WorldWideScience

Sample records for hud pitch ladder

  1. Variable Pole Pitch Electromagnetic Propulsion with Ladder-Slot-Secondary Double-Sided Linear Induction Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jun Di; Yu Fan; Yajing Liu; Sijia Liu; Yulong Zhu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel variable pole pitch (VPP) electromagnetic (EM) propulsion technique using a series of ladder-slot-secondary double-sided linear induction motors (LS-secondary DLIMs...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1053 - Ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), except in the case of an elevator pit ladder, for which a minimum perpendicular clearance of 41/2 inches...-eighth the working length of the ladder. (iii) Fixed ladders shall be used at a pitch no greater than 90...

  3. HUD Homeownership Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD Homeownership Centers (HOCs) insure single family Federal Housing Administration (FHA) mortgages and oversee the selling of HUD homes. FHA has four Homeownership...

  4. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  5. Voegelin's Ladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Harter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Leadership has non-logical aspects. One of these is spirituality. Voegelin’s Ladder provides a context for studying spirituality as a part of leadership. What it reveals is that spirituality arises at the intersection of the human with the divine. Spirituality expresses itself as purpose and aspiration, which a leader embodies.

  6. HUD GIS Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  7. HUD TRM Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD uses certain systems and software to conduct daily business. It is important for our project managers and contractors to know the different platforms and...

  8. HUD's Local Office Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD is organized in 10 Regions. Each Region is managed by a Regional Administrator, who also oversees the Regional Office. Each Field Office within a Region is...

  9. Ladder Safety Live #12985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-02-23

    This course presents information for working safely with portable ladders: specifically, stepladders, extensions ladders, and their derivations. Additionally, this course provides limited information on the safe use of stepstools and fixed ladders. The skills, techniques, and good practices needed for selecting, inspecting, setting up and securing, and using ladders are presented in this course.

  10. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 3500 - Instructions for Completing HUD-1 and HUD-1a Settlement Statements; Sample HUD-1 and HUD-1a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instructions for Completing HUD-1 and HUD-1a Settlement Statements; Sample HUD-1 and HUD-1a Statements A Appendix A to Part 3500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE...

  11. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  12. HUD Digital Government Strategy Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD Digital Strategic Plan clearly articulates the goals of openness and transparency, furthering the innovation economy and meeting more global government wide...

  13. HUD Approved Housing Counseling Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD sponsors housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide advice on buying a home, renting, defaults, foreclosures, and credit issues. This...

  14. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlight...... the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... to the promotion of household latrines. The paper identifies provision of special concessions for peri-urban areas in policy formulation, education and technical support to households, regulation and enforcement of sanitation by-laws among complimentary policy interventions to make the latrine ownership ladder...

  15. Pelton Ladder Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Max

    1991-07-01

    Rearing additional fish in Pelton Ladder provides fishery managers with a low-cost alternative to making major financial investments in new formal hatchery facilities. Adult chinook returning from this rearing program will help bolster the dwindling runs of upriver spring chinook, thus assisting the Council's goal for increased production of this species. The Deschutes River Subbasin Plan envisions need for additional return of hatchery-produced spring chinook in order to meet goals for increased harvest opportunity. Spring chinook released from Pelton Ladder will contribute little to offshore fisheries, as we can account for only about 1 percent of the RBH contribution in offshore fisheries. Based on past performance, we expect 6 percent of the adults produced will be caught in sport, commercial, and tribal subsistence fisheries in the Columbia River. Most benefits of the extra adults produced will be realized in the Deschutes River in the form of increased sport and tribal harvests and increased returns to RBH. Adults collected at Pelton Ladder above production needs will be provided to the CTWS. Return of more adults to the Deschutes River will continue the trend of increased abundance of spring chinook noted since 1985. Rearing of fish in the ladder under the proposed program will provide ODFW and CTWS co-management opportunity, and the associated monitoring and evaluation studies will refine ODFW's ability to effectively manage the RBWPelton Ladder rearing program and will provide inferences about the ability to further employ the fish-rearing potential of unused sections of the fish ladder.

  16. HUD Subprime and Manufactured Home Lender List

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) periodically produce its HUD Subprime and Manufactured home Lender List for the lenders who specialize in...

  17. 24 CFR 3500.8 - Use of HUD-1 or HUD-1A settlement statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.8 Use of HUD-1 or HUD-1A... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of HUD-1 or HUD-1A settlement statements. 3500.8 Section 3500.8 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  18. Ladders to Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Paul

    1982-01-01

    The Metropolitan Sewerage District (Green Bay, Wisconsin) has developed a reputation as a well-engineered, competently managed, and efficiently operated facility. Describes management devices to foster positive employee attitudes (human resources development plan, career ladders), money-wise approaches used by the facility, and new developments…

  19. Ladder Variational Autoencoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder Variat...

  20. 24 CFR 891.450 - HUD review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891.450 HUD review. HUD shall conduct periodic on-site management reviews of the Owner's compliance with the requirements of... Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  1. 77 FR 73523 - HUD Acquisition Regulations (HUDAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... address the organizational structure of HUD, and adding provisions on contractor record retention. DATES...--Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 0 22. Revise section 2409.503 to read as follows: 2409.503...

  2. HUD Low and Moderate Income Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on the U.S. Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) low to moderate income areas. The term Low to Moderate Income,...

  3. HUD Hearings and Appeals Office Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These all of the Administrative Sanction decisions issued by the Office of Appeals and its predecessor, the HUD Board of Contract Appeals. This Office has included...

  4. Variations of the Sliding Ladder Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranidis, Stelios; Koo, Reginald

    2008-01-01

    This article takes another look at the sliding ladder problem that students meet in the study of related rates in calculus. Physically realistic situations with both constrained and understrained ladders are explored.

  5. HUD Continuum of Care (CoC) Awards (2005-2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — HUD grantees receive funding from HUD to support HUD's mission to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities and quality affordable homes for all. HUD...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (v) The rungs of an individual-rung ladder shall be so designed that the foot cannot slide off the... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.27 Fixed ladders. (a) Design requirements—(1) Design considerations. All ladders, appurtenances, and fastenings shall be designed to...

  7. Genus Distributions of Moebius Ladders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德明

    2005-01-01

    The genus distribution of a graph is a polynomial whose coefficients are the partition of the number of embeddings with respect to the genera. In this paper,the genus distribution of Moebius ladders is provided which is an infinite class of 3-connected simple graphs.

  8. Discrete breathers in Josephson ladders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trias, E.; Mazo, J.J.; Brinkman, A.; Orlando, T.P.

    2001-01-01

    We present a study of nonlinear localized excitations called discrete breathers in a superconducting array. These localized solutions were recently observed in Josephson-junction ladder arrays by two different experimental groups [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 741; Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 745; Phys.

  9. 24 CFR 401.201 - How does HUD select PAEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.201 How does HUD select PAEs? (a) Selection of PAE. HUD will select qualified PAEs in accordance... responsibility for projects in the jurisdiction. If the agencies are unable to agree, HUD will choose a PAE...

  10. 77 FR 9682 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the HUD-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... of Jackson. Housing Authority of Billings 2415 1st Avenue N.... Billings........ MT 59101 111,938 25... factors as specified by HUD in consultation with the VA. On May 6, 2008 (73 FR 25026), HUD published in... have partnered with local VA medical centers. On May 19, 2008 (73 FR 28863), HUD corrected the May...

  11. Day/night ANVIS/HUD-24 (day HUD) flight test and pilot evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yona, Zvi; Weiser, Ben; Hamburger, Oded

    2004-09-01

    The Day/Night ANVIS/HUD-24 gives pilots the ultimate head-out flight solution: 24-hour operational capability from a single integrated system. The basic integrated system combines the standard Night Vision Goggle (NVG) image with vital aircraft flight and navigation information, currently operational on over 4500 helicopters worldwide. Introducing the new Day HUD add-on module the same flight information is displayed for day use. The Day Head Up Display (HUD) is an add-on, complimentary to the basic night ANVIS/HUD system (AN/AVS-7). A lightweight optical module enhancing the day flight operation is designed to allow utility and reconnaissance helicopter day-mission operation by providing complete daytime head-out flight information. This add-on unit enhances flight safety, maximizes tactical survivability, and increases situational awareness during critical landing and takeoff phases. The Day HUD offers a unique 25° field-of-view, monocular, see-through flight information display. It mounts directly to the standard NVG mounting, incorporating a state of the art AMLCD flat panel display, high brightness solid-state backlight and compact optics resulting in a high contrast, high visibility display. The Day HUD test and evaluation program included extensive man-machine interface tests and numerous flight test aircraft in more than six separate countries. This paper will also address flight training, customer acceptance and expand on these findings and observations.

  12. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF TROPICAL CYCLONE HUD HUD ON COASTAL REGION OF VISAKHAPATNAM, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vivek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangements of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. On 6th October 2014 Hud Hud originates from a low pressure system that formed under the influence of an upper air cyclonic circulation in the Andaman Sea. On 9th October 2014 the IMD department classified the Hud Hud as a very severe cyclonic storm on IMD scale and category 4 on Staffir-Simpson scale. The cyclone hit the coast of Visakhapatnam on 12th October 2014 at wind speed of 175 km/h which caused extensive damage to the city and the neighbouring districts. The damage caused by Cyclone Hud Hud not only changed the landscape of the port city, but also made it the first city in the country to be directly hit by a cyclone since 1891 as per the records of the IMD. The remote sensing technique used here is NDVI. NDVI will separate vegetation and non-vegetation part. The NDVI will be classified in ERDAS and calculated the area using ARCGIS. The satellite data of 4th October 2014 show s before the cyclone, 14th October 2014 shows after the cyclone and 7th December 2014 after two month of cyclone.

  13. The one step fermionic ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy Prakash; Setlur, Girish S.

    2017-10-01

    The one step fermionic ladder refers to two parallel Luttinger Liquids (poles of the ladder) placed such that there is a finite probability of electrons hopping between the two poles at a pair of opposing points along each of the poles. The many-body Green function for such a system is calculated in presence of forward scattering interactions using the powerful non-chiral bosonization technique (NCBT). This technique is based on a non-standard harmonic analysis of the rapidly varying parts of the density fields appropriate for the study of strongly inhomogeneous ladder systems. The closed analytical expression for the correlation function obtained from NCBT is nothing but the series involving the RPA (Random Phase Approximation) diagrams in powers of the forward scattering coupling strength resummed to include only the most singular terms with the source of inhomogeneities treated exactly. Finally the correlation functions are used to study physical phenomena such as Friedel oscillations and the conductance of such systems with the potential difference applied across various ends.

  14. Avicenna's Interpretation of Hudūth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Fatih kılıç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I shall deal with the concept of hudūth (origination as contextualized by Avicenna, which emerges in the context of relation between God and the world, while relating the coming into existence of the world with temporality. Avicenna discusses that there are two kinds of origination according to his classification of the celestial and sublunary world in ontology. Rational beings, celestial souls and bodies, heavenly motion and time depend on this motion are known as essential coming into existence (hudūth dhātī. These things are eternal from the point of view of temporality. There is no time difference between them and God who is the ultimate cause of them. The sublunary world consists of matter and bodies of generation and corruption. The various movements of these bodies and the time that depends on the movements are of the topic: temporal coming into existence (hudūth zamānī.

  15. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  16. Laddering em pesquisa de marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a técnica de pesquisa laddering em marketing, considerando a proposta de renovação de conhecimentos sobre metodologia na área. Para isso investiga diversos estudos, artigos e pesquisas que tratam do assunto em nível nacional e internacional. O conceito de cadeias meios-fins é abordado pela estrutura teórica que fundamenta a técnica, ligando atributos, conseqüências percebidas do consumo e valores pessoais relativos a um produto. O artigo segue com a explicação dos procedimentos de campo, como a entrevista e a análise dos dados. A laddering é um instrumento de pesquisa qualitativa bastante útil e poderoso, mas ainda pouco utilizado tanto por acadêmicos como por profissionais de mercado, no Brasil, provavelmente por desconhecimento e pouca divulgação. Cabe, portanto, uma maior disseminação de seu uso.

  17. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  18. Consonance and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil; Marco, David; Light, Maria; Wilson, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    To date, no consensus exists in the literature as to theories of consonance and dissonance. Experimental data collected over the last century have raised questions about the dominant theories that are based on frequency relationships between the harmonics of music chords. This study provides experimental evidence that strongly challenges these theories and suggests a new theory of dissonance based on relationships between pitch perception and recognition. Experiment 1 shows that dissonance does not increase with increasing numbers of harmonics in chords as predicted by Helmholtz's (1863/1954) roughness theory, nor does it increase with fewer pitch-matching errors as predicted by Stumpf's (1898) tonal fusion theory. Dissonance was strongly correlated with pitch-matching error for chords, which in turn was reduced by chord familiarity and greater music training. This led to the proposition that long-term memory templates for common chords assist the perception of pitches in chords by providing an estimate of the chord intervals from spectral information. When recognition mechanisms based on these templates fail, the spectral pitch estimate is inconsistent with the period of the waveform, leading to cognitive incongruence and the negative affect of dissonance. The cognitive incongruence theory of dissonance was rigorously tested in Experiment 2, in which nonmusicians were trained to match the pitches of a random selection of 2-pitch chords. After 10 training sessions, they rated the chords they had learned to pitch match as less dissonant than the unlearned chords, irrespective of their tuning, providing strong support for a cognitive mechanism of dissonance.

  19. Multi-pitch estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Mads

    2009-01-01

    Periodic signals can be decomposed into sets of sinusoids having frequencies that are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency. The problem of finding such fundamental frequencies from noisy observations is important in many speech and audio applications, where it is commonly referred to as pitch estimation. These applications include analysis, compression, separation, enhancement, automatic transcription and many more. In this book, an introduction to pitch estimation is given and a number of statistical methods for pitch estimation are presented. The basic signal models and associated es

  20. 77 FR 64396 - Order of Succession for HUD Region I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region I AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management... Succession for the Boston Regional Office and its Field Offices (Region I). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region I. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012....

  1. 77 FR 64399 - Order of Succession for HUD Region V

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region V AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management... Succession for the Chicago Regional Office and its Field Offices (Region V). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region V. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR...

  2. 24 CFR 882.517 - HUD review of contract compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Special Procedures for Moderate Rehabilitation-Program Development and Operation § 882.517 HUD review of contract compliance. HUD... OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT...

  3. 24 CFR 266.210 - HUD-retained review functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HUD-retained review functions. 266.210 Section 266.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Program Requirements § 266.210 HUD-retained review functions. Certain functions are retained by...

  4. 77 FR 64399 - Order of Succession for HUD Region VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ..., Community Planning and Development. 5. Lubbock Field Office Order of Succession a. Senior Management Analyst... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region VI AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Assistant Deputy...

  5. 77 FR 64397 - Order of Succession for HUD Region III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    .... Director, Community Planning and Development. 2. Baltimore Field Office Order of Succession a. Associate... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region III AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Assistant Deputy...

  6. Detecting Cerebellar Phenotypes with the Erasmus Ladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Cupido (Alexander)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractI designed, created and established a new motor behavioural task for mice, the Erasmus Ladder. It is now a quick and reliable behavioural task to determine if (mutant) mice could be a good model for a neurological disease.

  7. The transient ladder synchronization of chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.-K. [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, No. 11, Gungye Rd., Dali City, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: kanechen@giga.net.tw; Sheu, L.-J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

    2006-07-03

    A new type for chaotically synchronizing systems, transient ladder chaos synchronization, is proposed in this Letter. For some physical systems, chaotic synchronization is possible in only some of the variables. It is shown that, for the non-synchronizing variable, synchronization up to a constant difference for t{sub 1}=ladder chaos synchronization and anti-synchronization are illustrated by using two identical chaotic Froude pendulums. Numerical simulations are shown for demonstration.

  8. Nuclear Escalation Ladders in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Ibid., pp. 211-212. 23 Fig. 3. Indian Escalation Ladder - Facing China in the Himalayas Response or Initiative Rung Order Thresholds and Rungs Peace...potential land-warfare ladders in the Himalayas . A. Territorial Boundaries India and Pakistan face each other across a common international... Himalayas from Ladakh in Kashmir south and east for 2,100 miles, interrupted by Nepal and Bhutan, which have their own northern borders with China of 768 and

  9. Clinical career ladders: Hamot Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J D; Chrymko, M M; Kelly, W N

    1989-11-01

    The clinical career ladder program for pharmacists at Hamot Medical Center (HMC), a 500-bed not-for-profit community teaching hospital, is described. Between 1980 and 1989 a career ladder at HMC evolved from an idea to an established program with parallel administrative, business, and clinical tracks. The development of the career ladder mirrored the growth of clinical programs and the diversification of pharmaceutical services. A formal plan for a clinical ladder was developed when the first satellite pharmacy opened in 1984. An entry-level pharmacist at HMC starts with a six-month period during which he or she learns the drug distribution system and prepares for several certification tests. The employee is then promoted to staff pharmacist. Staff pharmacists are promoted to clinical pharmacist II (CP II) upon meeting requirements for competence in a broad range of clinical skills and knowledge. Candidates for the position of clinical pharmacist specialist (CP I) must have either a minimum of three years of experience as a CP II or a Pharm.D. degree and have established an area of clinical expertise. A CP I can progress to assistant and associate director positions as vacancies occur. The clinical ladder has enhanced job satisfaction and encouraged the development of clinical practitioners who provide improved care. Problems have included time constraints, competition for positions, and management of incentives. A parallel career ladder program with a clinical track has enhanced the growth of pharmacy practice at HMC and improved the quality of pharmaceutical care.

  10. Experimental evidence of variable-order behavior of ladders and nested ladders

    CERN Document Server

    Sierociuk, Dominik; Petras, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    The experimental study of two kinds of electrical circuits, a domino ladder and a nested ladder, is presented. While the domino ladder is known and already appeared in the theory of fractional-order systems, the nested ladder circuit is presented in this article for the first time. For fitting the measured data, a new approach is suggested, which is based on using the Mittag-Leffler function and which means that the data are fitted by a solution of an initial-value problem for a two-term fractional differential equation. The experiment showed that in the frequency domain the domino ladder behaves as a system of order 0.5 and the nested ladder as a system of order 0.25, which is in perfect agreement with the theory developed for their design. In the time domain, however, the order of the domino ladder is changing from roughly 0.5 to almost 1, and the order of the nested ladder is changing in a similar manner, from roughly 0.25 to almost 1; in both cases, the order 1 is never reached, and both systems remain th...

  11. 76 FR 71066 - HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy, Extension of Public Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...: Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Through this notice, HUD... Sustainable Housing and Communities, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Room.../sustainable_housing_communities/HUD_Draft_Environmental_Justice_Strategy . As HUD noted in the October 7,...

  12. Individual Pitch Control. Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Engelen, T.G.; Van der Hooft, E.L. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-06-15

    The loads on the rotor blades, drive-train and tower of horizontal axis wind turbines are caused for a significant part by the rotational sampling of turbulence, the tower shadow and the windshear. These loads depend on the azimuthal blade position and are approximately periodic in (multiples of) the rotational speed. It seems attractive to just add pure azimuth dependent variations to the pitch angle of the individual blades. However, a small phase mismatch with respect to the tower shadow and windshear effect will cause higher instead of lower loads. Besides, the stochastic loads from the torationally sampled turbulence are not reduced at all. This inventory study concerns the design and potential of individual feedback pitch control for 3 bladed wind turbines. In this approach the danger of mismatch is avoided and the stochastic blade loads are also reduced. A simple design model is derived for the parametrisation of the feedback loops for individual pitch control around one time the rotational frequency (1p). Rainflow counts and power spectra obtained from time-domain simulations give an indication of the achievable reduction of loads. In addition, the concept of individual pitch control is extended to multiples of the rotational frequency (2p, 3p; multi-mode pitch control). Scoping calculations show a significant further reduction of blade loads as well as a reduction of 3p harmonics in tilt and yaw loads in the nacelle.

  13. Transport properties of a ladder with two random dimer chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Donng-Sheng; Zhu Chen-Ping; Zhang Yong-Mei

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties of a ladder with two random dimer (RD) chains. It is found that there are two extended states in the ladder with identical RD chains and a critical state regarded as an extended state in the ladder with pairing RD chains. Such a critical state is caused by the chiral symmetry. The ladder with identical RD chains can be decoupled into two isolated RD chains and the ladder with pairing RD chains can not. The analytic expressions of the extended states are presented for the ladder with identical RD chains.

  14. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  15. 24 CFR 266.25 - Limitation on HUD insurance liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... party to a risk-sharing agreement with HUD with respect to the rights, benefits, and obligations of the... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS...

  16. 76 FR 62434 - HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy AGENCY: Office of the Sustainable Housing and... Sustainable Housing and Communities, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Room... can be found at...

  17. Pitch memory and exposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eitan, Zohar; Chajut, Eran

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to represent absolute pitch values in long-term memory, long believed to be the possession of a small minority of trained musicians endowed with "absolute pitch," is in fact shared to some extent by a considerable proportion of the population. The current study examined whether this newly discovered ability affects aspects of music and auditory cognition, particularly pitch learning and evaluation. Our starting points are two well-established premises: (1) frequency of occurrence has an influence on the way we process stimuli; (2) in Western music, some pitches and musical keys are much more frequent than others. Based on these premises, we hypothesize that if absolute pitch values are indeed represented in long-term memory, pitch frequency of occurrence in music would significantly affect cognitive processes, in particular pitch learning and evaluation. Two experiments were designed to test this hypothesis in participants with no absolute pitch, most with little or no musical training. Experiment 1 demonstrated a faster response and a learning advantage for frequent pitches over infrequent pitches in an identification task. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated infrequent pitches as more pleasing than frequent pitches when presented in isolation. These results suggest that absolute pitch representation in memory may play a substantial, hitherto unacknowledged role in auditory (and specifically musical) cognition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Pitch features of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A number of soundscape studies have suggested the need for suitable parameters for soundscape measurement, in addition to the conventional acoustic parameters. This paper explores the applicability of pitch features that are often used in music analysis and their algorithms to environmental sounds. Based on the existing alternative pitch algorithms for simulating the perception of the auditory system and simplified algorithms for practical applications in the areas of music and speech, the applicable algorithms have been determined, considering common types of sound in everyday soundscapes. Considering a number of pitch parameters, including pitch value, pitch strength, and percentage of audible pitches over time, different pitch characteristics of various environmental sounds have been shown. Among the four sound categories, i.e. water, wind, birdsongs, and urban sounds, generally speaking, both water and wind sounds have low pitch values and pitch strengths; birdsongs have high pitch values and pitch strengths; and urban sounds have low pitch values and a relatively wide range of pitch strengths.

  19. Dipoles on a Two-leg Ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We study polar molecules with long-range dipole-dipole interactions confined to move on a two-leg ladder for different orientations of the molecular dipole moments with respect to the ladder. Matrix product states are employed to calculate the many-body ground state of the system as function...... of lattice filling fractions, perpendicular hopping between the legs, and dipole interaction strength. We show that the system exhibits zig-zag ordering when the dipolar interactions are predominantly repulsive. As a function of dipole moment orientation with respect to the ladder, we find...... that there is a critical angle at which ordering disappears. This angle is slightly larger than the angle at which the dipoles are non-interacting along a single leg. This behavior should be observable using current experimental techniques....

  20. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  1. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  2. Norwegian Pitched Roof Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gullbrekken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building constructions investigated in this work are pitched wooden roofs with exterior vertical drainpipes and wooden load-bearing system. The aim of this research is to further investigate the building defects of pitched wooden roofs and obtain an overview of typical roof defects. The work involves an analysis of the building defect archive from the research institute SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. The findings from the SINTEF archive show that moisture is a dominant exposure factor, especially in roof constructions. In pitched wooden roofs, more than half of the defects are caused by deficiencies in design, materials, or workmanship, where these deficiencies allow moisture from precipitation or indoor moisture into the structure. Hence, it is important to increase the focus on robust and durable solutions to avoid defects both from exterior and interior moisture sources in pitched wooden roofs. Proper design of interior ventilation and vapour retarders seem to be the main ways to control entry from interior moisture sources into attic and roof spaces.

  3. 46 CFR 197.320 - Diving ladder and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diving ladder and stage. 197.320 Section 197.320... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.320 Diving ladder and stage. (a) Each diving ladder must— (1) Be capable of supporting the weight of at least two divers; (2) Extend...

  4. Quantifying Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Using LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Kramer; Brandon Collins; Maggi Kelly; Scott Stephens

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between LiDAR and ladder fuels in the northern Sierra Nevada, California USA. Ladder fuels are often targeted in hazardous fuel reduction treatments due to their role in propagating fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Despite their importance, ladder fuels are difficult to quantify. One common approach is to calculate canopy base...

  5. Vibrational ladder climbing in NO using ultrashort IR laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, D. J.; Duncan, D. I.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; van der Zande, W. J.; Noordam, L. D.; Lambropoulos, P.; Walther, H.

    1997-01-01

    Chirped excitation of an electronic ladder system has shown complete transfer of the population to the top-level of the ladder system. Similar excitation of vibrational ladders in molecules may provide a tool for state-selective chemistry. Experimental results on the climbing of the anharmonic vibra

  6. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  7. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of...

  8. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  9. Calculated Investigation of Gravitational Sagging of ITS Outer Layer Model Ladder for ALICE and Optimization of Parameters of Ladder

    CERN Document Server

    Gloukhov, N P; CERN. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    The report presents results of stiffness' calculations of the about 1.1 m length lightweight model ladder and some of its modifications for Inner Tracking System Abstract: for ALICE. As a result, dependences of the ladder's stiffness and mass Abstract: Abstract: characteristics on its geometrical parameters are investigated and an optimum structure of the ladder Abstract: (carbon fibre space frame) is determined.

  10. The Entrepreneurial Ladder and its Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwan, van der Peter; Thurik, Roy; Grilo, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    We test a new model where the entrepreneurial decision is described as a process of successive engagement levels, i.e., as an entrepreneurial ladder. Five levels are distinguished using nearly 12,000 observations from the 2004 Flash Eurobarometer survey on Entrepreneurship covering the 25 European U

  11. Multiinstanton ladders in baryon number violating processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, G

    1995-01-01

    We estimate the contribution of a class of multiinstanton ladder graphs to baryon and lepton number violating processes in the standard model. We find that this contribution is negligible and does not alter the high energy behavior of the leading semiclassical approximation.

  12. Density functional theory: Fixing Jacob's ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Density functional theory calculations can be carried out with different levels of accuracy, forming a hierarchy that is often represented by the rungs of a ladder. Now a new method has been developed that significantly improves the accuracy of the 'third rung' when calculating the properties of diversely bonded systems.

  13. LADDER SUPERSTRUCTURE-DIRECTED SYNTHESIS OF A WELL-DEFINED m-PHENELENEDIIMINO-BRIDGED LADDER POLYMETHYLSILOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-sheng Lv; Zhong-jie Ren; You-zhi Wan; Ping Xie; Rong-ben Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A well-defined m-phenylenediimino-bridged ladder polymethylsiloxane (LP) was first synthesized through a well-defined ladder superstructure (LS) acting as synthetic template, which was self-assembled by concerted interaction of hydrogen bonding and aromatic π-π stacking of the monomer (M), N,N'-bis(phenyldichlorosilyl)-m-phenylenediamine. Some key characterization data of LP and, in particular, the extremely vulnerable LS with very unstable Si--Cl and Si-N groups were given. The molecular weights (Mn) of LS and LP are 5010 and 10480, corresponding to about 15 and 46 monomer units, respectively. To monitor the real in situ status of LS in solution the XRD measurements of special freeze-drying samples were performed, demonstrating two characteristic peaks of ladder structure. Most importantly, both LP and LS display exceedingly sharp resonance absorption peaks with a half peak width (△1/2) as small as < 0.3 of MeSi(NH)O2/2 moieties in 29Si-NMR spectra. It is well-known that the higher the regularity of the ladder polysiloxane, the narrower the resonance peak of the siloxane moiety on the ladder backbone, and the smaller the half peak width △1/2. Therefore, the very small values of △1/2 for both LS and LP confirm that both LS and LP possess well-defined ladder structures.

  14. Pitch Analysis of Ukulele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphattharachai Chomphan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The ukulele is a trendy instrument in the present day. It is a member of the guitar family of instruments which employs four nylon or gut strings or four courses of strings. However, a statistical analysis of the pitch of this instrument has not been conducted. To analysis pitch or fundamental frequency of its main cords should be performed in an appropriate way. This study brings about its effective sound synthesis which is an important issue in the future. Approach: An efficient technique for the analysis of the fundamental frequency (F0 of the human speech had been applied to the analysis of main cords of the ukulele. The autocorrelation-based technique was used with the signal waveform to extract the optimal period or pitch for the corresponding analyzed frame in time domain. Then the corresponding fundamental frequency was calculated in the frequency domain. Results: The 21 main cords were chosen in the study. It had been seen that the existing fundamental frequency values were varied from one to three values. The value was ranging from 65.42 Hz-329.93 Hz. Conclusion: By using the analysis technique of fundamental frequency of the human speech, the output frequencies of all main cords can be extracted. It can be empirically seen that they have their unique values from each others."

  15. 24 CFR 401.405 - Restructuring Commitment review and approval by HUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... condition for approval, or reject the Plan. If the Plan is rejected, HUD will inform the PAE of the reasons for rejection, and the PAE will inform the owner. HUD's rejection of the Plan is subject to...

  16. Lower pitch is larger, yet falling pitches shrink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitan, Zohar; Schupak, Asi; Gotler, Alex; Marks, Lawrence E

    2014-01-01

    Experiments using diverse paradigms, including speeded discrimination, indicate that pitch and visually-perceived size interact perceptually, and that higher pitch is congruent with smaller size. While nearly all of these studies used static stimuli, here we examine the interaction of dynamic pitch and dynamic size, using Garner's speeded discrimination paradigm. Experiment 1 examined the interaction of continuous rise/fall in pitch and increase/decrease in object size. Experiment 2 examined the interaction of static pitch and size (steady high/low pitches and large/small visual objects), using an identical procedure. Results indicate that static and dynamic auditory and visual stimuli interact in opposite ways. While for static stimuli (Experiment 2), higher pitch is congruent with smaller size (as suggested by earlier work), for dynamic stimuli (Experiment 1), ascending pitch is congruent with growing size, and descending pitch with shrinking size. In addition, while static stimuli (Experiment 2) exhibit both congruence and Garner effects, dynamic stimuli (Experiment 1) present congruence effects without Garner interference, a pattern that is not consistent with prevalent interpretations of Garner's paradigm. Our interpretation of these results focuses on effects of within-trial changes on processing in dynamic tasks and on the association of changes in apparent size with implied changes in distance. Results suggest that static and dynamic stimuli can differ substantially in their cross-modal mappings, and may rely on different processing mechanisms.

  17. Ising Model on an Infinite Ladder Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose an Ising model on an infinite ladder lattice, which is made of two infinite Ising spin chains with interactions. It is essentially a quasi-one-dimessional Ising model because the length of the ladder lattice is infinite, while its width is finite. We investigate the phase transition and dynamic behavior of Ising model on this quasi-one-dimessional system. We use the generalized transfer matrix method to investigate the phase transition of the system. It is found that there is no nonzero temperature phase transition in this system. At the same time, we are interested in Glauber dynamics. Based on that, we obtain the time evolution of the local spin magnetization by exactly solving a set of master equations.

  18. Ladder Forms in Estimation and System Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    system identification . Many record applications, such as in geophysical signal processing, high resolution (’maximum entropy’) spectral estimation and speech encoding, justify the interest in these forms. They appear in many contexts, such as scattering and network theory and the theory of orthogonal polynomials. The state-space model ladder realizations are very closely related in (block) Schwarz matrix canonical forms, which generally appear in the context of stability analysis. In fact they are the natural ’stability canonical form’ for

  19. Microstrips Ladder Assembly using Flexible Microcables.

    CERN Document Server

    Borshchov, V N; CERN. Geneva; Kiprich, S; Maslov, N I; Prokhorets, I; Reznik, A; Runólfsson, O; Ruzhitskaya, L; Starkov, V

    1995-01-01

    The flexible microcables are studied to evaluate the possibility of their application as an interconnection for both microstrips module and ladder of the ALICE detector. We managed to produce the microcables and to bond them directly to detector connection pads without any wire bonding. It permits for read-out chips to be displaced to one of sides of the double-sided microstrip detector.

  20. 77 FR 37696 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Survey and Collection of Information From HUD Lead...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... HUD Lead Hazard Control Grantees To Support HUD and EPA Requirements To Study the Lowering of the Lead Hazard Standards and the Lead-Based Paint Standard AGENCY: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard... of selected lead hazard control grantees funded by HUD will be submitted to the Office of...

  1. 77 FR 41993 - Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New Routine Use-HUD's Routine Use Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New Routine Use--HUD's Routine Use Inventory AGENCY... routine uses; and (3) reduce cost and duplication of effort in the publication and maintenance of HUD's.../DEPT-63 Secretary's Correspondence Control System. HUD/DEPT-64 Congregate Housing Services Program Data...

  2. Braess like Paradox on Ladder Network

    CERN Document Server

    Toyota, Norihito

    2015-01-01

    Braess \\cite{1} has been studied about a traffic flow on a diamond type network and found that introducing new edges to the networks always does not achieve the efficiency. Some researchers studied the Braess' paradox in similar type networks by introducing various types of cost functions. But whether such paradox occurs or not is not scarcely studied in complex networks except for Dorogovtsev-Mendes network\\cite{2}. In this article, we study the paradox on Ladder type networks, as the first step to the research about Braess' paradox on Watts and Strogatz type small world network\\cite{Watt1}\\cite{Watt2}. %We theoretically and numerically studied Braess' paradox on Ladder networks. For the purpose, we construct $4 \\times 3$ models as extensions of the original Braess' models. We analyze theoretically and numerically studied the models on Ladder networks. Last we give a phase diagram for (a) model, where the cost functions of bypasses are constant =0 or flow, base on two parameters $r$ and $p$ by numerical simu...

  3. Theory of Double Ladder Lumped Circuits With Degenerate Band Edge

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, Jeff; Capolino, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Conventional periodic LC ladder circuits exhibit a regular band edge between a pass and a stop band. Here for the first time we develop the theory of simple yet unconventional double ladder circuits exhibiting a special degeneracy condition referred to as degenerate band edge (DBE). This special DBE condition is associated with four independent eigenstates of the double ladder that coalesce into a single one when the operative frequency coincides with the DBE one. In particular, we show that double ladder resonators may exhibit giant loaded quality factor near the DBE and stable resonance frequency against load variations. These two properties in the proposed circuit are superior to the analogous properties in single ladder circuits. Our proposed analysis leads to analytic expressions for all circuit quantities thus providing insight into the very complex behavior near points of degeneracy in periodic circuits; and provides a design procedure for the use of such double ladder in practical applications. Intere...

