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Sample records for huber relaxation kinetics

  1. Relaxation and kinetics in scalar field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Lawrie, I.D.; Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to the dynamics of relaxation and kinetics of thermalization in a scalar field theory is presented that incorporates the relevant time scales through the resummation of hard thermal loops. An alternative derivation of the kinetic equations for the open-quote open-quote quasiparticle close-quote close-quote distribution functions is obtained that allows a clear understanding of the different open-quote open-quote coarse-graining close-quote close-quote approximations usually involved in a kinetic description. This method leads to a systematic perturbative expansion to obtain the kinetic equations including hard thermal loop resummation and to an improvement including renormalization, off-shell effects, and contributions that change chemical equilibrium on short time scales. As a by-product of these methods we establish the equivalence between the relaxation time scale in the linearized equation of motion of the quasiparticles and the thermalization time scale of the quasiparticle distribution function in the open-quote open-quote relaxation time approximation close-quote close-quote including hard thermal loop effects. Hard thermal loop resummation dramatically modifies the scattering rate for long wavelength modes as compared to the usual (semi)classical estimate. Relaxation and kinetics are studied both in the unbroken and broken symmetry phases of the theory. The broken symmetry phase also provides the setting to obtain the contribution to the kinetic equations from processes that involve decay of a heavy scalar into light scalar particles in the medium. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Transport and relaxation properties of superfluid 3He. I. Kinetic equation and Bogoliubov quasiparticle relaxation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einzel, D.; Woelfle, P.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic equation for Bogoliubov quasiparticles for both the A and B phases of superfluid 3 He is derived from the general matrix kinetic equation. A condensed expression for the exact spin-symmetric collision integral is given. The quasiparticle relaxation rate is calculated for the BW state using the s--p approximation for the quasiparticle scattering amplitude. By using the results for the quasiparticle relaxation rate, the mean free path of Bogoliubov quasiparticles is calculated for all temperatures

  3. Ultra-fast relaxation kinetics in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.

    1983-01-01

    It is presented a brief description of relaxation processes in highly excited semiconductor plasmas (HESP). Comparison with experimental data obtained by means of ultra-fast laser light spectroscopy (UFLS) is made. Some aspects of response funtion theory in systems far-from-equilibrium are reviewed in Section II. In Section III we present some comments on the question of nonequilibrium thermodynamics relevant to the problem to be considered. In last section we present a brief summary of the different aspects of the subject. (author) [pt

  4. Ultra-fast relaxation kinetics in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.

    1983-01-01

    It is presented a brief description of relaxation processes in highly excited semiconductor plasmas (HESP). Comparison with experimental data obtained by means of ultra-fast laser light spectroscopy (UFLS) is made. Some aspects of response function theory in systems far-from-equilibrium are reviewed in Section II. In Section III some comments on the question of nonequilibrium thermodynamics relevant to the problem to be considered are presented. In last Section a brief summary of the different aspects of the subject is also presented. (Author) [pt

  5. Robustizing Circuit Optimization using Huber Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, John W.; Biernacki, Radek M.; Chen, Steve H.

    1993-01-01

    The authors introduce a novel approach to 'robustizing' microwave circuit optimization using Huber functions, both two-sided and one-sided. They compare Huber optimization with l/sub 1/, l/sub 2/, and minimax methods in the presence of faults, large and small measurement errors, bad starting poin......, a preliminary optimization by selecting a small number of dominant variables. It is demonstrated, through multiplexer optimization, that the one-sided Huber function can be more effective and efficient than minimax in overcoming a bad starting point.......The authors introduce a novel approach to 'robustizing' microwave circuit optimization using Huber functions, both two-sided and one-sided. They compare Huber optimization with l/sub 1/, l/sub 2/, and minimax methods in the presence of faults, large and small measurement errors, bad starting points......, and statistical uncertainties. They demonstrate FET statistical modeling, multiplexer optimization, analog fault location, and data fitting. They extend the Huber concept by introducing a 'one-sided' Huber function for large-scale optimization. For large-scale problems, the designer often attempts, by intuition...

  6. Temperature dependence of the kinetics of isometric myocardium relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izakov, V.Ya.; Bykov, B.L.; Kimmelman, I.Ya.

    1981-11-01

    The dependence of the exponential decay constant expressing the isometric relaxation of the myocardium on temperature is investigated in animals with various specific contents of myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum. Experiments were performed on cardiac ventricles and atria isolated from rabbits, frogs and turtles and electrically stimulated to produce maximal contraction at temperatures from 10 to 35 C. Arrhenius plots derived from the data are found to be linear in the myocardia of the rabbit and frog, with a greater activation energy for the relaxation found in the rabbit. The Arrhenius plot for the turtle, which has a sarcoplasmic reticulum content intermediate between those of the frog and rabbit, corresponds to two straight lines with different activation energies. Results thus support the hypothesis of two separate mechanisms of calcium removal, involving the sarcoplasmic reticulum and cellular membrane, in muscle relaxation.

  7. Relaxation rates of gene expression kinetics reveal the feedback signs of autoregulatory gene networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chen; Qian, Hong; Chen, Min; Zhang, Michael Q.

    2018-03-01

    The transient response to a stimulus and subsequent recovery to a steady state are the fundamental characteristics of a living organism. Here we study the relaxation kinetics of autoregulatory gene networks based on the chemical master equation model of single-cell stochastic gene expression with nonlinear feedback regulation. We report a novel relation between the rate of relaxation, characterized by the spectral gap of the Markov model, and the feedback sign of the underlying gene circuit. When a network has no feedback, the relaxation rate is exactly the decaying rate of the protein. We further show that positive feedback always slows down the relaxation kinetics while negative feedback always speeds it up. Numerical simulations demonstrate that this relation provides a possible method to infer the feedback topology of autoregulatory gene networks by using time-series data of gene expression.

  8. Small velocity and finite temperature variations in kinetic relaxation models

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter; Jü ngel, Ansgar; Aoki, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    A small Knuden number analysis of a kinetic equation in the diffusive scaling is performed. The collision kernel is of BGK type with a general local Gibbs state. Assuming that the flow velocity is of the order of the Knudsen number, a Hilbert expansion yields a macroscopic model with finite temperature variations, whose complexity lies in between the hydrodynamic and the energy-transport equations. Its mathematical structure is explored and macroscopic models for specific examples of the global Gibbs state are presented. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  9. A hierarchy of functionally important relaxations within myoglobin based on solvent effects, mutations and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantsker, David; Samuni, Uri; Friedman, Joel M; Agmon, Noam

    2005-06-01

    Geminate CO rebinding in myoglobin is studied for two viscous solvents, trehalose and sol-gel (bathed in 100% glycerol) at several temperatures. Mutations in key distal hemepocket residues are used to eliminate or enhance specific relaxation modes. The time-resolved data are analyzed with a modified Agmon-Hopfield model which is capable of providing excellent fits in cases where a single relaxation mode is dominant. Using this approach, we determine the relaxation rate constants of specific functionally important modes, obtaining also their Arrhenius activation energies. We find a hierarchy of distal pocket modes controlling the rebinding kinetics. The "heme access mode" (HAM) is responsible for the major slow-down in rebinding. It is a solvent-coupled cooperative mode which restricts ligand return from the xenon cavities. Bulky side-chains, like those His64 and Trp29 (in the L29W mutant), operate like overdamped pendulums which move over and block the binding site. They may be either unslaved (His64) or moderately slaved (Trp29) to the solvent. Small side-chain relaxations, most notably of leucines, are revealed in some mutants (V68L, V68A). They are conjectured to facilitate inter-cavity ligand motion. When all relaxations are arrested (H64L in trehalose), we observe pure inhomogeneous kinetics with no temperature dependence, suggesting that proximal relaxation is not a factor on the investigated timescale.

  10. Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.

  11. Effects of relaxation of gluten network on rehydration kinetics of pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takenobu; Hasegawa, Ayako; Adachi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the relaxation of the gluten network on pasta rehydration kinetics. The moisture content of pasta, under conditions where the effects of the diffusion of water on the moisture content were negligible, was estimated by extrapolating the average moisture content of pasta of various diameters to 0 mm. The moisture content of imaginary, infinitely thin pasta did not reach equilibrium even after 1 h of rehydration. The rehydration of pasta made of only gluten was also measured. The rate constants estimated by the Long and Richman equation for both the pasta indicated that the rehydration kinetics of infinitely thin pasta were similar to those of gluten pasta. These results suggest that the swelling of starch by fast gelatinization was restricted by the honeycomb structural network of gluten and the relaxation of the gluten network controlled pasta rehydration kinetics.

  12. Real-time relaxation and kinetics in hot scalar QED: Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H.J. de; Holman, R.; Kumar, S.P.; Pisarski, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The real time evolution of non-equilibrium expectation values with soft length scales ∼k -1 >(eT) -1 is solved in hot scalar electrodynamics, with a view towards understanding relaxational phenomena in the QGP and the electroweak plasma. We find that the gauge invariant non-equilibrium expectation values relax via power laws to asymptotic amplitudes that are determined by the quasiparticle poles. The long time relaxational dynamics and relevant time scales are determined by the behavior of the retarded self-energy not at the small frequencies, but at the Landau damping thresholds. This explains the presence of power laws and not of exponential decay. In the process we rederive the HTL effective action using non-equilibrium field theory. Furthermore we obtain the influence functional, the Langevin equation and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the soft modes, identifying the correlators that emerge in the classical limit. We show that a Markovian approximation fails to describe the dynamics both at short and long times. We find that the distribution function for soft quasiparticles relaxes with a power law through Landau damping. We also introduce a novel kinetic approach that goes beyond the standard Boltzmann equation by incorporating off-shell processes and find that the distribution function for soft quasiparticles relaxes with a power law through Landau damping. We find an unusual dressing dynamics of bare particles and anomalous (logarithmic) relaxation of hard quasiparticles. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  13. Analysis of the kinetics of the fragile fracture process in Mo monocrystals in quasi-relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo Meza, Pedro; Bautista Godinez, Eric Gustavo; Yermishkin, Viacheslav

    2008-01-01

    The method of quasi-relaxation, generally known as the force relaxation method, has been widely applied in the study of elementary dislocational processes. It is essential for the study and analysis of thermoactivated mechanisms, for the determination of the energy of interaction between dislocations and inclusions, in the definition of the dislocational constants, to predict the development of creep, and even for the study of fracture kinetics. For the first time the use of the quasi-relaxation method for evaluating the fragile fracture tendency was presented in the work. However, as usually carried out, the use of mass specimens and the development of a considerable plastic deformation in the vertex of the crack-notch sample limits the possibilities for this method. Many studies analyze the theoretical aspects of the fracture process, and the obtention of reliable quantitative information about the behavior of the dislocation based on an analytical description of the process, and how and when it influences the conditions under which the final catastrophic fracture occurs. This work proposes a new method to analyze the effect of a tension concentrator on the surface of Mo monocrystal specimens. The relaxation of the force and the increase in the crack opening is related to the development of the plastic zone in its vertex with the help of the Irwin correction. During the relaxation, the crack-groove grows until it attains the length of the plastic zone. Specimens with and without force concentrators were tested in quasi-relaxation. The cracks appearing under these conditions are analyzed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crack appearing in the specimens under load conditions, whose development produced heavy force relaxation, allowed the force relaxation value to be defined and compared in the specimens with and without tension concentrators (au)

  14. Kinetic details of crystallization in supercooled liquid Pb during the isothermal relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lili; Liu Rangsu; Tian Zean; Liu Hairong; Hou Zhaoyang; Peng Ping; Zhu Xuanmin; Liu Quanhui

    2012-01-01

    The kinetic details of crystallization in supercooled liquid Pb during the isothermal relaxation process have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations, and the microstructure evolution analyzed by the cluster-type index method (CTIM) and the tracing method. It has been found that, the dynamic features are consistently correlated with the microstructure evolution and the crystallization characteristics in the mean square displacement (MSD) and the non-Gaussian parameter (NGP): the β relaxation regime corresponds to the minor structural rearrangement because of the “cage effect”, and the atoms attempt to escape from the “cages”; the α relaxation regime is related to a more diffusive movement of atoms, and the appearance of the second plateau in MSD and the non-zero plateau in NGP corresponds to the completion of crystallization. In addition, three distinct stages of nucleation, growth of nuclei and coarsening of crystallites in the crystallization process have been clearly revealed.

  15. Measuring oxygen surface exchange kinetics on mixed-conducting composites by electrical conductivity relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Bobing; Wang, Yunlong; Zhu, Zhuoying; Xia, Changrong; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen release kinetics of mixed-conducting Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6 d–Sm0.2Ce0.8O2 d (SFM–SDC) dualphase composites has been investigated, at 750 C, as a function of the SDC phase volume fraction using electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) under reducing atmospheres, extending our previous work on

  16. Huber effect and its application to micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yullia; Tay, Boon K.; Thompson, Benjamin; Soong, Wen L.; Davis, Bruce R.; Abbott, Derek

    1999-09-01

    The micromotor is an extremely small device a few millimeters or less in size. Micromotors in the order of microns are realized by MEMS technology. Important applications in biomedicine include ultrasound probes for blood vessels, microrobots for colon intervention, smart pills and nanolitre pumps. Other uses include actuator for MOEMS and small variable capacitors. One exciting implication of micromotors is that they can be powered by rectifying mechanical vibrations. MEMS are playing an important role in our daily life as these systems are widely used in optics, communication and information systems, fluidics, biotechnology and medicine, scanning probe microscopes, automobiles and aerospace. There are a number technical challenges with micromotors, including the need to reduce stiction and increase torque. The precise geometry of the motor is usually tightly coupled to the stiction effect - the sticking of adjacent surfaces after release due to static friction. Piezoelectric, electrostatic and electromagnetic effects have been investigated to produce the electromotive force for the micromotor. However, we propose a micromotor design based on the Huber effect, as this will allow a new range of geometries and hence possibilities for managing stiction. To date, there have been no reported attempts at using the Huber effect, and this is possibly due to it being a poorly understood phenomenon. The reason for this is that large motors that utilize the Huber effect are self-destructive and hence have never been reliably characterized. Such motors are shown to be able to operate form a dc or ac source, and this property may be valuable in some MEMS applications.

  17. Coupled kinetic equations for fermions and bosons in the relaxation-time approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Maksymiuk, Ewa; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2018-02-01

    Kinetic equations for fermions and bosons are solved numerically in the relaxation-time approximation for the case of one-dimensional boost-invariant geometry. Fermions are massive and carry baryon number, while bosons are massless. The conservation laws for the baryon number, energy, and momentum lead to two Landau matching conditions, which specify the coupling between the fermionic and bosonic sectors and determine the proper-time dependence of the effective temperature and baryon chemical potential of the system. The numerical results illustrate how a nonequilibrium mixture of fermions and bosons approaches hydrodynamic regime described by the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate forms of the kinetic coefficients. The shear viscosity of a mixture is the sum of the shear viscosities of fermion and boson components, while the bulk viscosity is given by the formula known for a gas of fermions, however, with the thermodynamic variables characterising the mixture. Thus, we find that massless bosons contribute in a nontrivial way to the bulk viscosity of a mixture, provided fermions are massive. We further observe the hydrodynamization effect, which takes place earlier in the shear sector than in the bulk one. The numerical studies of the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse pressures show, to a good approximation, that it depends on the ratio of the relaxation and proper times only. This behavior is connected with the existence of an attractor solution for conformal systems.

  18. Kinetic model of vibrational relaxation in a humid-air pulsed corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    The effect of humidity on the vibrational relaxation of O 2 (v) and N 2 (v) in a humid-air pulsed corona discharge is studied using a kinetic model. We previously showed that humidity markedly increases the vibration-to-translation (V-T) rate of molecules in a humid-air pulsed corona discharge by measuring O 2 (v) density (Ono et al 2010 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 19 015009). In this paper, we numerically calculate the vibrational kinetics of O 2 , N 2 and H 2 O to study the reason behind the acceleration of V-T in the presence of humidity. The calculation closely reproduces the measured acceleration of V-T due to humidity, and shows that the increase in the V-T rate is caused by the fast vibration-to-vibration (V-V) processes of O 2 -H 2 O and N 2 -H 2 O and the subsequent rapid V-T process of H 2 O-H 2 O. In addition, it is shown that O atom density is also important in the vibrational kinetics owing to the rapid V-T process of O 2 -O.

  19. Elastic properties, reaction kinetics, and structural relaxation of an epoxy resin polymer during cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heili, Manon; Bielawski, Andrew; Kieffer, John

    The cure kinetics of a DGEBA/DETA epoxy is investigated using concurrent Raman and Brillouin light scattering. Raman scattering allows us to monitor the in-situ reaction and quantitatively assess the degree of cure. Brillouin scattering yields the elastic properties of the system, providing a measure of network connectivity. We show that the adiabatic modulus evolves non-uniquely as a function of cure degree, depending on the cure temperature and the molar ratio of the epoxy. Two mechanisms contribute to the increase in the elastic modulus of the material during curing. First, there is the formation of covalent bonds in the network during the curing process. Second, following bond formation, the epoxy undergoes structural relaxation toward an optimally packed network configuration, enhancing non-bonded interactions. We investigate to what extent the non-bonded interaction contribution to structural rigidity in cross-linked polymers is reversible, and to what extent it corresponds to the difference between adiabatic and isothermal moduli obtained from static tensile, i.e. the so-called relaxational modulus. To this end, we simultaneously measure the adiabatic and isothermal elastic moduli as a function of applied strain and deformation rate.

  20. Structure, Dynamics, and Kinetics of Weak Protein-Protein Complexes from NMR Spin Relaxation Measurements of Titrated Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, L.; Licinio, A.; Jensen, M.R.; Blackledge, M.; Ortega Roldan, J.L.; Van Nuland, N.; Lescop, E.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently presented a titration approach for the determination of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) from experimentally inaccessible complexes. Here, we extend this approach to the measurement of 15 N spin relaxation rates and demonstrate that this can provide long-range structural, dynamic, and kinetic information about these elusive systems. (authors)

  1. Some kinetic and spectroscopic evidence on intramolecular relaxation processes in polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quack, M.

    1983-01-01

    The description and definition of intramolecular vibrational relaxation processes is discussed within the framework of the quantum mechanical and statistical mechanical equations of motion. The evidence from quite different experimental sources is summarized under the common aspect of vibrational relaxation. Although much of the evidence remains ambiguous, there is good indication that a localized vibrational excitation relaxes typically in 0.1 to 10 picoseconds, which is long compared to many optical and reactive processes

  2. The kinetics of low-temperature electron-phonon relaxation in a metallic film following instantaneous heating of the electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuglyi, A.I.; Shklovskii, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of experiments on pulsed laser irradiation of metallic films sputtered on insulating supports is usually based on semiphenomenological dynamical equations for the electron and phonon temperatures, an approach that ignores the nonuniformity and the nonthermal nature of the phonon distribution function. In this paper we discuss a microscopic model that describes the dynamics of the electron-phonon system in terms of kinetic equations for the electron and phonon distribution functions. Such a model provides a microscopic picture of the nonlinear energy relaxation of the electron-phonon system of a rapidly heated film. We find that in a relatively thick film the energy relaxation of electrons consists of three stages: the emission of nonequilibrium phonons by 'hot' electrons, the thermalization of electrons and phonons due to phonon reabsorption, and finally the cooling of the thermalized electron-phonon system as a result of phonon exchange between film and substrate. In thin films, where there is no reabsorption of nonequilibrium phonons, the energy relaxation consists of only one stage, the first. The relaxation dynamics of an experimentally observable quantity, the phonon contribution to the electrical conductivity of the cooling film, is directly related to the dynamics of the electron temperature, which makes it possible to use the data of experiments on the relaxation of voltage across films to establish the electron-phonon and phonon-electron collision times and the average time of phonon escape from film to substrate

  3. Contribution of counterions and degree of ionization for birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics parameters of PAH/PAZO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, Maria; Monteiro Timóteo, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Paulo A.; Ferreira, Quirina; Botelho do Rego, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Photo induced birefringent materials can be used to develop optical and conversion energy devices, and consequently, the study of the variables that influences the creation and relaxation of birefringence should be carefully analyzed. In this work, the parameters of birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics curves obtained on layer-by-layer (LBL) films, prepared from azo-polyectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4 hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH), are related with the presence of counterions and the degree of ionization of the polyelectrolytes. Those kinetics curves obtained on PAH/PAZO LBL films, prepared from PAH solutions with different pHs and maintaining the pH of PAZO solution constant at pH = 9, were analyzed taking into account the films composition which was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The creation and relaxation birefringence curves are justified by two processes: one associated to local mobility of the azobenzene with a characteristic time 30 s and intensity constant and other associated with polymeric chains mobility with the characteristic time and intensity decreasing with pH. These results allow us to conclude that the birefringence creation process, associated to local mobility of azobenzenes is independent of the degree of ionization and of number of counterions or co-ions present while the birefringence creation process associated to mobility of chains have its characteristic time and intensity dependent of both degree of ionization and number of counterions. The birefringence relaxation processes are dependent of the degree of ionization. The analysis of the films composition revealed, in addition, the presence of a protonated secondary or tertiary amine revealing that PAZO may have positive charges and consequently a zwitterionic behavior

  4. Contribution of counterions and degree of ionization for birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics parameters of PAH/PAZO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, Maria, E-mail: mfr@fct.unl.pt; Monteiro Timóteo, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Paulo A. [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNL, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ferreira, Quirina [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNL, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Telecomunicações, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Botelho do Rego, Ana Maria [Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-09-21

    Photo induced birefringent materials can be used to develop optical and conversion energy devices, and consequently, the study of the variables that influences the creation and relaxation of birefringence should be carefully analyzed. In this work, the parameters of birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics curves obtained on layer-by-layer (LBL) films, prepared from azo-polyectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4 hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH), are related with the presence of counterions and the degree of ionization of the polyelectrolytes. Those kinetics curves obtained on PAH/PAZO LBL films, prepared from PAH solutions with different pHs and maintaining the pH of PAZO solution constant at pH = 9, were analyzed taking into account the films composition which was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The creation and relaxation birefringence curves are justified by two processes: one associated to local mobility of the azobenzene with a characteristic time 30 s and intensity constant and other associated with polymeric chains mobility with the characteristic time and intensity decreasing with pH. These results allow us to conclude that the birefringence creation process, associated to local mobility of azobenzenes is independent of the degree of ionization and of number of counterions or co-ions present while the birefringence creation process associated to mobility of chains have its characteristic time and intensity dependent of both degree of ionization and number of counterions. The birefringence relaxation processes are dependent of the degree of ionization. The analysis of the films composition revealed, in addition, the presence of a protonated secondary or tertiary amine revealing that PAZO may have positive charges and consequently a zwitterionic behavior.

  5. Optimization of the Kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique, an off-lattice and self-learning kinetic Monte-Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, Jean-François; Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; Mousseau, Normand; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2012-01-01

    We present two major optimizations for the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique (k-ART), an off-lattice self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search THAT has been successfully applied to study a number of semiconducting and metallic systems. K-ART is parallelized in a non-trivial way: A master process uses several worker processes to perform independent event searches for possible events, while all bookkeeping and the actual simulation is performed by the master process. Depending on the complexity of the system studied, the parallelization scales well for tens to more than one hundred processes. For dealing with large systems, we present a near order 1 implementation. Techniques such as Verlet lists, cell decomposition and partial force calculations are implemented, and the CPU time per time step scales sublinearly with the number of particles, providing an efficient use of computational resources.

  6. Relaxation dynamics and transformation kinetics of deeply supercooled water: Temperature, pressure, doping, and proton/deuteron isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sonja; Handle, Philip H; Plaga, Lucie J; Stern, Josef N; Seidl, Markus; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Köster, Karsten W; Gainaru, Catalin; Loerting, Thomas; Böhmer, Roland

    2017-07-21

    Above its glass transition, the equilibrated high-density amorphous ice (HDA) transforms to the low-density pendant (LDA). The temperature dependence of the transformation is monitored at ambient pressure using dielectric spectroscopy and at elevated pressures using dilatometry. It is found that near the glass transition temperature of deuterated samples, the transformation kinetics is 300 times slower than the structural relaxation, while for protonated samples, the time scale separation is at least 30 000 and insensitive to doping. The kinetics of the HDA to LDA transformation lacks a proton/deuteron isotope effect, revealing that this process is dominated by the restructuring of the oxygen network. The x-ray diffraction experiments performed on samples at intermediate transition stages reflect a linear combination of the LDA and HDA patterns implying a macroscopic phase separation, instead of a local intermixing of the two amorphous states.

  7. Relaxation dynamics and transformation kinetics of deeply supercooled water: Temperature, pressure, doping, and proton/deuteron isotope effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sonja; Handle, Philip H.; Plaga, Lucie J.; Stern, Josef N.; Seidl, Markus; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Köster, Karsten W.; Gainaru, Catalin; Loerting, Thomas; Böhmer, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Above its glass transition, the equilibrated high-density amorphous ice (HDA) transforms to the low-density pendant (LDA). The temperature dependence of the transformation is monitored at ambient pressure using dielectric spectroscopy and at elevated pressures using dilatometry. It is found that near the glass transition temperature of deuterated samples, the transformation kinetics is 300 times slower than the structural relaxation, while for protonated samples, the time scale separation is at least 30 000 and insensitive to doping. The kinetics of the HDA to LDA transformation lacks a proton/deuteron isotope effect, revealing that this process is dominated by the restructuring of the oxygen network. The x-ray diffraction experiments performed on samples at intermediate transition stages reflect a linear combination of the LDA and HDA patterns implying a macroscopic phase separation, instead of a local intermixing of the two amorphous states.

  8. Enthalpy and high temperature relaxation kinetics of stable vapor-deposited glasses of toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Stable non-crystalline toluene films of micrometer and nanometer thicknesses were grown by vapor deposition at distinct rates and probed by fast scanning calorimetry. Fast scanning calorimetry is shown to be extremely sensitive to the structure of the vapor-deposited phase and was used to characterize simultaneously its kinetic stability and its thermodynamic properties. According to our analysis, transformation of vapor-deposited samples of toluene during heating with rates in excess 10 5 K s −1 follows the zero-order kinetics. The transformation rate correlates strongly with the initial enthalpy of the sample, which increases with the deposition rate according to sub-linear law. Analysis of the transformation kinetics of vapor-deposited toluene films of various thicknesses reveal a sudden increase in the transformation rate for films thinner than 250 nm. The change in kinetics seems to correlate with the surface roughness scale of the substrate. The implications of these findings for the formation mechanism and structure of vapor-deposited stable glasses are discussed

  9. Noise-Induced Modulation of the Relaxation Kinetics around a Non-Equilibrium Steady State of Non-Linear Chemical Reaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; González-Segredo, Nélido

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confi...

  10. Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

    2009-01-01

    How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

  11. Emission spectrum and relaxation kinetics of SO2 induced by 266 nm laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiyin; Zhang, Lianshui; Jin, Yidong

    2010-09-15

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) emission spectrum of SO(2) in the range of 270.0-470.0 nm has been obtained with the quadruple harmonic output (266 nm) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as excitation source. The spectrum is composed of a continuous envelope in the short wavelength side, while it shows the character of banded structure superimposed on a continuous one in the long wavelength region. Fluorescence emission from the hybrid states of A(1)A(2)+B(1)B(1) and X(1)A(1)+B(1)B(1) forms the continuous envelope and phosphorescence emission from the triplet state a(3)B(1) forms the banded progression. It is also found that direct emission from laser excited states is very weak. The primary portion of the emission is from the energy levels populated by collision relaxation or collision induced intersystem crossing process. The harmonic frequencies and inharmonic coefficients of the symmetric stretching vibration and the bending vibration of X(1)A(1) state are derived from the ascription of the phosphorescence progression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxygen surface exchange kinetics measurement by simultaneous optical transmission relaxation and impedance spectroscopy: Sr(Ti,Fe)O3-x thin film case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicola H; Kim, Jae Jin; Tuller, Harry L

    2018-01-01

    We compare approaches to measure oxygen surface exchange kinetics, by simultaneous optical transmission relaxation (OTR) and AC-impedance spectroscopy (AC-IS), on the same mixed conducting SrTi 0.65 Fe 0.35 O 3-x film. Surface exchange coefficients were evaluated as a function of oxygen activity in the film, controlled by gas partial pressure and/or DC bias applied across the ionically conducting yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. Changes in measured light transmission through the film over time (relaxations) resulted from optical absorption changes in the film corresponding to changes in its oxygen and oxidized Fe (~Fe 4+ ) concentrations; such relaxation profiles were successfully described by the equation for surface exchange-limited kinetics appropriate for the film geometry. The k chem values obtained by OTR were significantly lower than the AC-IS derived k chem values and k q values multiplied by the thermodynamic factor (bulk or thin film), suggesting a possible enhancement in k by the metal current collectors (Pt, Au). Long-term degradation in k chem and k q values obtained by AC-IS was also attributed to deterioration of the porous Pt current collector, while no significant degradation was observed in the optically derived k chem values. The results suggest that, while the current collector might influence measurements by AC-IS, the OTR method offers a continuous, in situ , and contact-free method to measure oxygen exchange kinetics at the native surfaces of thin films.

  13. Oxygen surface exchange kinetics measurement by simultaneous optical transmission relaxation and impedance spectroscopy: Sr(Ti,Fe)O3-x thin film case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicola H.; Kim, Jae Jin; Tuller, Harry L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We compare approaches to measure oxygen surface exchange kinetics, by simultaneous optical transmission relaxation (OTR) and AC-impedance spectroscopy (AC-IS), on the same mixed conducting SrTi0.65Fe0.35O3-x film. Surface exchange coefficients were evaluated as a function of oxygen activity in the film, controlled by gas partial pressure and/or DC bias applied across the ionically conducting yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. Changes in measured light transmission through the film over time (relaxations) resulted from optical absorption changes in the film corresponding to changes in its oxygen and oxidized Fe (~Fe4+) concentrations; such relaxation profiles were successfully described by the equation for surface exchange-limited kinetics appropriate for the film geometry. The kchem values obtained by OTR were significantly lower than the AC-IS derived kchem values and kq values multiplied by the thermodynamic factor (bulk or thin film), suggesting a possible enhancement in k by the metal current collectors (Pt, Au). Long-term degradation in kchem and kq values obtained by AC-IS was also attributed to deterioration of the porous Pt current collector, while no significant degradation was observed in the optically derived kchem values. The results suggest that, while the current collector might influence measurements by AC-IS, the OTR method offers a continuous, in situ, and contact-free method to measure oxygen exchange kinetics at the native surfaces of thin films. PMID:29511391

  14. The 2008 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Robert Huber, Chemistry 1988. Interview by Klaus J. Korak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Robert

    2008-11-25

    Robert Huber and his colleagues, Johann Deisenhofer and Hartmut Michel, elucidated the three-dimensional structure of the Rhodopseudomonas viridis photosynthetic reaction center. This membrane protein complex is a basic component of photosynthesis - a process fundamental to life on Earth - and for their work, Huber and his colleagues received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Because structural information is central to understanding virtually any biological process, Huber likens their discovery to "switching on the light" for scientists trying to understand photosynthesis. Huber marvels at the growth of structural biology since the time he entered the field, when crystallographers worked with hand-made instruments and primitive computers, and only "a handful" of crystallographers would meet annually in the Bavarian Alps. In the "explosion" of structural biology since his early days of research, Huber looks to the rising generation of scientists to solve the remaining mysteries in the field - such as the mechanisms that underlie protein folding. A strong proponent of science mentorship, Huber delights in meeting young researchers at the annual Nobel Laureate Meetings in Lindau, Germany. He hopes that among these young scientists is an "Einstein of biology" who, he says with a twinkle in his eye, "doesn't know it yet." The interview was conducted by JoVE co-founder Klaus J. Korak at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting 2008 in Lindau, Germany.

  15. Simultaneous spectral and temporal analyses of kinetic energies in nonequilibrium systems: theory and application to vibrational relaxation of O-D stretch mode of HOD in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jonggu; Lim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-05-28

    A time series of kinetic energies (KE) from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation contains fundamental information on system dynamics. It can also be analyzed in the frequency domain through Fourier transformation (FT) of velocity correlation functions, providing energy content of different spectral regions. By limiting the FT time span, we have previously shown that spectral resolution of KE evolution is possible in the nonequilibrium situations [Jeon and Cho, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 135, 214504]. In this paper, we refine the method by employing the concept of instantaneous power spectra, extending it to reflect an instantaneous time-correlation of velocities with those in the future as well as with those in the past, and present a new method to obtain the instantaneous spectral density of KE (iKESD). This approach enables the simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution of KE with unlimited time precision. We discuss the formal and novel properties of the new iKESD approaches and how to optimize computational methods and determine parameters for practical applications. The method is specifically applied to the nonequilibrium MD simulation of vibrational relaxation of the OD stretch mode in a hydrated HOD molecule by employing a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential. We directly compare the computational results with the OD band population relaxation time profiles extracted from the IR pump-probe measurements for 5% HOD in water. The calculated iKESD yields the OD bond relaxation time scale ∼30% larger than the experimental value, and this decay is largely frequency-independent if the classical anharmonicity is accounted for. From the integrated iKESD over intra- and intermolecular bands, the major energy transfer pathways were found to involve the HOD bending mode in the subps range, then the internal modes of the solvent until 5 ps after excitation, and eventually the solvent intermolecular modes. Also, strong hydrogen

  16. Study of crystallization kinetics and structural relaxation behavior in phase separated Ag{sub 33}Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 50} glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen, E-mail: prafiziks@gmail.com [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Nanotechnology Research Centre, DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kabir Nagar, Jalandhar 144008 (India); Yannopoulos, S.N. [Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (FORTH/ICE-HT), P.O. Box 1414, GR-26 504, Rio-Patras (Greece); Sathiaraj, T.S. [Department of Physics, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Thangaraj, R., E-mail: rthangaraj@rediffmail.com [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2012-07-16

    We report on the crystallization processes and structure (crystal phases) of Ag{sub 33}Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 50} glassy alloy using differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction techniques, respectively. The devitrification that gives rise to the first exothermic peak results in the crystallization of Ag{sub 2}Se and Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} phases, while the growth of GeSe{sub 2} accompanied by the transformation of Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} to Ag{sub 2}Se phase occurs during the second crystallization process. Different theoretical models are used to elucidate various kinetic parameters for the crystallization transformation process in this phase separated system. With annealing below the glass transition temperature, an inverse behavior between the variation of the optical gap and the band tailing parameter is observed for the thermally evaporated films. These results are explained as the mixing of different clusters/species in the amorphous state and/or changes caused by structural relaxation of the glassy network for the thermally evaporated films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase separation in Ag{sub 33}Ge{sub 17}Se{sub 50} glassy alloy bordering two glass forming regions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformation of Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} {yields} Ag{sub 2}Se along with crystallization GeSe{sub 2} phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elucidation of various kinetic parameters for the crystalline transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural relaxation in thermally evaporated films by optical spectroscopy.

  17. Outlier Detection in Regression Using an Iterated One-Step Approximation to the Huber-Skip Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    In regression we can delete outliers based upon a preliminary estimator and reestimate the parameters by least squares based upon the retained observations. We study the properties of an iteratively defined sequence of estimators based on this idea. We relate the sequence to the Huber-skip estima......In regression we can delete outliers based upon a preliminary estimator and reestimate the parameters by least squares based upon the retained observations. We study the properties of an iteratively defined sequence of estimators based on this idea. We relate the sequence to the Huber...... that the normalized estimation errors are tight and are close to a linear function of the kernel, thus providing a stochastic expansion of the estimators, which is the same as for the Huber-skip. This implies that the iterated estimator is a close approximation of the Huber-skip...

  18. An application of Huber model on the effect of psychological empowerment of employees on organizational learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdie Mirzaiefar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive–survey study is to determine the effect of psychological empowerment of employees on organizational learning based on Huber model. The study selects a sample of 54 people randomly from 499 regular employees of a Gas distribution firm located in province of Lorestan, Iran. For collecting data, two questionnaires of Huber organizational learning and psychological empowerment based on Spreitzer (1995 model [Spreitzer, G. M. (1995. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 38(5, 1442-1465.] are used. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of organizational and psychological empowerment questionnaires are 0.706 and 0.92, respectively. SPSS software and linear regression test, binomial test, Pearson correlation test, and Friedman tests are used to analyze data and examine the hypotheses. The results of the data analysis show that psychological empowerment of employees could influence on organizational learning aspects in organization, significantly.

