet spiral inward at high energies toward the north and south magnetic poles. When these particles hit the upper atmosphere, they excite atoms and molecules there, causing them to glow (the same process acting in street lights). The electrons that strike Earth's atmosphere come from the sun, and the auroral lights remain concentrated above the night sky in response to the 'solar wind,' as Earth rotates underneath. Earth's auroras exhibit storms that extend to lower latitudes in response to solar activity, which can be easily seen from the northern U. S. But Jupiter's auroras are caused by particles spewed out by volcanoes on Io, one of Jupiter's moons. These charged particles are then magnetically trapped and begin to rotate with Jupiter, producing ovals of auroral light centered on Jupiter's magnetic poles in both the day and night skies

  8. MANAGING MULTICULTURAL PROJECT TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar SCARLAT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on literature review and authors’ own recent experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment. This comparative study considers two groups of projects: technical assistance (TA projects versus information technology (IT projects. The aim is to explore the size and structure of the project teams – according to the team formation and its lifecycle, and to identify some distinctive attributes of the project teams – both similarities and differences between the above mentioned types of projects. Distinct focus of the research is on the multiculturalism of the project teams: how the cultural background of the team members influences the team performance and team management. Besides the results of the study are the managerial implications: how the team managers could soften the cultural clash, and avoid inter-cultural misunderstandings and even conflicts – in order to get a better performance. Some practical examples are provided as well.

  9. HUBBLE provides multiple views of how to feed a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    fuel from a devoured galaxy, it may be oblivious to the rest of the galaxy and the collision," said Ethan Schreier of the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. Schreier and an international team of co-investigators used Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer to probe deeper into the galaxy's mysterious heart than anyone has before. The hot gas disk viewed by Hubble investigators is perpendicular to the galaxy's outer dust belt, while the black hole's own internal accretion disk of superhot gas falling into it is tilted approximately diagonally to these axes. "We have found a complicated situation of a disk within a disk within a disk, all pointing in different directions," Schreier said. It is not clear if the black hole was always present in the host galaxy or belonged to the spiral galaxy that fell into the core, or if it is the product of the merger of a pair of smaller black holes that lived in the two once-separate galaxies. Having an active galaxy just 10 million light-years away from Earth rather than hundreds of millions or billions of light-years distant offers astronomers a unique laboratory for understanding the elusive details of the behavior of supermassive black holes as fueled by galaxy collisions. "Though Hubble has seen hot gas disks around black holes in other galaxies, the infrared camera has for the first time allowed us to peer at this relatively nearby, very active, but obscured black hole region," Schreier added. The team of astronomers is awaiting further Hubble data to continue its study of the disk, as well as ground-based spectroscopic observations to measure the velocity of entrapped material around the black hole. This will allow the astronomers to better calculate the black hole's mass. The current results are scheduled to appear in the June 1, 1998 issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. Images and further information related to these results are available on the Internet at the following URLs: http

  10. Training a team with simulated team members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstal, A.M.; Hoeft, R.M.; Schaik, M. van

    2002-01-01

    The process of training teams increasingly occurs in synthetic environments. However, it is often still modeled after live team training, including the disadvantages of live training, for example, the fact that all teammates must be available. This paper explores overcoming the disadvantages of huma

  11. Team Effectiveness and Team Development in CSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Jos; Weinberger, Armin; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a wealth of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that is neglected in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research. CSCW research is concerned with contextual factors, however, that may strongly influence collaborative learning processes as well, such as task characteristics, team formation, team members'…

  12. Team training/simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin A S; Fisher, Janet; Arafeh, Julia; Druzin, Maurice

    2010-03-01

    Obstetrical emergencies require the rapid formation of a team with clear communication, strong leadership, and appropriate decision-making to ensure a positive patient outcome. Obstetric teams can improve their emergency response capability and efficiency through team and simulation training. Postpartum hemorrhage is an ideal model for team and simulation training, as postpartum hemorrhage requires a multidisciplinary team with the capability to produce a protocol-driven, rapid response. This article provides an overview of team and simulation training and focuses on applications within obstetrics, particularly preparation for postpartum hemorrhage.

  13. Transforming Virtual Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    Investigating virtual team collaboration in industry using grounded theory this paper presents the in-dept analysis of empirical work conducted in a global organization of 100.000 employees where a global virtual team with participants from Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, and North America were...... studied. The research question investigated is how collaboration is negotiated within virtual teams? This paper presents findings concerning how collaboration is negotiated within a virtual team and elaborate the difficulties due to invisible articulation work and managing multiple communities...... in transforming the virtual team into a community. It is argued that translucence in communication structures within the virtual team and between team and management is essential for engaging in a positive transformation process of trustworthiness supporting the team becoming a community, managing the immanent...

  14. Teaming up for learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Fransen, J. (2012). Teaming up for learning: Team effectiveness in collaborative learning in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). November, 16, 2012, Open University in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  15. Hubble Parameter in QCD Universe for finite Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Mansour, H; Harko, T

    2010-01-01

    The influence of perturbative bulk viscosity on the evolution of Hubble parameter in the QCD era of the early Universe has been analyzed, where Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and Einstein field equations are utilized. Homogeneous and isotropic background matter is assumed to be characterized by barotropic equations of state deduced from recent lattice QCD simulations and heavy--ion collisions. Taking into account perturbative bulk viscosity coefficient, an estimation for the evolution of the Hubble parameter has been introduced and compared with its evolution in a non--viscous matter. A numerical solution for finite viscous Israel-Stewart background matter is also worked out. Both methods qualitatively agree in reproducing viscous Hubble parameter that turns to be slightly different from the non--viscous one. This treatment is strictly limited within a very narrow temperature-- or time--interval in QCD era, where the QGP matter is likely dominant.

  16. Cosmic Collisions The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Martin, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Lars Lindberg Christensen, Raquel Yumi Shida & Davide De Martin Cosmic Collisions: The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies Like majestic ships in the grandest night, galaxies can slip ever closer until their mutual gravitational interaction begins to mold them into intricate figures that are finally, and irreversibly, woven together. It is an immense cosmic dance, choreographed by gravity. Cosmic Collisions contains a hundred new, many thus far unpublished, images of colliding galaxies from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. It is believed that many present-day galaxies, including the Milky Way, were assembled from such a coalescence of smaller galaxies, occurring over billions of years. Triggered by the colossal and violent interaction between the galaxies, stars form from large clouds of gas in firework bursts, creating brilliant blue star clusters. The importance of these cosmic encounters reaches far beyond the stunning Hubble images. They may, in fact, be among the most important processes that shape ...

  17. Planck and WMAP constraints on generalised Hubble flow inflationary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Contaldi, Carlo R

    2013-01-01

    We use the Hamilton--Jacobi formalism to constrain the space of possible single field, inflationary Hubble flow trajectories when compared to the WMAP and Planck satellites Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) results. This method yields posteriors on the space of Hubble Slow Roll (HSR) parameters that uniquely determine the history of the Hubble parameter during the inflating epoch. The trajectories are used to numerically determine the observable primordial power spectrum and bispectra that can then be compared to observations. Our analysis is used to infer the most likely shape of the inflaton potential $V(\\phi)$ and also yields a prediction for, $f_{\\rm NL}$, the dimensionless amplitude of the non-Gaussian bispectrum.

  18. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  19. MANAGING MULTICULTURAL PROJECT TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Scarlat, Cezar; Carmen-Laura ZARZU; Adriana PRODAN

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on literature review and authors’ own recent experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment. This comparative study considers two groups of projects: technical assistance (TA) projects versus information technology (IT) projects. The aim is to explore the size and structure of the project teams – according to the team formation and its lifecycle, and to identify some distinctive attributes of the project teams – both similarities and diff...

  20. Toward Learning Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoda, Rashina; Babb, Jeff; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    to sacrifice learning-focused practices. Effective learning under pressure involves conscious efforts to implement original agile practices such as retrospectives and adapted strategies such as learning spikes. Teams, their management, and customers must all recognize the importance of creating learning teams......Today's software development challenges require learning teams that can continuously apply new engineering and management practices, new and complex technical skills, cross-functional skills, and experiential lessons learned. The pressure of delivering working software often forces software teams...

  1. Toward Learning Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoda, Rashina; Babb, Jeff; Nørbjerg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Today's software development challenges require learning teams that can continuously apply new engineering and management practices, new and complex technical skills, cross-functional skills, and experiential lessons learned. The pressure of delivering working software often forces software teams...... to sacrifice learning-focused practices. Effective learning under pressure involves conscious efforts to implement original agile practices such as retrospectives and adapted strategies such as learning spikes. Teams, their management, and customers must all recognize the importance of creating learning teams...

  2. Formalization of Team Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Rossman, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    This paper is divided to practical and theoretical part. Theoretical part defines essential background of personality and work psychology which are pillars for using the personality and roles typology in practical part. I also define conceptions such as group, team, procedures of making the team. Practical part is focused at making the repertoary grid which outlines proximity of team roles, anchored in the repertoary grids upon personal atributes basis and picked team positions.

  3. Multicultural team conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  4. Multicultural team conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  5. Adaptivenes in Virtual Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Qureshi (Sadja); D. Vogel

    2000-01-01

    textabstractComputer supported teams are capturing the attention of academics and practitioners as organisations increasingly put them into practice as virtual teams. The practical relevance of current research into computer supported teams could be increased if greater attention is paid to organisa

  6. Leadership for Distributed Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, J.P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an

  7. Leadership for Distributed Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, J.P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an interdepende

  8. Fostering teachers' team learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, Machiel; Runhaar, Piety; Wesselink, Renate; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of educational innovations by teachers seems to benefit from a team approach and team learning. The study's goal is to examine to what extent transformational leadership is associated with team learning, and to investigate the mediating roles of participative decision-making,

  9. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Ronald F

    2014-01-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the distances to stars listed in the 2011 HYG database "follow well the probabilities predicted by Benford's law", the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why star distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. Conversely, with the logical derivation given here, the empirical observations may be viewed as new independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  10. Constraining Ω with the fluctuation of the local Hubble flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Guo; Huan-Yuan Shan

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of the fluctuation of the local Hubble flow using 350 galaxies in the Local Volume (D<5 Mpc, hereafter LV) with accurate measurements of distances, positions and radial velocities, and compare the results with the theoretical prediction of the local Hubble flow induced by density perturbations. This allows us to set a useful constraint on the local Ω parameters: ΩM~0.6 and ΩΛ~0.7, which may serve as compelling evidence for the existence of dark energy in the local Universe.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope: Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the Hubble Space Telescope and its mission. Topics include design changes, flight performance, and initial problems encountered. The Hubble's solar arrays and observations of space are discussed.

  12. From the Universe to the Classroom : A Professional Development Program for Hubble and Webb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Summers, F.; McCallister, D.; Ryer, H.; Knisely, L.

    2014-01-01

    The education team at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) designs professional development workshops that support the needs of the education community. The purpose of these workshops is to share the latest information about the Hubble and James Webb space telescopes, current NASA science, and curriculum support tools with the education community. The workshops also address STEM topics and the latest educational research, while emphasizing real-world connections. Over the years, our professional development program has been pivotal to disseminating resources, providing educators with the necessary background to use these resources, and helping us better understand community needs. Educators and scientists are both critical to the implementation of quality professional development due to their unique areas of expertise. As a result, our professional development program is founded on the experience of educators who work in partnership with scientists and other content experts. These teams develop workshops that enhance educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge. This poster will highlight examples of how scientists and educators have worked together to develop workshop materials and content.

  13. WSRT observations of the Hubble Deep Field region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, MA; de Bruyn, AG; Giroletti, M; Baan, WA; Schilizzi, RT

    We present deep WSRT 1.4 GHz observations of the Hubble Deep Field region. At the 5 sigma level, the WSRT clearly detects 85 regions of radio emission in a 10' x 10' field centred on the HDF Eight of these regions fall within the HDF itself, four of these are sources that have not previously been

  14. Dynamical decomposition of galaxies across the Hubble sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Meidt, S. E.; Martig, M.; Yildirim, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing and upcoming integral-field spectroscopic surveys will provide stellar kinematic maps of thousands of nearby galaxies across the Hubble sequence. For the first time, we have been able to construct Schwarzschild dynamical models that fit in detail elliptical through spiral galaxies from the

  15. Hubble: Linked Data Hub for Clinical Decision Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Magliacane, S.; Rietveld, L.; de Vries, G.; Wibisono, A.; Schlobach, S.; Simperl, E.; Norton, B.; Mladenic, D.; Della Valle, E.; Fundulaki, I.; Passant, A.; Troncy, R.

    2015-01-01

    The AERS datasets is one of the few remaining, large publicly available medical data sets that until now have not been published as Linked Data. It is uniquely positioned amidst other medical datasets. This paper describes the Hubble prototype system for clinical decision support that demonstrates

  16. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  17. Early Scientific Results from the Rejuvenated Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedner, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    With the complete success of Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope in May, 2009, the Observatory's capabilities are extremely broad and beyond anything it has previously been equipped with. I will present results on the important early science corning out of the telescope and discuss prospects for the future."

  18. Angular Momentum across the Hubble sequence from the CALIFA survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Lyubenova, Mariya; van de Ven, Glenn

    We investigate the stellar angular momentum of galaxies across the Hubble sequence from the CALIFA survey. The distribution of CALIFA elliptical and lenticular galaxies in the λRe - ɛe diagram is consistent with that shown by the Atlas3D survey. Our data, however, show that the location of spiral

  19. Short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A-L; Sibai, A; Mahfoud, L; Oubari, D; Ashkar, J; Fuleihan, N

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice. Prospective study. Eighteen non-dysphonic subjects (seven men and 11 women) with a history of hubble-bubble smoking and no history of cigarette smoking underwent acoustic analysis and laryngeal video-stroboscopic examination before and 30 minutes after hubble-bubble smoking. On laryngeal video-stroboscopy, none of the subjects had vocal fold erythema either before or after smoking. Five patients had mild vocal fold oedema both before and after smoking. After smoking, there was a slight increase in the number of subjects with thick mucus between the vocal folds (six, vs four before smoking) and with vocal fold vessel dilation (two, vs one before smoking). Acoustic analysis indicated a drop in habitual pitch, fundamental frequency and voice turbulence index after smoking, and an increase in noise-to-harmonics ratio. Even 30 minutes of hubble-bubble smoking can cause a drop in vocal pitch and an increase in laryngeal secretions and vocal fold vasodilation.

  20. Kennedy Educate to Innovate (KETI) Hubble Powerpoint Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The presentation describes the Hubble Space Telescope and it's contributions to astronomy. Also discussed are the James Webb Space Telescope and the kinds of careers that relate to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) that students can pursue in fields related to space telescopes.

  1. HUBBLE FINDS A BARE BLACK HOLE POURING OUT LIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided a never-before-seen view of a warped disk flooded with a torrent of ultraviolet light from hot gas trapped around a suspected massive black hole. [Right] This composite image of the core of the galaxy was constructed by combining a visible light image taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), with a separate image taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera (FOC). While the visible light image shows a dark dust disk, the ultraviolet image (color-coded blue) shows a bright feature along one side of the disk. Because Hubble sees ultraviolet light reflected from only one side of the disk, astronomers conclude the disk must be warped like the brim of a hat. The bright white spot at the image's center is light from the vicinity of the black hole which is illuminating the disk. [Left] A ground-based telescopic view of the core of the elliptical galaxy NGC 6251. The inset box shows Hubble Space Telescope's field of view. The galaxy is 300 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Minor. Photo Credit: Philippe Crane (European Southern Observatory), and NASA

  2. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  3. Hubble Space Telescope On-orbit Transfer Function Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamudi, N.; Blair, M. A.; Clapp, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the On-orbit Transfer Function Test (TFT) designed for on-orbit vibration testing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The TFT provides means for extracting accurate on-orbit characteristics of HST flexible body dynamics, making it possible to check periodically the state of the vehicle on-orbit and to assess changes in modal parameters.

  4. Kennedy Educate to Innovate (KETI) Hubble Powerpoint Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The presentation describes the Hubble Space Telescope and it's contributions to astronomy. Also discussed are the James Webb Space Telescope and the kinds of careers that relate to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) that students can pursue in fields related to space telescopes.

  5. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    The complexities of new product development (NPD) teams present both opportunities and challenges to organizations. Very few researches have examined the combined effect of culture and geographical dispersion on teams. Especially, the role of distance still remains an open question. This paper...... elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  6. Hubble and ESO's VLT provide unique 3D views of remote galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Astronomers have obtained exceptional 3D views of distant galaxies, seen when the Universe was half its current age, by combining the twin strengths of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's acute eye, and the capacity of ESO's Very Large Telescope to probe the motions of gas in tiny objects. By looking at this unique "history book" of our Universe, at an epoch when the Sun and the Earth did not yet exist, scientists hope to solve the puzzle of how galaxies formed in the remote past. ESO PR Photo 10a/09 A 3D view of remote galaxies ESO PR Photo 10b/09 Measuring motions in 3 distant galaxies ESO PR Video 10a/09 Galaxies in collision For decades, distant galaxies that emitted their light six billion years ago were no more than small specks of light on the sky. With the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in the early 1990s, astronomers were able to scrutinise the structure of distant galaxies in some detail for the first time. Under the superb skies of Paranal, the VLT's FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph (ESO 13/02) -- which obtains simultaneous spectra from small areas of extended objects -- can now also resolve the motions of the gas in these distant galaxies (ESO 10/06). "This unique combination of Hubble and the VLT allows us to model distant galaxies almost as nicely as we can close ones," says François Hammer, who led the team. "In effect, FLAMES/GIRAFFE now allows us to measure the velocity of the gas at various locations in these objects. This means that we can see how the gas is moving, which provides us with a three-dimensional view of galaxies halfway across the Universe." The team has undertaken the Herculean task of reconstituting the history of about one hundred remote galaxies that have been observed with both Hubble and GIRAFFE on the VLT. The first results are coming in and have already provided useful insights for three galaxies. In one galaxy, GIRAFFE revealed a region full of ionised gas, that is, hot gas composed of atoms that have been stripped of

  7. Leadership for Distributed Teams

    OpenAIRE

    De Rooij, J.P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an interdependent task and in realizing a joint goal” (adapted from Bell & Kozlowski, 2002 and Dubé & Paré, 2004). Chapter 1 first presents the outline of the dissertation. Next, several characteristics of distri...

  8. Managing multicultural teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jeanne; Behfar, Kristin; Kern, Mary C

    2006-11-01

    Multicultural teams offer a number of advantages to international firms, including deep knowledge of different product markets, culturally sensitive customer service, and 24-hour work rotations. But those advantages may be outweighed by problems stemming from cultural differences, which can seriously impair the effectiveness of a team or even bring itto a stalemate. How can managers best cope with culture-based challenges? The authors conducted in-depth interviews with managers and members of multicultural teams from all over the world. Drawing on their extensive research on dispute resolution and teamwork and those interviews, they identify four problem categories that can create barriers to a team's success: direct versus indirect communication, trouble with accents and fluency, differing attitudes toward hierarchy and authority, and conflicting norms for decision making. If a manager--or a team member--can pinpoint the root cause of the problem, he or she is likelier to select an appropriate strategy for solving it. The most successful teams and managers, the authors found, dealt with multicultural challenges in one of four ways: adaptation (acknowledging cultural gaps openly and working around them), structural intervention (changing the shape or makeup of the team), managerial intervention (setting norms early or bringing in a higher-level manager), and exit (removing a team member when other options have failed). Which strategy is best depends on the particular circumstances--and each has potential complications. In general, though, managers who intervene early and set norms; teams and managers who try to engage everyone on the team; and teams that can see challenges as stemming from culture, not personality, succeed in solving culture-based problems with good humor and creativity. They are the likeliest to harvest the benefits inherent in multicultural teams.

  9. On championship TEAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel B

    2016-02-01

    Championship teams tap the strengths of the individuals working toward a common goal. Surgery is a team sport, which seeks to provide the very best patient care. For surgeons we seek to cure disease, alleviate suffering, and train the next generation of surgeons. When at our best, we build teamwork with a winning attitude, trust, respect, and love. Together there are no limits to what championship teams can achieve with passion, dedicated practice, mutual respect, and a little luck.

  10. Science and Team Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan R. Cole; Ralitsa B. Akins

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores a new idea about the future development of science and teams, and predicts its possible applications in science, education, workforce development and research. The inter-relatedness of science and teamwork developments suggests a growing importance of team facilitators’ quality, as well as the criticality of detailed studies of teamwork processes and team consortiums to address the increasing complexity of exponential knowledge growth and work interdependency. In the fu...