  4. Design and Realization of Numerical Control Ladder Diagram Edition Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Haixin; MO Yimin; PAN Yunping

    2006-01-01

    The thesis is directed by the idea of oriented- object. Considering the basic functions that NC system Ladder Diagram editor should provide, and through theoretical research and practice, the thesis developed a set of NC system Ladder Diagram editor which can form a Ladder Diagram editor based on vector plotting, intelligently compiling, simulation. This system uses the ladder diagram symbol to express operational order and use the chart symbol series-parallel connection and the position order to express the logical relations between the operational orders, divide the ladder diagram into four parts: the stave, the line, the row and the part, uses the standard order vessel list vessel of the standard template stack (STL) to save the data which involved in the design process. This system can write PLC program by ladder diagram language and is easy to use. The compilation and simulation for PLC diagram have been achieved. It greatly improves the work-efficiency.

  5. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ORDERED LADDER POLYESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-ping Zhang; Tao-yi Zhang; Chuan-feng Zhu; Yu-xia Diao; You-zhi Wan; Ping Xie; Rong-ben Zhang

    2006-01-01

    An ordered ladder polyester (LPE) was first synthesized through the ladder superstructure (LS) constructed by concerted interactions of hydroxyl- and aramide-based H-bonding and p-terphenyl (TP)-based π-stacking by dehydrochlorination condensation using phosgene (COCl2) as coupling agent. LPE was characterized by GPC, FTIR, NMR,XRD, DSC and AFM. Among them, a distinct image of regularly linear alignment corresponding to the ladder main chain of LPE was first revealed by high-resolution AFM.

  6. Dynamic analysis of rail transit elevated bridge with ladder track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He XIA; Yushu DENG; Yongwei ZOU; Guido DE ROECK; Geert DEGRANDE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic analysis model of an elevated bridge with ladder tracks under moving train load is established. The whole process of a train running through an elevated bridge at different speeds is simulated.The dynamic responses of the elevated bridge with ladder track and the running safety and comfort index of train vehicles are evaluated. Compared with the dynamic responses of an elevated bridge with ordinary non-ballasted slab track, the ladder track's effect on reducing the vibration of an elevated bridge is analyzed. The analysis results show that the ladder track has good vibration reduction characteristics as compared to ordinary non-ballasted track.

  7. 77 FR 64396 - Order of Succession for HUD Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... in office, the Regional Administrator for the Department of Housing and Urban Development or the... Indian Housing; b. Director, Community Planning and Development; c. Associate Regional Counsel, Housing... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region II AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management...

  8. Nieuwe groeiplaats van Bijenorchis (Ophrys apifera Huds.) in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Horsthuis, M.A.P.; Willink, G.

    2006-01-01

    Bijenorchis neemt toe in Nederland en wordt daarbij steeds noordelijker aangetroffen. In 2005 is een geïsoleerde groeiplaats gevonden in een kalkgroeve bij Winterswijk. Ophrys apifera Huds. is spreading northwards in the Netherlands. A new isolated population has been found near Winterswijk in a limestone quarry.

  9. 24 CFR 30.20 - Ethical violations by HUD employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethical violations by HUD employees. 30.20 Section 30.20 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES: CERTAIN PROHIBITED CONDUCT Violations § 30.20...

  10. 24 CFR 586.35 - HUD's review of the application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Consolidated Plan(s) or any other existing housing, social service, community, economic, or other development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HUD's review of the application. 586.35 Section 586.35 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  11. Nieuwe groeiplaats van Bijenorchis (Ophrys apifera Huds.) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsthuis, M.A.P.; Willink, G.

    2006-01-01

    Bijenorchis neemt toe in Nederland en wordt daarbij steeds noordelijker aangetroffen. In 2005 is een geïsoleerde groeiplaats gevonden in een kalkgroeve bij Winterswijk. Ophrys apifera Huds. is spreading northwards in the Netherlands. A new isolated population has been found near Winterswijk in a lim

  12. An examination of slo-pitch pitching trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tom; Gervais, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Many slo-pitch coaches and players believe that generating spin on a ball can affect its trajectory. The influence of air resistance on a ball that is thrown at a moderate speed and spin is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of spin on the ball's trajectory in slo-pitch pitching using both experimental results and ball flight simulations. Fourteen pitchers participated in the study, each of whom threw five backspin and topspin pitches each. Data were collected using standard three-dimensional videography. The horizontal velocity, vertical velocity, angular velocity, release height, and horizontal displacement of the backspin pitches were significantly higher than those of the topspin pitches. The ball flight simulations were developed to examine the influence of the ball spin, and it was concluded that the spin of the ball had a significant effect on the ball's vertical and horizontal displacements. Furthermore, our results suggest that a backspin pitch that reaches the maximum height allowable and lands in the front edge of the strike zone has the steepest slope. The present results add to our understanding of projectile motion and aerodynamics.

  13. Thermodynamics of strongly disordered spin ladders

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Eddy; Yang, Kun

    2002-01-01

    We study antiferromagnetic two-leg spin-1/2 ladders with strong bond randomness, using the real space renormalization group method. We find the low-temperature spin susceptibility of the system follows non-universal power laws, and the ground state spin-spin correlation is short-ranged. Our results suggest that there is no phase transition when the bond randomness increases from zero; for strong enough randomness the system is in a Griffith region with divergent spin susceptibility and short-...

  14. Pitch perception beyond the traditional existence region of pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Micheyl, Christophe; Keebler, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    Humans’ ability to recognize musical melodies is generally limited to pure-tone frequencies below 4 or 5 kHz. This limit coincides with the highest notes on modern musical instruments and is widely believed to reflect the upper limit of precise stimulusdriven spike timing in the auditory nerve. We...... tested the upper limits of pitch and melody perception in humans using pure and harmonic complex tones, such as those produced by the human voice and musical instruments, in melody recognition and pitchmatching tasks. We found that robust pitch perception can be elicited by harmonic complex tones...... with fundamental frequencies below 2 kHz, even when all of the individual harmonics are above 6 kHz—well above the currently accepted existence region of pitch and above the currently accepted limits of neural phase locking. The results suggest that the perception of musical pitch at high frequencies...

  15. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.26 - Portable metal ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—(1) General. To get maximum serviceability, safety, and to eliminate unnecessary damage of equipment... following rules and regulations are essential to the life of the equipment and the safety of the user. (2... of ladders. (i). A simple rule for setting up a ladder at the proper angle is to place the base...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... user equips them with safety shoes; (xviii) (xix) The user should equip all portable rung ladders with... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.25 Portable wood ladders....

  18. A millimeter-wave tunneLadder TWT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, A.; Karp, A.; Wilson, D.; Scott, A.

    1988-01-01

    A millimeter wave traveling wave tube was developed using a dispersive, high impedance forward interaction structure based on a ladder, with non-space harmonic interaction, for a tube with high gain per unit length and high efficiency. The TunneLadder interaction structure combines ladder properties modified to accommodate Pierce gun beam optics in a radially magnetized permanent magnet focusing structure. The development involved the fabrication of chemically milled, shaped ladders diffusion brazed to diamond cubes which are in turn active-diffusion brazed to each ridge of a doubly ridged waveguide. Cold test data are presented, representing the omega-beta and impedance characteristics of the modified ladder circuit. These results were used in small and large signal computer programs to predict TWT gain and efficiency. Actual data from tested tubes verify the predicted performance while providing broader bandwidth than expected.

  19. A balanced intervention ladder: promoting autonomy through public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P E; West, C

    2015-08-01

    The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 24 CFR 3500.10 - One-day advance inspection of HUD-1 or HUD-1A settlement statement; delivery; recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false One-day advance inspection of HUD-1 or HUD-1A settlement statement; delivery; recordkeeping. 3500.10 Section 3500.10 Housing and...

  1. Do ferrets perceive relative pitch?

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Pingbo; Fritz, Jonathan B.; Shamma, Shihab A.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of relative pitch perception in animals is difficult to demonstrate, since unlike humans, animals often attend to absolute rather than relative properties of sound elements. However, the results of the present study show that ferrets can be trained using relative pitch to discriminate two-tone sequences (rising vs. falling). Three ferrets were trained using a positive-reinforcement paradigm in which sequences of reference (one to five repeats) and target stimuli were presented, ...

  2. Molecular Systematics of Polygonum minus Huds. Based on ITS Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Mohd Noor

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Plastid trnL-trnF and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences were obtained from selected wild-type individuals of Polygonum minus Huds. in Peninsular Malaysia. The 380 bp trnL-trnF sequences of the Polygonum minus accessions were identical. Therefore, the trnL-trnF failed to distinguish between the Polygonum minus accessions. However, the divergence of ITS sequences (650 bp among the Polygonum minus accessions was 1%, indicating that these accessions could be distinguished by the ITS sequences. A phylogenetic relationship based on the ITS sequences was inferred using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. All of the tree topologies indicated that Polygonum minus from Peninsular Malaysia is unique and different from the synonymous Persicaria minor (Huds. Opiz and Polygonum kawagoeanum Makino.

  3. Climbing the Ladder: Experience with Developing a Large Group Genetic Counselor Career Ladder at Children's National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Laura; Seprish, Mary Beth; Summar, Marshall

    2016-08-01

    Children's National Health System (CNHS) is a not-for-profit pediatric hospital that employs around twenty genetic counselors in a range of specialties, including clinical pediatric, neurology, fetal medicine, research, and laboratory. CNHS lacked a structured system of advancement for their genetic counselors; therefore, a formal career ladder was proposed by the genetic counselors based on years of experience, responsibility, and job performance. This career ladder utilized monetary, academic, and seniority incentives to encourage advancement and continue employment at CNHS. The creation and ultimate approval of the career ladder required direct input from genetic counselors, Department Chairs, and Human Resource personnel. The establishment of a genetic counselor career ladder at CNHS will hopefully benefit the profession of genetic counselors as a whole and allow other facilities to create and maintain their own career ladder to meet the needs of the growing, competitive, field of genetic counseling.

  4. Design Study for a Low-Distortion Holographic HUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    HUD W.S. Colburn, R.C. Fairchild RADAR AND OPTICS DIVISION ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MICHIGAN P.O. Box 8618, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48107...When Data Entered) l "Diffraction Optics Design Study" FOREWORD This report was prepared by the Electro-Optics Depart- ment, Radar and Optics...where the ray directions are reversed by the raytrace program. This design resulted in a combiner with a focal length of 193 mm, and which is predicted

  5. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with

  6. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  7. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  8. Magnetizing and heating quantum spin ladders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrey Zheludev

    2008-11-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional quantum spin liquids, such as weakly coupled even-legged S=1/2 spin ladders or spin tubes, have a singlet non-magnetic ground state and gap in the excitation spectrum. Their low-temperature properties can be described in terms of triplet massive quasiparticles. These magnons possess some unique features due to the peculiar topology of one dimension. For example, two-particle interactions totally destroy single-particle states for certain energy and momentum transfers, resulting in the so-called termination of the magnon spectrum. At high field a Bose–Einstein condensation of these magnons produces a `quantum spin solid' phase, where `conventional` antiferromagnetic order coexists with excitations that are totally outside conventional spin wave theory. At finite temperatures strong repulsion between quasiparticles leads to a universal renormalization of their masses and lifetimes. These diverse phenomena are best probed by neutron scattering experiments that directly measure the spin correlation functions and excitation spectra.

  9. Integrable Renormalization I: the Ladder Case

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi-Fard, K; Kreimer, D; Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch; Guo, Li; Kreimer, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    In recent years a Hopf algebraic structure underlying the process of renormalization in quantum field theory was found. It led to a Birkhoff factorization for (regularized) Hopf algebra characters, i.e. for Feynman rules. In this work we would like to show that this Birkhoff factorization finds its natural formulation in terms of a classical r-matrix, coming from a Rota-Baxter structure underlying the target space of the regularized Hopf algebra characters. Working in the rooted tree Hopf algebra, the simple case of the Hopf subalgebra of ladder trees is treated in detail. The extension to the general case, i.e. the full Hopf algebra of rooted trees or Feynman graphs is briefly outlined.

  10. Ladder Climbing and Autoresonant Acceleration of Plasma Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Ido; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-01-01

    Classical plasma waves are predicted to exhibit quantumlike ladder climbing, which is achieved by chirped modulations of the background density. An equivalence with the quantum particle in a box is identified and used to calculate the efficiency and the rate of this effect. In the limit of densely spaced spectrum, ladder climbing transforms into continuous autoresonance; plasmons may then be manipulated by chirped background modulations much like electrons are autoresonantly manipulated by chirped fields. Such ladder climbing and autoresonance effects are also predicted for other classical waves by means of a unifying Lagrangian theory.

  11. 76 FR 4933 - Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Review Responsibilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Responsibilities; Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...: Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities. OMB Control...

  12. Difficulties with Pitch Discrimination Influences Pitch Memory Performance: Evidence from Congenital Amusia

    OpenAIRE

    Cunmei Jiang; Lim, Vanessa K.; Hang Wang; Hamm, Jeff P.

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to crea...

  13. Production of Mesophase Pitch from Coal Tar and Petroleum Pitches using Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEL, Mustafa Z.

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is currently being investigated as a possible technique in the production of high quality mesophase pitch from coal tar and petroleum pitches. Mesophase pitch is used to make high technology products, such as carbon fibre. The conventional production of mesophase pitch initially involves the removal of low molecular weight species from coal tar and petroleum pitches. The remaining residue is then transformed into a mesophase pitch through a polym...

  14. Tinnitus pitch and acoustic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahani, M.; Paul, G.; Shahar, A.

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-six subjects complaining of tinnitus underwent an audiometric test and a test for identifying the analogous pitch of their tinnitus. All of the subjects reported that they had been exposed to noise in the past. The subjects were divided into two groups on the basis of their audiometric test results. Group P was composed of subjects who showed a sensorineural hearing loss typical of acoustic trauma. Group N was composed of subjects whose hearing was within normal limits. The pitch of the tinnitus in group P was concentrated in the high-frequency range, whereas in group N tinnitus pitch values were distributed over the low and mid-audiometric frequency spectrum. It was deduced that different processes are involved in the generation of tinnitus in the two groups.

  15. Log-concavity of the genus polynomials of Ringel Ladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Gross

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Ringel ladder can be formed by a self-bar-amalgamation operation on a symmetric ladder, that is, by joining the root vertices on its end-rungs. The present authors have previously derived criteria under which linear chains of copies of one or more graphs have log-concave genus polyno- mials. Herein we establish Ringel ladders as the first significant non-linear infinite family of graphs known to have log-concave genus polynomials. We construct an algebraic representation of self-bar-amalgamation as a matrix operation, to be applied to a vector representation of the partitioned genus distribution of a symmetric ladder. Analysis of the resulting genus polynomial involves the use of Chebyshev polynomials. This paper continues our quest to affirm the quarter-century-old conjecture that all graphs have log-concave genus polynomials.

  16. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF LADDER--LIKE HEISENBERG SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋青; 潘可扬

    1993-01-01

    By combining the cumulant expansion method with the double-chain approximation, we study thermodynamic properties of ladder-like He isenberg system. We find the interaction between interchains has different effect in high and low temperature.

  17. Straightforward Procedure for Laboratory Production of DNA Ladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo Thi Thuong Lan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA ladder is commonly used to determine the size of DNA fragments by electrophoresis in routine molecular biology laboratories. In this study, we report a new procedure to prepare a DNA ladder that consists of 10 fragments from 100 to 1000 bp. This protocol is a combination of routinely employed methods: cloning, PCR, and partial digestion with restriction enzymes. DNA fragments of 100 bp with unique restriction site at both ends were self-ligated to create a tandem repeat. Once being cloned, the tandem repeat was rapidly amplified by PCR and partially digested by restriction enzymes to produce a ladder containing multimers of the repeated DNA fragments. Our procedure for production of DNA ladder could be simple, time saving, and inexpensive in comparison with current ones widely used in most laboratories.

  18. High-frequency complex pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine-structure ......Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine...

  19. %159300 MUSICAL PERFECT PITCH [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-recognition capacity and musical exposure and training, as well as demographic characteristics. The subjec...ts were selected from the musical communities of 4 large metropolitan areas. Perfect pitch was found to pred...fect pitch.) See 191200 for a discussion of a form of lack of musical ability, tune deafness. Schlaug et al....aterability in 30 healthy, right-handed professional musicians and compared the r...esults with those from nonmusicians matched for age, sex, and handedness. They found that musicians with per

  20. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  1. 75 FR 62412 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD-Owned Real Estate-Good Neighbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD- Owned Real Estate-Good Neighbor Next Door... following information: Title of Proposal: HUD-Owned Real Estate-Good Neighbor Next Door Program. OMB Control...

  2. 75 FR 62413 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD-Owned Real Estate-Dollar Home...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD- Owned Real Estate--Dollar Home Sales... also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Dollar Home Sales...

  3. A Different Pitch to Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, William

    2017-01-01

    The query "When are we ever going to use this?" is easily answered when discussing the slope of a line. The pitch of a roof, the grade of a road, and stair stringers are three applications of slope that are used extensively. The concept of slope, which is introduced fairly early in the mathematics curriculum has hands-on applications…

  4. Reliable Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The key objectives of wind turbine manufactures and buyers are to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership and Total Cost of Energy. Among others, low downtime of a wind turbine is important to increase the amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Historical data indicate that pitch systems...

  5. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic... procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub... plastic water closet bowls and tanks shall be designed, assembled and tested in compliance with...

  6. 76 FR 11256 - Notice of HUD-Held Healthcare Loan Sale (HCLS 2011-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Street, SW., Washington, DC 20410-8000; telephone 202-708-2625, extension 3927. Hearing- or speech... Mortgage Loans in HCLS 2011-1. Freedom of Information Act Requests HUD reserves the right, in its sole and... HUD is obligated to disclose pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act and all regulations...

  7. 76 FR 24045 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2011-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ..., extension 3927. Hearing- or speech-impaired individuals may call 202- 708-4594 (TTY). These are not toll... Loans in MLS 2011-1. Freedom of Information Act Requests HUD reserves the right, in its sole and... HUD is obligated to disclose pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act and all regulations...

  8. 76 FR 47226 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2011-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ..., extension 3927. Hearing- or speech-impaired individuals may call 202-708-4594 (TTY). These are not toll-free... before June 30, 2011; Freedom of Information Act Requests HUD reserves the right, in its sole and... HUD is obligated to disclose pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act and all regulations...

  9. Analyzing Drivers' Attitude towards HUD System Using a Stated Preference Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Guo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for drivers to obtain driving information easily and efficiently. There are many advanced devices used for driving safety assistance. Of these assistance devices, the head-up display (HUD system can promote the reduction of driver's reaction time and improve spatial awareness. The drivers' attitude towards and preference for HUD system are crucial to design the functional framework and interface of HUD system. This study explored the relationships between drivers' attitude and HUD presentation image designs using stated preference data from questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included drivers' attitude towards the use of HUD and the preference for the information display zone and information display elements of the HUD. Contrastive analysis was adopted to examine the variations in drivers' attitude and preference for age and driving skills. According to the results, the participants have varying attitudes to HUD system, but most participants show relatively unified preference for the information display zone and information display elements. The results can also be used to customize a HUD presentation image which is in accordance with the drivers' feelings and preferences.

  10. 75 FR 29358 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Emergency Comment Request; HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Request; HUD Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities--Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant Program, Public Law 111-117 AGENCY: Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities, HUD. ACTION... Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Office of Sustainable Housing and...

  11. 24 CFR 401.481 - Subsidy layering limitations on HUD funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.481 Subsidy layering limitations on HUD funds. (a) PAE subsidy layering certification required for Restructuring Plan. The PAE must certify to HUD that any... limit a PAE from presenting for approval a Restructuring Plan that includes project reconfiguration...

  12. 24 CFR 401.473 - HUD grants for rehabilitation under section 236(s) of NA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...'s evaluation of physical condition under § 401.450, as certified by the PAE. The owner must execute a grant agreement with terms and conditions acceptable to HUD. If the PAE is a State or local government, or an agency or instrumentality of such a government, the PAE and HUD may agree that the PAE...

  13. 24 CFR 906.37 - Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Davis-Bacon and HUD wage rate... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Program Administration § 906.37 Davis-Bacon and... by the PHA, pursuant to § 906.7. Davis-Bacon or HUD-determined wage rates apply as follows:...

  14. 75 FR 80517 - HUD Multifamily Rental Project Closing Documents-Revisions and Updates Notice of Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... modern real estate practice and mortgage lending laws and procedures. The August 2, 2004, notice, in turn... setting modern standards for multifamily loan documents, yet also contended that HUD's emulation is more... not revised.\\1\\ \\1\\ HUD published proposed amendments to American Institute of Architects (AIA...

  15. 24 CFR 903.25 - How does HUD ensure PHA compliance with its plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with its plan? 903.25 Section 903.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... compliance with its plan? A PHA must comply with the rules, standards and policies established in the plans... with its plan. If HUD should determine that a PHA is not in compliance with its plan, HUD will...

  16. 24 CFR 1000.526 - What information will HUD use for its review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information will HUD use for its review? 1000.526 Section 1000.526 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing..., Oversight and Accountability § 1000.526 What information will HUD use for its review? In reviewing...

  17. 76 FR 5393 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; HUD Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; HUD Stakeholder Survey... subject proposal. This data collection will allow HUD to collect feedback from a wide range of stakeholder groups using a brief, optional survey to be completed in person at the end of each stakeholder event....

  18. 75 FR 67992 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: Office of the... Stakeholder Survey. OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2501-New. Description of the need for the information... groups nationwide designed to educate stakeholders about HUD initiatives and policies. This...

  19. 78 FR 75215 - Qualified Mortgage Definition for HUD Insured and Guaranteed Single Family Mortgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... certain clarifications and exceptions HUD is making in response to public comments. As proposed by HUD in... of exempted transactions Title II insured mortgages made by housing finance agencies and certain... relating to ratios of total monthly debt to total monthly income; (vii) the total points and fees...

  20. 24 CFR 5.233 - Mandated use of HUD's Enterprise Income Verification (EIV) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandated use of HUD's Enterprise... and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for... § 5.233 Mandated use of HUD's Enterprise Income Verification (EIV) System. (a) Programs subject...

  1. 78 FR 16279 - HUD Healthcare Facility Documents: Notice Announcing Final Approved Documents and Assignment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... kind of transfer, with HUD's consent. HUD notes, however, that according to the Financial Accounting... varied their references to specific provisions in the documents; sometimes the commenters referred to the provision in the healthcare facility document as sections, subsections, and paragraphs. Efforts have...

  2. On The Ladder Bethe-Salpeter Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Efimov, G V

    2003-01-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in the ladder approximation is studied within a scalar theory: two scalar fields (constituents) with mass $m$ interacting via an exchange of a scalar field (tieon) with mass $\\mu$. The BS equation is written in the form of an integral equation in the configuration Euclidean $x$-space with the kernel which for stable bound states $M<2m$ is a self-adjoint positive operator. The solution of the BS equation is formulated as a variational problem. The nonrelativistic limit of the BS equation is considered. The role of so-called abnormal states is discussed. The analytical form of test functions for which the accuracy of calculations of bound state masses is better than 1% (the comparison with available numerical calculations is done) is determined. These test functions make it possible to calculate analytically vertex functions describing the interaction of bound states with constituents. As a by-product a simple solution of the Wick-Cutkosky model for the case of massless bound...

  3. DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing: A federal partnership. Program summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinch, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-06-01

    One of the primary goals of the US Department of Housing and urban Development (HUD) is the expansion of home ownership and affordable housing opportunities. Recognizing that energy efficiency is a key component in an affordable housing strategy, HUD and the US Department of Energy (DOE) created the DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing. The DOE-HUD Initiative was designed to share the results of DOE research with housing providers throughout the nation, to reduce energy costs in federally-subsidized dwelling units and improve their affordability and comfort. This Program Summary Report provides an overview of the DOE-HUD Initiative and detailed project descriptions of the twenty-seven projects carried out with Initiative funding.

  4. 78 FR 66040 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate-Sales Contract and Addendums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Sales... collection entitled HUD-Owned Real Estate-Sales Contract and Addendums (2502-0306). HUD will republish the...

  5. 77 FR 17086 - Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers: Revised Implementation of the HUD-VA Supportive Housing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... and maintain this code on the HUD-50058. Data will also be captured in the Voucher Management System... where both PHAs have received HUD-VASH vouchers, portability moves when case management is no longer required, reallocation of HUD-VASH vouchers, and Housing Quality Standards (HQS) initial inspections....

  6. Three-dimensional system integration for HUD placement on a new tactical airlift platform: design eye point vs. HUD eye box with accommodation and perceptual implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Steven D.; Hudson, Jeffery A.; Zehner, Gregory F.

    2012-06-01

    The retrofitting of a cockpit with a Head-Up-Display (HUD) raises potential accommodation and perceptual issues for pilots that must be addressed. For maximum optical efficiency, the goal is to be able to place every pilot's eye into the HUD Eye Motion Box (EMB) given a seat adjustment range. Initially, the Eye Reference Point (ERP) of the EMB should theoretically be located on the aircraft's original cockpit Design Eye Point (DEP), but human postures vary, and HUD systems may not be optimally placed. In reality, there is a distribution of pilot eyes around the DEP (which is dominant eye dependent); therefore, this must be accounted for in order to obtain appropriate visibility of all of the symbology based on photonic characteristics of the HUD. Pilot size and postural variation need to be taken into consideration when positioning the HUD system to ensure proper vision of all HUD symbology in addition to meeting the basic physical accommodation requirements of the cockpit. The innovative process and data collection methods for maximizing accommodation and pilot perception on a new "tactical airlift" platform are discussed as well as the related neurocognitive factors and the effects of information display design on cognitive phenomena.

  7. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  8. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  9. Music Lessons, Pitch Processing, and "g"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Moreno, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Musically trained and untrained participants were administered tests of pitch processing and general intelligence ("g"). Trained participants exhibited superior performance on tests of pitch-processing speed and relative pitch. They were also better at frequency discrimination with tones at 400 Hz but not with very high tones (4000 Hz). The two…

  10. Pitch and image quality in computed tomography; Pitch et qualite d'image en tomodensitometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, B.; Le Marec, E.; Pharaboz, C. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Begin, 94 - Saint-Mande (France); Le Bruno, B. [Siemens SA, 92 - Saint-Denis (France)

    1999-10-01

    Pitch is a specific parameter in helical computed tomography. Once the definition of the pitch and its situation in parameters obtaining the image have been resumed, we propose to evaluate theoretic and experimental influence of the pitch on image quality. Best indications of pitch values greater than 1.0 are discussed. (author)

  11. Relations of pitch matching, pitch discrimination, and otoacoustic emission suppression in individuals not formally trained as musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert E; Estis, Julie M; Zhang, Fawen; Watts, Christopher; Marble, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    Research has yielded a relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Good pitch matchers tend to be good pitch discriminators and are often judged to be vocally talented. Otoacoustic emission suppression measures the function of the efferent auditory system which may affect accuracy for pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Formally trained musicians show pitch matching and pitch discrimination superior to those of nonmusicians and have greater efferent otoacoustic emission suppression than nonmusicians. This study investigated the relationship among pitch matching, pitch discrimination, and otoacoustic emission suppression in individuals with no formal musical training and who showed varied pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Analysis suggested a significant relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination but not between otoacoustic emission suppression and pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Findings are presented in the context of previous research indicating a significant relationship between otoacoustic emission suppression and musical talent in trained musicians.

  12. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  13. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as "tone deafness," has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  14. HuD Regulates Coding and Noncoding RNA to Induce APP→Aβ Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ju Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The primarily neuronal RNA-binding protein HuD is implicated in learning and memory. Here, we report the identification of several HuD target transcripts linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathogenesis. HuD interacted with the 3′ UTRs of APP mRNA (encoding amyloid precursor protein and BACE1 mRNA (encoding β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 and increased the half-lives of these mRNAs. HuD also associated with and stabilized the long noncoding (lncRNA BACE1AS, which partly complements BACE1 mRNA and enhances BACE1 expression. Consistent with HuD promoting production of APP and APP-cleaving enzyme, the levels of APP, BACE1, BACE1AS, and Aβ were higher in the brain of HuD-overexpressing mice. Importantly, cortex (superior temporal gyrus from patients with AD displayed significantly higher levels of HuD and, accordingly, elevated APP, BACE1, BACE1AS, and Aβ than did cortical tissue from healthy age-matched individuals. We propose that HuD jointly promotes the production of APP and the cleavage of its amyloidogenic fragment, Aβ.

  15. PT-symmetric ladders with a scattering core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambroise, J. [Department of Mathematics, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002-5000 (United States); Lepri, S. [CNR – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, via Madonna del piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Malomed, B.A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We consider a PT-symmetric chain (ladder-shaped) system governed by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation where the cubic nonlinearity is carried solely by two central “rungs” of the ladder. Two branches of scattering solutions for incident plane waves are found. We systematically construct these solutions, analyze their stability, and discuss non-reciprocity of the transmission associated with them. To relate the results to finite-size wavepacket dynamics, we also perform direct simulations of the evolution of the wavepackets, which confirm that the transmission is indeed asymmetric in this nonlinear system with the mutually balanced gain and loss. - Highlights: • We model a PT-symmetric ladder system with cubic nonlinearity on two central rungs. • We examine non-reciprocity and stability of incident plane waves. • Simulations of wavepackets confirm our results.

  16. A Review and Modern Approach to LC Ladder Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Casson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra low power circuits require robust and reliable operation despite the unavoidable use of low currents and the weak inversion transistor operation region. For analogue domain filtering doubly terminated LC ladder based filter topologies are thus highly desirable as they have very low sensitivities to component values: non-exact component values have a minimal effect on the realised transfer function. However, not all transfer functions are suitable for implementation via a LC ladder prototype, and even when the transfer function is suitable the synthesis procedure is not trivial. The modern circuit designer can thus benefit from an updated treatment of this synthesis procedure. This paper presents a methodology for the design of doubly terminated LC ladder structures making use of the symbolic maths engines in programs such as MATLAB and MAPLE. The methodology is explained through the detailed synthesis of an example 7th order bandpass filter transfer function for use in electroencephalogram (EEG analysis.

  17. Multi-tool design and analysis of an automotive HUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Bruce; Hasenauer, David; Mulder, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Design and analysis of an optical system is often a multidisciplinary task, and can involve the use of specialized software packages for imaging, mechanics, and illumination. This paper will present a case study on the design and analysis of a basic heads-up display (HUD) for automotive use. The emphasis will be on the special requirements of a HUD visual system and on the tools and techniques needed to accomplish the design. The first section of this paper will present an overview of the imaging design using commercially available imaging design software. Topics addressed in this section include modeling the windshield, visualizing the imaging performance, using constraints and freeform surfaces to improve the system, and meeting specific visual performance specifications with design/analysis methods. The second section will address the use of a CAD program to design a basic mechanical structure to support and protect the optics. This section will also discuss some of the issues and limitations involved in translating data between a CAD program and a lens design or illumination program. Typical issues that arise include the precision of optical surface prescriptions, surface and material properties, and the management of large data files. In the final section, the combined optical and mechanical package will be considered, using an illumination design program for stray light analysis. The stray light analysis will be directed primarily toward finding, visualizing, and quantifying unexpected ray paths. Techniques for sorting optical ray paths by path length, power, and elements or materials encountered will be discussed, along with methods for estimating the impact of stray light on the optical system performance.

  18. Triptycene-based ladder monomers and polymers, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-02-05

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a triptycene-based ladder polymer, a method of making a triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of using triptycene-based ladder polymers, a structure incorporating triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of gas separation, and the like.

  19. DUNDRUM Restriction-Intrusion of Liberty Ladders (DRILL) Audit Toolkit

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Harry G

    2011-09-01

    This series of rating \\'ladders\\' is intended to allow a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of restrictive and intrusive interventions as part of the therapeutic management of violence and aggression in psychiatric hospital settings. This is an evolving handbook. The ladders are currently organised to facilitate a behavioural analysis. Context, antecedents, behaviour, interventions, consequences are conceptualised as a series of events organised in temporal sequence so that causes, interactions and effects can be considered. The complexity of analysis possible is limited by the statistical power of the numbers of cases and events available. \\r\

  20. Ladder Arrangement Method for Stealth Design of Vivaldi Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoXiang He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel stealth design method for X-band Vivaldi antenna arrays is proposed in this paper by ladder arrangement along radiation direction. Two-element array, eight-element array, and 3 × 7-element array are investigated in this paper. S parameters, RCSs, and radiation patterns are studied, respectively. According to the ladder arrangement of Vivaldi antennas presented, 16.3 dBsm maximal RCS reduction is achieved with satisfied radiation performance. As simulated and measured, results demonstrate that the effectiveness of the presented low RCS design method is validated.

  1. Notebook Positioning by Perceptual Map and Laddering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Zaribaf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this applied paper is to determine positioning of laptops by perceptual map and laddering method. Data collection method was survey using questionnaire. First by using the views of computer experts of selected brands, including Sony, Acer, Asus, Dell and Msi, 5 among 20 attributes, which were considered more important, were selected through application of factor analysis technique. Then, after classification of these features by laddering technique, they were analyzed by using another questionnaire to determine the position of each brand in the perceptual map. We try to show factors and laptop brands position with regard two factors of price and quality in the resulted perceptual map.

  2. Corrosion Control Specialist Career Ladder AFSC 53530, 53550, 53570, and 53690. Occupational Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The report describes the results of a detailed occupational survey of the corrosion control career ladder. Responses to a 457-task, time rating inventory from 1,015 personnel (representing 64 percent of the career field) were analyzed to produce seven specific findings and the career ladder structure. The career ladder includes a variety of jobs…

  3. Corrosion Control Specialist Career Ladder AFSC 53530, 53550, 53570, and 53690. Occupational Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The report describes the results of a detailed occupational survey of the corrosion control career ladder. Responses to a 457-task, time rating inventory from 1,015 personnel (representing 64 percent of the career field) were analyzed to produce seven specific findings and the career ladder structure. The career ladder includes a variety of jobs…

  4. Scalings of pitches in music

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Y

    1995-01-01

    We investigate correlations among pitches in several songs and pieces of piano music by mapping them to one-dimensional walks. Two kinds of correlations are studied, one is related to the real values of frequencies while they are treated only as different symbols for another. Long-range power law behavior is found in both kinds. The first is more meaningful. The structure of music, such as beat, measure and stanza, are reflected in the change of scaling exponents. Some interesting features are observed. Our results demonstrate the viewpoint that the fundamental principle of music is the balance between repetition and contrast.