  19. The dependence of the ultrafast relaxation kinetics of the S2 and S1 states in β-carotene homologs and lycopene on conjugation length studied by femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Masazumi; Fujii, Ritsuko; Cogdell, Richard J.; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    The ultrafast relaxation kinetics of all-trans-β-carotene homologs with varying numbers of conjugated double bonds n(n =7-15) and lycopene (n =11) has been investigated using femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies, both carried out under identical excitation conditions. The nonradiative relaxation rates of the optically allowed S2(1Bu+1) state were precisely determined by the time-resolved fluorescence. The kinetics of the optically forbidden S1(2Ag-1) state were observed by the time-resolved absorption measurements. The dependence of the S1 relaxation rates upon the conjugation length is adequately described by application of the energy gap law. In contrast to this, the nonradiative relaxation rates of S2 have a minimum at n =9 and show a reverse energy gap law dependence for values of n above 11. This anomalous behavior of the S2 relaxation rates can be explained by the presence of an intermediate state (here called the Sx state) located between the S2 and S1 states at large values of n (such as n =11). The presence of such an intermediate state would then result in the following sequential relaxation pathway S2→Sx→S1→S0. A model based on conical intersections between the potential energy curves of these excited singlet states can readily explain the measured relationships between the decay rates and the energy gaps.

  20. Noise-induced modulation of the relaxation kinetics around a non-equilibrium steady state of non-linear chemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Ramaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confinement increases the lifetimes of all species that are involved in any non-linear reaction as a reactant. Burst monotonically increases or decreases lifetimes. Competition between burst-induced and confinement-induced modulation may hence lead to a non-monotonic modulation. We quantify lifetime as the integral of the time autocorrelation function (ACF of concentration fluctuations around a non-equilibrium steady state of the reaction network. Furthermore, we look at the first and second derivatives of the ACF, each of which is affected in opposite ways by burst and confinement. This allows discriminating between these two noise sources. We analytically derive the ACF from the linear Fokker-Planck approximation of the chemical master equation in order to establish a baseline for the burst-induced modulation at low confinement. Effects of higher confinement are then studied using a partial-propensity stochastic simulation algorithm. The results presented here may help understand the mechanisms that deviate stochastic kinetics from its deterministic counterpart. In addition, they may be instrumental when using fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM or fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy (FCS to measure confinement and burst in systems with known reaction rates, or, alternatively, to correct for the effects of confinement and burst when experimentally measuring reaction rates.

  1. Noise-induced modulation of the relaxation kinetics around a non-equilibrium steady state of non-linear chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; González-Segredo, Nélido

    2011-01-28

    Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confinement increases the lifetimes of all species that are involved in any non-linear reaction as a reactant. Burst monotonically increases or decreases lifetimes. Competition between burst-induced and confinement-induced modulation may hence lead to a non-monotonic modulation. We quantify lifetime as the integral of the time autocorrelation function (ACF) of concentration fluctuations around a non-equilibrium steady state of the reaction network. Furthermore, we look at the first and second derivatives of the ACF, each of which is affected in opposite ways by burst and confinement. This allows discriminating between these two noise sources. We analytically derive the ACF from the linear Fokker-Planck approximation of the chemical master equation in order to establish a baseline for the burst-induced modulation at low confinement. Effects of higher confinement are then studied using a partial-propensity stochastic simulation algorithm. The results presented here may help understand the mechanisms that deviate stochastic kinetics from its deterministic counterpart. In addition, they may be instrumental when using fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) or fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure confinement and burst in systems with known reaction rates, or, alternatively, to correct for the effects of confinement and burst when experimentally measuring reaction rates.

  2. Chemical kinetics and relaxation of non-equilibrium air plasma generated by energetic photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulois, Melissa; Ribière, Maxime; Eichwald, Olivier; Yousfi, Mohammed; Azaïs, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of electromagnetic perturbations of electronic devices, due to air plasma-induced electromagnetic field, requires a thorough study on air plasma. In the aim to understand the phenomena at the origin of the formation of non-equilibrium air plasma, we simulate, using a volume average chemical kinetics model (0D model), the time evolution of a non-equilibrium air plasma generated by an energetic X-ray flash. The simulation is undertaken in synthetic air (80% N_2 and 20% O_2) at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. When the X-ray flash crosses the gas, non-relativistic Compton electrons (low energy) and a relativistic Compton electron beam (high energy) are simultaneously generated and interact with the gas. The considered chemical kinetics scheme involves 26 influent species (electrons, positive ions, negative ions, and neutral atoms and molecules in their ground or metastable excited states) reacting following 164 selected reactions. The kinetics model describing the plasma chemistry was coupled to the conservation equation of the electron mean energy, in order to calculate at each time step of the non-equilibrium plasma evolution, the coefficients of reactions involving electrons while the energy of the heavy species (positive and negative ions and neutral atoms and molecules) is assumed remaining close to ambient temperature. It has been shown that it is the relativistic Compton electron beam directly created by the X-ray flash which is mainly responsible for the non-equilibrium plasma formation. Indeed, the low energy electrons (i.e., the non-relativistic ones) directly ejected from molecules by Compton collisions contribute to less than 1% on the creation of electrons in the plasma. In our simulation conditions, a non-equilibrium plasma with a low electron mean energy close to 1 eV and a concentration of charged species close to 10"1"3" cm"−"3 is formed a few nanoseconds after the peak of X-ray flash intensity. 200 ns after the

  3. Ulrik Huber and John Calvin: The Franeker Debate on Human Reason and the Bible (1686-1687)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, A.

    2011-01-01

    In a doctoral dissertation De recta ratiocinatione (1686), Gisbert Wessel Duker claimed that "the divinity of Scripture cannot be demonstrated except by reason." During the promotion session at the University of Franeker, the legal scholar Ulrik Huber (1636-1694) objected to this statement by

  4. Analogies between colored Lévy noise and random channel approach to disordered kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Marcel O.; Velarde, Manuel G.; Ross, John

    2004-02-01

    We point out some interesting analogies between colored Lévy noise and the random channel approach to disordered kinetics. These analogies are due to the fact that the probability density of the Lévy noise source plays a similar role as the probability density of rate coefficients in disordered kinetics. Although the equations for the two approaches are not identical, the analogies can be used for deriving new, useful results for both problems. The random channel approach makes it possible to generalize the fractional Uhlenbeck-Ornstein processes (FUO) for space- and time-dependent colored noise. We describe the properties of colored noise in terms of characteristic functionals, which are evaluated by using a generalization of Huber's approach to complex relaxation [Phys. Rev. B 31, 6070 (1985)]. We start out by investigating the properties of symmetrical white noise and then define the Lévy colored noise in terms of a Langevin equation with a Lévy white noise source. We derive exact analytical expressions for the various characteristic functionals, which characterize the noise, and a functional fractional Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density functional of the noise at a given moment in time. Second, by making an analogy between the theory of colored noise and the random channel approach to disordered kinetics, we derive fractional equations for the evolution of the probability densities of the random rate coefficients in disordered kinetics. These equations serve as a basis for developing methods for the evaluation of the statistical properties of the random rate coefficients from experimental data. Special attention is paid to the analysis of systems for which the observed kinetic curves can be described by linear or nonlinear stretched exponential kinetics.

  5. From rubber tree homeland to rubber tree plantation: Jacques Huber and his studies on the culture of heveas in the East (1911-1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Raquel de Matos Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the trip of the Swiss botanist Jacques Huber (1867-1914 to the main eastern rubber producing countries between 1911 and 1912. This trip was intended to develop studies on the cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis in that region. Huber was commissioned with the task by the State of Pará governor João Coelho, who wanted to find solutions to the downfall of the regional economy. The economy of Amazonia was primarily based on rubber extractivism and was seriously endangered due the market controlled by England from eastern plantations. Back to Brazil, Huber published a report with information about the society, economy and environment where the rubber trees were cultivated. The report compiles scientific observations and the topics that motivated the regional elites in that context. In addition to the brief analyses of the report, photographs took by Huber in the East of rubber trees plantations, tree tapping and local workers are published.

  6. Robust Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering with application to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Liu, Yalong; Xu, Bo

    2014-12-19

    A new algorithm called Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering (HIDDF) is derived and applied to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) supported by a single surface leader. The position states are estimated using acoustic range measurements relative to the leader, in which some disadvantages such as weak observability, large initial error and contaminated measurements with outliers are inherent. By integrating both merits of iterated divided difference filtering (IDDF) and Huber's M-estimation methodology, the new filtering method could not only achieve more accurate estimation and faster convergence contrast to standard divided difference filtering (DDF) in conditions of weak observability and large initial error, but also exhibit robustness with respect to outlier measurements, for which the standard IDDF would exhibit severe degradation in estimation accuracy. The correctness as well as validity of the algorithm is demonstrated through experiment results.

  7. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  8. Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.

    1997-01-01

    The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author)

  9. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF PLYWOOD PRODUCED WITH PARICÁ (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke VENEERS MODIFIED BY THERMO-MECHANICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Medeiros Arruda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this preliminary research was to study the effects of thermo-mechanical modification in veneers of Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke to improve plywood hygroscopicity and mechanical properties. The amount of 24 veneers was used with the dimensions 25 x 25 cm, that were compressed under different times (5, 10 and 15 minutes at 150°C and pressure at 1 N.mm-2, constituting three treatments and one untreated. Plywood were bonded with resorcinol-formaldehyde, glue consumption of 360 g.m-2 at ambient temperature and pressure of 1 N.mm-2 for 10 hours. The samples were evaluated by colorimetric analysis and physical and mechanical properties. Colorimetric analysis showed that there was a darkening of the wood toward the increase of treatment time. The treatment was not efficient in reducing swelling, only reducing absorption of water. The mechanical properties were not significantly affected by the treatment.

  10. Stress relaxation under cyclic electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, L.N.; Reznitskij, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of deformation process in a relaxating sample under 2 MeV electron cyclic irradiation was studied experimentally. The Al-Mg alloys with controllable and different (in dislocation density precipitate presence and their character) structure were used in experiments. It was established that after the beam was switched on the deformation rate increased sharply and then, during prolonged irradiation, in a gradual manner. After the switching-off the relaxation rate decreases by jumps up to values close to extrapolated rates of pre-radiation relaxation. The exhibition of these effects with radiation switching-off and switchin-on is dependent on the initial rate of thermal relaxation, the test temperature, the preliminary cold deformation and the dominating deformation dislocation mechanism. The preliminary cold deformation and test temperature elevation slightly decrease the effect of instantaneous relaxation acceleration with the irradiation switch-on. 17 refs., 5 figs

  11. Collisional relaxation of electron tail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Masao.

    1985-05-01

    Relaxation due to the Coulomb collisions of the electron velocity distribution function with a high energy tail is investigated in detail. In the course of the relaxation, a 'saddle' point can be created in velocity space owing to upsilon -3 dependence of the deflection rate and a positive slope or a 'dip' appears in the tail direction. The time evolution of the electron tail is studied analytically. A comparison is made with numerical results by using a Fokker-Planck code. Also discussed is the kinetic instability concerned with the positive slope during the relaxation. (author)

  12. PROPIEDADES TECNOLÓGICAS DE LA MADERA DE ALGARROBO (Hymenaea oblongifolia Huber., DE BAGADÓ-CHOCÓ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica B. Serna Mosquera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las propiedades tecnológicas de la madera de Hymenaea oblongifolia Huber algarrobo, proveniente del municipio de Bagadó-Chocó, Colombia. Las muestras tomadas de los árboles (cilindros de la madera fueron estudiadas para determinar las características microscópicas, la densidad básica y la densidad normal; además, se estimaron las propiedades mecánicas utilizando los valores de densidad básica. Los resultados indicaron que la madera presenta vasos escasos -de medianos a grandes-, las fibras son medianas y los radios son finos a moderadamente largos con células cristalíferas, presenta mala calidad para producción de pulpa para papel, la densidad básica de la madera se clasificó como semipesada, y presenta una resistencia mecánica que varía de alta a muy alta. Puede utilizarse en la elaboración de pisos, muebles y mangos decorativos, entre otros usos.

  13. Scarification with sulphuric acid of Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke seeds - FABACEAE Escarificação com ácido sulfúrico de sementes de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke - FABACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniel David Cruz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed coat impermeability to water occurs in many species, including Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. To promote germination in seeds with coat impermeability the use of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 is recommended. The objective of this study was to identify a better time for the scarification with sulphuric acid for S. amazonicum seeds. The effect of scarification with sulphuric acid for 20, 40 and 60 min on germination and speed germination was studied for seeds that were either sowed immediately after scarification or after a 24-hour period of immersion in water. Seeds were sown on a mix of sand and sawdust (1:1. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 50 seeds. The statistical analysis of germination was carried out at six, nine, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after sowing, in a factorial scheme. For speed germination the means were compared by the Tukey test. There was an interaction between treatments to overcome dormancy and immersion time after scarification in most evaluations. Immersion in water accelerated the beginning of germination. All treatments to overcome dormancy promoted seed germination. However, scarification for 60 min, showed better germination, 92% when immediately sown and 86.5% when sown after 24 hours. Speed germination index was highest for scarified seeds for 60 min followed by immersion in water. Scarification for 60 min was the most efficient treatment to promote germination in S. amazonicum seeds.Impermeabilidade do tegumento da semente à água ocorre em muitas espécies, inclusive em Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. Para promover a germinação de sementes com tegumento impermeável um dos métodos recomendados é o uso de ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar o melhor tempo de escarificação com ácido sulfúrico na superação da dormência em sementes de S. amazonicum, escarificadas durante 20, 40 e 60 minutos. Parte das sementes foi semeada

  14. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  15. Identification of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (bufotenine) in takini (Brosimumacutifolium Huber subsp. acutifolium C.C. Berg, Moraceae), a shamanic potion used in the Guiana Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Christian; Gaillard, Yvan; Grenand, Pierre; Bévalot, Fabien; Prévosto, Jean-Michel

    2006-06-30

    This paper is the first thorough analysis of takini, a hallucinogen used by the shamans of several peoples in Suriname, French Guiana, and the region east of the Para in Brazil. The drug is contained in the latex of the Brosimum acutifolium tree, and until now, its psychotropic properties appeared inconsistent with the more general medicinal uses of the tree in the surrounding region. Our chemical and botanical studies reveal that the active ingredient of takini is bufotenine; and that this compound is only contained in the subspecies Brosimum acutifolium Huber subsp. acutifolium C.C. Berg that is found in the same area of the eastern Guianas.

  16. Mechanical relaxation in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other

  17. Surface exchange kinetics and chemical diffusivities of BaZr{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.65}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3−δ} by electrical conductivity relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dae-Kwang; Jeon, Sang-Yun; Singh, Bhupendra [Ionics Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwang-Ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun-Young [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sun-Ju, E-mail: song@chonnam.ac.kr [Ionics Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwang-Ju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Electrical conductivity relaxation in BaCe{sub 0.65}Zr{sub 0.2}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3−δ} was monitored. • Monotonic relaxation behavior was observed during oxidation/reduction. • Nonmonotonic twofold relaxation behavior was observed during hydration/dehydration. • Surface exchange coefficients and diffusivities of O and H were calculated. - Abstract: Perovskite-type oxide BaCe{sub 0.65}Zr{sub 0.2}Y{sub 0.15}O{sub 3−δ} (BCZY2015) was synthesized by a solid state reaction method. BCZY2015 samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The time dependent variation in electrical conductivity of BCZY2015 was monitored during the oxidation/reduction in oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) range of −2.28 ⩽ log (pO{sub 2}/atm) ⩽ −0.68 at a fixed water vapor pressure (pH{sub 2}O), and during the hydration/dehydration in −3.15 ⩽ log (pH{sub 2}O/atm) ⩽ −2.35 range in air. The electrical conductivity showed a monotonic relaxation behavior by the ambipolar diffusion of V{sub o}{sup ··} and OH{sub o}{sup ·} during the oxidation/reduction and the relaxation process was governed by the diffusivity of oxygen (D-tilde{sub vO}). On the other hand, during the hydration/dehydration process, a non-monotonic twofold relaxation behavior was observed due to the decoupled diffusion of H and O components with the mediation of holes, and the conductivity relaxation process was governed by the diffusivities of both H (D-tilde{sub iH}) and O (D-tlde{sub vH}). The values of surface exchange coefficients and diffusivities of oxygen and hydrogen were calculated from Fick’s second law by the nonlinear least squares fitting of the conductivity data, as proposed by Yoo et al. (2008)

  18. Relaxation characteristics of hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    1980-02-01

    Relaxation diagrams of Hastelloy X (relaxation curves, relaxation design diagrams, etc.) were generated from the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, using inelastic stress analysis code TEPICC-J. These data are in good agreement with experimental relaxation data of ORNL-5479. Three typical inelastic stress analyses were performed for various relaxation behaviors of the high-temperature structures. An attempt was also made to predict these relaxation behaviors by the relaxation curves. (author)

  19. Anisotropic temperature relaxation of plasmas in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetized kinetic equation derived in an earlier paper (Hassan and Watson, 1977) is used to study the problem of relaxation of anisotropic electron and ion temperatures in a magnetized plasma. In the case of anisotropic electron temperature relaxation, it is shown that for small anisotropies the exchange of energy within the electrons between the components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field direction determine the relaxation rate. For anisotropic ion temperature relaxation it is shown that the essential mechanism for relaxation is provided by energy transfer between ions and electrons, and that the expression for the relaxation rate perpendicular to the magnetic field contains a significant term proportional to ln eta 0 ln (msub(e)/msub(i)) (where eta 0 = Ωsub(e)/ksub(D)Vsub(e perpendicular to)), in addition to the term proportional to the Coulomb logarithm. (author)

  20. TEACHING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NORRIS, JEANNE E.; STEINHAUS, ARTHUR H.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER (1) THE METHODS FOR ATTAINING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION THAT HAVE PROVED FRUITFUL IN THE ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLINIC CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO THE TEACHER-CLASS RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLASSROOM AND GYMNASIUM, AND (2) NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION CAN BE TAUGHT SUCCESSFULLY BY AN APPROPRIATELY TRAINED…

  1. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    . When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....

  2. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raise your heart rate. This is called the stress response. Relaxation techniques can help your body relax and lower your blood pressure ... also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do not need much ... including those that cause stress. Meditation has been practiced for thousands of years, ...

  3. Modern problems of relaxation gas dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losev, S.A.; Osipov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the dynamical characteristics of relaxation processes are studied. Unfortunately, many dynamical characteristics of relaxation processes, necessary for the solution of important scientific and applied problems, are not known. These problems require further development of experimental methods of the study of nonequilibrium gas. It is known, that gas systems are shifted from the equilibrium by different methods: by acoustic and shock wav es, by means of gas expansion in nozzles and jets, by powerful radiations (laser, first of all), by electric discharges, in burning and combustion devices, etc. Non-equilibrium gas is produced in installations of continuum, impulse and periodic regime. Molecular beams, shock tubes (especially with nozzles), flow and jet installations, aerodynamical tubes, plasmatrons, vessels with a gas, influenced by the strong radiation, burners and combustion devices, where the study of non-euilibrium gas is helpful to solve the problems of the determination of kinetic equations and constants of physico-chemical kinetics

  4. On real statistics of relaxation in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovlev, Yu. E.

    2016-02-01

    By example of a particle interacting with ideal gas, it is shown that the statistics of collisions in statistical mechanics at any value of the gas rarefaction parameter qualitatively differ from that conjugated with Boltzmann's hypothetical molecular chaos and kinetic equation. In reality, the probability of collisions of the particle in itself is random. Because of that, the relaxation of particle velocity acquires a power-law asymptotic behavior. An estimate of its exponent is suggested on the basis of simple kinematic reasons.

  5. The relaxation time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs

  6. A Robust Algorithm of Multiquadric Method Based on an Improved Huber Loss Function for Interpolating Remote-Sensing-Derived Elevation Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfa Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing-derived elevation data sets often suffer from noise and outliers due to various reasons, such as the physical limitations of sensors, multiple reflectance, occlusions and low contrast of texture. Outliers generally have a seriously negative effect on DEM construction. Some interpolation methods like ordinary kriging (OK are capable of smoothing noise inherent in sample points, but are sensitive to outliers. In this paper, a robust algorithm of multiquadric method (MQ based on an Improved Huber loss function (MQ-IH has been developed to decrease the impact of outliers on DEM construction. Theoretically, the improved Huber loss function is null for outliers, quadratic for small errors, and linear for others. Simulated data sets drawn from a mathematical surface with different error distributions were employed to analyze the robustness of MQ-IH. Results indicate that MQ-IH obtains a good balance between efficiency and robustness. Namely, the performance of MQ-IH is comparative to those of the classical MQ and MQ based on the Classical Huber loss function (MQ-CH when sample points follow a normal distribution, and the former outperforms the latter two when sample points are subject to outliers. For example, for the Cauchy error distribution with the location parameter of 0 and scale parameter of 1, the root mean square errors (RMSEs of MQ-CH and the classical MQ are 0.3916 and 1.4591, respectively, whereas that of MQ-IH is 0.3698. The performance of MQ-IH is further evaluated by qualitative and quantitative analysis through a real-world example of DEM construction with the stereo-images-derived elevation points. Results demonstrate that compared with the classical interpolation methods, including natural neighbor (NN, OK and ANUDEM (a program that calculates regular grid digital elevation models (DEMs with sensible shape and drainage structure from arbitrarily large topographic data sets, and two versions of MQ, including the

  7. Decay of Metastable State with Account of Agglomeration and Relaxation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kurasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical description of the metastable phase decay kinetics in the presence of specific connections between the embryos of small sizes has been given. The theory of the decay kinetics in the presence of relaxation processes is constructed in analytical manner. The m-mers nucleation is investigated and the global kinetics of decay is also constructed in this case analytically.

  8. Plasticity in the Huber value contributes to homeostasis in leaf water relations of a mallee Eucalypt with variation to groundwater depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer L; White, Donald A

    2009-11-01

    Information on how vegetation adapts to differences in water supply is critical for predicting vegetation survival, growth and water use, which, in turn, has important impacts on site hydrology. Many field studies assess adaptation to water stress by comparing between disparate sites, which makes it difficult to distinguish between physiological or morphological changes and long-term genetic adaptation. When planting trees into new environments, the phenotypic adaptations of a species to water stress will be of primary interest. This study examined the response to water availability of Eucalyptus kochii ssp. borealis (C. Gardner) D. Nicolle, commonly integrated with agriculture in south-western Australia for environmental and economic benefits. By choosing a site where the groundwater depth varied but where climate and soil type were the same, we were able to isolate tree response to water supply. Tree growth, leaf area and stand water use were much larger for trees over shallow groundwater than for trees over a deep water table below a silcrete hardpan. However, water use on a leaf area basis was similar in trees over deep and shallow groundwater, as were the minimum leaf water potential observed over different seasons and the turgor loss point. We conclude that homeostasis in leaf water use and water relations was maintained through a combination of stomatal control and adjustment of sapwood-to-leaf area ratios (Huber value). Differences in the Huber value with groundwater depth were associated with different sapwood-specific conductivity and water use on a sapwood area basis. Knowledge of the coordination between water supply, leaf area, sapwood area and leaf transpiration rate for different species will be important when predicting stand water use.

  9. Photoconductivity relaxation and electron transport in macroporous silicon structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Karachevtseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics and temperature dependence of photoconductivity were measured in macroporous silicon at 80…300 K after light illumination with the wavelength 0.9 μm. The influence of mechanisms of the charge carrier transport through the macropore surface barrier on the kinetics of photoconductivity at various temperatures was investigated. The kinetics of photoconductivity distribution in macroporous silicon and Si substrate has been calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method. The maximum of photoconductivity has been found both in the layer of macroporous silicon and in the monocrystalline substrate. The kinetics of photoconductivity distribution in macroporous silicon showed rapid relaxation of the photoconductivity maximum in the layer of macroporous silicon and slow relaxation of it in the monocrystalline substrate.

  10. A study of vibrational relaxation of electronically-excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsyuk, V.V.; Izmailov, I.A.; Kochelap, V.A.

    1992-09-01

    The time kinetics of the vibrational relaxation of excimers is studied in the diffusional approximation. Simple formulae for functions of nonstationary vibrational distribution are found for the electronically excited molecules. Some spectral-kinetic dependencies of the excimer luminescence are explained in a new way. The possibilities of the determination of excimer parameters are discussed. The dependence of energetical characteristics of excimer lasers on these parameters is particularly emphasized. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  11. Relaxed Binaural LCMV Beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutrouvelis, A.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new binaural beamforming technique, which can be seen as a relaxation of the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) framework. The proposed method can achieve simultaneous noise reduction and exact binaural cue preservation of the target source, similar to the

  12. Effective temperature in relaxation of Coulomb glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, A M; Ortuño, M; Caravaca, M; Pollak, M

    2008-08-01

    We study relaxation in two-dimensional Coulomb glasses up to macroscopic times. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm especially designed to escape efficiently from deep valleys around metastable states. We find that, during the relaxation process, the site occupancy follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature much higher than the real temperature T. Long electron-hole excitations are characterized by T(eff), while short ones are thermalized at T. We argue that the density of states at the Fermi level is proportional to T(eff) and is a good thermometer to measure it. T(eff) decreases extremely slowly, roughly as the inverse of the logarithm of time, and it should affect hopping conductance in many experimental circumstances.

  13. Solute induced relaxation in glassy polymers: Experimental measurements and nonequilibrium thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minelli, Matteo; Doghieri, Ferruccio

    2014-01-01

    Data for kinetics of mass uptake from vapor sorption experiments in thin glassy polymer samples are here interpreted in terms of relaxation times for volume dilation. To this result, both models from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and from mechanics of volume relaxation contribute. Different kind of sorption experiments have been considered in order to facilitate the direct comparison between kinetics of solute induced volume dilation and corresponding data from process driven by pressure or temperature jumps

  14. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  15. Estudo Fitoqu?mico de Brosimum potabile Ducke e Brosimum acutifolium Huber, visando investigar por m?todos te?ricos, o mecanismo de biotransforma??o de ?-sitosterol em Estigmaterol

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Marin?s Rodrigues de

    2000-01-01

    O estudo fitoqu?mico de Bosimum acutifolium, Huber e Brosimum potabile, Ducke est? sendo relatado im este trabalho. Os compostos ?-sitosterol e estigmasterol foram identificados isolados de misturas que contenham eles tanto nos dois esp?cies estudadas e, adicionalmente, a partir de B. potabile isolou-se o (-) - como centrolobin bem. A posterior ? um phytoconstituent do diaril-heptanoids classe qu?mica que foi caracterizado por os dados espectrosc?picos. A import?ncia dos resultados thse ? ...

  16. Experiments in paramagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijphart, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis presents two attempts to improve the resolving power of the relaxation measurement technique. The first attempt reconsiders the old technique of steady state saturation. When used in conjunction with the pulse technique, it offers the possibility of obtaining additional information about the system in which all-time derivatives are zero; in addition, non-linear effects may be distinguished from each other. The second attempt involved a systematic study of only one system: Cu in the Tutton salts (K and Rb). The systematic approach, the high accuracy of the measurement and the sheer amount of experimental data for varying temperature, magnetic field and concentration made it possible in this case to separate the prevailing relaxation mechanisms reliably

  17. Relaxation from particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We consider using particle production as a friction force by which to implement a “Relaxion” solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. Using this approach, we are able to avoid superplanckian field excursions and avoid any conflict with the strong CP problem. The relaxation mechanism can work before, during or after inflation allowing for inflationary dynamics to play an important role or to be completely decoupled.

  18. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1971-01-01

    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...... or longitudinal relaxation function depending on the sign of the axial anisotropy....

  19. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  20. Profile relaxation and tilt instability in a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Sato, T.

    2003-01-01

    The profile relaxation from a magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) profile to a kinetic equilibrium in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) is investigated by two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation. The radial oscillation takes place in order to relax an excess energy in the MHD profile, and the system spontaneously relaxes toward a kinetic equilibrium. In this kinetic equilibrium, the hollow electron current profile is realized as a result of the combined effects of the single particle orbits and the ion finite Larmor radius, and the ion current profile becomes peaked due to the effect of the ion meandering motion. Three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle simulation is also performed to study the stability of these kinetic equilibrium against the tilt mode. The growth rate of the tilt instability is reduced by the kinetic effects. It is found that the stabilization effect of tilt mode becomes much distinct when the current density changes from the peaked profile to the hollow one. (author)

  1. Profile relaxation and tilt instability in a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Sato, T.

    2002-10-01

    The profile relaxation from a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) profile to a kinetic equilibrium in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) is investigated by two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation. The radial oscillation takes place in order to relax an excess energy in the MHD profile, and the system spontaneously relaxes toward a kinetic equilibrium. In this kinetic equilibrium, the hollow electron current profile is realized as a result of the combined effects of the single particle orbits and the ion finite Larmor radius, and the ion current profile becomes peaked due to the effect of the ion meandering motion. Three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle simulation is also performed to study the stability of these kinetic equilibrium against the tilt mode. The growth rate of the tilt instability is reduced by the kinetic effects. It is found that the stabilization effect of tilt mode becomes much distinct when the current density changes from the peaked profile to the hollow one. (author)

  2. Profile relaxation and tilt instability in a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.; Sato, T.

    2002-01-01

    The profile relaxation from a magnetichydrodynamic (MHD) profile to a kinetic equilibrium in field-reversed configurations (FRCs) in investigated by two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation. The radial oscillation takes place in order to relax an excess energy in the MHD profile, and the system spontaneously relaxes toward a kinetic equilibrium. In this kinetic equilibrium, the hollow electron current profile is realized as a result of the combined effects of the single particle orbits and the ion finite Larmor radius, and the ion current profile becomes peaked due to the effect of the ion meandering motion. Three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle simulations is also performed to study the stability of these kinetic equilibrium against the tilt mode. The growth rate of the tilt instability is reduced by the kinetic is effects. It is found that the stabilization effect of tilt mode becomes much distinct when the current density changes from the peaked profile to the hollow one. (author)

  3. Variational formulation of relaxed and multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, R. L.; Yoshida, Z.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hudson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    > Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor relaxation model for formation of macroscopically self-organized plasma equilibrium states, all these constraints are relaxed save for the global magnetic fluxes and helicity. A Lagrangian variational principle is presented that leads to a new, fully dynamical, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD), such that all static solutions are Taylor states but also allows state with flow. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) is developed.

  4. Dynamics of relaxed inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangarife, Walter; Tobioka, Kohsaku; Ubaldi, Lorenzo; Volansky, Tomer

    2018-02-01

    The cosmological relaxation of the electroweak scale has been proposed as a mechanism to address the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model. A field, the relaxion, rolls down its potential and, in doing so, scans the squared mass parameter of the Higgs, relaxing it to a parametrically small value. In this work, we promote the relaxion to an inflaton. We couple it to Abelian gauge bosons, thereby introducing the necessary dissipation mechanism which slows down the field in the last stages. We describe a novel reheating mechanism, which relies on the gauge-boson production leading to strong electro-magnetic fields, and proceeds via the vacuum production of electron-positron pairs through the Schwinger effect. We refer to this mechanism as Schwinger reheating. We discuss the cosmological dynamics of the model and the phenomenological constraints from CMB and other experiments. We find that a cutoff close to the Planck scale may be achieved. In its minimal form, the model does not generate sufficient curvature perturbations and additional ingredients, such as a curvaton field, are needed.

  5. Non-exponential dynamic relaxation in strongly nonequilibrium nonideal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E

    2003-01-01

    Relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics method for nonideal two-component non-degenerate plasmas. Three limiting examples of initial states of strongly nonequilibrium plasma are considered: zero electron velocities, zero ion velocities and zero velocities of both electrons and ions. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration τ nB and subsequent exponential stages of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of the nonideality parameter and the ion mass

  6. Kinetic Typography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images.......After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images....

  7. Emergência de plântulas de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke(CAESALPINACEAE em diferentes substratos e sombreamento1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Costa Gondin

    Full Text Available Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke é uma espécie da floresta amazônica que vem sendo intensamente utilizada nos programas de reflorestamento, tanto por ser de crescimento rápido como pelo bom comportamento em plantios homogêneos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de substratos e sombreamento sobre a emergência e o vigor de plântulas de paricá. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial 10 x 2 (substrato e sombreamento. Os substratos comerciais utilizados foram casca de coco e terra vegetal, em mistura com casca de arroz, areia, pó de serra fresco e pó de serra curtido. Foram avaliados a emergência de plântulas, o índice de velocidade de emergência, o comprimento das raízes e da parte aérea, a matéria seca das raízes e da parte aérea, a frequência relativa e o tempo médio de emergência. Os substratos terra vegetal, casca de coco e casca de coco + areia em ambiente com 50% de sombreamento, e terra vegetal, terra vegetal + areia e casca de coco + areia a pleno sol proporcionaram os melhores resultados. A areia e o pó de serra fresco, ambos em mistura com casca de coco, podem ser usados na fase inicial de viveiro, devendo as mudas ser transplantadas para outro substrato ou o campo após 40 dias. A casca de arroz in natura não deve ser misturada com outros materiais para a utilização como substrato.

  8. SELEÇÃO DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex. Ducke Barneby NO ESPÍRITO SANTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelson Lemes Silva Júnior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi selecionar indivíduos da espécie Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex. Ducke Barneby, localizados em uma área de floresta plantada no Espírito Santo, para serem utilizados como matrizes constituindo um futuro pomar de sementes, que possam subsidiar plantios comerciais na obtenção de madeira. Para isto, foi realizado o inventário da área, onde foram coletados valores de diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP em todos os indivíduos e para a altura total (Ht foi realizado cálculos de estimativa. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, onde foi realizada a análise de variância (ANOVA e aplicado o Teste de Tukey para determinação dos tratamentos a serem utilizados na seleção. Foram selecionadas 171 árvores baseadas nos valores médios de 15,59 cm de DAP e 12,03 m de Ht dos tratamentos escolhidos, além da avaliação quanto a forma do fuste, condição fitossanitária, vigor, disposição na paisagem e condição de luminosidade. As variáveis DAP e Ht se mostraram favoráveis para realização da seleção das árvores e as outras características avaliadas servirão para criação do pomar de sementes.

  9. Investigation of dielectric relaxation in systems with hierarchical organization: From time to frequency domain and back again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, Koki [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Raicu, Valerică, E-mail: vraicu@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Relaxation in fractal structures was investigated theoretically starting from a simple model of a Cantorian tree and kinetic equations linking the change in the number of particles (e.g., electrical charges) populating each branch of the tree and their transfer to other branches or to the ground state. We numerically solved the system of differential equations obtained and determined the so-called cumulative distribution function of particles, which, in dielectric or mechanical relaxation parlance, is the same as the relaxation function of the system. As a physical application, we studied the relationship between the dielectric relaxation in time-domain and the dielectric dispersion in the frequency-domain. Upon choosing appropriate rate constants, our model described accurately well-known non-exponential and non-Debye time- and frequency-domain functions, such as stretched exponentials, Havrilliak–Negami, and frequency power law. Our approach opens the door to applying kinetic models to describe a wide array of relaxation processes, which traditionally have posed great challenges to theoretical modeling based on first principles. - Highlights: • Relaxation was investigated for a system of particles flowing through a Cantorian tree. • A set of kinetic equations was formulated and used to compute the relaxation function of the system. • The dispersion function of the system was computed from the relaxation function. • An analytical method was used to recover the original relaxation function from the dispersion function. • This formalism was used to study dielectric relaxation and dispersion in fractal structures.

  10. Análise espacial da distribuição de cigarras (Quesada gigas Oliver em povoamentos de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke na região de Dom Eliseu, PA Analysis of the spatial distribution of buzzers (Quesada gigas Oliver in parica stands(Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke in Dom Eliseu-PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Paulo Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, através da análise espacial de dados geográficos, a precisão de procedimentos de mapeamento das populações de cigarras (Quesada gigas Oliver em povoamentos de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke, localizados no Município de Dom Eliseu, PA, mediante a aplicação de dois interpoladores (krigagem e inverso do quadrado da distância. Para tal, foram registradas amostras na intensidade de um ponto a cada 30 ha, onde se realizou a contagem do número de cigarras por planta (cigarras/árvore, obedecendo à estratégia de amostragem convencionalmente usada pela empresa proprietária do reflorestamento em estudo. As análises indicaram que a intensidade amostral empregada neste trabalho não foi suficiente para permitir a detecção de forte dependência espacial do número de cigarras/árvore nas áreas estudadas. Devido a essa baixa dependência espacial, os resultados dos dois métodos de interpolação (krigagem ordinária e inverso do quadrado da distância apresentaram-se semelhantes. Já os deste trabalho indicaram que as estratégias de amostragem utilizadas devem ser melhoradas para gerar mapas de predição mais precisos da quantidade de cigarras/árvore nos reflorestamentos de paricá.The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of buzzers (Quesada gigas Oliver in Parica (Schizlobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke stands using spatial geographic data analysis, in Dom Eliseu, Para, Brazil, based on the application of two interpolators (kriging and distance square inverse.Thus, points were set up in a density of one point for every 30 hectares, with one tree sampled per point, obeying the sample strategy conventionally used by the company which owns the reforestation stand under study. The analysis indicated that the sampling intensity utilized in this work was not sufficient to allow a strong spatial dependence of the number of buzzers/tree in the study area. Due to this low

  11. Kinetics of elementary atom and radical reactions: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Our research program is concerned with the kinetics of elementary gas phase reactions and energy transfer involving polyatomic molecules. We report here on three ongoing projects: The reaction of oxygen atoms with hydrogen molecules, the electronic relaxation of NH radicals, and the vibrational relaxation of highly excited SF 6 molecules. 10 refs., 5 figs

  12. Relaxation model of radiation-induced conductivity in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhutayeva, Yu. R.; Khatipov, S. A.