  11. The coronary heart team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Bobby; Puskas, John D; Bhatt, Deepak L; Verma, Subodh

    2017-09-01

    The concept of a Coronary Heart Team has generated increased interest, including support from major practice guidelines. Here, we review the rationale and the published experience of Coronary Heart Teams. A Coronary Heart Team should be led by both cardiology and cardiac surgery with a shared decision-making approach. The team should incorporate data from anatomic and clinical risk prediction models to offer individualized care. Most teams focus on management of complex patients and those with indications for both coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention. The potential benefits of a Coronary Heart Team include balanced decision-making, greater adherence to evidence-based practice guidelines, as well as promoting greater collegiality and exchange of knowledge between specialties. Single-center series have demonstrated consistency in decision-making by Coronary Heart Teams but prospective data demonstrating improved patient outcomes and/or cost effectiveness are necessary. The concept of a Coronary Heart Team is gaining traction for patients with complex coronary artery disease. There is a growing literature in support of Coronary Heart Teams but comparative and prospective data demonstrating improved patient outcomes are needed.

  12. Dream team or nightmare? Collaboration in project teams

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffeld, S.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Grote, S.

    2015-01-01

    Project teams are a contemporary organizing principle. They work on non-routine tasks. Team composition in project teams is often interdisciplinary (i.e., uniting team members from different departments or areas of expertise within an organization). Project teams face a number of challenges. In particular, collaborative task accomplishment is often accompanied by conflict in project teams. This chapter describes the specific challenges in project teams and showcases different approaches for c...

  13. Team Reflexivity and Innovation: The Moderating Role of Team Context

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, J.; Schippers, M; M. West

    2012-01-01

    Team reflexivity, the extent to which teams collectively reflect upon and adapt their working methods and functioning, has been shown to be an important predictor of team outcomes, notably innovation. As described in the current article, the authors developed and tested a team-level contingency model of team reflexivity, work demands, and innovation. They argue that highly reflexive teams will be more innovative than teams low in reflexivity when facing a demanding work environment. A field s...

  14. Hubble refurbished and ready for release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The deployment of the solar arrays came at the end of the fifth and final spacewalk of the mission. Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman spent seven-hours in the cargo bay fitting new electrical systems and installing covers over the telescope's old magnetometers. The first task was the installation of "SADE", a new ESA- supplied Solar Array Drive Electronics box. The box directs the twin solar panels at the Sun. The astronauts then lent a helping hand to lower the masts holding the solar arrays to their deployment position. Flight controllers decided to crank the masts out manually because of minor trouble with the latches. The next job was the installation of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) Redundancy Kit, a device that provides an alternate power and data route for the instrument. The ESA supplied solar blankets rolled off their canisters without incident between 4 and 4h35 a.m. CST (11 and 11h35 a.m. CET). An hour later the new SADE system turned the arrays towards the sun. "It is a tribute to the whole team, from the designers to the astronauts, that everything has gone so well", said Derek Eaton, ESA's HST project manager. "I only hope that the array will look so good when the shuttle returns to the telescope in 1997". The telescope's first set of solar arrays flexed in orbit because of the sudden swing in temperature as the telescope moved in and out of sunlight. The movement, known as jitter, affected the telescope's pointing system and disrupted observations at certain times. Special software compensated largely for the problem but this occupied a large amount of computer memory. The design of the new arrays was modified to eliminate the problem. Eaton said he was "101 per cent" confident that jitter from the arrays would no longer affect the work of the telescope. The deployment of the power-generating wings brought the servicing work to a close. If all goes according to plan, the telescope will return to orbital at 1.08 a.m. CST (8.08 a.m. CET

  15. Understanding Software Development Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    G.P. SUDHAKAR

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives the popular definitions of team, essential characteristics of teams and team de-velopment stages. It discusses the previous empirical studies undertaken to investigate the software development team performance. The factors affecting the software development team performance have been explained. It reviews the past research done in finding the performance of software devel-opment teams. It also discusses some of the representative research done on team performance in non-softw...

  16. The Kinematic Team Role Behavior in Work Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel; H; N; Leung; Joseph; W; K; Chan; W; B; Lee

    2002-01-01

    Work-team has emerged as an important unit composi ng the organization today. The concepts relating to the properties of team-role t hat fit with today's business environment have attracted much attention from the theorists and researchers. A team having a balanced composition of team-ro les is called a balanced team. Theoretically, a balanced team usually renders a better team performance. Therefore, to improve the performance of the team, mana gement needs to ensure that their work teams are composed...

  17. Developing Successful Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-20

    Who Moved My Cheese ?. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2002 Johnson, Spencer, and Blanchard, Ken. The One Minute Manager. New York: HarperCollins...2002. Scholtes, Peter R. and Others. The Team Handbook : How to Use Teams to Improve Quality. Madison, WI: Joiner Associates, Inc., 1988

  18. Interactive Team Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  19. Making Science Teams Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2004-01-01

    Science teachers, likely have more experience with students working together than teachers in any other subject area due to teaming students for hands-on activities. While the importance of teamwork is emphasized in the National Science Education Standards, getting teams to actually work-meaning getting students to share equally in the academic…

  20. Interactive Team Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  1. Advantages of Team Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John

    1973-01-01

    Describes a high school biology program which successfully utilizes team teaching. Outlines the advantages of team teaching and how it is used in the large group lecture-discussion situation, with small groups in the laboratory and on field trips. (JR)

  2. Virtual Trauma Team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; Bults, Richard G.A.

    2001-01-01

    The clinical motivation for Virtual Trauma Team is to improve quality of care in trauma care in the vital first "golden hour" where correct intervention can greatly improve likely health outcome. The motivation for Virtual Homecare Team is to improve quality of life and independence for patients by

  3. Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviours in Response Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Anne; Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Teams, teamwork and team learning have been the subject of many research studies over the last decades. This article aims at investigating and confirming the Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviours (TLB&B) model within a very specific population, i.e. police and firemen teams. Within this context, the paper asks whether the team's…

  4. Leading Teams of Leaders: What Helps Team Member Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Monica; Young, Lissa; Weiner, Jennie; Wlodarczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    School districts are moving toward a new form of management in which superintendents need to form and nurture leadership teams. A study of 25 such teams in Connecticut suggests that a team's effectiveness is maximized when the team members are coached by other team members, not the superintendent, and when they are coached on task-related…

  5. Dream team or nightmare? Collaboration in project teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffeld, S.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Grote, S.

    2015-01-01

    Project teams are a contemporary organizing principle. They work on non-routine tasks. Team composition in project teams is often interdisciplinary (i.e., uniting team members from different departments or areas of expertise within an organization). Project teams face a number of challenges. In part

  6. Team members' emotional displays as indicators of team functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, A.C.; van Kleef, G.A.; Sanchez-Burks, J.

    2016-01-01

    Emotions are inherent to team life, yet it is unclear how observers use team members’ emotional expressions to make sense of team processes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information theory, we propose that observers use team members’ emotional displays as a source of information to predict the team

  7. Dream team or nightmare? Collaboration in project teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffeld, S.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Grote, S.

    2015-01-01

    Project teams are a contemporary organizing principle. They work on non-routine tasks. Team composition in project teams is often interdisciplinary (i.e., uniting team members from different departments or areas of expertise within an organization). Project teams face a number of challenges. In

  8. The Problems Facing Multidisciplinary Teams: As Perceived by Team Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the problems team members perceive to exist on multidisciplinary teams. Results indicated the two major areas of concern for urban, multidisciplinary team members were: too constrictive a set of team roles and goals, and teams functioning under extensive pressure with minimal support. (Author)

  9. Measuring Team Learning Behaviours through Observing Verbal Team Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Boon, Anne; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore, as an answer to the observed lack of knowledge about actual team learning behaviours, the characteristics of the actual observed basic team learning behaviours and facilitating team learning behaviours more in-depth of three project teams. Over time, team learning in an organisational context has been…

  10. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  11. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  12. Measuring Team Learning Behaviours through Observing Verbal Team Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Boon, Anne; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore, as an answer to the observed lack of knowledge about actual team learning behaviours, the characteristics of the actual observed basic team learning behaviours and facilitating team learning behaviours more in-depth of three project teams. Over time, team learning in an organisational context has been…

  13. A nuclear data approach for the Hubble constant measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritychenko Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An extraordinary number of Hubble constant measurements challenges physicists with selection of the best numerical value. The standard U.S. Nuclear Data Program (USNDP codes and procedures have been applied to resolve this issue. The nuclear data approach has produced the most probable or recommended Hubble constant value of 67.2(69 (km/sec/Mpc. This recommended value is based on the last 20 years of experimental research and includes contributions from different types of measurements. The present result implies (14.55 ± 1.51 × 109 years as a rough estimate for the age of the Universe. The complete list of recommended results is given and possible implications are discussed.

  14. A nuclear data approach for the Hubble constant measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritychenko, Boris

    2017-09-01

    An extraordinary number of Hubble constant measurements challenges physicists with selection of the best numerical value. The standard U.S. Nuclear Data Program (USNDP) codes and procedures have been applied to resolve this issue. The nuclear data approach has produced the most probable or recommended Hubble constant value of 67.2(69) (km/sec)/Mpc. This recommended value is based on the last 20 years of experimental research and includes contributions from different types of measurements. The present result implies (14.55 ± 1.51) × 109 years as a rough estimate for the age of the Universe. The complete list of recommended results is given and possible implications are discussed.

  15. A nuclear data approach for the Hubble constant measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-09

    An extraordinary number of Hubble constant measurements challenges physicists with selection of the best numerical value. The standard U.S. Nuclear Data Program (USNDP) codes and procedures have been applied to resolve this issue. The nuclear data approach has produced the most probable or recommended Hubble constant value of 67.00(770) (km/sec)/Mpc. This recommended value is based on the last 25 years of experimental research and includes contributions from different types of measurements. The present result implies (14.6±1.7) x 109 years as a rough estimate for the age of the Universe. The complete list of recommended results is given and possible implications are discussed.

  16. A nuclear data approach for the Hubble constant measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-09

    An extraordinary number of Hubble constant measurements challenges physicists with selection of the best numerical value. The standard U.S. Nuclear Data Program (USNDP) codes and procedures have been applied to resolve this issue. The nuclear data approach has produced the most probable or recommended Hubble constant value of 67.00(770) (km/sec)/Mpc. This recommended value is based on the last 25 years of experimental research and includes contributions from different types of measurements. The present result implies (14.6±1.7) x 109 years as a rough estimate for the age of the Universe. The complete list of recommended results is given and possible implications are discussed.

  17. Citations and Team Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2017-02-01

    I explore whether small or large teams produce the most important astronomical results, on average, using citation counts as our metric. I present evidence that citation counts indicate the importance of papers. For the 1343 papers published in A&A, ApJ, and MNRAS in 2012 January-February, I considered 4.5 years worth of citations. In each journal, there are larger citation counts for papers from large teams than from small teams by a factor of about 2. To check whether the results from 2012 were unusual, I collected data from 2013 for A&A and found it to be the same as that for 2012. Could the preponderance of papers by large teams be due to self-citations (i.e., citing and cited papers sharing one or more authors)? To answer this, I looked at 136 papers with one to 266 authors and discovered a linear relation that ranges from a 12.7% self-citation rate for single-author papers to a 45.9% self-citation rate for papers with 100 authors. Correcting for these factors is not enough to explain the predominance of the papers with large teams. Then I computed citations per author. While large teams average more citations than small ones by a factor of 2, individuals on small teams average more citations than individuals on large teams by a factor of 6. The papers by large teams often have far more data, but those by small teams tend to discuss basic physical processes.

  18. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors - A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Benedict, G Fritz; Nelan, Edmund P; Harrison, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor interferometric astrometry has produced precise and accurate parallaxes of astrophysical interesting stars and mass estimates for stellar companions. We review parallax results, and binary star and exoplanet mass determinations, and compare a subset of these parallaxes with preliminary Gaia results. The approach to single-field relative astrometry described herein may continue to have value for targets fainter than the Gaia limit in the coming era of 20-30m telescopes.

  19. Telescope simulators for Hubble - An overview of optical designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davilla, Pam; Wood, H. J.; Atcheson, Paul D.; Saunders, Renee; Sullivan, Joe; Vaughan, Arthur H.; Saisse, Michel

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes optical design of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and overviews three optical design simulators for HST which have been proposed for use as verification tools to characterize the performance of second-generation instruments during ground testing. These simulators are: the Refractive Aberrated Simulator developed at Ball Aerospace, the Optical Simulator developed at Laboratoire Astronomie Spatiale, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Stimulus. Relative advantages and disadvantages of each optical configuration are discussed.

  20. Bayesian Approach to the Best Estimate of the Hubble Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓峰; 陈黎; 李宗伟

    2001-01-01

    A Bayesian approach is used to derive the probability distribution (PD) of the Hubble constant H0 from recent measurements including supernovae Ia, the Tully-Fisher relation, population Ⅱ and physical methods. The discrepancies among these PDs are briefly discussed. The combined value of all the measurements is obtained,with a 95% confidence interval of 58.7 < Ho < 67.3 (km·s-1.Mpc-1).

  1. Hubble Constant, Lensing, and Time Delay in Relativistic MOND

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Time delay in galaxy gravitational lensing systems has been used to determine the value of Hubble constant. As in other dynamical phenomena at the scale of galaxy, dark matter is often invoked in gravitational lensing to account for the "missing mass" (the apparent discrepancy between the dynamical mass and the luminous mass). Alternatively, modified gravity can be used to explain the discrepancy. In this paper we adopt the Tensor-Vector-Scalar gravity (TeVeS), a relativistic version of MOdif...

  2. Type Ia supernova Hubble residuals and host-galaxy properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Fleury, M.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Feindt, U.; Greskovic, P.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nußallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Childress, M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Université de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2014-03-20

    Kim et al. introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ± 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at <<1σ, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement of the Hubble residual step with the host mass is 0.045 ± 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch parameters: steps at >2σ significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light-curve width and color around peak (similar to the Δm {sub 15} and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20-30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  3. Technicians assembly the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    At JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A, technicians install a high gain antenna (HGA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup. On the ground a technician operates the controls for the overhead crane that is lifting the HGA into place on the Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. Others in a cherry picker basket wait for the HGA to near its final position so they can secure it on the mockup.

  4. The Hubble party balloon and the expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, G.; Rosi, T.; Oss, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that the metaphor of the inflated balloon used to describe expanding space-time according to the Hubble law can be transformed into a simple laboratory experiment. We obtain, in terms of measured recession speeds and distances of ink dots drawn on a party balloon, easy renditions of various cosmological models, such as the static one and the Einstein-De Sitter universe.

  5. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearby Supernova Factory; Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gangler, E.; Greskovic, P.; Guy, J.; Kowalski, M.; Lombardo, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.

    2014-01-17

    Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak- brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spec- trophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ? 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at ? 1?, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement the Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.045 ? 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch param- eters: Steps at> 2? significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light- curve width and color around peak (similar to the∆m15 and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20 to 30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  6. Hubble parameter in QCD Universe for finite bulk viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Al Mukattam, Cairo 11212 (Egypt); Mansour, H. [Department of Physics, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Harko, T. [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-12-01

    We consider the influence of the perturbative bulk viscosity on the evolution of the Hubble parameter in the QCD era of the early Universe. For the geometry of the Universe we assume the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric, while the background matter is assumed to be characterized by barotropic equations of state, obtained from recent lattice QCD simulations, and heavy-ion collisions, respectively. Taking into account a perturbative form for the bulk viscosity coefficient, we obtain the evolution of the Hubble parameter, and we compare it with its evolution for an ideal (non-viscous) cosmological matter. A numerical solution for the viscous QCD plasma in the framework of the causal Israel-Stewart thermodynamics is also obtained. Both the perturbative approach and the numerical solution qualitatively agree in reproducing the viscous corrections to the Hubble parameter, which in the viscous case turns out to be slightly different as compared to the non-viscous case. Our results are strictly limited within a very narrow temperature- or time-interval in the QCD era, where the quark-gluon plasma is likely dominant. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. A Toy Cosmology Using a Hubble-Scale Casimir Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. McCulloch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The visible mass of the observable universe agrees with that needed for a flat cosmos, and the reason for this is not known. It is shown that this can be explained by modelling the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon. This model of “horizon wave censorship” is equivalent to a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. This incomplete toy model is presented to stimulate discussion. It predicts a minimum mass and acceleration for the observable universe which are in agreement with the observed mass and acceleration, and predicts that the observable universe gains mass as it expands and was hotter in the past. It also predicts a suppression of variation on the largest cosmic scales that agrees with the low-l cosmic microwave background anomaly seen by the Planck satellite.

  8. How was the Hubble sequence 6 Gyrs ago?

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Serrano, R; Yang, Y B; Puech, M; Flores, H; Rodrigues, M

    2009-01-01

    The way galaxies assemble their mass to form the well-defined Hubble sequence is amongst the most debated topic in modern cosmology. One difficulty is to link distant galaxies to those at present epoch. We aim at establishing how were the galaxies of the Hubble sequence, 6 Gyrs ago. We intend to derive a past Hubble sequence that can be causally linked to the present-day one. We selected samples of nearby galaxies from the SDSS and of distant galaxies from the GOODS survey. We verified that each sample is representative of galaxies. We further showed that the observational conditions necessary to retrieve their morphological classification are similar in an unbiased way. Morphological analysis has been done in an identical way for all galaxies in the two samples. We found an absence of number evolution for elliptical and lenticular galaxies, which strikingly contrasts with the strong evolution of spiral and peculiar galaxies. Spiral galaxies were 2.3 times less abundant in the past, that is exactly compensate...

  9. The local Hubble flow a manifestation of dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshev, Yu V; Teerikorpi, P; Baryshev, Yurij; Chernin, Arthur; Teerikorpi, Pekka

    2000-01-01

    Our local environment at $r<10$ Mpc expands linearly and smoothly, as if ruled by a uniform matter distribution, while observations show the very clumpy local universe. This is a long standing enigma in cosmology. We argue that the recently discovered vacuum or quintessence (dark energy (DE) component with the equation of state $p_Q = w \\rho_Q c^2$, $w \\in [-1,0)$) from observations of the high-redshift universe may also manifest itself in the properties of the very local Hubble flow. We introduce the concept of the critical distance $r_Q$ where the repulsive force of dark energy starts to dominate over the gravity of a mass concentration. For the Local Group $r_Q$ is about 1.5 Mpc. Intriguingly, at the same distance 1.5 Mpc the linear and very "cold" Hubble flow emerges, with about the global Hubble constant. We also consider the critical epoch $t_Q$, when the DE antigravity began to dominate over the local matter gravity for a galaxy which at the present epoch is in the local DE dominated region. Our mai...

  10. Gravitational-wave cosmography with LISA and the Hubble tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Seto, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    We propose that stellar-mass binary black holes like GW150914 will become a tool to explore the local Universe within ˜100 Mpc in the era of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). High calibration accuracy and annual motion of LISA could enable us to localize up to ≈60 binaries more accurately than the error volume of ≈100 Mpc3 without electromagnetic counterparts under moderately optimistic assumptions. This accuracy will give us a fair chance to determine the host object solely by gravitational waves. By combining the luminosity distance extracted from gravitational waves with the cosmological redshift determined from the host, the local value of the Hubble parameter will be determined up to a few % without relying on the empirically constructed distance ladder. Gravitational-wave cosmography would pave the way for resolution of the disputed Hubble tension, where the local and global measurements disagree in the value of the Hubble parameter at 3.4 σ level, which amounts to ≈9 %.

  11. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, A G; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Feindt, U; Fleury, M; Gangler, E; Greskovic, P; Guy, J; Kowalski, M; Lombardo, S; Nordin, J; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Saunders, C; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A

    2014-01-01

    Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is $0.013\\pm 0.031$ mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at $\\ll 1\\sigma$, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement the Hubble residual step with host mass is $0.045\\pm 0.026$ mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch para...

  12. Teams make it work: How team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams

    OpenAIRE

    Torrente, P; Salanova, M.; Llorens, S.; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2012-01-01

    In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work ...