  5. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmei Jiang

    Full Text Available Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  6. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones) differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  7. Pitch strength and pitch dominance of iterated rippled noises in hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, M R; Summers, V

    2001-06-01

    Reports using a variety of psychophysical tasks indicate that pitch perception by hearing-impaired listeners may be abnormal, contributing to difficulties in understanding speech and enjoying music. Pitches of complex sounds may be weaker and more indistinct in the presence of cochlear damage, especially when frequency regions are affected that form the strongest basis for pitch perception in normal-hearing listeners. In this study, the strength of the complex pitch generated by iterated rippled noise was assessed in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. Pitch strength was measured for broadband noises with spectral ripples generated by iteratively delaying a copy of a given noise and adding it back into the original. Octave-band-pass versions of these noises also were evaluated to assess frequency dominance regions for rippled-noise pitch. Hearing-impaired listeners demonstrated consistently weaker pitches in response to the rippled noises relative to pitch strength in normal-hearing listeners. However, in most cases, the frequency regions of pitch dominance, i.e., strongest pitch, were similar to those observed in normal-hearing listeners. Except where there exists a substantial sensitivity loss, contributions from normal pitch dominance regions associated with the strongest pitches may not be directly related to impaired spectral processing. It is suggested that the reduced strength of rippled-noise pitch in listeners with hearing loss results from impaired frequency resolution and possibly an associated deficit in temporal processing.

  8. Multi-pitch Estimation using Semidefinite Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Multi-pitch estimation concerns the problem of estimating the fundamental frequencies (pitches) and amplitudes/phases of multiple superimposed harmonic signals with application in music, speech, vibration analysis etc. In this paper we formulate a complex-valued multi-pitch estimator via a semide......Multi-pitch estimation concerns the problem of estimating the fundamental frequencies (pitches) and amplitudes/phases of multiple superimposed harmonic signals with application in music, speech, vibration analysis etc. In this paper we formulate a complex-valued multi-pitch estimator via...... a semidefinite programming representation of an atomic decomposition over a continuous dictionary of complex exponentials and extend this to real-valued data via a real semidefinite pro-ram with the same dimensions (i.e. half the size). We further impose a continuous frequency constraint naturally occurring from...

  9. Habitat Use Database - Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Habitat Use Database (HUD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Habitat Use Database (HUD) was specifically designed to address the need for habitat-use analyses in support of groundfish EFH, HAPCs, and fishing and nonfishing...

  10. 76 FR 72211 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request, HUD-Administered Small Cities Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... provides HUD with financial and physical development status of each activity funded. These reports are used... technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. This Notice also lists the...

  11. Schroedinger operators with the q-ladder symmetry algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorik, Sergei; Spiridonov, Vyacheslav

    1994-01-01

    A class of the one-dimensional Schroedinger operators L with the symmetry algebra LB(+/-) = q(+/-2)B(+/-)L, (B(+),B(-)) = P(sub N)(L), is described. Here B(+/-) are the 'q-ladder' operators and P(sub N)(L) is a polynomial of the order N. Peculiarities of the coherent states of this algebra are briefly discussed.

  12. Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders

    CERN Document Server

    El-Bennich, B; Paracha, M A; de Melo, J P B C

    2013-01-01

    We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.

  13. Space Systems Equipment Maintenance Career Ladder AFSC-309X0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    26 ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY (EPI) .... ............... .... 31 JOB SATISFACTION ANALYSIS ........... ........... . . . . 32...the-job training) are ade- quately meeting the needs of the career ladder. ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY (EPI) - An additional source of information...for AFSC 309X0 training developers is the EPI. The EPI is a 1,366 item, knowledge-based inventory which identifies the range of electronics principles personnel

  14. Magnetic interactions in calcium and sodium ladder vanadates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, C; Hozoi, L.; Broer-Braam, Henderika

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic interactions in ladder vanadates are determined with quantum chemical computational schemes using the embedded cluster model approach to represent the material. The available experimental data for calcium vanadate is accurately reproduced and the nature of the interladder interaction is est

  15. Education for Sustainability: A Snakes and Ladders Game?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Tilbury

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How to reference this articleTilbury, D. (2015. Education for Sustainability: A Snakes and Ladders Game?. Foro de Educación, 13(19, 7-10. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.019.000

  16. Towards flavored bound states beyond rainbows and ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bennich, B.; Rojas, E.; Melo, J. P. B. C. de [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo 01506-000 SP (Brazil); Paracha, M. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo 01506-000 SP, Brazil and Centre for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-11

    We give a snapshot of recent progress in solving the Dyson-Schwinger equation with a beyond rainbow-ladder ansatz for the dressed quark-gluon vertex which includes ghost contributions. We discuss the motivations for this approach with regard to heavy-flavored bound states and form factors and briefly describe future steps to be taken.

  17. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs. As an example, we refind the genus distri- bution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  18. Undergraduate Education: An Essential Rung on the Rehabilitation Career Ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Tom; Holloway, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the historical pertinence of undergraduate education to developing a career ladder within the field of vocational rehabilitation. Support for the relevance is presented through the results of an investigation of baccalaureate-level competence and preparation as perceived by graduates of rehabilitation services programs. Job…

  19. Chemodiversity of Ladder-Frame Prymnesin Polyethers in Prymnesium parvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Meier, Sebastian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted;

    2016-01-01

    Blooms of the microalga Prymnesium parvum cause devastating fish kills worldwide, which are suspected to be caused by the supersized ladder-frame polyether toxins prymnesin-1 and -2. These toxins have, however, only been detected from P. parvum in rare cases since they were originally described two...

  20. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LiangXia; FENG KeQin; LIU YanPei; WANG DianJun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs.As an example,we refind the genus distribution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LADDER-LIKE POLYDECYLSILSESQUIOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao-yun Zhang; Dao-rong Dai; Ze Li; Rong-ben Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Ladder-like polydecylsilsesquioxane (LPDS) was synthesized by a preamminolysis reaction of decyltrichlorosilane with ethylene diamine, followed by hydrolysis and polycondensation reaction. LPDS is soluble in a nonpolar solvent such as heptane and insoluble in a high polar solvent such as methanol. It was charaterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 29Si-NMR, GPC and X-ray diffraction.

  2. Mentoring clinical ladder advancement with a facilitated prep class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Susan A; Blankenship, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a strategy for encouraging participation and overcoming reluctance of staff to participate in an optional professional advancement career ladder program. A facilitated prep class in a computer skills laboratory provides nurses with the framework for completing application requirements in a casual, supportive atmosphere.

  3. Ladder contours are undetectable in the periphery: a crowding effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Keith A; Hess, Robert F

    2007-10-29

    We studied the perceptual integration of contours consisting of Gabor elements positioned along a smooth path, embedded among distractor elements. Contour elements either formed tangents to the path ("snakes") or were perpendicular to it ("ladders"). Perfectly straight snakes and ladders were easily detected in the fovea but, at an eccentricity of 6 degrees , only the snakes were detectable. The disproportionate impairment of peripheral ladder detection remained when we brought foveal performance away from ceiling by jittering the orientations of the elements. We propose that the failure to detect peripheral ladders is a form of crowding, the phenomenon observed when identification of peripherally located letters is disrupted by flanking letters. D. G. Pelli, M. Palomares, and N. J. Majaj (2004) outlined a model in which simple feature detectors are followed by integration fields, which are involved in tasks, such as letter identification, that require the outputs of several detectors. They proposed that crowding occurs because small integration fields are absent from the periphery, leading to inappropriate feature integration by large peripheral integration fields. We argue that the "association field," which has been proposed to mediate contour integration (D. J. Field, A. Hayes, & R. F. Hess, 1993), is a type of integration field. Our data are explained by an elaboration of Pelli et al.'s model, in which weak ladder integration competes with strong snake integration. In the fovea, the association fields were small, and the model integrated snakes and ladders with little interference. In the periphery, the association fields were large, and integration of ladders was severely disrupted by interference from spurious snake contours. In contrast, the model easily detected snake contours in the periphery. In a further demonstration of the possible link between contour integration and crowding, we ran our contour integration model on groups of three-letter stimuli

  4. Improved Design Techniques for Switched-Capacitor Ladder Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Teng-Hsien

    Using the new developments of MOS technology, switched-capacitor filters which consist of operational amplifiers, capacitors and switches in monolithic form, were widely investigated and put into practical forms. The switched-capacitor ladder filters have derived from doubly-terminated reactance two-ports. The main part of this dissertation is aimed at improving the efficiency and eliminating some shortcomings of the bilinear design technique. Two novel input stages which incorporate the necessary sample-and-hold function into the bilinear ladder filters are presented. The circuits are insensitive to parasitic capacitances. Some techniques to reduce the number of operational amplifier for bilinear switched-capacitor ladder filters are given. The number of top-plate parasitic-sensitive capacitors is less than in any of the existing design techniques. The clock feedthrough effects of pseudo-N-path switched-capacitor filter using lowpass filters as path filters are eliminated by the improved technique with doubling the number of operational amplifiers. Two-phase pseudo -N-path switched-capacitor filters can be obtained by tripling the number of operational amplifiers. The design technique for extending bilinear lowpass switched-capacitor ladder filters from odd orders to even orders is presented. One of the factors limiting the speed of bilinear switched-capacitor ladder filters is the delay-free loops. The techniques for breaking delay-free loops of low-order switched -capacitor filters are introduced. Digital ladder filters can be obtained through those switched-capacitor filters without delay-free loops. Numerical examples are given to compare the following digital filters: general cascade realization, wave digital filter, the digital filters derived from switched-capacitor filters - cascade and ladder. An improved high speed switched-capacitor linear interpolator, and nonlinear interpolators are described. The circuits are completely parasitic-insensitive. Two

  5. PLUME collaboration: Ultra-light ladders for linear collider vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomerotski, A., E-mail: A.Nomerotski@physics.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Particle Physics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bachynska, O. [DESY Hamburg, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Baudot, J.; Chon-Sen, N.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Deveaux, M. [IK-Frankfurt, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dulinski, W. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Gauld, R. [University of Oxford, Particle Physics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Goffe, M. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Goldstein, J. [University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Gregor, I.-M. [DESY Hamburg, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hu-Guo, Ch.; Imhoff, M. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Koetz, U. [DESY Hamburg, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Lau, W. [University of Oxford, Particle Physics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Muntz, C. [IK-Frankfurt, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Santos, C. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Schrader, C. [IK-Frankfurt, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Specht, M. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); and others

    2011-09-11

    The PLUME (Pixelated Ladder with Ultra-Low Material Embedding) Collaboration is developing ultra-light ladders for the vertex detector for a future linear collider. The double-sided ladder will integrate the sensors, readout infrastructure and mechanical supports with the aim of total material budget of 0.3% of radiation length. The requirement of as light as possible construction is driven by physics, in particular by measurements requiring determination of the quark charge sign. The first prototype ladders were prepared and tested in the beam. The alignment issues for the ladders will be tested within the AIDA (Advanced European Infrastructures for Detectors at Accelerators) EU FP7 project.

  6. Flight Test of a Head-Worn Display as an Equivalent-HUD for Terminal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, K. J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Prinzel, L. J., III; Nicholas, S. N.; Williams, S. P.; Bailey, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under NASA's Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as a potential equivalent display to a Head-up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US CFR 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent"' display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). A successful HWD implementation may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current HUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A flight test was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Approach and taxi testing was performed on-board NASA's experimental King Air aircraft in various visual conditions. Preliminary quantitative results indicate the HWD tested provided equivalent HUD performance, however operational issues were uncovered. The HWD showed significant potential as all of the pilots liked the increased situation awareness attributable to the HWD's unique capability of unlimited field-of-regard.

  7. Outside scene obscuration by a millimeter-wave radar image presented on a HUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntoon, Richard B.; Rand, Timothy W.; Lapis, Mary Beth

    1995-06-01

    We investigated whether a raster image on a Head-Up Display (HUD) might interfere with runway recognition during a low-visibility (CAT II and IIIa) approach. The primary reason for incorporating a HUD into the flight deck is to allow the pilot to observe instrument information while maintaining a view of the outside scene. The raster image could, however, obscure the outside scene, leaving the pilot unaware that the approach or runway lights are visible. In our HUD lab, twenty-one subjects were asked to observe a simulated outside scene through a HUD and indicate when they first saw runway approach lights. Each subject was presented 12 data runs with a simulated 35-GHz raster radar image and stroke symbology simultaneously presented on the HUD, and 12 data runs with only stroke symbology on the HUD. Each run was conducted under simulated fog conditions of either 700-ft Runway Visual Range (RVR) or 1200-ft RVR. We found that the presence of the radar image decreased the recognition range by 24 percent (z equals 5.71, p < 0.001). Subjective comments by the study participants show that the radar serves as a valuable aid in confirming flight path alignment with the runway under low-visibility conditions.

  8. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates.

  9. Means – End Chain Theory and Laddering Technique: Applications in Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Kangal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Means – end chain (MEC theory and laddering technique uncovers the decision making process of consumers related to marketing offerings such as goods, services and experiences in a cognitive approach from a consumer perspective view which are popularly used approaches in marketing context. The purpose of the study is to discusss and present the laddering techique to Turkish literature, which is a frequently used qualitative research method in consumer behavior, both with related theoretical structure and practice. With this purpose, the overview of the literature within the frame of means – end chain theory, practices in consumer behavior, laddering technique, data collection, data analyze and interperation steps, limits of the laddering technique and alternatives of soft laddering (hard laddering is discussed. Laddering technique among with alternative data collection tools are anticipated Turkish researchers’ interest.

  10. The viscoelastic flow behavior of pitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurot, Olivier

    1998-11-01

    For the first time, a commercial impregnating coal-tar pitch was air-blown (or heat-treated) for various periods of time to produce series of treated pitches. Each pitch was chemically and rheologically characterized. During air-blowing, the formation of large, aromatic, cross- linked molecules increased the elasticity of the pitch and prevented mesophase formation. During heat-treatment, large, planar, aromatic molecules formed and aggregated in mesophase spheres. These two-phase materials exhibited yield stress behavior. Also, their elasticity was similar to that of air-blown pitches. The flow/microstructure relationship in mesophase pitches was investigated. It was found that the steady and transient shear behaviors of mesophase pitches were qualitatively similar to that of LCPs. Also, the size of the structure decreased with increasing shear rate. Upon cessation of flow, the structure slowly coarsened. New techniques were proposed to estimate (1) relaxation time for structure recovery, and (2) the average elastic constant of mesophase pitches. Using Marrucci's model (originally designed for LCPs) it was possible for the first time to predict mesophase pitches' structure shrinkage during pure shear. Finally, the flow-induced structural development that occurs during extrusion of mesophase pitch through capillaries was observed and accurately predicted by coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to Marrucci's model. Using a viscoelastic stress tensor to characterize the pitch flow behavior, the model was able to accurately predict the magnitude of the vortex experimentally observed at the spinnerette capillary counterbore as well as the extend of die swell at the exit of the capillary.

  11. Pitch modelling for the Nguni languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available linguistic and physical variables of a prosodic nature in this family of languages. Firstly we undertake a set of experiments to select an appropriate pitch tracking algorithm for the the Nguni family of languages. We then use this pitch tracking algorithm...

  12. Learning Novel Musical Pitch via Distributional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jia Hoong; Burnham, Denis; Stevens, Catherine J.

    2017-01-01

    Because different musical scales use different sets of intervals and, hence, different musical pitches, how do music listeners learn those that are in their native musical system? One possibility is that musical pitches are acquired in the same way as phonemes, that is, via distributional learning, in which learners infer knowledge from the…

  13. Learning Novel Musical Pitch via Distributional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jia Hoong; Burnham, Denis; Stevens, Catherine J.

    2017-01-01

    Because different musical scales use different sets of intervals and, hence, different musical pitches, how do music listeners learn those that are in their native musical system? One possibility is that musical pitches are acquired in the same way as phonemes, that is, via distributional learning, in which learners infer knowledge from the…

  14. Development Of HUD Combiner For Automotive Windshield Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Akimasa; Makita, Kensuke; Okabayashi, Shigeru

    1989-12-01

    The head-up display system (HUM) has been developed for the windshield of Nissan Motor's passenger car, '88 model of Silvia (240SX) and '89 model of Maxima. HUD consists of a projector with high brightness VFT and a combiner which is a light-selective reflective film applied on the surface of ' e windshield. The system provides nice display legibility of speed in a three-digit reap at the position more than one meter far from driver's eye even under the bright sunlight. In this report, we present the optical properties and manufacturing process of the advanced combiner. The combiner has to have high transmittance as well as high reflectance so that a driver can see both foreground object and display reading at the same time. The optical design for the combiner is based on the concepts: (a) Visible light transmittance has to be 70% or more in accordance with a legal requirement, and (b) taking both peak wavelengths of Vim' and sensitivity characteristics of human eyes into consideration, 530nm of wave length is chosen as a reflective light. The combiner consists of a dielectric thin layer of Ti02-Si02 system. Its basic structure is decided by simulation with matrix method of the resultant waves. The coating film is applied on the restricted area of the forth surface of laminated windshield by newly developed solgel printing process using a metal alkoxide solution with a relatively long storage life.

  15. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. Perceptual limitations may be characterized by measuring an observer’s change in performance when introducting...... external noise in the physical stimulus (Lu and Dosher, 2008). The present study used this approach to attempt to quantify the “internal noise” involved in pitch coding of harmonic complex tones by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required to impair pitch discrimination performance. It remains...... a matter of debate whether pitch perception of natural complex sounds mostly relies on either spectral excitation-based information or temporal periodicity information. Comparing the way internal noise affects the internal representations of such information to how it affects pitch discrimination...

  16. A thermoanalytical study of the co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch and petroleum pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Perez; M. Granda; R. Santamaria; T. Morgan; R. Menendez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    Four pitch blends were prepared at laboratory scale by mixing a coal-tar pitch and a petroleum pitch in several proportions (CTP:PP 85:15, 70:30, 55:45 and 40:60). Single pitches and blends were characterized by standard procedures, infrared spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. Pyrolysis behaviour and interactions between the two pitches in the blends were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that blending does not alter the composition of pitches. However, the TG/DTG curves reveal that coal-tar pitch and petroleum pitch interact actively during pyrolysis, modifying the temperature of initial weight loss and the temperature of the maximum rate of weight loss. Primary quinoline-insoluble particles present in coal-tar pitch and transferable hydrogen seem to be the main factors responsible for these modifications. The DSC curves show that the presence of coal-tar pitch in the blends reduces the reactivity of the petroleum pitch and shifts the exothermic peaks observed at the temperature of the cracking/polymerization reactions ({gt}400{sup o}C) to lower temperatures. 18 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effects of pitch on auditory number comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamie I D; Scheepers, Florence

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments investigated interactions between auditory pitch and the numerical quantities represented by spoken English number words. In Experiment 1, participants heard a pair of sequential auditory numbers in the range zero to ten. They pressed a left-side or right-side key to indicate if the second number was lower or higher in numerical value. The vocal pitches of the two numbers either ascended or descended so that pitch change was congruent or incongruent with number change. The error rate was higher when pitch and number were incongruent relative to congruent trials. The distance effect on RT (i.e., slower responses for numerically near than far number pairs) occurred with pitch ascending but not descending. In Experiment 2, to determine if these effects depended on the left/right spatial mapping of responses, participants responded "yes" if the second number was higher and "no" if it was lower. Again, participants made more number comparison errors when number and pitch were incongruent, but there was no distance × pitch order effect. To pursue the latter, in Experiment 3, participants were tested with response buttons assigned left-smaller and right-larger ("normal" spatial mapping) or the reverse mapping. Participants who received normal mapping first presented a distance effect with pitch ascending but not descending as in Experiment 1, whereas participants who received reverse mapping first presented a distance effect with pitch descending but not ascending. We propose that the number and pitch dimensions of stimuli both activated spatial representations and that strategy shifts from quantity comparison to order processing were induced by spatial incongruities.

  18. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with

  19. Bethe–Salpeter studies of mesons beyond rainbow-ladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams R.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the masses of light mesons from a coupled system of Dyson–Schwinger and Bethe– Salpeter equations. We explicitly take into account dominant non-Abelian and sub-leading Abelian contributions to the dressed quark-gluon vertex. We also include unquenching effects in the form of hadronic resonance contributions via the back-reaction of pions. We construct the corresponding Bethe–Salpeter kernel that satisfies the axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity. Our numerical treatment fully includes all momentum dependencies with all equations solved completely in the complex plane. This approach goes well beyond the rainbow-ladder approximation and permits us to investigate the relative impact of different corrections beyond rainbow-ladder on the properties of mesons. We find that sub-leading Abelian corrections are further dynamically suppressed, and that our results supersede early qualitative predictions with significantly simpler truncation schemes.

  20. Design of a 325 MHz ladder - type RFQ for FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuett, Maximilian; Brodhage, Robert; Almomani, Ali; Ratzinger, Ulrich [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    For the research program with cooled antiprotons at FAIR a dedicated 70 MeV, 70 mA proton injector is required. The first rf accelerator element is a 325 MHz RFQ accelerating from 95 keV to 3.0 MeV. RFQ's beyond 300 MHz were realized in 4-Vane-type geometry so far. At IAP there is a tradition in 4-Rod-type RFQ development. This RFQ-type is dominating at lower frequencies. Very promising results have been reached with a ladder type-RFQ, which has been investigated during 2013. We show most recent 3D simulations of the general layout and of a whole cavity demonstrating the power of a ladder type RFQ. An RFQ layout for the new FAIR proton injector is presented. In comparison with a traditional 4-Rod RFQ approach the geometry is more convenient at high frequencies.

  1. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanan Sun; Xuejing Lu; Hao Tam Ho; William Forde Thompson

    2017-01-01

    .... However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness...

  2. Snakes and ladders: localized solutions of plane Couette flow

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Tobias M; Burke, John

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a large number of exact solutions of plane Couette flow, which share the topology of known periodic solutions but are localized in space. Solutions of different size are organized in a snakes-and-ladders structure strikingly similar to that observed for simpler pattern-forming PDE systems. These new solutions are a step towards extending the dynamical systems view of transitional turbulence to spatially extended flows.

  3. Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector, ladder operators and supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, R.D. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, Mexico DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: mota@gina.esfm.ipn.mx; Garcia, J.; Granados, V.D. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2001-03-16

    We show that the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector (LRLV) generates the Infeld-Hull radial factorization and the pair of isospectral Hamiltonians for the non-relativistic Kepler-Coulomb quantum problem. To do this we only use the LRLV and arguments of general soundness. Finally, the well known restrictions on the orbital angular momentum and the principal quantum numbers are rederived from the corresponding ladder operators. (author)

  4. Operational Simulation of LC Ladder Filter Using VDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a systematic approach for implementing operational simulation of LC ladder filter using voltage differencing transconductance amplifier is presented. The proposed filter structure uses only grounded capacitor and possesses electronic tunability. PSPICE simulation using 180 nm CMOS technology parameter is carried out to verify the functionality of the presented approach. Experimental verification is also performed through commercially available IC LM13700/NS. Simulations and experimental results are found to be in close agreement with theoretical predictions.

  5. Quantum Phase Transitions and Dimerized Phases in Frustrated Spin Ladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Rui; LIU Guang-Hua; TIAN Guang-Shan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the phase diagram of a frustrated spin ladder model by applying the bosonization technique and the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) algorithm. Effect of the intra-chain next-nearestneighbor (NNN) super-exchange interaction is investigated in detail and the order parameters are calculated to detect the emergence of the dimerized phases. We find that the intra-chain NNN interaction plays a key role in inducing dimerized phases.

  6. Pitch memory, labelling and disembedding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela

    2003-05-01

    Autistic musical savants invariably possess absolute pitch ability and are able to disembed individual musical tones from chords. Enhanced pitch discrimination and memory has been found in non-savant individuals with autism who also show superior performance on visual disembedding tasks. These experiments investigate the extent that enhanced disembedding ability will be found within the musical domain in autism. High-functioning children with autism, together with age- and intelligence-matched controls, participated in three experiments testing pitch memory, labelling and chord disembedding. The findings from experiment 1 showed enhanced pitch memory and labelling in the autism group. In experiment 2, when subjects were pre-exposed to labelled individual tones, superior chord segmentation was also found. However, in experiment 3, when disembedding performance was less reliant on pitch memory, no group differences emerged and the children with autism, like controls, perceived musical chords holistically. These findings indicate that pitch memory and labelling is superior in autism and can facilitate performance on musical disembedding tasks. However, when task performance does not rely on long-term pitch memory, autistic children, like controls, succumb to the Gestalt qualities of chords.

  7. Musical pitch discrimination by cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Lichuan; Yuan, Meng; Feng, Haihong

    2012-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of acoustic characteristics, including timbre and fundamental frequency (F0), on the musical pitch discrimination of cochlear implant users. Eight postlingually deafened cochlear implant users were recruited, along with 8 control subjects with normal hearing. Pitch discrimination tests were carried out using test stimuli from 4 musical instruments plus synthetic complex stimuli. Three reference tones with different F0s were used. The mean difference limens were 1.8 to 10.7 semitones in the just-noticeable difference task and 2.1 to 13.6 semitones in the pitch-direction discrimination task for different timbre and F0 combinations. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the acoustic characteristics of the musical stimuli, such as timbre and F0, significantly influenced pitch discrimination performance. Acoustic characteristics determine the complexity of the electrical stimulation pattern, which directly affects performance in pitch discrimination. A place pattern with a clear and regular low-order harmonic structure is most important for good pitch discrimination. A clear F0-related temporal pattern is also useful when the F0 is low. Pitch perception performance will worsen when there is interference in the high-frequency channels.

  8. On the impedance of infinite LC ladder networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimo, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The subject of electrical impedance is on the syllabi of most undergraduate courses in physics and electrical engineering. For example, Richard Feynman in his famous undergraduate text Lectures on Physics shows how to calculate the impedance of an infinite LC ladder. However, the formula he obtains has no useful physical interpretation if considered in the steady state frequency domain. In fact the value of this impedance becomes infinite unless one assumes that the energy flow along the infinite LC ladder is spatially uniform and in one direction only. This ad-hoc assumption, which renders the solution non-causal, is entirely unnecessary if the problem is considered in the time domain. It is important for students to appreciate that the concept of impedance works well only in dissipative circuits where the effects of transients are largely short lived. The purpose of this paper is to show that the same problem treated in the time domain by the Laplace transform method provides a qualitatively different and more satisfying explanation. We show that the current response of an infinite LC ladder, which is in the zero state before a causal harmonic driving voltage is applied, contains a significant non-harmonic component. This component, which is present in addition to the forced harmonic waveform, decays only very slowly and extracts an infinite amount of energy from the source.

  9. Timing matters: The processing of pitch relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeise

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms, impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone of a pair higher than pitch of 1st tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs. We measured the Mismatch Negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations to 2nd tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone lower. A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms. In the Long Gap condition the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms, but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms. Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing.

  10. Timing matters: the processing of pitch relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Annekathrin; Grimm, Sabine; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms), impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone of a pair higher than pitch of first tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs). We measured the mismatch negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations) to second tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone lower). A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms) and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms) was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms). In the Long Gap condition, the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms), but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone, the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms). Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing. PMID:24966823

  11. Imperfect pitch: Gabor's uncertainty principle and the pitch of extremely brief sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh

    2016-02-01

    How brief must a sound be before its pitch is no longer perceived? The uncertainty tradeoff between temporal and spectral resolution (Gabor's principle) limits the minimum duration required for accurate pitch identification or discrimination. Prior studies have reported that pitch can be extracted from sinusoidal pulses as brief as half a cycle. This finding has been used in a number of classic papers to develop models of pitch encoding. We have found that phase randomization, which eliminates timbre confounds, degrades this ability to chance, raising serious concerns over the foundation on which classic pitch models have been built. The current study investigated whether subthreshold pitch cues may still exist in partial-cycle pulses revealed through statistical integration in a time series containing multiple pulses. To this end, we measured frequency-discrimination thresholds in a two-interval forced-choice task for trains of partial-cycle random-phase tone pulses. We found that residual pitch cues exist in these pulses but discriminating them requires an order of magnitude (ten times) larger frequency difference than that reported previously, necessitating a re-evaluation of pitch models built on earlier findings. We also found that as pulse duration is decreased to less than two cycles its pitch becomes biased toward higher frequencies, consistent with predictions of an auto-correlation model of pitch extraction.

  12. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception...... were found not to perceive binaural pitch at all, despite a clear detection of monaural pitch. While both binaural and monaural pitches were detectable by all other listeners, identification scores were significantly lower for binaural than for monaural pitch. A total absence of binaural pitch...... sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural...

  13. DNA Ladder的制备%Preparation of DNA Ladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俐; 董卫华; 张俊河; 王天云

    2011-01-01

    背景:目前,制备DNA 分子量标准的方法主要有2 种,一种是用限制性内切酶消化某种DNA,另一种是利用PCR 扩增,2 种方法各有优缺点.在前期采用PCR 技术在前期扩增100~500 bp 片段的基础上,实验室又成功扩增出600~1 000 bp片段,PCR 产物经过纯化,混匀,制备的DNA Ladder,结果制备DNA Ladder 的条带清晰,易于识别,可完全与公司商品化的DNA Ladder 相比,完全可用于分子生物学实验.目的:利用PCR 扩增技术制备DNA 分子量标准参照物.方法:自行构建了一种特殊适宜扩增的质粒pUC-DNA,根据pUC-DNA 的基因序列,利用primer5.0 设计能特异扩增100~1 000 bp 的PCR 引物.PCR 扩增出100~1 000 bp 大小的DNA 片段,在2%琼脂糖凝胶中电泳观察结果.用凝胶回收试剂盒回收目的PCR 产物,测序结果与pUC-DNA 上基因序列进行序列比对,Blast 进行同源性分析.将PCR 产物用酚/氯仿抽提,乙醇沉淀,按比例混匀,即可使用.结果与结论:利用PCR 技术能够成功扩增出100~1 000 bp 条带,片段大小与预期结果相符,片段序列与GenBank 序列完全一致,利用回收片段制备的DNA Ladder 条带清晰,可与同类产品相比.%BACKGROUND: DNA molecular weight standard (DNA Ladder) is one of necessary reagents in molecular biological laboratory.It can correctly measure the length of DNA fragments and serve as the DNA molecular weight standard. Now, there are two methods to prepare the DNA Ladder, one is PCR technique, the other is through DNA digestion by restriction enzyme. The two methods all have some merits and drawbacks. The first one can produce standard bands, but is difficult to obtain large bands.The second method is to prepare DNA Ladder restriction digestion of plasmid or phage DNA. In previous study, we have amplified 100-500 bp DNA fragments by using PCR technique, then purified the PCR product and prepared DNA Ladder. The bands of the prepared DNA Ladder were clear, higher

  14. Chain Growth Cross Coupling Polymerizations Towards Chiral and Ladder Main Chain Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We developed a new method to synthesize rigid ladder polymers using efficient, clean palladium catalyzed annulation...reactions with low catalyst loading (1 mol%). Rigid ladder polymers with benzocyclobutene backbone linkages can be synthesized from copolymerization of...High molecular weight (10-40 kDa) rigid ladder polymers can be obtained with complete monomer conversions. Diverse monomers also gave different, fixed

  15. The eel ladders of the double slot pass Geesthacht; Aalleitern am Doppelschlitzpass Geesthacht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Beate [Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie, Kirtorf-Wahlen (Germany); Neumann, Christof [Knabe Enders Duehrkop Ingenieure GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To facilitate the upstream migration of glass eels, four eel ladders were installed within and next to the fish pass at the Geesthacht dam. Similar to other fish pass construction types it was necessary to ensure that the ladders could be both detected and passed by the juvenile eels. A custom built monitoring station will be used to guarantee the correct functioning of the eel ladders and subsequently document the eel migration from the beginning of the next season. (orig.)

  16. Progress in the Supramolecular Architecture-directed Synthesis of Perfect Ladder Polysiloxanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C; C; Han

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Ladder polysiloxanes (LPSs) including organo-bridged ladder polyorganosiloxanes (R-OLPSs, R is side group) and ladder polyorganosilsesquioxanes (R-LPSQs) have intrigued polymer chemists for about 50 years due to their excellent resistance to all kinds of degradations. However, their synthesis has been a great challenge to polymer chemists. Here, we describe a new approach based on supramolecular concerted interactions as follows.2 Results2.1 Synthesis of Perfect R-OLPSsA series of real ...

  17. Evaluation through research of a three-track career ladder program for registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Carol; Eliades, Aris Beoglos

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive study design was employed to survey registered nurse participants in a career ladder program comprising of three tracks: clinical, education, and management. Findings indicate that participation allows nurses of varying education preparation and roles to demonstrate professional development. Implications for staff development include efficacy of the online survey technique, provision of a reliable tool to evaluate a career ladder, and evaluation of a career ladder that includes the staff development educator.

  18. Solutions of Bethe-Salpeter and Light-Front equations with cross-ladder kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2005-01-01

    By method developed in our previous paper we solve the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the kernel given by sum of ladder and cross-ladder exchanges. We solve also corresponding equation in light-front dynamics (LFD), where we add the time-ordered stretched boxes. Cross-ladder contribution is large and attractive, whereas the influence of stretched boxes is negligible. Both approaches -- BS and LFD -- give very close results.

  19. 76 FR 71593 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily and Healthcare Loan Sale (MHLS 2012-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ...) 708-2625, extension 3927. Hearing- or speech-impaired individuals may call (202) 708-4594 (TTY). These... review of the Mortgage Loans will be provided in the BIP. Mortgage Loan Sale Policy HUD reserves the... Notice This notice applies to MHLS 2012-1 and does not establish HUD's policy for the sale of...

  20. 78 FR 70957 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate Good Neighbor Next Door...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate Good Neighbor... Information Collection: HUD Real Estate Owned Good Neighbor Next Door. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0570. Type of...

  1. 76 FR 5819 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; HUD-Owned Real Estate-Dollar Home...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; HUD-Owned Real Estate... following information: Title of Proposal: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Dollar Home Sales Program. OMB approval...