    1999-05-01

    The paper suggests a relaxation model of radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in polymers. According to the model, the transfer of charges generated in the polymer volume by ionizing radiation takes place with the participation of molecular relaxation processes. The mechanism of electron transport consists in the transfer of the charge directly between traps when they draw close to one another due to the rotation of macromolecule segments. The numerical solutions of the corresponding kinetic equations for different distribution functions Q( τ) of the times of molecular relaxation and for different functions of the probability P( τ, τ') of charge transfer in the `overlapping' regions of the diffusion spheres of the segments are analyzed. The relaxation model provides an explanation of the non-Arrhenius behavior of the RIC temperature dependence, the power dependence of RIC on the dose rate with a power index in the interval 0.5-1.0, the appearance of maxima in the curves of the RIC temporal dependence and their irreversible character in the region of large dose rates (more than 1 Gy/s). The model can be used for interpreting polymer RIC in conditions of kinetic mobility of macromolecules.

  13. Estimativas das propriedades de compostos LVL produzidos com paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke por meio de stress wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodolfo Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas de compósitos LVL produzidos com a madeira de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke, por meio de Stress Wave Timer. Os compósitos foram confeccionados em laboratório, dos quais foram retiradas amostras, que foram inicialmente destinadas à realização dos ensaios não destrutivos. Todas as amostras, com dimensões de 2,2 × 2,2 × 40 cm, foram ensaiadas, não destrutivamente, com a propagação de ondas nos sentidos flatwise e edgewise. Em sequência, as mesmas amostras foram destinadas à confecção de subamostras, para realização dos ensaios destrutivos, físicos (absorção de água, inchamento em espessura e inchamento residual e mecânicos (resistência e rigidez à flexão estática flatwise; resistência e rigidez à flexão estática edgewise; resistência à compressão paralela e resistência ao cisalhamento paralelo e perpendicular. A velocidade de propagação das ondas (V0 e o módulo de elasticidade dinâmico (Emd, obtidos com o auxílio do Stress Wave, foram utilizados para elaboração de modelos de predição das propriedades avaliadas. Os resultados indicaram que o Stress Wave Timer apresenta resultados satisfatórios para predição das propriedades mecânicas de compósitos LVL. Com relação às propriedades físicas, embora tenham sido verificados modelos com ajustes significativos, constatou-se limitação dessa ferramenta para predição desses parâmetros. Contudo, considerando ambas as propriedades, físicas e mecânicas, os melhores ajustes foram observados em amostras ensaiadas com a propagação de ondas no sentido edgewise e com o uso da variável independente Emd.

  14. Collisionless relaxation in spiral galaxy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, F.

    1974-01-01

    The increase in random kinetic energy of stars by rapidly fluctuating gravitational fields (collisionless or violent relaxation) in disk galaxy models is investigated for three interaction potentials of the stars corresponding to (1) point stars, (2) rod stars of length 2 kpc, and (3) uniform density spherical stars of radius 2 kpc. To stabilize the galaxy against the large scale bar forming instability, a fixed field corresponding to a central core or halo component of stars was added with the stars containing at most 20 percent of the total mass of the galaxy. Considerable heating occurred for both the point stars and the rod stars, whereas the use of spherical stars resulted in a very low heating rate. The use of spherical stars with the resulting low heating rate will be desirable for the study of large scale galactic stability or density wave propagation, since collective heating effects will no longer mask the phenomena under study.

  15. Vibrational-rotational relaxation of the simplest hydrogen-containing molecules (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molevich, N.E.; Oraevskii, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with the development of chemical lasers much attention is now devoted to the study of kinetic processes is gaseous mixtures containing the hydrogen halides. Vibrational relaxation of molecules if primarily studied without specifying its relation to the rational levels. Rotational relaxation is regarded a priori as faster than vibrational relaxation, so that the population of the rotational levels is assumed to be in equilibrium. This approach to the relaxation of hydrogen halide molecules (and other diatomic hydrogen-containing molecules), however, is unable to explain satisfactorily the results of the papers discussed below. An analysis of the data obtained in these papers leads to the conclusion that the general picture of relaxation in diatomic hydrogen-containing molecules must be viewed as a unified process of vibrational and rotational relaxation. It is shown that those effects observed during vibrational relaxation of such molecules which are unusual from the standpoint of the theory of vibrational-translational relaxation are well explained in terms of intermolecular vibrational-rotational relaxation together with pure rotational relaxation

  16. Mechanisms of Coupled Vibrational Relaxation and Dissociation in Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenise, Iole; Kustova, Elena

    2018-05-21

    A complete vibrational state-specific kinetic scheme describing dissociating carbon dioxide mixtures is proposed. CO 2 symmetric, bending and asymmetric vibrations and dissociation-recombination are strongly coupled through inter-mode vibrational energy transfers. Comparative study of state-resolved rate coefficients is carried out; the effect of different transitions may vary considerably with temperature. A non-equilibrium 1-D boundary layer flow typical to hypersonic planetary entry is studied in the state-to-state approach. To assess the sensitivity of fluid-dynamic variables and heat transfer to various vibrational transitions and chemical reactions, corresponding processes are successively included to the kinetic scheme. It is shown that vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in the symmetric and asymmetric modes do not alter the flow and can be neglected whereas the VT 2 exchange in the bending mode is the main channel of vibrational relaxation. Inter-mode vibrational exchanges affect the flow implicitly, through energy redistribution enhancing VT relaxation; the dominating role belongs to near-resonant transitions between symmetric and bending modes as well as between CO molecules and CO 2 asymmetric mode. Strong coupling between VT 2 relaxation and chemical reactions is emphasized. While vibrational distributions and average vibrational energy show strong dependence on the kinetic scheme, the heat flux is more sensitive to chemical reactions.

  17. Temperature relaxation in collisional non equilibrium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapenko, I.F.; Bobylev, A.V.; Azevedo, C.A.; Assis, A.S. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. We study the relaxation of a space uniform plasma composed of electrons and one species of ions. To simplified the consideration, standard approach is usually accepted: the distribution functions are considered to be a Maxwellian with time dependent electron T{sub e}(t) and ion T{sub i}(t) temperatures. This approach imposes a severe restriction on the electron/ion distributions that could be very far from the equilibrium. In the present work the problem is investigated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic Fokker - Planck equation, which is widely used for the description of collisional plasmas. This equation has many applications in plasma physics as an intrinsic part of physical models, both analytical and numerical. A new detailed description of this classical problem of the collisional plasma kinetic theory is given. A deeper examination of the problem shows that the unusual perturbation theory can not be used. The part of the perturbation of the electron distribution has the character of a boundary layer in the neighborhood of small velocities. In this work the boundary layer is thoroughly studied. The correct distribution electron function is given. Nonmonotonic character of the distribution relaxation in the tail region is observed. The corrected formula for temperature equalization is obtained. The comparison of the calculation results with the asymptotic approach is made. We should stress the important role of the completely conservative different scheme used here, which keeps the symmetric properties of the nonlinear exact equation. This allows us to make calculations without numerical error accumulations, except for machine errors. (author)

  18. Relaxed states with plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Taylor, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    In the theory of relaxation, a turbulent plasma reaches a state of minimum energy subject to constant magnetic helicity. In this state the plasma velocity is zero. Attempts have been made by introducing a number of different constraints, to obtain relaxed states with plasma flow. It is shown that these alternative constraints depend on two self-helicities, one for ions, and one for electrons. However, whereas there are strong arguments for the effective invariance of the original magnetic-helicity, these arguments do not apply to the self-helicities. Consequently the existence of relaxed states with flow remains in doubt. (author)

  19. Physical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifschitz, E.M.; Pitajewski, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    The textbook covers the subject under the following headings: kinetic gas theory, diffusion approximation, collisionless plasma, collisions within the plasma, plasma in the magnetic field, theory of instabilities, dielectrics, quantum fluids, metals, diagram technique for nonequilibrium systems, superconductors, and kinetics of phase transformations

  20. Heparin kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swart, C.A.M. de.

    1983-01-01

    The author has studied the kinetics of heparin and heparin fractions after intravenous administration in humans and in this thesis the results of this study are reported. Basic knowledge about the physico-chemical properties of heparin and its interactions with proteins resulting in anticoagulant and lipolytic effects are discussed in a review (chapter II), which also comprises some clinical aspects of heparin therapy. In chapter III the kinetics of the anticoagulant effect are described after intravenous administration of five commercial heparin preparations. A mathematical model is presented that fits best to these kinetics. The kinetics of the anticoagulant and lipolytic effects after intravenous injection of various 35 S-radiolabelled heparin fractions and their relationship with the disappearance of the radiolabel are described in chapter IV. Chapter V gives a description of the kinetics of two radiolabels after injection of in vitro formed complexes consisting of purified, 125 I-radiolabelled antithrombin III and various 35 S-radiolabelled heparin fractions. (Auth.)

  1. Relaxed states of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucinski, M.Y.; Okano, V.

    1993-01-01

    The relaxed states of tokamak plasmas are studied. It is assumed that the plasma relaxes to a quasi-steady state which is characterized by a minimum entropy production rate, compatible with a number of prescribed conditions and pressure balance. A poloidal current arises naturally due to the anisotropic resistivity. The minimum entropy production theory is applied, assuming the pressure equilibrium as fundamental constraint on the final state. (L.C.J.A.)

  2. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  3. Relaxation effects in ferrous complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, C.; Mathieu, J.P.; Chappert, J.

    1976-01-01

    The slow relaxation mechanism of the Fe 2+ ion in the tri-fluorinated TF(acac) and hexafluorinated HF(acac) complexes of Fe(II) acetylacetonate was investigated. The 300K and 77K Moessbauer spectra for TF(acac) consist in a slightly asymmetric quadrupole doublet. On the contrary, at 4.2K the higher energy line is strongly widened; that is typical of a slowing down in the electron relaxation frequency [fr

  4. Crescimento e absorção de nutrientes por mudas de freijó (Cordia goeldiana huber em função de doses de fósforo e de zinco Growth and nutrient absorption in brazilian walnut (Cordia goeldiana huber seedlings as a function of phosphorus and zinc levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a influência da relação do fósforo com o zinco sobre o crescimento, teor e conteúdo de nutrientes em plantas de freijó (Cordia goeldiana Huber. Utilizaram-se amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, da camada de 0 - 20 cm de profundidade do campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras, que apresentava 1 mg de P (Mehlich 1 e 0,9 mg de Zn por dm³ de solo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, sendo quatro doses de P (0, 150, 300 e 450 mg dm-3 e 3 de Zn (0, 5 e 10 mg dm-3, com quatro repetições. Aos 12 meses após o plantio, foram colhidas as plantas e a matéria seca das folhas, caules e raízes, moídas separadamente, para as determinações químicas. A aplicação do fósforo promoveu aumento no crescimento das mudas e nos teores e conteúdos de P nas diferentes partes da planta de freijó e provocou redução nos teores de zinco nas folhas. Nas raízes, na presença de doses de zinco a interação do fósforo com o zinco reduziu o teor de zinco. As doses de zinco proporcionaram aumentos tanto no teor quanto no conteúdo deste nas folhas e raízes diminuíram os conteúdos de P nas folhas e caules das plantas. O efeito sobre os demais macronutrientes foi variado em função da parte da planta analisada.The objective of this work was to study the influence of the zinc-phosphorus relationship on the growth, content and accumulation of nutrients in Brazilian walnut (Cordia goeldiana Huber. Samples of Dark-Red Latosol, 0 - 20 cm depth, from the campus of the Federal University of Lavras, with 1 mg P (Mehlich 1 and 0.9 mg Zn per dm³ soil. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized factorial design 4 x 3, with 4 P doses (0; 150; 300 and 450 mg dm-3 and 3 Zn doses (0; 5 and 10 mg dm-3, with 4 repetitions. At 12 months after planting, plants were harvested, and dry matter of shoots, roots and leaves were ground separately for chemical analysis

  5. Precession mechanism of spin relaxation at frequent electron-electron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Glazov, M M

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the spin relaxation mechanism in the two-dimensional electron gas, is controlled not only through the electron pulse relaxation processes, determining the mobility, but through the electron-electron collisions as well. It is decided to use the kinetic equation, describing the electron spin mixing in the k-space, for determining the spin relaxation time tau sub s at frequent electron-electron collisions. The tau sub s time is calculated for the nondegenerated electron gas both with an account and with no account of the exchange interaction

  6. Stretched-exponential decay functions from a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovanov, A.V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Rypdal, K.

    2008-01-01

    There are many materials whose dielectric properties are described by a stretched exponential, the so-called Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relaxation function. Its physical origin and statistical-mechanical foundation have been a matter of debate in the literature. In this Letter we suggest a model of dielectric relaxation, which naturally leads to a stretched exponential decay function. Some essential characteristics of the underlying charge conduction mechanisms are considered. A kinetic description of the relaxation and charge transport processes is proposed in terms of equations with time-fractional derivatives

  7. About relaxation phenomena and transport processing in a fully ionized non-ideal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baimbetov, F.B.; Iztleuov, N.T.

    1999-01-01

    In this report correlation effects for non-ideal plasma are accounted in the so called pseudopotentials. The accounting of high order correlation influences in the pseudopotential lead to the strongly screened potential. Kinetic equation with pseudopotential is cited. The equations which describe the relaxation of the difference of directed velocities of plasma particles, and frequency of particle collision which determines relaxation of temperature for non-ideal plasma are obtained. On basis of mentioned kinetic equation the transport equation is obtained as well

  8. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  9. The efficacy of a HUBER exercise system mediated sensorimotor training protocol on proprioceptive system, lumbar movement control and quality of life in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letafatkar, Amir; Nazarzadeh, Maryam; Hadadnezhad, Malihe; Farivar, Niloufar

    2017-08-03

    There is a relation between deficits of the proprioceptive system and movement control dysfunction in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) but, the exact mechanism of this relation is unknown. Exercise therapy has been recognized as an effective method for low back pain treatment. In spite of this, it is not clear which of the various exercise therapy programs lead to better results. Therefore, the present analyze the efficacy of a HUBER study aims to exercise system mediated sensorimotor training protocol on proprioceptive system, lumbar movement control (LMC) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. Quasi-experimental study. 53 patients with chronic non-specific LBP (mean age 37.55 ± 6.67 years,and Body Mass Index (BMI) 22.4 ± 3.33) were selected by using Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) and were assigned into two experimental (N= 27) and control groups (N= 26) The experimental group underwent a five-week (10 sessions) Sensorimotor training by using the Human Body Equalizer (HUBER) spine force under the supervision of an investigator. The movement control battery tests, the HUBER machine testing option, goniometer and visual analogue scale used for movement control, neuromuscular coordination, proprioception and LBP assessment respectively. The assessments were completed in pre-test and after five weeks. The paired and sample T tests were used for data analysis in SPSS program version 18 (Significance level were set at a P value pain scores of subjects with chronic non-specific LBP in the sensorimotor group (P= 0.001). In this study, only the short term effects of the sensorimotor training were examined. The results suggest that a sensorimotor training program causes significant improvement in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. Future research should be carried out with a larger sample size to examine the long term effects of the sensorimotor training program on treatment of patients with chronic non

  10. On a two-relaxation-time D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model for the Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weifeng; Wang, Liang; Yong, Wen-An

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the stability of some lattice kinetic schemes. First, we show that a recently proposed lattice kinetic scheme is a two-relaxation-time model different from those in the literature. Second, we analyze the stability of the model by verifying the Onsager-like relation. In addition, a necessary stability criterion for hyperbolic relaxation systems is adapted to the lattice Boltzmann method. As an application of this criterion, we find some necessary stability conditions for a previously proposed lattice kinetic scheme. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the necessary stability conditions.

  11. Peeling mode relaxation ELM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimblett, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to modelling Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in which toroidal peeling modes are envisaged to initiate a constrained relaxation of the tokamak outer region plasma. Relaxation produces both a flattened edge current profile (which tends to further destabilise a peeling mode), and a plasma-vacuum negative current sheet which has a counteracting stabilising influence; the balance that is struck between these two effects determines the radial extent (rE) of the ELM relaxed region. The model is sensitive to the precise position of the mode rational surfaces to the plasma surface and hence there is a 'deterministic scatter' in the results that has an accord with experimental data. The toroidal peeling stability criterion involves the edge pressure, and using this in conjunction with predictions of rE allows us to evaluate the ELM energy losses and compare with experiment. Predictions of trends with the edge safety factor and collisionality are also made

  12. Anomalous relaxation in binary mixtures: a dynamic facilitation picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A J; Colmenero, J

    2007-01-01

    Recent computational investigations of polymeric and non-polymeric binary mixtures have reported anomalous relaxation features when both components exhibit very different mobilities. Anomalous relaxation is characterized by sublinear power-law behaviour for mean-squared displacements, logarithmic decay in dynamic correlators, and a striking concave-to-convex crossover in the latter by tuning the relevant control parameter, in analogy with predictions of the mode-coupling theory for state points close to higher-order transitions. We present Monte Carlo simulations on a coarse-grained model for relaxation in binary mixtures. The liquid structure is substituted by a three-dimensional array of cells. A spin variable is assigned to each cell, representing unexcited and excited local states of a mobility field. Changes in local mobility (spin flip) are permitted according to kinetic constraints determined by the mobilities of the neighbouring cells. We introduce two types of cell ('fast' and 'slow') with very different rates for spin flip. This coarse-grained model qualitatively reproduces the mentioned anomalous relaxation features observed for real binary mixtures

  13. Kinetics and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous degradation of Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84 by potassium peroxydisulfate (K2S2O8 has been studied in laboratory scale experiments. The effect of the initial concentrations of potassium peroxydisulfate and RY84, pH and temperature on RY84 degradation were also examined. Experimental data were analyzed using first and second-order kinetics. The degradation kinetics of RY84 of the potassium peroxydisulfate process followed the second-order reaction kinetics. These rate constants have an extreme values similar to of 9.493 mM−1min−1 at a peroxydisulfate dose of 4 mmol/L. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation (Ea and Gibbs free energy (ΔG° were also evaluated. The negative value of ΔGo and Ea shows the spontaneous reaction natural conditions and exothermic nature.

  14. Granulocyte kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.; Lavender, J.P.; Saverymuttu, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    By using density gradient materials enriched with autologous plasma, the authors have been able to isolate granulocutes from other cellular elements and label them with In-111 without separation from a plasma environment. The kinetic behavior of these cells suggests that phenomena attributed to granulocyte activation are greatly reduced by this labeling. Here, they review their study of granulocyte kinetics in health and disease in hope of quantifying sites of margination and identifying principal sites of destruction. The three principle headings of the paper are distribution, life-span, and destruction

  15. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  16. Anisotropic spin relaxation in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombros, N.; Tanabe, S.; Veligura, A.; Jozsa, C.; Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Spin relaxation in graphene is investigated in electrical graphene spin valve devices in the nonlocal geometry. Ferromagnetic electrodes with in-plane magnetizations inject spins parallel to the graphene layer. They are subject to Hanle spin precession under a magnetic field B applied perpendicular

  17. Stochastic and Chaotic Relaxation Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1988-01-01

    For relaxation oscillators stochastic and chaotic dynamics are investigated. The effect of random perturbations upon the period is computed. For an extended system with additional state variables chaotic behavior can be expected. As an example, the Van der Pol oscillator is changed into a

  18. Tensions relaxation in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuniberti, A.M.; Picasso, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Traction and stress relaxation studies were performed on polycrystalline Zry-4 at room temperature. The effect of loading velocity on the plastic behaviour of the material is discussed, analysing log σ vs. log dε/dt at different deformation levels. The contribution introduced by the testing machine was taken into account in data evaluation. (Author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Memory effects in the relaxation of a confined granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. Javier; de Soria, M. I. García; Maynar, P.; Buzón, V.

    2014-09-01

    The accuracy of a model to describe the horizontal dynamics of a confined quasi-two-dimensional system of inelastic hard spheres is discussed by comparing its predictions for the relaxation of the temperature in a homogenous system with molecular dynamics simulation results for the original system. A reasonably good agreement is found. Next the model is used to investigate the peculiarities of the nonlinear evolution of the temperature when the parameter controlling the energy injection is instantaneously changed while the system was relaxing. This can be considered as a nonequilibrium generalization of the Kovacs effect. It is shown that, in the low-density limit, the effect can be accurately described by using a simple kinetic theory based on the first Sonine approximation for the one-particle distribution function. Some possible experimental implications are indicated.

  20. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind; Relieve Stress; best ways to relieve stress; best way to relieve stress; different ways to relieve stress; does smoking relieve stress; does tobacco relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; reduce stress; does smoking reduce stress; how can I reduce stress; how to reduce stress; reduce stress; reduce stress levels; reducing stress; smoking reduce stress; smoking reduces stress; stress reducing techniques; techniques to reduce stress; stress relief; best stress relief; natural stress relief; need stress relief; relief for stress; relief from stress; relief of stress; smoking and stress relief; smoking for stress relief; smoking stress relief; deal with stress; dealing with stress; dealing with anger; dealing with stress; different ways of dealing with stress; help dealing with stress; how to deal with anger; how to deal with stress; how to deal with stress when quitting smoking; stress management; free stress management; how can you manage stress; how do you manage stress; how to manage stress; manage stress; management of stress; management stress; managing stress; strategies for managing stress; coping with stress; cope with stress; copeing with stress; coping and stress; coping skills for stress; coping strategies for stress; coping strategies with stress; coping strategy for stress; coping with stress; coping with stress and anxiety; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; deep relaxation; deep breathing relaxation techniques; deep muscle relaxation; deep relaxation; deep relaxation meditation; deep relaxation technique; deep relaxation techniques; meditation exercises; mindful exercises; mindful meditation exercises; online relaxation exercises; relaxation breathing exercises; relaxation exercise; relaxation exercises; stress relaxation; methods of relaxation for stress; relax stress; relax techniques stress

  1. Kinetic coefficients for quark-antiquark plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czyz, W.; Florkowski, W.

    1986-03-01

    The quark-antiquark plasma near equilibrium is studied. The results are based on the Heinz kinetic equations with the Boltzmann collision operator approximated by a relaxation term with the relaxation time, τ, treated as a small parameter. Linear in τ solutions of these equations are used to calculate the transport coefficients: the non-abelian version of Ohm's law, and the shear and volume viscosities. We introduce new chemical potentials which determine the color density matrix of quarks (antiquarks). Gradients of these potentials generate color currents. 12 refs. (author)

  2. Power-law versus exponential relaxation of {sup 29}Si nucleus spins in Si:B crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplak, O.V. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University and National Academy of Sciences, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine); Talantsev, A.D., E-mail: adt@icp.ac.ru [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Morgunov, R.B. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sholokhov Moscow State University for the Humanities, 109240 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The Si:B micro-crystals enriched with {sup 29}Si isotope have been studied by high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the 300–800 K temperature range. The recovery of nuclear magnetization saturated by radiofrequency impulses follows pure power-law kinetics at 300 K, while admixture of exponential relaxation takes place at 500 K. The power-law relaxation corresponds to direct electron–nuclear relaxation due to the inhomogeneous distribution of paramagnetic centers, while exponential kinetics corresponds to the nuclear spin diffusion mechanism. The inhomogeneous distribution of deformation defects is a most probable reason of the power-law kinetics of nuclear spin relaxation. - Highlights: • {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetization relaxation follows mixed power-exponential law. • Power-law corresponds to direct electron–nuclear relaxation. • Admixture of exponential relaxation corresponds to the nuclear spin diffusion. • Inhomogeneously distributed deformation defects are responsible for power low. • Homogeneously distributed Boron acceptors are responsible for exponential part.

  3. Precipitate growth in multi-component systems with stress relaxation by diffusion and creep

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fischer, F. D.; Riedel, H.; Kozeschnik, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, JUL (2016), s. 112-126 ISSN 0749-6419 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 309916 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Strengthening mechanisms * Phase transformation * Creep * Stress relaxation * Precipitation kinetics Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 5.702, year: 2016

  4. Stress relaxation by power-law creep during growth of a misfitting precipitate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Svoboda, Jiří; Antretter, T.; Kozeschnik, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 96, OCT (2016), s. 74-80 ISSN 0020-7683 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-24252S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Creep * Kinetics * Precipitates * Relaxation * Spherical solids Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.760, year: 2016

  5. Slowest kinetic modes revealed by metabasin renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okushima, Teruaki; Niiyama, Tomoaki; Ikeda, Kensuke S.; Shimizu, Yasushi

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the slowest relaxations of complex systems, such as relaxation of glass-forming materials, diffusion in nanoclusters, and folding of biomolecules, is important for physics, chemistry, and biology. For a kinetic system, the relaxation modes are determined by diagonalizing its transition rate matrix. However, for realistic systems of interest, numerical diagonalization, as well as extracting physical understanding from the diagonalization results, is difficult due to the high dimensionality. Here, we develop an alternative and generally applicable method of extracting the long-time scale relaxation dynamics by combining the metabasin analysis of Okushima et al. [Phys. Rev. E 80, 036112 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.036112] and a Jacobi method. We test the method on an illustrative model of a four-funnel model, for which we obtain a renormalized kinematic equation of much lower dimension sufficient for determining slow relaxation modes precisely. The method is successfully applied to the vacancy transport problem in ionic nanoparticles [Niiyama et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 654, 52 (2016), 10.1016/j.cplett.2016.04.088], allowing a clear physical interpretation that the final relaxation consists of two successive, characteristic processes.

  6. Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for 15–20 seconds and then begin again. Progressive Muscle Relaxation This method of relaxation focuses on ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax- deductible donation. Make Donation Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  7. Relaxation and Distraction in Experimental Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)

  8. Relaxation as a Factor in Semantic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, James E.; McNamara, J. Regis

    1975-01-01

    Relaxation and semantic desensitization were used to alleviate the fear of phobic females. Results showed that semantic desensitization, alone or in combination with relaxation, failed to modify the evaluative meanings evoked by the feared object. (SE)

  9. Unequilibrium kinetic of collisionless boundary layers in binary plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotelnikov, V.A.; Nikolaev, F.A.; Cherepanov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    Relaxation processes of kinetic nonequilibrium collisionless boundary layers near spherical charged full absorbing surfaces in binary low-temperature plasmas are investigated. The effect of magnetic field on relaxation processes was neglected. The dynamics of components of the ionized gas was treated near the boundary layer. The potential distribution and the space dependence of concentration were calculated numerically. These results agree well with the experimental data. (D.Gy.)

  10. Characterization of structural relaxation in inorganic glasses using length dilatometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Erick

    low temperature state with many relaxations to a high temperature state with only a single relaxation. Evidence was found for the existence of a definitive transition of some kind in the range of Tg possibly relating the idea of a percolation temperature (T*) as defined by Carmi. The results of the measurements showed substantial support for both the Adam-Gibbs interpretation of decreasing entropy towards the Kauzmann temperature, while also displaying trends compatible with energy landscape theory and the idea of broken ergodicity of glass configuration below Tg. In addition effective relaxation energies were calculated and the energy needed for relaxation showed a definite upward trend with decreasing temperature also supporting the idea of reduced entropy and configurational freedom at lower temperatures. The effective relaxation energies are not purely thermodynamic in nature because they also characterize the effects of viscosity and the kinetics of the material that was relaxing. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  11. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, D. K. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Somphonsane, R. [Department of Physics, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  12. Nonlinear Relaxation in Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirone, Markus A.; de Pasquale, Ferdinando; Spagnolo, Bernardo

    We analyze the nonlinear relaxation of a complex ecosystem composed of many interacting species. The ecological system is described by generalized Lotka-Volterra equations with a multiplicative noise. The transient dynamics is studied in the framework of the mean field theory and with random interaction between the species. We focus on the statistical properties of the asymptotic behaviour of the time integral of the ith population and on the distribution of the population and of the local field.

  13. Structural relaxation: low temperature properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, F. de la

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the changes in transport and superconducting properties of amorphous Zr 70 Cu 30 , induced by thermal relaxation. The experimental results are used to investigate the relation between the microscopic parameters and the observed physical properties. It is shown that the density of eletronic states determines the shift Tc as well as the variation of the electrical resistivity. It is necessary to assume strong hybridization between s and d bands to understand the eletrodynamic response of the superconductor. (Author) [pt

  14. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  15. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  17. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  18. Relaxed plasma-vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Lortz, D.; Kaiser, R.

    2001-01-01

    Taylor's theory of relaxed toroidal plasmas (states of lowest energy with fixed total magnetic helicity) is extended to include a vacuum between the plasma and the wall. In the extended variational problem, one prescribes, in addition to the helicity and the magnetic fluxes whose conservation follows from the perfect conductivity of the wall, the fluxes whose conservation follows from the assumption that the plasma-vacuum interface is also perfectly conducting (if the wall is a magnetic surface, then one has the toroidal and the poloidal flux in the vacuum). Vanishing of the first energy variation implies a pressureless free-boundary magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with a Beltrami magnetic field in the plasma, and in general with a surface current in the interface. Positivity of the second variation implies that the equilibrium is stable according to ideal magnetohydrodynamics, that it is a relaxed state according to Taylor's theory if the interface is replaced by a wall, and that the surface current is nonzero (at least if there are no closed magnetic field lines in the interface). The plane slab, with suitable boundary conditions to simulate a genuine torus, is investigated in detail. The relaxed state has the same double symmetry as the vessel if, and only if, the prescribed helicity is in an interval that depends on the prescribed fluxes. This interval is determined in the limit of a thin slab

  19. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  20. Physisorption kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen

    1986-01-01

    This monograph deals with the kinetics of adsorption and desorption of molecules physisorbed on solid surfaces. Although frequent and detailed reference is made to experiment, it is mainly concerned with the theory of the subject. In this, we have attempted to present a unified picture based on the master equation approach. Physisorption kinetics is by no means a closed and mature subject; rather, in writing this monograph we intended to survey a field very much in flux, to assess its achievements so far, and to give a reasonable basis from which further developments can take off. For this reason we have included many papers in the bibliography that are not referred to in the text but are of relevance to physisorption. To keep this monograph to a reasonable size, and also to allow for some unity in the presentation of the material, we had to omit a number of topics related to physisorption kinetics. We have not covered to any extent the equilibrium properties of physisorbed layers such as structures, phase tr...

  1. Vibrational relaxation and energy transfer of matrix isolated HCl and DCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesenfeld, J.M.

    1977-12-01

    Vibrational kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on matrix-isolated HCl and DCl between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation rates for v = 2 and v = 1 were measured by a tunable infrared laser-induced, time-resolved fluorescence technique. In an Ar matrix, vibrational decay times are faster than radiative and it is found that HCl relaxes about 35 times more rapidly than CCl, in spite of the fact that HCl must transfer more energy to the lattice than DCl. This result is explained by postulating that the rate-determining step for vibrational relaxation produces a highly rotationally excited guest in a V yield R step; rotational relaxation into lattice phonons follows rapidly. HCl v = 1, but not v = 2, excitation rapidly diffuses through the sample by a resonant dipole-dipole vibrational energy transfer process. Molecular complexes, and in particular the HCl dimer, relax too rapidly for direct observation, less than or approximately 1 ..mu..s, and act as energy sinks in the energy diffusion process. The temperature dependence for all these processes is weak--less than a factor of two between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation of HCl in N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ matrices is unobservable, presumably due to rapid V yield V transfer to the host. A V yield R binary collision model for relaxation in solids is successful in explaining the HCl(DCl)/Ar results as well as results of other experimenters. The model considers relaxation to be the result of ''collisions'' due to molecular motion in quantized lattice normal modes--gas phase potential parameters can fit the matrix kinetic data.

  2. Vibrational relaxation and energy transfer of matrix isolated HCl and DCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenfeld, J.M.

    1977-12-01

    Vibrational kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on matrix-isolated HCl and DCl between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation rates for v = 2 and v = 1 were measured by a tunable infrared laser-induced, time-resolved fluorescence technique. In an Ar matrix, vibrational decay times are faster than radiative and it is found that HCl relaxes about 35 times more rapidly than CCl, in spite of the fact that HCl must transfer more energy to the lattice than DCl. This result is explained by postulating that the rate-determining step for vibrational relaxation produces a highly rotationally excited guest in a V yield R step; rotational relaxation into lattice phonons follows rapidly. HCl v = 1, but not v = 2, excitation rapidly diffuses through the sample by a resonant dipole-dipole vibrational energy transfer process. Molecular complexes, and in particular the HCl dimer, relax too rapidly for direct observation, less than or approximately 1 μs, and act as energy sinks in the energy diffusion process. The temperature dependence for all these processes is weak--less than a factor of two between 9 and 20 K. Vibrational relaxation of HCl in N 2 and O 2 matrices is unobservable, presumably due to rapid V yield V transfer to the host. A V yield R binary collision model for relaxation in solids is successful in explaining the HCl(DCl)/Ar results as well as results of other experimenters. The model considers relaxation to be the result of ''collisions'' due to molecular motion in quantized lattice normal modes--gas phase potential parameters can fit the matrix kinetic data

  3. Stretched exponential relaxation in molecular and electronic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    1996-09-01

    Stretched exponential relaxation, 0034-4885/59/9/003/img1, fits many relaxation processes in disordered and quenched electronic and molecular systems, but it is widely believed that this function has no microscopic basis, especially in the case of molecular relaxation. For electronic relaxation the appearance of the stretched exponential is often described in the context of dispersive transport, where 0034-4885/59/9/003/img2 is treated as an adjustable parameter, but in almost all cases it is generally assumed that no microscopic meaning can be assigned to 0034-4885/59/9/003/img3 even at 0034-4885/59/9/003/img4, a glass transition temperature. We show that for molecular relaxation 0034-4885/59/9/003/img5 can be understood, providing that one separates extrinsic and intrinsic effects, and that the intrinsic effects are dominated by two magic numbers, 0034-4885/59/9/003/img6 for short-range forces, and 0034-4885/59/9/003/img7 for long-range Coulomb forces, as originally observed by Kohlrausch for the decay of residual charge on a Leyden jar. Our mathematical model treats relaxation kinetics using the Lifshitz - Kac - Luttinger diffusion to traps depletion model in a configuration space of effective dimensionality, the latter being determined using axiomatic set theory and Phillips - Thorpe constraint theory. The experiments discussed include ns neutron scattering experiments, particularly those based on neutron spin echoes which measure S( Q,t) directly, and the traditional linear response measurements which span the range from 0034-4885/59/9/003/img8 to s, as collected and analysed phenomenologically by Angell, Ngai, Böhmer and others. The electronic materials discussed include a-Si:H, granular 0034-4885/59/9/003/img9, semiconductor nanocrystallites, charge density waves in 0034-4885/59/9/003/img10, spin glasses, and vortex glasses in high-temperature semiconductors. The molecular materials discussed include polymers, network glasses, electrolytes and alcohols, Van

  4. Stretched exponential relaxation in molecular and electronic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Stretched exponential relaxation, exp[-(t/τ) β ], fits many relaxation processes in disordered and quenched electronic and molecular systems, but it is widely believed that this function has no microscopic basis, especially in the case of molecular relaxation. For electronic relaxation the appearance of the stretched exponential is often described in the context of dispersive transport, where β is treated as an adjustable parameter, but in almost all cases it is generally assumed that no microscopic meaning can be assigned to 0 g , a glass transition temperature. We show that for molecular relaxation β(T g ) can be understood, providing that one separates extrinsic and intrinsic effects, and that the intrinsic effects are dominated by two magic numbers, β SR =3/5 for short-range forces, and β K =3/7 for long-range Coulomb forces, as originally observed by Kohlrausch for the decay of residual charge on a Leyden jar. Our mathematical model treats relaxation kinetics using the Lifshitz-Kac-Luttinger diffusion to traps depletion model in a configuration space of effective dimensionality, the latter being determined using axiomatic set theory and Phillips-Thorpe constraint theory. The experiments discussed include ns neutron scattering experiments, particularly those based on neutron spin echoes which measure S(Q, t) directly, and the traditional linear response measurements which span the range from μs to s, as collected and analysed phenomenologically by Angell, Ngai, Boehmer and others. The electronic materials discussed include a-Si:H, granular C 60 , semiconductor nanocrystallites, charge density waves in TaS 3 , spin glasses, and vortex glasses in high-temperature semiconductors. The molecular materials discussed include polymers, network glasses, electrolytes and alcohols, Van der Waals supercooled liquids and glasses, orientational glasses, water, fused salts, and heme proteins. In the intrinsic cases the theory of β(T g ) is often accurate to 2%, which

  5. Logarithmic Exchange Kinetics in Monodisperse Copolymeric Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Daza, Fabián A.; Bonet Avalos, Josep; Mackie, Allan D.