  13. 100 Ways To Build Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scearce, Carol

    Created in response to requests from organizations across the country that wanted help in establishing teams for many purposes, this guide is an easy-to-use recipe book on the essential areas of teaming. It does not cover all the aspects of teaming, but focusses on the essential components of team development necessary for a team to function. The…

  14. Teams without Roles: Empowering Teams for Greater Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Mitch

    1995-01-01

    Criticizes Belbin's team role theory on the basis that roles are appropriate only in static organizations. Argues that most teams have no set roles and members interchange them. Suggests that all team members be trained to manage teamwork effectively. (SK)

  15. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory; 4, Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, B M

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by ISO at 6.7 and 15 micron in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches. We find fifteen ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I(AB) < 23] galaxies in the HDF, and one with an I(AB)=19.9 star, while a further eleven are associated with objects in the Hubble Flanking Fields (ten galaxies and one star). Amongst optically bright HDF galaxies, ISO tends to detect luminous, star-forming galaxies at fairly high redshift and with disturbed morphologies, in preference to nearby ellipticals.

  16. Team dynamics in virtual, partially distributed teams : optimal role fulfillment

    OpenAIRE

    Eubanks, Dawn L.; Palanski, Michael; Olabisi, Joy; Joinson, Adam; Dove, James

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored team roles in virtual, partially distributed teams, or vPDTs (teams with at least one co-located subgroup and at least two subgroups that are geographically dispersed but that collaborate virtually). Past research on virtual teams emphasizes the importance of team dynamics. We argue that the following three roles are particularly important for high functioning virtual teams: Project Coordinator, Implementer and Completer-Finisher. We hypothesized that the highest pe...

  17. A Project Team: a Team or Just a Group?

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina; Daniela; Martina,

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction, brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work) team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning the willingness of coopera...

  18. A Project Team: A Team or Just a Group?

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Hrazdilova Bockova; Daniela Maťovcikova

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part which discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work) team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning t...

  19. Building the team for team science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; O'Rourke, M.; Hong, G. S.; Hanson, P. C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Crowley, S.; Brewer, C. A.; Weathers, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to effectively exchange information and develop trusting, collaborative relationships across disciplinary boundaries is essential for 21st century scientists charged with solving complex and large-scale societal and environmental challenges, yet these communication skills are rarely taught. Here, we describe an adaptable training program designed to increase the capacity of scientists to engage in information exchange and relationship development in team science settings. A pilot of the program, developed by a leader in ecological network science, the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), indicates that the training program resulted in improvement in early career scientists’ confidence in team-based network science collaborations within and outside of the program. Fellows in the program navigated human-network challenges, expanded communication skills, and improved their ability to build professional relationships, all in the context of producing collaborative scientific outcomes. Here, we describe the rationale for key communication training elements and provide evidence that such training is effective in building essential team science skills.

  20. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  1. The Research of Self-Management Team and Superior-Direction Team in Team Learning Influential Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Team learning is a cure for bureaucracy; it facilitates team innovation and team performance. But team learning occurs only when necessary conditions were met. This research focused on differences of team learning influential factors between self-management team and superior-direction team. Four variables were chosen as predictors of team learning though literature review and pilot interview. The 4 variables are team motivation, team trust, team conflict and team leadership. Selected 54 self ...

  2. Teams make it work: how team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2012-02-01

    In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor.

  3. Making Teamwork Work: Team Knowledge for Team Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guchait, Priyanko; Lei, Puiwa; Tews, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two types of team knowledge on team effectiveness. The study assessed the impact of taskwork knowledge and teamwork knowledge on team satisfaction and performance. A longitudinal study was conducted with 27 service-management teams involving 178 students in a real-life restaurant setting. Teamwork knowledge was found to impact both team outcomes. Furthermore, team learning behavior was found to mediate the relationships between teamwork knowledge and team outcomes. Educators and managers should therefore ensure these types of knowledge are developed in teams along with learning behavior for maximum effectiveness.

  4. Tracing the Mass Growth and Star Formation Rate Evolution of Massive Galaxies from z~6 to z~1 in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Lundgren, Britt F; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Trenti, Michele; Bouwens, Rychard; Gonzalez, Valentino; Illingworth, Garth; Magee, Daniel; Oesch, Pascal; Stiavelli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of $\\sim$1500 H160-selected photometric galaxies detected to a limiting magnitude of 27.8 in the HUDF, using imaging from the HST WFC3/IR camera in combination with archival UV, optical, and NIR imaging. We fit photometric redshifts and stellar population estimates for all galaxies with well-determined Spitzer IRAC fluxes, allowing for the determination of the cumulative mass function within the range $14$.

  5. Multiculturele teams in het onderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, L.; Winthagen, T.; Vries, S. de

    2008-01-01

    In opdracht van Sector Bestuur Onderwijsarbeidsmarkt is de onderhavige studie gedaan naar multiculturele teams in het onderwijs. Dit rapport biedt een handreiking bij invoering van multiculturele teams en het verbeteren van bestaande multiculturele teams in het primair -, voortgezet - en beroepsonde

  6. Quality Leadership for Quality Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskin, Val D.; Gmelch, Walter H.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of teamwork in an American corporation: the role of team leadership in problem solving, training, and facilitating team interaction; showing team achievement to gain management support; commitment to the individual; shared leadership; and reward systems. (CT)

  7. How to Collaborate through Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are spending more of their time and making more decisions within teams. Effective teacher-based teams provide academic and behavioral support for students as well as professional development for teachers. Learn how the best teams function.

  8. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  9. Media and Security Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Media And Security Team led by Prof. Min Wu was established in Fall 2001 at University of Maryland, College Park. A number of research and education activities...

  10. PPB | Study Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pleuropulmonary Blastoma (PPB) DICER1 Syndrome Study team is made up of researchers from the National Cancer Institute, Children¹s National Medical Center, the International Pleuropulmonary Blastoma Registry, and Washington University in St. Louis.

  11. Submarine Medicine Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  12. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear. Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  13. Trust in agile teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Fransgård, Mette; Skalkam, Signe

    2012-01-01

    success. This article reports from a study of two agile DSD teams with very different organization and collaboration patterns. It addresses the role of trust and distrust in DSD by analyzing how the team members’ trust developed and erode through the lifetime of the two collaborations and how management...... actions influenced this. We see two important lessons from the analysis. First the agile practices of daily Scrum and self organizing team can empower DSD teams to manage their own development of trust and thereby alleviate the obstacles of DSD. Second if management fails to support the development......Abstract. Distributed software development (DSD) is becoming everyday practice in the software field. Difficult challenges and difficulty reaching the expected benefits are well documented. The key challenges are communication, coordination and control issues due to temporal, geographical and socio...

  14. Biological Monitoring Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Biological Monitoring Team (BMT) was a pilot project focused on addressing NWRS inventory and monitoring needs in Regions 3 and 5. The BMT was a precursor to the...

  15. Travelling with football teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water and energy drinks, air-conditioned rooms, etc. • Political ... development of side-effects related to chemoprophylaxis. Factors .... to drink adequate amounts of fluids and avoid those drinks .... diarrhoea in elite athletes: an audit of one team.

  16. Relationships among Team Trust, Team Cohesion, Team Satisfaction and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Ping Fung

    2014-01-01

    Today, more and more project teams are formed to achieve organizational objectives as organizations generally recognized the importance and benefits of project teams. There is a compelling reason to study what are the team outcome factors that can predict project team effectiveness as it is unclear whether these team outcome factors can yield the same result in project setting whereby there is resource and time constraint compare to normal work teams which are ongoing and operational in natur...

  17. The issue of virtual teams

    OpenAIRE

    Fleiberková, Šárka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this diploma thesis is the introduction of teamwork and virtual teams. The theoretical part of this work describes the birth of teamwork, its definition, properties, advantages and disadvantages. Next part of diploma thesis is dedicated to the virtual team. It describes the difference among virtual and traditional team, definition and characteristics of virtual team as well as tools that are used in virtual team. The second, practical, unit is focused on virtual teams at universiti...

  18. Managing Global Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Stan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Every global company’s competitive advantage depends on its ability to coordinate critical resources and information that are spread across different geographical locations. As a result of the increasingly global business environment, many companies are building teams that cross- national borders and / or include members from different countries of origin. Global teams are formed to enhance the efficiency of an organization by making effective use of the diversity or viewpoints.

  19. What is Team X?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Team X is a concurrent engineering team for rapid design and analysis of space mission concepts. It was developed in 1995 by JPL to reduce study time and cost. More than 1100 studies have been completed It is institutionally endorsed and it has been emulated by many institutions. In Concurrent Engineering (i.e., Parallel) diverse specialists work in real time, in the same place, with shared data, to yield an integrated design

  20. TEAMS Model Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijidjian, Raffi P.

    2010-01-01

    The TEAMS model analyzer is a supporting tool developed to work with models created with TEAMS (Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System), which was developed by QSI. In an effort to reduce the time spent in the manual process that each TEAMS modeler must perform in the preparation of reporting for model reviews, a new tool has been developed as an aid to models developed in TEAMS. The software allows for the viewing, reporting, and checking of TEAMS models that are checked into the TEAMS model database. The software allows the user to selectively model in a hierarchical tree outline view that displays the components, failure modes, and ports. The reporting features allow the user to quickly gather statistics about the model, and generate an input/output report pertaining to all of the components. Rules can be automatically validated against the model, with a report generated containing resulting inconsistencies. In addition to reducing manual effort, this software also provides an automated process framework for the Verification and Validation (V&V) effort that will follow development of these models. The aid of such an automated tool would have a significant impact on the V&V process.

  1. Analyses of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Insulation Retrieved After 19 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Waters, Deborah L.; Mohammed, Jelila S.; Perry, Bruce A.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its launch in April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has made many important observations from its vantage point in low Earth orbit (LEO). However, as seen during five servicing missions, the outer layer of multilayer insulation (MLI) has become successively more embrittled and has cracked in many areas. In May 2009, during the 5th servicing mission (called SM4), two MLI blankets were replaced with new insulation pieces and the space-exposed MLI blankets were retrieved for degradation analyses by teams at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The MLI blankets were from Equipment Bay 8, which received direct sunlight, and Equipment Bay 5, which received grazing sunlight. Each blanket contained a range of unique regions based on environmental exposure and/or physical appearance. The retrieved MLI blanket s aluminized-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) outer layers have been analyzed for changes in optical, physical, and mechanical properties, along with space induced chemical and morphological changes. When compared to pristine material, the analyses have shown how the Al-FEP was severely affected by the space environment. This paper reviews tensile properties, solar absorptance, thermal emittance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data and atomic oxygen erosion values of the retrieved HST blankets after 19 years of space exposure.

  2. The Hubble constant from galaxy lenses: impacts of triaxiality and model degeneracies

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The Hubble constant can be constrained using the time delays between multiple images of gravitationally lensed sources. In some notable cases, typical lensing analyses assuming isothermal galaxy density profiles produce low values for the Hubble constant, inconsistent with the result of the HST Key Project (72 +- 8 km/s/Mpc). Possible systematics in the values of the Hubble constant derived from galaxy lensing systems can result from a number of factors, e.g. neglect of environmental effects,...

  3. Team-Based Global Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Lena; Butler, Christina Lea; Mockaitis, Audra

    2015-01-01

    and value diversity as enhancing team creativity and performance, (2) knowledge sharing in team-based organizations, (3) the significance of social capital for global team leader role success, and (4) shared leadership, satisfaction, and performance links in global virtual teams. Findings-We identify......Purpose-We propose team-based organizing as an alternative to more traditional forms of hierarchy-based organizing in global firms. Methodology/approach-Advancements in the study of global teams, leadership, process, and outcomes were organized into four themes: (1) openness toward linguistic...... questions at three levels for bringing research on team-based organizing in global organizations forward. At the within-Team individual level, we discuss the criticality of process and leadership in teams. At the between-Teams group level, we draw attention to that global teams also need to focus...

  4. Skills Inventory for Teams (SIFT): A Resource for Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Corinne; And Others

    The Skills Inventory for Teams (SIFT) was developed for early intervention practitioners from a variety of disciplines to help them evaluate their ability to work as part of an early intervention team in identifying and serving young children with disabilities. The Team Member section is designed to help individual team members identify the skills…

  5. Increasing Student-Learning Team Effectiveness with Team Charters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Phillip; Pavett, Cynthia; Hunsaker, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Because teams are a ubiquitous part of most organizations today, it is common for business educators to use team assignments to help students experientially learn about course concepts and team process. Unfortunately, students frequently experience a number of problems during team assignments. The authors describe the results of their research and…

  6. Enhancing Science with the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.

    2009-01-01

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), in collaboration with the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC), is developing an enhanced archive for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The goal of the HLA is to optimize the science coming from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing better browsing capabilities and easy access to both standard and enhanced Hubble products. Some of the primary enhancements include: 1) providing "real time" access to the data (i.e., having the data online), 2) adding a footprint service to make it easier to browse and download images, 3) providing more extensive "composite images" (e.g., stacked images, mosaics, color images etc.), 4) improving absolute astrometry (i.e., from 1-2" to 0.3"), 5) extracting spectra from slitless spectroscopic data (from ST-ECF), and 6) developing source lists for applicable datasets. The HLA entered its Data Release 2 (DR2) phase of operation in September, 2008. The highlight of DR2 is the inclusion of enhanced WFPC2 images produced by CADC. This more than triples the number of enhanced HLA images. In addition, the number of ACS source lists has more than tripled, with 70 % of the ACS images having both DAOphot and SExtractor lists. The HLA currently contains enhanced products for ACS, WFPC2, and NICMOS GRISM extractions (from ST-ECF), and provides access to standard products for NICMOS, STIS, FOS, and GHRS via MAST. Demonstrations will be provided at the Space Telescope Science Institute booth during the conference and people will have the opportunity to use the system interactively. The url is http://hla.stsci.edu .

  7. SPRINGTIME ON MARS: HUBBLE'S BEST VIEW OF THE RED PLANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope view of the planet Mars is the clearest picture ever taken from Earth, surpassed only by close-up shots sent back by visiting space probes. The picture was taken on February 25, 1995, when Mars was at a distance of approximately 65 million miles (103 million km) from Earth. Because it is spring in Mars' northern hemisphere, much of the carbon dioxide frost around the permanent water-ice cap has sublimated, and the cap has receded to a core of solid water-ice several hundred miles across. Towering 16 miles (25 km) above the surrounding plains, volcano Ascraeus Mons pokes above the cloud deck near the western or limb. This extinct volcano, measuring 250 miles (402 km) across, was discovered in the early 1970s by Mariner 9 spacecraft. Other key geologic features include (lower left) the Valles Marineris, an immense rift valley the length of the continental United States. Near the center of the disk lies the Chryse basin made up of cratered and chaotic terrain. The oval-looking Argyre impact basin (bottom), appears white due to clouds or frost. Seasonal winds carry dust to form striking linear features reminiscent of the legendary martian 'canals.' Many of these 'wind streaks' emanate from the bowl of these craters where dark coarse sand is swept out by winds. Hubble resolves several dozen impact craters down to 30-mile diameter. The dark areas, once misinterpreted as regions of vegetation by several early Mars watchers, are really areas of coarse sand that is less reflective than the finer, lighter dust. Seasonal changes in the surface appearance occur as winds move the dust and sand around. This picture was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in PC mode. The pictures were map-projected onto a sphere for accurate registration and perspective. Credit: Philip James (University of Toledo), Steven Lee (University of Colorado), NASA

  8. Team members' emotional displays as indicators of team functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Astrid C; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Emotions are inherent to team life, yet it is unclear how observers use team members' emotional expressions to make sense of team processes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information theory, we propose that observers use team members' emotional displays as a source of information to predict the team's trajectory. We argue and show that displays of sadness elicit more pessimistic inferences regarding team dynamics (e.g., trust, satisfaction, team effectiveness, conflict) compared to displays of happiness. Moreover, we find that this effect is strengthened when the future interaction between the team members is more ambiguous (i.e., under ethnic dissimilarity; Study 1) and when emotional displays can be clearly linked to the team members' collective experience (Study 2). These studies shed light on when and how people use others' emotional expressions to form impressions of teams.

  9. Direct Determination of Hubble Parameter Using Type IIn Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Blinnikov, Sergei; Baklanov, Petr; Dolgov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach, a Dense Shell Method (DSM), for measuring distances for cosmology. It is based on original Baade idea to relate absolute difference of photospheric radii with photospheric velocity. We demonstrate that this idea works: the new method does not rely on the Cosmic Distance Ladder and gives satisfactory results for the most luminous Type IIn Supernovae. This allows one to make them good primary distance indicators for cosmology. Fixing correction factors for illustration, we obtain with this method the median distance of 68^{+19}_{-15} (68%CL) Mpc to SN 2006gy and median Hubble parameter 79^{+23}_{-17} (68%CL) km/s/Mpc.

  10. Electrostatic Studies for the 2008 Hubble Service Repair Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, C. R.; Clements, J. S.; Calle, C. I.

    2012-01-01

    High vacuum triboelectric testing of space materials was required to identify possible Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) concerns for the astronauts in space during electronics board replacement on the Hubble Space Telescope. Testing under high vacuum conditions with common materials resulted in some interesting results. Many materials were able to charge to high levels which did not dissipate quickly even when grounded. Certain materials were able to charge up in contact with grounded metals while others were not. An interesting result was that like materials did not exchange electrostatic charge under high vacuum conditions. The most surprising experimental result is the lack of brush discharges from charged insulators under high vacuum conditions.

  11. 18 years of science with the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J

    2009-01-01

    After several decades of planning, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched in 1990 as the first of NASA's Great Observatories. After a rocky start arising from an error in the fabrication of its main mirror, it went on to change forever many fields of astronomy, and to capture the public's imagination with its images. An ongoing programme of servicing missions has kept the telescope on the cutting edge of astronomical research. Here I review the advances made possible by the HST over the past 18 years.

  12. Felinic principle and measurement of the Hubble parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Piškur, Yodovina

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent life can only appear in Universes, whose physical laws support sufficient complexity to make evolution of intelligent beings possible. Even inside those Universes, intelligent life does not appear randomly, but in parts with realized complexity, e.g. around stars in our Universe. As a consequence, the observational point of an intelligent observer cannot be assumed to be random and one must correct for this selection effect. In this paper we calculate how direct measurements of the Hubble parameter are affected when subject to the condition that they are observed from a Milky Way-like galaxy.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy of OB stars in M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Bianchi, L.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Massey, P.; Morris, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    We have obtained UV spectra of two luminous hot stars in M31 with the Hubble Space Telescope. The stars are of late O and WN spectral type and lie on opposite sides of M31. We derive UV extinction curves for M31 which differ from both the Galaxy and the LMC. We find differences between the IS absorbers in both lines of sight in M31 and in the Galactic halo. The stellar wind-driven mass loss of the stars is found to be 10 times lower than in similar Galactic stars. One star appears to be an eclipsing W-R binary.

  14. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Photometry of the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E.; Hesser, James E.; Pryor, Carlton; Stetson, Peter B.

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the acquisition and processing of a large body of imaging data for three fields in the globular cluster M4 taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Analysis with the ALLFRAME package yielded the deepest photometry yet obtained for this cluster. The resulting data set for 4708 stars (positions and calibrated photometry in V, I, and, in two fields, U) spanning approximately six cluster core radii is presented. The scientific analysis is deferred to three companion papers, which investigate the significant white dwarf population discovered and the main-sequence population.

  15. The very local Hubble flow: computer simulations of dynamical history

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, A D; Valtonen, M J; Dolgachev, V P; Domozhilova, L M; Makarov, D I

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of the very local ($\\le3$ Mpc) Hubble flow is studied on the basis of the data of recent precision observations. A set of computer simulations is performed to trace the trajectories of the flow galaxies back in time to the epoch of the formation of the Local Group. It is found that the `initial conditions' of the flow are drastically different from the linear velocity-distance relation. The simulations enable also to recognize the major trends of the flow evolution and identify the dynamical role of universal antigravity produced by cosmic vacuum.