  2. 78 FR 64145 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate-Sales Contract and Addendums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Sales... Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Sales Contract and Addendums. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0306. Type of...

  3. 75 FR 44006 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB, HUD-Owned Real Estate-Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB, HUD-Owned Real Estate... Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. The respondents are real estate listing...: Title of Proposal: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Sales Contract and Addendums. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0306...

  4. 76 FR 6488 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; HUD-Owned Real Estate-Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; HUD-Owned Real Estate... responses. This Notice Also Lists the Following Information Title of Proposal: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Good...

  5. 24 CFR 964.320 - HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of public housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TENANT OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING Family Investment Centers (FIC) Program § 964.320 HUD Policy on... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HUD Policy on training, employment, contracting and subcontracting of public housing residents. 964.320 Section 964.320 Housing and...

  6. 78 FR 13885 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily & Healthcare Loan Sale, Second Offering (MHLS 2013-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... of sale of mortgage loans. SUMMARY: This notice announces HUD's intention to sell certain...). These are not toll-free numbers. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: HUD announces its intention to sell, in a..., the bidder's deposit will be non-refundable and will be applied toward the purchase price....

  7. 77 FR 30307 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily and Healthcare Loan Sale (MHLS 2012-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ...; telephone 202-708-2625, extension 3927. Hearing- or speech-impaired individuals may call 202-708-4594 (TTY... to submit bids on the Mortgage Loans in MHLS 2012-2. Freedom of Information Act Requests HUD reserves... to disclose any information that HUD is obligated to disclose pursuant to the Freedom of...

  8. Transcription and the Pitch Angle of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Kasper W

    2013-01-01

    The question of the value of the pitch angle of DNA is visited from the perspective of a geometrical analysis of transcription. It is suggested that for transcription to be possible, the pitch angle of B-DNA must be smaller than the angle of zero-twist. At the zero-twist angle the double helix is maximally rotated and its strain-twist coupling vanishes. A numerical estimate of the pitch angle for B-DNA based on differential geometry is compared with numbers obtained from existing empirical data. The crystallographic studies shows that the pitch angle is approximately 38 deg., less than the corresponding zero-twist angle of 41.8 deg., which is consistent with the suggested principle for transcription.

  9. Design and construction of double-sided silicon ladders for the L3 microvertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Battiston, R.; Biasini, M.; Easo, S.; Krastev, V.; Pauluzzi, M.; Santocchia, A.; Bay, A.; Burger, W.J.; Extermann, P.; Perrin, E.; Susinno, G.; Brooks, M.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lee, D.M.; Mills, G.B.; Thompson, T.C.; DiBitonto, D.; Pennington, T.; Subhani, K.; Hauviller, C. (Univ. Degli Studi di Perugia (Italy) INFN, Perugia (Italy) Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland) Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States) Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States) European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland))

    1994-04-21

    The techniques used in the construction of the double-sided ladders for the L3 Silicon Microvertex Detector (SMD) are presented. The detector consists of two cylindrical layers, each of 12 ladders, with double-sided silicon detectors which provide r-phi and z coordinates measurements. This description includes ladder mechanical design and the assembly. A novel solution to readout the z-coordinates is presented. It optimizes very effectively the removal of heat generated by the readout electronics and minimizes the radiation length in the central region. Some results from the survey of the individual ladders are also discussed. (orig.)

  10. Development of ultra-light pixelated ladders for an ILC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chon-Sen, N; Claus, G; De Masi, R; Deveaux, M; Dulinski, W; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Gregor, I -M; Imhoff, Ch Hu-Guo M; Müntz, C; Nomerotski, A; Santos, C; Schrader, C; Specht, M; Stroth, J; Winter, M

    2010-01-01

    The development of ultra-light pixelated ladders is motivated by the requirements of the ILD vertex detector at ILC. This paper summarizes three projects related to system integration. The PLUME project tackles the issue of assembling double-sided ladders. The SERWIETE project deals with a more innovative concept and consists in making single-sided unsupported ladders embedded in an extra thin plastic enveloppe. AIDA, the last project, aims at building a framework reproducing the experimental running conditions where sets of ladders could be tested.

  11. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively. Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages. This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population, we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of

  12. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; Nan, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  13. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-ting; Zhang, Cheng-xiang; Nan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent. PMID:24474944

  14. Perceptual Pitch Deficits Coexist with Pitch Production Difficulties in Music but Not Mandarin Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-xia eYang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics. To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, 8 amusics, 8 tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  15. Pitch and Timbre Determination of the Angklung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd R.M. Zainal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the pitch and timbre determination of the angklung, a musical instrument made entirely out of bamboo. An angklung has two main parts: the frame and the rattle tubes. The pitch of the rattle tubes can be determined using a formula that takes into consideration the length and diameter of the air resonator. This is compared with the results obtained using sound analysis with the fast Fourier transform as well as with measured results. The coupling effects of having two rattles on the pitch and timbre are investigated. It is found that the pitch of the angklung is closely related to the fundamental frequency of air resonance in the bamboo tubes of the angklung rattles. Therefore, the pitch of an angklung can be estimated by calculating that fundamental frequency using information from the length and diameter of the closed cylinder air column of each rattle. The timbre of the angklung is also determined to be a mix of the sound output from each of its individual rattles. The timbre has an identifying characteristic of having two prominent peaks with each one corresponding to the pitch of each rattle.

  16. 76 FR 71067 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notification To Delete and Create a New System of Records, “HUD/FHA Lender...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... maintained by HUD's Lender Approval Files System of Records Notice (SORN) and will fully automate the manual.../P278), formerly ``HUD/FHA Lender Approval Files.'' SYSTEM LOCATION: LEAP is hosted on HUD servers... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974; Notification To Delete and Create a New System of Records,...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.332 - Will data used by HUD to determine an Indian tribe's or TDHE's formula allocation be provided to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Allocation Formula § 1000.332 Will data used by HUD... before the allocation? Yes. HUD shall provide notice to the Indian tribe or TDHE of the data to be used... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will data used by HUD to...

  18. An Improved Time Domain Pitch Detection Algorithm for Pathological Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd R. Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study proposes a new pitch detection algorithm which could potentially be used to detect pitch for disordered or pathological voices. One of the parameters required for dysphonia diagnosis is pitch and this prompted the development of a new and reliable pitch detection algorithm capable of accurately detect pitch in disordered voices. Approach: The proposed method applies a technique where the frame size of the half wave rectified autocorrelation is adjusted to a smaller frame after two potential pitch candidates are identified within the preliminary frame. Results: The method is compared to PRAATs standard autocorrelation and the result shows a significant improvement in detecting pitch for pathological voices. Conclusion: The proposed method is more reliable way to detect pitch, either in low or high pitched voice without adjusting the window size, fixing the pitch candidate search range and predefining threshold like most of the standard autocorrelation do.

  19. Multi-material size optimization of a ladder frame chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael

    The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is an American fuel standard that sets regulations on fuel economy in vehicles. This law ultimately shapes the development and design research for automakers. Reducing the weight of conventional cars offers a way to improve fuel efficiency. This research investigated the optimality of an automobile's ladder frame chassis (LFC) by conducting multi-objective optimization on the LFC in order to reduce the weight of the chassis. The focus of the design and optimization was a ladder frame chassis commonly used for mass production light motor vehicles with an open-top rear cargo area. This thesis is comprised of two major sections. The first looked to perform thickness optimization in the outer walls of the ladder frame. In the second section, many multi-material distributions, including steel and aluminium varieties, were investigated. A simplified model was used to do an initial hand calculation analysis of the problem. This was used to create a baseline validation to compare the theory with the modeling. A CAD model of the LFC was designed. From the CAD model, a finite element model was extracted and joined using weld and bolt connectors. Following this, a linear static analysis was performed to look at displacement and stresses when subjected to loading conditions that simulate harsh driving conditions. The analysis showed significant values of stress and displacement on the ends of the rails, suggesting improvements could be made elsewhere. An optimization scheme was used to find the values of an all steel frame an optimal thickness distribution was found. This provided a 13% weight reduction over the initial model. To advance the analysis a multi-material approach was used to push the weight savings even further. Several material distributions were analyzed and the lightest utilized aluminium in all but the most strenuous subjected components. This enabled a reduction in weight of 15% over the initial model, equivalent to

  20. Ultra-wideband ladder filters using zero-th shear mode plate wave in ultrathin LiNbO3 plate with apodized interdigital transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Michio; Tanaka, Shuji

    2016-07-01

    There are two kinds of plate waves propagating in a thin plate, Lamb and shear horizontal (SH) waves. The former has a velocity higher than 15,000 m/s when the plate is very thin. On the contrary, 0th SH (SH0) mode plate wave in an ultrathin LiNbO3 plate has an electro-mechanical coupling factor larger than 50%. Authors fabricated an ultra-wideband T-type ladder filter with a relative bandwidth (BW) of 41% using the SH0 mode plate wave. Although the BW of the filter fully covers the digital TV band in Japan, it does not have sufficient margin at the lower and higher end of BW. Besides, periodic small ripples due to transverse mode in pass-band of the filter were observed. In this study π-type ladder filters were fabricated by changing the pitch ratio of interdigital transducer (IDT) of parallel and series arm resonators (PR(IDT)) to control the BW, and by apodizing IDTs to improve the periodic small ripples due to transverse mode. Ultra-wideband filters without periodic small transverse mode with ultrawide bandwidth from 41 to 49% were fabricated. The BWs fully cover ultrawide digital television bands in Japan and U.S.A. These filters with an ultrawide BW and a steep characteristic show the possibility to be applied to a reported cognitive radio system and other communication systems requiring an ultrawide BW.

  1. Valence bond and von Neumann entanglement entropy in Heisenberg ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallin, Ann B; González, Iván; Hastings, Matthew B; Melko, Roger G

    2009-09-11

    We present a direct comparison of the recently proposed valence bond entanglement entropy and the von Neumann entanglement entropy on spin-1/2 Heisenberg systems using quantum Monte Carlo and density-matrix renormalization group simulations. For one-dimensional chains we show that the valence bond entropy can be either less or greater than the von Neumann entropy; hence, it cannot provide a bound on the latter. On ladder geometries, simulations with up to seven legs are sufficient to indicate that the von Neumann entropy in two dimensions obeys an area law, even though the valence bond entanglement entropy has a multiplicative logarithmic correction.

  2. Breathers in Josephson junction ladders: Resonances and electromagnetic wave spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnichenko, A. E.; Flach, S.; Fistul, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the resonant interaction between dynamical localized states (discrete breathers) and linear electromagnetic excitations (EE's) in Josephson junction ladders. By making use of direct numerical simulations we find that such an interaction manifests itself by resonant...... steps and various sharp switchings (voltage jumps) in the current-voltage characteristics. Moreover, the power of ac oscillations away from the breather center (the breather tail) displays singularities as the externally applied dc bias decreases. All these features may be mapped to the spectrum of EE...

  3. Diquark bound states at far beyond ladder truncation

    CERN Document Server

    Jinno, Ryusuke; Mishima, Go

    2015-01-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter equation in the diquark channel is investigated by employing the Dyson-Schwinger method together with the Munczek-Nemirovsky model. The novelty of our study is a resummation of completely-crossed ladder diagrams in the Bethe-Salpeter kernel. These diagrams are enhanced due to their color factors in the diquark channel, but not in the meson channel. As a result of our analysis, it is suggested that diquark bound-state solutions exist in the Bethe-Salpeter equation, which have been thought to be absent.

  4. Exact solutions and ladder operators for a new anharmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Shihai [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com; Sun Guohua [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, UNAM, A.P. 20-726, Del. Alvaro Obregon, 01000 Mexico DF (Mexico); Lozada-Cassou, M. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-06-06

    In this Letter, we propose a new anharmonic oscillator and present the exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation with this oscillator. The ladder operators are established directly from the normalized radial wave functions and used to evaluate the closed expressions of matrix elements for some related functions. Some comments are made on the general calculation formula and recurrence relation for off-diagonal matrix elements. Finally, we show that this anharmonic oscillator possesses a hidden symmetry between E(r) and E(ir) by substituting r->ir.

  5. Yang-Lee Circle Theorem for an Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Ladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先智

    2001-01-01

    The Yang-Lee zeros of an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg ladder model are determined. It is found that if J4≤0 Yang-Lee zeros are located on the unit circle and on the negative real axis in the complex activity plane. In particular, if J4≤0 and 2J2≥J4, Yang-Lee zeros are located on the unit circle and the Yang-Lee circle theorem is valid. If J4 > 0, Yang-Lee zeros are located on some complicated curves.

  6. Chemodiversity of Ladder-Frame Prymnesin Polyethers in Prymnesium parvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Meier, Sebastian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted;

    2016-01-01

    Blooms of the microalga Prymnesium parvum cause devastating fish kills worldwide, which are suspected to be caused by the supersized ladder-frame polyether toxins prymnesin-1 and -2. These toxins have, however, only been detected from P. parvum in rare cases since they were originally described two......-HRMS) of 10 strains of P. parvum collected worldwide showed that only one strain produced the original prymnesin-1 and -2, whereas four strains produced the novel B-type prymnesin. In total 13 further prymnesin analogues differing in their core backbone and chlorination and glycosylation patterns could...

  7. The QCD gluon ladders and HERA structure function

    CERN Document Server

    Lengyel, A I

    2002-01-01

    We report on the extension of the data fitting considering the QCD inspired model based on the summation of gluon ladders applied to the $ep$ scattering. In lines of a two Pomeron approach, the structure function $F_2$ has a hard piece given by the model and the remaining soft contribution: a soft Pomeron and non-singlet content. In this contribution, we carefully estimate the relative role of the hard and the soft pieces from a global fit in a large span of $x$ and $Q^2$.

  8. Period Halving of Persistent Currents in Mesoscopic Mobius Ladders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文基; 许基桓; 刘平

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the period halving of persistent currents (PCs) of non-interacting electrons in isolated mesoscopicMobius ladders without disorder, pierced by Aharonov-Bohm flux. The mechanisms of the period halving effectdepend on the parity of the number of electrons as well as on the interchain hopping. Although the data of PCsin mesoscopic systems are sample specific, some simple rules are found in the canonical ensemble average, forexample, all the odd harmonics of the PCs disappear and the signals of even harmonics are non-negative.

  9. The phonon and thermal properties of a ladder nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mardaani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, we study the phonon thermal properties of a ladder nanostructure in harmonic approximation. We present a model consisting of two infinite chains with different masses. Then, we investigate the effect of different masses on the phonon spectrum. Moreover, as a specific case, in the absence of the second neighbor interaction, we calculate the phonon density of states/modes. Finally, we consider the thermal conductivity of the system. The results show that the phonon spectrum shifts down to the lower frequencies by increasing the masses. Furthermore, a frequency gap appears in the phonon spectrum. By increasing the springs constants, the thermal conductance decreases.

  10. Do musicians with perfect pitch have more autism traits than musicians without perfect pitch?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Heaton, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased...

  11. 24 CFR 200.955 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for fenestration products (windows and... fenestration products (windows and doors). (a) Applicable standards. (1) All windows and doors shall be... (AAMA) standard, AAMA/NWWDA 101/I.S.2-97 Voluntary Specifications for Aluminum, Vinyl (PVC) and...

  12. 75 FR 423 - Notice of Availability: HUD Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 2 (Tuesday, January 5, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 423] [FR Doc No: E9-31304] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5369-N-01] Notice of Availability: HUD Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Handbook AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...

  13. 76 FR 24507 - HUD Multifamily Rental Project Closing Documents: Notice Announcing Final Approved Documents and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... available mechanism to review public comments submitted in response to the August 2, 2004, notice. Therefore... Mae Handbook 5500.3 Rev. 1 10.01.09 p16-7). \\5\\ The Ginnie Mae Guides are available on Ginnie Mae's... more certain legal mechanisms for enforcing HUD's statutory, regulatory, and program requirements...

  14. 75 FR 12775 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily and Healthcare Loan Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ..., SW., Washington, DC 20410-8000; telephone number 202-708-2625, extension 3927. Hearing- or speech...-1. Freedom of Information Act Requests HUD reserves the right, in its sole and absolute discretion... disclose pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act and all regulations promulgated thereunder. Scope of...

  15. 77 FR 70179 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily and Healthcare Loan Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... SW., Washington, DC 20410-8000; telephone 202-708-2625, extension 3927. Hearing- or speech-impaired...-1. Freedom of Information Act Requests HUD reserves the right, in its sole and absolute discretion... disclose pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act and all regulations promulgated there under. Scope of...

  16. 78 FR 44582 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily & Healthcare Loan Sale, (MHLS 2013-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Street SW., Washington, DC 20410-8000; telephone 202-708-2625, extension 3927. Hearing- or speech.... Freedom of Information Act Requests HUD reserves the right, in its sole and absolute discretion, to... disclose pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act and all regulations promulgated thereunder. Scope of...

  17. 24 CFR 245.419 - Initial submission of materials to HUD: Major capital additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial submission of materials to HUD: Major capital additions. 245.419 Section 245.419 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  18. 24 CFR 245.415 - Submission of materials to HUD: Timing of submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of materials to HUD: Timing of submission. 245.415 Section 245.415 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  19. 75 FR 3543 - HUD Multifamily Rental Project Closing Documents: Proposed Revisions and Updates and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Mortgage Insurance Premium that appears in section G of HUD-92264 attributable to the construction period... factual matter rather than a legal opinion. 14. Provided for signature of the opinion by an authorized... ``premium'' or ``marketing gain,'' is the amount of additional funds, over and above the mortgage...

  20. 24 CFR 200.944 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... excluding any floor finishes. Copies of the APA Standard may be obtained from the American Plywood... accordance with procedures set forth in APA PRP-108 Performance Standards and Policies for Structural-Use... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for plywood and other...

  1. 78 FR 17938 - Notice of Proposed Information; Collection for Public Comment; Recordkeeping for HUD's Continuum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ...; Division B of this law is the HEARTH Act. As amended by the HEARTH Act, Subpart C of the McKinney-Vento... McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11371 et seq.). The HEARTH Act was designed to..., continues HUD's implementation of the HEARTH Act. This rule establishes the regulatory framework for...

  2. 78 FR 78998 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Environmental Review Online System (HEROS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ....gov . This phone number is not toll-free. Hearing or speech-impaired individuals may access this...-3400 ] (this is not a toll-free number) or email at Colette.Pollard@hud.gov for a copy of the proposed forms or other available information. Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number...

  3. 24 CFR 1715.50 - Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with HUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising disclaimers... REGISTRATION PROGRAM) PURCHASERS' REVOCATION RIGHTS, SALES PRACTICES AND STANDARDS Advertising Disclaimers § 1715.50 Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with HUD. (a) The following...

  4. 78 FR 74157 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily Loan Sale (MLS 2014-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    .... Hearing- or speech-impaired individuals may call 202-708-4594 (TTY). These are not toll-free numbers... to submit bids on the Mortgage Loans in this offering of MLS 2014-1. Freedom of Information Act... information that HUD is obligated to disclose pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act and all...

  5. Comparing Outcomes for Los Angeles County's HUD-Assisted and Unassisted CalWORKS Leavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nandita; Hendra, Richard

    The impact of supplemental assistance from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) on CalWORKs leavers was examined in a study of CalWORKs recipients in Los Angeles County, California, who stopped receiving welfare benefits in the third quarter of 1998. Two groups received federal housing assistance at the time of exit from…

  6. 24 CFR 985.3 - Indicators, HUD verification methods and ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (SEMAP) General § 985.3 Indicators... assess PHA Section 8 management. HUD will use the verification method identified for each indicator in... in Federal awards and whose Section 8 programs are not audited by an independent auditor (IA),...

  7. 24 CFR 3500.4 - Reliance upon rule, regulation or interpretation by HUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.4 Reliance upon rule... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reliance upon rule, regulation or interpretation by HUD. 3500.4 Section 3500.4 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  8. 24 CFR 5.109 - Equal Participation of Religious Organizations in HUD Programs and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the definition, practice, and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not engage in... program beneficiary or prospective program beneficiary on the basis of religion or religious belief. (g) Acquisition, construction, and rehabilitation of structures. HUD funds may not be used for the...

  9. 78 FR 5185 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Use Device (HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) Designations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... public comment ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian...

  10. Pitch Perception in the First Year of Life, a Comparison of Lexical Tones and Musical Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ao; Stevens, Catherine J.; Kager, René

    2017-01-01

    Pitch variation is pervasive in speech, regardless of the language to which infants are exposed. Lexical tone is influenced by general sensitivity to pitch. We examined whether the development in lexical tone perception may develop in parallel with perception of pitch in other cognitive domains namely music. Using a visual fixation paradigm, 100 and one 4- and 12-month-old Dutch infants were tested on their discrimination of Chinese rising and dipping lexical tones as well as comparable three-note musical pitch contours. The 4-month-old infants failed to show a discrimination effect in either condition, whereas the 12-month-old infants succeeded in both conditions. These results suggest that lexical tone perception may reflect and relate to general pitch perception abilities, which may serve as a basis for developing more complex language and musical skills. PMID:28337157

  11. Memory for pitch in congenital amusia: beyond a fine-grained pitch discrimination problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria Jane; Stewart, Lauren

    2010-08-01

    Congenital amusia is a disorder that affects the perception and production of music. While amusia has been associated with deficits in pitch discrimination, several reports suggest that memory deficits also play a role. The present study investigated short-term memory span for pitch-based and verbal information in 14 individuals with amusia and matched controls. Analogous adaptive-tracking procedures were used to generate tone and digit spans using stimuli that exceeded psychophysically measured pitch perception thresholds. Individuals with amusia had significantly smaller tone spans, whereas their digits spans were a similar size to those of controls. An automated operation span task was used to determine working memory capacity. Working memory deficits were seen in only a small subgroup of individuals with amusia. These findings support the existence of a pitch-specific component within short-term memory and suggest that congenital amusia is more than a disorder of fine-grained pitch discrimination.

  12. Dissipation, Voltage Profile and Levy Dragon in a Special Ladder Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.

    2009-01-01

    A ladder network constructed by an elementary two-terminal network consisting of a parallel resistor-inductor block in series with a parallel resistor-capacitor block sometimes is said to have a non-dispersive dissipative response. This special ladder network is created iteratively by replacing the elementary two-terminal network in place of the…

  13. Bethe-Salpeter equation with cross-ladder kernel in Minkowski and Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A; Mangin-Brinet, M

    2007-01-01

    Some results obtained by a new method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation are presented. The method is valid for any kernel given by irreducible Feynman graphs. The Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, both in Minkowski and in Euclidean spaces, and the binding energy for ladder + cross-ladder kernel are found. We calculate also the corresponding electromagnetic form factor.

  14. Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J

    2016-12-01

    The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing.

  15. Passage and behaviour of cultured Lake Sturgeon in a prototype side-baffle fish ladder: I. Ladder hydraulics and fish ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research and development of a fish ladder for sturgeons requires understanding ladder hydraulics and sturgeon behaviour in the ladder to insure the ladder is safe and provides effective passage. After years of research and development, we designed and constructed a full-scale prototype side-baffle ladder inside a spiral flume (38.3m long??1m wide??1m high) on a 6% (1:16.5) slope with a 1.92-m rise in elevation (bottom to top) to test use by sturgeons. Twenty-eight triangular side baffles, each extending part way across the flume, alternated from inside wall to outside wall down the ladder creating two major flow habitats: a continuous, sinusoidal flow down the ladder through the vertical openings of side-baffles and an eddy below each side baffle. Ascent and behaviour was observed on 22 cultured Lake Sturgeon=LS (Acipenser fulvescens) repeatedly tested in groups as juveniles (as small as 105.1cm TL, mean) or as adults (mean TL, 118cm) during four periods (fall 2002 and 2003; spring 2003 and 2007). Percent of juveniles entering the ladder that ascended to the top was greater in spring (72.7%) than in fall (40.9-45.5%) and 90.9% of 11 adults, which ascended as juveniles, ascended to the top. Six LS (27.3%) never swam to the top and seven (31.8%) swam to the top in all tests, indicating great variability among individuals for ascent drive. Some LS swam directly to the top in mean velocity, 1.2ms-1) swam at 1.8-2.2body lengthss-1 and 3.2-3.3tail beatss-1, either at or approaching prolonged swimming speed. The side-baffle ladder was stream-like and provided key factors for a sturgeon ladder: a continuous flow and no full cross-channel walls, abundant eddies for resting, an acceptable water depth, and a water velocity fish could ascend swimming 2bls-1. A side-baffle ladder passes LS and other moderate-swimming fishes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  16. Oscillator Based on Lumped Double Ladder Circuit with Band Edge Degeneracy

    CERN Document Server

    Oshmarin, Dmitry; Othman, Mohamed A K; Sloan, Jeff; Radfar, Mohammad; Green, Michael M; Capolino, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    An oscillator design based on a periodic, double ladder resonant circuit is proposed. The circuit exhibits a degenerate band edge (DBE) in the dispersion diagram of its phase-frequency eigenstates, and possesses unique resonance features associated with a high Q-factor resonance, compared to a single ladder or a conventional LC tank circuit. This oscillator is shown to have an oscillation threshold that is half that of a single LC ladder circuit having the same total quality factor, and thus is more robust than an LC oscillator in the presence of losses. It is also shown that the output and amplitude of the double-ladder oscillator is much less sensitive to the output loading compared to single-ladder oscillators. We show the analysis and design of such oscillators that potentially lead to enhancing the efficiency of RF components and sources.

  17. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  18. SUSY’s Ladder: reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, Matthew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY’s Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague other supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY’s Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. This gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.

  19. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors are used to drive gears; gears drive blades; the electro-hydraulic proportional valves are used to control hydraulic motors. The hydraulic control part and electrical control part of variable-pitch system is redesigned. The new variable-pitch system is called hydraulic motor driving variable-pitch system. The new variable-pitch system meets the control requirements of blade pitch, makes the structure simple and its application effect is perfect.    

  20. The oscillatory entrainment of virtual pitch perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar eAksentijevic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that synchronized brain oscillations in the low gamma range (around 33 Hz are involved in the perceptual integration of harmonic complex tones. This process involves the binding of harmonic components into harmonic templates – neural structures responsible for pitch coding in the brain. We investigated the hypothesis that oscillatory harmonic binding promotes a change in pitch perception style from spectral (frequency to virtual (relational. Using oscillatory priming we asked 24 participants to judge as rapidly as possible, the direction of an ambiguous target with ascending spectral and descending virtual contour. They made significantly more virtual responses when primed at 29, 31 and 33 Hz and when the first target tone was harmonically related to the prime, suggesting that neural synchronization in the low gamma range could facilitate a shift towards virtual pitch processing.

  1. Objective correlates of pitch salience using pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Santurette, Sébastien; Wendt, Dorothea;

    2014-01-01

    with increasing effort in performing the task and thus with decreasing pitch salience. A group of normal-hearing listeners first performed a behavioral pitch-discrimination experiment, where fundamental frequency difference limens ( F 0 DLs ) were measured as a function of F 0 . Results showed that pitch salience...... the frequency region and F 0 , were considered. Pupil size was measured for each condition, while the subjects’ task was to detect the deviants by pressing a response button. The expected trend was that pupil size would increase with decreasing salience. Results for musically trained listeners showed...... the expected trend, whereby pupil size significantly increased with decreasing salience of the stimuli. Non-musically trained listeners showed, however, a smaller pupil size for the least salient condition as compared to a medium salient condition, probably due to a too demanding task...

  2. Analysis of Pitch Gear Deterioration using Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns a case study in the context of risk-based operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines. For wind turbines with electrical pitch systems, deterioration can generally be observed at the pitch gear teeth; especially at the point where the blades are located during normal...... of the damage, and can be used for Bayesian updating of a damage model used for risk-based decision making. For this decision problem, the risk of failure should be compared to the cost of preventive maintenance. The hypothesis that the maximum pitch motor torque is an indicator of the damage size is supported...... by results from a measurement campaign where measurements are available both before and after maintenance was performed. The loads dramatically decreased after the maintenance. However, after a few more months of measurements, and by including data from the SCADA system, it became obvious that seasonal...

  3. The mental space of pitch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno; Umiltà, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2005-12-01

    Through stimulus-response compatibility we tested whether sound frequency (pitch height) elicits a mental spatial representation. Musically untrained and, mostly, trained participants were shown a stimulus-response compatibility effect (Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes or SMARC effect). When response alternatives were either vertically or horizontally aligned, performance was better when the lower (or leftward) button had to be pressed in response to a low sound and the upper (or rightward) button had to be pressed in response to a high sound, even when pitch height was irrelevant to the task.

  4. Small pixel pitch MCT IR-modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, H.; Breiter, R.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Fries, P.; Rutzinger, S.; Wendler, J.

    2016-05-01

    It is only some years ago, since VGA format detectors in 15μm pitch, manufactured with AIM's MCT n-on-p LPE standard technology, have been introduced to replace TV/4 format detector arrays as a system upgrade. In recent years a rapid increase in the demand for higher resolution, while preserving high thermal resolution, compactness and low power budget is observed. To satisfy these needs AIM has realized first prototypes of MWIR XGA format (1024x768) detector arrays in 10μm pitch. They fit in the same compact dewar as 640x512, 15μm pitch detector arrays. Therefore, they are best suited for system upgrade purposes to benefit from higher spatial resolution and keep cost on system level low. By combining pitch size reduction with recent development progress in the fields of miniature cryocoolers, short dewars and high operating temperatures the way ahead to ultra-compact high performance MWIR-modules is prepared. For cost reduction MBE grown MCT on commercially available GaAs substrates is introduced at AIM. Recently, 640x512, 15μm pitch FPAs, grown with MBE have successfully passed long-term high temperature storage tests as a crucial step towards serial production readiness level for use in future products. Pitch size reduction is not limited to arrays sensitive in the MWIR, but is of great interest for high performance LWIR or 3rd Gen solutions. Some applications such as rotorcraft pilotage require superior spatial resolution in a compact design to master severe weather conditions or degraded visual environment such as brown-out. For these applications AIM is developing both LWIR as well as dual band detector arrays in HD-format (1280x720) with 12μm pitch. This paper will present latest results in the development of detector arrays with small pitch sizes of 10μm and 12μm at AIM, together with their usage to realize compact cooled IR-modules.

  5. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. The present study aimed at quantifying such “internal noise” by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required...... to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...

  6. Perceptual fusion of polyphonic pitch in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Patrick J; Guo, Benjamin Z; Limb, Charles J

    2009-11-01

    In music, multiple pitches often occur simultaneously, an essential feature of harmony. In the present study, the authors assessed the ability of cochlear implant (CI) users to perceive polyphonic pitch. Acoustically presented stimuli consisted of one, two, or three superposed tones with different fundamental frequencies (f(0)). The normal hearing control group obtained significantly higher mean scores than the CI group. CI users performed near chance levels in recognizing two- and three-pitch stimuli, and demonstrated perceptual fusion of multiple pitches as single-pitch units. These results suggest that limitations in polyphonic pitch perception may significantly impair music perception in CI users.

  7. Exact Potts model partition functions on ladder graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrock, Robert

    2000-08-01

    We present exact calculations of the partition function Z of the q-state Potts model and its generalization to real q, for arbitrary temperature on n-vertex ladder graphs, i.e., strips of the square lattice with width Ly=2 and arbitrary length Lx, with free, cyclic, and Möbius longitudinal boundary conditions. These partition functions are equivalent to Tutte/Whitney polynomials for these graphs. The free energy is calculated exactly for the infinite-length limit of these ladder graphs and the thermodynamics is discussed. By comparison with strip graphs of other widths, we analyze how the singularities at the zero-temperature critical point of the ferromagnet on infinite-length, finite-width strips depend on the width. We point out and study the following noncommutativity at certain special values q s: lim n→∞ limq→q s Z 1/n≠ limq→q s limn→∞ Z 1/n. It is shown that the Potts antiferromagnet on both the infinite-length line and ladder graphs with cyclic or Möbius boundary conditions exhibits a phase transition at finite temperature if 0< q<2, but with unphysical properties, including negative specific heat and non-existence, in the low-temperature phase, of an n→∞ limit for thermodynamic functions that is independent of boundary conditions. Considering the full generalization to arbitrary complex q and temperature, we determine the singular locus B in the corresponding C2 space, arising as the accumulation set of partition function zeros as n→∞. In particular, we study the connection with the T=0 limit of the Potts antiferromagnet where B reduces to the accumulation set of chromatic zeros. Certain properties of the complex-temperature phase diagrams are shown to exhibit close connections with those of the model on the square lattice, showing that exact solutions on infinite-length strips provide a way of gaining insight into these complex-temperature phase diagrams.

  8. Study of Wear of Pitched Blade Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fořt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the erosion of blades of pitched blade impellers in a suspension of solid particles in a liquid under a turbulent regime of flow of an agitated charge. The wear of the impeller is described by an analytical approximation in exponential form, and the influence of the pitch angle on the impeller blade wear was studied experimentally. It follows from the results of the experiments made that the wear rate of the pitched blade impellers increases linearly with the decreasing pitch angle within the interval a Î á15°; 45° ń. The proposed form of radial profile of the leading edge of the impeller blade enables us to calculate the surface of the worn blade. This quantity significantly decreases with the length of the period when the blades are affected by the solid particles, and its values calculated according to the suggested profile of the worn blade fit fairly well with the experimentally determined values. The results of the experiments performed are valid for homogeneous distribution of solid particles in an agitated suspension.

  9. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navalkar, S.T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame

  10. DIAGNOSIS OF PITCH AND LOAD DEFECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method, system and computer readable code for diagnosis of pitch and/or load defects of e.g. wind turbines as well as wind turbines using said diagnosis method and/or comprising said diagnosis system....

  11. Control Engineering Analysis of Mechanical Pitch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernicke, Olaf; Gauterin, Eckhard; Schulte, Horst; Zajac, Michal

    2014-12-01

    With the help of a local stability analysis the coefficient range of a discrete damper, used for centrifugal forced, mechanical pitch system of small wind turbines (SWT), is gained for equilibrium points. - By a global stability analysis the gained coefficient range can be validated. An appropriate approach by Takagi-Sugeno is presented in the paper.