    2017-06-01

    Experimental measurements of the relaxation kinetics of copolymeric surfactant exchange for micellar systems unexpectedly show a peculiar logarithmic decay. Several authors use polydispersity as an explanation for this behavior. However, in coarse-grained simulations that preserve microscopic details of the surfactants, we find evidence of the same logarithmic behavior. Since we use a strictly monodisperse distribution of chain lengths such a relaxation process cannot be attributed to polydispersity, but has to be caused by an inherent physical process characteristic of this type of system. This is supported by the fact that the decay is specifically logarithmic and not a power law with an exponent inherited from the particular polydispersity distribution of the sample. We suggest that the degeneracy of the energy states of the hydrophobic block in the core, which is broken on leaving the micelle, can qualitatively explain the broad distribution of energy barriers, which gives rise to the observed nonexponential relaxation.

  6. Hypocoercivity for linear kinetic equations conserving mass

    KAUST Repository

    Dolbeault, Jean; Mouhot, Clé ment; Schmeiser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new method for proving hypocoercivity for a large class of linear kinetic equations with only one conservation law. Local mass conservation is assumed at the level of the collision kernel, while transport involves a confining potential, so that the solution relaxes towards a unique equilibrium state. Our goal is to evaluate in an appropriately weighted $ L^2$ norm the exponential rate of convergence to the equilibrium. The method covers various models, ranging from diffusive kinetic equations like Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, to scattering models or models with time relaxation collision kernels corresponding to polytropic Gibbs equilibria, including the case of the linear Boltzmann model. In this last case and in the case of Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, any linear or superlinear growth of the potential is allowed. - See more at: http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2015-367-06/S0002-9947-2015-06012-7/#sthash.ChjyK6rc.dpuf

  7. Hypocoercivity for linear kinetic equations conserving mass

    KAUST Repository

    Dolbeault, Jean

    2015-02-03

    We develop a new method for proving hypocoercivity for a large class of linear kinetic equations with only one conservation law. Local mass conservation is assumed at the level of the collision kernel, while transport involves a confining potential, so that the solution relaxes towards a unique equilibrium state. Our goal is to evaluate in an appropriately weighted $ L^2$ norm the exponential rate of convergence to the equilibrium. The method covers various models, ranging from diffusive kinetic equations like Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, to scattering models or models with time relaxation collision kernels corresponding to polytropic Gibbs equilibria, including the case of the linear Boltzmann model. In this last case and in the case of Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, any linear or superlinear growth of the potential is allowed. - See more at: http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2015-367-06/S0002-9947-2015-06012-7/#sthash.ChjyK6rc.dpuf

  8. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng

    2017-08-01

    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  9. Sandpile model for relaxation in complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, A.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Brouers, F.

    1997-10-01

    The relaxation in complex systems is, in general, nonexponential. After an initial rapid decay the system relaxes slowly following a long time tail. In the present paper a sandpile moderation of the relaxation in complex systems is analysed. Complexity is introduced by a process of avalanches in the Bethe lattice and a feedback mechanism which leads to slower decay with increasing time. In this way, some features of relaxation in complex systems: long time tails relaxation, aging, and fractal distribution of characteristic times, are obtained by simple computer simulations. (author)

  10. Observation of in-plane asymmetric strain relaxation during crystal growth and growth interruption in InGaAs/GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Shimomura, Kenichi; Kamiya, Itaru; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2012-01-01

    In-plane asymmetric strain relaxation in lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs(001) heteroepitaxy is studied by in situ three-dimensional X-ray reciprocal space mapping. Repeating crystal growth and growth interruptions during measurements allows us to investigate whether the strain relaxation is limited at a certain thickness or saturated. We find that the degree of relaxation during growth interruption depends on both the film thickness and the in-plane directions. Significant lattice relaxation is observed in rapid relaxation regimes during interruption. This is a clear indication that relaxation is kinetically limited. In addition, relaxation along the [110] direction can saturate more readily than that along the [1-bar10] direction. We discuss this result in terms of the interaction between orthogonally aligned dislocations. (author)

  11. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  12. Stochastic kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombino, A.; Mosiello, R.; Norelli, F.; Jorio, V.M.; Pacilio, N.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear system kinetics is formulated according to a stochastic approach. The detailed probability balance equations are written for the probability of finding the mixed population of neutrons and detected neutrons, i.e. detectrons, at a given level for a given instant of time. Equations are integrated in search of a probability profile: a series of cases is analyzed through a progressive criterium. It tends to take into account an increasing number of physical processes within the chosen model. The most important contribution is that solutions interpret analytically experimental conditions of equilibrium (moise analysis) and non equilibrium (pulsed neutron measurements, source drop technique, start up procedures)

  13. Excitation relaxation and structure of TPPS4 J-aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelbauskas, L.; Bagdonas, S.; Dietel, W.; Rotomskis, R.

    2003-01-01

    The energy relaxation kinetics and the structure of the J-aggregates of water-soluble porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrasulphonatophenyl porphine (TPPS 4 ) were investigated in aqueous medium by means of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy. The excitation of the J-aggregates, at excitation intensities higher than ∼10 15 photons/cm 2 per pulse, results in a remarkable decrease of the fluorescence quantum yield and in the appearance of an additional, non-exponential energy relaxation channel with a decay constant that depends on the excitation intensity. This relaxation mechanism was attributed to the exciton single-singlet annihilation. The exciton lifetime in the absence of the annihilation was calculated to be ∼150 ps. Using exciton annihilation theory, the exciton migration within the J-aggregates could be characterized by determining the exciton diffusion constant (1.8±0.9) 10 -3 cm 2 /s and the hopping time (1.2±0.6) ps. Using the experimental data, the size of the J-aggregate could be evaluated and was seen to yield at least 20 TPPS 4 molecules per aggregate. It was shown by means of confocal fluorescence laser scanning microscopy that TPPS 4 does self-associate in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at acidic pH forming molecular macro-assemblies on a scale of ∼1 μm in PVA matrices

  14. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  15. Tolrestat kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.R.; Kraml, M.; Cayen, M.N.; Dubuc, J.; Ryder, S.; Dvornik, D.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of tolrestat, a potent inhibitor of aldose reductase, were examined. Serum concentrations of tolrestat and of total 14 C were measured after dosing normal subjects and subjects with diabetes with 14 C-labeled tolrestat. In normal subjects, tolrestat was rapidly absorbed and disappearance from serum was biphasic. Distribution and elimination t 1/2s were approximately 2 and 10 to 12 hr, respectively, after single and multiple doses. Unchanged tolrestat accounted for the major portion of 14 C in serum. Radioactivity was rapidly and completely excreted in urine and feces in an approximate ratio of 2:1. Findings were much the same in subjects with diabetes. In normal subjects, the kinetics of oral tolrestat were independent of dose in the 10 to 800 mg range. Repetitive dosing did not result in unexpected cumulation. Tolrestat was more than 99% bound to serum protein; it did not compete with warfarin for binding sites but was displaced to some extent by high concentrations of tolbutamide or salicylate

  16. On the relation between quasi-static and dynamic stress induced reversible structural relaxation of amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, P.; Stucky, T.; Boewe, M.; Neuhaeuser, H.

    1993-01-01

    Quasi-static stress relaxation and dynamic internal friction measurements of stress induced reversible structural relaxation were performed on the amorphous alloy Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 . The kinetics can be well described by a stretched exponential Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts quasi-static relaxation. The thermally activated part of the internal friction shows an Arrhenius temperature behaviour for a fixed vibration frequency and an inverse power frequency behaviour for a fixed temperature. The activation energies calculated from the Arrhenius equation and from the frequency shift method are significantly different. In order to explain this discrepancy the relation between the quasi-static and the dynamic descriptions of the reversible relaxation is reexamined. In particular it is shown that these two activation energies are connected by the Kohlrausch exponent of the quasi-static relaxation. (orig.)

  17. Molecular relaxation behavior and isothermal crystallization above glass transition temperature of amorphous hesperetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shete, Ganesh; Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relaxation behavior of amorphous hesperetin (HRN), using dielectric spectroscopy, and assessment of its crystallization kinetics above glass transition temperature (Tg ). Amorphous HRN exhibited both local (β-) and global (α-) relaxations. β-Relaxation was observed below Tg , whereas α-relaxation prominently emerged above Tg . β-Relaxation was found to be of Johari-Goldstein type and was correlated with α-process by coupling model. Secondly, isothermal crystallization experiments were performed at 363 K (Tg + 16.5 K), 373 K (Tg + 26.5 K), and 383 K (Tg + 36.5 K). The kinetics of crystallization, obtained from the normalized dielectric strength, was modeled using the Avrami model. Havriliak-Negami (HN) shape parameters, αHN and αHN .βHN , were analyzed during the course of crystallization to understand the dynamics of amorphous phase during the emergence of crystallites. HN shape parameters indicated that long range (α-like) were motions affected to a greater extent than short range (β-like) motions during isothermal crystallization studies at all temperature conditions. The variable behavior of α-like motions at different isothermal crystallization temperatures was attributed to evolving crystallites with time and increase in electrical conductivity with temperature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Role of step stiffness and kinks in the relaxation of vicinal (001) with zigzag [110] steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, B.; Hamouda, Ajmi BH.; Einstein, TL.

    2017-08-01

    We present a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the relaxation dynamics and steady state configurations of 〈110〉 steps on a vicinal (001) simple cubic surface. This system is interesting because 〈110〉 (fully kinked) steps have different elementary excitation energetics and favor step diffusion more than 〈100〉 (nominally straight) steps. In this study we show how this leads to different relaxation dynamics as well as to different steady state configurations, including that 2-bond breaking processes are rate determining for 〈110〉 steps in contrast to 3-bond breaking processes for 〈100〉-steps found in previous work [Surface Sci. 602, 3569 (2008)]. The analysis of the terrace-width distribution (TWD) shows a significant role of kink-generation-annihilation processes during the relaxation of steps: the kinetic of relaxation, toward the steady state, is much faster in the case of 〈110〉-zigzag steps, with a higher standard deviation of the TWD, in agreement with a decrease of step stiffness due to orientation. We conclude that smaller step stiffness leads inexorably to faster step dynamics towards the steady state. The step-edge anisotropy slows the relaxation of steps and increases the strength of step-step effective interactions.

  19. Carrier relaxation in (In,Ga)As quantum dots with magnetic field-induced anharmonic level structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtze, H.; Bayer, M. [Experimentelle Physik 2, TU Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-04

    Sophisticated models have been worked out to explain the fast relaxation of carriers into quantum dot ground states after non-resonant excitation, overcoming the originally proposed phonon bottleneck. We apply a magnetic field along the quantum dot heterostructure growth direction to transform the confined level structure, which can be approximated by a Fock–Darwin spectrum, from a nearly equidistant level spacing at zero field to strong anharmonicity in finite fields. This changeover leaves the ground state carrier population rise time unchanged suggesting that fast relaxation is maintained upon considerable changes of the level spacing. This corroborates recent models explaining the relaxation by polaron formation in combination with quantum kinetic effects.

  20. Ultrasonic relaxations in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Tripodo, G.; Carini, G.; Cosio, E.; Bartolotta, A.; Di Marco, G.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range from 10 to 70 MHz have been measured in M 2 O-B 2 O 3 borate glasses (M: Li or Ag) as a function of temperature between 15 and 350 K. The velocity of sound waves decreases with increasing temperature in all the glasses, the decrease as the temperature is increased is larger in glasses containing silver than in those with lithium. A broad relaxation peak characterises the attenuation behaviour of the lithium and silver borate glasses at temperatures below 100 K and is paralleled by a corresponding dispersive behaviour of the sound velocity. Above 100 K, the ultrasonic velocity shows a nearly linear behaviour regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity, which decreases with increasing content of modifier oxide and is smaller in lithium than in silver borates. These results suggest that the relaxation of structural defects and the anharmonicity of borate glasses are strongly affected by two parameters: the number of bridging bonds per network forming ion and the polarising power of network modifier ions which occupy sites in the existing interstices

  1. Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    We reexamine the foundations of Lynden-Bell's statistical mechanical discussion of violent relaxation in collisionless stellar systems. We argue that Lynden-Bell's formulation in terms of a continuum description introduces unnecessary complications, and we consider a more conventional formulation in terms of particles. We then find the exclusion principle discovered by Lynden-Bell to be quantitatively important only at phase densities where two-body encounters are no longer negligible. Since the edynamical basis for the exclusion principle vanishes in such cases anyway, Lynden-Bell statistics always reduces in practice to Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics when applied to stellar systems. Lynden-Bell also found the equilibrium distribution function generally to be a sum of Maxwellians with velocity dispersions dependent on the phase density at star formation. We show that this difficulty vanishes in the particulate description for an encounterless stellar system as long as stars of different masses are initially well mixed in phase space. Our methods also demonstrate the equivalence between Gibbs's formalism which uses the microcanonical ensemble and Boltzmann's formalism which uses a coarse-grained continuum description. In addition, we clarify the concept of irreversible behavior on a macroscopic scale for an encounterless stellar system. Finally, we comment on the use of unusual macroscopic constraints to simulate the effects of incomplete relaxation

  2. Self-organized profile relaxation by ion temperature gradient instability in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Tajima, T.; LeBrun, M.J.; Gray, M.G.; Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W.

    1993-02-01

    Toroidal effects on the ion-temperature gradient mode are found to dictate the temperature evolution and the subsequent relaxed profile realization according to our toroidal particle simulation. Both in the strongly unstable fluid regime as well as in the near-marginal kinetic regime we observe that the plasma maintains an exponential temperature profile and forces the heat flux to be radially independent. The self-organized critical relaxed state is sustained slightly above the marginal stability, where the weak wave growth balances the wave decorrelation

  3. Paramagnetic relaxation effects in perturbed angular correlations for arbitrary electronic relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopin, C.; Spanjaard, D.; Hartmann-Boutron, F.

    1975-01-01

    Previous perturbation treatments of paramagnetic relaxation effects in γγ PAC were limited to the case of very short electronic relaxation times. This limitation is circumvented by invoking a new perturbation theory recently elaborated by Hirst and others for handling relaxation effects in Moessbauer spectra. Under the assumption of spherical electronic relaxation the perturbation factors are computed as functions of certain relaxation parameters which are directly related to the microscopic relaxation Hamiltonian. The results are compared to those of the stochastic theory of Scherer and Blume [fr

  4. Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Cross relaxation, and mI-dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We, are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin......-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...... the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI-dependent....

  5. New hardware and software platform for experiments on a HUBER-5042 X-ray diffractometer with a DISPLEX DE-202 helium cryostat in the temperature range of 20-300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, A. P.; Antipin, A. M.; Verin, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    Huber-5042 diffractometer with a closed-cycle Displex DE-202 helium cryostat is a unique scientific instrument for carrying out X-ray diffraction experiments when studying the single crystal structure in the temperature range of 20-300 K. To make the service life longer and develop new experimental techniques, the diffractometer control is transferred to a new hardware and software platform. To this end, a modern computer; a new detector reader unit; and new control interfaces for stepper motors, temperature controller, and cryostat vacuum pumping system are used. The system for cooling the X-ray tube, the high-voltage generator, and the helium compressor and pump for maintaining the desired vacuum in the cryostat are replaced. The system for controlling the primary beam shutter is upgraded. A biological shielding is installed. The new program tools, which use the Linux Ubuntu operating system and SPEC constructor, include a set of drivers for control units through the aforementioned interfaces. A program for searching reflections from a sample using fast continuous scanning and a priori information about crystal is written. Thus, the software package for carrying out the complete cycle of precise diffraction experiment (from determining the crystal unit cell to calculating the integral reflection intensities) is upgraded. High quality of the experimental data obtained on this equipment is confirmed in a number of studies in the temperature range from 20 to 300 K.

  6. Structural relaxation in annealed hyperquenched basaltic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, John C.; Potuzak, M.

    2012-01-01

    The enthalpy relaxation behavior of hyperquenched (HQ) and annealed hyperquenched (AHQ) basaltic glass is investigated through calorimetric measurements. The results reveal a common onset temperature of the glass transition for all the HQ and AHQ glasses under study, indicating that the primary...... relaxation is activated at the same temperature regardless of the initial departure from equilibrium. The analysis of secondary relaxation at different annealing temperatures provides insights into the enthalpy recovery of HQ glasses....

  7. Dielectric Relaxation of Water: Theory and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Narayan Prasad; Paudyal, Harihar; Johri, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the hydrogen bond dynamics and methods for evaluation of probability and relaxation time for hydrogen bond network. Further, dielectric relaxation time has been calculated by using a diagonalization procedure by obtaining eigen values (inverse of relaxation time) of a master equation framed on the basis of Fokker-Planck equations. Microwave cavity spectrometer has been described to make measurements of relaxation time. Slater's perturbation equations are given for the analysis of the data. A comparison of theoretical and experimental data shows that there is a need for improvements in the theoretical model and experimental techniques to provide exact information about structural properties of water. (author)

  8. Effect of Temper Condition on Stress Relaxation Behavior of an Aluminum Copper Lithium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sumeet; Beura, Vikrant Kumar; Singh, Amit; Yadava, Manasij; Nayan, Niraj

    2018-04-01

    Deformation behavior of an Al-Cu-Li alloy in different temper conditions (solutionized and T8) is investigated using stress relaxation tests. Fundamental parameters such as the apparent and physical activation volume, strain rate sensitivity, effective stress, and exhaustion rate of mobile dislocation density are determined from single and multiple relaxation tests. It was found that dislocation-dislocation interaction controls the kinetics of plastic deformation in the solutionized sample, whereas dislocation-precipitate interaction is the overriding factor in the presence of T1 precipitates. The apparent activation volume was found to be significantly lower in the presence of T1 precipitates compared with solutionized samples. Strain rate sensitivity and effective stress were found to be higher in the presence of T1 precipitates. In addition, multiple relaxation tests showed that irrespective of microstructural features (solutes, semi-coherent precipitates), the mobile dislocation density reduces during the relaxation period. Further evidence regarding reduction in mobile dislocation density is obtained from uniaxial tensile tests carried out after stress relaxation tests, where both solutionized and T8 samples show an increase in strength. Additional discussion on relaxation strain is included to provide a complete overview regarding the time-dependent deformation behavior of the Al-Cu-Li alloy in different temper conditions.

  9. Spin Relaxation in III-V Semiconductors in various systems: Contribution of Electron-Electron Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Fatih; Kesserwan, Hasan; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-03-01

    In spintronics, most of the phenomena that we are interested happen at very fast time scales and are rich in structure in time domain. Our understanding, on the other hand, is mostly based on energy domain calculations. Many of the theoretical tools use approximations and simplifications that can be perceived as oversimplifications. We compare the structure, material, carrier density and temperature dependence of spin relaxation time in n-doped III-V semiconductors using Elliot-Yafet (EY) and D'yakanov-Perel'(DP) with real time analysis using kinetic spin Bloch equations (KSBE). The EY and DP theories fail to capture details as the system investigated is varied. KSBE, on the other hand, incorporates all relaxation sources as well as electron-electron interaction which modifies the spin relaxation time in a non-linear way. Since el-el interaction is very fast (~ fs) and spin-conserving, it is usually ignored in the analysis of spin relaxation. Our results indicate that electron-electron interaction cannot be neglected and its interplay with the other (spin and momentum) relaxation mechanisms (electron-impurity and electron-phonon scattering) dramatically alters the resulting spin dynamics. We use each interaction explicitly to investigate how, in the presence of others, each relaxation source behaves. We use GaAs and GaN for zinc-blend structure, and GaN and AlN for the wurtzite structure.

  10. Pair plasma relaxation time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2010-04-01

    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  11. Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Krawczyk, Hugo; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2003-01-01

    Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within...... general protocols and applications. Indeed, CCA security was shown to suffice in a large variety of contexts. However, CCA security often appears to be somewhat too strong: there exist encryption schemes (some of which come up naturally in practice) that are not CCA secure, but seem sufficiently secure...... “for most practical purposes.” We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three...

  12. Group-kinetic theory of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    The two phases are governed by two coupled systems of Navier-Stokes equations. The couplings are nonlinear. These equations describe the microdynamical state of turbulence, and are transformed into a master equation. By scaling, a kinetic hierarchy is generated in the form of groups, representing the spectral evolution, the diffusivity and the relaxation. The loss of memory in formulating the relaxation yields the closure. The network of sub-distributions that participates in the relaxation is simulated by a self-consistent porous medium, so that the average effect on the diffusivity is to make it approach equilibrium. The kinetic equation of turbulence is derived. The method of moments reverts it to the continuum. The equation of spectral evolution is obtained and the transport properties are calculated. In inertia turbulence, the Kolmogoroff law for weak coupling and the spectrum for the strong coupling are found. As the fluid analog, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation has a driving force in the form of emission of solitons by velocity fluctuations, and is used to describe the microdynamical state of turbulence. In order for the emission together with the modulation to participate in the transport processes, the non-homogeneous Schrodinger equation is transformed into a homogeneous master equation. By group-scaling, the master equation is decomposed into a system of transport equations, replacing the Bogoliubov system of equations of many-particle distributions. It is in the relaxation that the memory is lost when the ensemble of higher-order distributions is simulated by an effective porous medium. The closure is thus found. The kinetic equation is derived and transformed into the equation of spectral flow.

  13. Kinetics of the deformation induced memory effect in polyamide-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen, van M.; Stroeks, A.A.M.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Nascent polyamide-6 shows a peculiar and irreversible effect; the quiescent crystallization kinetics on cooling are accelerated upon deformation in the melt, even after full relaxation of the melt. This phenomenon, known as the orientation (or better, deformation) induced memory effect of polyamide

  14. Sequence-dependent theory of oligonucleotide hybridization kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical approach to the prediction of the sequence and temperature-dependent rate constants for oligonucleotide hybridization reactions has been developed based on the theory of relaxation kinetics. One-sided and two-sided melting reaction mechanisms for oligonucleotide hybridization reactions have been considered, analyzed, modified, and compared to select a physically consistent as well as robust model for prediction of the relaxation times of DNA hybridization reactions that agrees with the experimental evidence. The temperature- and sequence-dependent parameters of the proposed model have been estimated using available experimental data. The relaxation time model that we developed has been combined with the nearest neighbor model of hybridization thermodynamics to estimate the temperature- and sequence-dependent rate constants of an oligonucleotide hybridization reaction. The model-predicted rate constants are compared to experimentally determined rate constants for the same oligonucleotide hybridization reactions. Finally, we consider a few important applications of kinetically controlled DNA hybridization reactions

  15. A novel fractional technique for the modified point kinetics equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Aboanber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A fractional model for the modified point kinetics equations is derived and analyzed. An analytical method is used to solve the fractional model for the modified point kinetics equations. This methodical technique is based on the representation of the neutron density as a power series of the relaxation time as a small parameter. The validity of the fractional model is tested for different cases of step, ramp and sinusoidal reactivity. The results show that the fractional model for the modified point kinetics equations is the best representation of neutron density for subcritical and supercritical reactors.

  16. The Effects of Progressive Relaxation and Music on Attention, Relaxation, and Stress Responses: An Investigation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Relaxation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheufele, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ...) suggested that stress management techniques have specific effects A compromise position suggests that the specific effects of relaxation techniques are superimposed upon a general relaxation response...

  17. Vibrational relaxation of matrix-isolated CH3F and HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.

    1981-08-01

    Kinetic and spectroscopic studies have been performed on CH 3 F and HCl as a function of host matrix and temperature. Temporally and spectrally resolved infrared fluorescence was used to monitor the populations of both the initially excited state and the lower lying levels which participate in the relaxation process. For CH 3 F, relaxation from any of the levels near 3.5 μ, i.e. the CH stretching fundamentals or bend overtones, occurs via rapid ( 3 with subsequent relaxation of the ν 3 (CF stretch) manifold. Lifetimes of 2ν 3 and ν 3 were determined through overtone, ΔV = 2, and fundamental fluorescence. These lifetimes show a dramatic dependence on host lattice, an increase of two orders of magnitude in going from Xe and Ar matrices. Lifetimes depend only weakly on temperature. The relaxation of 2ν 3 and ν 3 is consistent with a model in which production of a highly rotationally excited guest via collisions with the repulsive wall of the host is the rate limiting step. For HCl, lifetimes of v = 1,2,3 have been determined. In all hosts, the relaxation is non-radiative. For a given vibrational state, v, the relaxation rate increases in the series k(Ar) < k(Kr) < k(Xe). The dependence of the relaxation rate; on v is superlinear in all matrices, the deviation from linearity increasng in the order Ar < Kr < Xe. The relaxation rates become more strongly temperature dependent with increasing vibrational excitation. The results are consistent with a mechanism in which complex formation introduces the anisotropy necessary to induce a near resonant V → R transition in the rate limiting step

  18. Relaxation property of the fractional Brownian particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Litan; Lung, C.W.

    1988-08-01

    Dynamic susceptibility of a diffusion system associated with the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) was examined for the fractal property of the Non-Debye relaxation process. The comparisons between fBm and other approaches were made. Anomalous diffusion and the Non-Debye relaxation processes were discussed with this approach. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  19. Lifshitz quasinormal modes and relaxation from holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybesma, Watse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369283074; Vandoren, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830739

    2015-01-01

    We obtain relaxation times for field theories with Lifshitz scaling and with holographic duals Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton gravity theories. This is done by computing quasinormal modes of a bulk scalar field in the presence of Lifshitz black branes. We determine the relation between relaxation time and

  20. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  1. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, 299 302. Models of Flux Tubes from Constrained Relaxation. Α. Mangalam* & V. Krishan†, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala,. Bangalore 560 034, India. *e mail: mangalam @ iiap. ernet. in. † e mail: vinod@iiap.ernet.in. Abstract. We study the relaxation of a compressible plasma to ...

  2. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley

    1998-01-01

    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies...

  3. Baryogenesis via Elementary Goldstone Higgs Relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertov, Helene; Pearce, Lauren; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We extend the relaxation mechanism to the Elementary Goldstone Higgs framework. Besides studying the allowed parameter space of the theory we add the minimal ingredients needed for the framework to be phenomenologically viable. The very nature of the extended Higgs sector allows to consider very ...... but radiatively generated, it is possible to generate the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry via the relaxation mechanism....

  4. Relaxation dynamics following transition of solvated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.B.; Landman, U.; Nitzan, A.

    1989-01-01

    Relaxation dynamics following an electronic transition of an excess solvated electron in clusters and in bulk water is studied using an adiabatic simulation method. In this method the solvent evolves classically and the electron is constrained to a specified state. The coupling between the solvent and the excess electron is evaluated via the quantum expectation value of the electron--water molecule interaction potential. The relaxation following excitation (or deexcitation) is characterized by two time scales: (i) a very fast (/similar to/20--30 fs) one associated with molecular rotations in the first solvation shell about the electron, and (ii) a slower stage (/similar to/200 fs), which is of the order of the longitudinal dielectric relaxation time. The fast relaxation stage exhibits an isotope effect. The spectroscopical consequences of the relaxation dynamics are discussed

  5. Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hyperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....

  6. Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob

    Vibrational and rotational energy relaxation in liquids are studied by means of computer simulations. As a precursor for studying vibrational energy relaxation of a solute molecule subsequent to the formation of a chemical bond, the validity of the classical Bersohn-Zewail model for describing......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...

  7. Cross-relaxation solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipenko, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-relaxation functional diagrams provide a high quantum efficiency for pumping bands of solid state laser media and a low waste heat. A large number of the cross-relaxation mechanisms for decay rare earth excited states in crystals have been investigated. These investigations have been a starting-point for development of the cross-relaxation solid state lasers. For example, the cross-relaxation interactions, have been used for the laser action development of LiYF 4 :Gd-Tb. These interactions are important elements of the functional diagrams of the 2 μm Ho-doped media sensitized with Er and Tm and the 3 μm Er-doped media. Recently, new efficient 2 μm laser media with cross-relaxation pumping diagrams have been developed. Physical aspects of these media are the subject of this paper. A new concept of the Er-doped medium, sensitized with Yb, is illustrated

  8. Revealing the Link between Structural Relaxation and Dynamic Heterogeneity in Glass-Forming Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijin; Xu, Ning; Wang, W H; Guan, Pengfei

    2018-03-23

    Despite the use of glasses for thousands of years, the nature of the glass transition is still mysterious. On approaching the glass transition, the growth of dynamic heterogeneity has long been thought to play a key role in explaining the abrupt slowdown of structural relaxation. However, it still remains elusive whether there is an underlying link between structural relaxation and dynamic heterogeneity. Here, we unravel the link by introducing a characteristic time scale hiding behind an identical dynamic heterogeneity for various model glass-forming liquids. We find that the time scale corresponds to the kinetic fragility of liquids. Moreover, it leads to scaling collapse of both the structural relaxation time and dynamic heterogeneity for all liquids studied, together with a characteristic temperature associated with the same dynamic heterogeneity. Our findings imply that studying the glass transition from the viewpoint of dynamic heterogeneity is more informative than expected.

  9. Stress relaxation in dilute Al-0.02 at.% Mn alloy under electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, L.N.; Ivanov, L.I.; Pletnev, M.N.; Reznitsky, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Stress relaxation in cold-worked and annealed (573 K for 2 hours) specimens of the dilute alloy Al-0.02 at.% Mn has been studied experimentally over a range of initial stresses 5 to 80 MPa, both with and without irradiation by 2.1 MeV electrons. Thermoactivation analysis has revealed that relaxation proceeds in two stages with different activation parameters. The deformation rate in the first stage is controlled by diffusion of the impurity (Mn), and in the second stage by the self-diffusion of aluminum. A new method has been proposed for evaluating the internal stresses from experimental data. The effect of radiation-induced diffusion on the kinetics of relaxation is discussed. (author)

  10. Revealing the Link between Structural Relaxation and Dynamic Heterogeneity in Glass-Forming Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijin; Xu, Ning; Wang, W. H.; Guan, Pengfei

    2018-03-01

    Despite the use of glasses for thousands of years, the nature of the glass transition is still mysterious. On approaching the glass transition, the growth of dynamic heterogeneity has long been thought to play a key role in explaining the abrupt slowdown of structural relaxation. However, it still remains elusive whether there is an underlying link between structural relaxation and dynamic heterogeneity. Here, we unravel the link by introducing a characteristic time scale hiding behind an identical dynamic heterogeneity for various model glass-forming liquids. We find that the time scale corresponds to the kinetic fragility of liquids. Moreover, it leads to scaling collapse of both the structural relaxation time and dynamic heterogeneity for all liquids studied, together with a characteristic temperature associated with the same dynamic heterogeneity. Our findings imply that studying the glass transition from the viewpoint of dynamic heterogeneity is more informative than expected.

  11. Fine kinetics of natural physical ageing in glassy As10Se90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balitska, V.; Golovchak, R.; Kozdras, A.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2014-01-01

    Sigmoid behavior of natural physical ageing in glassy As 10 Se 90 reveals multi-step-wise growing kinetics of enthalpy losses. Phenomenological description of this kinetics can be adequately developed in terms of first-order relaxation processes, tending atomic structure from initial towards more thermodynamically equilibrium state. This kinetics is shown to obey characteristic stretched exponential behavior originated from a number of growing steps, attributed to the interconnected processes of chalcogen chain alignment and cooperative shrinkage of glass network

  12. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  13. Corroborative evidences of TV γ -scaling of the α-relaxation originating from the primitive relaxation/JG β relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Paluch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Successful thermodynamic scaling of the structural alpha-relaxation time or transport coefficients of glass-forming liquids determined at various temperatures T and pressures P means the data conform to a single function of the product variable TVgamma, where V is the specific volume and gamma is a material specific constant. In the past two decades we have witnessed successful TVgamma-scaling in many molecular, polymeric, and even metallic glass-formers, and gamma is related to the slope of the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential. The advances made indicate TVgamma-scaling is an important aspect of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-formers. In this paper we show the origin of TVgamma-scaling is not from the structural alpha-relaxation time. Instead it comes from its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein beta-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the Coupling Model and their relaxation times or tau_0 respectively. It is remarkable that all relaxation times are functions of TVgamma with the same gama, as well as the fractional exponent of the Kohlrausch correlation function of the structural alpha-relaxation. We arrive at this conclusion convincingly based on corroborative evidences from a number of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations performed on a wide variety of glass-formers and in conjunction with consistency with the predictions of the Coupling Model.

  14. Relaxing a large cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Florian; Sola, Joan; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2009-01-01

    The cosmological constant (CC) problem is the biggest enigma of theoretical physics ever. In recent times, it has been rephrased as the dark energy (DE) problem in order to encompass a wider spectrum of possibilities. It is, in any case, a polyhedric puzzle with many faces, including the cosmic coincidence problem, i.e. why the density of matter ρ m is presently so close to the CC density ρ Λ . However, the oldest, toughest and most intriguing face of this polyhedron is the big CC problem, namely why the measured value of ρ Λ at present is so small as compared to any typical density scale existing in high energy physics, especially taking into account the many phase transitions that our Universe has undergone since the early times, including inflation. In this Letter, we propose to extend the field equations of General Relativity by including a class of invariant terms that automatically relax the value of the CC irrespective of the initial size of the vacuum energy in the early epochs. We show that, at late times, the Universe enters an eternal de Sitter stage mimicking a tiny positive cosmological constant. Thus, these models could be able to solve the big CC problem without fine-tuning and have also a bearing on the cosmic coincidence problem. Remarkably, they mimic the ΛCDM model to a large extent, but they still leave some characteristic imprints that should be testable in the next generation of experiments.

  15. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players' mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.

  16. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Relaxation on Young Soccer Players’ Mood States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. Methods Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusion These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players’ mood states. PMID:22375225

  17. Efeito do espaçamento e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura no manejo de plantas invasoras em reflorestamento de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino-Rayol

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A infestação crescente de plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivos é um dos fatores que mais afetam os reflorestamentos na Amazônia, causando decréscimos na produtividade devido à competição direta pelos fatores de produção. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de espaçamentos (4x2 m, 4x4 m e 4x6 m e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura (Cajanus cajan e Canavalia ensiformis no controle da matocompetição em plantio de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá. As coletas das plantas invasoras foram feitas aos 30 e 90 dias após a semeadura das leguminosas de cobertura. Posteriormente foram levadas para herbários para identificação. Foram identificadas 24 espécies distribuídas em 13 famílias botânicas. No que se refere à infestação, diversidade e riqueza de plantas daninhas, os melhores resultados foram encontrados nos tratamentos com C. ensiformis. Esta leguminosa influenciou a composição florística e a estrutura das comunidades de plantas invasoras. O espaçamento 4m x 2m contribuiu para menor diversidade e riqueza dessa plantas. As espécies de ervas daninhas mais frequentes em todos os tratamentos foram Spermacoce capitata e Brachiaria brizantha.

  18. VALIAÇÃO DE PLANTIOS DE PARICÁ (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby DE DIFERENTES IDADES E SISTEMAS DE CULTIVO NO MUNICÍPIO DE AURORA DO PARÁ - PA (BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Maria Castro Coimbra Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the behavior of the species Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum ( Huber ex Ducke Barneby (In the Portuguese language ‘Paricá’ at different ages and cultivation systems in Aurora do Pará (Pará state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in the experimental territory of ‘Tramontina Belém S.A. company’ (2°10’00”s; 47°32’00”w, using a thoroughly random statistical outline with subdivided plots. There were selected six plantation forests of Paricá: 1- agroforestry system of Paricá and Curauá ( Ananas comosus var. erectifolius (SAFpc; 2- monoespecific plantation of Paricá (MONp; 3- agroforestry system with Paricá, freijo ( Cordia goeldiana and curauá (SAFpfc; 4- consortium of Paricá and Freijó (CONpf; 5- agroforestry system with Paricá, Freijo, Mogno and Curaua (SAFpfmc; 6- Consortium of Paricá, Magno and Freijo (CONpmf. The plot size was 18m x 24m with four repetitions per treatment, amounting for 28 plots and 10.368 m 2 of experimental area. The numbers used as reference to evaluate the growth of Paricá were height (H and breast height diameter (DAP. Based on those values the average increments per year were calculated in DAP (IMAdap, H (IMAalt and volume (V; The data was submitted a Variance Analysis and the average compared through Student Newman Keuls test (SNK, at 95% probability level. The results showed that Paricá and Curaua, if associated, presented statistically higher numbers in height and diameter at breast height, increment and volume, if compared to same age treatments in the absence of the agricultural species.