  16. HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope snapped these two views of the heart of the galaxy M82. The image at left was taken in visible light; the picture at right, in infrared light. In the infrared view, the telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer peered through thick dust lanes to find some of the galaxy's more than 100 super star clusters. The clusters are the larger pink and yellow dots scattered throughout the picture. They were formed during a violent collision with the galaxy M81 about 600 million years ago. The galaxy is 12 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The pictures were taken Sept. 15, 1997. Credits: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK) NOTE TO EDITORS: For additional information, please contact Richard de Grijs, Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK, +44(0)1223-337528 (phone), +44(0)1223-337523 (fax), grijs@ast.cam.ac.uk (e-mail). The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This image is issued jointly by NASA and ESA. Electronic images, animation and additional information are available at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/08 and via links in http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html http://hubble.stsci.edu/go/news http://hubble.esa.int To receive STScI press releases electronically, send an Internet electronic mail message to public-request@stsci.edu. Leave the subject line blank, and type the word subscribe in the body of the message. The system will respond with a confirmation of the subscription, and you will receive new press releases as they are issued. Please subscribe using the email account

  17. Evolution of the Sizes of Galaxies over 7Hubble Ultra Deep Field Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schenker, Matthew A; Ellis, Richard S; McLure, Ross J; Dunlop, James S; Robertson, Brant E; Koekemoer, Anton M; Bowler, Rebecca A A; Rogers, Alexander B; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Furlanetto, Steven R; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z~7-12 using deep images from the UDF12 campaign, data which offers two distinct advantages over that used in earlier work. Firstly, we utilize the increased S/N ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved size measurements for known galaxies at z=6.5-8 in the HUDF. Specifically, we stack the new deep F140W image with the existing F125W data in order to provide improved measurements of the half-light radii of z-dropouts. Similarly we stack this image with the new deep UDF12 F160W image to obtain new size measurements for a sample of Y-dropouts. Secondly, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z>8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to significantly higher redshifts. Restricting our size measurements to sources which are now detected at >15sigma, we confirm earlier indications that the average hal...

  18. Beautiful Teams Inspiring and Cautionary Tales from Veteran Team Leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    What's it like to work on a great software development team facing an impossible problem? How do you build an effective team? Beautiful Teams takes you behind the scenes with some of the most interesting teams in software engineering history. You'll learn from veteran team leaders' successes and failures, told through a series of engaging personal stories -- and interviews -- by leading programmers, architects, project managers, and thought leaders.

  19. Team Leadership: Leadership Role Achievement in Supervision Teams in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sabanci; Izzet Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of team leaders and team members of supervision teams about the extent that team leaders achieve their team leadership roles in Turkey. This research was conducted as a survey. The population of the study consisted of approximately 2650 supervisors (inspectors) working in 81 provinces distributed to seven geographical regions in Turkey. The sample consisted of 563 supervisors which were selected out by random sampling. The data were gathered b...

  20. Science and Team Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Cole

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a new idea about the future development of science and teams, and predicts its possible applications in science, education, workforce development and research. The inter-relatedness of science and teamwork developments suggests a growing importance of team facilitators’ quality, as well as the criticality of detailed studies of teamwork processes and team consortiums to address the increasing complexity of exponential knowledge growth and work interdependency. In the future, it will become much easier to produce a highly specialised workforce, such as brain surgeons or genome engineers, than to identify, educate and develop individuals capable of the delicate and complex work of multi-team facilitation. Such individuals will become the new scientists of the millennium, having extraordinary knowledge in variety of scientific fields, unusual mix of abilities, possessing highly developed interpersonal and teamwork skills, and visionary ideas in illuminating bold strategies for new scientific discoveries. The new scientists of the millennium, through team consortium facilitation, will be able to build bridges between the multitude of diverse and extremely specialised knowledge and interdependent functions to improve systems for the further benefit of mankind.

  1. The role of team goal monitoring in the curvilinear relationship between team efficacy and team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Tammy L; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Adam A; Mullins, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    In this research, we apply a team self-regulatory perspective to build and test theory focusing on the relationships between team efficacy and 2 key team performance criteria: a performance behavior (i.e., team effort) and a performance outcome (i.e., objective team sales). We theorize that rather than having a linear association, the performance benefits of team efficacy reach a point of inflection, reflective of too much of a good thing. Further, in an effort to establish a boundary condition of the inverted-U shaped relationship we predict, we also test the moderating role played by team goal monitoring in the nonmonotonic relationship between team efficacy and team performance. The results from a lagged field test, in which we collect multisource data from 153 technology sales teams, reveal a significant curvilinear association that is moderated by team goal monitoring behavior. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Hierarchy and Opportunism in Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, J.J.M.; Sefton, M.; van der Heijden, E.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We use experiments to compare two institutions for allocating the proceeds of team production.Under revenue-sharing, each team member receives an equal share of team output; under leader-determined shares, a team leader has the power to implement her own allocation.Both arrangements are vulnerable t

  3. Predictors of Team Work Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Harris, James H.; Hurst, Barbara J.; von Baggo, Karola; Bayley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to work in teams is an attribute highly valued by employers of information technology (IT) graduates. For IT students to effectively engage in team work tasks, the process of working in teams should be satisfying for the students. This work explored whether university students who were involved in compulsory team work were satisfied…

  4. Predictors of Team Work Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Harris, James H.; Hurst, Barbara J.; von Baggo, Karola; Bayley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to work in teams is an attribute highly valued by employers of information technology (IT) graduates. For IT students to effectively engage in team work tasks, the process of working in teams should be satisfying for the students. This work explored whether university students who were involved in compulsory team work were satisfied…

  5. The cohesiveness of sourcing teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina

    2015-01-01

    , the practical implementation is often unsuccessful leading to poor performance. Originating in PSM literature, factors influencing sourcing team performance are categorised into three: top management support, organisational structures, and those related to team members. In this paper, the concept...... of cohesiveness is introduced as an explanatory factor and, consequently, linkages between team cohesiveness and team performance are proposed.......Sourcing teams are introduced as an approach to achieving the interdepartmental integration necessary for companies to address the complexity of strategic sourcing. Companies aim at facilitating teams capable of balancing the goals and tasks of the team with departmental expectations; however...

  6. Virtual Project Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille

    Humans have been collaborating across geographical boundaries for thousands of years. Nevertheless, distant collaboration today remains problematic, complicated and prone to failures. This thesis investigates distant collaborative practice in a particular setting: closely coupled collaboration...... technology in six real-life virtual teams, two in industry and four in education, applying interpretative research and action research methods. Two main lines of investigation are pursued: the first involves an examination of the organisational issues related to groupware adaptation in virtual project teams...... changes in both the technology structures and the collaborative practice; and 2) that establishing the social context within virtual project teams comprises negotiations of shared meaning bridging discontinuities typically associated with geographical distribution such as culture, work practices...

  7. Virtual team collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Ngwenyama, Ojelanki

    2009-01-01

    and experienced by the participants at the work process level; however, resolving breakdowns may require critical reflection at other levels. Where previous research argues that face-to-face interaction is an important variable for virtual team performance, our empirical observations reveal that communication......Managing international teams with geographically distributed participants is a complex task. The risk of communication breakdowns increases due to cultural and organizational differences grounded in the geographical distribution of the participants. Such breakdowns indicate general...... misunderstandings and a lack of shared meaning between participants. In this paper, we address the complexity of building shared meaning. We examine the communication breakdowns that occurred in two globally distributed virtual teams by providing an analytical distinction of the organizational context...

  8. Creativity and Creative Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    A review of the linkage between knowledge, creativity, and design is presented and related to the best practices of multidisciplinary design teams. The discussion related to design and design teams is presented in the context of both the complete aerodynamic design community and specifically the work environment at the NASA Langley Research Center. To explore ways to introduce knowledge and creativity into the research and design environment at NASA Langley Research Center a creative design activity was executed within the context of a national product development activity. The success of the creative design team activity gave rise to a need to communicate the experience in a straightforward and managed approach. As a result the concept of creative potential its formulated and assessed with a survey of a small portion of the aeronautics research staff at NASA Langley Research Center. The final section of the paper provides recommendations for future creative organizations and work environments.

  9. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We ensured...... exogenous variation in -otherwise random- team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities (Raven test). Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  10. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  11. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous...... variation in - otherwise random - team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities (Raven test). Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub-teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  12. MaTeam-projektet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Marikka; Damkjær, Helle Sejer; Højgaard, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Projektet MaTeam beskrives med fokus på et toårigt forsøg hvor matematiklærerne på 4.-6. klassetrin på fire skoler i Silkeborg Kommune samarbejdede med forfatterne. Projektet handlede om udvikling af matematiklærerkompetencer med fokus på samarbejdet i de fire skolers matematiklærerfagteam...... matematiklærerfagteam og samarbejdsrelationer der indgår i projektet. Desuden beskriver vi forskellige typer af fagteam og lærere. Metodisk var MaTeam-projektet struktureret som en didaktisk modelleringsproces....

  13. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  14. Cosmic variance and the measurement of the local Hubble parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Valerio; Amendola, Luca; Sawicki, Ignacy; Valkenburg, Wessel

    2013-06-14

    There is an approximately 9% discrepancy, corresponding to 2.4 σ, between two independent constraints on the expansion rate of the Universe: one indirectly arising from the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations and one more directly obtained from local measurements of the relation between redshifts and distances to sources. We argue that by taking into account the local gravitational potential at the position of the observer this tension--strengthened by the recent Planck results--is partially relieved and the concordance of the Standard Model of cosmology increased. We estimate that measurements of the local Hubble constant are subject to a cosmic variance of about 2.4% (limiting the local sample to redshifts z > 0.010) or 1.3% (limiting it to z > 0.023), a more significant correction than that taken into account already. Nonetheless, we show that one would need a very rare fluctuation to fully explain the offset in the Hubble rates. If this tension is further strengthened, a cosmology beyond the Standard Model may prove necessary.

  15. Feasibility of Exoplanet Coronagraphy with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Brown, Robert; Noecker, M. Charley; Cheng, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Herein we report on a preliminary study to assess the use of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the direct detection and spectroscopic characterization of exoplanets and debris disks - an application for which HST was not originally designed. Coronagraphic advances may enable the design of a science instrument that could achieve limiting contrasts approx.10deg beyond 275 milli-arcseconds (4 lambda/D at 800 nm) inner working angle, thereby enabling detection and characterization of several known jovian planets and imaging of debris disks. Advantages of using HST are that it already exists in orbit, it's primary mirror is thermally stable and it is the most characterized space telescope yet flown. However there is drift of the HST telescope, likely due to thermal effects crossing the terminator. The drift, however, is well characterized and consists of a larger deterministic components and a smaller stochastic component. It is the effect of this drift versus the sensing and control bandwidth of the instrument that would likely limit HST coronagraphic performance. Herein we discuss the science case, quantifY the limiting factors and assess the feasibility of using HST for exoplanet discovery using a hypothetical new instrument. Keywords: Hubble Space Telescope, coronagraphy, exoplanets, telescopes

  16. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope: Presentation to the Freedom Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The Freedom Museum, located in Manassas, VA, requested a speaker through the NASA Speakers Bureau, on the topic of the Hubble Space Telescope. A public outreach presentation has been prepared. Many of the facts are drawn from a public source, the Wikipedia article on the Hubble Space Telescope. This covers the history of the development of the HST, as well as the initial flaw and its repair, and the subsequent series of servicing missions, for which I was involved in the last three. This has been the topic of numerous books. This has been supplemented mostly by facts known to the author, such as names of individuals who played key roles, but not any technical information. Because the reqeustor asked for a significant part of the talk to address major science findings and discoveries, significant portions of a public presentation on this topic developed by Kenneth Carpenter of GSFC were obtained and incorporated, with credit. I have confirmed that this material is also available through public sources.

  17. ESA's new European Hubble Science Archive at ESAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) has recently launched a new version of the European Hubble Space Telescope science archive. The new and enhanced archive offers several new features, some of which are not available anywhere else. The new web-based archive has been completely re-engineered and is now faster, more accurate and more robust than ever. Several of its unique features will be presented: the possibility of seeing the exact footprint of each observations on top of an optical all-sky image, the online visualization and inspection of FITS headers, imaging and spectral observation previews without downloading files or the possibility to search for data that has not yet been published in refereed journals. This state-of-the-art science data archive will be the new main access point to HST data for the European astronomical community and will be enhanced in the near-future to include the Hubble Source Catalogue or other high-level data products as required.

  18. Evolution of Cold Streams and Emergence of the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-01-01

    A new physical framework for the emergence of the Hubble sequence is outlined, based on novel analyses performed to quantify the evolution of cold streams of a large sample of galaxies from a state-of-the-art ultra-high resolution, large-scale adaptive mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulation in a fully cosmological setting. It is found that the following three key physical variables of galactic cold inflows crossing the virial sphere substantially decrease with decreasing redshift: the number of streams N_{90} that make up 90% of concurrent inflow mass flux, average inflow rate per stream dot M_{90} and mean (mass flux weighted) gas density in the streams n_{gas}. Another key variable, the stream dimensionless angular momentum parameter lambda, instead is found to increase with decreasing redshift. Assimilating these trends and others leads naturally to a physically coherent scenario for the emergence of the Hubble sequence, including the following expectations: (1) the predominance of a mixture of disproport...

  19. The Hubble series: Convergence properties and redshift variables

    CERN Document Server

    Cattoen, Celine

    2007-01-01

    In cosmography, cosmokinetics, and cosmology it is quite common to encounter physical quantities expanded as a Taylor series in the cosmological redshift z. Perhaps the most well-known exemplar of this phenomenon is the Hubble relation between distance and redshift. However, we now have considerable high-z data available, for instance we have supernova data at least back to redshift z=1.75. This opens up the theoretical question as to whether or not the Hubble series (or more generally any series expansion based on the z-redshift) actually converges for large redshift? Based on a combination of mathematical and physical reasoning, we argue that the radius of convergence of any series expansion in z is less than or equal to 1, and that z-based expansions must break down for z>1, corresponding to a universe less than half its current size. Furthermore, we shall argue on theoretical grounds for the utility of an improved parameterization y=z/(1+z). In terms of the y-redshift we again argue that the radius of con...

  20. The Hubble series: convergence properties and redshift variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattoen, Celine; Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2007-12-07

    In cosmography, cosmokinetics and cosmology, it is quite common to encounter physical quantities expanded as a Taylor series in the cosmological redshift z. Perhaps the most well-known exemplar of this phenomenon is the Hubble relation between distance and redshift. However, we now have considerable high-z data available; for instance, we have supernova data at least back to redshift z {approx} 1.75. This opens up the theoretical question as to whether or not the Hubble series (or more generally any series expansion based on the z-redshift) actually converges for large redshift. Based on a combination of mathematical and physical reasonings, we argue that the radius of convergence of any series expansion in z is less than or equal to 1, and that z-based expansions must break down for z > 1, corresponding to a universe less than half of its current size. Furthermore, we shall argue on theoretical grounds for the utility of an improved parametrization y = z/(1 + z). In terms of the y-redshift, we again argue that the radius of convergence of any series expansion in y is less than or equal to 1, so that y-based expansions are likely to be good all the way back to the big bang (y = 1), but that y-based expansions must break down for y < -1, now corresponding to a universe more than twice its current size.

  1. Radio Emission from Galaxies In The Hubble Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, E A; Fomalont, E B; Windhorst, R A; Partridge, R B

    1998-01-01

    We report on sensitive radio observations made with the VLA at 8.5 GHz, centered on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). We collected data in the A, CnB, C, DnC, and D configurations, corresponding to angular resolutions ranging from 0.3" to 10". We detected 29 radio sources in a complete sample within 4.6' of the HDF center and above a flux density limit of 9.0 microjy (5 sigma). Seven of these sources are located within the HDF itself, while the remaining 22 sources are covered by the Hubble Flanking Fields (HFFs) or ground based optical images. All of the sources in the HDF are identified with galaxies with a mean magnitude R = 21.7, while the mean magnitude of the identifications outside the HDF is R = 22.1. Three radio sources have no optical counterparts to R = 27. Based on a radio and optical positional coincidence, we detected an additional 19 radio sources in this field (seven of which are contained in the HDF) with 6.3 microjy < S < 9.0 (3.5 sigma < S < 5 sigma) and and R < 25, but which are ...

  2. Relationship between Hubble type and spectroscopic class in local galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Munoz-Tunon, C; Huertas-Company, M

    2011-01-01

    We compare the Hubble type and the spectroscopic class of the galaxies with spectra in SDSS/DR7. As it is long known, elliptical galaxies tend to be red whereas spiral galaxies tend to be blue, however, this relationship presents a large scatter, which we measure and quantify in detail. We compare the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means based classification (ASK) with most of the commonly used morphological classifications. All of them provide consistent results. Given a spectral class, the morphological type wavers with a standard deviation between 2 and 3 T types, and the same large dispersion characterizes the variability of spectral classes fixed the morphological type. The distributions of Hubble types given an ASK class are very skewed -- they present long tails that go to the late morphological types for the red galaxies, and to the early morphological types for the blue spectroscopic classes. The scatter is not produced by problems in the classification, and it remains when particular subsets are consider...

  3. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  4. Constraining The Hubble Parameter Using Distance Modulus - Redshift Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Onuchukwu, C C

    2015-01-01

    Using the relation between distance modulus (m-M) and redshift (z), deduced from Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric and assuming different values of deceleration parameter (q0). We constrained the Hubble parameter (h). The estimates of the Hubble parameters we obtained using the median values of the data obtained from NASA Extragalactic Database (NED), are: h=0.7+/-0.3 for q0=0, h=0.6+/-0.3, for q0=1 and h=0.8+/-0.3, for q0=-1. The corresponding age ({\\tau}) and size (R) of the observable universe were also estimated as: {\\tau}=15+/-1 Gyrs, R=(5+/-2)x10^3 Mpc, {\\tau}=18+/-1 Gyrs, R=(6+/-2)x10^3 Mpc and {\\tau}=13+/-1 Gyrs, R=(4+/-2)x10^3 Mpc for q0=0, q0=1 and q0=-1 respectively.

  5. Determining the Hubble constant using HII regions and HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Ricardo; Terlevich, Roberto; Plionis, Manolis; Bresolin, Fabio; Basilakos, Spyros; Melnick, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    We report the first results of a long term program aiming to provide accurate independent estimates of the Hubble constant (H0) and the Dark Energy equation of state parameter (w) using the L(Hbeta)-velocity dispersion (sigma) distance estimator for Giant HII regions and HII galaxies. We have used VLT and Subaru high dispersion spectroscopic observations of a local sample of HII galaxies, identified in the SDSS DR7 catalogue in order to re-define and improve the L(Hbeta) - sigma distance indicator and to determine the Hubble constant. To this end we used as local calibration or 'anchor' of this correlation, giant HII regions in nearby galaxies which have accurate distance measurements determined via primary indicators. Using our best sample of 89 nearby HII galaxies and 23 Giant HII regions in 9 galaxies we obtain H0 = 73.9+- 2.7 (statistical)+- 2.9 (systematic) km s-1 Mpc-1, in excellent agreement with, and independently confirming, the most recent SNe Ia based results.

  6. Galaxies at z > 1: Shaping the Hubble sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Talia, M; Mignoli, M; Pozzetti, L; Renzini, A; Kurk, J; Halliday, C

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the morphological properties of 494 galaxies at z>1 from the GMASS survey, in their optical rest-frame, using HST/WFC3-IR images from CANDELS. The fractions of ellipticals and disks decline between z=1 to z=3, while at higher z the galaxy population is dominated by irregulars. Ellipticals have the highest concentration and Gini values, while irregulars assume the lowest ones. However, at 1Hubble types as they are at low z. No significant morphological k-correction was found to be required for the Hubble type classification. From a quantitative point of view, however, there are some differences between the optical and UV morphologies. Different morphological types occupy the two peaks of the (U-B) colour distribution: the majority of irregulars are found in the blue peak, while ellipticals mainly populate the red one. Disks have a smoother colour distribution. We also found that, in an UVJ diagram, the quie...

  7. Enhance the Team Status Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    collection and analysis tool chosen by the team : the Process Dashboard © 1998-2014 Tuma Solutions, LLC. Using this format , the PRT teams are now getting...status meetings of those teams coached by the NAVAIR PRT have evolved into more relevant, easier to understand, and more visually interesting formats ...support, this submission to Open Forum highlights the team status meeting. These meetings help keep a team aware, engaged, and on-track. Their content

  8. Role selection and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, David J.; Sutter, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Team success relies on assigning team members to the right tasks. We use controlled experiments to study how roles are assigned within teams and how this affects team performance. Subjects play the takeover game in pairs consisting of a buyer and a seller. Understanding optimal play is very demanding for buyers and trivial for sellers. Teams perform better when roles are assigned endogenously or teammates are allowed to chat about their decisions, but the interaction effect between endogenous...

  9. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Catherine E.; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes. PMID:27630605

  10. Effects of team emotional authenticity on virtual team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Connelly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students, suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others’ emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM analysis (n = 81 student teams suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  11. A Project Team: a Team or Just a Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction, brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning the willingness of cooperation and communication. The main objective of this work is to verify the validity of the assumptions that the analyzed team represents a very disparate group as for its composition from the perspective of personality types, types of motivation, team roles and interpersonal relations in terms of the willingness of cooperation and communication. A separate output shall focus on sociometric investigation of those team members where willingness to work together and communicate is based on the authors’ assumption of tight interdependence.