  12. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navalkar, S.T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame

  13. F-ladder Knowledge and F-ladder Mining-discovery%F-阶梯知识与F-阶梯挖掘-发现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝秀梅; 李淑敏; 史开泉

    2012-01-01

    利用单向S-粗集(one direction singular rough sets)与它的动态特性,给出F-阶梯知识、F-阶梯度的概念.利用这些概念,提出F-阶梯知识分辩定理、最小F-阶梯知识挖掘-发现定理、最大F-阶梯知识挖掘-发现定理、知识发现依赖-筛选定理与F-阶梯知识内潜藏原理,给出F-阶梯知识挖掘-发现准则及应用.这些结果是单向S-粗集的新特性与单向S-粗集的动态特性的新应用.%By employing one direction S-rough sets (one direction singular rough sets) and its dynamic characteristic, this paper presented the concepts of F-ladder knowledge and F-ladder degree. Using theses concepts, the discernibility theorem of F-ladder knowledge, the mining-discovery theorem of minimum F-ladder knowledge, the mining-discovery theorem of maximum F-ladder knowledge and the dependence-filter theorem of knowledge discovery ere proposed,and the interior hiding principle of F-ladder knowledge, the mining-discovery criterion of F-ladder knowledge and its applications were given. The results given in this paper show the new characteristics of one direction S-rough sets and the new applications of the dynamic characteristic of one direction S-rough sets.

  14. Formation of a series of chimney-ladder compounds in the Ru-Re-Si system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simkin, B.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ishida, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Okamoto, N.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kishida, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: k.kishida@materials.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Inui, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Rhenium-alloyed ruthenium sesquisilicide alloys have been prepared over the wide composition range Ru{sub 1-{delta}}Re {sub {delta}}Si{sub 1.5}, 0 {<=} {delta} {<=} 0.85. The phase relationships of these alloys have been investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Alloys with {delta} {>=} 0.03 are multi-phase, composed of a series of (Ru,Re)Si {sub y} chimney-ladder phases with compositions of Ru{sub 1-x}Re {sub x}Si{sub 1.5386+0.1783x} (0.14 {<=} x {<=} 0.76) and B20-type monosilicide (Ru,Re)Si as a secondary phase. These chimney-ladder structures are considered to form to stabilize the high-temperature Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3} chimney-ladder phase through the substitution of Ru with Re. The solubility limit of Re in a series of chimney-ladder phases is as large as 76% Re (x = 0.76) and the Si/(Ru + Re) ratio of the chimney-ladder phases increases with increasing Re content. The observed deviation of the chimney-ladder structure from the idealized composition and the possibility of adjusting the semiconducting properties of these chimney-ladder structures are discussed in terms of the valence electron concentration per metal atom.

  15. Bound state structure and electromagnetic form factor beyond the ladder approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Gigante, V; Ydrefors, E; Gutierrez, C; Karmanov, V A; Frederico, T

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the response of the bound state structure of a two-boson system, within a Yukawa model with a scalar boson exchange, to the inclusion of the cross-ladder contribution to the ladder kernel of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The equation is solved by means of the Nakanishi integral representation and light-front projection. The valence light-front wave function and the elastic electromagnetic form factor beyond the impulse approximation, with the inclusion of the two-body current, generated by the cross-ladder kernel, are computed. The valence wave function and electromagnetic form factor, considering both ladder and ladder plus cross-ladder kernels, are studied in detail. Their asymptotic forms are found to be quite independent of the inclusion of the cross-ladder kernel, for a given binding energy. The asymptotic decrease of form factor agrees with the counting rules. This analysis can be generalized to fermionic systems, with a wide application in the study of the meson structure.

  16. Measuring a Country's Product Ladder and Technology Level based on Trade Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-il Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to quantify the technology level of products based on the concept of product ladder. While many studies on country technology competitiveness use the aggregate indices such as total factor productivity and revealed comparative advantage, this study estimates the ranking of about 2000 products in product ladder by using SITC 5 digit level export data. Based on the product ladder, this study measures the country and industry ranking and explores the characteristics of the ranking. It provides the international comparison of inter-industry and intra-industry ranking differences in product ladder. The statistical relationships between the ranking in product ladder and the determinants of technology level such as R&D and physical capital investment and wage, confirms that the measured ranking in product ladder could be regarded as an indirect indicator of technology level. The product ladder is applied to the estimation of production function to see the effect of the product differentiation on labor productivity.

  17. Establishment of expanded and streamlined pipeline of PITCh knock-in - a web-based design tool for MMEJ-mediated gene knock-in, PITCh designer, and the variations of PITCh, PITCh-TG and PITCh-KIKO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamae, Kazuki; Nishimura, Yuki; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Nakade, Shota; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-05-04

    The emerging genome editing technology has enabled the creation of gene knock-in cells easily, efficiently, and rapidly, which has dramatically accelerated research in the field of mammalian functional genomics, including in humans. We recently developed a microhomology-mediated end-joining-based gene knock-in method, termed the PITCh system, and presented various examples of its application. Since the PITCh system only requires very short microhomologies (up to 40 bp) and single-guide RNA target sites on the donor vector, the targeting construct can be rapidly prepared compared with the conventional targeting vector for homologous recombination-based knock-in. Here, we established a streamlined pipeline to design and perform PITCh knock-in to further expand the availability of this method by creating web-based design software, PITCh designer ( http://www.mls.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/smg/PITChdesigner/index.html ), as well as presenting an experimental example of versatile gene cassette knock-in. PITCh designer can automatically design not only the appropriate microhomologies but also the primers to construct locus-specific donor vectors for PITCh knock-in. By using our newly established pipeline, a reporter cell line for monitoring endogenous gene expression, and transgenesis (TG) or knock-in/knockout (KIKO) cell line can be produced systematically. Using these new variations of PITCh, an exogenous promoter-driven gene cassette expressing fluorescent protein gene and drug resistance gene can be integrated into a safe harbor or a specific gene locus to create transgenic reporter cells (PITCh-TG) or knockout cells with reporter knock-in (PITCh-KIKO), respectively.

  18. Auditory imagery and the poor-pitch singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Halpern, Andrea R

    2013-08-01

    The vocal imitation of pitch by singing requires one to plan laryngeal movements on the basis of anticipated target pitch events. This process may rely on auditory imagery, which has been shown to activate motor planning areas. As such, we hypothesized that poor-pitch singing, although not typically associated with deficient pitch perception, may be associated with deficient auditory imagery. Participants vocally imitated simple pitch sequences by singing, discriminated pitch pairs on the basis of pitch height, and completed an auditory imagery self-report questionnaire (the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale). The percentage of trials participants sung in tune correlated significantly with self-reports of vividness for auditory imagery, although not with the ability to control auditory imagery. Pitch discrimination was not predicted by auditory imagery scores. The results thus support a link between auditory imagery and vocal imitation.

  19. Phase sensitive quantum interference on forbidden transition in ladder scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Koganov, Gennady A

    2014-01-01

    A three level ladder system is analyzed and the coherence of initially electric-dipole forbidden transition is calculated. Due to the presence of two laser fields the initially dipole forbidden transition becomes dynamically permitted due to ac Stark effect. It is shown that such transitions exhibit quantum-interference-related phenomena, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, gain without inversion and enhanced refractive index. Gain and dispersion characteristics of such transitions strongly depend upon the relative phase between the driving and the probe fields. Unlike allowed transitions, gain/absorption behavior of ac-Stark allowed transitions exhibit antisymmetric feature on the Rabi sidebands. It is found that absorption/gain spectra possess extremely narrow sub-natural resonances on these ac Stark allowed forbidden transitions. An interesting finding is simultaneous existence of gain and negative dispersion at Autler-Townes transition which may lead to both reduction of the group velocity a...

  20. Stark ladder in a one-dimensional quasiperiodic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, K.; Matsumura, A.

    1993-08-01

    We have investigated the effect of a uniform field F on the energy spectrum of the Harper model, which includes an irrational ω and the phase variable cphi as parameters. The energy levels Ei(cphi), iEopenZ, are periodic on cphi, Ei(cphi+1)=Ei(cphi), and form a two-dimensional (2D) pattern in the cphi-E plane. The pattern which we term a 2D Wannier-Stark ladder (2DWSL) has 2D periodicity because of the equalities Ei(cphi)=iF+E0(cphi+iω), i∈openZ . The energy spectrum is a vertical section of the 2DWSL through the specified cphi and represents a quasiperiodic WSL.

  1. Design of Dual Bandpass and Bandreject LC Ladder Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hospodka

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of two-passband bandpass and two-stopband bandreject LC ladder filters. The design method is based on the special dual frequency transformation that transforms normalized lowpass to either bandpass with two passbands or to bandreject with two stopbands that are specified by four cutoff frequencies. The paper shows analytical solution relating these four cutoff frequencies to parameters of dual frequency transformation. It enables a direct computation of dual band LC filter elements from a normalized lowpass filter by means of simple relations. These relations have been implemented in the mathematical program Maple (TM as new user functions. They are supposed to be used as an enhancement of Syntfil package which is intended for analog filter design in program Maple. Specific application is shown on an example of the two-passband bandpass LC filter design.

  2. Polaron and bipolaron of uniaxially strained one dimensional zigzag ladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavidov, B.Ya., E-mail: bakhrom.yavidov@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    An influence of the uniaxial strains in one dimensional zigzag ladder (1DZL) on the properties of polarons and bipolarons is considered. It is shown that strain changes all the parameters of the system, in particular, spectrum, existing bands and the masses of charge carriers. Numerical results obtained by taking into an account the Poisson effect clearly indicate that the properties of the (bi)polaronic system can be tuned via strain. Mass of bipolaron can be manipulated by the strain too which in turn leads to the way of tuning Bose–Einstein condensation temperature T{sub BEC} of bipolarons. It is shown that T{sub BEC} of bipolarons in strained 1DZL reasonably correlates with the values of critical temperature of superconductivity of certain perovskites.

  3. SOLUTION PROPERTIES OF LADDER-LIKE POLYMER POLYPHENYLSILSESQUIOXANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lianghe; ZHANG Xinsheng; SI Yuandong; YE Meiling; LI Dingcai

    1987-01-01

    Solution properties of ladder-like polymer polyphenylsilsesquioxane (PPS) were studied by measurement of intrinsic viscosity, small angle laser light scattering and gel permeation chromatography. It was found that PPS can be modeled with a wormlike continuous cylinder rather than a wormlike coil. A plot of (M2/[η])1/3 vs. M1/2 was employed in obtaining the persistence length (2λ)-1 and effective hydrodynamic diameter. When MW≤5 × 105, Mark-Houwink equation is adequate in describing the relationship between MW and [η] with α about unity. This implies that PPS chain is semi-stiff. For GPC experiments, it was shown that universal calibration can be applied in PPS. When molecular weights of PPS are sufficiently high, their molecular weight distributions are often very broad.

  4. Quantum Walks of SU(2)_k Anyons on a Ladder

    CERN Document Server

    Lehman, L; Brennen, G K

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of braiding interactions on single anyon dynamics using a quantum walk model on a quasi-1-dimensional ladder filled with stationary anyons. The model includes loss of information of the coin and nonlocal fusion degrees of freedom on every second time step, such that the entanglement between the position states and the exponentially growing auxiliary degrees of freedom is lost. The computational complexity of numerical calculations reduces drastically from the fully coherent anyonic quantum walk model, allowing for relatively long simulations for anyons which are spin-1/2 irreps of SU(2)_k Chern-Simons theory. We find that for Abelian anyons, the walk retains the ballistic spreading velocity just like particles with trivial braiding statistics. For non-Abelian anyons, the numerical results indicate that the spreading velocity is linearly dependent on the number of time steps. By approximating the Kraus generators of the time evolution map by circulant matrices, it is shown that the spatial...

  5. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans within the framework of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The master plans define an approach for implementing a hatchery supplementation program in the Hood River subbasin. The hatchery program as defined in the master plans is called the Hood River Hatchery Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP will be phased in over several years and will be jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation. In December 1991, a monitoring and evaluation program was implemented in the Hood River subbasin to collect life history and production information on stocks of anadromous salmonids returning to the Hood River subbasin. The program was implemented to provide the baseline information needed to: (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the HRPP and (2) determine any post-project impacts the HRPP has on indigenous populations of resident fish. Information collected during the 1992-94 fiscal years will also be used to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluating the program`s impact on the human environment. To begin construction on project facilities, it was proposed that the HRPP be implemented in two phases. Phase I would include work that would fall under a {open_quotes}categorical exclusion{close_quotes} from NEPA, and Phase II would include work requiring an EIS prior to implementation. This report summarizes the life history and escapement data collected in the Hood River subbasin and the status work of implemented under Phase I of the HR Life history and escapement data will be used to: (1) test the assumptions on which harvest and escapement goals for the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans are based and (2) develop biologically based management recommendations for implementing the HRPP.

  6. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech

    OpenAIRE

    Wu-xia eYang; Jie eFeng; Wan-ting eHuang; Cheng-xiang eZhang; Yun eNan

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The ...

  7. A General Study on Equivalent Resistance of Three-Terminal Ladder Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Guoxiang; Tan Zhizhong; Song Guohua; Song Changqing

    2005-01-01

    In view of the application importance of resistance network in modern science and technology, the author presented the basic structure of a three-terminal ladder shaped resistance network and studied the equivalent resistance of the network. By means of virtual current method, the network was analyzed and a model of two elements three orders differential equation was constructed. Based on different marginal conditions, two general adaptive rules for the inlet resistance of the three-terminal ladder shaped network, as well as two ultimate rules for the equivalent resistance of three-terminal infinite ladder shaped network were given.

  8. Thermodynamics of the spin Luttinger liquid in a model ladder material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegg, Ch; Kiefer, K; Thielemann, B; McMorrow, D F; Zapf, V; Normand, B; Zvonarev, M B; Bouillot, P; Kollath, C; Giamarchi, T; Capponi, S; Poilblanc, D; Biner, D; Krämer, K W

    2008-12-12

    The phase diagram in temperature and magnetic field of the metal-organic, two-leg, spin-ladder compound (C5H12N)2CuBr4 is studied by measurements of the specific heat and the magnetocaloric effect. We demonstrate the presence of an extended spin Luttinger-liquid phase between two field-induced quantum critical points and over a broad range of temperature. Based on an ideal spin-ladder Hamiltonian, comprehensive numerical modeling of the ladder specific heat yields excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental data across the entire phase diagram.

  9. Snakes and ladders: state interventions and the place of liberty in public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper I outline and explore some problems in the way that the Nuffield Council of Bioethics' report Public Health: Ethical Issues (2007) presents its 'Intervention Ladder'. They see the metaphor of a ladder both as capturing key normative priorities and as making a real and important contribution to ethical policymaking in public health. In this paper I argue that the intervention ladder is not a useful model for thinking about policy decisions, that it is likely to produce poor decisions and that it is incompatible with the report's stated approach to relevant public health policy values.

  10. Nested Bethe Ansatz for Spin Ladder Model with Open Boundary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun-Fang; ZHANG Chun-Min; YUE Rui-Hong; LI Run-Ling

    2005-01-01

    The nested Bethe ansatz (BA) method is applied to find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix for spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. Based on the reflection equation, we find the general diagonal solution, which determines the generalboundary interaction in the Hamiltonian. We introduce the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. By finding the solution K± of the reflection equation which determines the nontrivial boundary terms in the Hamiltonian, we diagonalize the transfer matrix of the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions in the framework of nested BA.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Ordered Ladder Like Polyphenylsilsesquioxane via Two-step Sol-gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yu-zhong; QI Sheng-li; LIU Jing-jing; WU Zhan-peng; YANG Xiao-ping; JIN Ri-guang; WU De-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Soluble and ordered ladder like polyphenylsilsesquioxane was synthesized by a two-step sol-gel method including hydrolysis and polycondensation. The procedure was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the presence of the ladder like structure was confirmed by X-ray techniques. 29Si NMR analysis shows a very narrow half peak width(δ<4) at δ-78.866 of the main chain unit C6H5SiO3/2 of polyphenylsilsesquioxane, indicating that the polyphenylsilsesquioxane has ordered ladder like structures rather than the branched ones. The relationship between molecular weight and the time of polycondensation was also discussed.

  12. Entanglement and Fidelity of a Spin Ladder with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅; 朱士群

    2011-01-01

    The spin ladder with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction is investigated by using the quantum renormalization-group method. The entanglement and fidelity are periodic functions of the time and oscillate between zero and one. The oscillation period decreases with either the interaction in the spin ladder or the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction increasing. When the system relates to the environment, both entanglement and fidelity oscillate with a damping rate related to intrinsic decoherence rate, the interaction in the spin ladder, and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.

  13. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. II - Pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The dynamic pitching characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which have a stability curtain are investigated analytically and experimentally. The measured values of moment, lift and cushion pressure are compared with numerical results noting applicability to the pitching motion. The response of ACV to the sinusoidal pitching oscillation of the ground is also studied.

  14. Memory for Melody: Infants Use a Relative Pitch Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Judy; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2005-01-01

    Pitch perception is fundamental to melody in music and prosody in speech. Unlike many animals, the vast majority of human adults store melodic information primarily in terms of relative not absolute pitch, and readily recognize a melody whether rendered in a high or a low pitch range. We show that at 6 months infants are also primarily relative…

  15. Spatial Representation of Pitch Height: The SMARC Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L.; Umilta, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch height is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch height…

  16. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    hearingloss; 3: retro-cochlear impairment) were asked to identify the pitch contour of series of five notes of equal duration, ranging from 523 to 784 Hz, played either with Huggins’ binaural pitch stimuli (BP) or perceptually similar, but monaurally detectable, pitches (MP). All subjects from groups 1 and 2...

  17. Memory for Melody: Infants Use a Relative Pitch Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Judy; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2005-01-01

    Pitch perception is fundamental to melody in music and prosody in speech. Unlike many animals, the vast majority of human adults store melodic information primarily in terms of relative not absolute pitch, and readily recognize a melody whether rendered in a high or a low pitch range. We show that at 6 months infants are also primarily relative…

  18. Size matters : Pitch dimensions constrain interactive team behaviour in soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; Van der Plaats, Jorrit; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under constraints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour in

  19. Context effects on pitch perception in musicians and nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, E; Naatanen, R; Tervaniemi, M

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that musical context facilitates pitch discrimination. In the present study, we sought to determine whether pitch context and its familiarity might affect brain responses to pitch change even at the preattentive level. Ten musicians and 10 nonmusicians, while...

  20. Analysis of pitch system data for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; van de Pieterman, René P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    at a constant pitch velocity, but the 10 min maximum values are only approximately proportional, because the maximum values occur during acceleration and not simultaneously. These findings are important to consider, if using the pitch motor current or torque as an indicator for the pitch system health...

  1. Optical interactions of aircraft windscreens and HUDs (Head-Up Displays) producing diplopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, L. V.

    1983-12-01

    The Air Force is in the process of evaluating new, wide field of view heads-up displays (WFOV HUDs) capable of presenting an enhanced array of visual imagery to pilots of modern aircraft. The main findings of this study are: (1) observers are relatively intolerant of negative disparity, (2) longer viewing is more likely to lead to a diplopia effect than very short glances, (3) resistance to disparity appears to be an individual trait, and (4) a large proportion of responses involve suppression of the view from one eye. The overall median negative disparity threshold was 1.2 mrad and the overall positive threshold was 2.6 mrad. These values are recommended as the maximum disparities acceptable for wide-field-of-view Canopy-HUD optical systems. Since the values are so small, we further recommend that the canopy and HUD be treated as a system, with technical interaction between the vendors, and between the vendors and the USAF. The disparity values indicate the net difference between both system components, so optimization may be possible by appropriately matching the optics.

  2. DOE-HUD initiative on energy efficiency in housing: A federal partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinch, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Ternes, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Myers, M. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A five-year initiative between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) demonstrated the feasibility of improving the energy efficiency of publicly-assisted housing. Twenty-seven projects and activities undertaken during 1990--95 involved research and field demonstrations, institutional and administrative changes to HUD policies and procedures, innovative financing and leveraging of federal dollars with non-federal money, and education, training, and technical assistance. With most of the 27 projects and activities completed, the two departments have initiated a five-year deployment effort, the DOE-Energy Partnerships for Affordable Homes, to achieve energy and water savings in public and assisted housing on a large scale throughout the country. A Clearinghouse for Energy Efficiency in Public and Assisted Housing managed by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT), will offer hands-on energy assistance to housing providers to complement DOE`s assistance. This paper presents the findings of the DOE-HUD Initiative, with primary attention paid to those projects which successfully integrated energy efficiency into private and public single and multifamily housing. The paper includes examples of the publications, case-study reports, exhibits and videotapes developed during the course of the Initiative. Information on the new DOE Energy Partnerships and on the NCAT Clearinghouse is also presented. New Partnership projects with the Atlanta and Chicago Housing Authorities describe the technical assistance envisioned under the Partnership.

  3. Generalized ladder operators for the Dirac-Coulomb problem via SUSY QM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Centro de Formacao de Professores. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza; E-mail: rafaelr@cbpf.br

    2003-12-15

    The supersymmetry in quantum mechanics and shape invariance condition are applied as an algebraic method to solving the Dirac-Coulomb problem. The ground state and the excited states are investigated via new generalized ladder operators. (author)

  4. CONCERTED H-BONDING TEMPLATE SYNTHESIS OF AN ORDERED LADDER POLYSILSESQUIOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui-lin Deng; Tao-yi Zhang; Xiao-jing Zhang; Ai-qin Zhang; Ping Xie; Rong-ben Zhang

    2006-01-01

    A novel soluble regular ladder poly(benzoyl-3-aminopropyl) silsesquioxane (LPBAS) was facilely prepared under effective assistance of concerted H-bonding self-assembly of amido groups of side chains and silanol groups, respectively, of a new template monomer [1,3-bis(benzoyl-3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetraethoxydisiloxane] (M). The ordered ladder structure of LPBAS is manifested in: (1) the presence of two Bragg peaks representing the ladder width (d) and ladder thickness (t) in X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern; (2) narrow base-line width (w = 6) of resonance absorption for -CH2SiO3/2 moiety in 29Si-NMR and (3) high glass transition temperature Tg = 112℃ in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis.

  5. Characterization of Coal Tar Pitch and Paving Pitch by UV, EA and NMR%Characterization of Coal Tar Pitch and Paving Pitch by UV,EA and NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yan-hua; FENG Rui-jie; CAO Su-mei; LIU Xiang-yong; GAO Ting; PAN Zhi-quan

    2011-01-01

    In order to enlarge the use of coal tar pitch(CTP) in paving road, CTP and 60th paving pitch (PP) were extracted by n-heptane, toluene and ethanol step by step in a Soxhlet apparatus. The three fractions of CTP and PP were detected using UV-absorption(UV-A) ,elemental analyses(EA) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) firstly as a whole unit after quality characterization of physical nature of CTP and PP were finished. The CTP had more saturate aliphatie and residue compounds dissolved in ethanol. On the other hand there were more continental type structures of aromatic ring than that of PP. There was almost no residue in PP after extracted by ethanol. The results explained why CTP was crisp in cold winter and was soften in summer. The following research will focus on how to change the chemical construction of CTP into the relative similar structures with those of PP through adding polymer.

  6. Boronated mesophase pitch coke for lithium insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackowiak, E.; Machnikowski, J.; Kaczmarska, H.; Béguin, F.

    Boronated carbons from mesophase pitch have been used as materials for lithium storage in Li/carbon cells. Doping by boron has been realized by co-pyrolysis of coal tar pitch with the pyridine-borane complex. Amount of boron in mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) varied from 1.4 to 1.8 wt.% affecting the texture of carbon. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffractograms have shown tendency to more disordered structure for boron-doped carbon. The values of specific reversible capacity ( x) varied from 0.7 to 1.1 depending significantly on the final temperature of pyrolysis (700-1150°C). The optimal charge/discharge performance was observed for boronated carbon heated at 1000°C.

  7. Perceived pitch class of isolated musical triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J R; Racine, R J

    1990-05-01

    A paired-comparisons task was used to determine which note of a pure-tone triad sounded most similar to the triad. Musically inexperienced Ss showed no systematic preference, experienced Ss consistently preferred the highest note in the triad, and professional musicians split equally between preferring the highest note and the root note. Preference for the root note shifted to preference for the highest note as the triad type became increasingly inharmonic, suggesting that the former depended on inference of a missing fundamental. When Ss were asked to vocally reproduce the pitch they heard when listening to a triad, similar results were obtained, except that a root-note preference was not detectable in Ss with less musical experience. Preference for the root note was also facilitated by use of octave-replicated tones, and this increase was shown to be due to obscuring of pitch-height cues, rather than harmonic complexity.

  8. Pitch perception of complex sounds nonlinearity revisited

    CERN Document Server

    González, D L; Sportolari, F; Rosso, O; Cartwright, J H E; Piro, O

    1995-01-01

    The ability of the auditory system to perceive the fundamental frequency of a sound even when this frequency is removed from the stimulus is an interesting phenomenon related to the pitch of complex sounds. This capability is known as ``residue'' or ``virtual pitch'' perception and was first reported last century in the pioneering work of Seebeck. It is residue perception that allows one to listen to music with small transistor radios, which in general have a very poor and sometimes negligible response to low frequencies. The first attempt, due to Helmholtz, to explain the residue as a nonlinear effect in the ear considered it to originate from difference combination tones. However, later experiments have shown that the residue does not coincide with a difference combination tone. These results and the fact that dichotically presented signals also elicit residue perception have led to nonlinear theories being gradually abandoned in favour of central processor models. In this paper we use recent results from t...

  9. Adaptive pitch control of wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Joergensen, H.

    1993-12-31

    The wind turbines used in Denmark today to produce electric power are mostly stall-controlled turbines up to 300-400 kW. The quality of the produced electrical power from small stall-controlled wind turbines is poor compared to the electrical power from the utility grid. The main goal of this report is to describe another way of generating electric power by wind turbines. The produced power is regulated by controlling the pitch of the rotor blades. Only medium wind speeds ranging from 14 m{sup 3} to 20 m{sup 3} are considered. The regulation problem is to keep the power at the nominal value and to minimize variations in the produced power and variations in the torques acting upon the turbine. Furthermore fluctuations in the displacement of the nacelle have to be controlled so the natural frequency of the nacelle is not excited. The regulation problem is solved for the 750 kW wind turbine, Windane 40, owned by ELKRAFT. A control model is developed for use in the control design procedure and a simulation model is developed to test the designed controllers. Several controllers are designed. A continuous-time PID-controller (Proportional Integrating Differentiating) is designed because this controller is used in practical pitch-control today - this controller is used as a reference of performance. A LQG-controller (Least Quadratic Gaussian) and a GSP-controller (General Stochastic Poleplacement) are designed to test some conventional controllers used to solve many other regulation problems. Finally an AGSP-controller (Adaptive General Stochastic Poleplacement) is designed to test a controller that is able to change the control law according to the wind speed. The controllers are tested at different wind conditions. All controllers are compared to a wind turbine with fixed pitch angle (stall-control). Simulation studies show that all controllers give better results than the fixed pitch-controlled system. (EG) (14 refs.)

  10. Aircraft Pitch Attitude Control using Backstepping

    OpenAIRE

    Härkegård, Ola; Glad, Torkel

    2000-01-01

    A nonlinear approach to the automatic pitch attitude control problem for a generic fighter aircraft is presented. A nonlinear model describing the longitudinal equations of motion in strict feedback form is derived. Backstepping is utilized for the construction of a globally stabilizing controller with a number of free design parameters. Two tuning schemes are proposed based on the desired locally linear controller properties. The controller is evaluated using the HIRM fighter aircraft model.

  11. Aircraft Pitch Attitude Control using Backstepping

    OpenAIRE

    Härkegård, Ola; Glad, Torkel

    2000-01-01

    A nonlinear approach to the automatic pitch attitude control problem for a generic fighter aircraft is presented. A nonlinear model describing the longitudinal equations of motion in strict feedback form is derived. Backstepping is utilized for the construction of a globally stabilizing controller with a number of free design parameters. Two tuning schemes are proposed based on the desired locally linear controller properties. The controller is evaluated using the HIRM fighter aircraft model.

  12. Pulse-Width Control in Ladder Structure Four-Phase Rectifier for AC-Electromotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Myatez, S. V.; Langeman, E. G.; Schurov, N. I.

    2016-04-01

    Based on these studies the ways of power factor of the single-phase rectifiers operating in a single-phase AC network improving are suggested. The ladder four-phase rectifier is offered as a technical mean using a pulse-width method of controlling the rectified voltage. The pulse-width control efficiency as a way of the power factor rectifier with a ladder structure for AC electromotive improving is evaluated.

  13. The Short Call Ladder strategy and its application in trading and hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Rešovský

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the formation of Short Call Ladder (SCL strategy based on the functions of profit. Anoptimal algorithm for the use of this strategy in trading is introduced as well. Furthermore, this paper is focused on the applicationof Short Call Ladder strategy in hedging against a price rise of the underlying asset. In the end, the results are compared with theresults of hedging obtained by Short Combo and Vertical Ratio Call Back Spread option strategy.

  14. Photonic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders in exponentially chirped Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P B

    2002-05-01

    The formation of photonic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders is demonstrated in an exponentially chirped one-dimensional Bragg grating. The photonic Bloch oscillations are investigated using Hamiltonian optics, and direct analogies are made with electron dynamics in periodic potentials. The results of transfer matrix calculations are presented, which show the existence of a photonic Wannier-Stark ladder that should be detectable in experiments.

  15. Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space with cross-ladder kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A

    2006-01-01

    A new method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation is developed. It allows to find the Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes both in Minkowski and in Euclidean spaces and, as a by product, the light-front wave function. The method is valid for any kernel given by irreducible Feynman graphs. Bethe-Salpeter and Light-Front equations for scalar particles with ladder + cross-ladder kernel are solved.

  16. The Plastic Surgery Compass: Navigating the Reconstructive Ladder in the Personalized Health Care Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Lars Johan M

    2016-09-01

    The reconstructive ladder and the reconstructive elevator have withstood the test of time as didactic tools for resident education. Over time, many alternative models have been suggested to incorporate the technological advances in plastic surgery, but none of them have focused on the patient. Changes in practice and the trend toward personalized health care demand a 360-degree evaluation and solution of surgical problems incorporating patient-specific characteristics. We, therefore, suggest the concept of the plastic surgery compass to navigate the ladder.

  17. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  18. A perceptual pitch boundary in a non-human primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pitch is an auditory percept critical to the perception of music and speech, and for these harmonic sounds, pitch is closely related to the repetition rate of the acoustic wave. This paper reports a test of the assumption that non-human primates and especially rhesus monkeys perceive the pitch of these harmonic sounds much as humans do. A new procedure was developed to train macaques to discriminate the pitch of harmonic sounds and thereby demonstrate that the lower limit for pitch perception in macaques is close to 30 Hz, as it is in humans. Moreover, when the phases of successive harmonics are alternated to cause a pseudo-doubling of the repetition rate, the lower pitch boundary in macaques decreases substantially, as it does in humans. The results suggest that both species use neural firing times to discriminate pitch, at least for sounds with relatively low repetition rates.

  19. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  20. Resonant Tunneling States of a Pairing Ladder with Random Dimer Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Dong-Sheng; ZHANG Yan-Ling; YIN Xiao-Gang; ZHU Chen-Ping; ZHANG Yong-Mei

    2012-01-01

    We propose three models of pairing ladders, in which two types of atoms, A and B, exist, and the corresponding atoms in different chains are pairng, I.e. if atom A is in a site of one chain, the atom in the corresponding site of another chain should be atom B. It is found that there are three resonant states in the ladder when the two types of atoms are both random dimers (RD) in the same chain. No extended state exists in the ladder when only one type of atom is RD distributed or two types of atoms both are random distributed in the same chain.%We propose three models of pairing ladders,in which two types of atoms,A and B,exist,and the corresponding atoms in different chains are pairng,i.e.if atom A is in a site of one chain,the atom in the corresponding site of another chain should be atom B.It is found that there are three resonant states in the ladder when the two types of atoms are both random dimers (RD) in the same chain.No extended state exists in the ladder when only one type of atom is RD distributed or two types of atoms both are random distributed in the same chain.

  1. The effect of task and pitch structure on pitch-time interactions in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Jon B; Schmuckler, Mark A; Thompson, William F

    2009-04-01

    Musical pitch-time relations were explored by investigating the effect of temporal variation on pitch perception. In Experiment 1, trained musicians heard a standard tone followed by a tonal context and then a comparison tone. They then performed one of two tasks. In the cognitive task, they indicated whether the comparison tone was in the key of the context. In the perceptual task, they judged whether the comparison tone was higher or lower than the standard tone. For both tasks, the comparison tone occurred early, on time, or late with respect to temporal expectancies established by the context. Temporal variation did not affect accuracy in either task. Experiment 2 used the perceptual task and varied the pitch structure by employing either a tonal or an atonal context. Temporal variation did not affect accuracy for tonal contexts, but did for atonal contexts. Experiment 3 replicated these results and controlled potential confounds. We argue that tonal contexts bias attention toward pitch and eliminate effects of temporal variation, whereas atonal contexts do not, thus fostering pitch-time interactions.

  2. Research on the Development of Baseball Pitching Machine Controlling Pitch Type using Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Oda, Juhachi; Yonemura, Shigeru; Kawata, Kengo; Horikawa, Saburo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki

    The most common commercial pitching machines for baseball are the "arm" type and the "two rollers" type. These machines tend to have certain limitations. In particular, it is very difficult to simultaneously change both ball speed and direction. In addition, some types of pitches, such as the curveball or screwball, are not easily achieved. In this study, we will explain the hardware and software design of a new "intelligent" pitching machine which can pitch repeatedly with selectable speed, direction and ball rotation. The machine has three rollers and the motion of each is independently controlled by a hierarchical neural network. If the ball speed, direction and rotation are given as input data to this network, signals for controlling the three rollers are produced as output data. The results of a throw experiment with the machine that we developed are shown, which has the ability to pitch assorted breaking balls with a wide range of speeds, from 19.4 to 44.4 m/s. The machine has a speed error of less than about 3%, and a distance error of about 0.15m (twice the length of a ball's diameter).

  3. Evaluation of fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle via thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Hirota, M.; Ouchi, K.; Saito, T.