  19. Ionization relaxation in shock-heated krypton-argon mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezumi, Hiromichi; Kawamura, Masahiko; Yokota, Toshiaki.

    1977-01-01

    The ionization relaxation processes behind shock waves in pure krypton and krypton-argon mixtures have been investigated using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer technique. The incident shock velocity was fixed in the neighborhood of Us=2800 m/sec, and the initial pressure was fixed at 0.95 Torr. The experimental results were compared with theoretical values based on the two-step collisional ionization model taking into account of the wall boundary-layer effect. The slope constants of excitation cross section against relative kinetic energy between krypton atom-atom collisions, krypton atom-electron collisions, and krypton-argon atom-atom collisions were determined to be 4.2 x 10 -19 cm 2 /eV, 1.2 x 10 -17 cm 2 /eV, and 4.2 x 10 -19 cm 2 /eV, respectively. (auth.)

  20. Electron kinetics modeling in a weakly ionized gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre

    1985-01-01

    This work presents some features of electron kinetics in a weakly ionized gas. After a summary of the basis and recent developments of the kinetic theory, and a review of the most efficient numerical techniques for solving the Boltzmann equation, several aspects of electron motion in gases are analysed. Relaxation phenomena toward equilibrium under a uniform electric field, and the question of the existence of the hydrodynamic regime are first studied. The coupling between electron kinetics and chemical kinetics due to second kind collisions in Nitrogen is then analysed; a quantitative description of the evolution of the energy balance, accounting for electron-molecule as well as molecule-molecule energy transfer is also given. Finally, electron kinetics in space charge distorted, highly non uniform electric fields (glow discharges, streamers propagation) is investigated with microscopic numerical methods based on Boltzmann and Poisson equations. (author) [fr

  1. Influences of irradiating on spectrum temporary to relaxations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmudov, A.Y.; Akhmedov, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Generality of chain macromolecular system construction allows to identify a majority of features of polymers of like nature. So on considered in given work irradiated model no condition on descending in not put. Model consists of gaussian chains with (N x m) numbers (from them N - a number of chains and m - a number an beads on chains, which are distinguished one from another by the degree a mobility) potential interaction centres with the surround environment. The interaction carries of inter and intramolecular nature , including and hydrogen bond. Between these centres there are constant and casual contacts. For terminal volume and terminal time possible to neglect influences casual bonds of fluctuation.Let number of constant contacts is equally n. Changing of number of contacts under the action of irradiating carries a kinetic nature and so it is described by the differential equation, which parameters are formation frequencies and destroying the contacts. Decision of this equation allows to calculate a complex module of bounce, on which possible judge on velocities of relaxation process irradiated polymer. At the equality unit a relations of frequencies of formation and destroying of the contact occurs as it were a dynamic balance and spectrum temporary relaxations corresponds a spectrum non radiating models. An accumulation of energy occurs under small energy of irradiating in the in that nodes, which encircled smaller number nodes. So small doses of irradiating a polymer show a wing of spectrum temporary to relaxations in the lion. Comparison of obtained formula with available in literature by data has shown that frequency of forming the contacts much less, than their destruction frequency

  2. Geometrical relaxation of excitations in one-dimensional conjugated polymers; Giichijigen kyoeki kobunshi reiki jotai no shusa kozo kanwa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-15

    Large ultrafast optical nonlinearities in conjugated polymers have attracted much attention because of possible applications to nonlinear optical devices. One-dimensional systems such as conjugated polymers have localized excited states with geometrical relaxation. In this study, photoexcited states in polydiacetylene has been investigated by femtosecond Raman gain spectroscopy with 300-fs resolution. A new photoinduced Raman peak with lifetime of 1.5 ps has been observed at 1200cm{sup -1} for the first time. This peak indicates acetylene-like structure of the main chain relaxes to butatriene-like structure due to the formation of self-trapped exciting with the geometrical relaxation. The formation and decay kinetics of the Raman signals is consistent with the relaxation processes of exciting observed by femtosecond absorption spectroscopy. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c ... is unchanged, the nuclear spin entropy was fully sustained across the sc transition. The relaxation in the sc state was slower at all temperatures without the coherence enhancement close to T-c. Nonzero nuclear polarization strongly reduced the difference between the relaxation rates in the sc and normal...

  4. Spin relaxation in nanowires by hyperfine coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria-Arrondo, C.; Sherman, E.Ya.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperfine interactions establish limits on spin dynamics and relaxation rates in ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots. It is the confinement of electrons which determines nonzero hyperfine coupling and leads to the spin relaxation. As a result, in nanowires one would expect the vanishing of this effect due to extended electron states. However, even for relatively clean wires, disorder plays a crucial role and makes electron localization sufficient to cause spin relaxation on the time scale of the order of 10 ns. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  6. Universal Mechanism of Spin Relaxation in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene

    2006-03-01

    Conventional elastic theory ignores internal local twists and torques. Meantime, spin-lattice relaxation is inherently coupled with local elastic twists through conservation of the total angular momentum (spin + lattice). This coupling gives universal lower bound (free of fitting parameters) on the relaxation of the atomic or molecular spin in a solid [1] and on the relaxation of the electron spin in a quantum dot [2]. [1] E. M. Chudnovsky, D. A. Garanin, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. B 72, 094426 (2005). [2] C. Calero, E. M. Chudnovsky, and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166603 (2005).

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...

  8. Stress Relaxation in Entangled Polymer Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ji-Xuan; Svaneborg, Carsten; Everaers, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    We present an extensive set of simulation results for the stress relaxation in equilibrium and step-strained bead-spring polymer melts. The data allow us to explore the chain dynamics and the shear relaxation modulus, G(t), into the plateau regime for chains with Z=40 entanglements...... and into the terminal relaxation regime for Z=10. Using the known (Rouse) mobility of unentangled chains and the melt entanglement length determined via the primitive path analysis of the microscopic topological state of our systems, we have performed parameter-free tests of several different tube models. We find...

  9. Slow relaxation in weakly open rational polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshenev, Valery B; Vicentini, Eduardo

    2003-07-01

    The interplay between the regular (piecewise-linear) and irregular (vertex-angle) boundary effects in nonintegrable rational polygonal billiards (of m equal sides) is discussed. Decay dynamics in polygons (of perimeter P(m) and small opening Delta) is analyzed through the late-time survival probability S(m) approximately equal t(-delta). Two distinct slow relaxation channels are established. The primary universal channel exhibits relaxation of regular sliding orbits, with delta=1. The secondary channel is given by delta>1 and becomes open when m>P(m)/Delta. It originates from vertex order-disorder dual effects and is due to relaxation of chaoticlike excitations.

  10. [A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S

    1992-01-01

    Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151

  11. CUSTOM RELAXATION INDUCED IMPURITY PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY IN THE UNITED AII BVI and AIII BV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Atlukhanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of non-standard relaxation induced impurity photoconductivity (IIP observed in photoconductors CdS, ZnSe, GaAs and others, depending on the kinetic characteristics of the traps are described. In one case, at the stage of post flashing monotonic decay which is typical for relaxation associated with slow traps (the ratio of the speed of the electron capture to the recombination rate (R << 1, the photo response is experiencing vibrations of low frequency (f =0.03-0.3Hz. Relaxation of the second type characterized by rapid photoelectric traps (R >> 1: measurement alternating signal (f > 20 Hz relaxation curves take the form of curves usual impurity photoconductivity. Electronic processes responsible for relaxation of non-standard IIP are analyzed. For example, fast-centers, which include the characteristic AIIBVI donor Agi0, for the first time in semiconductors experimentally, investigated the dependence of the cross section of electron capture by traps energy released during localization.

  12. Observation of relaxation on time scale of core hole decay by coincidence photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    It is shown by a many-body theory that when the relaxation time of a metastable core hole state(s) to the most stable one is comparable to or shorter than core hole decay time of the former state(s), a comparison between the singles (noncoincidence) photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) spectrum and the coincidence one provides a direct evidence of the relaxation. In principle the variation with photoelectron kinetic energy of relaxation (or charge transfer (CT)) time can be determined. By singles measurement the correlation of a photoelectron generated by creation of the metastable states not only with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the same core hole state but also with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the stable state via relaxation of the metastable state, is completely lost, unless only the metastable state is observed by PES, whereas the correlation often manifests directly in the coincidence spectra. Thus, compared to the coincidence spectroscopy the singles one is often much less capable of elucidating the competition between relaxation and core hole decay of a metastable state. Such examples are discussed

  13. Effects of distribution function nonequilibrium tails on relaxation and transfer processes in rarefied gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryev, Yu.N.; Mikhalitsyn, A.N.; Yanenko, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of the nonmonotone relaxation process are studied in a gas of pseudo-Maxwell molecules. Basic results are obtained by a direct numerical integration of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. The evolution of initial distributions being finite or having exponential asymptotics of tails was researched. In particular, initial data obtained by selective excitation (absorption) against the Maxwell background encountered in laser physics problems have been considered. It is shown that under conditions of a developed effect of nonmonotone relaxation the overpopulation in the velocity range 4 <= upsilon <= 10 exceeds on the average 2-3 times the equilibrium value. For the given particles energy the excitation is preserved during t = 5/6 and the total relaxation time of the overpopulation wave reaches t asymptotically equals 20. The amplitudes and the relaxation time of overpopulation in the ''cupola'' region of distribution are substantially lower than in the case of a developed effect in the tail. The influence of the effect on the kinetics of threshold chemical reaction is studied. From the results it follows that in the process of nonmonotone relaxation the mean rates of binary threshold reactions can exceed more than twice the equilibrium values. This estimate is valid for all power like intermolecular repulsive potentials from the pseudo-Maxwell model up to rigid spheres. Time intervals over which the mean reaction rate exceeds considerably the equilibrium one make from 5 to 15 mean free path times increasing with the decrease in the potential ''rigidity''. (author)

  14. Low-temperature strain ageing in In-Pb alloys under stress relaxation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, L.S.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic strain ageing (DSA) of In-Pb (6 and 8 at. % Pb) substitutional solid solution single crystals is studied at temperatures 77-205 K under stress relaxation conditions. The dependences of the stress increment after relaxation connected with DSA on stress relaxation time, stress relaxation rate at the end of the relaxation, temperature, alloy content, flow stress, and strain are determined. It is shown that the DSA kinetic is described by a Harper-type equation with the exponent equal to 1/3 and a low activation energy value (0.3-0.34 eV). This provides a low temperature of the DSA onset (∼ 0.17 T m , where T m is the melt temperature) and is evidence of pipe-mode diffusion. It is supposed that the obstacles to dislocation motion in the crystals studied consist of the groups of solutes, and the strength of the obstacles increases during the DSA due to the pipe diffusion of the solute atoms along the dislocations

  15. Real-time observation of cascaded electronic relaxation processes in p-Fluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiaoli; Deng, Xulan; Long, Jinyou; Wang, Yanmei; Abulimiti, Bumaliya; Zhang, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Ultrafast electronic relaxation processes following two photoexcitation of 400 nm in p-Fluorotoluene (pFT) have been investigated utilizing time-resolved photoelectron imaging coupled with time-resolved mass spectroscopy. Cascaded electronic relaxation processes started from the electronically excited S2 state are directly imaged in real time and well characterized by two distinct time constants of 85 ± 10 fs and 2.4 ± 0.3 ps. The rapid component corresponds to the lifetime of the initially excited S2 state, including the structure relaxation from the Franck-Condon region to the conical intersection of S2/S1 and the subsequent internal conversion to the highly excited S1 state. While, the slower relaxation constant is attributed to the further internal conversion to the high levels of S0 from the secondarily populated S1 locating in the channel three region. Moreover, dynamical differences with benzene and toluene of analogous structures, including, specifically, the slightly slower relaxation rate of S2 and the evidently faster decay of S1, are also presented and tentatively interpreted as the substituent effects. In addition, photoelectron kinetic energy and angular distributions reveal the feature of accidental resonances with low-lying Rydberg states (the 3p, 4s and 4p states) during the multi-photon ionization process, providing totally unexpected but very interesting information for pFT.

  16. Conformational kinetics of aliphatic tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Alberta; Moro, Giorgio; Nordio, Pier Luigi

    The master equation describing the random walk between sites identified with the stable conformers of a chain molecule, represents the extension to the time domain of the Rotational Isomeric State model. The asymptotic analysis of the multidimensional diffusion equation in the continuous torsional variables subjected to the configurational potential, provides a rigorous justification for the discrete models, and it supplies, without resorting to phenomenological parameters, molecular definitions of the kinetic rates for the conformational transitions occurring at each segment of the chain. The coupling between the torsional variables is fully taken into account, giving rise to cooperative effects. A complete calculation of the specific correlation functions which describe the time evolution of the angular functions probed by N.M.R. and dielectric relaxation measurements, has been performed for alkyl chains attached to a massive core. The resulting behaviour has been compared with the decay of trans and gauche populations of specific bonds, expressed in terms of suitable correlation functions whose time integrals lead quite naturally to the definition of effective kinetic constants for the conformational transitions.

  17. MR imaging of the stomach and relaxation measurement with intraluminal hyperpolarized 129Xenon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Atsuomi; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Hattori, Mineyuki; Hiraga, Takashi; Iida, Hidehiro

    2001-01-01

    Using laser optical pumping, the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases can be strongly enhanced. The purpose of this study was to make a simple apparatus that can provide hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas, which can then be used in an attempt to obtain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We would also like to study the relaxation behavior of hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas through the measurement of the relaxation time. First, we demonstrated that hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas can be applied to magnetic resonance imaging of the stomach, by using a rat as a model. This was performed under a 4.7 T magnet field using the following imaging parameters for the hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas: TR=50 ms, TE=15 ms, FOV=10 x 10 cm 2 , matrix size 64 x 64, THK=2.54 cm. By using these parameters, we were able to obtain a hyperpolarized image of the stomach in rats for the first time. Next, we measured the relaxation times of the hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas enclosed in cavities such as the stomach of rats as well as in phantoms created by glass and gelatin bulbs. The cavity size dependency of the relaxation time was analyzed on the basis of the kinetic theory of gases. This analysis showed a linear relationship between the relaxation rate (1/T 1 ) and a square inverse of the cavity diameter (1/d 2 ). From this relationship, the wall effect on the 129 Xe relaxation can be estimated in the novel parameter t 1 , wall . This shows drastic dependency on the material of the wall, suggesting a potential use of the relaxation experiment as a diagnostic tool for organ surfaces in the future. (author)

  18. Theory of relaxation phenomena in a spin-3/2 Ising system near the second-order phase transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman

    2005-01-01

    The relaxation behavior of the spin-3/2 Ising model Hamiltonian with bilinear and biquadratic interactions near the second-order phase transition temperature or critical temperature is studied by means of the Onsager's theory of irreversible thermodynamics or the Onsager reciprocity theorem (ORT). First, we give the equilibrium case briefly within the molecular-field approximation in order to study the relaxation behavior by using the ORT. Then, the ORT is applied to the model and the kinetic equations are obtained. By solving these equations, three relaxation times are calculated and examined for temperatures near the second-order phase transition temperature. It is found that one of the relaxation times goes to infinity near the critical temperature on either side, the second relaxation time makes a cusp at the critical temperature and third one behaves very differently in which it terminates at the critical temperature while approaching it, then showing a 'flatness' property and then decreases. We also study the influences of the Onsager rate coefficients on the relaxation times. The behavior of these relaxation times is discussed and compared with the spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising systems

  19. Relaxation processes during amorphous metal alloys heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinochka, E.Ya.; Durachenko, A.M.; Borisov, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    Behaviour of Te+15 at.%Ge and Fe+13 at.%P+7 at.%C amorphous metal alloys during heating has been studied using the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the most convenient one for determination of the value of heat effects, activation energies, temperature ranges of relaxation processes. Thermal effects corresponding to high-temperature relaxation processes taking place during amorphous metal alloys (AMA) heating are detected. The change of ratio of relaxation peaks values on DSC curves as a result of AMA heat treatment can be explained by the presence of a number of levels of inner energy in amorphous system, separated with potential barriers, the heights of which correspond to certain activation energies of relaxation processes

  20. The relaxation of plasmas with dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutov, Yu.I.; Kravchenko, A.Yu.; Schram, P.P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Various parameters of relaxing plasmas with dust particles including the electron and ion energy distributions function are numerically simulated at various parameters of the dust particles using the PIC method and taking into account the dynamics of the dust particle charge without the assumption about the equilibrium of electrons and ions. Coulomb collisions are taken into account in the framework of the method of stochastic differential equations. The relaxation of bounded plasma clouds expanding into a vacuum as well as the relaxation of a uniform plasma, in which dust particles appear at some initial time, are investigated. The obtained results show that the relaxation of plasmas can be accompanied by a deviation of the ion distribution function from equilibrium as well as a change of the mean energy of electrons and ions because of the dependence of the collection of electrons and ions by dust particles on their energy. (author)

  1. Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where ...

  2. Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin ... which changes from a simple exponential to a stretched exponential and a power law by increasing the constraints in the system. ... Current Issue

  3. Oxygen-17 relaxation in aqueous agarose gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablett, S.; Lillford, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic relaxation of oxygen-17 in H 2 17 O enriched agarose gels shows that existing explanations of water behaviour are oversimplified. Satisfactory models must include at least three proton phases, two of which involve water molecules. (Auth.)

  4. Kinetic memory based on the enzyme-limited competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro S; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2014-08-01

    Cellular memory, which allows cells to retain information from their environment, is important for a variety of cellular functions, such as adaptation to external stimuli, cell differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. Although posttranslational modifications have received much attention as a source of cellular memory, the mechanisms directing such alterations have not been fully uncovered. It may be possible to embed memory in multiple stable states in dynamical systems governing modifications. However, several experiments on modifications of proteins suggest long-term relaxation depending on experienced external conditions, without explicit switches over multi-stable states. As an alternative to a multistability memory scheme, we propose "kinetic memory" for epigenetic cellular memory, in which memory is stored as a slow-relaxation process far from a stable fixed state. Information from previous environmental exposure is retained as the long-term maintenance of a cellular state, rather than switches over fixed states. To demonstrate this kinetic memory, we study several models in which multimeric proteins undergo catalytic modifications (e.g., phosphorylation and methylation), and find that a slow relaxation process of the modification state, logarithmic in time, appears when the concentration of a catalyst (enzyme) involved in the modification reactions is lower than that of the substrates. Sharp transitions from a normal fast-relaxation phase into this slow-relaxation phase are revealed, and explained by enzyme-limited competition among modification reactions. The slow-relaxation process is confirmed by simulations of several models of catalytic reactions of protein modifications, and it enables the memorization of external stimuli, as its time course depends crucially on the history of the stimuli. This kinetic memory provides novel insight into a broad class of cellular memory and functions. In particular, applications for long-term potentiation are discussed

  5. Relaxation and hypnosis in pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, B

    1996-01-01

    Relaxation and hypnosis are methods which, may solve the problem of extreme dental anxiety, when all other methods, behavioral or pharmacological may not be used. A simple definition of hypnosis is suggestion and repetition. Suggestion is the process whereby an individual accepts a proposition put to him by another, without having the slightest logical reason for doing so. Relaxation is one method of inducing hypnosis. A case of using hypnosis on an 11-year-old boy is described.

  6. Ghost lines in Moessbauer relaxation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The appearance in Moessbauer relaxation spectra of 'ghost' lines, which are narrow lines that do not correspond to transitions between real hyperfine energy levels of the resonant system, is examined. It is shown that in many cases of interest, the appearance of these 'ghost' lines can be interpreted in terms of the relaxational averaging of one or more of the static interactions of the ion. (orig.)

  7. Dynamics of helicity transport and Taylor relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Malkov, M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of the dynamics of Taylor relaxation is derived using symmetry principles alone. No statistical closure approximations are invoked or detailed plasma model properties assumed. Notably, the model predicts several classes of nondiffusive helicity transport phenomena, including traveling nonlinear waves and superdiffusive turbulent pulses. A universal expression for the scaling of the effective magnetic Reynolds number of a system undergoing Taylor relaxation is derived. Some basic properties of intermittency in helicity transport are examined

  8. Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukova, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained

  9. Relaxation of synchronization on complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong; Hong, Hyunsuk

    2008-07-01

    We study collective synchronization in a large number of coupled oscillators on various complex networks. In particular, we focus on the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization, which is important from the viewpoint of information transfer or the dynamics of system recovery from a perturbation. We measure the relaxation time tau that is required to establish global synchronization by varying the structural properties of the networks. It is found that the relaxation time in a strong-coupling regime (K>Kc) logarithmically increases with network size N , which is attributed to the initial random phase fluctuation given by O(N-1/2) . After elimination of the initial-phase fluctuation, the relaxation time is found to be independent of the system size; this implies that the local interaction that depends on the structural connectivity is irrelevant in the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization in the strong-coupling regime. The relaxation dynamics is analytically derived in a form independent of the system size, and it exhibits good consistency with numerical simulations. As an application, we also explore the recovery dynamics of the oscillators when perturbations enter the system.

  10. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P

    2017-10-04

    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  11. Relaxation strain measurements in cellular dislocation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.Y.; Quesnel, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The conventional picture of what happens during a stress relaxation usually involves imagining the response of a single dislocation to a steadily decreasing stress. The velocity of this dislocation decreases with decreasing stress in such a way that we can measure the stress dependence of the dislocation velocity. Analysis of the data from a different viewpoint enables us to calculate the apparent activation volume for the motion of the dislocation under the assumption of thermally activated glie. Conventional thinking about stress relaxation, however, does not consider the eventual fate of this dislocation. If the stress relaxes to a low enough level, it is clear that the dislocation must stop. This is consistent with the idea that we can determine the stress dependence of the dislocation velocity from relaxation data only for those cases where the dislocation's velocity is allowed to approach zero asymptotically, in short, for those cases where the dislocation never stops. This conflict poses a dilemma for the experimentalist. In real crystals, however, obstacles impede the dislocation's progress so that those dislocations which are stopped at a given stress will probably never resume motion under the influence of the steadily declining stress present during relaxation. Thus one could envision stress relaxation as a process of exhaustion of mobile dislocations, rather than a process of decreasing dislocation velocity. Clearly both points of view have merit and in reality both mechanisms contribute to the phenomena

  12. Hypothesis of linear relaxation and ion mobility in neutral gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudy, Michel

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to propose a theory of ion mobility in neutral gases, based on the hypothesis of linear relaxation, in order to obtain simple formula and a good agreement with experiment. The author first presents some generalities on ion mobility such as history and values of interest, and some notions about the way experimental results are obtained, and then theories proposed from 1903 to 1976. He reports two tests. The first one, based on the Boltzmann equation, is based on a method of moments, and requires the use of a computer, but does not give results in good agreement with the experiment. Thus, for the second test, the author used a kinetic equation similar to one used for the study of neutral gas viscosity. This kinetic equation is used for the study of ion mobility in neutral gases, and the author shows that, with a Sutherland potential, a simple formula can be obtained, the results of which can be obtained with a pocket calculator. Moreover, these results are in agreement with experimental values over a portion of the experimental range. In order to reach an agreement over the whole experimental range, a possibility has been to use, in some cases, a more realistic interaction potential. However, a computer was then necessary [fr

  13. Stellar dynamics around a massive black hole - II. Resonant relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.

    2016-06-01

    We present a first-principles theory of resonant relaxation (RR) of a low-mass stellar system orbiting a more massive black hole (MBH). We first extend the kinetic theory of Gilbert to include the Keplerian field of a black hole of mass M•. Specializing to a Keplerian stellar system of mass M ≪ M•, we use the orbit-averaging method of Sridhar & Touma to derive a kinetic equation for RR. This describes the collisional evolution of a system of N ≫ 1 Gaussian rings in a reduced 5-dim space, under the combined actions of self-gravity, 1 post-Newtonian (PN) and 1.5 PN relativistic effects of the MBH and an arbitrary external potential. In general geometries, RR is driven by both apsidal and nodal resonances, so the distinction between scalar RR and vector RR disappears. The system passes through a sequence of quasi-steady secular collisionless equilibria, driven by irreversible two-ring correlations that accrue through gravitational interactions, both direct and collective. This correlation function is related to a `wake function', which is the linear response of the system to the perturbation of a chosen ring. The wake function is easier to appreciate, and satisfies a simpler equation, than the correlation function. We discuss general implications for the interplay of secular dynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics in the evolution of Keplerian stellar systems towards secular thermodynamic equilibria, and set the stage for applications to the RR of axisymmetric discs in Paper III.

  14. Crossover between cooperative and fractal relaxation in complex glass-formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchak, R; Kozdras, A; Shpotyuk, O; Balitska, V

    2016-01-01

    Kinetics of physical aging at different temperatures is studied in situ in arsenic selenide glasses using high-precision differential scanning calorimetry technique. A well-expressed step-like behaviour in the enthalpy recovery kinetics is recorded for low aging temperatures. These fine features disappear when the aging temperature (T a ) approaches the glass transition temperature (T g ). The overall kinetics is described by stretched exponential function with stretching exponent close to 3/5 at T a   >  ∼0.95 T g almost independent on glass composition, and 3/7 when the aging temperature drops to ∼0.9 T g . These values are consistent with the prediction of Phillips’ diffusion-to-traps model. Further decrease in aging temperature to ∼0.85 T g leads to the appearance of step-like behaviour and stretching exponent of 1/3 for the overall kinetics, which is the limiting value predicted by random walk on the fractal model. Such behavior is explained as crossover from homogeneous cooperative relaxation of non-percolating structural units to high-dimensional fractal relaxation within hierarchically-arranged two-stage physical aging model. (paper)

  15. Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics

  16. Universal divergenceless scaling between structural relaxation and caged dynamics in glass-forming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottochian, A; De Michele, C; Leporini, D

    2009-12-14

    On approaching the glass transition, the microscopic kinetic unit spends increasing time rattling in the cage of the first neighbors, whereas its average escape time, the structural relaxation time tau(alpha), increases from a few picoseconds up to thousands of seconds. A thorough study of the correlation between tau(alpha) and the rattling amplitude, expressed by the Debye-Waller factor, was carried out. Molecular-dynamics simulations of both a model polymer system and a binary mixture were performed by varying the temperature, the density rho, the potential and the polymer length to consider the structural relaxation as well as both the rotational and the translation diffusion. The present simulations, together with MD studies on other glassformers, evidence the scaling between the structural relaxation and the caged dynamics. An analytic model of the master curve is developed in terms of two characteristic length scales a(2) (1/2) and sigma(a(2) ) (1/2), pertaining to the distance to be covered by the kinetic unit to reach a transition state. The model does not imply tau(alpha) divergences. The comparison with the experiments supports the numerical evidence over a range of relaxation times as wide as about eighteen orders of magnitude. A comparison with other scaling and correlation procedures is presented. In particular, the density scaling of the length scales a(2) (1/2), sigma(a(2) ) (1/2) proportional to rho(-1/3) is shown to be not supported by the present simulations. The study suggests that the equilibrium and the moderately supercooled states of the glassformers possess key information on the huge slowing-down of their relaxation close to the glass transition. The latter, according to the present simulations, exhibits features consistent with the Lindemann melting criterion and the free-volume model.

  17. Ultrafast dynamics of laser-pulse excited semiconductors: non-Markovian quantum kinetic equations with nonequilibrium correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V.Ignatyuk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Markovian kinetic equations in the second Born approximation are derived for a two-zone semiconductor excited by a short laser pulse. Both collision dynamics and running nonequilibrium correlations are taken into consideration. The energy balance and relaxation of the system to equilibrium are discussed. Results of numerical solution of the kinetic equations for carriers and phonons are presented.

  18. Plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma kinetic theory is discussed and a comparison made with the kinetic theory of gases. The plasma is described by a modified set of fluid equations and it is shown how these fluid equations can be derived. (UK)

  19. Kinetic equations for clean superconductors: Application to the flux flow hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnin, N.B.

    1994-01-01

    The kinetic equations for clean superconductors (l>>ζ) are derived. expanding the equations for the time dependent Green functions in the quasiclassical parameter, the new contributions are found which contain the derivatives of the distribution functions with respect to the quasiparticle momentum. The transition from the ultra-clean case (no relaxation) to a relaxation-dominated behavior, for which the kinetic equations coincide with the usual quasiclassical approximation, occurs for the relaxation time of the order of ℎE F /Δ 2 . The kinetic equations can be used for various dynamic processes in superconductors including the flux-flow Hall effect. The derived equations, after necessary modifications for the p-wave pairing, are especially suitable for nonstationary problems in the theory of superfluidity of 3 He

  20. Use of relaxation skills in differentially skilled athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kudlackova, K.; Eccles, D. W.; Dieffenbach, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the use of relaxation skills by differentially skilled athletes in relation to the deliberate practice framework. Design: Differentially skilled athletes completed a survey about their use of relaxation skills. Method: 150 athletes representing three skill levels (recreational, college, and professional) completed the deliberate relaxation for sport survey, which assessed relaxation on three deliberate practice dimensions (relevancy, concentration, and ...

  1. The use of (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs as a sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duuren, M.J.; Brons, G.C.S.; Kattouw, H.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst

    1997-01-01

    Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (ROSs) and Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are induced in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L-R shunt. The relaxation frequency of a ROS varies with the applied flux Φ, whereas the output of a DROS is a dc

  2. Thermally-induced electronic relaxation in structurally-modified Cu0.1Ni0.8Co0.2Mn1.9O4 spinel ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Balitska, V.; Brunner, M.; Hadzaman, I.; Klym, H.

    2015-01-01

    Thermally-induced electronic relaxation in structurally-modified Cu 0.1 Ni 0.8 Co 0.2 Mn 1.9 O 4 spinel ceramics is shown to be adequately described by stretched exponential function on time. This kinetics is defined by microsctructure perfectness of the relaxing media, showing obvious onset to stretched exponential behaviour with non-exponentionality index attaining close to 0.43 values for high-monolith ceramics and smaller ones in fine-grained ceramics. Percolation threshold in relaxation-degradation kinetics is detected for ceramics with 10% of NiO extractions, showing the smallest but most prolonged single-path degradation effect. This finding is treated in terms of Phillips’ axiomatic diffusion-to-trap model, where only one of two relaxation channels (caused by operative short-range forces) occurs to be effective, while additional non-operative channels contribute to electronic relaxation in fine-grained ceramics

  3. Dynamics of exciton relaxation in LH2 antenna probed by multipulse nonlinear spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Cohen Stuart, Thomas A; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2011-04-28

    We explain the relaxation dynamics in the LH2-B850 antenna as revealed by multipulse pump-dump-probe spectroscopy (Th. A. Cohen Stuart, M. Vengris, V. I. Novoderezhkin, R. J. Cogdell, C. N. Hunter, R. van Grondelle, submitted). The theory of pump-dump-probe response is evaluated using the doorway-window approach in combination with the modified Redfield theory. We demonstrate that a simultaneous fit of linear spectra, pump-probe, and pump-dump-probe kinetics can be obtained at a quantitative level using the disordered exciton model, which is essentially the same as used to model the spectral fluctuations in single LH2 complexes (Novoderezhkin, V.; Rutkauskas, D.; van Grondelle, R. Biophys. J. 2006, 90, 2890). The present studies suggest that the observed relaxation rates are strongly dependent on the realization of the disorder. A big spread of the rates (exceeding 3 orders of magnitude) is correlated with the disorder-induced changes in delocalization length and overlap of the exciton wave functions. We conclude that the bulk kinetics reflect a superposition of many pathways corresponding to different physical limits of energy transfer, varying from sub-20 fs relaxation between delocalized and highly spatially overlapping exciton states to >20 ps jumps between states localized at the opposite sides of the ring.

  4. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  5. Asymptotic representation of relaxation oscillations in lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Elena V

    2017-01-01

    In this book we analyze relaxation oscillations in models of lasers with nonlinear elements controlling light dynamics. The models are based on rate equations taking into account periodic modulation of parameters, optoelectronic delayed feedback, mutual coupling between lasers, intermodal interaction and other factors. With the aim to study relaxation oscillations we present the special asymptotic method of integration for ordinary differential equations and differential-difference equations. As a result, they are reduced to discrete maps. Analyzing the maps we describe analytically such nonlinear phenomena in lasers as multistability of large-amplitude relaxation cycles, bifurcations of cycles, controlled switching of regimes, phase synchronization in an ensemble of coupled systems and others. The book can be fruitful for students and technicians in nonlinear laser dynamics and in differential equations.

  6. Relaxation of the magnetization in magnetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, S.; Bianchi, A.; Liviotti, E.; Santini, P.; Amoretti, G.

    2006-04-01

    Several mechanisms characterize the relaxation dynamics in magnetic molecules. We investigate two of them, spin-lattice coupling and incoherent quantum tunneling. The effect of the phonon heat bath is studied by analyzing the exponential time decay of the autocorrelation of the magnetization. We show that in ferromagnetic (Cu6) and antiferromagnetic (Fe6) molecular rings this decay is characterized by a single characteristic time. At very low temperature, relaxation through incoherent quantum tunneling may occur in nanomagnets such as Fe8 or Ni4. The mixing between levels with different values of the total spin (S mixing) greatly influences this mechanism. In particular, we demonstrate that a fourth-order anisotropy term O44, required to interpret experimental electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation data in Ni4, naturally arises when S mixing is considered in calculations.

  7. Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.

  8. Relaxation oscillation logic in Josephson junction circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    A dc powered, self-resetting Josephson junction logic circuit relying on relaxation oscillations is described. A pair of Josephson junction gates are connected in series, a first shunt is connected in parallel with one of the gates, and a second shunt is connected in parallel with the series combination of gates. The resistance of the shunts and the dc bias current bias the gates so that they are capable of undergoing relaxation oscillations. The first shunt forms an output line whereas the second shunt forms a control loop. The bias current is applied to the gates so that, in the quiescent state, the gate in parallel with the second shunt is at V O, and the other gate is undergoing relaxation oscillations. By controlling the state of the first gate with the current in the output loop of another identical circuit, the invert function is performed

  9. Muon spin relaxation in ferromagnets. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.; Karlsson, E.B.

    1991-04-01

    Expressions for the dipolar and hyperfine contributions to the relaxation rate of muons implanted in a ferromagnet are presented and analysed using the Heisenberg model of spin-waves including dipolar and Zeeman energies. Calculations for EuO indicate that relaxation is likely to be dominated by the hyperfine mechanism, even if the ratio of the hyperfine and dipolar coupling constants is small. The hyperfine mechanism is sensitive to the dipolar energy of the atomic spins, whereas the dipolar mechanisms depend essentially on the exchange energy. For both mechanisms there is an almost quadratic dependence on temperature, throughout much of the ordered magnetic phase, which reflects two-spin-wave difference events from the Raman-type relaxation processes. (author)

  10. Improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Mosad, Ahmed G.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator which offers higher frequency and wider tunning range than the existing reactance-less oscillators. It also has the capability of operating on two positive supplies or alternatively a positive and negative supply. Furthermore, it has the advantage that it can be fully integrated on-chip providing an area-efficient solution. On the other hand, The oscillation concept is discussed then a complete mathematical analysis of the proposed oscillator is introduced. Furthermore, the power consumption of the new relaxation circuit is discussed and validated by the PSPICE circuit simulations showing an excellent agreement. MATLAB results are also introduced to demonstrate the resistance range and the corresponding frequency range which can be obtained from the proposed relaxation oscillator. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai, K L

    2011-01-01

    Relaxation and Diffusion in Complex Systems comprehensively presents a variety of experimental evidences of universal relaxation and diffusion properties in complex materials and systems. The materials discussed include liquids, glasses, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals and aqueous mixtures, as well as carbohydrates, biomolecules, bioprotectants and pharmaceuticals. Due to the abundance of experimental data, emphasis is placed on glass-formers and the glass transition problem, a still unsolved problem in condensed matter physics and chemistry. The evidence for universal properties of relaxation and diffusion dynamics suggests that a fundamental physical law is at work. The origin of the universal properties is traced to the many-body effects of the interaction, rigorous theory of which does not exist at the present time. However, using solutions of simplified models as guides, key quantities have been identified and predictions of the universal properties generated. These predictions from Ngai’...