  12. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Catherine E; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  13. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  14. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  15. Putting the "Team" in the Fine Arts Team: An Application of Business Management Team Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses current challenges to the idea of teamwork in fine arts teams, redefines the terms team and collaboration using a business management perspective, discusses the success of effective teams in the business world and the characteristics of those teams, and proposes the implementation of the business model of…

  16. Improving Care Teams' Functioning: Recommendations from Team Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Kevin; Mauksch, Larry; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Team science has been applied to many sectors including health care. Yet there has been relatively little attention paid to the application of team science to developing and sustaining primary care teams. Application of team science to primary care requires adaptation of core team elements to different types of primary care teams. Six elements of teams are particularly relevant to primary care: practice conditions that support or hinder effective teamwork; team cognition, including shared understanding of team goals, roles, and how members will work together as a team; leadership and coaching, including mutual feedback among members that promotes teamwork and moves the team closer to achieving its goals; cooperation supported by an emotionally safe climate that supports expression and resolution of conflict and builds team trust and cohesion; coordination, including adoption of processes that optimize efficient performance of interdependent activities among team members; and communication, particularly regular, recursive team cycles involving planning, action, and debriefing. These six core elements are adapted to three prototypical primary care teams: teamlets, health coaching, and complex care coordination. Implementation of effective team-based models in primary care requires adaptation of core team science elements coupled with relevant, practical training and organizational support, including adequate time to train, plan, and debrief. Training should be based on assessment of needs and tasks and the use of simulations and feedback, and it should extend to live action. Teamlets represent a potential launch point for team development and diffusion of teamwork principles within primary care practices. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Personality and community prevention teams: Dimensions of team leader and member personality predicting team functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Greenberg, Mark T

    2008-11-01

    The predictors and correlates of positive functioning among community prevention teams have been examined in a number of research studies; however, the role of personality has been neglected. In this study, we examined whether team member and leader personality dimensions assessed at the time of team formation predicted local prevention team functioning 2.5-3.5 years later. Participants were 159 prevention team members in 14 communities participating in the PROSPER study of prevention program dissemination. Three aspects of personality, aggregated at the team level, were examined as predictors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. A series of multivariate regression analyses were performed that accounted for the interdependency of five categories of team functioning. Results showed that average team member Openness was negatively, and Conscientiousness was positively linked to team functioning. The findings have implications for decisions about the level and nature of technical assistance support provided to community prevention teams.

  18. Overcoming asymmetric goals in teams: the interactive roles of team learning orientation and team identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Venkataramani, Vijaya

    2015-05-01

    Although members of teams share a common, ultimate objective, they often have asymmetric or conflicting individual goals that shape the way they contribute to, and pursue, the shared goal of the team. Compounding this problem, they are frequently unaware of the nature of these goal asymmetries or even the fact that such differences exist. Drawing on, and integrating, social interdependence and representational gaps theories, we identify 2 emergent states that combine interactively to enable teams to overcome asymmetric goals: team identification and team learning orientation. Using data from long-term, real-life teams that engaged in a computer simulation designed to create both asymmetric goals and representational gaps about those goals, we found that teams were most effective when they had a high learning orientation coupled with high team identification and that this effect was mediated by teams' ability to form more accurate team goal mental models and engage in effective planning processes. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  19. The Motivated Project Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Financial incentives that match level of achievement • Regular, constructive feedback. Hierarchy of Needs (Abraham H. Maslow ) Team members can be...personal skills. One thing is certain, though: workforce and workplace dynamics are such that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to moti

  20. Survey team on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on ‘Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research’. It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master...

  1. Aircrew team management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison, Charles; Mccann, Dick; Davies, Rod

    1987-01-01

    The key features of the Aircrew Team Management Workshop which was designed for and in consultation with Trans Australia Airlines are outlined. Five major sections are presented dealing with: (1) A profile of the airline and the designers; (2) Aircrew consultation and involvement; (3) Educational design and development; (4) Implementation and instruction; and (5) Evaluation and assessment. These areas are detailed.

  2. Making This Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitler, Alan; Bushong, Delores; Reid, Al

    2004-01-01

    As the sponsors of the Cohort at Wakefield High School in Arlington, Virginia--a program to increase the number of minority male students in Advanced Placement (AP) classes--the authors view their work with the young men in this program as very similar to coaching a team. The Cohort asks these young men to challenge and push themselves; to test…

  3. Team Collaboration Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Schrock, Mitchell; Baldwin, John R.; Borden, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    The Ground Resource Allocation and Planning Environment (GRAPE 1.0) is a Web-based, collaborative team environment based on the Microsoft SharePoint platform, which provides Deep Space Network (DSN) resource planners tools and services for sharing information and performing analysis.

  4. Heterogeneity and Work Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyaram, Lata; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to extend and contribute to the domestic diversity literature by presenting a comprehensive model that takes into consideration the Indian work set up. It proposes to examine the effects of the composition of information systems development teams in Indian firms. Besides the conventional demographics which were studied…

  5. [Medical emergency teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, G.; Lund, C.; Petersen, John Asger

    2008-01-01

    The aim of medical emergency teams (MET) is to identify and treat deteriorating patients on general wards, and to avoid cardiac arrest, unplanned intensive care unit admission and death. The effectiveness of METs has yet to be proven, as the only two randomised, controlled trials on the subject...

  6. Leading Strategic Leader Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-25

    engage in productive vice non-productive task conflict.71 A common assessment tool such as the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) can demonstrate...assigning an individual to observe and critique alternatives which are discussed.81 These process designs can be used to counteract the risk of teams

  7. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  8. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  9. Heterogeneity and Work Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyaram, Lata; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to extend and contribute to the domestic diversity literature by presenting a comprehensive model that takes into consideration the Indian work set up. It proposes to examine the effects of the composition of information systems development teams in Indian firms. Besides the conventional demographics which were studied…

  10. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  11. The Research of Self-Management Team and Superior-Direction Team in Team Learning Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Team learning is a cure for bureaucracy; it facilitates team innovation and team performance. But team learning occurs only when necessary conditions were met. This research focused on differences of team learning influential factors between self-management team and superior-direction team. Four variables were chosen as predictors of team learning though literature review and pilot interview. The 4 variables are team motivation, team trust, team conflict and team leadership. Selected 54 self management teams and 23 superior-direction teams as participants, each member of all teams finished questionnaires which measure 4 predictor variables and dependent variable (team learning. Results show that in both the two type of teams, team motivation, team trust, team leadership are positive predictor of team learning, team conflict have negative correlation with team learning. Normative team motivation, team leadership (including feasance and democracy positively predict team learning significantly in self-management team, whereas team leader’s feasance is the only significant predictor which positively predict team learning in superior-direction team.

  12. Nuclei of nearby disk galaxies .1. A Hubble Space Telescope imaging survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, AC; Illingworth, GD; MacKenty, JW; Franx, M

    We present deconvolved images of the central regions of 20 nearby disk galaxies, obtained with the original Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. The galaxies span a range in Hubble type from SO to Sm. We have measured surface brightness profiles, and inverted these to estimate

  13. Galaxy Zoo Hubble: Crowdsourced Morphologies for 169,944 Galaxies at 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kyle; Galloway, Melanie; Fortson, Lucy; Bamford, Steven; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Cheung, Edmond; Schawinski, Kevin; Scarlata, Claudia; Beck, Melanie; Galaxy Zoo volunteers

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy Zoo project uses crowdsourced visual classifications to create large and statistically robust catalogs of detailed galaxy morphology. We present initial results for the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble dataset, which includes 169,944 images of galaxies selected from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. The galaxies span a redshift range of 0Zoo: Hubble catalog.

  14. Imagery Integration Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  15. Team-based global organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Lena; Butler, Christina; Mockaitis, Audra

    2015-01-01

    diversity in enhancing team creativity and performance, and 2) the sharing of knowledge in team-based organizations, while the other two themes address global team leadership: 3) the unprecedented significance of social capital for the success of global team leader roles; and 4) the link between shared...... leadership, satisfaction and performance in global virtual teams. We bring together ideas from the lively discussion between the audience and the panel members where we identify questions at three levels for bringing research on team-based organizing in global organizations forward: the within-team......This chapter draws on a panel discussion of the future of global organizing as a team-based organization at EIBA 2014 in Uppsala, Sweden. We began by discussing contemporary developments of hybrid forms of hierarchy and teams-based organizing, but we venture to propose that as organizations become...

  16. On teams, teamwork, and team performance: discoveries and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eduardo; Cooke, Nancy J; Rosen, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    We highlight some of the key discoveries and developments in the area of team performance over the past 50 years, especially as reflected in the pages of Human Factors. Teams increasingly have become a way of life in many organizations, and research has kept up with the pace. We have characterized progress in the field in terms of eight discoveries and five challenges. Discoveries pertain to the importance of shared cognition, the measurement of shared cognition, advances in team training, the use of synthetic task environments for research, factors influencing team effectiveness, models of team effectiveness, a multidisciplinary perspective, and training and technological interventions designed to improve team effectiveness. Challenges that are faced in the coming decades include an increased emphasis on team cognition; reconfigurable, adaptive teams; multicultural influences; and the need for naturalistic study and better measurement. Work in human factors has contributed significantly to the science and practice of teams, teamwork, and team performance. Future work must keep pace with the increasing use of teams in organizations. The science of teams contributes to team effectiveness in the same way that the science of individual performance contributes to individual effectiveness.

  17. Correlations Between Hubble Residuals and Local Stellar Populations of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Benjamin; Garnavich, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    There appears to be correlations between SN Ia Hubble diagram residuals and host galaxy mass, metallicity, and star formation history. An uncorrected bias may produce a systematic offset in cosmological measurements. Rigault et al. (2013) found that the local environment can correlate with Hubble residuals and possibly impact precision Hubble Constant measurements. Global properties are the luminosity average of local environments, therefore the properties of local environments may hold stronger correlations than their global counterparts. We analyze host galaxies from the SDSS-II survey using both ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We generate local stellar environmental properties by selecting a best fit Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis model that matches the SDSS Scene Modeling data. The derived properties, such as metallicity, stellar age, and star formation history, are then compared to the SN Ia's Hubble residual in the search for correlations.

  18. Learning and performance in multidisciplinary teams : The importance of collective team identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Gerben S.; Bunderson, J. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    In multidisciplinary teams in the oil and gas industry, we examined expertise diversity's relationship with team learning and team performance under varying levels of collective team identification. In teams with low collective identification, expertise diversity was negatively related to team

  19. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  20. Transformational Leadership and Team Innovation : Integrating Team Climate Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenbeiss, Silke Astrid; Boerner, Sabine; Van Knippenberg, Daan

    2008-01-01

    Fostering team innovation is increasingly an important leadership function. However, the empirical evidence for the role of transformational leadership in engendering team innovation is scarce and mixed. To address this issue, the authors link transformational leadership theory to principles of M. A. West s (1990) team climate theory and propose an integrated model for the relationship between transformational leadership and team innovation. This model involves support for innovation as a med...

  1. Team Interactions in Specialized Palliative Care Teams: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Klarare, Anna; Hagelin, Carina Lundh; Fürst, Carl Johan; Fossum, Bjoorn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teamwork is a standard of care in palliative care and that is emphasized by leading organizations. When interdisciplinary teams communicate their varied assessments, outcomes may be more than additive due to the synthesis of information. Interprofessionality does not guarantee multidimensionality in health care interventions, however, and that interprofessional teams promote collaboration may be questioned. Aim: The aim was to explore team interaction among team members in special...

  2. Differential expansion of space and the Hubble flow anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Wiltshire, David L

    2015-01-01

    The Universe on scales $10-100~h^{-1}$ Mpc is dominated by a cosmic web of voids, filaments, sheets and knots of galaxy clusters. These structures participate differently in the global expansion of the Universe: from non-expanding clusters to the above average expansion rate of voids. In this paper we characterize Hubble expansion anisotropies in the COMPOSITE sample of 4534 galaxies and clusters. We concentrate on the dipole and quadrupole in the rest frame of the Local Group. These both have statistically significant amplitudes. These anisotropies, and their redshift dependence, cannot be explained solely by a boost of the Local Group in the Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model which expands isotropically in the rest frame of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. We simulate the local expansion of the Universe with inhomogeneous Szekeres models, which match the standard FLRW model on $> 100~ h^{-1}$ Mpc scales but exhibit nonkinematic differential expansion on small scales. We res...

  3. Observing supernova 1987A with the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert P; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter M; Larsson, Josefin; Lawrence, Stephen S; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun S J; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John T; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J Craig

    2010-09-24

    Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 with the use of the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Lyα and Hα lines from shock emission continue to brighten, whereas their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad, blueshifted Lyα, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hot spots on the equatorial ring. We also detect N v λλ1239, 1243 angstrom line emission, but only to the red of Lyα. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of Hα, suggesting that the N4+ ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.

  4. The GRBs Hubble diagram in quintessential cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, Marek; Rubano, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    It has been recently empirically established that some of the directly observed pa- rameters of GRBs are correlated with their important intrinsic parameters, like the luminosity or the total radiated energy. These correlations were derived, tested and used to standardize GRBs, i.e., to derive their luminosity or radiated energy from one or more observables, in order to construct an estimated fiducial Hubble diagram, assuming that radiation propagates in the standard LambdaCDM cosmological model. We extend these analyses by considering more general models of dark energy, and an updated data set of high redshift GRBs. We show that the correlation parameters only weakly depend on the cosmological model. Moreover we apply a local regression technique to estimate, in a model independent way, the distance modulus from the recently updated SNIa sample containing 307 SNIa (Astier et al. 2006), in order to calibrate the GRBs 2D correlations, considering only GRBs with z <1.4. The derived calibration parameters are...

  5. Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter; Larsson, Josefin; Lawrence, Stephen; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 using the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Ly-a and H-a lines from shock emission continue to brighten, while their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad blueshifted Ly-a, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hotspots on the equatorial ring. We also detect NV~\\lambda\\lambda 1239,1243 A line emission, but only to the red of Ly-A. The profiles of the NV lines differ markedly from that of H-a, suggesting that the N^{4+} ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.

  6. HARP---The Hubble Archive Re-Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Abney, F.; Donahue, M.; Gardner, L.; Hopkins, E.; Kennedy, H.; Kyprianou, M.; Pollizzi, J.; Postman, M.; Richon, J.; Swade, D.; Travisano, J.; White, R.

    The Hubble Data Archive now contains in excess of 2.5TB of HST data in a system of four optical disk jukeboxes. In addition to providing a WWW-based user interface %(see Kimball, Sanidas, & Mayhew 1997) and and removing a custom I/O processor (see Travisano & Richon 1997), STScI has undertaken a high-level effort to improve the operating efficiency, reduce costs, and improve service to archive users. The HARP group is studying data compression, data segregation, large on-line disk caching, on-the-fly calibration, and migration to new storage media. In this paper, we describe the results of our cost-benefit analysis of these and other options for re-engineering the HDA\\@.

  7. Initial Hubble Diagram Results from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, S; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Childress, M; Copin, Y; Gangler, E; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigaudier, G; Ripoche, P; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Wu, C

    2008-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe a decade ago. Now that large second generation surveys have significantly increased the size and quality of the high-redshift sample, the cosmological constraints are limited by the currently available sample of ~50 cosmologically useful nearby supernovae. The Nearby Supernova Factory addresses this problem by discovering nearby supernovae and observing their spectrophotometric time development. Our data sample includes over 2400 spectra from spectral timeseries of 185 supernovae. This talk presents results from a portion of this sample including a Hubble diagram (relative distance vs. redshift) and a description of some analyses using this rich dataset.

  8. Understanding medical practice team roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team.

  9. Collocation Impact on Team Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eccles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The collocation of software development teams is common, specially in agile software development environments. However little is known about the impact of collocation on the team’s effectiveness. This paper explores the impact of collocating agile software development teams on a number of team effectiveness factors. The study focused on South African software development teams and gathered data through the use of questionnaires and interviews. The key finding was that collocation has a positive impact on a number of team effectiveness factors which can be categorised under team composition, team support, team management and structure and team communication. Some of the negative impact collocation had on team effectiveness relate to the fact that team members perceived that less emphasis was placed on roles, that morale of the group was influenced by individuals, and that collocation was invasive, reduced level of privacy and increased frequency of interruptions. Overall through it is proposed that companies should consider collocating their agile software development teams, as collocation might leverage overall team effectiveness.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  11. Engaging in Collaboration: A Team of Teams Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carol; Hill, Rachel; Morris, Greg; Woods, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Adapting a Team of Teams model to a school environment provides a framework for a collaborative team culture based on trust, common vision, purposeful conversations, and interconnectivity. School leaders facilitate collaboration by modeling teamwork, as well as transparency and adaptability, to create a positive school culture and thereby improve…

  12. Team Machine: A Decision Support System for Team Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, Paul; King, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the cross-disciplinary research that resulted in a decision-support tool, Team Machine (TM), which was designed to create maximally diverse student teams. TM was used at a large United States university between 2004 and 2012, and resulted in significant improvement in the performance of student teams, superior overall balance…

  13. Team Entitativity and Teacher Teams in Schools: Towards a Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this article we summarise research that discusses "teacher teams?. The central questions guiding this study are "How is the term teacher team" used and defined in previous research? And "What types of teacher teams has previous research identified or explored?" We attempted to answer these questions by searching…

  14. Team Learning: Collective Reflection Processes in Teacher Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to further studies of theoretical and conceptual understanding of teachers' team learning processes, with a main focus on team work, team atmosphere, and collective reflections. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study was designed as a multi-case study in a research and development…

  15. The Team Boat Exercise: Enhancing Team Communication Midsemester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Pamela L.; Friedman, Barry A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the Team Boat Exercise, which was developed to provide students with a mechanism for addressing team problems and enhancing team communication midsemester. The inspiration for the exercise came from a video by Prentice Hall, Inc. (2001). Part III of the video, entitled "Corporate Coaching," shows senior staff members from the…

  16. Teams, Team Motivation, and the Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    A concern with teams was central to early attempts to grasp the nature of the firm, but fell out of favor in later work. We encourage a return to the emphasis on teams, but argue that the idea of teams as central to the nature of the firm needs to be grounded in an appreciation of the importance ...

  17. Team Profiles and Team Performance in a Business Management Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C.; Delahaye, B.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of team roles on the success of teams in business simulations found, contrary to expectation, that teams analyzing data on the basis of beliefs and values rather than logic were more successful. Implications for use of simulation in management education are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  18. The Team Boat Exercise: Enhancing Team Communication Midsemester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Pamela L.; Friedman, Barry A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the Team Boat Exercise, which was developed to provide students with a mechanism for addressing team problems and enhancing team communication midsemester. The inspiration for the exercise came from a video by Prentice Hall, Inc. (2001). Part III of the video, entitled "Corporate Coaching," shows senior staff members from the…

  19. Cohesion in Online Student Teams versus Traditional Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have found that the electronic methods in use for online team communication today increase communication quality in project-based work situations. Because communication quality is known to influence group cohesion, the present research examined whether online student project teams are more cohesive than traditional teams. We tested…

  20. Team Composition Optimization: The Team Optimal Profile System (TOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    functional diversity of the team, and the person has been the primary “peacekeeper” when other members were in conflict. What factor(s) should be...the individual candidates (e.g., individual KSAOs, interests, availability), the team (e.g., functional diversity among the team, balance of

  1. Using artificial team members for team training in virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Muller, T.; Bosch, K. van den

    2010-01-01

    In a good team, members do not only perform their individual task, they also coordinate their actions with other members of the team. Developing such team skills usually involves exercises with all members playing their role. This approach is costly and has organizational and educational drawbacks.