    2016-03-01

    Shock vector control (SVC) in a converging-diverging nozzle with a rectangular cross-section is discussed as a fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) method. The interaction between the primary nozzle flow and the secondary jet is examined using experiments and numerical simulations. The relationships between FTV parameters [nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and secondary jet pressure ratio (SPR)] and FTV performance (thrust pitching angle and thrust pitching moment) are investigated. The experiments are conducted with an NPR of up to 10 and an SPR of up to 2.7. Numerical simulations of the nozzle flow are performed using a Navier-Stokes solver with input parameters set to match the experimental conditions. The thrust pitching angle and moment computed from the force-moment balance are used to evaluate FTV performance. The experiment and numerical results indicate that the FTV parameters (NPR and SPR) directly affect FTV performance. Conventionally, FTV performance evaluated by the common method using thrust pitching angle is highly dependent on the location of evaluation. Hence, in this study, we show that the thrust pitching moment, a parameter which is independent of the location, is the appropriate figure of merit to evaluate the performance of FTV systems.

  4. Ladder Operators for Lamé Spheroconal Harmonic Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Méndez-Fragoso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of ladder operators in spheroconal coordinates and their respective actions on Lamé spheroconal harmonic polynomials are presented in this article. The polynomials are common eigenfunctions of the square of the angular momentum operator and of the asymmetry distribution Hamiltonian for the rotations of asymmetric molecules, in the body-fixed frame with principal axes. The first set of operators for Lamé polynomials of a given species and a fixed value of the square of the angular momentum raise and lower and lower and raise in complementary ways the quantum numbers $n_1$ and $n_2$ counting the respective nodal elliptical cones. The second set of operators consisting of the cartesian components $hat L_x$, $hat L_y$, $hat L_z$ of the angular momentum connect pairs of the four species of polynomials of a chosen kind and angular momentum. The third set of operators, the cartesian components $hat p_x$, $hat p_y$, $hat p_z$ of the linear momentum, connect pairs of the polynomials differing in one unit in their angular momentum and in their parities. Relationships among spheroconal harmonics at the levels of the three sets of operators are illustrated.

  5. Dynamics of blood flow in a microfluidic ladder network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddala, Jeevan; Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; McCarty, Owen

    The dynamics of a complex mixture of cells and proteins, such as blood, in perturbed shear flow remains ill-defined. Microfluidics is a promising technology for improving the understanding of blood flow under complex conditions of shear; as found in stent implants and in tortuous blood vessels. We model the fluid dynamics of blood flow in a microfluidic ladder network with dimensions mimicking venules. Interaction of blood cells was modeled using multiagent framework, where cells of different diameters were treated as spheres. This model served as the basis for predicting transition regions, collision pathways, re-circulation zones and residence times of cells dependent on their diameters and device architecture. Based on these insights from the model, we were able to predict the clot formation configurations at various locations in the device. These predictions were supported by the experiments using whole blood. To facilitate platelet aggregation, the devices were coated with fibrillar collagen and tissue factor. Blood was perfused through the microfluidic device for 9 min at a physiologically relevant venous shear rate of 600 s-1. Using fluorescent microscopy, we observed flow transitions near the channel intersections and at the areas of blood flow obstruction, which promoted larger thrombus formation. This study of integrating model predictions with experimental design, aids in defining the dynamics of blood flow in microvasculature and in development of novel biomedical devices.

  6. Kinetic simulations of ladder climbing by electron plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kentaro; Barth, Ido; Kaminski, Erez; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2017-05-01

    The energy of plasma waves can be moved up and down the spectrum using chirped modulations of plasma parameters, which can be driven by external fields. Depending on whether the wave spectrum is discrete (bounded plasma) or continuous (boundless plasma), this phenomenon is called ladder climbing (LC) or autoresonant acceleration of plasmons. It was first proposed by Barth et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 075001 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.075001] based on a linear fluid model. In this paper, LC of electron plasma waves is investigated using fully nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations of collisionless bounded plasma. It is shown that, in agreement with the basic theory, plasmons survive substantial transformations of the spectrum and are destroyed only when their wave numbers become large enough to trigger Landau damping. Since nonlinear effects decrease the damping rate, LC is even more efficient when practiced on structures like quasiperiodic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) waves rather than on Langmuir waves per se.

  7. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  8. On the Impact of Cepheid Outliers on the Distance Ladder

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, M R; Rozo, E; Marshall, P; Rykoff, E S

    2015-01-01

    Recent work by Efstathiou (2014) highlighted the importance of outliers in the period-luminosity (PL) relation of Cepheid data on the distance ladder. We present a statistical framework designed to address this difficulty, and apply it to the Cepheid data from the Milky Way (MW), the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and the Riess et al. (2011) (hereafter R11) dataset. We consider two possible models of the outlier population in the R11 Cepheid dataset. One of these models exhibits tension between the PL relation of the R11 cepheids and the MW+LMC cepheids, while the other does not. We extend our models to adequately account for tension between the cepheid data sets when appropriate. Our outlier treatment has a significant impact on the distance scales to Supernovae hosts with Cepheid distances, increasing the uncertainty in these distances by a median factor of ~30%. We further find that our Cepheid outlier treatment translates into a modest, but non-negligible increase in the statistical uncertainty of H0, addi...

  9. Vowel identity between note labels confuses pitch identification in non-absolute pitch possessors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Brancucci

    Full Text Available The simplest and likeliest assumption concerning the cognitive bases of absolute pitch (AP is that at its origin there is a particularly skilled function which matches the height of the perceived pitch to the verbal label of the musical tone. Since there is no difference in sound frequency resolution between AP and non-AP (NAP musicians, the hypothesis of the present study is that the failure of NAP musicians in pitch identification relies mainly in an inability to retrieve the correct verbal label to be assigned to the perceived musical note. The primary hypothesis is that, when asked to identify tones, NAP musicians confuse the verbal labels to be attached to the stimulus on the basis of their phonetic content. Data from two AP tests are reported, in which subjects had to respond in the presence or in the absence of visually presented verbal note labels (fixed Do solmization. Results show that NAP musicians confuse more frequently notes having a similar vowel in the note label. They tend to confuse e.g. a 261 Hz tone (Do more often with Sol than, e.g., with La. As a second goal, we wondered whether this effect is lateralized, i.e. whether one hemisphere is more responsible than the other in the confusion of notes with similar labels. This question was addressed by observing pitch identification during dichotic listening. Results showed that there is a right hemispheric disadvantage, in NAP but not AP musicians, in the retrieval of the verbal label to be assigned to the perceived pitch. The present results indicate that absolute pitch has strong verbal bases, at least from a cognitive point of view.

  10. On the Consistency of the Ladder Approximation and the Rainbow Approximation of Dyson-Schwinger Equation of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, L; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu-xin

    2006-01-01

    We study the consistency of the ladder approximation and the rainbow approximation of the Dyson-Schwinger equation of QCD. By considering the non-Abelian property of QCD, we show that the QED-type Ward-Takahashi identity is not required for the rainbow-ladder approximation of QCD. It indicates that there does not exists any internal inconsistency in the usual rainbow-ladder approximation of QCD. In addition, we propose an modified ladder approximation which guarantees the Slavnov-Taylor identity for the quark-gluon vertex omitting the ghost effect in the approximation.

  11. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  12. Development of a Passively Varying Pitch Propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Stearns Beamon

    Small general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial systems are often equipped with sophisticated navigation, control, and other avionics, but retain propulsion systems consisting of retrofitted radio control and ultralight equipment. Consequently, new high performance airframes often rely on relatively primitive propulsive technology. This trend is beginning to shift with recent advances in small turboprop engines, fuel injected reciprocating engines, and improved electric technologies. Although these systems are technologically advanced, they are often paired with standard fixed pitch propellers. To fully realize the potential of these aircraft and the new generation of engines, small propellers which can efficiently transmit power over wide flight envelopes and a variety of power settings must be developed. This work demonstrates a propeller which passively adjusts to incoming airflow at a low penalty to aircraft weight and complexity. This allows the propeller to operate in an efficient configuration over a wide flight envelope, and can prevent blade stall in low-velocity / highly-loaded thrust cases and over-speeding at high flight speeds. The propeller incorporates blades which pivot freely on a radial axis and are aerodynamically tailored to attain and maintain a pitch angle yielding favorable local blade angles of attack, matched to changing inflow conditions. This blade angle is achieved through the use of reflexed airfoils designed for a positive pitching moment, comparable to those used on many tailless flying wings. By setting the axis of rotation at a point forward of the blade aerodynamic center, the blades will naturally adjust to a predetermined positive lift 'trim' condition. Then, as inflow conditions change, the blade angle will automatically pivot to maintain the same angle with respect to incoming air. Computational, wind tunnel, and flight test results indicate that the extent of efficient propeller operation can be increased dramatically as

  13. A New Pitch Estimation Method Based on AMDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new modified average magnitude difference function (MAMDF is proposed which is robust for noise-corrupt speech pitch estimation. The traditional technology in pitch estimation can easily give rise to the problem of detecting error pitch period. And their estimation performance behaves badly with the occurrence of background noise. In the process of calculation on speech samples, MAMDF presented in this paper has the property of strengthening the characteristic of pitch period and reducing the influence of background noise. And therefore, MAMDF can not only decrease the disadvantage brought by the decreasing tendency of pitch period but also overcome the error caused by severe variation between neighboring samples. The experiment which is implemented in CSTR database shows that MAMDF is greatly superior to AMDF and CAMDF both in clean speech environment and noisy speech environment, representing prominent precision and robustness in pitch estimation

  14. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter.

  15. Timbre-independent extraction of pitch in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háden, Gábor P; Stefanics, Gábor; Vestergaard, Martin D; Denham, Susan L; Sziller, István; Winkler, István

    2009-01-01

    The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that informs the listener about the size of the sound source, a cue that may be important already at birth. Therefore, detection of infrequent pitch changes was tested by recording event-related brain potentials in healthy newborn infants to frequent standard and infrequent pitch-deviant sounds while the perceived resonator size of all sounds was randomly varied. The elicitation of an early negative and a later positive discriminative response by deviant sounds demonstrated that the neonate auditory system represents pitch separately from timbre, thus showing advanced pitch processing capabilities.

  16. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  17. Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal, PY.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every stage is described, taking into account how herbicide resistance can influence or exert a different impact compared to susceptible plants.

  18. Virtual pitch extraction from harmonic structures by absolute-pitch musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, I.-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh

    2009-03-01

    The ability of absolute-pitch (AP) musicians to identify or produce virtual pitch from harmonic structures without feedback or an external acoustic referent was examined in three experiments. Stimuli consisted of pure tones, missing-fundamental harmonic complexes, or piano notes highpass filtered to remove their fundamental frequency and lower harmonics. Results of Experiment I showed that relative to control (non-AP) musicians, AP subjects easily (>90%) identified pitch of harmonic complexes in a 12-alternative forced-choice task. Increasing harmonic order (i.e., lowest harmonic number in the complex), however, resulted in a monotonic decline in performance. Results suggest that AP musicians use two pitch cues from harmonic structures: 1) spectral spacing between harmonic components, and 2) octave-related cues to note identification in individually resolved harmonics. Results of Experiment II showed that highpass filtered piano notes are identified by AP subjects at better than 75% accuracy even when the note’s energy is confined to the 4th and higher harmonics. Identification of highpass piano notes also appears to be better than that expected from pure or complex tones, possibly due to contributions from familiar timbre cues to note identity. Results of Experiment III showed that AP subjects can adjust the spectral spacing between harmonics of a missing-fundamental complex to accurately match the expected spacing from a target musical note. Implications of these findings for mechanisms of AP encoding are discussed.

  19. Timbre-independent extraction of pitch in newborn infants

    OpenAIRE

    HÁDEN, GÁBOR P.; STEFANICS, GÁBOR; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Denham, Susan L.; Sziller, István; Winkler, István

    2008-01-01

    The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that informs the listener about the size of the sound source, a cue that may be important already at birth. Therefore, detection of infrequent pitch ...

  20. Chemodiversity of Ladder-Frame Prymnesin Polyethers in Prymnesium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Meier, Sebastian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Blossom, Hannah Eva; Duus, Jens Øllgaard; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Hansen, Per Juel; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-09-23

    Blooms of the microalga Prymnesium parvum cause devastating fish kills worldwide, which are suspected to be caused by the supersized ladder-frame polyether toxins prymnesin-1 and -2. These toxins have, however, only been detected from P. parvum in rare cases since they were originally described two decades ago. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel B-type prymnesin, based on extensive analysis of 2D- and 3D-NMR data of natural as well as 90% (13)C enriched material. B-type prymnesins lack a complete 1,6-dioxadecalin core unit, which is replaced by a short acyclic C2 linkage compared to the structure of the original prymnesins. Comparison of the bioactivity of prymnesin-2 with prymnesin-B1 in an RTgill-W1 cell line assay identified both compounds as toxic in the low nanomolar range. Chemical investigations by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) of 10 strains of P. parvum collected worldwide showed that only one strain produced the original prymnesin-1 and -2, whereas four strains produced the novel B-type prymnesin. In total 13 further prymnesin analogues differing in their core backbone and chlorination and glycosylation patterns could be tentatively detected by LC-MS/HRMS, including a likely C-type prymnesin in five strains. Altogether, our work indicates that evolution of prymnesins has yielded a diverse family of fish-killing toxins that occurs around the globe and has significant ecological and economic impact.

  1. Perception of words and pitch patterns in song and speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerrill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words, pitch and rhythm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the brain activity patterns of six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; as well as the pure musical or speech rhythm.Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and intraparietal sulcus (IPS in processing song and speech. The left IFG was involved in word- and pitch-related processing in speech, the right IFG in processing pitch in song.Furthermore, the IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the activity of IFG and IPS.

  2. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    OpenAIRE

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson,; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved...

  3. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stochastic wind turbine modeling for individual pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    By pitching the blades of a wind turbine individually it is possible to attenuate the asymmetric loads caused by a non-uniform wind field - this is denoted individual pitch control. In this work we investigate how to set up a simplified stochastic and deterministic description of the wind...... and a simplified description of the aerodynamics with sufficient detail to design model-based individual pitch controllers. Combined with a simplified model of the wind turbine, we exemplify how to use the model elements to systematically design an individual pitch controller. The design is investigated...

  5. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-03-13

    Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech.

  6. Signal coupling to embedded pitch adapters in silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Artuso, Marina; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Blusk, Steven R.; Brundler Denzer, Ruth; Bugiel, Szymon; Dasgupta, Roma; Dendek, Adam Mateusz; Dey, Biplab; Ely, Scott Edward; Lionetto, Federica; Petruzzo, Marco; Polyakov, Ivan; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Schindler, Heinrich; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stone, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    We have examined the effects of embedded pitch adapters on signal formation in n-substrate silicon microstrip sensors with data from beam tests and simulation. According to simulation, the presence of the pitch adapter metal layer changes the electric field inside the sensor, resulting in slowed signal formation on the nearby strips and a pick-up effect on the pitch adapter. This can result in an inefficiency to detect particles passing through the pitch adapter region. All these effects have been observed in the beam test data.

  7. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    OpenAIRE

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved...

  8. Comparison of electroglottographic and acoustic analysis of pitch perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBlance, G R; Maves, M D; Scialfa, T M; Eitnier, C M; Steckol, K F

    1992-11-01

    Pitch perturbation is a measure of the cycle-to-cycle variation in vocal fold vibration. Perturbation can be assessed by means of electroglottographic or acoustic signals. The purpose of this study was to determine if these two analysis techniques are equivalent measures. The Laryngograph, an electroglottograph, and the Visi-Pitch, an acoustic analyzer, were used to measure pitch perturbation in 80 dysphonic subjects. Both instruments use Koike's formula to calculate relative average perturbation. While intra-subject variability appeared erratic, statistical analysis of intersubject data indicated that the two instruments provided an equivalent measure of pitch perturbation.

  9. Robust Pitch Estimation Using an Optimal Filter on Frequency Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch of such sig...... against different noise situations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed MVDR method outperforms the state-of-the-art weighted least squares (WLS) pitch estimator in colored noise and has robust pitch estimates against missing harmonics in some time-frames....

  10. On the pitch of dialogue in Chinese Putonghua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Maolin; LIN Maocan; LI Aijun

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the naturalness of TTS speech so as to represent the cadence of natural speech, it is necessary to have a study on the pitch of spontaneous speech. Based on the 973 telephone corpus, the pitch ranges and pitch registers of 1084 intonation phrases are analyzed. It is found that intonation phrases can be classified according to their ranges and registers, and this is related to their positions in dialogue exchange. Compared with read speech, the pitch patterns in dialogue are more variable.

  11. Representational momentum in memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyd, J J; Kelly, M H; DeKay, M L

    1990-11-01

    When a visual pattern is displayed at successively different orientations such that a rotation or translation is implied, an observer's memory for the final position is displaced forward. This phenomenon of representational momentum shares some similarities with physical momentum. For instance, the amount of memory shift is proportional to the implied velocity of the inducing display; representational momentum is specifically proportional to the final, not the average, velocity; representational momentum follows a continuous stopping function for the first 250 ms or so of the retention interval. In a previous paper (Kelly & Freyd, 1987) we demonstrated a forward memory asymmetry using implied changes in pitch, for subjects without formal musical training. In the current paper we replicate our earlier finding and show that the forward memory asymmetry occurs for subjects with formal musical training as well (Experiment 1). We then show the structural similarity between representational momentum in memory for pitch with previous reports of parametric effects using visual stimuli. We report a velocity effect for auditory momentum (Experiment 2), we demonstrate specifically that the velocity effect depends on the implied acceleration (Experiment 3), and we show that the stopping function for auditory momentum is qualitatively the same as that for visual momentum (Experiment 4). We consider the implications of these results for theories of mental representation.

  12. Pitch Correlogram Clustering for Fast Speaker Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jhanwar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian mixture models (GMMs are commonly used in text-independent speaker identification systems. However, for large speaker databases, their high computational run-time limits their use in online or real-time speaker identification situations. Two-stage identification systems, in which the database is partitioned into clusters based on some proximity criteria and only a single-cluster GMM is run in every test, have been suggested in literature to speed up the identification process. However, most clustering algorithms used have shown limited success, apparently because the clustering and GMM feature spaces used are derived from similar speech characteristics. This paper presents a new clustering approach based on the concept of a pitch correlogram that captures frame-to-frame pitch variations of a speaker rather than short-time spectral characteristics like cepstral coefficient, spectral slopes, and so forth. The effectiveness of this two-stage identification process is demonstrated on the IVIE corpus of 110 speakers. The overall system achieves a run-time advantage of 500% as well as a 10% reduction of error in overall speaker identification.

  13. Acoustic correlates of Japanese pitch accent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yukiko

    2005-09-01

    Acoustic correlates of Japanese pitch accent were investigated using bimoraic/disyllabic pairs of words that are identical except for their accent patterns. For example, /hana/ ``flower'' and /hana/ ``nose'' have the same phonological shape and pitch levels (low-high) yet they differ in that ``flower'' is accented but ``nose'' is unaccented. The most notable acoustic difference between the two accent patterns is realized by the F0 of the following word when there is one. There have been debates about whether the two accent patterns are acoustically different when the following word is excluded. It has been proposed that the F0 maximum is higher, and/or the F0 movement is larger for the accented words. While previous studies used only a few pairs of words, this study tests all 20 pairs of words found by searching a computerized dictionary [Amano and Kondo (1999)] that had a relatively high word familiarity. The F0 maximum and movement were measured in the 20 pairs of words as produced by native speakers of Tokyo Japanese (males and females) in isolation and two frame sentences. Implications of their results for the nature of accent in Japanese and the perception of accent will be discussed.

  14. Doped spin ladders under magnetic field; Echelles de spins dopees sous champ magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, G

    2007-07-15

    This thesis deals with the physics of doped two-leg ladders which are a quasi one-dimensional and unconventional superconductor. We particularly focus on the properties under magnetic field. Models for strongly correlated electrons on ladders are studied using exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Results are also enlightened by using the bosonization technique. Taking into account a ring exchange it highlights the relation between the pairing of holes and the spin gap. Its influence on the dynamics of the magnetic fluctuations is also tackled. Afterwards, these excitations are probed by the magnetic field by coupling it to the spin degree of freedom of the electrons through Zeeman effect. We show the existence of doping-dependent magnetization plateaus and also the presence of an inhomogeneous superconducting phase (FFLO phase) associated with an exceeding of the Pauli limit. When a flux passes through the ladder, the magnetic field couples to the charge degree of freedom of the electrons via orbital effect. The diamagnetic response of the doped ladder probes the commensurate phases of the t-J model at low J/t. Algebraic transverse current fluctuations are also found once the field is turned on. Lastly, we report numerical evidences of a molecular superfluid phase in the 3/2-spin attractive Hubbard model: at a density low enough, bound states of four fermions, called quartets, acquire dominant superfluid fluctuations. The observed competition between the superfluid and density fluctuations is connected to the physics of doped ladders. (author)

  15. Biomechanical analysis of loading/unloading a ladder on a truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Carnaz, Leticia; de Miranda, Luiz Carlos; Marklin, Richard William; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil

    2012-01-01

    Loading/unloading a ladder on vehicles are frequent tasks and involve overhead handling that may expose workers to risk factors of shoulder musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate posture, forces required and perceived exertion when loading and unloading the ladder on a utility truck. Thirteen male overhead line workers from an electric utility in Brazil participated in this study. Shoulder elevation angle was measured using inclinometers. The required force to load/unload the ladder was measured by dynamometer. Subjective assessment of the perceived exertion was recorded to compare the exertion reported during the test conditions to the field conditions. The task of loading/unloading the ladder presented risks of shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) to workers because it requires high levels of force (approximately 60% of the maximal force) combined with overhead posture of the shoulders (more than 100° from the neutral posture). Age and height presented to interfere in biomechanical risks presented in load/unload task. There was no significant difference between the subjective exertion during the test conditions and handling the ladder in the field. Ergonomic intervention is recommended to reduce these risks for shoulder MSDs.

  16. The influence of music-elicited emotions and relative pitch on absolute pitch memory for familiar melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Levitin's findings that nonmusicians could produce from memory the absolute pitches of self-selected pop songs have been widely cited in the music psychology literature. These findings suggest that latent absolute pitch (AP) memory may be a more widespread trait within the population than traditional AP labelling ability. However, it has been left unclear what factors may facilitate absolute pitch retention for familiar pieces of music. The aim of the present paper was to investigate factors that may contribute to latent AP memory using Levitin's sung production paradigm for AP memory and comparing results to the outcomes of a pitch labelling task, a relative pitch memory test, measures of music-induced emotions, and various measures of participants' musical backgrounds. Our results suggest that relative pitch memory and the quality and degree of music-elicited emotions impact on latent AP memory.

  17. Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Giuliano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. ERPs were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.

  18. Effect of blank holder pressure on viscous pressure forming aluminum alloy ladder parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠金; 王新云; 王仲仁

    2002-01-01

    Viscous pressure forming (VPF), is suitable for forming difficult-to-form sheet metal parts. An investigation in the effect of blank holder pressure (BHP) on VPF aluminum alloy ladder parts was conducted. Based on experimental and numerical simulation results of the effect of BHP on dimensional accuracy, wall-thickness reduction, forming pressure, material flow and defects (such as wrinkling and fracture) of specimens, the effect patterns of BHP load path on VPF ladder parts were explained. The limits of BHP corresponding to specimens with no defect and with wrinkling or fracture defect were determined. In the limits of formable BHP, the variable load path of BHP was beneficial to drawing blank into the die and decreasing wall-thickness reduction of specimens. The experimental results show that the ladder parts of good surface fineness and high dimensional accuracy can be obtained by variable load paths of BHP.

  19. Nestling diets and provisioning rates of sympatric Golden-fronted and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Evonne L.; Boal, Clint W.; Glasscock, Selma N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined comparative food use and provisioning of Golden-fronted (Melanerpes aurifrons) and Ladder-backed (Picoides scalaris) woodpeckers at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, in San Patricio County, Texas. We combined video surveillance and direct observations to monitor provisioning rates and identify items delivered by adult woodpeckers to nestlings. We collected 328 hours of data at Ladder-backed Woodpecker nest cavities and 230 hours of data at Golden-fronted Woodpecker nest cavities. Ladder-backed Woodpecker nestling diets consisted of 100% animal matter, comprised of invertebrate larvae (99%) and invertebrate adults (nestlings were also high in animal matter (77%) with more invertebrate adults (55%) and fewer invertebrate larvae (27%), but also included vegetable matter (16%). Morisita's measure of overlap suggested a relatively low dietary overlap of 31% between nestlings of these two sympatric woodpecker species. Foraging methods used by these species may explain their low dietary overlap and facilitate their coexistence.

  20. Climbing a ladder: a step-by-step approach to understanding the concept of agroecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta, I; Albizu, I; Amezaga, I; Onaindia, M; Buchner, V; Garbisu, C

    2004-01-01

    Population and individual health is linked to agroecosystem health. To comprehend the concept of agroecosystem health, one should climb a ladder consisting of several successive steps, each rung presenting a certain degree of instability (conceptual difficulty and uncertainty) in an advisable but not inevitable order. Here we suggest a ladder consisting of the following concepts: ecosystem, agroecosystem, biodiversity, sustainability, ecosystem health, and agroecosystem health. Although these concepts are to a certain extent well understood and grasped by scientists, politicians, natural resource managers, and environmentalists, some steps are still highly debatable, unclear, and present a considerable degree of reluctance to be defined and understood. Consequently, much empirical and theoretical effort must be made to construct solid conceptual ladders made up of such steps. In this enterprise, a traditional reductionistic approach confining interpretations to narrow scientific disciplines is unadvisable. Holistic, transdisciplinary approaches are required to reach the desired goal.

  1. Dynamic Covalent Assembly of Peptoid-Based Ladder Oligomers by Vernier Templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Jung, Jae Hwan; Scott, Timothy F

    2015-12-30

    Dynamic covalent chemistry, in conjunction with template-directed assembly, enables the fabrication of extended nanostructures that are both precise and tough. Here we demonstrate the dynamic covalent assembly of peptoid-based molecular ladders with up to 12 rungs via scandium(III)-catalyzed imine metathesis by employing the principle of Vernier templating, where small precursor units with mismatched numbers of complementary functional groups are coreacted to yield larger structures with sizes determined by the respective precursor functionalities. Owing to their monomer diversity and synthetic accessibility, sequence-specific oligopeptoids bearing dynamic covalent pendant groups were employed as precursors for molecular ladder fabrication. The generated structures were characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and gel permeation chromatography, confirming successful molecular ladder fabrication.

  2. Statistical Transfer Matrix Study of the ± J Multileg Ising Ladders and Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Kazuo

    2012-07-01

    Finite temperature properties of symmetric ± J multileg Ising ladders and tubes are investigated using the statistical transfer matrix method. The temperature dependences of the specific heat and entropy are calculated. In the case of tubes, it is found that the ground-state entropy shows an even--odd oscillation with respect to the number of legs. The same type of oscillation is also found in the ground-state energy. On the contrary, these oscillations do not take place in ladders. From the temperature dependence of the specific heat, it is found that the lowest excitation energy is 4J for even-leg ladders while it is 2J otherwise. The physical origin of these behaviors is discussed based on the structure of excitations.

  3. Flux-driven quantum phase transitions in two-leg Kitaev ladder topological superconductor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. Q.; Shao, L. B.; Pan, Y. M.; Shen, R.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate a two-leg ladder topological superconductor system consisting of two parallel Kitaev chains with interchain coupling. It is found that either uniform or staggered fluxes threading through the ladder holes may change the ladder system from the BDI class in the Altland-Zirnbauer (AZ) classification to the D class. After explicitly calculating the topological Z and/or Z2 indices and from the evolution of Majorana zero energy states (MZES), we obtain the flux-dependent phase diagrams, and find that quantum phase transitions between topologically distinct phases characterized by different number of MZES may happen by simply tuning the flux, which could be realized experimentally in ultracold systems.

  4. Statistically Efficient Methods for Pitch and DOA Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, direction-of-arrival (DOA) and pitch estimation of multichannel, periodic sources have been considered as two separate problems. Separate estimation may render the task of resolving sources with similar DOA or pitch impossible, and it may decrease the estimation accuracy. Therefore...

  5. Phototoxic keratoconjunctivitis from coal-tar pitch volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, E A; Stetzer, L; Taphorn, B

    1977-11-25

    Roofers working with coal-tar pitch develop burning eyes and conjunctivitis which they subjectively associate with sun exposure. A coal-tar pitch distillate instilled in the conjunctivae of rabbits produced minimal or mild irritation in the absence of ultraviolet radiation, but irradiation with long-ultraviolet produced marked photophobia and severe keratoconjunctivitis.

  6. Microstructure and properties of pitch-based carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco; Santamaria; Bermejo; Bonhomme; Menendez

    1999-11-01

    Pitches prepared in the laboratory by thermal treatment and air-blowing of a commercial coal-tar pitch were used as matrix precursors of carbon composites using granular petroleum coke, foundry coke, amorphous graphite and anthracite. Pitches were characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, softening point, solubility tests and carbon yield) and light microscopy (mesophase content). Pitch pyrolysis behaviour was monitored by thermogravimetric analysis and from the optical texture of cokes. Pitch wettability to the different carbons, at different temperatures, was also studied. Experimental conditions selected for the preparation of composites were based on pitch composition and properties. The main microstructural features of composites were determined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Composite properties were described in terms of their density, porosity and compressive strength, and related to composite microstructure and the characteristics of the precursors. Thermal treatment and air-blowing of pitch improved carbon composite structure and properties. The lowest porosities and best mechanical properties were observed in those composites obtained with the thermally treated pitches combined with foundry coke and anthracite.

  7. Pitch height modulates visual and haptic bisection performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta eLega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence suggests that pitch height may be represented in a spatial format, having both a vertical and an horizontal representation. The spatial representation of pitch height results into response compatibility effects for which high pitch tones are preferentially associated to up-right responses, and low pitch tones are preferentially associated to down-left responses (i.e., the SMARC effect, with the strength of these associations depending on individuals’ musical skills. In this study we investigated whether listening to tones of different pitch affects the representation of external space, as assessed in a visual and haptic line bisection paradigm, in musicians and non musicians. Low and high pitch tones affected the bisection performance in musicians differently, both when pitch was relevant and irrelevant for the task, and in both the visual and the haptic modality. No effect of pitch height was observed on the bisection performance of non musicians. Moreover, our data also show that musicians present a (supramodal rightward bisection bias in both the visual and the haptic modality, extending previous findings limited to the visual modality, and consistent with the idea that intense practice with musical notation and bimanual instrument training affects hemispheric lateralization.

  8. The structure of mesophase fiber-forming pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirda, V.S.; Khrenkova, T.M.; Zamanova, L.V.; Nikolaeva, L.V.; Fedoseev, S.D. [Institute of Combustible Minerals, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1993-12-31

    The structural features of several pitches, obtained from cracking residues and a pitch-like material, have been investigated as to their fiber-forming ability. The residues were obtained by heat treatments of cracking residues of a residual and two types of distillates. Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction results are discussed.

  9. Binaural Pitch Fusion in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Lina A J; Fowler, Jennifer R; Hartling, Curtis L; Oh, Yonghee

    2017-09-22

    Binaural pitch fusion is the fusion of stimuli that evoke different pitches between the ears into a single auditory image. Individuals who use hearing aids or bimodal cochlear implants (CIs) experience abnormally broad binaural pitch fusion, such that sounds differing in pitch by as much as 3-4 octaves are fused across ears, leading to spectral averaging and speech perception interference. The goal of this study was to determine if adult bilateral CI users also experience broad binaural pitch fusion. Stimuli were pulse trains delivered to individual electrodes. Fusion ranges were measured using simultaneous, dichotic presentation of reference and comparison stimuli in opposite ears, and varying the comparison stimulus to find the range that fused with the reference stimulus. Bilateral CI listeners had binaural pitch fusion ranges varying from 0 to 12 mm (average 6.1 ± 3.9 mm), where 12 mm indicates fusion over all electrodes in the array. No significant correlations of fusion range were observed with any subject factors related to age, hearing loss history, or hearing device history, or with any electrode factors including interaural electrode pitch mismatch, pitch match bandwidth, or within-ear electrode discrimination abilities. Bilateral CI listeners have abnormally broad fusion, similar to hearing aid and bimodal CI listeners. This broad fusion may explain the variability of binaural benefits for speech perception in quiet and in noise in bilateral CI users.

  10. Pitch Perception, Working Memory, and Second-Language Phonological Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posedel, James; Emery, Lisa; Souza, Benjamin; Fountain, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that training on a musical instrument is associated with improvements in working memory and musical pitch perception ability. Good working memory and musical pitch perception ability, in turn, have been linked to certain aspects of language production. The current study examines whether working memory and/or pitch…

  11. Global and Local Pitch Perception in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; George, Florence; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated global versus local pitch pattern perception in children with dyslexia aged between 8 and 11 years. Children listened to two consecutive 4-tone pitch sequences while performing a same/different task. On the different trials, sequences either preserved the contour (local condition) or they violated the contour (global…

  12. Pitch Perception, Working Memory, and Second-Language Phonological Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posedel, James; Emery, Lisa; Souza, Benjamin; Fountain, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that training on a musical instrument is associated with improvements in working memory and musical pitch perception ability. Good working memory and musical pitch perception ability, in turn, have been linked to certain aspects of language production. The current study examines whether working memory and/or pitch…

  13. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and reversible pitch propellers. (a) No single failure or malfunction in the propeller system will result in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch...

  14. Pointed and plateau-shaped pitch accents in North Frisian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Hoekstra, Jarich

    2015-01-01

    for language documentation and conservation purposes. We selected a small part of this corpus – interviews of 10 elderly speakers – and conducted multiparametric F0 and duration measurements, focusing on nuclear rising-falling pitch accent patterns. We found strong evidence for a phonological pitch...

  15. Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate...

  16. Pitch Gestures in Generative Modeling of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Generative models of music are in need of performance and gesture additions, i.e. inclusions of subtle temporal and dynamic alterations, and gestures so as to render the music musical. While much of the research regarding music generation is based on music theory, the work presented here is based...... on the temporal perception, which is divided into three parts, the immediate (subchunk), the short-term memory (chunk), and the superchunk. By review of the relevant temporal perception literature, the necessary performance elements to add in the metrical generative model, related to the chunk memory......, are obtained. In particular, the pitch gestures are modeled as rising, falling, or as arches with positive or negative peaks....