  12. Electron relaxation properties of Ar magnetron plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinjing, CAI; Xinxin, WANG; Xiaobing, ZOU

    2018-03-01

    An understanding of electron relaxation properties in plasmas is of importance in the application of magnetrons. An improved multi-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation is employed to study electron transport and relaxation properties in plasmas. Elastic, inelastic and nonconservative collisions between electrons and neutral particles are considered. The expressions for the transport coefficients are obtained using the expansion coefficients and the collision operator term. Numerical solutions of the matrix equations for the expansion coefficients are also investigated. Benchmark calculations of the Reid model are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the improved multi-term approximation. It is shown that the two-term approximation is generally not accurate enough and the magnetic fields can reduce the anisotropy of the velocity distribution function. The electron relaxation properties of Ar plasmas in magnetrons for various magnetic fields are studied. It is demonstrated that the energy parameters change more slowly than the momentum parameters.

  13. Hydrodynamization and transient modes of expanding plasma in kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michal P.; Spalinski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    We study the transition to hydrodynamics in a weakly-coupled model of quark-gluon plasma given by kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. Our studies uncover qualitative similarities to the results on hydrodynamization in strongly coupled gauge theories. In particular, we demonstrate that the gradient expansion in this model has vanishing radius of convergence. The asymptotic character of the hydrodynamic gradient expansion is crucial for the recently discovered applicability of hydrodynamics at large gradients. Furthermore, the analysis of the resurgent properties of the series provides, quite remarkably, indication for the existence of a novel transient, damped oscillatory mode of expanding plasmas in kinetic theory.

  14. Investigation of bleaching kinetics of the photochromic halogen-copper-cadmium glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczuk, K.; Ziemba, B.

    1997-01-01

    The curves of the isothermal glass bleaching kinetics of various conditions of exciting radiation are presented. Different values of radiation power, time of irradiation and temperature of samples were applied. analysis of the relaxation curves made it possible to distinguish three exponential components of the bleaching process with different time constants. For each component the relaxation coefficient has been determined. Basing on temperature dependence of the relaxation coefficients for the isothermal glass bleaching the activation energy for slow (E D = 0.46 eV) and fast (E K = 0.13 eV) colour centre decay process have been determined. (author)

  15. Abrupt relaxation in high-spin molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-R.; Cheng, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mean-field model suggests that the rate of resonant quantum tunneling in high-spin molecules is not only field-dependent but also time-dependent. The relaxation-assisted resonant tunneling in high-spin molecules produces an abrupt magnetization change during relaxation. When the applied field is very close to the resonant field, a time-dependent interaction field gradually shifts the energies of different collective spin states, and magnetization tunneling is observed as two energies of the spin states coincide

  16. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Li, J.

    1991-08-01

    The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)

  17. Spin transport and relaxation in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; McCreary, K.M.; Pi, K.; Wang, W.H.; Li Yan; Wen, H.; Chen, J.R.; Kawakami, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent work on spin injection, transport and relaxation in graphene. The spin injection and transport in single layer graphene (SLG) were investigated using nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. Spin injection was performed using either transparent contacts (Co/SLG) or tunneling contacts (Co/MgO/SLG). With tunneling contacts, the nonlocal MR was increased by a factor of ∼1000 and the spin injection/detection efficiency was greatly enhanced from ∼1% (transparent contacts) to ∼30%. Spin relaxation was investigated on graphene spin valves using nonlocal Hanle measurements. For transparent contacts, the spin lifetime was in the range of 50-100 ps. The effects of surface chemical doping showed that for spin lifetimes in the order of 100 ps, charged impurity scattering (Au) was not the dominant mechanism for spin relaxation. While using tunneling contacts to suppress the contact-induced spin relaxation, we observed the spin lifetimes as long as 771 ps at room temperature, 1.2 ns at 4 K in SLG, and 6.2 ns at 20 K in bilayer graphene (BLG). Furthermore, contrasting spin relaxation behaviors were observed in SLG and BLG. We found that Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation dominated in SLG at low temperatures whereas Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation dominated in BLG at low temperatures. Gate tunable spin transport was studied using the SLG property of gate tunable conductivity and incorporating different types of contacts (transparent and tunneling contacts). Consistent with theoretical predictions, the nonlocal MR was proportional to the SLG conductivity for transparent contacts and varied inversely with the SLG conductivity for tunneling contacts. Finally, bipolar spin transport in SLG was studied and an electron-hole asymmetry was observed for SLG spin valves with transparent contacts, in which nonlocal MR was roughly independent of DC bias current for electrons, but varied significantly with DC bias current for holes. These results are very important for

  18. Nonlocal and collective relaxation in stellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1993-01-01

    The modal response of stellar systems to fluctuations at large scales is presently investigated by means of analytic theory and n-body simulation; the stochastic excitation of these modes is shown to increase the relaxation rate even for a system which is moderately far from instability. The n-body simulations, when designed to suppress relaxation at small scales, clearly show the effects of large-scale fluctuations. It is predicted that large-scale fluctuations will be largest for such marginally bound systems as forming star clusters and associations.

  19. NMR relaxation times of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S.; Aziz, H.; Basir, Z.

    1994-01-01

    NMR relaxation times T sub 1 and T sub 2 of natural rubber latex have been measured at 25 degree C on a pulsed NMR spectrometer. The work focuses on the variation of the relaxation times with the amount of water content from 0% to 50%. The water content was adjusted by centrifuging and removing a certain amount of water from the sample. The data were analysed using a biexponential fitting procedure which yields simultaneously either T sub 1a and T sub 1b or T sub 2a and T sub 2b. The amount of solid was compared with the known amount of dry rubber content

  20. Green--Kubo formula for collisional relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visscher, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the Green--Kubo method (usually used for obtaining formulas for transport coefficients involving conserved densities) to relaxation processes occurring during collisions, such as the transfer of energy from vibrational to translational modes in a molecular fluid. We show that the relaxation rate can be calculated without evaluating time correlation functions over long times, and can in fact be written as a sum over collisions which makes the relation between the Green--Kubo method and approximate independent-collision models much clearer

  1. Exciton-relaxation dynamics in lead halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Hayashi, Tetsusuke

    2003-01-01

    We survey recent comprehensive studies of exciton relaxation in the crystals of lead halides. The luminescence and electron-spin-resonance studies have revealed that excitons in lead bromide spontaneously dissociate and both electrons and holes get self-trapped individually. Similar relaxation has been also clarified in lead chloride. The electron-hole separation is ascribed to repulsive correlation via acoustic phonons. Besides, on the basis of the temperature profiles of self-trapped states, we discuss the origin of luminescence components which are mainly induced under one-photon excitation into the exciton band in lead fluoride, lead chloride, and lead bromide

  2. Point defect relaxation volumes for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.M.

    1979-11-01

    The methods used for the determination of point defect relaxation volumes are discussed and it is shown that a previous interatomic potential derived for copper is inaccurate and results obtained using it are invalid. A new interatomic potential has been produced for copper and a computer simulation of point and planar defects carried out. A vacancy relaxation volume of -0.33 atomic volumes has been found with interstitial values in the range 1.7 to 2.0 atomic volumes. It is shown that these values in current theories of irradiation induced swelling lead to an anomalously high value for dislocation bias compared with that determined experimentally. (author)

  3. Variable setpoint as a relaxing component in physiological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risvoll, Geir B; Thorsen, Kristian; Ruoff, Peter; Drengstig, Tormod

    2017-09-01

    Setpoints in physiology have been a puzzle for decades, and especially the notion of fixed or variable setpoints have received much attention. In this paper, we show how previously presented homeostatic controller motifs, extended with saturable signaling kinetics, can be described as variable setpoint controllers. The benefit of a variable setpoint controller is that an observed change in the concentration of the regulated biochemical species (the controlled variable) is fully characterized, and is not considered a deviation from a fixed setpoint. The variation in this biochemical species originate from variation in the disturbances (the perturbation), and thereby in the biochemical species representing the controller (the manipulated variable). Thus, we define an operational space which is spanned out by the combined high and low levels of the variations in (1) the controlled variable, (2) the manipulated variable, and (3) the perturbation. From this operational space, we investigate whether and how it imposes constraints on the different motif parameters, in order for the motif to represent a mathematical model of the regulatory system. Further analysis of the controller's ability to compensate for disturbances reveals that a variable setpoint represents a relaxing component for the controller, in that the necessary control action is reduced compared to that of a fixed setpoint controller. Such a relaxing component might serve as an important property from an evolutionary point of view. Finally, we illustrate the principles using the renal sodium and aldosterone regulatory system, where we model the variation in plasma sodium as a function of salt intake. We show that the experimentally observed variations in plasma sodium can be interpreted as a variable setpoint regulatory system. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. Current leakage relaxation and charge trapping in ultra-porous low-k materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borja, Juan; Plawsky, Joel L.; Gill, William N.; Lu, T.-M.; Bakhru, Hassaram

    2014-01-01

    Time dependent dielectric failure has become a pivotal aspect of interconnect design as industry pursues integration of sub-22 nm process-technology nodes. Literature has provided key information about the role played by individual species such as electrons, holes, ions, and neutral impurity atoms. However, no mechanism has been shown to describe how such species interact and influence failure. Current leakage relaxation in low-k dielectrics was studied using bipolar field experiments to gain insight into how charge carrier flow becomes impeded by defects within the dielectric matrix. Leakage current decay was correlated to injection and trapping of electrons. We show that current relaxation upon inversion of the applied field can be described by the stretched exponential function. The kinetics of charge trapping events are consistent with a time-dependent reaction rate constant, k=k 0 ⋅(t+1) β−1 , where 0 < β < 1. Such dynamics have previously been observed in studies of charge trapping reactions in amorphous solids by W. H. Hamill and K. Funabashi, Phys. Rev. B 16, 5523–5527 (1977). We explain the relaxation process in charge trapping events by introducing a nonlinear charge trapping model. This model provides a description on the manner in which the transport of mobile defects affects the long-tail current relaxation processes in low-k films

  5. Kinetic aspects of the embedded clusters: Reaction - Rate Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despa, F.; Apostol, M.

    1995-07-01

    The main stages of the cluster growth process are reviewed using Reaction - Rate Theory. The precipitation stage is shown as a relaxation of the solute towards a cluster state characterized by a higher stability. The kinetic of the late stage of phase separation, the coarsening process, is analyzed by an off-centre diffusion mechanism. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental ones. (author). 37 refs, 6 figs

  6. Transport kinetics of hydrogen permeable lanthanum tungstate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Andreas

    2017-01-24

    The electrical conductivity relaxation technique is a widely used method to determine the oxygen transport parameters of mixed ionic-electronic conductors. In recent years, it has been modified to investigate the hydration behavior of proton conducting mixed conductors, giving access to up to four transport parameters in a single relaxation experiment, the diffusion coefficients and surface reaction rates of hydrogen and oxygen. In this work, the transport properties of the fluorite type protonic conductor lanthanum tungstate have been investigated by means of electrical conductivity relaxation. The experiments were performed in a temperature range from 650 C to 950 C, in a pO{sub 2} range from 3 mbar to 100 mbar and in a pH{sub 2}O range from 10 mbar to 100 mbar and in dry atmosphere. At high temperatures, the conductivity relaxation curve follows the expected two-fold non-monotonic behavior upon hydration. At low temperatures, however, the contribution of the fast hydrogen kinetic decreases and by a further decrease of the temperature, the relaxation shows two-fold monotonic behavior. The power factors - the contribution of each single fold relaxation curve to the resulting two-fold relaxation curve, which is a superposition - have been derived to explain the behavior mentioned above. The activation energy of the oxygen incorporation is rather low. Hence, oxidation experiments were performed in dry atmospheres in order to investigate if the origin of the oxygen species is relevant. The results revealed higher activation energies, which was expected, but also higher absolute values of the surface reaction rate and the diffusion coefficient. Oxidation experiments with increasing humidity revealed that the increased diffusivity cannot be attributed to the total concentrations of electron holes and proton interstitials. First experiments using spectroscopic relaxation, which is dependent on the concentration of hydroxy-anions only, were performed. Absorption bands

  7. Extracting energy and structure properties of glass-forming liquids from structural relaxation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianwen

    2012-04-18

    A comprehensive examination of the kinetic liquid model (Wang et al 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 455104) is carried out by fitting the structural relaxation time of 26 different glass-forming liquids in a wide temperature range, including most of the well-studied materials. Careful analysis of the compiled reported data reveals that experimental inaccuracies should not be overlooked in any 'benchmark test' of relating theories or models (e.g. in Lunkenheimer et al 2010 Phys. Rev. E 81 051504). The procedure, accuracy, ability, and efficiency of the kinetic liquid model are discussed in detail and in comparison with other available fitting methods. In general, the kinetic liquid model could be verified by 17 of the 26 compiled data sets and can serve as a meaningful approximative method for analyzing these liquids. Nonetheless, further experimental examinations in a wide temperature range are needed and are called for. Through fitting, the microscopic details of these liquids are extracted, namely, the enthalpy, entropy, and cooperativity in structural relaxation, which may facilitate further quantitative analysis to both the liquidus and glassy states of these materials.

  8. Untangling surface oxygen exchange effects in YBa2Cu3O6+x thin films by electrical conductivity relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayado, P; Sánchez-Valdés, C F; Stangl, A; Coll, M; Roura, P; Palau, A; Puig, T; Obradors, X

    2017-05-31

    The kinetics of oxygen incorporation (in-diffusion process) and excorporation (out-diffusion process), in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x (YBCO) epitaxial thin films prepared using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) methodology by the trifluoroacetate route, was investigated by electrical conductivity relaxation measurements. We show that the oxygenation kinetics of YBCO films is limited by the surface exchange process of oxygen molecules prior to bulk diffusion into the films. The analysis of the temperature and oxygen partial pressure influence on the oxygenation kinetics has drawn a consistent picture of the oxygen surface exchange process enabling us to define the most likely rate determining step. We have also established a strategy to accelerate the oxygenation kinetics at low temperatures based on the catalytic influence of Ag coatings thus allowing us to decrease the oxygenation temperature in the YBCO thin films.

  9. Nonmaxwell relaxation in disordered media: Physical mechanisms and fractional relaxation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhincheev, V.E.

    2004-12-01

    The problem of charge relaxation in disordered systems has been solved. It is shown, that due to the inhomogeneity of the medium the charge relaxation has a non-Maxwell character. The two physical mechanisms of a such behavior have been founded. The first one is connected with the 'fractality' of conducting ways. The second mechanism of nonexponential non-Maxwell behavior is connected with the frequency dispersion of effective conductivity of heterogeneous medium, initially consisting of conducting phases without dispersion. The new generalized relaxation equations in the form of fractional temporal integro-differential equations are deduced. (author)

  10. Dynamical relaxation in 2HDM models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalak, Zygmunt; Markiewicz, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Dynamical relaxation provides an interesting solution to the hierarchy problem in face of the missing signatures of any new physics in recent experiments. Through a dynamical process taking place in the inflationary phase of the Universe it manages to achieve a small electroweak scale without introducing new states observable in current experiments. Appropriate approximation makes it possible to derive an explicit formula for the final vevs in the double-scanning scenario extended to a model with two Higgs doublets (2HDM). Analysis of the relaxation in the 2HDM confirms that in a general case it is impossible to keep vevs of both scalars small, unless fine-tuning is present or additional symmetries are cast upon the Lagrangian. Within the slightly constrained variant of the 2HDM, where odd powers of the fields’ expectation values are not present (which can be easily enforced by requiring that the doublets have different gauge transformations or by imposing a global symmetry) it is shown that the difference between the vevs of two scalars tends to be proportional to the cutoff. The analysis of the relaxation in 2HDM indicates that in a general case the relaxation would be stopped by the first doublet that gains a vev, with the other one remaining vevless with a mass of the order of the cutoff. This happens to conform with the inert doublet model.

  11. Relaxation of coupled nuclear spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigsberger, E.

    1985-05-01

    The subject of the present work is the relaxation behaviour of scalarly coupled spin-1/2 systems. In the theoretical part the semiclassical Redfield equations are used. Dipolar (D), Chemical Shift Anisotropy (CSA) and Random Field (RF) interactions are considered as relaxation mechanisms. Cross correlations of dipolar interactions of different nuclei pairs and those between the D and the CSA mechanisms are important. The model of anisotropic molecular rotational relaxation and the extreme narrowing approximation are used to obtain the spectral density functions. The longitudinal relaxation data are analyzed into normal modes following Werbelow and Grant. The time evolution of normal modes is derived for the AX system with D-CSA cross terms. In the experimental part the hypothesis of dimerization in the cinnamic acid and the methyl cinnamate - AMX systems with DD cross terms - is corroborated by T 1 -time measurements and a calculation of the diffusion constants. In pentachlorobenzene - an AX system - taking into account of D-CSA cross terms enables the complete determination of movements anosotropy and the determination of the sign of the indirect coupling constant 1 Jsub(CH). (G.Q.)

  12. Quantization by stochastic relaxation processes and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, R.

    1984-01-01

    We show the supersymmetry mechanism resposible for the quantization by stochastic relaxation processes and for the effective cancellation of the additional time dimension against the two Grassmann dimensions. We give a non-perturbative proof of the validity of this quantization procedure. (author)

  13. Charge Relaxation Dynamics of an Electrolytic Nanocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ion relaxation dynamics in overlapping electric double layers (EDLs) is critical for the development of efficient nanotechnology-based electrochemical energy storage, electrochemomechanical energy conversion, and bioelectrochemical sensing devices as well as the controlled synthesis of nanostructured materials. Here, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is employed to simulate an electrolytic nanocapacitor subjected to a step potential at t = 0 for various degrees of EDL overlap, solvent viscosities, ratios of cation-to-anion diffusivity, and electrode separations. The use of a novel continuously varying and Galilean-invariant molecular-speed-dependent relaxation time (MSDRT) with the LB equation recovers a correct microscopic description of the molecular-collision phenomena and enhances the stability of the LB algorithm. Results for large EDL overlaps indicated oscillatory behavior for the ionic current density, in contrast to monotonic relaxation to equilibrium for low EDL overlaps. Further, at low solvent viscosities and large EDL overlaps, anomalous plasmalike spatial oscillations of the electric field were observed that appeared to be purely an effect of nanoscale confinement. Employing MSDRT in our simulations enabled modeling of the fundamental physics of the transient charge relaxation dynamics in electrochemical systems operating away from equilibrium wherein Nernst–Einstein relation is known to be violated. PMID:25678941

  14. Relaxation dynamics of multilayer triangular Husimi cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiceanu, Mircea; Jurjiu, Aurel

    2016-09-01

    We focus on the relaxation dynamics of multilayer polymer structures having, as underlying topology, the Husimi cactus. The relaxation dynamics of the multilayer structures is investigated in the framework of generalized Gaussian structures model using both Rouse and Zimm approaches. In the Rouse type-approach, we determine analytically the complete eigenvalues spectrum and based on it we calculate the mechanical relaxation moduli (storage and loss modulus) and the average monomer displacement. First, we monitor these physical quantities for structures with a fixed generation number and we increase the number of layers, such that the linear topology will smoothly come into play. Second, we keep constant the size of the structures, varying simultaneously two parameters: the generation number of the main layer, G, and the number of layers, c. This fact allows us to study in detail the crossover from a pure Husimi cactus behavior to a predominately linear chain behavior. The most interesting situation is found when the two limiting topologies cancel each other. For this case, we encounter in the intermediate frequency/time domain regions of constant slope for different values of the parameter set (G, c) and we show that the number of layers follows an exponential-law of G. In the Zimm-type approach, which includes the hydrodynamic interactions, the quantities that describe the mechanical relaxation dynamics do not show scaling behavior as in the Rouse model, except the limiting case, namely, a very high number of layers and low generation number.

  15. Waveform relaxation methods for implicit differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Houwen; W.A. van der Veen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe apply a Runge-Kutta-based waveform relaxation method to initial-value problems for implicit differential equations. In the implementation of such methods, a sequence of nonlinear systems has to be solved iteratively in each step of the integration process. The size of these systems

  16. Collection Development: Relaxation & Meditation, September 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettus, Dodi

    2010-01-01

    One of the first books to document the relationship between stress and physical and emotional health was "The Relaxation Response" by Herbert Benson, M.D., with Miriam Z. Klipper. Originally published in 1975, the book grew out of Benson's observations as a cardiologist and his research as a fellow at Harvard Medical School. Benson's study of…

  17. Relaxation time in confined disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamati, H.; Korutcheva, E.

    2006-05-01

    The dynamic critical behavior of a quenched hypercubic sample of linear size L is considered within the 'random T c ' field theoretical model with purely relaxation dynamic (Model A). The dynamic finite size scaling behavior is established and analyzed when the system is quenched from a homogeneous phase towards its critical temperature. The obtained results are compared to those reported in the literature. (author)

  18. Stretched Exponential relaxation in pure Se glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Ravindren, S.; Boolchand, P.

    A universal feature of glasses is the stretched exponential relaxation, f (t) = exp[ - t / τ ] β . The model of diffusion of excitations to randomly distributed traps in a glass by Phillips1 yields the stretched exponent β = d[d +2] where d, the effective dimensionality. We have measured the enthalpy of relaxation ΔHnr (tw) at Tg of Se glass in modulated DSC experiments as glasses age at 300K and find β = 0.43(2) for tw in the 0 relaxation is a narrowing of the glass transition width from 7.1°C to 1.4°C, and the ΔHnr term increasing from 0.21 cal/gm to 0.92 cal/gm. In bulk GexSe100-x glasses as x increases to 20%, the length of the polymeric Sen chains between the Ge-crosslinks decreases to n = 2. and the striking relaxation effects nearly vanish. J.C. Phillips, Rep.Prog.Phys. 59 , 1133 (1996). Supported by NSF Grant DMR 08-53957.

  19. Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1998-01-01

    time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  20. On computation of relaxation constant α in Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladkov, Serguey, E-mail: sglad@newmail.ru; Bogdanova, Sofiya, E-mail: sonjaf@list.ru

    2014-11-15

    Due to the quasi-classical kinetic equation (QKE) for the magnon distribution function to calculate the velocity of the domain wall motion V in magnetic fields H>H{sub a}, where H{sub a}− magnetic anisotropy field. Based on the comparison of this formula for Vthe analytic expression of relaxation constant α in Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation was found. We used the detected correlation between the system's entropy and the environment's resistance force, and obtained an expression for the spin-lattice braking force that is applied to the moving domain wall. We calculated the mobility ratio of the domain wall. - Highlights: • The resistance force acting on the domain wall was calculated. • Mobility coefficient of domain wall was calculated. • The strict calculation of relaxation constant in equation Landau-Lifshitz- Gilbert.

  1. Electron spin-lattice relaxation in fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, K.N.

    1986-08-01

    We have developed the theory of the spin-fracton interaction for paramagnetic ions in fractal structures. The interaction is exponentially damped by the self-similarity length of the fractal and by the range dimensionality d Φ . The relaxation time of the spin due to the absorption and emission of the fracton has been calculated for a general dimensionality called the Raman dimensionality d R , which for the fractons differs from the Hausdorff (fractal) dimensionality, D, as well as from the Euclidean dimensionality, d. The exponent of the energy level separation in the relaxation rate varies with d R d Φ /D. We have calculated the spin relaxation rate due to a new type of Raman process in which one fracton is absorbed to affect a spin transition from one electronic level to another and later another fracton is emitted along with a spin transition such that the difference in the energies of the two fractons is equal to the electronic energy level separation. The temperature and the dimensionality dependence of such a process has been found in several approximations. In one of the approximations where the van Vleck relaxation rate for a spin in a crystal is known to vary with temperature as T 9 , our calculated variation for fractals turns out to be T 6.6 , whereas the experimental value for Fe 3+ in frozen solutions of myoglobin azide is T 6.3 . Since we used d R =4/3 and the fracton range dimensionality d Φ =D/1.8, we expect to measure the dimensionalities of the problem by measuring the temperature dependence of the relaxation times. We have also calculated the shift of the paramagnetic resonance transition for a spin in a fractal for general dimensionalities. (author)

  2. Statistical foundation of the Kubo-Tomita theory of magnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yul'met'ev, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    With the aim to give the statistical foundation of the Kubo-Tomita theory the theoretical-functional method of the projection operators is applied to the phenomenon of magnetic relaxation. The exact nonmarkov nonlinear kinetic equations are found for the time correlation functions (TCF) of the longitudinal and transversal components of the spin magnetization of a system including the spin-lattice interaction lambda H' in a general form. The markov kinetic equations of the well-known Bloch-type are derived in the weak coupling Van Hove limits t → infinity, lambda → 0, lambda 2 t=const., and the rate of the spin-lattice (T 1 -1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 -1 ) relaxation is obtained from the relaxation coefficients. It is found that the formulas of the Kubo-Tomita for T 1 -1 and T 2 -1 are correct only in the case of rapid thermal motions when ω 0 tau 0 0 is the resonance frequency and tau 0 is the typical correlation time of the molecular thermal motions). In the other limiting case (ω 0 tau 0 >>1) of slow motion, the effective spectral densities which enter T 1 and T 2 are determined by a set of relaxation times Tsub(β)sup(n) of the spin irreducible operators Vsub(β)sup(n) from the spin-lattice interaction lambda H'. It is found that the time dependence of the transversal component of magnetization had been left out in the collision integral of Kubo-Tomita's theory. Precisely considering this circumstance the frequency dependence of T 2 -1 on the resonance frequency must be changed. (author)

  3. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  4. Introduction to chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re

  5. Kinetic coefficients for quark-antiquark plasma with quantal treatment of color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrek, A.; Florkowski, W.

    1986-07-01

    We discuss the near-equilibrium state of the q-bar q plasma treated as a system of classical particles with quantized color charges. The matrix of the kinetic coefficients is calculated (in the relaxation approximation of the transport equation) and compared with its classical version. The color Ohm law is recovered but the structure of the kinetic matrix is different. 5 refs. (author)

  6. Conformational exchange of aromatic side chains characterized by L-optimized TROSY-selected ¹³C CPMG relaxation dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weininger, Ulrich; Respondek, Michal; Akke, Mikael

    2012-09-01

    Protein dynamics on the millisecond time scale commonly reflect conformational transitions between distinct functional states. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments have provided important insights into biologically relevant dynamics with site-specific resolution, primarily targeting the protein backbone and methyl-bearing side chains. Aromatic side chains represent attractive probes of protein dynamics because they are over-represented in protein binding interfaces, play critical roles in enzyme catalysis, and form an important part of the core. Here we introduce a method to characterize millisecond conformational exchange of aromatic side chains in selectively (13)C labeled proteins by means of longitudinal- and transverse-relaxation optimized CPMG relaxation dispersion. By monitoring (13)C relaxation in a spin-state selective manner, significant sensitivity enhancement can be achieved in terms of both signal intensity and the relative exchange contribution to transverse relaxation. Further signal enhancement results from optimizing the longitudinal relaxation recovery of the covalently attached (1)H spins. We validated the L-TROSY-CPMG experiment by measuring fast folding-unfolding kinetics of the small protein CspB under native conditions. The determined unfolding rate matches perfectly with previous results from stopped-flow kinetics. The CPMG-derived chemical shift differences between the folded and unfolded states are in excellent agreement with those obtained by urea-dependent chemical shift analysis. The present method enables characterization of conformational exchange involving aromatic side chains and should serve as a valuable complement to methods developed for other types of protein side chains.

  7. Observation of glassy state relaxation during annealing of frozen sugar solutions by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kyuya; Tamiya, Shinri; Do, Gabsoo; Kono, Shinji; Ochiai, Takaaki

    2018-06-01

    Glassy phase formation in a frozen product determines various properties of the freeze-dried products. When an aqueous solution is subjected to freezing, a glassy phase forms as a consequence of freeze-concentration. During post-freezing annealing, the relaxation of the glassy phase and the ripening of ice crystals (i.e. Ostwald ripening) spontaneously occur, where the kinetics are controlled by the annealing and glass transition temperatures. This study was motivated to observe the progress of glassy state relaxation separate from ice coarsening during annealing. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe a frozen and post-freezing annealed solutions by using monochromatized X-ray from the synchrotron radiation. CT images were successfully obtained, and the frozen matrix were analyzed based on the gray level values that were equivalent to the linear X-ray attenuation coefficients of the observed matters. The CT images obtained from rapidly frozen sucrose and dextrin solutions with different concentrations gave clear linear relationships between the linear X-ray attenuation coefficients values and the solute concentrations. It was confirmed that the glassy state relaxation progressed as increasing annealing time, and this trend was larger in the order of the glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze-concentrated phase. The sucrose-water system required nearly 20 h of annealing time at -5 °C for the completion of the glassy phase relaxation, whereas dextrin-water systems required much longer periods because of their higher glass transition temperatures. The trends of ice coarsening, however, did not perfectly correspond to the trends of the relaxation, suggesting that the glassy phase relaxation and Ostwald ripening would jointly control the ice crystal growth/ripening kinetics, and the dominant mechanism differed by the annealing stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetic equation solution by inverse kinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose a computer program (CAMU) which permits to solve the inverse kinetic equation. The CAMU code is written in HPL language for a HP 982 A microcomputer with a peripheral interface HP 9876 A ''thermal graphic printer''. The CAMU code solves the inverse kinetic equation by taking as data entry the output of the ionization chambers and integrating the equation with the help of the Simpson method. With this program we calculate the evolution of the reactivity in time for a given disturbance

  9. Relaxation of the distribution function tails for gases with power-law interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapenko, I.F.; Bobylev, A.V.; de Azevedo, C.A.; de Assis, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The relaxation of rarefied gases of particles with the power-law interaction potentials U=α/r s , where 1≤s<4, is considered. The formation and evolution of the distribution function tails are investigated on the basis of the one-dimensional kinetic Landau endash Fokker-Planck equation. For long times, the constructed asymptotic solutions have a propagating-wave appearance in the high velocity region. The analytical solutions are expressed explicitly in terms of the error function. The analytical consideration is accomplished by numerical calculations. The obtained analytical results are in a good agreement with the numerical simulation results. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Vibrational Energy Relaxation in Water-Acetonitrile Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Yeremenko, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A.; Okada, Tadashi; Silvestri, Sandro De

    2004-01-01

    IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.

  11. Exploiting Sparsity in SDP Relaxation for Sensor Network Localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kim (Sunyoung); M. Kojima; H. Waki (Hayato)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstract A sensor network localization problem can be formulated as a quadratic optimization problem (QOP). For quadratic optimization problems, semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation by Lasserre with relaxation order 1 for general polynomial optimization problems (POPs) is known to be

  12. Exploiting Sparsity in SDP Relaxation for Sensor Network Localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kim (Sunyoung); M. Kojima; H. Waki (Hayato)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstract A sensor network localization problem can be formulated as a quadratic optimization problem (QOP). For quadratic optimization problems, semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation by Lasserre with relaxation order 1 for general polynomial optimization problems (POPs) is known to be

  13. Relaxation and self-organization of a nonneutral plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, H.; Morales, G.J.; Decyk, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of nonneutral systems have been elucidated in several elegant experiments. As plasmas, these systems have the virtue of being confinable for long times, since conservation laws place strong bounds on particle loss. Detailed experiments have explored the quasistatic evolution of a well-confined configuration near equilibrium. The transient, non-equilibrium phase during which the plasma achieves its steady-state profile is difficult to probe experimentally. However, because of the short-time scales involved this is a regime well suited to particle simulation. This paper discusses the results of a particle-simulation code of a nonneutral plasma that is confined in a slab-equivalent of a Penning trap. The early collisionless relaxation is examined, and a time-dependent steady state is observed to result. In this state, the system achieves the shape of a football, composed of a fluid-like core and a kinetic halo. When this quasi-equilibrium is externally cooled, it is found to develop spatial rings reminiscent of liquid crystals. This crystalline structure is robust and 'melts' when it is heated. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs

  14. Basic MR relaxation mechanisms and contrast agent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Martins, André F; Pinho, Marco C; Rofsky, Neil M; Sherry, A Dean

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast agent was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists, largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to provide additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities. In this review we detail the many important considerations when pursuing the design and use of MR contrast media. We offer a perspective on the importance of chemical stability, particularly kinetic stability, and how this influences one's thinking about the safety of metal-ligand-based contrast agents. We discuss the mechanisms involved in MR relaxation in the context of probe design strategies. A brief description of currently available contrast agents is accompanied by an in-depth discussion that highlights promising MRI contrast agents in the development of future clinical and research applications. Our intention is to give a diverse audience an improved understanding of the factors involved in developing new types of safe and highly efficient MR contrast agents and, at the same time, provide an appreciation of the insights into physiology and disease that newer types of responsive agents can provide. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effect of solvent relaxation time constants on free energy gap law for ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Valentina A; Malykhin, Roman E; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2018-05-16

    To elucidate the regularities inherent in the kinetics of ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation in donor-acceptor dyads in solutions, the simulations of the kinetics have been performed within the stochastic multichannel point-transition model. Increasing the solvent relaxation time scales has been shown to strongly vary the dependence of the charge recombination rate constant on the free energy gap. In slow relaxing solvents the non-equilibrium charge recombination occurring in parallel with solvent relaxation is very effective so that the charge recombination terminates at the non-equilibrium stage. This results in a crucial difference between the free energy gap laws for the ultrafast charge recombination and the thermal charge transfer. For the thermal reactions the well-known Marcus bell-shaped dependence of the rate constant on the free energy gap is realized while for the ultrafast charge recombination only a descending branch is predicted in the whole area of the free energy gap exceeding 0.2 eV. From the available experimental data on the population kinetics of the second and first excited states for a series of Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads in toluene and tetrahydrofuran solutions, an effective rate constant of the charge recombination into the first excited state has been calculated. The obtained rate constant being very high is nearly invariable in the area of the charge recombination free energy gap from 0.2 to 0.6 eV that supports the theoretical prediction.

  16. Evidence of incomplete relaxation in the reaction Ag+40Ar at 288 and 340 MeV bombarding energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galin, J.; Moretto, L.G.; Babinet, R.; Schmitt, R.; Jared, R.; Thompson, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    The particles emitted in the reaction induced by 40 Ar on natural Ag at 288 and 340 MeV bombarding energy have been studied. The fragments have been identified in atomic number, their kinetic energy distribution and their angular distributions have been measured. The kinetic energy spectra show two components: a high-energy component related to the beam energy, or quasi-elastic component, and a low kinetic energy component, close to the Coulomb energy called relaxed component. The relaxed component is present at all angles and for all particles. The quasi-elastic component is present close to the grazing angle for atomic numbers close to that of the projectile. The relaxed cross section increases with atomic number for Z>9. The increase in cross section is sharper for the lower bombarding energy. The angular distributions are forward peaked, in excess of 1/sin(theta) for all the measured atomic numbers. The forward peaking is larger for particles close in Z to the projectile. The results are interpreted in terms of characteristic times associated with a short-lived intermediate complex. The cross sections and angular distributions are satisfactorily reproduced on the basis of a model accounting for a diffusion process occurring along the mass asymmetry coordinate of the intermediate complex. (Auth.)

  17. Fractional neutron point kinetics equations for nuclear reactor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Polo-Labarrios, Marco-A.; Espinosa-Martinez, Erick-G.; Valle-Gallegos, Edmundo del

    2011-01-01

    The fractional point-neutron kinetics model for the dynamic behavior in a nuclear reactor is derived and analyzed in this paper. The fractional model retains the main dynamic characteristics of the neutron motion in which the relaxation time associated with a rapid variation in the neutron flux contains a fractional order, acting as exponent of the relaxation time, to obtain the best representation of a nuclear reactor dynamics. The physical interpretation of the fractional order is related with non-Fickian effects from the neutron diffusion equation point of view. The numerical approximation to the solution of the fractional neutron point kinetics model, which can be represented as a multi-term high-order linear fractional differential equation, is calculated by reducing the problem to a system of ordinary and fractional differential equations. The numerical stability of the fractional scheme is investigated in this work. Results for neutron dynamic behavior for both positive and negative reactivity and for different values of fractional order are shown and compared with the classic neutron point kinetic equations. Additionally, a related review with the neutron point kinetics equations is presented, which encompasses papers written in English about this research topic (as well as some books and technical reports) published since 1940 up to 2010.

  18. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

  19. Dissipation and the relaxation to equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Denis J; Williams, Stephen R; Searles, Debra J

    2009-01-01

    Using the recently derived dissipation theorem and a corollary of the transient fluctuation theorem (TFT), namely the second-law inequality, we derive the unique time independent, equilibrium phase space distribution function for an ergodic Hamiltonian system in contact with a remote heat bath. We prove under very general conditions that any deviation from this equilibrium distribution breaks the time independence of the distribution. Provided temporal correlations decay, we show that any nonequilibrium distribution that is an even function of the momenta eventually relaxes (not necessarily monotonically) to the equilibrium distribution. Finally we prove that the negative logarithm of the microscopic partition function is equal to the thermodynamic Helmholtz free energy divided by the thermodynamic temperature and Boltzmann's constant. Our results complement and extend the findings of modern ergodic theory and show the importance of dissipation in the process of relaxation towards equilibrium

  20. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzi, Stefano S.