  2. Characterizing Intracluster Light in the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Takahiro; Abramson, Louis E.; Treu, Tommaso; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Vulcani, Benedetta; Wang, Xin

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the intracluster light (ICL) in the six Hubble Frontier Field clusters at 0.3Hubble Space Telescope imaging to map the ICL’s diffuse light out to clustrocentric radii R∼ 300 {kpc} ({μ }{ICL}∼ 27 mag arcsec‑2). From these maps, we construct radial color and stellar mass profiles via SED fitting and find clear negative color gradients in all systems with increasing distance from the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG). While this implies older/more metal-rich stellar components in the inner part of the ICL, we find that the ICL mostly consists of a ≲ 2 {Gyr} population, and plausibly originated with {log}{M}* /{M}ȯ ≲ 10 cluster galaxies. Furthermore, we find that 10%–15% of the ICL’s mass at large radii (≳ 150 kpc) lies in a younger/bluer stellar population (∼1 Gyr), a phenomenon not seen in local samples. We attribute this light to the higher fraction of star-forming/(post-)starburst galaxies in clusters at z∼ 0.5. Ultimately, we find the ICL’s total mass to be {log}{M}* {ICL}/{M}ȯ ∼ 11–12, constituting 5%–20% of the clusters’ total stellar mass, or about half of the value at z∼ 0. The above implies distinct formation histories for the ICL and BCGs/other massive cluster galaxies; i.e., the ICL at this epoch is still being constructed rapidly (∼ 40 {M}ȯ yr‑1), while the BCGs have mostly completed their evolution. To be consistent with the ICL measurements of local massive clusters, such as Virgo, our data suggest mass acquisition mainly from quiescent cluster galaxies is the principal source of ICL material in the subsequent ∼5 Gyr of cosmic time.

  3. Zero CTE Glass in the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John

    2008-01-01

    Orbiting high above the turbulence of the Earth's atmosphere, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided breathtaking views of astronomical objects never before seen in such detail. The steady diffraction-limited images allow this medium-size telescope to reach faint galaxies fainter than 30th stellar magnitude. Some of these galaxies are seen as early as 2 billion years after the Big Bang in a 13.7 billion year old universe. Up until recently, astronomers assumed that all of the laws of physics and astronomy applied back then as they do today. Now, using the discovery that certain supernovae are "standard candles," astronomers have found that the universe is expanding faster today than it was back then: the universe is accelerating in its expansion. The Hubble Space Telescope is a two-mirror Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 2.4m aperture in low earth orbit. The mirrors are made of Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) glass by Corning Glass Works. This material allows rapid figuring and outstanding performance in space astronomy applications. The paper describes how the primary mirror was mis-figured in manufacturing and later corrected in orbit. Outstanding astronomical images taken over the last 17 years show how the application of this new technology has advanced our knowledge of the universe. Not only has the acceleration of the expansion been discovered, the excellent imaging capability of HST has allowed gravitational lensing to become a tool to study the distribution of dark matter and dark energy in distant clusters of galaxies. The HST has touched practically every field of astronomy enabling astronomers to solve many long-standing puzzles. It will be a long time until the end of the universe when the density is near zero and all of the stars have long since evaporated. It is remarkable that humankind has found the technology and developed the ability to interpret the measurements in order to understand this dramatic age we live in.

  4. Teflon FEP Analyzed After Retrieval From the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hansen, Patricia A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Wang, Len; He, Charles

    1999-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Second Servicing Mission, 6.8 years after the telescope was deployed in low Earth orbit, degradation of unsupported Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene), used as the outer layer of the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, was evident as large cracks on the telescope light shield. A sample of the degraded outer layer (see the photograph) was retrieved during the second servicing mission and returned to Earth for ground testing and evaluation. Also retrieved was a Teflon FEP radiator surface from a cryogen vent cover that was exposed to the space environment on the aft bulkhead of the HST. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included determining the FEP degradation mechanisms. As part of the investigations into the degradation mechanisms, specimens retrieved from the first and second HST servicing missions, 3.6 and 6.8 years after launch, respectively, were characterized through exhaustive mechanical, optical, and chemical testing. Testing led by Goddard included scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, tensile testing, solar absorptance measurements, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (m-FTIR), attenuated total reflectance infrared microscopy (ATR/FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The NASA Lewis Research Center contributed significantly to the analysis of the retrieved HST materials by leading efforts and providing results of bend testing, surface microhardness measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and density measurements. Other testing was conducted by Nano Instruments, Inc., and the University of Akron.

  5. When Teams Go Crazy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Software development consists to a large extend of human-based processes with continuously increasing demands regarding interdisciplinary team work. Understanding the dynamics of software teams can be seen as highly important to successful project execution. Hence, for future project managers......, and borrows from controlled experiments to organize and implement its practical parts in which students then experience the effects of, e.g., time pressure, resource bottlenecks, staff turnover, loss of key personnel, and other stress factors. We provide a detailed design of the course unit to allow...... for implementation in further software project management courses. Furthermore, we provide experiences obtained from two instances of this unit conducted in Munich and Karlskrona with 36 graduate students. We observed students building awareness of stress factors and developing counter measures to reduce impact...

  6. TEAM Experience in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGruder, C. H., III; Tyson, N.; Williams, B.; Hackney, K.; Hackney, R.; Rudloff, M.; Scott, R.; Tyler, R.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of the project was to increase minority interest and appreciation of science using astronomy as a tool. This goal was achieved by inviting high school minority students and their teachers to the campus of Western Kentucky University to participate along with minority role models in team based learning experiences. All participants worked together in many hands-on activities and events centered around the exploration of space.

  7. Professional Team Sports Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....

  8. Managing global virtual teams

    OpenAIRE

    Saarinen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Advances in technology-enabled communication and a constant search for economic advantage have led global organizations to rely on virtual collaboration. Together with rapid changes in working life, virtuality has also altered the context for leadership and has had a significant impact on the work of managers. This study addresses managerial work in global virtual teams. In my study, I give voice to the managers themselves with the aim of enhancing our understanding of what the work of virtua...

  9. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  10. Team Dynamics. Implications for Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freishlag, Jerry

    1985-01-01

    A recent survey of coaches ranks team cohesion as the most critical problem coaches face. Optimal interpersonal relationships among athletes and their coaches can maximize collective performance. Team dynamics are discussed and coaching tips are provided. (MT)

  11. Multinational team. Advantages and disadvantages.

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Alena

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the tesis is advantages and disadvantages of work in russian-czech multicultural teams. The research then analyzes the efficiency of such teams primarily from the side of partners and clients of such projects.

  12. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  13. Nutrition in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance.

  14. The Hubble Frontier Fields: Engaging Multiple Audiences in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program began in late 2013 and is led by observations from NASA’s Great Observatories. The observations, now complete, allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein’s theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has engaged multiple audiences over the past three years to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the STScI outreach program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the public and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. In addition, we are leveraging the reach of the new NASA’s Universe of Learning education program to bring the science of the Frontier Fields to informal education audiences. The main underpinnings of the STScI outreach program and the Universe of Learning education program are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging the infrastructure of these education and outreach programs to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.This talk will feature highlights over the past three years of the program. We will highlight OPO’s strategies and infrastructure that allows for the quick delivery of groundbreaking science to the education community and public.

  15. Why Team Boundary Work Matters: A Moderated Mediation Model of Team Boundary Activities, Team Emotional Energy, and Team Innovation.

    OpenAIRE

    Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Lam, Chak Fu

    2016-01-01

    Past research on team boundary work has focused on a “cold,” information-exchange perspective to explain why boundary activities affect team innovation. Although the theory is widely accepted, empirical studies on the actual mechanism are scant and produce inconsistent results. Drawing from Interaction Ritual Theory (Collins, 2004), we propose a “warm,” affective perspective that emphasizes team emotional energy – a shared feeling of enthusiasm among team members – as a mechanism linking boun...

  16. Managing Resource Teams in the Hellenic Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Storming Stage The team is faced with disagreements, counter dependence and the need to manage conflicts as team members compete for team roles . Challenges...mission. The preexisting knowledge about team roles , relationships and team overall mechanisms of team performance helps the team to cope with a demanding

  17. Leading and working in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Helen; Moneypenny, Michael J; McKimm, Judy

    2015-05-01

    This article considers the role of the clinical leader as a team member and leader and explores how an understanding of the purpose and functions of teams can help doctors work more effectively in the various teams with which they are involved.

  18. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  19. Structuring Successful Global Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    assigned to a specific leadership function such as planning , whereas another team member could be assigned to confidence building and team member...across time and space: Exploring shared leadership functions in virtual teams. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 26(1), 3–17

  20. Team Projects and Peer Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John Kevin; Meeker, Ralph D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assign semester- or quarter-long team-based projects in several Computer Science and Finance courses. This paper reports on our experience in designing, managing, and evaluating such projects. In particular, we discuss the effects of team size and of various peer evaluation schemes on team performance and student learning. We report…

  1. Modelling command and control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Essens, P.J.M.D.; Post, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a computational approach to modelling and simulating C2-team behaviour. Within this approach team models may be used to develop, test, and compare different C2-architectures, that is different structures and processes, without the need for real teams. The advantage of this metho

  2. Enabling Team Learning in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boak, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of learning processes within 35 healthcare therapy teams that took action to improve their services. The published research on team learning is introduced, and the paper suggests it is an activity that has similarities with action research and with those forms of action learning where teams address collective…

  3. Activity Recognition for Agent Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    seek to use in the upcoming confrontation. There is not a simple mapping between a character capabilities and this policy; an effective team role must...additional research challenges, specific to the team role assumed by the agent. Agents that support individual human team members face the following chal

  4. Team effectiveness in academic primary health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Dianne; Jamieson, Margaret; Lemieux, Melissa

    2008-12-01

    Primary health care is undergoing significant organizational change, including the development of interdisciplinary health care teams. Understanding how teams function effectively in primary care will assist training programs in teaching effective interprofessional practices. This study aimed to explore the views of members of primary health care teams regarding what constitutes a team, team effectiveness and the factors that affect team effectiveness in primary care. Focus group consultations from six teams in the Department of Family Medicine at Queen's University were recorded and transcribed and qualitative analysis was used to identify themes. Twelve themes were identified that related to the impact of dual goals/obligations of education and clinical/patient practice on team relationships and learners; the challenges of determining team membership including nonattendance of allied health professionals except nurses; and facilitators and barriers to effective team function. This study provides insight into some of the challenges of developing effective primary care teams in an academic department of family medicine. Clear goals and attention to teamwork at all levels of collaboration is needed if effective interprofessional education is to be achieved. Future research should clarify how best to support the changes required for increasingly effective teamwork.

  5. Team perfectionism and team performance: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew P; Stoeber, Joachim; Brown, Anna; Appleton, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been found to predict sports performance in athletes. To date, however, research has exclusively examined this relationship at an individual level (i.e., athletes' perfectionism predicting their personal performance). The current study extends this research to team sports by examining whether, when manifested at the team level, perfectionism predicts team performance. A sample of 231 competitive rowers from 36 boats completed measures of self-oriented, team-oriented, and team-prescribed perfectionism before competing against one another in a 4-day rowing competition. Strong within-boat similarities in the levels of team members' team-oriented perfectionism supported the existence of collective team-oriented perfectionism at the boat level. Two-level latent growth curve modeling of day-by-day boat performance showed that team-oriented perfectionism positively predicted the position of the boat in midcompetition and the linear improvement in position. The findings suggest that imposing perfectionistic standards on team members may drive teams to greater levels of performance.

  6. A Project Team: A Team or Just a Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Hrazdilova Bockova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues related to work in either teams or groups. The theoretical part which discusses a team and a group with regards to its definition, classification and basic distinction brings in more on the typology of team roles, personality assessment and sociometric methods. The analytical part tests the project (work team of a medical center represented in terms of personality and motivational types, team roles and interpersonal team relations concerning the willingness of cooperation and communication. The main objective of this work was to determine whether the existing team is not by its nature rather a working group that contributes to the generally perceived stagnation of that field.

  7. Cheap Talk: “Team Factors and Management Practices Influence on Team Trust”

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Padmini Selvaratnam; Aini Aman; Muhamad Maziz Mahyuddin Bin Kamaludin; Gary Lynn; Richard Reilly

    2016-01-01

    Team trust has been cited as a contributing factor towards team performance. This paper looks at the antecedents of team trust and to what extent they influence team trust. The antecedents of team trust are team factors like team autonomy, team stability and team member experience; and the management practices are top management involvement and management support. The results demonstrated that team factors and management practices influence team trust individually. The key find...

  8. Multidisciplinary team care in rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, Anne-Mette; Rasmussen, Jens Ole; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically investigate current scientific evidence about the effectiveness of multidisciplinary team rehabilitation for different health problems. Data sources: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in Cochrane, Medline, DARE, Embase, and Cinahl databases, and research...... from existing systematic reviews was critically appraised and summarized. Study selection: Using the search terms "rehabilitation", "multidisciplinary teams" or "team care", references were identified for existing studies published after 2000 that examined multidisciplinary rehabilitation team care...... for adults, without restrictions in terms of study population or outcomes. The most recent reviews examining a study population were selected. Data extraction: Two reviewers independently extracted information about study populations, sample sizes, study designs, rehabilitation settings, the team...

  9. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Ed; Holliday, Grant; Keller, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Authoritative guide to TFS 2010 from a dream team of Microsoft insiders and MVPs!Microsoft Visual Studio Team Foundation Server (TFS) has evolved until it is now an essential tool for Microsoft?s Application Lifestyle Management suite of productivity tools, enabling collaboration within and among software development teams. By 2011, TFS will replace Microsoft?s leading source control system, VisualSourceSafe, resulting in an even greater demand for information about it. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010, written by an accomplished team of Microsoft insiders and Microsoft MVPs, provides

  10. New formulae for the Hubble Constant in a Euclidean Static Universe

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that the Hubble constant can be derived from the standard luminosity function of galaxies as well as from a new luminosity function as deduced from the mass-luminosity relationship for galaxies. An analytical expression for the Hubble constant can be found from the maximum number of galaxies (in a given solid angle and flux) as a function of the redshift. A second analytical definition of the Hubble constant can be found from the redshift averaged over a given solid angle and flux...

  11. Leading Teams of Higher Education Administrators: Integrating Goal Setting, Team Role, and Team Life Cycle Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma, Richard; Al-Riyami, Said

    2012-01-01

    Leaders of higher education institutions can create top management teams of academic administrators to guide and improve their organizations. This study illustrates how the leadership of top management teams can be accomplished successfully through a combination of goal setting (Doran, 1981; Locke & Latham, 1990), understanding of team roles…

  12. Social Capital, Team Efficacy and Team Potency: The Mediating Role of Team Learning Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Hetty; Jawahar, I. M.; Schreurs, Bert; de Cuyper, Nele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on social capital theory and self-identification theory, this study aims to examine the associations of two indicators of social capital, personal networks and deep-level similarity, with team capability measures of team efficacy and team potency. The central focus of the study is to be the hypothesized mediating role of team…

  13. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  14. Roles of the Team Physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinderknecht, James

    2016-07-01

    The roles of the team physician are much more than providing medical coverage at a sport's event. The team physician has numerous administrative and medical responsibilities. The development of an emergency action plan is an essential administrative task as an example. The implementation of the components of this plan requires the team physician to have the necessary medical knowledge and skill. An expertise in returning an athlete to play after an injury or other medical condition is a unique attribute of the trained team physician. The athlete's return to participation needs to start with the athlete's safety and best medical interests but not inappropriately restrict the individual from play. The ability to communicate on numerous levels needs to be a characteristic of the team physician. There are several potential ethical conflicts the team physician needs to control. These conflicts can create unique medicolegal issues. The true emphasis of the team physician is to focus on what is best for the athlete.

  15. Volunteer Team Management

    OpenAIRE

    Monych, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looked into volunteer team management in a project in AIESEC in Finland through the action research method. AIESEC in Finland is a non-profit non-government organization with a purpose of “peace and fulfilment of humankinds potential” through development of the youth’s future leadership. AIESEC was not a commissioning party; the project was the basis for the thesis without the supervision of the company. The thesis is based on a project that the author was in charge of, in ...

  16. Team anderthalb : Wirkungsgrad

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Die Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie produziert in regelmäßiger Folge für das Universitätsmagazin CAMPUS TV Filme über physikalische Phänomene. Die Länge der Filme ist auf jeweils 90 Sekunden (oder anderthalb Minuten) beschränkt, woraus sich der Titel der Serie 'Team anderthalb' ergibt. In dieser Folge wird der „Wirkungsgrad“ behandelt. Eine Dampfmaschinen wandelt die Wärmeenergie von heißen Dampf in Bewegung um. Nur wie erfolgreich ist sie dabei? Der Wirkungsgrad gibt Auskunft. Die Einsch...

  17. Hubble Provides Infrared View of Jupiter's Moon, Ring, and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Probing Jupiter's atmosphere for the first time, the Hubble Space Telescope's new Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) provides a sharp glimpse of the planet's ring, moon, and high-altitude clouds.The presence of methane in Jupiter's hydrogen- and helium-rich atmosphere has allowed NICMOS to plumb Jupiter's atmosphere, revealing bands of high-altitude clouds. Visible light observations cannot provide a clear view of these high clouds because the underlying clouds reflect so much visible light that the higher level clouds are indistinguishable from the lower layer. The methane gas between the main cloud deck and the high clouds absorbs the reflected infrared light, allowing those clouds that are above most of the atmosphere to appear bright. Scientists will use NICMOS to study the high altitude portion of Jupiter's atmosphere to study clouds at lower levels. They will then analyze those images along with visible light information to compile a clearer picture of the planet's weather. Clouds at different levels tell unique stories. On Earth, for example, ice crystal (cirrus) clouds are found at high altitudes while water (cumulus) clouds are at lower levels.Besides showing details of the planet's high-altitude clouds, NICMOS also provides a clear view of the ring and the moon, Metis. Jupiter's ring plane, seen nearly edge-on, is visible as a faint line on the upper right portion of the NICMOS image. Metis can be seen in the ring plane (the bright circle on the ring's outer edge). The moon is 25 miles wide and about 80,000 miles from Jupiter.Because of the near-infrared camera's narrow field of view, this image is a mosaic constructed from three individual images taken Sept. 17, 1997. The color intensity was adjusted to accentuate the high-altitude clouds. The dark circle on the disk of Jupiter (center of image) is an artifact of the imaging system.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the

  18. Transformational leadership and team innovation: integrating team climate principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbeiss, Silke A; van Knippenberg, Daan; Boerner, Sabine

    2008-11-01

    Fostering team innovation is increasingly an important leadership function. However, the empirical evidence for the role of transformational leadership in engendering team innovation is scarce and mixed. To address this issue, the authors link transformational leadership theory to principles of M. A. West's (1990) team climate theory and propose an integrated model for the relationship between transformational leadership and team innovation. This model involves support for innovation as a mediating process and climate for excellence as a moderator. Results from a study of 33 research and development teams confirmed that transformational leadership works through support for innovation, which in turn interacts with climate for excellence such that support for innovation enhances team innovation only when climate for excellence is high.

  19. Leader–Member Skill Distance, Team Cooperation, and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Longwei; Li, Yuan; Li, Peter Ping

    2015-01-01

    performance. Building upon input-process-output framework from the perspective of individualist and collectivist cultures, we propose that the association between leader–member skill distance and team performance has an inverted-U shape in individualist cultures. Further, in such cultures, team cooperation...... can augment the positive effect of leader–member skill distance on team performance. In contrast, in collectivist cultures, the association between leader–member skill distance and team performance has a monotonic and positive shape, and team cooperation will attenuate the positive effect of leader......–member skill distance on team performance. We find the empirical support for our views with a mixed-methods design: a qualitative study interviewing informants in different cultures to clarify the psychological mechanisms, and also a quantitative study analyzing the data from US’s National Basketball...

  20. Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is planning a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with Hubble through to the present day. He will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. Webb is scheduled to launch in 2014, and is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past and to penetrate the dusty clouds of gas where stars are still forming today. He will compare Webb to Hubble, and discuss recent progress in the construction of the observatory.

  1. Innovation in healthcare team feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Christine; Beard, Leslie; Fonzo, Anthony Di; Tommaso, Michael Di; Mujawaz, Yaman; Serra-Julia, Marcel; Morra, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare delivery is evolving from individual, autonomous practice to collaborative team practice. However, barriers such as professional autonomy, time constraints and the perception of error as failure preclude learning behaviours that can facilitate organizational learning and improvement. Although experimentation, engaging in questions and feedback, discussing errors and reflecting on results can facilitate learning and promote effective performance, the cultural barriers within healthcare can prevent or inhibit this type of behaviour among teams. At the University Health Network's Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, we realize the need for a tool that facilitates learning behaviour and is sensitive to the risk-averse nature of the clinical environment. The vehicle for the Team Feedback Tool is a web-based application called Rypple (www.rypple.com), which allows team members to provide anonymous, rapid-fire feedback on team processes and performance. Rypple facilitates communication, elicits feedback and provokes discussion. The process enables follow-up face-to-face team discussions and encourages teams to create actionable solutions for incremental changes to enhance team health and performance. The Team Feedback Tool was implemented and piloted in general internal medicine at the University Health Network's Toronto General Hospital from early May 2009 to July 2009 to address the issues of teamwork and learning behaviour in the clinical environment. This article explores the opportunities and barriers associated with the implementation of the Team Feedback Tool.