  17. Development of Single- and Double-sided Ladders for the ILD Vertex Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Baudot, Jerome; Chon-Sen, Nathalie; Dulinski, Wojciech; Hegner, Franziska; Gelin-Galibel, Marie; Gauld, Rhorry; Goffe, Mathieu; Goldstein, Joel; Gregor, Ingrid; Hu-Guo, Christine; Koetz, Ulrich; Nomerotski, Andrei; Winter, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We discuss two projects exploring the integration of thin CMOS pixel sensors in order to prototype ladders matching the geometry needed for the ILD vertex detector. The PLUME project has designed and fabricated full-size and fully functional double- sided layers which currently reach 0.6 % X0 and aim for 0.3 % X0 in mid-2012. Another approach, SERNWIETE, consists in wrapping the sensors in a polyimide-based micro-cable to obtain a supportless single-sided ladder with a material budget around 0.15 % X0. First promising samples have been produced and the full-size prototype is expected in spring 2012.

  18. Climb the Green Ladder Make Your Company and Career More Sustainable

    CERN Document Server

    Fetzer, Amy V

    2009-01-01

    Want to make your workplace more sustainable, get ahead in your career and improve your reputation?. Want to help your company or organisation save money, boost profits and improve its brand?. Whatever your level or industry, from sales and management to government and teaching, Climb The Green Ladder offers practical knowledge to help you make a difference. Whether you'd like to transform your entire company or just get your colleagues recycling, Climb The Green Ladder will provide you with the tools and motivation to move your company (and career) towards a more successful, more sustainable

  19. Explaining choice option attractiveness by beliefs elicited by the laddering method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2005-01-01

    option. The laddering method is used to elicit beliefs of all three types for a choice between conventional and organic pork. As a benchmark, beliefs were also elicited in the traditional way advocated by Ajzen and Fishbein. Using both sets of beliefs in a subsequent survey, it was shown that the beliefs...... elicited by the laddering method increase explanatory power with regard to choice option attractiveness beyond the beliefs elicited by the Ajzen and Fishbein method, and that this additional explanatory power was due to those beliefs which relate the choice option to concepts with a higher level...

  20. Number of embeddings of circular and Mbius ladders on surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    There are many results on the flexibility of(general) embeddings of graphs,but few are known about that of strong embeddings.In this paper,we study the flexibility of strong embeddings of circular and Mbius ladders on the projective plane and the Klein bottle by using the joint tree model of embeddings.The numbers of(nonequivalent) general embeddings and strong embeddings of circular and Mbius ladders on these two nonorientable surfaces are obtained,respectively.And the structures of those strong embeddings are described.

  1. Magnetic Long-Range Order and Colossal Magnetoresistance Effect in Double Exchange Ladders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马冬梅; 邹良剑

    2001-01-01

    By applying Bogoliubov's ineguality to double-exchange(DE) ladders, we show that the ferromagnetic(FM) order is absent in the new DE systems at finite temperatures. The incorporation of Jahn-Teller electron-phonon coupling, orbital degeneracy and on-site Coulomb interaction with the DE interaction do not preserve these orders. The long-wavelength thermal fluctuations of the spins oversome the DEFM correlation and destroy the FM orders. The implication of the absence of FM order on the transport of the DE ladders is discussed.

  2. Numerical Study of Luttinger Liquid Regime of Two-Leg Hubbard Ladders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Kuan; LIU Yu-Liang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate two-leg Hubbard ladders in the Luttinger liquid regime by the density-matrix renormalization group method. Applicability of the bond concept in this region is discussed in a quantitative comparison of power-law decay exponents, energy components and anti-bond occupations between ladders and chains. The interaction between bond and anti-bond bands induced by finite Hubbard repulsion U is emphasized by our numerical results. Our quantitative results are useful for the justification of the validity of various analytical approaches.

  3. Perancangan Permainan Word Ladder Menggunakan Algoritma Depth First Search Pada Android

    OpenAIRE

    Rangkuti, Rafiqa Ulfah

    2014-01-01

    Word ladder is a game to make a word chain by search a new word from the previous word with only differ by one letter. Depth first search algorithm can be implemented into an application to search the words. Depth first search algorithm is a searching method on tree structure by explore a branch of tree deeply until the solution is found. The application is built to help the player in finding the right words to make a word chain in the word ladder game. The result obtained from the applicatio...

  4. The Plastic Surgery Compass: Navigating the Reconstructive Ladder in the Personalized Health Care Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The reconstructive ladder and the reconstructive elevator have withstood the test of time as didactic tools for resident education. Over time, many alternative models have been suggested to incorporate the technological advances in plastic surgery, but none of them have focused on the patient. Changes in practice and the trend toward personalized health care demand a 360-degree evaluation and solution of surgical problems incorporating patient-specific characteristics. We, therefore, suggest the concept of the plastic surgery compass to navigate the ladder. PMID:27757348

  5. Pitch-Perfect: How Do Flies Control Their Pitch Angle During Aerial Stumbles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Samuel; Canale, Luca; Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-11-01

    The successful flight of flapping-wing insects is contingent upon a complex and beautiful relationship between sensory input, neural response, and muscular actuation. In particular, the inherent instabilities of flapping-wing flight require insects like D. melanogaster to constantly sense, process, and adjust for in-flight stumbles. Here we present an analysis of the mechanisms for pitch control in D. melanogaster. By gluing small ferromagnetic pins to the backs of the flies and applying an external magnetic field, we induce torques along the flies' pitch axis during free flight. Using an automated hull reconstruction technique developed in the lab, we analyze these torque events and the flies' subsequent recoveries in order to characterize the flies' response to external perturbations. Ultimately, we aim to develop a reduced-order controller model that will capture the salient aspects of the flies' recovery mechanism.

  6. Two LQRI based Blade Pitch Controls for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsu Nam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As the wind turbine size has been increasing and their mechanical components are built lighter, the reduction of the structural loads becomes a very important task of wind turbine control in addition to maximum wind power capture. In this paper, we present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI, and utilize Kalman filters to estimate system states and wind speed. Compared to previous works in this area, our pitch control algorithms can control rotor speed and blade bending moments at the same time to improve the trade-off between rotor speed regulation and load reduction, while both collective and individual pitch controls can be designed separately. Simulation results show that the proposed collective and individual pitch controllers achieve very good rotor speed regulation and significant reduction of blade bending moments.

  7. Recent trends in binder pitches for reduction anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel R.

    1993-11-01

    The properties of coal tar pitches have changed more in the last eight years than in the previous 40. Over the same period of time, the understanding of the influence of these properties on anodes has increased greatly. The definition of a good-quality pitch for the manufacture of anodes for the primary aluminum industry has changed radically. Pitches that would have been rejected 15 years ago are now preferred and are in high demand. Changes have been led in equal proportion by the pitch producers and by the primary aluminum industry. The increased pace of change will continue as the quest for higher performance is unending. Further advances will be achieved through closer cooperation between producer and user to define and redefine pitch quality in terms of what is the best compromise between what the customer wants and what the producer can practicably manufacture.

  8. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    ) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones...... for the individual pitch-discrimination abilities, the musically trained listeners still allocated lower processing effort than did the non-musicians to perform the task at the same performance level. This finding suggests an enhanced pitch representation along the auditory system in musicians, possibly as a result......Understanding how the human auditory system processes the physical properties of an acoustical stimulus to give rise to a pitch percept is a fascinating aspect of hearing research. Since most natural sounds are harmonic complex tones, this work focused on the nature of pitch-relevant cues...

  9. H-Darrieus Wind Turbine with Blade Pitch Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paraschivoiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for computing the optimal variation of the blades' pitch angle of an H-Darrieus wind turbine that maximizes its torque at given operational conditions is proposed and presented along with the results obtained on a 7 kW prototype. The CARDAAV code, based on the “Double-Multiple Streamtube” model developed by the first author, is used to determine the performances of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine. This was coupled with a genetic algorithm optimizer. The azimuthal variation of the blades' pitch angle is modeled with an analytical function whose coefficients are used as variables in the optimization process. Two types of variations were considered for the pitch angle: a simple sinusoidal one and one which is more general, relating closely the blades' pitch to the local flow conditions along their circular path. A gain of almost 30% in the annual energy production was obtained with the polynomial optimal pitch control.

  10. Wind turbine pitch control using ICPSO-PID algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Tian, Qiangqiang; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    of improved cooperative particle swarm optimization (ICPSO) and PID, subsequently, it was used to tune the pitch controller parameters; thus the difficulty in PID tuning was removed when a wind speed was above the rated speed. It was indicated that the proposed optimization algorithm can tune the pitch...... with ICPSO-PID algorithm has a smaller overshoot, a shorter tuning time and better robustness. The design method proposed in the paper can be applied in a practical electro-hydraulic pitch control system for WTG......., a pitch controller was designed based on power and wind speed and by considering the inertia and delay characteristics of a pitch-control system to achieve a constant power output when a wind speed was beyond the rated one. A novel ICPSO-PID control algorithm was proposed based on a combination...

  11. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien;

    , specifically those showing enhanced pitch cues (i.e., musicians) and those typically having disrupted pitch cues (i.e., hearing-impaired listeners). In particular, two main topics were addressed: the relative importance of resolved and unresolved harmonics for normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI......) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones...... discrimination to that of NH listeners. In the second part of this work, behavioral and objective measures of pitch discrimination were carried out in musicians and non-musicians. Musicians showed an increased pitch-discrimination performance relative to non-musicians for both resolved and unresolved harmonics...

  12. 78 FR 57873 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate-Sales Contract and Addendums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Sales...-Owned Real Estate--Sales Contract and Addendums. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0306. Type of Request (i.e...

  13. HuD interacts with Bdnf mRNA and is essential for activity-induced BDNF synthesis in dendrites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Vanevski

    Full Text Available Highly specific activity-dependent neuronal responses are necessary for modulating synapses to facilitate learning and memory. We present evidence linking a number of important processes involved in regulating synaptic plasticity, suggesting a mechanistic pathway whereby activity-dependent signaling, likely through protein kinase C (PKC-mediated phosphorylation of HuD, can relieve basal repression of Bdnf mRNA translation in dendrites, allowing for increased TrkB signaling and synaptic remodeling. We demonstrate that the neuronal ELAV family of RNA binding proteins associates in vivo with several Bdnf mRNA isoforms present in the adult brain in an activity-dependent manner, and that one member, HuD, interacts directly with sequences in the long Bdnf 3' untranslated region (3'UTR and co-localizes with Bdnf mRNA in dendrites of hippocampal neurons. Activation of PKC leads to increased dendritic translation of mRNAs containing the long Bdnf 3'UTR, a process that is dependent on the presence of HuD and its phosphorylation at threonine residues 149 and/or 165. Thus, we found a direct effect of HuD on regulating translation of dendritic Bdnf mRNAs to mediate local and activity-dependent increases in dendritic BDNF synthesis.

  14. 76 FR 35461 - Notice of Web Availability: Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for HUD's Fiscal Year (FY) 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Year (FY) 2011 Capacity Building for Sustainable Communities Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief of the... HUD's FY2011 Capacity Building for Sustainable Communities Program NOFA. Specifically, this NOFA...

  15. 77 FR 30546 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Form HUD-40221(rev) “LOCCS/VRS Self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...) ``LOCCS/VRS Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program Payment Voucher'' AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Payment Voucher'' prior to requesting a drawdown of funds through LOCCS/VRS. Title of Proposal: Form HUD-40221(rev) ``LOCCS/VRS Self-help Homeownership Opportunity Program Payment Voucher''. OMB Control...

  16. 78 FR 79473 - 60 Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Reporting for HUD Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60 Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Reporting for HUD... soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. DATES: Comment Due Date: February 28, 2014. ADDRESSES... hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay...

  17. 75 FR 54900 - Notice of HUD-Held Multifamily and Healthcare Loan Sale (MHLS 2010-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... mortgage loans. SUMMARY: This notice announces HUD's intention to sell certain unsubsidized multifamily and... the opportunity to purchase assets directly from the Department. It is anticipated that any direct... its intention to sell in MHLS 2010-2 certain unsubsidized mortgage loans (Mortgage Loans) secured...

  18. Ficaria verna Huds. extracts and their β-cyclodextrin supramolecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hădărugă Nicoleta G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obtaining new pharmaceutical materials with enhanced properties by using natural compounds and environment-friendly methods is a continuous goal for scientists. Ficaria verna Huds. is a widespread perennial plant with applications in the treat of haemorrhoids and to cure piles; it has also anti-inflammatory, astringent, and antibiotic properties. The goal of the present study is the obtaining and characterization of new F. verna extract/β-cyclodextrin complexes by using only natural compounds, solvents, and environment-friendly methods in order to increase the quality and acceptability versus toxicity indicator. Thus, the flavonoid content (as quercetin of Ficaria verna Huds. flowers and leaves from the West side of Romania was determined and correlated with their antioxidant activity. Further, the possibility of obtaining β-cyclodextrin supramolecular systems was studied. Results F. verna flowers and leaves extracts were obtained by semi-continuous solid-liquid extraction. The raw concentrated extract was spectrophotometrically analyzed in order to quantify the flavonoids from plant parts and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The F. verna extracts were used for obtaining β-cyclodextrin complexes; these were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Karl Fischer water titration; spectrophotometry was used in order to quantifying the flavonoids and evaluates the antioxidant activity. A higher concentration of flavonoids of 0.5% was determined in complexes obtained by crystallisation method, while only a half of this value was calculated for kneading method. The antioxidant activity of these complexes was correlated with the flavonoid content and this parameter reveals possible controlled release properties. Conclusions The flavonoid content of F. verna Huds. from the West side of Romania (Banat county is approximately the same in flowers and leaves, being situated at a medium value among other

  19. RNA-binding protein HuD reduces triglyceride production in pancreatic β cells by enhancing the expression of insulin-induced gene 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chongtae; Lee, Heejin; Kang, Hoin; Shin, Jung Jae; Tak, Hyosun; Kim, Wook; Gorospe, Myriam; Lee, Eun Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Although triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the pancreas leads to β-cell dysfunction and raises the chance to develop metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the molecular mechanisms whereby intracellular TG levels are regulated in pancreatic β cells have not been fully elucidated. Here, we present evidence that the RNA-binding protein HuD regulates TG production in pancreatic β cells. Mouse insulinoma βTC6 cells stably expressing a small hairpin RNA targeting HuD (shHuD) (βTC6-shHuD) contained higher TG levels compared to control cells. Moreover, downregulation of HuD resulted in a decrease in insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) levels but not in the levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), a key transcription factor for lipid production. We identified Insig1 mRNA as a direct target of HuD by using ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) and biotin pulldown analyses. By associating with the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of Insig1 mRNA, HuD promoted INSIG1 translation; accordingly, HuD downregulation reduced while ectopic HuD expression increased INSIG1 levels. We further observed that HuD downregulation facilitated the nuclear localization of SREBP1c, thereby increasing the transcriptional activity of SREBP1c and the expression of target genes involved in lipogenesis; likewise, we observed lower INSIG1 levels in the pancreatic islets of HuD-null mice. Taken together, our results indicate that HuD functions as a novel repressor of lipid synthesis in pancreatic β cells.

  20. High brightness MEMS mirror based head-up display (HUD) modules with wireless data streaming capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Veljko; Kasturi, Abhishek; Hachtel, Volker

    2015-02-01

    A high brightness Head-Up Display (HUD) module was demonstrated with a fast, dual-axis MEMS mirror that displays vector images and text, utilizing its ~8kHz bandwidth on both axes. Two methodologies were evaluated: in one, the mirror steers a laser at wide angles of phone applications is demonstrated, utilizing the mobile device both for content generation based on various messages or data, and for content streaming to the MEMS controller via Bluetooth interface. The display unit is highly resistant to vibrations and shock, and requires only ~1.5W to operate, even with content readable in sunlit outdoor conditions. The low power requirement is in part due to a vector graphics approach, allowing the efficient use of laser power, and also due to the use of a single, relatively high efficiency laser and simple optics.

  1. OCCURRENCE OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN SOILS FROM FESTUCA PRATENSIS HUDS. CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kolczarek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi are the largest group of microorganisms existing in the soil environment. Occurrence and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi in soil is dependent on many factors affecting the soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the species composition and the intensity of the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soils from monoculture crops of Festuca pratensis Huds. The study material consisted of soil samples taken from the experiment conducted in two experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivars Study. The insecticides fungi were isolated from soil using a method of the selective substrate. Three species of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae were isolated from the study soils using the selective medium.

  2. Entrepreneurial Progress: Climbing The Entrepreneurial Ladder in Europe and The US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. van der Zwan (Peter); I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Grilo (Isabel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate which countries have the highest potential to achieve entrepreneurial progress. This progress is defined using an entrepreneurial ladder with five successive steps: “never thought about starting a business”, “thinking about starting a business”, “taking steps to start a bu

  3. Commutation-relation-preserving ladder operators for propagating optical fields in nonuniform lossy media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka;

    2015-01-01

    We have recently developed a quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism to describe the quantum aspects of local thermal balance formation and to formulate the electromagnetic field ladder operators so that they no longer exhibit the anomalies reported for resonant structures. Here we...

  4. Using career ladders to motivate and retain employees: an implementation success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garletts, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    In October 2000, Phoenix-based Sonora Quest Laboratories, LLC (SQL), commissioned The Gelfond Group to survey SQL employees. Responding to negative survey scores, SQL developed and implemented an entry-level career ladder for line staff of the specimen management/referral testing department. The program was piloted in February 2001, and was implemented fully shortly thereafter. The ladder was designed to provide job enrichment opportunities through company-conducted training and advancement provisions. It contained requirements for productivity and quality of work performed in addition to increasingly rigorous training and competency documentation. Employees were accountable for their own advancement and for ensuring that all documentation was complete. Advancement was automatic once requirements were completed. Pay increases accompanied each advancement on a predetermined scale. At the end of 12 months, employee turnover dropped from 39% to less than 20% annually. Both productivity and morale improved, and results on a second employee survey indicated dramatic improvement in five key areas. The career ladder concept has been replicated successfully in several other departments, including phlebotomy, and a six-tiered ladder is under development for the clinical laboratory. It will encompass CLA, MLT, and MT positions from entry level to technical coordinator.

  5. Expressions of excited states by triplet dimers in heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladders. Analysis of magnetic Raman spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Yuhei; Tada, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Toshihiko [Chiba Univ., Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Characteristic properties of excited states in antiferromagnetic ladder systems with spin-1/2 are investigated in relation with the theoretical analysis of the quite asymmetric shape of the peak for twice the spin gap {delta}{sub g} in magnetic Raman spectra. Here, the structure of exchange-scattering spectra are reproduced by the numerical calculation for the finite Heisenberg ladder, in which legs with antiferromagnetic bond J{sub c} is connected by rungs with antiferromagnetic bond J{sub r}. The singlet ground state in this system can be expressed as the ordering of singlet dimers on rungs in the ladder for J{sub c}/J{sub r} {yields} +0. In fact, the value of 0.1 is adopted to be the ratio of J{sub c}/J{sub r} in order to discuss the experimental work of the magnetic Raman spectra for the ladder of V{sup 4+} ions in the oxide compound CaV{sub 2}O{sub 5} reported in Konstantinovic et al., Phys. Rev. B61 (2000), 15185. As for this peak of 2{delta}{sub g}, quite an asymmetric observed shape is explained by the present calculation. According to the analysis of spectra, we discuss the expression of excited states by triplet dimers on rungs: The dominant contribution of the pair of triplet dimers on adjacent rungs to the corresponding state for 2{delta}{sub g} peak is pointed out. (author)

  6. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin

    2001-01-01

    Laddering and means-end chains are one of the most promising developments in consumer research since the 1980s. It is an approach that takes consumers' individuality seriously but, nevertheless, comes up with quantitative results. It is rooted in a cognitive approach, and allows for emotional and...

  7. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin

    Executive summary 1. Means-end chains are a device used to understand how consumers mentally link products to self-relevant consequences. Means-end chains are usually measured by a method called laddering. 2. Means-end chains may fall short of tapping all relevant aspects of how consumers think a...

  8. Climbing the "Agricultural Ladder": Social Mobility and Motivations for Migration in an Ecuadorian Colonist Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Diane C.; Rudel, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    During the early decades of the 20th century in the American Midwest young farming families achieved social mobility by moving up an 'agricultural ladder' through a series of rungs, from unpaid family work, to wage labor, to tenant farming, to a mortgaged farm, and, finally, to full ownership of a farm. In this paper we use the concept of an…

  9. Measuring subjective meaning structures by the laddering method: Theoretical considerations and methodological problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    Starting from a general model of measuring cognitive structures for predicting consumer behaviour, we discuss laddering as a possible method to obtain estimates of consumption-relevant cognitive structures which will have predictive validity. Four criteria for valid measurement are derived...

  10. Laughlin-like States in Bosonic and Fermionic Atomic Synthetic Ladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Calvanese Strinati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of interactions and static gauge fields plays a pivotal role in our understanding of strongly correlated quantum matter. Cold atomic gases endowed with a synthetic dimension are emerging as an ideal platform to experimentally address this interplay in quasi-one-dimensional systems. A fundamental question is whether these setups can give access to pristine two-dimensional phenomena, such as the fractional quantum Hall effect, and how. We show that unambiguous signatures of bosonic and fermionic Laughlin-like states can be observed and characterized in synthetic ladders. We theoretically diagnose these Laughlin-like states focusing on the chiral current flowing in the ladder, on the central charge of the low-energy theory, and on the properties of the entanglement entropy. Remarkably, Laughlin-like states are separated from conventional liquids by Lifschitz-type transitions, characterized by sharp discontinuities in the current profiles, which we address using extensive simulations based on matrix-product states. Our work provides a qualitative and quantitative guideline towards the observability and understanding of strongly correlated states of matter in synthetic ladders. In particular, we unveil how state-of-the-art experimental settings constitute an ideal starting point to progressively tackle two-dimensional strongly interacting systems from a ladder viewpoint, opening a new perspective for the observation of non-Abelian states of matter.

  11. Comparison of up ladder type and terraced type normalizing heat treatments of heavy cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建亮; 彭艳; 邱丑武; 张永振

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mixed grain and coarse grain structure, the long heat treatment cycle and large energy conservation in the heavy cylinder heat treatment process, the up ladder type and terraced type normalizing heat treatment of heavy cylinder after rolling were put forward. The microstructure and mechanical properties of 2.25Cr1Mo0.25V steel after the up ladder type normalizing, terraced type normalizing and isothermal type normalizing were studied. Experimental results show that: 1) For the grain refinement, the twice terraced type normalizing is better than the up ladder type and isothermal type normalizing, and the average grain size is 18μm; 2) The yield strength, tensile strength and−30 °C charpy impact energy after twice terraced type normalizing are 681 MPa, 768 MPa and 181 J, respectively, and the mechanical properties are better than those of the up ladder type and isothermal type normalizing; 3) Compared with the isothermal type normalizing, the holding time of terraced type normalizing can be shortened by 30%, which greatly reduces the energy consumption.

  12. ABC of ladder operators for rationally extended quantum harmonic oscillator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariñena, José F.; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2017-07-01

    The problem of construction of ladder operators for rationally extended quantum harmonic oscillator (REQHO) systems of a general form is investigated in the light of existence of different schemes of the Darboux-Crum-Krein-Adler transformations by which such systems can be generated from the quantum harmonic oscillator. Any REQHO system is characterized by the number of separated states in its spectrum, the number of ‘valence bands’ in which the separated states are organized, and by the total number of the missing energy levels and their position. All these peculiarities of a REQHO system are shown to be detected and reflected by a trinity (A^+/- , B^+/- , C^+/-) of the basic (primary) lowering and raising ladder operators related between themselves by certain algebraic identities with coefficients polynomially-dependent on the Hamiltonian. We show that all the secondary, higher-order ladder operators are obtainable by a composition of the basic ladder operators of the trinity which form the set of the spectrum-generating operators. Each trinity, in turn, can be constructed from the intertwining operators of the two complementary minimal schemes of the Darboux-Crum-Krein-Adler transformations.

  13. Evaluating the contributions of the CO2 Performance Ladder to improved energy management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14111634X

    2014-01-01

    The CO2 Performance Ladder is a certifiable scheme for energy management and carbon reporting that is used by several Dutch public authorities as a tool for green public procurement. Achieving certification gives companies a competitive advantage in awarding contracts. This paper aims at evaluating

  14. Healthcare organization-education partnerships and career ladder programs for health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization.

  15. On the Orchard crossing number of prisms, ladders and other related graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Feder, Elie

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the Orchard crossing number of some families of graphs which are based on cycles. These include disjoint cycles, cycles which share a vertex and cycles which share an edge. Specifically, we focus on the prism and ladder graphs.

  16. Gap Caused by Strong Pairing in the Ladder Model of DNA Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Dong-Sheng; ZHU Chen-Ping; ZHANG Long-Qiang; HE Da-Ren; WANG Bing-Hong

    2008-01-01

    By directly diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the ladder model of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules,the density of statcs is obtained.It is found that DNA behaves as a conductor when the interchain hopping is smaller than twice the intrachain one,otherwise,DNA behaves as a semiconductor.

  17. A Demonstration of Helping Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability Climb Ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok Hoe Anthony; Varahan, Jayashree Lakshmi; Loh, Peng Loong Daniel; Tan, Sey Ing

    2011-01-01

    A research team at a vocational school in Singapore, catering mainly to students between the ages of 17-21 with mild intellectual disability, studied how to best address the challenge of enabling students to learn how to climb ladders (a skill necessary at many job placements). They documented the approach used and suggested extrapolations and…

  18. The physiological effect of a 'climb assist' device on vertical ladder climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Peter James; Burgess, Katherine; Cooper, Kay; Stewart, Arthur D

    2016-10-15

    'Climb assist' claims to reduce strain when climbing ladders; however, no research has yet substantiated this. The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological and psychophysical effects of climb assist on 30 m ladder climbing at a minimum acceptable speed. Eight participants (six male and two female) climbed a 30 m ladder at 24 rungs per minute with and without climb assist, and were monitored for heart rate (HR), [Formula: see text]O2 and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). All three variables decreased significantly (p climb assist with [Formula: see text]O2 decreasing by 22.5%, HR by 14.8% and RPE decreasing by a mean of 2.3 units on the 10-point Borg scale. When descending the ladder [Formula: see text]O2 decreased by a mean of 42% compared to that ascending. At the minimal acceptable climbing speed climb assist decreases the physiological strain on climbers, as demonstrated by reduced [Formula: see text]O2, HR and perceived exertion. Practitioner Summary: 'Climb assist' systems claim to reduce strain when climbing, however; no research has yet been published to substantiate this. A crossover study compared [Formula: see text]O2, HR and RPE at a minimal acceptable climbing speed with and without climb assist. Climb assist significantly reduced all variables confirming it reduces strain when climbing.

  19. Avionics Instrument Systems Specialist Career Ladder: AFSCs 32531, 32551, 31571, and 32591. Occupational Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The Avionics Instrument Systems career ladder (AFSC 325X1) provides flight line and shop maintenance training on aircraft instrument systems, electromechancial instruments, components, and test equipment. Duties involve inspecting, removing, installing, repairing, operating, troubleshooting, overhauling, and modifying systems such as flight and…

  20. Explaining match outcome and ladder position in the National Rugby League using team performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Sinclair, Wade; Robertson, Sam

    2017-04-21

    To examine the extent at which match outcome and ladder position could be explained using team performance indicators in the National Rugby League (NRL). The dataset consisted of 13 performance indicators acquired from each NRL team across the 2016 season (n=376 observations). Data was sorted according to apriori match outcome (win/loss) and ladder position (one to 16). Given the binary and categorical nature of the response variables, two analysis approaches were used; a conditional interference classification tree and ordinal regression. Five performance indicators ('try assists', 'all run meters', 'offloads', 'line breaks' and 'dummy half runs') were retained within the classification tree, detecting 66% of the losses and 91% of the wins. A significant negative relationship was noted between ladder position and 'kick metres' (β (SE)=-0.002 (performance indicators provided the greatest explanation of match outcome and ladder position in the NRL. These results could be used by NRL coaches and analysts as a basis for the development of practice conditions and game strategies that may increase their teams' likelihood of success. Beyond rugby league, this study presents analytical techniques that could be applied to other sports when examining the relationships between performance indicators and match derivatives. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laughlin-like States in Bosonic and Fermionic Atomic Synthetic Ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvanese Strinati, Marcello; Cornfeld, Eyal; Rossini, Davide; Barbarino, Simone; Dalmonte, Marcello; Fazio, Rosario; Sela, Eran; Mazza, Leonardo

    2017-04-01

    The combination of interactions and static gauge fields plays a pivotal role in our understanding of strongly correlated quantum matter. Cold atomic gases endowed with a synthetic dimension are emerging as an ideal platform to experimentally address this interplay in quasi-one-dimensional systems. A fundamental question is whether these setups can give access to pristine two-dimensional phenomena, such as the fractional quantum Hall effect, and how. We show that unambiguous signatures of bosonic and fermionic Laughlin-like states can be observed and characterized in synthetic ladders. We theoretically diagnose these Laughlin-like states focusing on the chiral current flowing in the ladder, on the central charge of the low-energy theory, and on the properties of the entanglement entropy. Remarkably, Laughlin-like states are separated from conventional liquids by Lifschitz-type transitions, characterized by sharp discontinuities in the current profiles, which we address using extensive simulations based on matrix-product states. Our work provides a qualitative and quantitative guideline towards the observability and understanding of strongly correlated states of matter in synthetic ladders. In particular, we unveil how state-of-the-art experimental settings constitute an ideal starting point to progressively tackle two-dimensional strongly interacting systems from a ladder viewpoint, opening a new perspective for the observation of non-Abelian states of matter.

  2. NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE PITCHING MOTIONS OF SUPERCAVITATING VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Kai-ping; ZHANG Guang; ZHOU Jing-jun; ZOU Wang; LI Zhen-wang

    2012-01-01

    The pitching motions of supercavitating vehicles could not be avoided due to the lost water buoyancy.In order to have some insight for the design of the supercavitating vehicles,the fixed frequency and free pitching motions are investigated.A numerical predicting method based on the relative motion principle and the non-inertia coordinate system is proposed to simulate the free pitching motions of supercavitating vehicles in the longitudinal plane.Homogeneous and two fluid multiphase models are used to predict the natural and the ventilated supercavitating flows.In the fixed frequency pitching motions,a variety of working conditions are considered,including the pitching angular velocities and the supercavity scales and the results are found to be consistent with the available experimental results in literature.The mesh deformation technology controlled by the moment of momentum equation is adopted to study the free pitching motions and finally to obtain the planing states proposed by Savchenko.The numerical method is validated for predicting the pitching motions of supercavitating vehicles and is found to enjoy better calculation efficiency as comparing with the mesh regeneration technology.

  3. Tune That Beer! Listening for the Pitch of Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Reinoso Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report two experiments designed to assess the key sensory drivers underlying people’s association of a specific auditory pitch with Belgian beer. In particular, we assessed if people would rely mostly on the differences between beers in terms of their relative alcohol strength, or on the contrast between the most salient taste attributes of the different beers. In Experiment 1, the participants rated three bitter beers (differing in alcohol content, using a narrow range of pitch choices (50–500 Hz. The results revealed that the beers were all rated around the same pitch (Mean = 232 Hz, SD = 136 Hz. In Experiment 2, a wider range of pitch choices (50–1500 Hz, along with the addition of a much sweeter beer, revealed that people mostly tend to match beers with bitter-range profiles at significantly lower pitch ranges when compared to the average pitch of a much sweeter beer. These results therefore demonstrate that clear differences in taste attributes lead to distinctly different matches in terms of pitch. Having demonstrated the robustness of the basic crossmodal matching, future research should aim to uncover the basis for such matches and better understand the perceptual effects of matching/non-matching tones on the multisensory drinking experience.

  4. Experiments to investigate lift production mechanisms on pitching flat plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, P. R. R. J.; Babinsky, H.

    2017-01-01

    Pitching flat plates are a useful simplification of flapping wings, and their study can provide useful insights into unsteady force generation. Non-circulatory and circulatory lift producing mechanisms for low Reynolds number pitching flat plates are investigated. A series of experiments are designed to measure forces and study the unsteady flowfield development. Two pitch axis positions are investigated, namely a leading edge and a mid-chord pitch axis. A novel PIV approach using twin laser lightsheets is shown to be effective at acquiring full field of view velocity data when an opaque wing model is used. Leading-edge vortex (LEV) circulations are extracted from velocity field data, using a Lamb-Oseen vortex fitting algorithm. LEV and trailing-edge vortex positions are also extracted. It is shown that the circulation of the LEV, as determined from PIV data, approximately matches the general trend of an unmodified Wagner function for a leading edge pitch axis and a modified Wagner function for a mid-chord pitch axis. Comparison of experimentally measured lift correlates well with the prediction of a reduced-order model for a LE pitch axis.

  5. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athos, E Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-09-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved to have extraordinary pitch-naming ability. The bimodal distribution in pitch-naming ability signifies AP as a distinct perceptual trait, with possible implications for its genetic basis. The wealth of these data has allowed us to uncover unsuspected note-naming irregularities suggestive of a "perceptual magnet" centered at the note "A." In addition, we document a gradual decline in pitch-naming accuracy with age, characterized by a perceptual shift in the "sharp" direction. These findings speak both to the process of acquisition of AP and to its stability.

  6. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  7. Structural changes during pitch-based carbon granular composites carbonisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A.; Santamaria, R.; Granda, M.; Menendez, R. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    This article deals with the study of carbon composites behavior during their carbonization. Composites were prepared using four granular carbons (graphite, anthracite, green petroleum coke, and foundry coke) and four pitches (a commercial impregnating coal-tar pitch, an air-blown and two thermally treated pitches). The evolution of the optical microstructure, porosity, volume, and weight of carbon composites was monitored at different intermediate carbonization temperatures (350, 500, 700, and finally 1000{sup o}C). The porosity of composites increases with carbonization due to volume changes and weight loss of pitches. Weight loss of carbon composites during their carbonization mainly depends on the pitch characteristics and it was slightly influenced by the presence of granular carbon. On the other hand, carbon composites with the commercial coal-tar pitch and foundry coke, anthracite, or graphite deform in the initial stages of carbonization (<350{sup o}C) probably due to the lower porosity of the green pellets and the high amount of low-molecular weight compounds of the pitch. Carbon composites with green petroleum coke underwent important dimensional changes during their carbonization, expanding initially and then shrinking at temperatures above 700{sup o}C. The type of granular carbon strongly influenced the microstructure of the final carbon composite, as a result of its effect on the development of mesophase. Graphite, anthracite and foundry coke delays mesophase development, whereas green petroleum coke accelerates mesophase formation.