    2017-11-01

    I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium. In a simple one-dimensional channel geometry, we show that the interaction between nonuniform nematic order and activity results in either a spontaneous flow of particles or a self-organization into subchannels flowing in opposite directions.

  1. Relaxation in the XX quantum chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platini, Thierry; Karevski, Dragi

    2007-01-01

    We present the results obtained on the magnetization relaxation properties of an XX quantum chain in a transverse magnetic field. We first consider an initial thermal kink-like state where half of the chain is initially thermalized at a very high temperature T b while the remaining half, called the system, is put at a lower temperature T s . From this initial state, we derive analytically the Green function associated with the dynamical behaviour of the transverse magnetization. Depending on the strength of the magnetic field and on the temperature of the system, different regimes are obtained for the magnetic relaxation. In particular, with an initial droplet-like state, that is a cold subsystem of the finite size in contact at both ends with an infinite temperature environment, we derive analytically the behaviour of the time-dependent system magnetization

  2. Stress relaxation of thermally bowed fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Speight, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of cross-pin temperature gradients in nuclear reactor fuel pins produces differential thermal expansion which, in turn, causes the fuel pin to bow elastically. If the pin is restrained in any way, such thermal bowing causes the pin to be stressed. At high temperatures these stresses can relax by creep and it is shown here that this causes the pin to suffer an additional permanent deflection, so that when the cross-pin temperature difference is removed the pin remains bowed. By representing the cylindrical pin by an equivalent I-beam, the present work examines this effect when it takes place by secondary creep. Two restraint systems are considered, and it is demonstrated that the rate of relaxation depends mainly upon the creep equation, and hence the temperature, and also the magnitude of the initial stresses. (author)

  3. Relaxation mechanism of the hydrated electron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Madeline H; Williams, Holly L; Shreve, Alexander T; Neumark, Daniel M

    2013-12-20

    The relaxation dynamics of the photoexcited hydrated electron have been subject to conflicting interpretations. Here, we report time-resolved photoelectron spectra of hydrated electrons in a liquid microjet with the aim of clarifying ambiguities from previous experiments. A sequence of three ultrashort laser pulses (~100 femtosecond duration) successively created hydrated electrons by charge-transfer-to-solvent excitation of dissolved anions, electronically excited these electrons via the s→p transition, and then ejected them into vacuum. Two distinct transient signals were observed. One was assigned to the initially excited p-state with a lifetime of ~75 femtoseconds, and the other, with a lifetime of ~400 femtoseconds, was attributed to s-state electrons just after internal conversion in a nonequilibrated solvent environment. These assignments support the nonadiabatic relaxation model.

  4. Creep and relaxation behavior of Inconel-617

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osthoff, W.; Ennis, P.J.; Nickel, H.; Schuster, H.

    1984-01-01

    The static and dynamic creep behavior of Inconel alloy 617 has been determined in constant load creep tests, relaxation tests, and stress reduction tests in the temperature range 1023 to 1273 K. The results have been interpreted using the internal stress concept: The dependence of the internal stress on the applied stress and test temperature was determined. In a few experiments, the influence of cold deformation prior to the creep test on the magnitude of the internal stress was also investigated. It was found that the experimentally observed relaxation behavior could be more satisfactorily described using the Norton creep equation modified by incorporation of the internal stress than by the conventional Norton creep equation

  5. Microplastic relaxations of single and polycrystalline molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, W.; Weiss, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Materialphysik; Chen, D.L.

    1998-05-01

    The microplasticity of high-purity molybdenum single crystals and of Mo polycrystals of technical purity has been investigated by relaxation step tests in uniaxial compression. A new model for the evaluation of relaxation tests in the microplastic range of b.c.c metals is presented which takes into account the decrease of the mobile dislocation density due to exhaustion of non-screw dislocations. The model allows an independent determination of the activation volume and of the microstructure parameters controlling dislocation exhaustion. The results indicate that in the high-purity single crystals the deformation rate is controlled by interactions of non-screw dislocations with the grown-in network. In the polycrystals additional interactions with impurity atoms seem to occur. In the single crystals the activity and subsequent exhaustion of two different glide systems was observed, followed by a gradual onset of screw dislocation motion. (orig.) 26 refs.

  6. Limiting conditions for operation relaxation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to assess the impact of system maintenance unavailability on plant risk to provide technical justification for the relaxation of system limiting conditions for operation from three to seven days. The primary goal of the relaxation program is to allow for more thorough equipment maintenance. A potential increase in out-of-service time for a particular outage caused by the performance of more effective repairs will be counterbalanced by a probable decrease in the frequency in the outage rate of a component. Benefits resulting from an increase in allowed outage time include: (a) a potential reduction in total system out-of-service time, (b) a minimization of challenges to plant systems, and (c) a reduction in the number of emergency technical specification change requests. This program therefore offers an opportunity to more effectively manage plant maintenance and operation

  7. Kinetics in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter the authors first briefly review the kinetics of first- and second-order processes for continuous and pulsed irradiation, without taking the effects of nonhomogeneous formation of the species into consideration. They also discuss diffusion controlled reactions under conditions where interactions of more than two particles can be neglected, first the kinetics of the diffusion-controlled reaction of randomly generated species (homogeneous reaction) and then that of isolated pairs of reactants. The latter is often called geminate kinetics when dealing with pairs of oppositely charged species; they shall use this term for the kinetics of isolated pairs in general. In the last section they discuss briefly the kinetics of groups of more than two reactants

  8. Impulsive relaxation process in MHD driven reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitabata, H.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.

    1997-01-01

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is carried out in order to investigate energy relaxation process of the driven magnetic reconnection in an open finite system through a long time calculation. It is found that a very impulsive energy release occurs in an intermittent fashion through magnetic reconnection for a continuous magnetic flux injection on the boundary. We focus our attention on the detailed process in the impulsive phase, which is the reconnection rate is remarkably enhanced up. (author)

  9. Current relaxation time scales in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.

    1987-02-01

    An approximate normal mode analysis of plasma current diffusion in tokamaks is presented. The work is based on numerical solutions of the current diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are shown for a broad range of plasma conductivity profile shapes. Three classes of solutions are considered which correspond to three types of tokamak operation. Convenient approximations to the three lowest eigenvalues in each class are presented and simple formulae for the current relaxation time scales are given

  10. Muon spin relaxation in random spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu Yamazaki

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal relaxation function Gsub(z)(t) of the positive muon can reflect dynamical characters of local field in a unique way even when the correlation time is longer than the Larmor period of local field. This method has been applied to studies of spin dynamics in spin glass systems, revealing sharp but continuous temperature dependence of the correlation time. Its principle and applications are reviewed. (author)

  11. Non-kinetic capabilities: complementing the kinetic prevalence to targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ducheine, P.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting is used in military doctrine to describe a military operational way, using (military) means to influence a target (or addressee) in order to achieve designated political and/or military goals. The four factors italicized are used to analyse non-kinetic targeting, complementing our knowledge and understanding of the kinetic prevalence. Paradoxically, non-kinetic targeting is not recognized as a separate concept: kinetic and non-kinetic are intertwined facets of targeting. Kinetic tar...

  12. Structural relaxation and thermal conductivity coefficient of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurasulov, A.

    1992-01-01

    Present article is devoted to structural relaxation and thermal conductivity coefficient of liquids. The thermoelastic properties of liquids were studied taking into account the contribution of translational and structural relaxation. The results of determination of dynamic coefficient of thermal conductivity of liquids taking into account the contribution of translational and structural relaxation are presented.

  13. The Efficacy of Relaxation Training in Treating Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesco, Pagnini; Mauro, Manzoni Gian; Gianluca, Castelnuovo; Enrico, Molinari

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of scientific literature about relaxation training and its effects on anxiety. Research investigating progressive relaxation, meditation, applied relaxation and autogenic training were considered. All these methods proved to be effective in reducing anxiety in all kind of samples, affected or not by physical or…

  14. Ideal relaxation of the Hopf fibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiet, Christopher Berg; Candelaresi, Simon; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2017-07-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamics relaxation is the topology-conserving reconfiguration of a magnetic field into a lower energy state where the net force is zero. This is achieved by modeling the plasma as perfectly conducting viscous fluid. It is an important tool for investigating plasma equilibria and is often used to study the magnetic configurations in fusion devices and astrophysical plasmas. We study the equilibrium reached by a localized magnetic field through the topology conserving relaxation of a magnetic field based on the Hopf fibration in which magnetic field lines are closed circles that are all linked with one another. Magnetic fields with this topology have recently been shown to occur in non-ideal numerical simulations. Our results show that any localized field can only attain equilibrium if there is a finite external pressure, and that for such a field a Taylor state is unattainable. We find an equilibrium plasma configuration that is characterized by a lowered pressure in a toroidal region, with field lines lying on surfaces of constant pressure. Therefore, the field is in a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium. Localized helical magnetic fields are found when plasma is ejected from astrophysical bodies and subsequently relaxes against the background plasma, as well as on earth in plasmoids generated by, e.g., a Marshall gun. This work shows under which conditions an equilibrium can be reached and identifies a toroidal depression as the characteristic feature of such a configuration.

  15. Tension and relaxation in the individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, C R

    1979-06-01

    Increasing materialism in society is resulting in more wide spread nervous tension in all age groups. While some degree of nervous tension is necessary in everyday living, its adverse effects require that we must learn to bring it under control. Total tension is shown to have two components: a controllable element arising from factors in the environment and the inbuilt uncontrollable residue which is basic in the individual temperament. The effects of excessive or uncontrolled stress can be classified as 1) emotional reactions such as neurotic behaviour (anxiety hypochondria, hysteria, phobia, depression obsessions and compulsions) or psychotic behaviour and 2) psychosomatic reactions (nervous asthma, headache, insomnia, heart attack). Nervous energy can be wastefully expended by such factors as loss of temper, wrong attitudes to work, job frustration and marital strains. Relaxation is the only positive way to control undesirable nervous tension and its techniques require to be learned. A number of techniques (progressive relaxation, differential relaxation, hypnosis, the use of biofeedback, Yoga and Transcendental Meditation) are described and their application to dental practice is discussed.

  16. Proton NMR relaxation in hydrous melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, J.; Bacarella, A.L.; Benjamin, B.M.; Brown, L.L.; Girard, C.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse and continuous wave NMR measurements are reported for protons in hydrous melts of calcium nitrate at temperatures between -4 and 120 0 C. Although measured in different temperature ranges, spin-lattice (T 1 ) and spin-spin (T 2 ) relaxation times appear to be nearly equal to each other and proportional to the self-diffusion coefficients of solute metal cations such as Cd 2+ . At temperatures near 50 0 C, mean Arrhenius coefficients Δ H/sub T 1 / (kcal/mol) are 7.9, 7.3, and 4.8, respectively, for melts containing 2.8, 4.0, and 8.0 moles of water per mole of calcium nitrate, compared to 4.6 kcal/mol for pure water. Temperature dependence of T 1 and T 2 in Ca(NO 3 ) 2 -2.8 H 2 O between -4 and 120 0 C are non-Arrhenius and can be represented by a Fulcher-type equation with a ''zero mobility temperature'' (T 0 ) of 225 0 K, close to the value of T 0 for solute diffusion, electrical conductance and viscosity. Resolution of the relaxation rates into correlation times for intramolecular (rotational) and intermolecular (translational) diffusional motion is discussed in terms of the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound and more recent models for dipolar relaxation

  17. Kinetics and thermochemistry of the reversible gas phase reaction HONO+NH3->3N-HONO studied by infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, P.; Ratajczak, E.; Sillesen, A.

    1994-01-01

    The kinetics of the reversible reaction HONO+NH3 reversible H3N-HONO (1) was studied by monitoring trans-HONO relaxation kinetics. The rate of approach towards equilibrium was studied as a function of the ammonia concentration to obtain values of the rate constants for the forward and reverse rea...

  18. Correlation between structural relaxation enthalpy and superconducting properties of amorphous Zr70Cu30 and Zr70Ni30 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Matsuzaki, K.; Toyota, N.; Chen, H.S.; Masumoto, T.; Fukase, T.

    1985-01-01

    The anneal-induced change in the superconducting properties together with the irrecoverable relaxation enthalpy (ΔHsub(i,exo)) and recoverable relaxation enthalpy (ΔHsub(r,endo)) of amorphous Zr 70 Cu 30 and Zr 70 Ni 30 alloys was examined. The increase in ΔHsub(i,exo) and the degradation of Tsub(c) progress logarithmically with annealing time tsub(a) in a temperature range of 373 to 523 K. The activation energy and the attempted frequency were respectively estimated to be 1.5 eV and 6.6 x 10 13 sec -1 for the increase in ΔHsub(i,exo) and 1.5 eV and 1.9 x 10 14 sec -1 for the degradation of Tsub(c). The recoverable structure relaxation exerts little effect on Tsub(c). Based on the agreement between the kinetic parameters for the changes of ΔHsub(i,exo) and Tsub(c), it appears that the degradation of Tsub(c) on annealing is associated with the irrecoverable structural relaxation as a result of the annihilation of frozen-in defects and the topological and compositional atomic rearrangement. The values of the attempted frequency being of the order of Debye frequency suggest that the irrecoverable structural relaxation processes occur more or less independently from each other. (author)

  19. Kinetics of phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.O.; Aziz, M.J.; Stephenson, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the Materials Research Society symposium on Kinetics of Phase Transformations held in Boston, Massachusetts from November 26-29, 1990. The symposium provided a forum for research results in an exceptionally broad and interdisciplinary field. Presentations covered nearly every major class of transformations including solid-solid, liquid-solid, transport phenomena and kinetics modeling. Papers involving amorphous Si, a dominant topic at the symposium, are collected in the first section followed by sections on four major areas of transformation kinetics. The symposium opened with joint sessions on ion and electron beam induced transformations in conjunction with the Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions: symposium. Subsequent sessions focused on the areas of ordering and nonlinear diffusion kinetics, solid state reactions and amorphization, kinetics and defects of amorphous silicon, and kinetics of melting and solidification. Seven internationally recognized invited speakers reviewed many of the important problems and recent results in these areas, including defects in amorphous Si, crystal to glass transformations, ordering kinetics, solid-state amorphization, computer modeling, and liquid/solid transformations

  20. Charge carrier relaxation model in disordered organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Sun, Pengxiao; Liu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation phenomena of charge carrier in disordered organic semiconductors have been demonstrated and investigated theoretically. An analytical model describing the charge carrier relaxation is proposed based on the pure hopping transport theory. The relation between the material disorder, electric field and temperature and the relaxation phenomena has been discussed in detail, respectively. The calculated results reveal that the increase of electric field and temperature can promote the relaxation effect in disordered organic semiconductors, while the increase of material disorder will weaken the relaxation. The proposed model can explain well the stretched-exponential law by adopting the appropriate parameters. The calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental data for organic semiconductors

  1. Relaxations in spin glasses: Similarities and differences from ordinary glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngai, K.L.; Rajagopal, A.K.; Huang, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Relaxation phenomena have become a major concern in the physics of spin glasses. There are certain resemblances of these relaxation properties to those of ordinary glasses. In this work, we compare the relaxation properties of spin glasses near the freezing temperature with those of glasses near the glass transition temperature. There are similarities between the two types of glasses. Moreover, the relaxation properties of many glasses and spin glasses are in conformity with two coupled ''universality'' relations predicted by a recent model of relaxations in condensed matter

  2. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  3. Fine kinetics of natural physical ageing in glassy As{sub 10}Se{sub 90}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitska, V. [Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202 Stryjska Str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Lviv State University of Vital Activity Safety, 35, Kleparivska Str., Lviv 79007 (Ukraine); Golovchak, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37044 (United States); Kozdras, A. [Faculty of Physics of Opole Technical University, 75, Ozimska Str., Opole 45370 (Poland); Shpotyuk, O., E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua [Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202 Stryjska Str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland)

    2014-02-01

    Sigmoid behavior of natural physical ageing in glassy As{sub 10}Se{sub 90} reveals multi-step-wise growing kinetics of enthalpy losses. Phenomenological description of this kinetics can be adequately developed in terms of first-order relaxation processes, tending atomic structure from initial towards more thermodynamically equilibrium state. This kinetics is shown to obey characteristic stretched exponential behavior originated from a number of growing steps, attributed to the interconnected processes of chalcogen chain alignment and cooperative shrinkage of glass network.

  4. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang; Liu, Taixiang; Liao, G J; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  5. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang

    2017-09-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  6. Stress relaxation of bi-disperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengeller, Ludovica; Huang, Qian; Dorokhin, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    We present start-up of uniaxial extension followed by stress relaxation experiments of a bi-disperse 50 % by weight blend of 95k and 545k molecular weight polystyrene. We also show, for comparison, stress relaxation measurements of the polystyrene melts with molecular weight 95k and 545k, which...... are the components of the bi-disperse melt. The measurements show three separated relaxation regimes: a fast regime, a transition regime, and a slow regime. In the fast regime, the orientation of the long chains is frozen and the stress relaxation is due to stretch relaxation of the short chains primarily....... Conversely in the slow regime, the long chains have retracted and undergo relaxation of orientation in fully relaxed short chains....

  7. The Relaxation of Vicinal (001) with ZigZag [110] Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Micah; Hamouda, Ajmi Bh; González-Cabrera, Diego Luis; Einstein, Theodore L.

    2012-02-01

    This talk presents a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the relaxation dynamics of [110] steps on a vicinal (001) simple cubic surface. This system is interesting because [110] steps have different elementary excitation energetics and favor step diffusion more than close-packed [100] steps. In this talk we show how this leads to relaxation dynamics showing greater fluctuations on a shorter time scale for [110] steps as well as 2-bond breaking processes being rate determining in contrast to 3-bond breaking processes for [100] steps. The existence of a steady state is shown via the convergence of terrace width distributions at times much longer than the relaxation time. In this time regime excellent fits to the modified generalized Wigner distribution (as well as to the Berry-Robnik model when steps can overlap) were obtained. Also, step-position correlation function data show diffusion-limited increase for small distances along the step as well as greater average step displacement for zigzag steps compared to straight steps for somewhat longer distances along the step. Work supported by NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR 05-20471 as well as a DOE-CMCSN Grant.

  8. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirigian, Stephen, E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com; Schweizer, Kenneth S., E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com [Departments of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry.

  9. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry

  10. Violent Relaxation, Dynamical Instabilities and the Formation of Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, L. A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN: El problema de la formaci6n de galaxias elfpticas por medjo de colapso gravitacional sin disipaci6n de energfa es estudiado usando un gran numero de simulaciones numericas. Se muestra que este tipo de colapsos, partiendo de condiciones iniciales frfas donde la energfa cinetica inicial representa s6lo un 5%, 0 , de a potencial inicial, produce sistemas relajados de forma triaxial muy similares a las galaxias elfpticas reales en sus formas y perfiles de densidad en proyecci6i . La forina triaxial resulta de la acci6n de una inestabilidad dinamica que aparece en sistemas 'inicos dominados por movimientos radiales, mientras que el perfil de densidad final Cs debido al llamado relajamiento violento que tiende a producir una distribuci6n en espacio fase unica. Estos dos fen6menos tienden a borrar los detalles particulares sobre las condiciones iniciales y dan lugar a una evoluci6n convergente hacia sistemas realistas, esto innecesario el uso de condiciones iniciales especiales (excepto por Ia condici6i de que estas deben ser frfas). Las condiciones iniciales frfas producen los movimientos radiales y fluctuaciones de la energfa potencial requeridos por ambos fen6menos. ABSTRACT: The problem of formation of elliptical galaxies via dissipationless collapse is studied using a large set of numerical simulations. It is shown that dissipationless collapses from cold initial conditions, where the total initial kinetic energy is less than 5% ofthe initial potential energy, lead to relaxed triaxial systems ery similar to real elliptical galaxies ii projected shape and density profiles. The triaxial shape is due to the of a dynamical instability that appears on systems dominated by radial orbits, while final density profile is due to violent relaxation that tends to produce a unique distribution iii space. These two phenomena erase memory of the initial prodtice a convergent evolution toward realistic systems, thus making unnecessary use o[special initial conditions (other

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION CATALYTIC KINETIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of ...

  12. Fully radiative relaxation of silicon nanocrystals in colloidal ensemble revealed by advanced treatment of decay kinetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Greben, M.; Khoroshyy, Petro; Liu, X.; Pi, X.; Valenta, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 034304. ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hybrid solar cells * quantum dots * recombination dynamics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  13. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared to ...

  14. Suppressed beta relaxations and reduced heat capacity in ultrastable organic glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Mark

    Glasses play an important role in technology as a result of their macroscopic homogeneity (e.g., the clarity of window glass) and our ability to tune properties through composition changes. A problem with liquid-cooled glasses is that they exhibit marginal kinetic stability and slowly evolve towards lower energy glasses and crystalline states. In contrast, we have shown that physical vapor deposition can prepare glasses with very high kinetic stability. These materials have properties expected for ``million-year-old'' glasses, including high density, low enthalpy, and high mechanical moduli. We have used nanocalorimetry to show that these high stability glasses have lower heat capacities than liquid-cooled glasses for a number of molecular systems. Dielectric relaxation has been used to show that the beta relaxation can be suppressed by nearly a factor of four in vapor-deposited toluene glasses, indicating a very tight packing environment. Consistent with this view, computer simulations of high stability glasses indicate reduced Debye-Waller factors. These high stability materials raise interesting questions about the limiting properties of amorphous packing arrangements.

  15. Crystallization, structural relaxation and thermal degradation in Poly(L-lactide)/cellulose nanocrystal renewable nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizundia, E; Vilas, J L; León, L M

    2015-06-05

    In this work, crystallization, structural relaxation and thermal degradation kinetics of neat Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and its nanocomposites with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and CNC-grafted-PLLA (CNC-g-PLLA) have been studied. Although crystallinity degree of nanocomposites remains similar to that of neat homopolymer, results reveal an increase on the crystallization rate by 1.7-5 times boosted by CNC, which act as nucleating agents during the crystallization process. In addition, structural relaxation kinetics of PLLA chains has been drastically reduced by 53% and 27% with the addition of neat and grafted CNC, respectively. The thermal degradation activation energy (E) has been determined from thermogravimetric analysis in the light of Kissinger's and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall theoretical models. Results reveal a reduction on the thermal stability when in presence of CNC-g-PLLA, while raw CNC slightly increases the thermal stability of PLLA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results confirm that the presence of residual catalyst in CNC-g-PLLA plays a pivotal role in the thermal degradation behavior of nanocomposites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diffusion processes in the relaxed cross sections for the reaction 107109Ag+20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, R.; Moretto, L.G.; Galin, J.; Jared, R.; Moulton, J.; Thompson, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The fragments emitted in the reaction 107 109 Ag+ 20 Ne at 175 and 252 MeV bombarding energy have been identified in charge up to Z=32. Kinetic energy distributions, cross sections and angular distributions have been measured for each Z. The kinetic energy spectra show the two usual components: the quasielastic component and the relaxed component. The Z-distribution of the latter is fairly flat, slowly decreasing up to Z approximately 15 and then rising again up to Z=30. The variations in the Z-distribution are more pronounced at the lower bombarding energy. The angular distributions associated with the relaxed component are forward peaked for Z-values close to that of the projectile and behave like 1/sintheta for larger Z-values. The forward peaking is very substantial for Z 10 the forward peaking in excess of 1/sintheta disappears around Z=15. These features are interpreted in terms of a diffusion process along the asymmetry coordinate of a short-lived intermediate complex. (Auth.)

  17. Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Petri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.

  18. Reflexogenic relaxation gastroduodenography by the acupuncture method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Tsibulyak, V.N.; Mnatsakyan, K.A.; Kondorskaya, I.L.; Galkina, T.V.

    The communication is based upon the results of x-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum in 63 patients with stenoses of the pyloroduodenal zone, cicatrical deformities of the duodenal bulb, bulbar ulcer, duodenal organic lesions, and functional stenosis of the loop. First a routine X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed using barium-water mixture, then followed acupuncture aimed at hypotension in the definite points of the floor of the auricle where branches of the vagus innervating the stomach and duodenum are located. As distinct from pharmacological relaxation this method produces a purpose-oriented selective effect.

  19. Reflexogenic relaxation gastroduodenography by the acupuncture method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Tsibulyak, V.N.; Mnatsakyan, K.A.; Kondorskaya, I.L.; Galkina, T.V.

    1985-01-01

    The communication is based upon the results of x-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum in 63 patients with stenoses of the pyloroduodenal zone, cicatrical deformities of the duodenal bulb, bulbar ulcer, duodenal organic lesions, and functional stenosis of the loop. First a routine X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed using barium-water mixture, than followed acupuncture aimed at hypotension in the definite points of the floor of the auricle where branches of the vagus innervating the stomach and duodenum are located. As distinct from pharmacological relaxation this method produces a purpose-oriented selective effect

  20. Relaxation Processes and Time Scale Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the response function may be immediately recognized as being 14 of the Kubo - Green type in the classical regime. Given this general framework, it is now...b as a function of temperature is 24 equivalent to the Vogel-Beuche-Fulcher empirical law for viscosity or the Williams-Landel-Ferry empirical law...relaxation times. With the weighted sum in the form of an integral , one can write exp(-(t/T)b ] = f dT’g(r’) exp[-(t/T’)], O

  1. Image charge relaxation in electrophoretic displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel improvement to a real time imaging system for use in electrostatic imaging is described. Present systems produce ten separate images per second and the image must be erased in preparation for the next exposure and image formation. The new design of electrostatic imaging chamber can take one of several forms which are discussed in detail; both organic and inorganic materials may be used as the photoconductor material in the discharging control layer and suitable examples are given. Values for the resistivity and the relaxation time of the discharging control layer are given. (U.K.)

  2. STRUCTURAL STRESS RELAXATION IN STAINLESS INSTABILITY STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lyabuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The approach to the description of conditions of martensitic transformation in austenitic steel is advanced. Transformation induced hardening is the result of Le Chatelier principle in instability alloys. The phase transformation in austenitic instability stainless steel is the cause of reduction of grain refining and increase of strength. It was experimentally shown that physical-mechanical characteristics of the prepared materials were defined by the structure and inhomogeneous distribution of the hardening phase within a grain. The reasons for high thermal stability of inverse austenitic were established. The factors determining the inverse austenitic relaxation resistibility and resources for its increasing were revealed.

  3. Charge imbalance: its relaxation, diffusion and oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethick, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a model for charge density based on two charge components: the normal quasiparticle component and the superfluid/condensate component. Based on the quasiparticle Boltzmann equation, this two-component model, when used in nonequilibrium contexts, is fruitful in describing a variety of charge-imbalance phenomena in superconductors. The authors discuss various methods of generating charge-imbalances, charge-imbalance relaxation processes (such as phonons, impurity scattering and magnetic impurities) and applications of the two-component model of charge imbalance to spatially inhomogeneous conditions

  4. Modelling Creep (Relaxation of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkovic Nebojsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We first present the results of an experiment in which the passive properties of the urinary bladder were investigated using strips of rabbit bladder. Under the assumption that the urinary bladder had orthopaedic characteristics, the strips were taken in the longitudinal and in the circumferential directions. The material was subjected to uniaxial tension, and stress-stretch curves were generated for various rates of deformation. We found that the rates did not have a significantly effect on the passive response of the material. Additionally, the stress-stretch dependence during relaxation of the material when exposed to isometric conditions was determined experimentally.

  5. Deformation relaxation in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.; Gan, Z.G.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhang, H.F.; Li, J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    In deeply inelastic heavy-ion collisions, the quadrupole deformations of both fragments are taken as stochastic independent dynamical variables governed by the Fokker–Planck equation (FPE) under the corresponding driving potential. The mean values, variances and covariance of the fragments are analytically expressed by solving the FPE in head on collisions. The characteristics and mechanism of the deformation are discussed. It is found that both the internal structures and interactions of the colliding partners are critical for the deformation relaxation in deeply inelastic collisions.

  6. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D

    2002-12-01

    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  7. Step-wise kinetics of natural physical ageing in arsenic selenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchak, R; Kozdras, A; Balitska, V; Shpotyuk, O

    2012-01-01

    The long-term kinetics of physical ageing at ambient temperature is studied in Se-rich As-Se glasses using the conventional differential scanning calorimetry technique. It is analysed through the changes in the structural relaxation parameters occurring during the glass-to-supercooled liquid transition in the heating mode. Along with the time dependences of the glass transition temperature (T g ) and partial area (A) under the endothermic relaxation peak, the enthalpy losses (ΔH) and calculated fictive temperature (T F ) are analysed as key parameters, characterizing the kinetics of physical ageing. The latter is shown to have step-wise character, revealing some kinds of subsequent plateaus and steep regions. A phenomenological description of physical ageing in the investigated glasses is proposed on the basis of an alignment-shrinkage mechanism and first-order kinetic equations.

  8. Thermal relaxation of charm in hadronic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Min, E-mail: mhe@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fries, Rainer J. [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rapp, Ralf [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2011-07-18

    The thermal relaxation rate of open-charm (D) mesons in hot and dense hadronic matter is calculated using empirical elastic scattering amplitudes. D-meson interactions with thermal pions are approximated by D{sup *} resonances, while scattering off other hadrons (K, {eta}, {rho}, {omega}, K{sup *}, N, {Delta}) is evaluated using vacuum scattering amplitudes as available in the literature based on effective Lagrangians and constrained by realistic spectroscopy. The thermal relaxation time of D-mesons in a hot {pi} gas is found to be around 25-50 fm/c for temperatures T=150-180 MeV, which reduces to 10-25 fm/c in a hadron-resonance gas. The latter values, argued to be conservative estimates, imply significant modifications of D-meson spectra in heavy-ion collisions. Close to the critical temperature (T{sub c}), the spatial diffusion coefficient (D{sub s}) is surprisingly similar to recent calculations for charm quarks in the Quark-Gluon Plasma using non-perturbative T-matrix interactions. This suggests a possibly continuous minimum structure of D{sub s} around T{sub c}.

  9. Relaxation methods for gauge field equilibrium equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.; Piran, T.

    1984-01-01

    This article gives a pedagogical introduction to relaxation methods for the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations, with particular emphasis on treating nonlinear problems with delta-function source terms and axial symmetry, which arise in the context of effective Lagrangian approximations to the dynamics of quantized gauge fields. The authors present a detailed theoretical analysis of three models which are used as numerical examples: the classical Abelian Higgs model (illustrating charge screening), the semiclassical leading logarithm model (illustrating flux confinement within a free boundary or ''bag''), and the axially symmetric Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield monopoles (illustrating the occurrence of p topological quantum numbers in non-Abelian gauge fields). They then proceed to a self-contained introduction to the theory of relaxation methods and allied iterative numerical methods and to the practical aspects of their implementation, with attention to general issues which arise in the three examples. The authors conclude with a brief discussion of details of the numerical solution of the models, presenting sample numerical results

  10. Relaxed metrics and indistinguishability operators: the relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.

    2017-07-01

    In 1982, the notion of indistinguishability operator was introduced by E. Trillas in order to fuzzify the crisp notion of equivalence relation (/cite{Trillas}). In the study of such a class of operators, an outstanding property must be pointed out. Concretely, there exists a duality relationship between indistinguishability operators and metrics. The aforesaid relationship was deeply studied by several authors that introduced a few techniques to generate metrics from indistinguishability operators and vice-versa (see, for instance, /cite{BaetsMesiar,BaetsMesiar2}). In the last years a new generalization of the metric notion has been introduced in the literature with the purpose of developing mathematical tools for quantitative models in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence (/cite{BKMatthews,Ma}). The aforementioned generalized metrics are known as relaxed metrics. The main target of this talk is to present a study of the duality relationship between indistinguishability operators and relaxed metrics in such a way that the aforementioned classical techniques to generate both concepts, one from the other, can be extended to the new framework. (Author)

  11. Relaxation creep model of impending earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgounov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-04-01

    The alternative view of the current status and perspective of seismic prediction studies is discussed. In the problem of the ascertainment of the uncertainty relation Cognoscibility-Unpredictability of Earthquakes, priorities of works on short-term earthquake prediction are defined due to the advantage that the final stage of nucleation of earthquake is characterized by a substantial activation of the process while its strain rate increases by the orders of magnitude and considerably increased signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the creep phenomenon under stress relaxation conditions, a model is proposed to explain different images of precursors of impending tectonic earthquakes. The onset of tertiary creep appears to correspond to the onset of instability and inevitably fails unless it unloaded. At this stage, the process acquires the self-regulating character to the greatest extent the property of irreversibility, one of the important components of prediction reliability. Data in situ suggest a principal possibility to diagnose the process of preparation by ground measurements of acoustic and electromagnetic emission in the rocks under constant strain in the condition of self-relaxed stress until the moment of fracture are discussed in context. It was obtained that electromagnetic emission precedes but does not accompany the phase of macrocrak development.

  12. Hydrodynamic relaxations in dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. S.; Greenfield, Michael L.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of relaxation phenomena in the standard dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model [R. D. Groot and P. B. Warren, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)]. Using fluctuating hydrodynamics as the framework of the investigation, we focus on the collective transverse and longitudinal dynamics. It is shown that classical hydrodynamic theory predicts the transverse dynamics at relatively low temperatures very well when compared to simulation data; however, the theory predictions are, on the same length scale, less accurate for higher temperatures. The agreement with hydrodynamics depends on the definition of the viscosity, and here we find that the transverse dynamics are independent of the dissipative and random shear force contributions to the stress. For high temperatures, the spectrum for the longitudinal dynamics is dominated by the Brillouin peak for large length scales and the relaxation is therefore governed by sound wave propagation and is athermal. This contrasts the results at lower temperatures and small length scale, where the thermal process is clearly present in the spectra. The DPD model, at least qualitatively, re-captures the underlying hydrodynamical mechanisms, and quantitative agreement is excellent at intermediate temperatures for the transverse dynamics.

  13. Effect of relaxation and decay of a charge transfer shakeup satellite on Auger-electron spectroscopy spectra and Auger-photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy spectra of adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    An electron excited to an unoccupied part of adsorbate-substrate hybrid states in a chemisorbed molecule by a resonant core electron excitation or charge transfer (CT) shakeup may delocalize on time scale of core-hole decay so that the excited core-hole state relaxes partly or completely to a fully relaxed one. The Auger decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state via the relaxation of the excited one introduces an additional feature in the resonant Auger-electron spectroscopy (RAES) spectrum and the AES spectrum. However, the additional feature in the RAES spectrum is a normal AES spectrum by decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state, whereas the one in the AES spectrum is the AES spectrum by decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state broadened by the photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) CT shakeup satellite weighted by the branching ratio of the relaxation width. The discrepancies between the AES spectrum measured at high above the ionization threshold and the additional feature in the RAES spectrum consist of the symmetric-like part by the decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state via the relaxation of the CT shakeup state and the asymmetric part by the direct decay of the shakeup states. The asymmetric part increases with a decrease in the hybridization strength. This explains the variation with the hybridization strength in the discrepancies between the RAES spectra and the AES spectra of chemisorbed molecules such as CO/Ni, CO/Cu and CO/Ag. A comparison of the singles PES spectrum with the one measured in coincidence with the AES main line of a selected kinetic energy (KE) provides the delocalization rate of the excited electron in the CT shakeup state as a function of photoelectron KE. The coincidence measurement to obtain the partial singles PES spectrum is discussed

  14. Beyond the Cahn-Hilliard equation: a vacancy-based kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastar, M.

    2011-01-01

    A Self-Consistent Mean Field (SCMF) kinetic theory including an explicit description of the vacancy diffusion mechanism is developed. The present theory goes beyond the usual local equilibrium hypothesis. It is applied to the study of the early time spinodal decomposition in alloys. The resulting analytical expression of the structure function highlights the contribution of the vacancy diffusion mechanism. Instead of the single amplification rate of the Cahn-Hillard linear theory, the linearized SCMF kinetic equations involve three constant rates, first one describing the vacancy relaxation kinetics, second one related to the kinetic coupling between local concentrations and pair correlations and the third one representing the spinodal amplification rate. Starting from the same vacancy diffusion model, we perform kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) demixting alloy. The resulting spherically averaged structure function is compared to the SCMF predictions. Both qualitative and quantitative agreements are satisfying. (authors)

  15. Hot-electron effect in spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic Germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Wu, M W

    2015-07-01

    The hot-electron effect in the spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic germanium is investigated by the kinetic spin Bloch equations both analytically and numerically. It is shown that in the weak-electric-field regime with E ≲ 0.5 kV cm(-1), our calculations have reasonable agreement with the recent transport experiment in the hot-electron spin-injection configuration (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 257204). We reveal that the spin relaxation is significantly enhanced at low temperature in the presence of weak electric field E ≲ 50 V cm(-1), which originates from the obvious center-of-mass drift effect due to the weak electron-phonon interaction, whereas the hot-electron effect is demonstrated to be less important. This can explain the discrepancy between the experimental observation and the previous theoretical calculation (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 085202), which deviates from the experimental results by about two orders of magnitude at low temperature. It is further shown that in the strong-electric-field regime with 0.5 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1), the spin relaxation is enhanced due to the hot-electron effect, whereas the drift effect is demonstrated to be marginal. Finally, we find that when 1.4 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1) which lies in the strong-electric-field regime, a small fraction of electrons (≲5%) can be driven from the L to Γ valley, and the spin relaxation rates are the same for the Γ and L valleys in the intrinsic sample without impurity. With the negligible influence of the spin dynamics in the Γ valley to the whole system, the spin dynamics in the L valley can be measured from the Γ valley by the standard direct optical transition method.