  2. Rudeness and Medical Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Arieh; Erez, Amir; Foulk, Trevor A; Riskin-Geuz, Kinneret S; Ziv, Amitai; Sela, Rina; Pessach-Gelblum, Liat; Bamberger, Peter A

    2017-02-01

    Rudeness is routinely experienced by medical teams. We sought to explore the impact of rudeness on medical teams' performance and test interventions that might mitigate its negative consequences. Thirty-nine NICU teams participated in a training workshop including simulations of acute care of term and preterm newborns. In each workshop, 2 teams were randomly assigned to either an exposure to rudeness (in which the comments of the patient's mother included rude statements completely unrelated to the teams' performance) or control (neutral comments) condition, and 2 additional teams were assigned to rudeness with either a preventative (cognitive bias modification [CBM]) or therapeutic (narrative) intervention. Simulation sessions were evaluated by 2 independent judges, blind to team exposure, who used structured questionnaires to assess team performance. Rudeness had adverse consequences not only on diagnostic and intervention parameters (mean therapeutic score 3.81 ± 0.36 vs 4.31 ± 0.35 in controls, P team processes (such as information and workload sharing, helping and communication) central to patient care (mean teamwork score 4.04 ± 0.34 vs 4.43 ± 0.37, P performance of medical teams. Moreover, exposure to rudeness debilitated the very collaborative mechanisms recognized as essential for patient care and safety. Interventions focusing on teaching medical professionals to implicitly avoid cognitive distraction such as CBM may offer a means to mitigate the adverse consequences of behaviors that, unfortunately, cannot be prevented. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Letting Down the Team? Social Effects of Team Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Philip; Bedard, Kelly; Charness, Gary; Hartman, John; Royer, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates social effects of incentivizing people in teams. In two fieldexperiments featuring exogenous team formation and opportunities for repeated socialinteractions, we find large team effects that operate through social channels. The teamcompensation system induced agents to choose effort as if they valued a marginal dollar ofcompensation for their teammate from two-thirds as much (in one study) to twice as much asthey valued a dollar of their own compensation (in the other stu...

  4. WORKING IN TEAMS -THE EFFICIENCY OF A UNITED TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Constantin RALEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A team is a collective of people with a minimal number of people with complementary attributes that have the same objective, a performance set of standards and a common approach to work. The team is a group of people under the management of a leader that fulfill at the same time a job and a common action. The team constitutes a component of social life made with people who interact, who know themselves and form together a common identity.

  5. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine E Connelly; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the cont...

  6. Team Work Engagement: Considering Team Dynamics for Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia L. Costa; Ana Passos; Bakker, Arnold B.

    2012-01-01

    Although teams are an important structure of organizations, most studies on work engagement focus almost exclusively the individual-level. The main goals of this paper are to argue that the construct of work engagement can be conceptualized at the team level and to discuss theoretically some of its possible emergence processes. A conceptual model that explains under which conditions team work engagement is more likely to emerge is developed. This model is developed based on the literature on ...

  7. Individual and team performance in team-handball: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2014-12-01

    Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key PointsThe specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition.To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested.Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors.

  8. STS-31 Mission Onboard Photograph-Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this photograph, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was being deployed on April 25, 1990. The photograph was taken by the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) mounted in a container on the port side of the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery (STS-31 mission). The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit for 15 years or more. The HST provides fine detail imaging, produces ultraviolet images and spectra, and detects very faint objects. Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. A scheduled Space Service servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993 permitted scientists to correct the problem. During four spacewalks, new instruments were installed into the HST that had optical corrections. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. Photo Credit: NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Lockheed Corporation.

  9. A Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey of Nearby Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, W; Van Dyk, S D; Hu, J; Qiu, Y; Modjaz, M; Leonard, D C; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Dyk, Schuyler D. Van; Hu, Jingyao; Qiu, Yulei; Modjaz, Maryam; Leonard, Douglas C.

    2002-01-01

    We present photometry of 12 recent supernovae (SNe) recovered in a {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} Snapshot program, and tie the measurements to earlier ground-based observations, in order to study the late-time evolution of the SNe. Many of the ground-based measurements are previously unpublished, and were made primarily with a robotic telescope, the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope. Evidence for circumstellar interaction is common among the core-collapse SNe. Late-time decline rates for Type IIn SNe are found to span a wide range, perhaps due to differences in circumstellar interaction. An extreme case, SN IIn 1995N, declined by only 1.2 mag in $V$ over about 4 years following discovery. Template images of some SNe must therefore be obtained many years after the explosion, if contamination from the SN itself is to be minimized. Evidence is found against a previous hypothesis that the Type IIn SN 1997bs was actually a superoutburst of a luminous blue variable star. The peculiar SN Ic 1997ef, a "hypernova," d...

  10. Bulge and Halo Kinematics Across the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis C

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between the maximum rotational velocity of the disk (v_m) and the central stellar velocity dispersion of the bulge (sigma) offers insights into the relationship between the halo and the bulge. We have assembled integrated H I line widths and central stellar velocity dispersions to study the v_m-sigma relation for 792 galaxies spanning a broad range of Hubble types. Contrary to earlier studies based on much smaller samples, we find that the v_m-sigma relation exhibits significant intrinsic scatter and that its zeropoint varies systematically with galaxy morphology, bulge-to-disk ratio, and light concentration, as expected from basic dynamical considerations. Nucleated but bulgeless late-type spiral galaxies depart significantly from the v_m-sigma relation. While these results render questionable any attempt to supplant the bulge with the halo as the fundamental determinant of the central black hole mass in galaxies, the observed distribution of v_m/sigma, which depends on both the density profi...

  11. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. IV. The extinction law

    CERN Document Server

    De Marchi, Guido; Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, Daniel; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Cignoni, Michele; Grebel, Eva K; Larsen, Soeren; Zaritsky, Dennis; Zeidler, Peter; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Aloisi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    We report on the study of interstellar extinction across the Tarantula nebula (30 Doradus), in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using observations from the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project in the 0.3 - 1.6 micron range. The considerable and patchy extinction inside the nebula causes about 3500 red clump stars to be scattered along the reddening vector in the colour-magnitude diagrams, thereby allowing an accurate determination of the reddening slope in all bands. The measured slope of the reddening vector is remarkably steeper in all bands than in the the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium. At optical wavelengths, the larger ratio of total-to-selective extinction, namely Rv = 4.5 +/- 0.2, implies the presence of a grey component in the extinction law, due to a larger fraction of large grains. The extra large grains are most likely ices from supernova ejecta and will significantly alter the extinction properties of the region until they sublimate in 50 - 100 Myr. We discuss the implications of this extinction la...

  12. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project - IV. The extinction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino; Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, Daniel; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Cignoni, Michele; Grebel, Eva K.; Larsen, Søren; Zaritsky, Dennis; Zeidler, Peter; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Aloisi, Alessandra

    2016-02-01

    We report on the study of interstellar extinction across the Tarantula Nebula (30 Doradus), in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using observations from the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project in the 0.3-1.6 μm range. The considerable and patchy extinction inside the nebula causes about 3500 red clump stars to be scattered along the reddening vector in the colour-magnitude diagrams, thereby allowing an accurate determination of the reddening slope in all bands. The measured slope of the reddening vector is remarkably steeper in all bands than in the the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium. At optical wavelengths, the larger ratio of total-to-selective extinction, namely RV = 4.5 ± 0.2, implies the presence of a grey component in the extinction law, due to a larger fraction of large grains. The extra large grains are most likely ices from supernova ejecta and will significantly alter the extinction properties of the region until they sublimate in 50-100 Myr. We discuss the implications of this extinction law for the Tarantula Nebula and in general for regions of massive star formation in galaxies. Our results suggest that fluxes of strongly star-forming regions are likely to be underestimated by a factor of about 2 in the optical.

  13. Custom CMOS Reed Solomon coder for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, S.; Cameron, K.; Owsley, P.; Maki, G.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI coder is presented that can function either as an encoder or decoder for Reed-Solomon codes. VLSI is one approach to implementing high-performance Reed-Solomon decoders. There are three VLSI technologies that could be used: gate arrays, standard cells, and full custom. The first two approaches are relatively easy to implement, but are limited in both performance and density. Full-custom VLSI is used to achieve both circuit density and speed, and allows control of the amount of interconnect. Speed, which is a function of capacitance, which is a function of interconnect, is an important parameter in high-performance VLSI. A single 8.2 mm x 8.4 mm, 200,000 transistor CMOS chip implementation of the Reed-Solomon code required by the Hubble Space Telescope is reported. The chip features a 10-MHz sustained byte rate independent of error pattern. The 1.6-micron CMOS integrated circuit has complete decoder and encoder functions and uses a single data/system clock. Block lengths up to 255 bytes and shortened codes are supported with no external buffering. Erasure corrections and random error corrections are supported with programmable correction of up to 10 symbol errors. Correction time is independent of error pattern and the number of errors in the incoming message.

  14. Hubble Servicing Challenges Drive Innovation of Shuttle Rendezvous Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.; Walker, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing, performed by Space Shuttle crews, has contributed to what is arguably one of the most successful astronomy missions ever flown. Both nominal and contingency proximity operations techniques were developed to enable successful servicing, while lowering the risk of damage to HST systems, and improve crew safety. Influencing the development of these techniques were the challenges presented by plume impingement and HST performance anomalies. The design of both the HST and the Space Shuttle was completed before the potential of HST contamination and structural damage by shuttle RCS jet plume impingement was fully understood. Relative navigation during proximity operations has been challenging, as HST was not equipped with relative navigation aids. Since HST reached orbit in 1990, proximity operations design for servicing missions has evolved as insight into plume contamination and dynamic pressure has improved and new relative navigation tools have become available. Servicing missions have provided NASA with opportunities to gain insight into servicing mission design and development of nominal and contingency procedures. The HST servicing experiences and lessons learned are applicable to other programs that perform on-orbit servicing and rendezvous, both human and robotic.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope solar cell module thermal cycle test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Alexander; Edge, Ted; Willowby, Douglas; Gerlach, Lothar

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array consists of two identical double roll-out wings designed after the Hughes flexible roll-up solar array (FRUSA) and was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to meet specified HST power output requirements at the end of 2 years, with a functional lifetime of 5 years. The requirement that the HST solar array remain functional both mechanically and electrically during its 5-year lifetime meant that the array must withstand 30,000 low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 C. In order to evaluate the ability of the array to meet this requirement, an accelerated thermal cycle test in vacuum was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), using two 128-cell solar array modules which duplicated the flight HST solar array. Several other tests were performed on the modules. The thermal cycle test was interrupted after 2,577 cycles, and a 'cold-roll' test was performed on one of the modules in order to evaluate the ability of the flight array to survive an emergency deployment during the dark (cold) portion of an orbit. A posttest static shadow test was performed on one of the modules in order to analyze temperature gradients across the module. Finally, current in-flight electrical performance data from the actual HST flight solar array will be tested.

  16. Quantum Information, Entropy, ALPHA, Hubble Time, and Dark Energy, Linked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2008-03-01

    The postulation of fundamental constants by Newton, Einstein and Planck gave us natural units at Planck scale. Additional postulates may explain coupling constants. About sixty orders of magnitude of Planck times equal Hubble time (W). Substitution of W in Boltzmann's entropy equation (S=k ln W; with Boltzmann constant k = 1 in natural units, and using the natural logarithm to probe nature) equates the statistical entropy (S) of the universe to about 137, the reciprocal of the fine-structure constant (α). Thermodynamic entropy (dS = δQ/T), a consequence of statistical entropy, implies that the fine-structure constant generates heat out of vacuum energy or dark energy. We draw support from the insights of Maxwell's demon (1867), Gamow (1967) and Eddington (1949). In information theory, entropy is linked to a measure of uncertainty, indicating that the fine-structure constant is greater than or equal to the reciprocal of the natural logarithm of the age of the universe: α>=1 / 1 lnW . - lnW. The postulation in [1] (a draft of a 2008 planned review paper) will address further issues. [1] S. Goradia, What is Fine Structure Constant? http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0210040v3 (revised 1/6/2007)

  17. The Hubble Space Telescope from concept to success

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2016-01-01

    The highly successful Hubble Space Telescope was meant to change our view and understanding of the universe. Within weeks of its launch in 1990, however, the space community was shocked to find out that the primary mirror of the telescope was flawed. It was only the skills of scientists and engineers on the ground and the daring talents of astronauts sent to service the telescope in December 1993 that saved the mission. For over two decades NASA had developed the capabilities to service a payload in orbit. This involved numerous studies and the creation of a ground-based infrastructure to support the challenging missions. Unique tools and EVA hardware supported the skills developed in crew training that then enabled astronauts to complete a demanding series of spacewalks. Drawing upon first hand interviews with those closely involved in the project over thirty years ago this story explains the development of the servicing mission concept and the hurdles that had to be overcome to not only launch the telescope...

  18. SHIELD: Distance Estimates from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Ian; Cannon, J. M.; Larson, E.; Marshall, M.; Moody, S.; Adams, E. A.; Dolphin, A. E.; Elson, E. C.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; McQuinn, K. B.; Ott, J.; Saintonge, A.; Salzer, J. J.; Skillman, E. D.

    2013-01-01

    The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) is an ongoing study of twelve galaxies with HI masses between 106 and 107 Solar masses, detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. Here we present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the SHIELD galaxies. The primary goal is to determine the distance of each galaxy. We apply two techniques to measure the apparent magnitude of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) feature in the HST color magnitude diagrams. First, a custom designed edge detection filter was written to determine the TRGB magnitude based on a user-selected region of the color magnitude diagram. Second, we apply the maximum likelihood technique implemented in the "TRGBtool" software package (Makarov et al. 2006). In addition to the distances based on the TRGB feature, we also use the MATCH software (Dolphin 2002) to determine the best-fit distance based on the overall CMD morphology. We compare these distance estimates for all members of the SHIELD galaxies, and present a final table of distances that is used in each of the companion SHIELD presentations.

  19. The Hubble sequence: a vestige of merger events

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, F; Puech, M; Athanassoula, E; Rodrigues, M; Yang, Y; Delgado-Serrano, R

    2009-01-01

    Abr: We investigate whether the Hubble sequence can be reproduced by the relics of merger events. We verify that, at z~0.65, the abundant population of anomalous starbursts is mainly linked to the local spirals. We successfully reproduce their main morphological and kinematical properties by using gas modelling from Barnes' (2002) study of major mergers. All distant and massive starbursts can be distributed along a temporal sequence from the first passage to the nuclei fusion and then to the disk rebuilding phase. This later phase illustrated for J033245.11-274724.0, a compact galaxy dominated by a red, dust-enshrouded disk. It confirms the rebuilding spiral disk scenario -- a strong and recent reprocessing of most disks by major mergers -- because anomalous starbursts represent almost 50% of the galaxy population at z~0.65. Half of the present-day spirals were in major mergers phases 6 Gyrs ago, and almost all of them at z~1. It is time now to study in detail the formation of spiral disks and of their substr...

  20. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE View of the Heart of Ursa Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battinelli, Paolo; Demers, Serge

    1999-04-01

    Hubble Space Telescope F606W observations to 26th magnitude are used to investigate the stellar distribution in the center of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The central surface density is found to be low, less than 700 stars arcmin^-2, with no sign of a pronounced cusp. The maximum of the surface density is not found at our adopted center but in a ringlike structure some 13" from it. We identify this feature with the subclustering identified by Olszewski & Aaronson, who believed that it was off-center. The currently accepted King's structural parameters, r_c and r_t, of Ursa Minor are found to be unsuitable to represent the stellar surface density near the center. Our star counts are used to obtain a lower limit of the central stellar density without the use of the velocity dispersion. We find a lower limit of 1.7+/-1.1 M_solar pc^-3 from stars that were counted. By extrapolating the mass function to lower masses, we estimate that the true density could increase be a factor of 7.

  1. Systematics in the Gamma Ray Bursts Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, V F; Capozziello, S

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to their enormous energy release which allows to detect them up to very high redshift, Gamma Rays Bursts (GRBs) have recently attracted a lot of interest to probe the Hubble diagram (HD) deep into the matter dominated era and hence complement Type Ia Supernoave (SNeIa). However, lacking a local GRBs sample, calibrating the scaling relations proposed as an equivalent to the Phillips law to standardize GRBs is not an easy task because of the need to estimate the GRBs luminosity distance in a model independent way. We consider here three different calibration methods based on the use of a fiducial $\\Lambda$CDM model, on cosmographic parameters and on the local regression on SNeIa. We find that the calibration coefficients and the intrinsic scatter do not significantly depend on the adopted calibration procedure. We then investigate the evolution of these parameters with the redshift finding no statistically motivated improvement in the likelihood so that the no evolution assumption is actually a well foun...

  2. The Circumnuclear Star-forming Activities along the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Peng, Z; Shi, Lei; Gu, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhixin

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the circumnuclear star-forming activity along the Hubble sequence, we cross-correlate the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2) with the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3) to derive a large sample of 1015 galaxies with both morphological and spectral information. Among these, 385 sources are classified as star-forming galaxies and the SDSS fibre covered the circumnuclear regions (0.2 $-$ 2.0 kpc). By using the spectral synthesis method to remove the contribution from the underlying old stellar population, we measure the emission lines fluxes accurately which are then used to estimate the star formation rates(SFRs). Our main findings are that: (1) Early-type spirals show much larger H$\\alpha$ luminosities and hence higher SFRs, they also suffer more extinctions than late-type ones. The equivalent widths (EWs) of H$\\alpha$ emission lines show the similar trend, however, the very late types (Sdm $\\sim$ Irr) do have large fractions of high EWs. (2) We confirm that D$_n...

  3. The 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12): Observational Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Koekemoer, Anton M; McLure, Ross J; Dunlop, James S; Robertson, Brant E; Ono, Yoshiaki; Schenker, Matthew A; Ouchi, Masami; Bowler, Rebecca A A; Rogers, Alexander B; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P; Furlanetto, Steven R; Cirasuolo, Michele; Wild, V; Targett, T

    2012-01-01

    We present the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field campaign (UDF12), a large 128-orbit Cycle 19 \\HST\\ program aimed at extending previous WFC3/IR observations of the UDF by quadrupling the exposure time in the F105W filter, imaging in an additional F140W filter, and extending the F160W exposure time by 50%. The principal scientific goal of this project is to determine whether galaxies reionized the universe; our observations are designed to provide a robust determination of the star formation density at $z$$\\,\\gtrsim\\,$8, improve measurements of the ultraviolet continuum slope at $z$$\\,\\sim\\,7\\,-\\,$8, facilitate the construction of new samples of $z$$\\,\\sim\\,9\\,-\\,$10 candidates, and enable the detection of sources up to $z$$\\,\\sim\\,$12. For this project we committed to combining these and other WFC3/IR imaging observations of the UDF area into a single homogeneous dataset, to provide the deepest near-infrared observations of the sky currently achievable. In this paper we present the observational overview of the pr...

  4. The Hubble Deep Field and the Early Evolution of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, P

    1997-01-01

    I review some recent progress made in our understanding of galaxy evolution and the cosmic history of star formation. The Hubble Deep Field (HDF) imaging survey has achieved the sensitivity to capture the bulk of the extragalactic background light from discrete sources. No evidence is found in the optical number-magnitude relation down to AB=29 mag for a large amount of star formation at high redshifts. The emission history of the universe at ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared wavelengths can be modeled from the present epoch to z~4 by tracing the evolution with cosmic time of the galaxy luminosity density, as determined from several deep spectroscopic samples and the HDF. The global spectrophotometric properties of field galaxies are well fitted by a simple stellar evolution model, defined by a time-dependent star formation rate (SFR) per unit comoving volume and a universal initial mass function which is relatively rich in massive stars. The SFR density is found to rise sharply, by about an order of ma...

  5. Utility of observational Hubble parameter data on dark energy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Li, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at exploring the nature of dark energy, we use thirty-six observational Hubble parameter data (OHD) in the redshift range $0 \\leqslant z \\leqslant 2.36$ to make a cosmological model-independent test of the two-point $Omh^2(z_{2};z_{1})$ diagnostic. In $\\Lambda$CDM, we have $Omh^2 \\equiv \\Omega_{m}h^2$, where $\\Omega_{m}$ is the matter density parameter at present. We bin all the OHD into four data points to mitigate the observational contaminations. By comparing with the value of $\\Omega_{m}h^2$ which is constrained tightly by the Planck observations, our results show that in all six testing pairs of $Omh^2$ there are two testing pairs are consistent with $\\Lambda$CDM at $1\\sigma$ confidence level (CL), whereas for another two of them $\\Lambda$CDM can only be accommodated at $2\\sigma$ CL. Particularly, for remaining two pairs, $\\Lambda$CDM is not compatible even at $2\\sigma$ CL. Therefore it is reasonable that although deviations from $\\Lambda$CDM exist for some pairs, cautiously, we cannot rule out th...