  8. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  9. Pitch Angle Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cheng, M;

    2008-01-01

    controller, the mathematical model of the system should be known well. A fuzzy logic pitch angle controller is developed in this paper, in which it does not need well known about the system and the mean wind speed is used to compensate the non-linear sensitivity. The fuzzy logic control strategy may have......Pitch angle control is the most common means for adjusting the aerodynamic torque of the wind turbine when wind speed is above rated speed and various controlling variables may be chosen, such as wind speed, generator speed and generator power. As conventional pitch control usually use PI...

  10. The pitch-heave dynamics of transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, L. M.; Richardson, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis and design of suspensions for vehicles of finite length using pitch-heave models is presented. Dynamic models for the finite length vehicle include the spatial distribution of the guideway input disturbance over the vehicle length, as well as both pitch and heave degrees-of-freedom. Analytical results relate the vehicle front and rear accelerations to the pitch and heave natural frequencies, which are functions of vehicle suspension geometry and mass distribution. The effects of vehicle asymmetry and suspension contact area are evaluated. Design guidelines are presented for the modification of vehicle and suspension parameters to meet alternative ride quality criteria.

  11. Loudness and pitch of Kunqu opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Sundberg, Johan; Kong, Jiangping

    2014-01-01

    Equivalent sound level (Leq), sound pressure level (SPL), and fundamental frequency (F0) are analyzed in each of five Kunqu Opera roles, Young girl and Young woman, Young man, Old man, and Colorful face. Their pitch ranges are similar to those of some western opera singers (alto, alto, tenor, baritone, and baritone, respectively). Differences among tasks, conditions (stage speech, singing, and reading lyrics), singers, and roles are examined. For all singers, Leq of stage speech and singing were considerably higher than that of conversational speech. Interrole differences of Leq among tasks and singers were larger than the intrarole differences. For most roles, time domain variation of SPL differed between roles both in singing and stage speech. In singing, as compared with stage speech, SPL distribution was more concentrated and variation of SPL with time was smaller. With regard to gender and age, male roles had higher mean Leq and lower average F0, MF0, as compared with female roles. Female singers showed a wider F0 distribution for singing than for stage speech, whereas the opposite was true for male singers. The Leq of stage speech was higher than in singing for young personages. Younger female personages showed higher Leq, whereas older male personages had higher Leq. The roles performed with higher Leq tended to be sung at a lower MF0.

  12. Learning Pitch with STDP: A Computational Model of Place and Temporal Pitch Perception Using Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian Saeedi, Nafise; Blamey, Peter J; Burkitt, Anthony N; Grayden, David B

    2016-04-01

    Pitch perception is important for understanding speech prosody, music perception, recognizing tones in tonal languages, and perceiving speech in noisy environments. The two principal pitch perception theories consider the place of maximum neural excitation along the auditory nerve and the temporal pattern of the auditory neurons' action potentials (spikes) as pitch cues. This paper describes a biophysical mechanism by which fine-structure temporal information can be extracted from the spikes generated at the auditory periphery. Deriving meaningful pitch-related information from spike times requires neural structures specialized in capturing synchronous or correlated activity from amongst neural events. The emergence of such pitch-processing neural mechanisms is described through a computational model of auditory processing. Simulation results show that a correlation-based, unsupervised, spike-based form of Hebbian learning can explain the development of neural structures required for recognizing the pitch of simple and complex tones, with or without the fundamental frequency. The temporal code is robust to variations in the spectral shape of the signal and thus can explain the phenomenon of pitch constancy.

  13. Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Börner, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Scheffel, M., & Börner, D. (2013, 31 May). Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research. Workshop presentation at the 9th Joint European Summer School on Technology Enhanced Learning, Limassol, Cyprus.

  14. Series pid pitch controller of large wind turbines generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micić Aleksandar D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For this stable process with oscillatory dynamics, characterized with small damping ratio and dominant transport delay, design of the series PID pitch controller is based on the model obtained from the open-loop process step response, filtered with the second-order Butterworth filter Fbw. Performance of the series PID pitch controller, with the filter Fbw, is analyzed by simulations of the set-point and input/output disturbance responses, including simulations with a colored noise added to the control variable. Excellent performance/robustness tradeoff is obtained, compared to the recently proposed PI pitch controllers and to the modified internal model pitch controller, developed here, which has a natural mechanism to compensate effect of dominant transport delay. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47016

  15. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Perceived Pitch of Complex Sounds

    CERN Document Server

    Cartwright, J H E; Piro, O; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Gonzalez, Diego L.; Piro, Oreste

    1999-01-01

    We apply results from nonlinear dynamics to an old problem in acoustical physics: the mechanism of the perception of the pitch of sounds, especially the sounds known as complex tones that are important for music and speech intelligibility.

  16. A Computationally Efficient Method for Polyphonic Pitch Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruohua; Reiss, Joshua D.; Mattavelli, Marco; Zoia, Giorgio

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient method for polyphonic pitch estimation. The method employs the Fast Resonator Time-Frequency Image (RTFI) as the basic time-frequency analysis tool. The approach is composed of two main stages. First, a preliminary pitch estimation is obtained by means of a simple peak-picking procedure in the pitch energy spectrum. Such spectrum is calculated from the original RTFI energy spectrum according to harmonic grouping principles. Then the incorrect estimations are removed according to spectral irregularity and knowledge of the harmonic structures of the music notes played on commonly used music instruments. The new approach is compared with a variety of other frame-based polyphonic pitch estimation methods, and results demonstrate the high performance and computational efficiency of the approach.

  17. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  18. Spatial representation of pitch height: the SMARC effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L; Umiltà, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2006-03-01

    Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch height is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch height onto an internal representation of space, which in turn affects motor performance even when this perceptual attribute is irrelevant to the task, extends previous studies on auditory perception and suggests an interesting analogy between music perception and mathematical cognition. Both the basic elements of mathematical cognition (i.e. numbers) and the basic elements of musical cognition (i.e. pitches), appear to be mapped onto a mental spatial representation in a way that affects motor performance.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF VENTILATED SUPERCAVITIES WITH A DYNAMIC PITCHING MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Qi-tao; XUE Lei-ping; HE You-sheng

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of the ventilated supercavitation for a supercavitating vehicle pitching up and down in the supercavity was carried out in a high-speed water tunnel. The emphasis is laid on the understanding of the interaction of the vehicle aft body with the cavity boundary. The flow characteristics were measured and the stability of supercaviting flow with different pitching frequencies and amplitudes was analyzed. In particular, the objectives of this study are to understand the effect of the impact upon the cavity distortion, and to quantify the impact process by investigating the evolution of the pressure inside the cavity and then the loads on the vehicle during the pitching motion. It is also shown that the evolution of the pressure detected in different,as inside the supercavity, is coherent and uniform during the periods of the pitching motion. This study is of direct relevance to reliable and accurate prediction of hydrodynamic loads associated with the slamming and impact on supercavitating vehicles.

  20. Robust Pitch Estimation Using an Optimal Filter on Frequency Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch...... against different noise situations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed MVDR method outperforms the state-of-the-art weighted least squares (WLS) pitch estimator in colored noise and has robust pitch estimates against missing harmonics in some time-frames....... of such signals from unconstrained frequency estimates (UFEs). A minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) method is proposed as an optimal solution to minimize the variance of UFEs considering the constraint of integer harmonics. The MVDR filter is designed based on noise statistics making it robust...

  1. Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Börner, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Scheffel, M., & Börner, D. (2013, 31 May). Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research. Workshop presentation at the 9th Joint European Summer School on Technology Enhanced Learning, Limassol, Cyprus.

  2. Investors prefer entrepreneurial ventures pitched by attractive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison Wood; Huang, Laura; Kearney, Sarah Wood; Murray, Fiona E

    2014-03-25

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur's business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs.

  3. Electro-acoustic stimulation. Acoustic and electric pitch comparisons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDermott, Hugh; Sucher, Catherine; Simpson, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    ... who had usable low-frequency hearing, either in the non-implanted ear or in both ears. The subjects assigned numerical pitch estimates to each of 5 acoustic pure tones and 5 single-electrode electric pulse trains...

  4. 76 FR 17582 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Model BD-700-1A10 and BD-700-1A11 Airplanes, Head-Up Display (HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...-1A11 Airplanes, Head-Up Display (HUD) With Video Synthetic Vision System (SVS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) T00003NY, those aircraft models are known under the marketing designation of...

  5. 76 FR 17062 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Model BD-700-1A10 and BD-700-1A11 Airplanes, Head-Up Display (HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ...-1A11 Airplanes, Head-Up Display (HUD) With Video Synthetic Vision System (SVS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) T00003NY, those aircraft models are known under the marketing designation of...

  6. 76 FR 31223 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Model BD-700-1A10 and BD-700-1A11 Airplanes, Head-up Display (HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ...-1A11 Airplanes, Head-up Display (HUD) With Video Synthetic Vision System (SVS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... Per Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) T00003NY, those aircraft models are known under the marketing...

  7. MTF study of planar small pixel pitch quantum IR detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravrand, O.; Baier, N.; Ferron, A.; Rochette, F.; Berthoz, J.; Rubaldo, L.; Cluzel, R.

    2014-06-01

    The actual trend in quantum IR detector development is the design of very small pixel pitch large arrays. From previously 30μm pitch, the standard pixel pitch is today 15μm and is expected to decrease to 12μm in the next few years. Furthermore, focal plane arrays (FPA) with pixel pitch as small as small as 10μm has been demonstrated. Such ultra-small pixel pitches are very small compared to the typical length ruling the electrical characteristics of the absorbing materials, namely the minority carrier diffusion length. As an example for low doped N type HgCdTe or InSb material, this diffusion length is of the order of 30 to 50μm, i.e. 3 to 5 times the targeted pixel pitches. This has strong consequences on the modulation transfer function (MTF) for planar structures, where the lateral extension of the photodiode is limited by diffusion. For such aspect ratios, the self-confinement of neighboring diodes may not be efficient enough to maintain optimal MTF. Therefore, this issue has to be addressed in order to take full benefits of the pixel pitch reduction in terms of image resolution. This paper aims at investigating the MTF evolution of HgCdTe and InSb FPAs decreasing the pixel pitch below 15μm. Both experimental measurements and finite element simulations are used to discuss this issue. Different scenarii will be compared, namely deep mesa etch between pixels, internal drift, surface recombination, thin absorbing layers.

  8. Dynamic inflow compensation for pitch controlled wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Engelen, T.G.; Van der Hooft, E.L. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    An algorithm has been developed that provides filter parameters for pitch control loops in order to compensate for dynamic inflow effects. This improves the loop stability, especially near rated conditions. The filter behaviour reflects the 'inverse of the normalised' rotor-integral dynamic wake behaviour in accordance with the ECN differential equation wake model. Any (existing) pitch controller can be upgraded with such a filter. The algorithm has been implemented and incorporated in the ECN controlled design tool.

  9. Pitching Speed and Glenohumeral Adaptation in High School Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-08-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation are common findings in baseball pitchers. To the authors' knowledge, no study has focused on the adaptation of glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation in relation to pitching speed. This study evaluated changes in range of motion in the throwing shoulder in high school pitchers to determine whether changes in internal and external rotation directly correlate with pitch velocity. The shoulders of 22 high school varsity pitchers were evaluated. Standard goniometric technique was used to measure passive external and internal glenohumeral range of motion in both arms. Measurements were evaluated for statistically significant differences in range of motion. Demographic features, including height, weight, and age, were assessed. Fifteen consecutive in-game pitch speeds were recorded, and the fastest pitch was used for evaluation. Pitch speeds were correlated to the player's glenohumeral internal rotational deficit, increased glenohumeral external rotation, and physical demographics. Average age was 16.9 years. Average external rotation of the throwing arm was significantly greater than that of the nonthrowing arm (143.00° vs 130.32°, P=.005). Average internal rotation of the throwing arm was significantly less than that of the nonthrowing arm (49.50° vs 65.90°, P=.006). Both shoulders had similar total arc of motion (throwing shoulder, 192.54; nonthrowing shoulder, 196.23; P=.822). Average maximum velocity was 77.7 mph (maximum, 88 mph; minimum, 66 mph). Maximum pitch velocity did not correlate with changes in glenohumeral internal rotational deficit (P=.683) or increased glenohumeral external rotation (P=.241). There was also no evidence of correlation between pitch velocity and player age, height, weight, or dominant hand. The stress of pitching creates adaptations to the throwing shoulder, even in young athletes. There appears to be

  10. A Method for Low-Delay Pitch Tracking and Smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for pitch tracking is presented. The method is comprised of two steps. In the first step, accurate pitch estimates are obtained on a sample-by-sample basis by updates of the signal statistics with an exponential forgetting factor and subse- quent numerical optimization...... that require fast and sample-by-sample estimates, like tuners for musical instruments, transcription tasks requiring details like vi- brato, and real-time tracking of voiced speech....

  11. Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term Pitcher Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013. The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114. With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.

  12. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  13. Manufacture of threads with variable pitch by using noncircular gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slătineanu, L.; Dodun, O.; Coteață, M.; Coman, I.; Nagîț, G.; Beșliu, I.

    2016-08-01

    There are mechanical equipments in which shafts threaded with variable pitch are included. Such a shaft could be met in the case of worm specific to the double enveloping worm gearing. Over the years, the researchers investigated some possibilities to geometrically define and manufacture the shaft zones characterized by a variable pitch. One of the methods able to facilitate the manufacture of threads with variable pitch is based on the use of noncircular gears in the threading kinematic chain for threading by cutting. In order to design the noncircular gears, the mathematical law of pitch variation has to be known. An analysis of pitch variation based on geometrical considerations was developed in the case of a double enveloping globoid worm. Subsequently, on the bases of a proper situation, a numerical model was determined. In this way, an approximately law of pitch variation was determined and it could be taken into consideration when designing the noncircular gears included in the kinematic chain of the cutting machine tool.

  14. Relative saliency of pitch versus phonetic cues in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Gina; Kuhl, Patricia; Sundara, Megha

    2005-09-01

    Infants in their first year are highly sensitive to different acoustic components of speech, including phonetic detail and pitch information. The present investigation examined whether relative sensitivity to these two dimensions changes during this period, as the infant acquires language-specific phonetic categories. If pitch and phonetic discrimination are hierarchical, then the relative salience of pitch and phonetic change may become reversed between 8 and 12 months of age. Thirty-two- and 47-week-old infants were tested using an auditory preference paradigm in which they first heard a recording of a person singing a 4-note song (i.e., ``go-bi-la-tu'') and were then presented with both the familiar and an unfamiliar, modified version of that song. Modifications were either a novel pitch order (keeping syllables constant) or a novel syllable order (keeping melody constant). Compared to the younger group, older infants were predicted to show greater relative sensitivity to syllable order than pitch order, in accordance with an increased tendency to attend to linguistically relevant information (phonetic patterns) as opposed to cues that are initially more salient (pitch patterns). Preliminary data show trends toward the predicted interaction, with preference patterns commensurate with previously reported data. [Work supported by the McDonnell Foundation and NIH.

  15. Neural Networks Involved in Voluntary and Involuntary Vocal Pitch Regulation in Experienced Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Wood, Sean; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In an fMRI experiment, we tested experienced singers with singing tasks to investigate neural correlates of voluntary and involuntary vocal pitch regulation. We shifted the pitch of auditory feedback (plus or minus 25 or 200 cents), and singers either: (1) ignored the shift and maintained their vocal pitch or (2) changed their vocal pitch to…

  16. Detection and identification of monaural and binaural pitch contours in dyslexic listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Poelmans, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    found that a majority of dyslexic subjects were unable to hear binaural pitch, the latter obtained a clear response of dyslexic listeners to Huggins’ pitch (HP) (Cramer and Huggins, 1958). The present study clarified whether impaired binaural pitch perception is found in dyslexia. Results from a pitch...

  17. Acupuncture plus Three-step Analgesic Ladder Principle for Cancer Pain Relief:Clinical Observation on 24 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi; ZHONG Yi; HUANG Qin-feng; HAN Chou-ping

    2007-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture plus three-step analgesic ladder for cancer pain relief.Method:Thirty-siX cases with cancer pain were randomized into a treatment group and a control group.Twenty-four cases in the treatment group were treated with acupuncture plus three-step analgesic ladder approach and 12 cases in the control group were treated with three-step analgesic ladder approach alone.Result:The total effective rate and marked effect rate of the treatment group were 95.8%and 54.2% respectively,while those of the control group were 83.3%and 25.0%respectively,indicating a significant statistical difference (P<0.05) in terms of the therapeutic efficacy of the two groups and acupuncture plus three-step analgesic ladder approach can further improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  18. H-Bonding Self-assembled Template-directed Synthesis of a Reactive Amide-bridged Ladder Polyvinylsiloxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Zhi WAN; Ying Hua LIU; Ping XIE; Rong Ben ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    A novel, reactive amide-bridged ladder polyvinylsiloxane (abbr. LP) with Mn = 2.4×104was synthesized for the first time by means of aryl amide H-bonding self-assembled template.The regularity of LP was characterized by the XRD, 29Si NMR and DSC methods. XRD analysis demonstrated the ladder width w = 9.09 A and the ladder thickness t = 3.89 A, respectively, which are approximately consistent with the molecular simulation-calculated ones: w'= 10.60 A and t'=3.06 A. 29Si NMR displayed a resonance peak with small half peak width, △1/2 ~ 4 ppm, for the moiety [=Si(Vi)O2/2-]n of LP. Besides, as a collateral evidence, DSC measurement revealed a high glass transition temperature Tg = 225℃, suggesting high stiffness of the ladder main chain of LP.

  19. Absolute pitch and pupillary response: effects of timbre and key color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Kathrin B; Kulke, Franziska; Kuchinke, Lars; Van Der Meer, Elke

    2005-07-01

    The pitch identification performance of absolute pitch possessors has previously been shown to depend on pitch range, key color, and timbre of presented tones. In the present study, the dependence of pitch identification performance on key color and timbre of musical tones was examined by analyzing hit rates, reaction times, and pupillary responses of absolute pitch possessors (n = 9) and nonpossessors (n = 12) during a pitch identification task. Results revealed a significant dependence of pitch identification hit rate but not reaction time on timbre and key color in both groups. Among absolute pitch possessors, peak dilation of the pupil was significantly dependent on key color whereas the effect of timbre was marginally significant. Peak dilation of the pupil differed significantly between absolute pitch possessors and nonpossessors. The observed effects point to the importance of learning factors in the acquisition of absolute pitch.

  20. Spirality: A Noval Way to Measure Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Henderson, Casey L.; Hartley, Matthew; Davis, Benjamin L.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the MATLAB code Spirality, a novel method for measuring spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. For a given pitch angle template, the mean pixel value is found along each of typically 1000 spiral axes. The fitting function, which shows a local maximum at the best-fit pitch angle, is the variance of these means. Error bars are found by varying the inner radius of the measurement annulus and finding the standard deviation of the best-fit pitches. Computation time is typically on the order of 2 minutes per galaxy, assuming at least 8 GB of working memory. We tested the code using 128 synthetic spiral images of known pitch. These spirals varied in the number of spiral arms, pitch angle, degree of logarithmicity, radius, SNR, inclination angle, bar length, and bulge radius. A correct result is defined as a result that matches the true pitch within the error bars, with error bars no greater than ±7°. For the non-logarithmic spiral sample, the correct answer is similarly defined, with the mean pitch as function of radius in place of the true pitch. For all synthetic spirals, correct results were obtained so long as SNR > 0.25, the bar length was no more than 60% of the spiral's diameter (when the bar was included in the measurement), the input center of the spiral was no more than 6% of the spiral radius away from the true center, and the inclination angle was no more than 30°. The synthetic spirals were not deprojected prior to measurement. The code produced the correct result for all barred spirals when the measurement annulus was placed outside the bar. Additionally, we compared the code's results against 2DFFT results for 203 visually selected spiral galaxies in GOODS North and South. Among the entire sample, Spirality's error bars overlapped 2DFFT's error bars 64% of the time. For those galaxies in which Source code is available by email request from the primary author.

  1. High-pitch metal-on-glass technology for pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ullán, Miguel; Campabadal, Francesca; Fleta, Celeste; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bernabeu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics and astrophysics strip detectors have increased channel density to levels at which their connection with readout electronics has become very complex due to high pad pitch. Also, direct wire bonding is prevented by the fact that typically detector's pad pitch and electronics' pad pitch do not match. A high- pitch metal-on-glass technology is presented, that allows pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics. It consists of high-density metal lines on top of an insulating glass substrate. A photoresist layer is deposited covering the metal tracks for passivation and protection The technology is tested for conductivity, bondability, bonding pull force, peel off, and radiation hardness, and it is an established technology in the clean room of the CNM Institute in Barcelona. This technology has been chosen by the ATLAS Collaboration for the pad pitch adapters (PPA) of the SCT Endcap Modules, by a Compton camera project, and by other HEP groups for interconnection betwe...

  2. Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Lloyd H., III

    Coupling a Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite (F2MC) to an air-pressurized fluid port produces a fundamentally new class of tunable vibration isolator. This fluidlastic device provides significant vibration reduction at an isolation frequency that can be tuned over a broad frequency range. The material properties and geometry of the F2MC element, as well as the port inertance, determine the isolation frequency. A unique feature of this device is that the port inertance depends on pressure so the isolation frequency can be adjusted by changing the air pressure. For constant port inertance, the isolation frequency is largely independent of the isolated mass so the device is robust to changes in load. A nonlinear model is developed to predict isolator length and port inertance. The model is linearized and the frequency response calculated. Experiments agree with theory, demonstrating a tunable isolation range from 9 Hz to 36 Hz and transmitted force reductions of up to 60 dB at the isolation frequency. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with coupled fluidic devices has the potential to reduce the aerodynamic blade loads transmitted through the pitch links to the swashplate. Analytical models of two fluidic devices coupled with three different fluidic circuits are derived. These passive fluidlastic systems are tuned, by varying the fluid inertances and capacitances of each fluidic circuit, to reduce the transmitted pitch-link loads. The different circuit designs result in transmitted pitch link loads reduction at up to three main rotor harmonics. The simulation results show loads reduction at the targeted out-of-phase and in-phase harmonics of up to 88% and 93%, respectively. Experimental validation of two of the fluidic circuits demonstrates loads reduction of up to 89% at the out-of-phase isolation frequencies and up to 81% at the in-phase isolation frequencies. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with fluidic pitch links changes the blade torsional

  3. On Ladder Diagrams Compilation and Synthesis to FPGA Implemented Reconfigurable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Milik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents synthesis process of a hardware implemented reconfigurable logic controller from a ladder diagram according to IEC61131-3 requirements. It is focused on the originally developed a high-performance LD processing method. It is able to process a set of diagrams restricted to logic operations in a single clock cycle independently from the number of processed rungs. The paper considers the compilation of the ladder diagram into an intermediate form suitable for logic synthesis process according to developed processing method. The enhanced data flow graph (EDFG has been developed for the intermediate representation of an LD program. The original construction of the EDFG with attributed edges has been described. It allows for efficient representation and processing of logic and arithmetic formulas. The set of compilation algorithms that allow to preserve serial analysis order and to obtain massively parallel processing unit are presented. The overview of a hardware mapping concludes the presented considerations.

  4. From Spin Ladders to the 2-d O(3) Model at Non-Zero Density

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekharan, S; Wiese, U J

    2002-01-01

    The numerical simulation of various field theories at non-zero chemical potential suffers from severe complex action problems. In particular, QCD at non-zero quark density can presently not be simulated for that reason. A similar complex action problem arises in the 2-d O(3) model -- a toy model for QCD. Here we construct the 2-d O(3) model at non-zero density via dimensional reduction of an antiferromagnetic quantum spin ladder in a magnetic field. The complex action problem of the 2-d O(3) model manifests itself as a sign problem of the ladder system. This sign problem is solved completely with a meron-cluster algorithm.

  5. Atomic coherence effects in four-wave mixing process of a ladder-type atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2016-05-16

    We investigate the effects of atomic coherence on four-wave mixing (FWM), with respect to the transition routes between the hyperfine states in the 5S1/2-5P3/2-5D5/2 transition of 87Rb atoms. By comparing the FWM spectra with the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra of the hyperfine states, we confirm that the FWM process is significantly influenced by both ladder-type and V-type two-photon coherences. From the observed FWM signal of each hyperfine structure, we clarify the role of two-photon coherence in the FWM process under EIT, double-resonance optical pumping (DROP), and two-photon absorption (TPA) conditions in a ladder-type atomic system, which is dependent on the open degree of the hyperfine states, the laser intensity, and the laser frequency detuning.

  6. Effects of spontaneously induced coherence on absorption of a ladder-type atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hong-Mei; Gong Shang-Qing; Sun Zhen-Rong; Li Ru-Xin; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of spontaneously induced coherence on absorption properties in a nearly equispaced three-level ladder-type system driven by two coherent fields. It find that the absorption properties of this system with the probe field applied on the lower transition can be significantly modified if this coherence is optimized. In the case of small spontaneous decay rate in the upper excited state, it finds that such coherence does not destroy the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Nevertheless, the absorption peak on both sides of zero detuning and the linewidth of absorption line become larger and narrower than those in the case corresponding to the effects of spontaneously induced coherence; while in the case of large decay rate, it finds that, instead of EIT with low resonant absorption, a sharp absorption peak at resonance appears. That is, electromagnetically induced absorption in the nearly equispaced ladder-type system can occur due to such coherent effects.

  7. Trait anxiety and goal difficulty on learning to climb the Bachman ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Jaqueline F O; Barros, Joao A C; Meira, Cassio M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effects of trait anxiety and goal setting on learning of the Bachman ladder. It was hypothesized that easy goals would increase learning for individuals with high trait anxiety while hard goals would increase learning for individuals with low trait anxiety. 80 high school students (40 boys, 40 girls; M age = 15 yr., SD = 1.0) filled out the Brazilian State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for trait anxiety. The experiment was divided into four phases: acquisition, immediate transfer (after 5 min.), delayed transfer, and retention (after 24 hr.). On the transfer phases, the participants started climbing the ladder with the foot opposite of that used in acquisition. Participants were assigned to one of four experimental groups combining high and low anxiety traits and hard and easy goals. Variances were analyzed with repeated measurements on the last factor of all phases. The results showed the performance increased during the acquisition phase and no effects were observed in any phases.

  8. 4-bit digital to analog converter using R-2R ladder and binary weighted resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosanto, J.; Batac, M. L.; Pereda, K. J.; Caldo, R.

    2017-06-01

    The use of a 4-bit digital-to-analog converter using two methods; Binary Weighted Resistors and R-2R Ladder is designed and presented in this paper. The main components that were used in constructing both circuits were different resistor values, operational amplifier (LM741) and single pole double throw switches. Both circuits were designed using MULTISIM software to be able to test the circuit for its ideal application and FRITZING software for the layout designing and fabrication to the printed circuit board. The implementation of both systems in an actual circuit benefits in determining and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each. It was realized that the binary weighted circuit is more efficient DAC, having lower percentage error of 0.267% compared to R-2R ladder circuit which has a minimum of percentage error of 4.16%.

  9. The antiferromagnetic cross-coupled spin ladder: Quantum fidelity and tensor networks approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Hao; Cho, Sam Young; Zhou, Huan-Qiang; Batchelor, Murray T.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the phase diagram of the cross-coupled Heisenberg spin ladder with antiferromagnetic couplings. For this model, the results for the existence of the columnar dimer phase, which was predicted on the basis of weak coupling field theory renormalization group arguments, have been conflicting. The numerical work on this model has been based on various approaches, including exact diagonalization, series expansions and density-matrix renormalization group calculations. Using the recently-developed tensor network states and groundstate fidelity approach for quantum spin ladders, we find no evidence for the existence of the columnar dimer phase. We also provide an argument based on the symmetry of the Hamiltonian, which suggests that the phase diagram for antiferromagnetic couplings consists of a single line separating the rung-singlet and the Haldane phases.

  10. Programación de Controladores Lógicos (PLC) mediante Ladder y Lenguaje de Control Estructurado (SCL) en MATLAB/Programming logic controllers (PLC) using ladder and structured control language (SCL) in MATLAB/Programação de Controladores Lógicos (PLC) mediante Ladder e Linguagem de Controle Estruturado (SCL) em MATLAB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heyder David Páez-Logreira; Ronald Zamora-Musa; José Bohórquez-Pérez

    2015-01-01

    .... In this article, the results LADDER programming language and language are compared with SCL generated by Simulink PLC Coder MATLAB tool taking as a case study the calculating the volume of a tank...

  11. H-bonding template-directed synthesis of a complete m-PDA-bridged ladder polyhydrosiloxane (OLPHS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A highly ordered m-phenylenediimino-bridged ladder polyhydrosiloxane (abbr. OLPHS) with Mn = 1.24 × 104 was synthesized stoichiometric hydrolysis and dehydrochlorination condensation reaction between Si-Cl and Si-OH bonds. The complete ladder structure of OLPHS has been confirmed by the following three data. Two characteristic Bragg's peaks representing the ladder width (w = 0.94 nm) and ladder thickness (t = 0.42 nm) were observed in XRD analysis, which are consistent with those calculated by molecular simulation. The very sharp absorption with a small half-peak width (w1/2 = 0.5 ppm) for [(-HN)HSiO2/2]n moiety of OLPHS in 29Si NMR spectrum indicated presence of the complete ladder structure. As collateral evidence, a higher glass transition temperature (Tg = 105 ℃) is also recorded in the DSC measurement, implying the high stiffness of ladder chain of OLPHS.(C) 2007 Rong Ben Zhang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying melodic perception and memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, R J; Evans, A C; Meyer, E

    1994-04-01

    The neural correlates of music perception were studied by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes with positron emission tomography (PET). Twelve volunteers were scanned using the bolus water method under four separate conditions: (1) listening to a sequence of noise bursts, (2) listening to unfamiliar tonal melodies, (3) comparing the pitch of the first two notes of the same set of melodies, and (4) comparing the pitch of the first and last notes of the melodies. The latter two conditions were designed to investigate short-term pitch retention under low or high memory load, respectively. Subtraction of the obtained PET images, superimposed on matched MRI scans, provides anatomical localization of CBF changes associated with specific cognitive functions. Listening to melodies, relative to acoustically matched noise sequences, resulted in CBF increases in the right superior temporal and right occipital cortices. Pitch judgments of the first two notes of each melody, relative to passive listening to the same stimuli, resulted in right frontal-lobe activation. Analysis of the high memory load condition relative to passive listening revealed the participation of a number of cortical and subcortical regions, notably in the right frontal and right temporal lobes, as well as in parietal and insular cortex. Both pitch judgment conditions also revealed CBF decreases within the left primary auditory cortex. We conclude that specialized neural systems in the right superior temporal cortex participate in perceptual analysis of melodies; pitch comparisons are effected via a neural network that includes right prefrontal cortex, but active retention of pitch involves the interaction of right temporal and frontal cortices.

  13. Fabrication of nanochannels with ladder nanostructure at the bottom using AFM nanoscratching method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents a novel atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanomanufacturing method combining the tip scanning with the high-precision stage movement to fabricate nanochannels with ladder nanostructure at the bottom by continuous scanning with a fixed scan size. Different structures can be obtained according to the matching relation of the tip feeding velocity and the precision stage moving velocity. This relationship was first studied in detail to achieve nanochannels with different la...

  14. Automatic Tracking Radar Career Ladder, AFSC-303X3. Electronics Principles Inventory (EPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    81 UNCLASSIFIED NL mhhmI/I/II///IEEIIIIEIIIIIEE EIIIIEEEEIIIII UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ELECTRONICS PRINCIPLES INVENTORY (EPI),., / b AUTOMATIC...presents the preliminary results of an Air Force Electronics Principles Survey of the Automatic Tracking Radar career ladder (AFSC 303X3). The project was...undertaken at the request of Mr. James R. Haupt, Training Manager, Keesler AFB, MS. Authority for conducting electronics principles inventories is

  15. Novel Zn(II) ladder-like coordination polymer constructed from designed ferrocenyl ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Reaction of Zn(NO3)2.6H2O with 3-(4-carboxylphenylamino)-1-ferrocenyl-2-butylen-1-one (HL) and 4,4'-bipyridine (4,4'-bipy) in methanol solution resulted in a novel ladder-like coordination polymer {[Zn2L2(μ2-L)2(4,4'-bipy)2].MeOH}n (1). Its crystal structure, thermal and electrochemical properties axe presented.

  16. Specific heat spectra of non-interacting fermions in a quasiperiodic ladder sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, D. A.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.

    2008-07-01

    We compute the specific heat spectra of non-interacting fermions whose energy spectrum was obtained from a quasiperiodic ladder sequence (Fibonacci and Rudin-Shapiro type), mimicking a DNA molecule model. The specific heat is calculated from their underlying multi-fractal energy spectrum, considering several values of energy densities. Comparisons are made with a real DNA sequence, namely the human chromosome 22 (Ch22).

  17. Telecast of Astronaut Neil Armstrong descending ladder to surface of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, descends the ladder of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module prior to making the first step by man on the moon. This view is a black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface camera during extravehicular activity. The black bar running through the center of the picture is an anamoly in the television ground data system at the Goldstone Tracking Station.

  18. Variation of the absorption and dispersion profiles in a ladder-four-level system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong-Fang; Sun Jian-Feng; Niu Yue-Ping

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical research on the variation of the absorption and dispersion profiles and population distribution of each level in a ladder-four-level system driven by two coherent fields has been made. Whether the variation occurs or not depends on the effect of quantum interference, the detuning of the upper coherent field and the separation of the two intermediate levels. A dressed-state analysis is introduced to explain the numerical results.

  19. Bioenvironmental Engineering and Environmental Medicine Career Ladders (AFS 907X0 and 908X0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    cine career ladder complete a training program designed for entry level personnel. This program is devided into two parts, with an 8-week course...perform a great number of sanitary support functions. They perform an average of 108 tasks. Common tasks include: prepare AF Forms 977 (Facility...TE) data are available to assist in making various decisions about the adequacy of the STS. There is no pattern of great overlap identified between

  20. Specific heat spectra of non-interacting fermions in a quasiperiodic ladder sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, D.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Albuquerque, E.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)], E-mail: eudenilson@dfte.ufrn.br; Anselmo, D.H.A.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-28

    We compute the specific heat spectra of non-interacting fermions whose energy spectrum was obtained from a quasiperiodic ladder sequence (Fibonacci and Rudin-Shapiro type), mimicking a DNA molecule model. The specific heat is calculated from their underlying multi-fractal energy spectrum, considering several values of energy densities. Comparisons are made with a real DNA sequence, namely the human chromosome 22 (Ch22)