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry of the Procyon System

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Howard E; Schaefer, Gail H; Demarque, Pierre; Girard, Terrence M; Holberg, Jay B; Gudehus, Donald; Mason, Brian D; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Burleigh, Matthew R; Barstow, Martin A; Nelan, Edmund P

    2015-01-01

    The nearby star Procyon is a visual binary containing the F5 IV-V subgiant Procyon A, orbited in a 40.84 yr period by the faint DQZ white dwarf Procyon B. Using images obtained over two decades with the Hubble Space Telescope, and historical measurements back to the 19th century, we have determined precise orbital elements. Combined with measurements of the parallax and the motion of the A component, these elements yield dynamical masses of 1.478 +/- 0.012 Msun and 0.592 +/- 0.006 Msun for A and B, respectively. The mass of Procyon A agrees well with theoretical predictions based on asteroseismology and its temperature and luminosity. Use of a standard core-overshoot model agrees best for a surprisingly high amount of core overshoot. Under these modeling assumptions, Procyon A's age is ~2.7 Gyr. Procyon B's location in the H-R diagram is in excellent agreement with theoretical cooling tracks for white dwarfs of its dynamical mass. Its position in the mass-radius plane is also consistent with theory, assuming ...

  7. Dark Energy and the quietness of the Local Hubble Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, M

    2002-01-01

    The linearity and quietness of the Local ($< 10 Mpc$) Hubble Flow (LHF) in view of the very clumpy local universe is a long standing puzzle in standard and in open CDM cosmogony. The question addressed in this paper is whether the antigravity component of the recently discovered dark energy can cool the velocity flow enough to provide a solution to this puzzle. We calculate the growth of matter fluctuations in a flat universe containing a fraction $\\Omega_X(t_0)$ of dark energy obeying the time independent equation of state $p_X = w \\rho_X$. We find that dark energy can indeed cool the LHF. However the dark energy parameter values required to make the predicted velocity dispersion consistent with the observed value $v_{rms}\\simeq 40km/sec$ have been ruled out by other observational tests constraining the dark energy parameters $w$ and $\\Omega_X$. Therefore despite the claims of recent qualitative studies dark energy with time independent equation of state can not by itself explain the quietness and lineari...

  8. Feedback loops from the Hubble Space Telescope data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Arquilla, Richard; Ellis, Tracy; Hamilton, Forrest C.; Holm, Albert; Kochte, Mark

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history and technology by which tools placed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data processing pipeline were used to feedback information on observation execution to the scheduling system and observers. Because the HST is in a relatively low orbit, which imposes a number of constraints upon its observations, it operates in a carefully planned, fully automated mode. To substitute for direct observer involvement available at most ground-based observatories and to provide rapid feedback on failures that might affect future visits, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) gradually evolved a system for screening science and engineering products during pipeline processing. The highly flexible HST data processing system (OPUS) allows tools to be introduced to use the content of FITS keywords to alert production staff to potential telescope and instrument performance failures. Staff members review the flagged data and, if appropriate, notify the observer and the scheduling staff so that they can resolve the problems and possibly repeat the failed observations. This kind of feedback loop represents a case study for other automated data collection systems where rapid response to certain quantifiable events in the data is required. Observatory operations staff can install processes to look for these events either in the production pipeline or in an associated pipeline into which the appropriate data are piped. That process can then be used to notify scientists to evaluate the data and decide upon a response or to automatically initiate a response.

  9. WFPC2 Observations of the Hubble Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Casertano, S; Dickinson, M; Ferguson, H C; Fruchter, A S; González-Lopezlira, R A; Heyer, I; Hook, R N; Levay, Z G; Lucas, R A; Mack, J; Makidon, R B; Mutchler, M Y; Smith, T E; Stiavelli, M; Wiggs, M S; Williams, R E; Casertano, Stefano; Mello, Duilia de; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C; Fruchter, Andrew S; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A; Heyer, Inge; Hook, Richard N; Levay, Zolt; Lucas, Ray A; Mack, Jennifer; Makidon, Russell B; Mutchler, Max; Stiavelli, Massimo; Wiggs, Michael S; Williams, Robert E

    2000-01-01

    The Hubble Deep Field-South observations targeted a high-galactic-latitude field near QSO J2233-606. We present WFPC2 observations of the field in four wide bandpasses centered at roughly 300, 450, 606, and 814 nm. Observations, data reduction procedures, and noise properties of the final images are discussed in detail. A catalog of sources is presented, and the number counts and color distributions of the galaxies are compared to a new catalog of the HDF-N that has been constructed in an identical manner. The two fields are qualitatively similar, with the galaxy number counts for the two fields agreeing to within 20%. The HDF-S has more candidate Lyman-break galaxies at z > 2 than the HDF-N. The star-formation rate per unit volume computed from the HDF-S, based on the UV luminosity of high-redshift candidates, is a factor of 1.9 higher than from the HDF-N at z ~ 2.7, and a factor of 1.3 higher at z ~ 4.

  10. Statistics of extreme objects in the Juropa Hubble Volume simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, W A; Diego, J M; Gottlöber, S; Knebe, A; Martínez-González, E; Yepes, G

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from the JUropa huBbLE volumE (Jubilee) project, based on the output from a large N-body, dark matter-only cosmological simulation with a volume of V=(6Gpc/h)^3, containing 6000^3 particles, performed within the concordance Lambda-CDM cosmological model. The simulation volume is sufficient to probe extremely large length scales in the universe, whilst at the same time the particle count is high enough so that dark matter haloes down to 1.5x10^12 M_sun/h can be resolved. At z = 0 we identify over 400 million haloes, and the first haloes in the simulation form at z = 11. We present an all-sky map of the Integrated Sachs Wolfe signal calculated from the gravitational potential in the box between z = 0-1.4. The cluster mass function is derived using three different halofinders and compared to fitting functions in the literature, with results being consistent with previous studies across most of the mass-range of the simulation. We compare simulated clusters of maximal mass across reds...

  11. Teams, Team Motivation, and the Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    A concern with teams was central to early attempts to grasp the nature of the firm, but fell out of favor in later work. We encourage a return to the emphasis on teams, but argue that the idea of teams as central to the nature of the firm needs to be grounded in an appreciation of the importance...... of We frames and group agency. We use converging insights from evolutionary anthropology, cognitive social psychology and work on team agency to develop such a grounding, and link it to the issues of the existence and boundaries of firms....

  12. How Far Out Must We Go to Get into the Hubble Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    1999-02-01

    The answer, we shall see, must be z equals 3--if the expansion is flat, matter-dominated, hence slow. I show that gravitational lenses are the best hope for definitely getting out into the Hubble flow and hence for measuring the true values of the cosmological parameters. The source of one known lens system, B1422+231, is definitely in the Hubble flow.

  13. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Snapshot Survey of 3CR Quasars: The Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Matthew D.; Miley, George K.; Sparks, William B.; Baum, Stefi A.; Biretta, John; Golombek, Daniel; de Koff, Sigrid; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    1999-08-01

    We present images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of 43 quasars selected from the 3CR radio catalog. The redshift range of the targets is large--0.3Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  14. Galaxy Group Stephan's Quintet Video File HubbleMinute: Battle Royale in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's closeup view of Stephan's Quintet, a group of five galaxies, reveals a string of brighter star clusters that separate like a diamond necklace. Astronomers studying the compact galaxy group Stephan's Quintet have seen creative destruction in the many collisions taking place among its galaxies. This HubbleMinute discusses what astronomers are learning and hope to learn from exploring the quintet.

  15. The Case for a Hubble Constant of 30 km/s/Mpc

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Although cosmologists have been trying to determine the value of the Hubble constant for nearly 65 years, they have only succeeded in limiting the range of possibilities: most of the current observational determinations place the Hubble constant between 50 km/s/Mpc and 90 km/s/Mpc. The uncertainty is unfortunate because this fundamental parameter of cosmology determines both the distance scale and the time scale, and thereby affects almost all aspects of cosmology. Here we make the case for a...

  16. Probing the z > 6 universe with the first Hubble Frontier Fields cluster A2744.

    OpenAIRE

    Atek, Hakim,; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Clement, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald; Jauzac, Mathilde; Jullo, Eric; Laporte, Nicolas; Limousin, Marceau; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-01-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields program combines the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with the gravitational lensing of massive galaxy clusters to probe the distant universe to an unprecedented depth. Here, we present the results of the first combined HST and Spitzer observations of the cluster A-2744. We combine the full near-infrared data with ancillary optical images to search for gravitationally lensed high-redshift (z gsim 6) galaxies. We report the detection of 15 I 814 dropo...

  17. [Team management of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loët, X; Vittecoq, O

    2001-12-01

    The main objectives of team management of rheumatoid arthritis are to stop structural damage of joints and to reduce functional, psychological, socioprofessional and economic consequences. Team management requires the collaboration, around the patient, of a rheumatologist, a nurse, a psychologist, a physiotherapist, an occupational therapist, an orthopaedic surgeon at the same time, in the same place. More and more patients wish to manage their disease by themselves. Team care should not be proposed to every patient; it must be reserved to patients whose condition required such an approach because of the severity of the disease, comorbidity, psychological or socioprofessionnal difficulties. Team management should be personalized. Utility of team management is now accepted; out-patient administration is as effective as in-patient one. A good educational program is very important. However, search is still needed to define optimal modalities of team management and tools to measure the efficiency of this approach.

  18. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities consistent...... with a commodity team's objective of creating opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviors, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members....... In some cases, inconsistencies between these factors and the objectives of the commodity teams were associated with lower performance. The paper contributes theoretically by providing a rich description of commodity functioning, and to practice by bringing attention to a number of managerial issues...

  19. A virtual team group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Marnie; Robertson, Della; Weeks, Marlene; Yu, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Virtual teams are a phenomenon of the Information Era and their existence in health care is anticipated to increase with technology enhancements such as telehealth and groupware. The mobilization and support of high performing virtual teams are important for leading knowledge-based health professionals in the 21st century. Using an adapted McGrath group development model, the four staged maturation process of a virtual team consisting of four masters students is explored in this paper. The team's development is analyzed addressing the interaction of technology with social and task dynamics. Throughout the project, leadership competencies of value to the group that emerged were demonstrated and incorporated into the development of a leadership competency assessment instrument. The demonstration of these competencies illustrated how they were valued and internalized by the group. In learning about the work of this virtual team, the reader will gain understanding of how leadership impacts virtual team performance.

  20. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    these factors and the objectives of the commodity teams were associated with lower performance. The paper contributes theoretically by providing a rich description of how commodity teams function, and to practice by bringing attention to a number of managerial issues that should be considered when implementing......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  1. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    . In some cases, inconsistencies between these factors and the objectives of the commodity teams were associated with lower performance. The paper contributes theoretically by providing a rich description of commodity functioning, and to practice by bringing attention to a number of managerial issues......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities consistent...... with a commodity team's objective of creating opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviors, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members...

  2. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    these factors and the objectives of the commodity teams were associated with lower performance. The paper contributes theoretically by providing a rich description of how commodity teams function, and to practice by bringing attention to a number of managerial issues that should be considered when implementing......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  3. The Adaptability of Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, data from a longitudinal case study in an organization attempting to adapt its internal work processes to changes in its external context are presented, analyzed and discussed. Specifically, functionally structured work teams in one department of a Danish production facility were...... on the proper alignment between the structuring of the work processes and characteristics of the external context (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967) – it provides a unique opportunity to explore the adaptation process in practice. The paper contributes to the development of contingency theory by lending support...... to the premise that “fit” between an organization’s external context and its internal structure may enhance performance, but also to the suggestion that the adaptation process may be asymmetric (Moon et al., 2004). Further, the paper contributes to practice by highlighting both the opportunities and risks...

  4. Trust in agile teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Fransgård, Mette; Skalkam, Signe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Distributed software development (DSD) is becoming everyday practice in the software field. Difficult challenges and difficulty reaching the expected benefits are well documented. The key challenges are communication, coordination and control issues due to temporal, geographical and socio...... of the problems of DSD. However important incompatibilities between the challenges of DSD and the key tenets of agility exist and achieving a beneficially balanced agile practice in DSD can be difficult. Trust could be the key to this, since trust is crucial for the necessary corporate behavior that leads to team......-cultural distance. Many solutions have been suggested, ranging form arranging outsourcing to avoid the need for close distributed collaboration, to minimizing the distances and to alleviating the effects of the distances. Recently agile software development methods are reported as successful solutions to many...

  5. Das Reflektierende Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorensen, Marlene Ringgaard; Gaarden, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Bedeutungszuschreibungen. Marianne Gaardens Forschung zeigt, dass zwischen Predigenden und Hörenden ein ›dritter Raum‹ entsteht, wie sie das nennt. Dabei handelt es sich um einen liminalen, rituell konturierten Raum, in dem Hörende Predigtelemente rezipieren und in ihre eigenen gelebten Erfahrungen einbauen. Komplementär...... dazu hat Marlene Ringgaard Lorensen das Potenzial des von außen kommenden, dezidiert ›andersartigen‹ Beitrags der Hörenden für die dialogische Predigt im Rückgriff auf Theorien von Mikhail Bakhtin analysiert. Als theologische Grundfigur steht hinter der Arbeit im reflektierenden homiletischen Team also...... intersubjektiv eng verwobenen Gemeinschaft sind. Das Konzept des ›dritten Raumes‹ trägt der Einsicht Rechnung, dass wir im Dialog lernen und uns entwickeln. Es geht nicht darum, dass eine Person die andere überzeugt: Beide verändern sich im fortschreitenden Prozess....

  6. The Adaptability of Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, data from a longitudinal case study in an organization attempting to adapt its internal work processes to changes in its external context are presented, analyzed and discussed. Specifically, functionally structured work teams in one department of a Danish production facility were...... restructured and redesigned to increase flexibility in order to better meet the demands of an increasingly turbulent external context. As the change processes occurring within this facility follow the basis prescriptions of contingency theory – i.e., that effective operational performance is dependent...... to the premise that “fit” between an organization’s external context and its internal structure may enhance performance, but also to the suggestion that the adaptation process may be asymmetric (Moon et al., 2004). Further, the paper contributes to practice by highlighting both the opportunities and risks...

  7. Measuring teamwork performance: Validity testing of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) with clinical resuscitation teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Connell, Cliff; Sims, Lyndall; Porter, Joanne E; Symmons, Mark; Nestel, Debra; Liaw, Sok Ying

    2016-04-01

    To test the resuscitation non-technical Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) for feasibility, validity and reliability, in two Australian Emergency Departments (ED). Non-technical (teamwork) skills have been identified as inadequate and as such have a significant impact on patient safety. Valid and reliable teamwork assessment tools are an important element of performance assessment and debriefing processes. A quasi experimental design based on observational ratings of resuscitation non-technical skills in two metropolitan ED. Senior nursing staff rated 106 adult resuscitation team events over a ten month period where three or more resuscitation team members attended. Resuscitation events, team performance and validity and reliability data was collected for the TEAM. Most rated events were for full cardiac resuscitation (43%) with 3-15 team members present for an average of 45 min. The TEAM was found to be feasible and quickly completed with minimal or no training. Discriminant validity was good as was internal consistency with a Cronbach alpha of 0.94. Uni-dimensional and concurrent validity also reached acceptable standards, 0.94 and >0.63 (p=performance indicating a need for leadership training. The TEAM is a feasible, valid and reliable non-technical assessment measure in simulated and real clinical settings. Emergency teams need to develop leadership skills through training and reflective debriefing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New lenses on team learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    Team læring er sjældent blevet studeret fra et sociokulturelt perspektiv (vygotskiansk). Denne poster er et teoretisk bidrag til team læring, der fokuserer på dialog, tegn-mediering og kulturel historisk praksis for at udvikle en forståelse af team læring som mere end forøgelse i adfærd, viden og...

  9. New lenses on team learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    Team læring er sjældent blevet studeret fra et sociokulturelt perspektiv (vygotskiansk). Denne poster er et teoretisk bidrag til team læring, der fokuserer på dialog, tegn-mediering og kulturel historisk praksis for at udvikle en forståelse af team læring som mere end forøgelse i adfærd, viden og...

  10. L3 Study Team Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, David; L3ST Team

    2017-01-01

    The NASA-Chartered L3 Study Team is working to develop the US community participation and to support NASA's contribution to the ESA-led LISA mission to observe gravitational waves via space-based detectors. The present activities of the L3ST will be described, and the next steps for the Study Team will also be given. NASA supports travel activities and support for the Study Team activities.

  11. Nonlinear effects of team tenure on team psychological safety climate and climate strength: Implications for average team member performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Jaclyn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Wang, Mo; Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi

    2016-07-01

    The teams literature suggests that team tenure improves team psychological safety climate and climate strength in a linear fashion, but the empirical findings to date have been mixed. Alternatively, theories of group formation suggest that new and longer tenured teams experience greater team psychological safety climate than moderately tenured teams. Adopting this second perspective, we used a sample of 115 research and development teams and found that team tenure had a curvilinear relationship with team psychological safety climate and climate strength. Supporting group formation theories, team psychological safety climate and climate strength were higher in new and longer tenured teams compared with moderately tenured teams. Moreover, we found a curvilinear relationship between team tenure and average team member creative performance as partially mediated by team psychological safety climate. Team psychological safety climate improved average team member task performance only when team psychological safety climate was strong. Likewise, team tenure influenced average team member task performance in a curvilinear manner via team psychological safety climate only when team psychological safety climate was strong. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and offer several directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  13. The Management Team and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floratos, Nick; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The team administration model used in the Rio Linda School District is explained, including a definition of the concept, organizational structures, general operations, and problem solving strategies. (SJL)

  14. The organizational neurodynamics of teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ronald; Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia; Likens, Aaron; Galloway, Trysha

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to apply ideas from complexity theory to derive expanded neurodynamic models of Submarine Piloting and Navigation showing how teams cognitively organize around task changes. The cognitive metric highlighted was an electroencephalography-derived measure of engagement (termed neurophysiologic synchronies of engagement) that was modeled into collective team variables showing the engagement of each of six team members as well as that of the team as a whole. We modeled the cognitive organization of teams using the information content of the neurophysiologic data streams derived from calculations of their Shannon entropy. We show that the periods of team cognitive reorganization (a) occurred as a natural product of teamwork particularly around periods of stress, (b) appeared structured around episodes of communication, (c) occurred following deliberate external perturbation to team function, and (d) were less frequent in experienced navigation teams. These periods of reorganization were lengthy, lasting up to 10 minutes. As the overall entropy levels of the neurophysiologic data stream are significantly higher for expert teams, this measure may be a useful candidate for modeling teamwork and its development over prolonged periods of training.

  15. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from...... contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus highlighting the importance of approaching virtual teams and collaboration from a semiotic perspective...

  16. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport.

  17. Virtual Teaming: Placing Preservice Middle Level Teachers on Interdisciplinary Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    In this action research study, 24 preservice middle level educators participated in simulated interdisciplinary teams for a semester. The impact this authentic pedagogy had on preservice teachers' developing knowledge of middle school teaming is documented through student artifacts (e.g., journals, assignments), tape-recorded interviews, and field…

  18. Diversity in goal orientation, team reflexivity, and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Anne Nederveen; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy P.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent research highlights the role of team member goal orientation in team functioning, research has neglected the effects of diversity in goal orientation. In a laboratory study with groups working on a problem-solving task, we show that diversity in learning and performance orientation a

  19. The impact of team and work characteristics on team functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E.; Slomp, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors seek to strengthen the theoretical foundation of team and cell formation through the inclusion of human factors. They distinguish three types of team characteristics: global, shared, and compositional attributes. In this last category, they also deal with diversity in te

  20. Stimulating teachers’ team performance through team-oriented HR practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, Machiel; Runhaar, Piety; Wesselink, Renate; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Teams of teachers are increasingly held accountable for the quality of education and educational reforms in vocational education and training institutions. However, historically teachers have not been required to engage in deep-level collaboration, thus team-oriented HR practices are being used t