  16. Simple molecular mechanism of heat transfer: Debye relaxation versus power-law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gall, M.; Kutner, R.

    2005-01-01

    We study a simple molecular model (at coarse-grain level) as a basis of irreversible heat transfer through a diathermic partition. The partition separates into two adjacent parts a box containing ideal point particles that communicate only though this partition. We provide the basic mechanism of energy transfer between the left- and right-hand side gas samples by assuming equipartition of kinetic energy of all outgoing particles colliding with the partition at a given time. We analyse and compare two essentially different cases (A) the reference one, where we assume that the border walls of the box and the diathermic partitions can randomize the direction of motion of rebounding particles, and (B) the case where we assume the mirror collisions of particles with the border walls and the partition. In both cases the rebounding of the particles from border walls is elastic. The above introduced assumptions allow us to numerically simulate and analytically consider, for example, the relaxation of temperatures of both gas samples and the entropy of the system. However, in both cases the long-time relaxation is essentially different since in case (A) it is an exponential one, while in case (B) it seems to be a power-law relaxation. The obtained results well agree in case (A) with the predictions of the phenomenological, linear theory of irreversible theory had to be developed which assumes time-dependence of heat conductivity; it describes the relaxation of the system far from equilibrium. The explanation of the results obtained in this case is, nevertheless, an intriguing problem. (author)

  17. Parameterization of NMR relaxation curves in terms of logarithmic moments of the relaxation time distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg V; Stapf, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parameterization of NMR relaxation curves in terms of logarithmic moments of the relaxation time distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Stapf, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution.

  19. RELAXATION OF BLAZAR-INDUCED PAIR BEAMS IN COSMIC VOIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miniati, Francesco [Physics Department, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, ETH-Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Elyiv, Andrii, E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2013-06-10

    The stability properties of a low-density ultrarelativistic pair beam produced in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by multi-TeV gamma-ray photons from blazars are analyzed. The problem is relevant for probes of magnetic field in cosmic voids through gamma-ray observations. In addition, dissipation of such beams could considerably affect the thermal history of the IGM and structure formation. We use a Monte Carlo method to quantify the properties of the blazar-induced electromagnetic shower, in particular the bulk Lorentz factor and the angular spread of the pair beam generated by the shower, as a function of distance from the blazar itself. We then use linear and nonlinear kinetic theory to study the stability of the pair beam against the growth of electrostatic plasma waves, employing the Monte Carlo results for our quantitative estimates. We find that the fastest growing mode, like any perturbation mode with even a very modest component perpendicular to the beam direction, cannot be described in the reactive regime. Due to the effect of nonlinear Landau damping, which suppresses the growth of plasma oscillations, the beam relaxation timescale is found to be significantly longer than the inverse Compton loss time. Finally, density inhomogeneities associated with cosmic structure induce loss of resonance between the beam particles and plasma oscillations, strongly inhibiting their growth. We conclude that relativistic pair beams produced by blazars in the IGM are stable on timescales that are long compared with the electromagnetic cascades. There appears to be little or no effect of pair beams on the IGM.

  20. Structural relaxation dynamics and annealing effects of sodium silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Mohamed; Piazza, Francesco; Guimbretière, Guillaume; Canizarès, Aurélien; Vaills, Yann

    2013-05-09

    Here we report high-precision measurements of structural relaxation dynamics in the glass transition range at the intermediate and short length scale for a strong sodium silicate glass during long annealing times. We evidence for the first time the heterogeneous dynamics at the intermediate range order by probing the acoustic longitudinal frequency in the GHz region by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Or, from in-situ Raman measurements, we show that relaxation is indeed homogeneous at the interatomic length scale. Our results show that the dynamics at the intermediate range order contains two distinct relaxation time scales, a fast and a slow component, differing by about a 10-fold factor below Tg and approaching to one another past the glass transition. The slow relaxation time agrees with the shear relaxation time, proving that Si-O bond breaking constitutes the primary control of structural relaxation at the intermediate range order.

  1. Relaxation Time of High-Density Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Seidl, Markus; Loerting, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Amorphous water plays a fundamental role in astrophysics, cryoelectron microscopy, hydration of matter, and our understanding of anomalous liquid water properties. Yet, the characteristics of the relaxation processes taking place in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) are unknown. We here reveal that the relaxation processes in HDA at 110-135 K at 0.1-0.2 GPa are of collective and global nature, resembling the alpha relaxation in glassy material. Measured relaxation times suggest liquid-like relaxation characteristics in the vicinity of the crystallization temperature at 145 K. By carefully relaxing pressurized HDA for several hours at 135 K, we produce a state that is closer to the ideal glass state than all HDA states discussed so far in literature.

  2. Hyperfine relaxation of an optically pumped cesium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornos, J.; Amare, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The relaxation of hyperfine orientation indirectly induced by optical pumping with a σ-polarized D 1 -light in a cesium vapor in the presence of Ar is experimentally studied. The detection technique ensures the absence of quadrupole relaxation contributions in the relaxation signals. The results from the dependences of the hyperfine relaxation rate on the temperature and argon pressure are: diffusion coefficient of Cs in Ar, D 0 = 0.101 +- 0.010 cm 2 s -1 at 0 0 C and 760 Torr; relaxation cross section by Cs-Ar collisions, σ/sub c/ = (104 +- 5) x 10 -23 cm 2 ; relaxation cross section by Cs-Cs (spin exchange) collisions, σ/sub e//sub x/ = (1.63 +- 0.13) x 10 -14 cm 2

  3. Cross-relaxation in multiple pulse NQR spin-locking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltjukov, P. A.; Kibrik, G. E. [Perm State University, Physics Department (Russian Federation); Furman, G. B., E-mail: gregoryf@bgu.ac.il; Goren, S. D. [Ben Gurion University, Physics Department (Israel)

    2008-01-15

    The experimental and theoretical NQR multiple-pulse spin locking study of cross-relaxation process in solids containing nuclei of two different sorts I > 1/2 and S = 1/2 coupled by the dipole-dipole interactions and influenced by an external magnetic field. Two coupled equations for the inverse spin temperatures of the both spin systems describing the mutual spin lattice relaxation and the cross-relaxation were obtained using the method of the nonequilibrium state operator. It is shown that the relaxation process is realized with non-exponential time dependence describing by a sum of two exponents. The cross relaxation time is calculated as a function of the multiple-pulse field parameters which agree with the experimental data. The calculated magnetization cross relaxation time vs the strength of the applied magnetic field agrees well with the obtained experimental data.

  4. Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Levett, Kate M; Collins, Carmel T; Armour, Mike; Dahlen, Hannah G; Suganuma, Machiko

    2018-03-28

    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute to the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence on the use of relaxation therapies for pain management in labour. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To examine the effects of mind-body relaxation techniques for pain management in labour on maternal and neonatal well-being during and after labour. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (9 May 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 5 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 24 May 2017), CINAHL (1980 to 24 May 2017), the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (18 May 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov (18 May 2017), the ISRCTN Register (18 May 2017), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (18 May 2017), and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (including quasi randomised and cluster trials) comparing relaxation methods with standard care, no treatment, other non-pharmacological forms of pain management in labour or placebo. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We attempted to contact study authors for additional information. We assessed evidence quality with GRADE methodology. This review update includes 19 studies (2519 women), 15 of which (1731 women) contribute data. Interventions examined included relaxation, yoga, music and mindfulness. Approximately half of the studies had a low risk of bias for random sequence generation and attrition bias. The majority of studies had a high risk of bias for performance and detection bias, and unclear risk of bias for, allocation concealment, reporting bias and other bias. We assessed the evidence from these studies as ranging from low to very low quality, and

  5. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics

    OpenAIRE

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    Picosecond absorption relaxation—central to many disciplines—is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, b...

  6. Momentum and mass relaxation in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, C.; Scheuter, F.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1984-01-01

    The momentum and mass relaxation are shown to be described by transport equations. The momentum relaxation, which can be studied in the intermediate energy regime by the particle emissions, refers to a microscopic slowing down and diffusion process in the momentum space. The mass relaxation refers to the coupling of the collective mass asymmetry degree of freedom and the intrinsic system. It can be illustrated by the fast fission of light and very heavy systems

  7. Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, E; Tornos, J

    1985-04-01

    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.

  8. Relaxation resistance of heat resisting alloys with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdyka, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation resistance of refractory nickel-chromium alloys containing 5 to 14 % cobalt is under study. The tests involve the use of circular samples at 800 deg to 850 deg C. It is shown that an alloy containing 14% cobalt possesses the best relaxation resistance exceeding that of nickel-chromium alloys without any cobalt by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The relaxation resistance of an alloy with 5% cobalt can be increased by hardening at repeated loading

  9. Multilayer Relaxation and Surface Energies of Metallic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Agustin M.; Ferrante, John

    1994-01-01

    The perpendicular and parallel multilayer relaxations of fcc (210) surfaces are studied using equivalent crystal theory (ECT). A comparison with experimental and theoretical results is made for AI(210). The effect of uncertainties in the input parameters on the magnitudes and ordering of surface relaxations for this semiempirical method is estimated. A new measure of surface roughness is proposed. Predictions for the multilayer relaxations and surface energies of the (210) face of Cu and Ni are also included.

  10. Relaxations to Sparse Optimization Problems and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skau, Erik West

    Parsimony is a fundamental property that is applied to many characteristics in a variety of fields. Of particular interest are optimization problems that apply rank, dimensionality, or support in a parsimonious manner. In this thesis we study some optimization problems and their relaxations, and focus on properties and qualities of the solutions of these problems. The Gramian tensor decomposition problem attempts to decompose a symmetric tensor as a sum of rank one tensors.We approach the Gramian tensor decomposition problem with a relaxation to a semidefinite program. We study conditions which ensure that the solution of the relaxed semidefinite problem gives the minimal Gramian rank decomposition. Sparse representations with learned dictionaries are one of the leading image modeling techniques for image restoration. When learning these dictionaries from a set of training images, the sparsity parameter of the dictionary learning algorithm strongly influences the content of the dictionary atoms.We describe geometrically the content of trained dictionaries and how it changes with the sparsity parameter.We use statistical analysis to characterize how the different content is used in sparse representations. Finally, a method to control the structure of the dictionaries is demonstrated, allowing us to learn a dictionary which can later be tailored for specific applications. Variations of dictionary learning can be broadly applied to a variety of applications.We explore a pansharpening problem with a triple factorization variant of coupled dictionary learning. Another application of dictionary learning is computer vision. Computer vision relies heavily on object detection, which we explore with a hierarchical convolutional dictionary learning model. Data fusion of disparate modalities is a growing topic of interest.We do a case study to demonstrate the benefit of using social media data with satellite imagery to estimate hazard extents. In this case study analysis we

  11. Kinetics of elementary atom and radical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.J.

    1990-06-01

    During the past three years we have been working on four problems in the general area of gas phase kinetics and energy transfer of small molecules. These are: (1) measurements of the fine structure populations of ground state oxygen atoms produced in photodissociation reactions; (2) quenching of the Rydberg B ( 1 Σ + ) state of CO; (3) vibrational relaxation of highly excited molecules; and (4) kinetics of hydrogen molecules. The first two topics, which involve transitions between different electronic states of the parent molecule, are a departure from our previous research interests. In the accompanying renewal proposal we discuss plans to pursue these new topics vigorously during the coming year. The third topic is a continuation of our long interest in the energy dependence of the rates laws governing vibrational-to-translational energy transfer of molecules having large initial amounts of vibrational excitation. The final topic is a continuation of our studies of the reaction of O( 3 P) + H 2 . In this work we measured the rate constant for the reaction O( 3 P) with deuterium and also analyzed spectroscopically different sources of vibrationally excited hydrogen for possible future work. We discuss each of these four studies in the following sections

  12. Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].

  13. Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanov, Mikhail

    2016-12-15

    This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].

  14. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  15. Simulation study of stepwise relaxation in a spheromak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Ritoku; Uchida, Masaya; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1991-10-01

    The energy relaxation process of a spheromak plasma in a flux conserver is investigated by means of a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation. The resistive decay of an initial force-free profile brings the spheromak plasma to an m = 1/n = 2 ideal kink unstable region. It is found that the energy relaxation takes place in two steps; namely, the relaxation consists of two physically distinguished phases, and there exists an intermediate phase in between, during which the relaxation becomes inactive temporarily. The first relaxation corresponds to the transition from an axially symmetric force-free state to a helically symmetric one with an n = 2 crescent magnetic island structure via the helical kink instability. The n = 2 helical structure is nonlinearly sustained in the intermediate phase. The helical twisting of the flux tube creates a reconnection current in the vicinity of the geometrical axis. The second relaxation is triggered by the rapid growth of the n = 1 mode when the reconnection current exceeds a critical value. The helical twisting relaxes through magnetic reconnection toward an axially symmetric force-free state. It is also found that the poloidal flux reduces during the helical twisting in the first relaxation and the generation of the toroidal flux occurs through the magnetic reconnection process in the second relaxation. (author)

  16. Universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon gases

    OpenAIRE

    Pelc, M.; Marciak-Kozlowska, J.; Kozlowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon fermionic gases. We argue that the universal relaxation time tau(i) is equal tau(i)=h/m square v(i) where v(i)=alpha(i)c and alpha(1)=0.15 for nucleon gas and alpha(2)=1/137 for electron gas, c=light velocity. With the universal relaxation time we formulate the thermal Proca equation for fermionic gases. Key words: universal relaxation time, thermal universal Proca equation.

  17. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2010-10-18

    Picosecond absorption relaxation-central to many disciplines-is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, were measured at 576 nm. The added advantages in dispersion susceptibility, laser-wavelength availability, reflection sensing, and expense foster the study of natural-including strongly scattering and nonfluorescent-materials.

  18. Spin relaxation of iron in mixed state hemoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Kalinowski, H.J.; Bemski, G.; Helman, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    In pure states hemoproteins the relaxation of iron depends on its spin state. It is found that in both mixed state met-hemoglobin and met-myoglobin, the low and high spin states relax through an Orbach-like process. Also, very short (approx. 1 ns) and temperature independent transverse relaxation times T 2 were estimated. This peculiar behaviour of the relaxation may result from the unusual electronic structure of mixed state hemoproteins that allows thermal equilibrium and interconversion of the spin states. (Author) [pt

  19. Anomalous relaxation and self-organization in nonequilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatkullin, Ibrahim; Kladko, Konstantin; Mitkov, Igor; Bishop, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    We study thermal relaxation in ordered arrays of coupled nonlinear elements with external driving. We find that our model exhibits dynamic self-organization manifested in a universal stretched-exponential form of relaxation. We identify two types of self-organization, cooperative and anticooperative, which lead to fast and slow relaxation, respectively. We give a qualitative explanation for the behavior of the stretched exponent in different parameter ranges. We emphasize that this is a system exhibiting stretched-exponential relaxation without explicit disorder or frustration

  20. Relaxation training after stroke: potential to reduce anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Ian; Walker-Samuel, Natalie; Swanston, Jennifer; Otto, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    To consider the feasibility of setting up a relaxation group to treat symptoms of post stroke anxiety in an in-patient post-acute setting; and to explore the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing self-reported tension. A relaxation group protocol was developed in consultation with a multidisciplinary team and a user group. Over a period of 24 months, 55 stroke patients attended group autogenic relaxation training on a rehabilitation ward. Attendance ranged between one and eleven sessions. Self-reported tension was assessed pre and post relaxation training using the Tension Rating Circles (TRCs). The TRCs identified a significant reduction in self-reported tension from pre to post training, irrespective of the number of sessions attended; z = -3.656, p training. The TRCs proved acceptable to group members, but should be validated against standard anxiety measures. Further exploration of the application of relaxation techniques in clinical practice is desirable. Implications for Rehabilitation Anxiety is prevalent after stroke and likely affects rehabilitation outcomes. Relaxation training is a well proven treatment for anxiety in the non-stroke population. A significant within session reduction in tension, a hallmark symptom of anxiety, was evidenced via group relaxation training delivered in a post-acute, in-patient stroke unit setting. Relaxation training a shows promise as a treatment for anxiety after stroke.

  1. Critical thickness and strain relaxation in high-misfit heteroepitaxial systems: PbTe1-xSex on PbSe (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesauer, Karin; Springholz, G.

    2004-01-01

    Strain relaxation and misfit dislocation formation is investigated for the high-misfit PbTe 1-x Se x /PbSe (001) heteroepitaxial system in which the lattice mismatch varies from 0% to 5.5%. Because a two-dimensional (2D) layer growth prevails for all PbTe 1-x Se x ternary compositions, the lattice mismatch is relaxed purely by misfit dislocations. In addition, it is found that strain relaxation is not hindered by dislocation kinetics. Therefore, this material combination is an ideal model system for testing the equilibrium Frank-van der Merwe and Matthews-Blakeslee strain relaxation models. In our experiments, we find significantly lower values of the critical layer thickness as compared to the model predictions. This discrepancy is caused by the inappropriate description of the dislocation self-energies when the layer thickness becomes comparable to the dislocation core radius. To resolve this problem, a modified expression for the dislocation self-energy is proposed. The resulting theoretical critical thicknesses are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. In addition, a remarkable universal scaling behavior is found for the strain relaxation data. This underlines the breakdown of the current strain relaxation models

  2. Relativistic Kinetic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.

    2017-02-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  3. Quantum kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book presents quantum kinetic theory in a comprehensive way. The focus is on density operator methods and on non-equilibrium Green functions. The theory allows to rigorously treat nonequilibrium dynamics in quantum many-body systems. Of particular interest are ultrafast processes in plasmas, condensed matter and trapped atoms that are stimulated by rapidly developing experiments with short pulse lasers and free electron lasers. To describe these experiments theoretically, the most powerful approach is given by non-Markovian quantum kinetic equations that are discussed in detail, including computational aspects.

  4. Relaxation oscillations in stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachen, G.I.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Light pulses created by stimulated Raman scattering having been found to exhibit a complex time dependence which resembles relaxation oscillations. A focused laser pulse generated both forward and backward Raman emissions which appeared as a series of pulses with durations much shorter than the incident laser pulse. Time dependence of the Raman emission was observed directly by use of a streak camera. The number of observed pulses increased with the intensity of the incident pulse, while separation of the pulses in time depended on the length of the focal region. Beam focusing was incorporated in the coupled wave equations for stimulated Raman scattering. These rate equations were then solved numerically, and the results are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. The short Raman pulses are created by a process associated with depletion of the incident laser pulse. This process occurs under a broad range of conditions

  5. Motional spin relaxation in photoexcited triplet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harryvan, D.; Faassen, E. van

    1997-01-01

    Transient EPR experiments were performed on photoexcited spin triplet states of the luminescent dye EOSIN-Y in diluted (order of 1 nMol) frozen propane-1-ol solutions at various temperatures. Photoexcitation was achieved by irradiation with intense, short laser pulses. The details of the spin relaxation, in particular the dependence on time, magnetic field and microwave field strength are all reproduced by a model which computes the total magnetization in a population of photoexcited triplet states undergoing random reorientational motion. Using this model, we estimated the motional correlation times to be around a microsecond. This timescale is two orders of magnitude slower than the phase memory time of the triplets. (author)

  6. Energy relaxation and transfer in excitonic trimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, Pavel; Barvik, Ivan; Urbanec, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Two models describing exciton relaxation and transfer (the Redfield model in the secular approximation and Capek's model) are compared for a simple example - a symmetric trimer coupled to a phonon bath. Energy transfer within the trimer occurs via resonance interactions and coupling between the trimer and the bath occurs via modulation of the monomer energies by phonons. Two initial conditions are adopted: (1) one of higher eigenstates of the trimer is initially occupied and (2) one local site of the trimer is initially occupied. The diagonal exciton density matrix elements in the representation of eigenstates are found to be the same for both models, but this is not so for the off-diagonal density matrix elements. Only if the off-diagonal density matrix elements vanish initially (initial condition (1)), they then vanish at arbitrary times in both models. If the initial excitation is local, the off-diagonal matrix elements essentially differ

  7. gamma. -relaxation process in crystallizable polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindiyarov, Kh G; Zelenev, Yu V; Bartenev, G M [Birskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1975-07-01

    In the present paper, with the aid of radiothermoluminescence technique ..gamma..-relaxation processes are investigated, which are conditioned by molecular mobility and are associated with defects in the crystalline structure of polymers PEh, PP, and elastomers PIB, NK, SKD, SKI exposed to ..gamma..-rays of Co/sup 60/ at a dose rate of 1 Mrad. The shape of the thermoluminescence curve, i.e. the luminescence intensity in the ..cap alpha.. - ..gamma..-maxima, their relationship, position with respect to temperature are strongly dependent on the degree of crystallinity, on the thermal and mechanical prehistory. In highly crystalline samples of PEh and PP ..cap alpha..-maximum may be absent. Dependence has been studied of the luminescence intensity in the ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-maxima (Isub(..cap alpha..)/Isub(..gamma..)) on the crystallization temperature; the curve passes through the minimum when the crystallization rate is maximum. The relationship Isub(..gamma..)re of crystallinity degree.

  8. Scalar Similarity for Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph; Foken, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method allows the measurement of trace gas fluxes when no fast sensors are available for eddy covariance measurements. The flux parameterisation used in REA is based on the assumption of scalar similarity, i.e., similarity of the turbulent exchange of two scalar quantities. In this study changes in scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour were assessed using scalar correlation coefficients and spectral analysis. The influence on REA measurements was assessed by simulation. The evaluation is based on observations over grassland, irrigated cotton plantation and spruce forest. Scalar similarity between carbon dioxide, sonic temperature and water vapour showed a distinct diurnal pattern and change within the day. Poor scalar similarity was found to be linked to dissimilarities in the energy contained in the low frequency part of the turbulent spectra ( definition.

  9. Occupational stress, relaxation therapies, exercise and biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    Occupational stress is a widespread occurrence in the United States. It is a contributing factor to absenteeism, disease, injury and lowered productivity. In general stress management programs in the work place that include relaxation therapies, exercise, and biofeedback have been shown to reduce the physiological symptoms such as hypertension, and increase job satisfaction and job performance. Strategies to implement a successful stress management program include incorporating the coping activities into one's daily schedule, monitoring one's symptoms and stressors, and being realistic in setting up a schedule that is relevant and attainable. A short form of meditation, daily exercise program and the use of heart rate or thermal biofeedback can be helpful to a worker experiencing occupational stress.

  10. Pre-relaxation in weakly interacting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Bruno; Fagotti, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    We consider time evolution in models close to integrable points with hidden symmetries that generate infinitely many local conservation laws that do not commute with one another. The system is expected to (locally) relax to a thermal ensemble if integrability is broken, or to a so-called generalised Gibbs ensemble if unbroken. In some circumstances expectation values exhibit quasi-stationary behaviour long before their typical relaxation time. For integrability-breaking perturbations, these are also called pre-thermalisation plateaux, and emerge e.g. in the strong coupling limit of the Bose-Hubbard model. As a result of the hidden symmetries, quasi-stationarity appears also in integrable models, for example in the Ising limit of the XXZ model. We investigate a weak coupling limit, identify a time window in which the effects of the perturbations become significant and solve the time evolution through a mean-field mapping. As an explicit example we study the XYZ spin-\\frac{1}{2} chain with additional perturbations that break integrability. One of the most intriguing results of the analysis is the appearance of persistent oscillatory behaviour. To unravel its origin, we study in detail a toy model: the transverse-field Ising chain with an additional nonlocal interaction proportional to the square of the transverse spin per unit length (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 197203). Despite being nonlocal, this belongs to a class of models that emerge as intermediate steps of the mean-field mapping and shares many dynamical properties with the weakly interacting models under consideration.

  11. An Explicit Finite Difference scheme for numerical solution of fractional neutron point kinetic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Ray, S.; Patra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this paper fractional neutron point kinetic equation has been analyzed. ► The numerical solution for fractional neutron point kinetic equation is obtained. ► Explicit Finite Difference Method has been applied. ► Supercritical reactivity, critical reactivity and subcritical reactivity analyzed. ► Comparison between fractional and classical neutron density is presented. - Abstract: In the present article, a numerical procedure to efficiently calculate the solution for fractional point kinetics equation in nuclear reactor dynamics is investigated. The Explicit Finite Difference Method is applied to solve the fractional neutron point kinetic equation with the Grunwald–Letnikov (GL) definition (). Fractional Neutron Point Kinetic Model has been analyzed for the dynamic behavior of the neutron motion in which the relaxation time associated with a variation in the neutron flux involves a fractional order acting as exponent of the relaxation time, to obtain the best operation of a nuclear reactor dynamics. Results for neutron dynamic behavior for subcritical reactivity, supercritical reactivity and critical reactivity and also for different values of fractional order have been presented and compared with the classical neutron point kinetic (NPK) equation as well as the results obtained by the learned researchers .

  12. The first experimental confirmation of the fractional kinetics containing the complex-power-law exponents: Dielectric measurements of polymerization reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, R. R.; Arbuzov, A. A.; Salehli, F.; Giz, A.; Bayrak, I.; Catalgil-Giz, H.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time we achieved incontestable evidence that the real process of dielectric relaxation during the polymerization reaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is described in terms of the fractional kinetic equations containing complex-power-law exponents. The possibility of the existence of the fractional kinetics containing non-integer complex-power-law exponents follows from the general theory of dielectric relaxation that has been suggested recently by one of the authors (R.R.N). Based on the physical/geometrical meaning of the fractional integral with complex exponents there is a possibility to develop a general theory of dielectric relaxation based on the self-similar (fractal) character of the reduced (averaged) microprocesses that take place in the mesoscale region. This theory contains some essential predictions related to existence of the non-integer power-law kinetics and the results of this paper can be considered as the first confirmation of existence of the kinetic phenomena that are described by fractional derivatives with complex-power-law exponents. We want to stress here that with the help of a new complex fitting function for the complex permittivity it becomes possible to describe the whole process for real and imaginary parts simultaneously throughout the admissible frequency range (30 Hz-13 MHz). The fitting parameters obtained for the complex permittivity function for three temperatures (70, 90 and 110 °C) confirm in general the picture of reaction that was known qualitatively before. They also reveal some new features, which improve the interpretation of the whole polymerization process. We hope that these first results obtained in the paper will serve as a good stimulus for other researches to find the traces of the existence of new fractional kinetics in other relaxation processes unrelated to the dielectric relaxation. These results should lead to the reconsideration and generalization of irreversibility and kinetic phenomena that

  13. Group-kinetic theory and modeling of atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    A group kinetic method is developed for analyzing eddy transport properties and relaxation to equilibrium. The purpose is to derive the spectral structure of turbulence in incompressible and compressible media. Of particular interest are: direct and inverse cascade, boundary layer turbulence, Rossby wave turbulence, two phase turbulence; compressible turbulence, and soliton turbulence. Soliton turbulence can be found in large scale turbulence, turbulence connected with surface gravity waves and nonlinear propagation of acoustical and optical waves. By letting the pressure gradient represent the elementary interaction among fluid elements and by raising the Navier-Stokes equation to higher dimensionality, the master equation was obtained for the description of the microdynamical state of turbulence.

  14. Oxidative desulfurization: kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, S; Uppaluri, R; Purkait, M K

    2009-01-30

    Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the kinetic modeling of ODS using H(2)O(2) over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The kinetic modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-kinetic reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the kinetic behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel.

  15. Oxidative desulfurization: Kinetic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, S.; Uppaluri, R.; Purkait, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the kinetic modeling of ODS using H 2 O 2 over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The kinetic modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-kinetic reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the kinetic behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel

  16. Modeling chemical kinetics graphically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.

    2012-01-01

    In literature on chemistry education it has often been suggested that students, at high school level and beyond, can benefit in their studies of chemical kinetics from computer supported activities. Use of system dynamics modeling software is one of the suggested quantitative approaches that could

  17. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    acetylchlorophosphonazo(CPApA) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.10 M phosphoric acid. A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically ...

  18. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  19. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  20. Dynamics and relaxation in confined medium. Application to 129Xe magnetic relaxation in Vycor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, Virginie

    1995-01-01

    Porous media morphology and topology drive the exploration of pore space by fluid. So, analysis of transport process, associated with relaxation mechanism, allows indirect study of pore geometry. The purpose of this work is to understand better the relation between geometry and transport. This study involves two parts: a modelization and prediction step is followed by an experimental application of magnetic relaxation. Numerical simulations and analytical models allow to quantify the influence on the solid interface of the dynamical behavior of confined gas in disordered porous media (granular structure and porous network) or in common geometry (cylindrical and lamellar interfaces). The formalism of diffusion propagator is a powerful tool to quantify the influence of the pore geometry on the diffusion of confined gas. The propagator holds all dynamical information on the system; it also predicts the temporal evolution of the autocorrelation functions of the Hamiltonian describing local coupling. In an intermediate time scale, magnetic relaxation shows complex diffusional regime: the autocorrelation functions decrease in a power law with a exponent smaller than d/2 (where d is the Euclidian dimension of the system). This behavior is analogous to dynamic in low-dimensional space, but here arises from surface correlations of the porous media. The long-time behavior of the autocorrelation functions retrieves the asymptotic decrease t -d/2 . Moreover, atypical behavior is observed for the Knudsen diffusion between infinite planes. It turns out that 129 Xe NMR is a appropriate technique to characterize organization and diffusion of gas confined in Vycor. Systematic studies of temperature and pressure effect on the 129 Xe chemical shift allow to specify the Xe/solid interaction. The analysis of the relaxation measurements, thanks to the numerical development, confirms conclusions arising from the study of diffusion propagator. (author) [fr

  1. Dielectric Relaxation Studies of Alkyl Methacrylate–Phenol Mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kirkwood correlation factor and the excess inverse relaxation time were determined and they yield information on the molecular interactions occurring in the systems. The values of the static permittivity and the relaxation time increase with an increase in the percentage of phenol in the mixtures. KEYWORDS: Dielectric ...

  2. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  3. The infinite interface limit of multiple-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, G. R.; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    We show the stepped-pressure equilibria that are obtained from a generalization of Taylor relaxation known as multi-region, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRXMHD) are also generalizations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (ideal MHD). We show this by proving that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, MRXMHD reduces to ideal MHD. Numerical convergence studies illustrating this limit are presented.

  4. Models for multiple relaxation processes in collagen fiber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... originate from stress strain induced changes in hydrogen bond network whereas the other seems to be more strongly coupled to salt like bridges and electrostatic interactions. Urea alters the activation energy for one relaxation step while pH and solvent dielectric constant alter the relaxation behavior one set of processes.

  5. Plasma relaxation of cold electrons and hot ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapenko, I.F.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The relaxation process of a space uniform plasma composed of cold electrons and one species of hot ions studied numerically. Special attention has been paid to the deviation of relaxation from the classical picture which is characterized by a weakly non-isothermic situation. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  6. Accelerating convergence of molecular dynamics-based structural relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn

    2005-01-01

    We describe strategies to accelerate the terminal stage of molecular dynamics (MD)based relaxation algorithms, where a large fraction of the computational resources are used. First, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the QuickMin family of MD relaxation algorithms and explore...

  7. On integral representation, relaxation and homogenization for unbounded functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, L.; De Arcangelis, R.

    1997-01-01

    A theory of integral representation, relaxation and homogenization for some types of variational functionals taking extended real values and possibly being not finite also on large classes of regular functions is presented. Some applications to gradient constrained relaxation and homogenization problems are given

  8. 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Techniques for Stress Share: When you’re under stress, your body reacts by releasing hormones that produce the “fight- ... relaxation techniques could counteract the negative effects of stress. ... the body's natural relaxation response, characterized by slower breathing, lower ...

  9. Optimal relaxed causal sampler using sampled-date system theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhawat, Hanumant; Meinsma, Gjerrit

    This paper studies the design of an optimal relaxed causal sampler using sampled data system theory. A lifted frequency domain approach is used to obtain the existence conditions and the optimal sampler. A state space formulation of the results is also provided. The resulting optimal relaxed causal

  10. Wall relaxation rates for an optically pumped NA vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.R.; Anderson, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The wall relaxation rates for an optically pumped Na vapor have been measured for a variety of wall surfaces. We find that fluorocarbon rubber (Fluorel, Viton) and organosilicones (silicone rubber, dry film) at a temperature of 250 C have respectively relaxation rates that correspond on the average to 10 to 15 and 200 to 500 bounces before depolarization occurs. 7 refs., 3 figs

  11. Improving the Performance of Poor Readers through Autogenic Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    Reports that the addition of 15 minutes of relaxation training to weekly remedial reading periods for disabled readers throughout a school year raised concentration levels and decreased anxiety, neuroticism, and number of reading errors. Describes a few types of relaxation exercises that may be helpful. (ET)

  12. Communication: Relaxation-limited electronic currents in extended reservoir simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Daniel; Smolyanitsky, Alex; Zwolak, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Open-system approaches are gaining traction in the simulation of charge transport in nanoscale and molecular electronic devices. In particular, "extended reservoir" simulations, where explicit reservoir degrees of freedom are present, allow for the computation of both real-time and steady-state properties but require relaxation of the extended reservoirs. The strength of this relaxation, γ, influences the conductance, giving rise to a "turnover" behavior analogous to Kramers turnover in chemical reaction rates. We derive explicit, general expressions for the weak and strong relaxation limits. For weak relaxation, the conductance increases linearly with γ and every electronic state of the total explicit system contributes to the electronic current according to its "reduced" weight in the two extended reservoir regions. Essentially, this represents two conductors in series—one at each interface with the implicit reservoirs that provide the relaxation. For strong relaxation, a "dual" expression-one with the same functional form-results, except now proportional to 1/γ and dependent on the system of interest's electronic states, reflecting that the strong relaxation is localizing electrons in the extended reservoirs. Higher order behavior (e.g., γ2 or 1/γ2) can occur when there is a gap in the frequency spectrum. Moreover, inhomogeneity in the frequency spacing can give rise to a pseudo-plateau regime. These findings yield a physically motivated approach to diagnosing numerical simulations and understanding the influence of relaxation, and we examine their occurrence in both simple models and a realistic, fluctuating graphene nanoribbon.

  13. Irradiation creep, stress relaxation and a mechanical equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation creep and stress relaxation data are available from the United Kingdom for 20 percent CW M316, 20 percent CW FV 548 and FHT PE16 using pure torsion in the absence of swelling at 300 0 C. Irradiation creep models were used to calculate the relaxation and permanent deflection of the stress relaxation tests. Two relationships between irradiation creep and stress relaxation were assessed by comparing the measured and calculated stress relaxation and permanent deflection. The results show that for M316 and FV548, the stress relaxation and deflection may be calculated using irradiation creep models when the stress rate term arising from the irradiation creep model is set equal to zero. In the case of PE16, the inability to calculate the stress relaxation and permanent deflection from the irradiation creep data was attributed to differences in creep behavior arising from lot-to-lot variations in alloying elements and impurity content. A modification of the FV548 and PE16 irradiation creep coefficients was necessary in order to calculate the stress relaxation and deflection. The modifications in FV548 and PE16 irradiation creep properties reduces the large variation in the transient or incubation parameter predicted by irradiation creep tests for M316, FV548 and PE16

  14. Noninteracting control of nonlinear systems based on relaxed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose methodology to solve noninteracting control problem for general nonlinear systems based on the relaxed control technique proposed by Artstein. For a class of nonlinear systems which cannot be stabilized by smooth feedback, a state-feedback relaxed control can be designed to

  15. Relaxation in x-space magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Laura R; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality that noninvasively images the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). MPI has demonstrated high contrast and zero attenuation with depth, and MPI promises superior safety compared to current angiography methods, X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging angiography. Nanoparticle relaxation can delay the SPIO magnetization, and in this work we investigate the open problem of the role relaxation plays in MPI scanning and its effect on the image. We begin by amending the x-space theory of MPI to include nanoparticle relaxation effects. We then validate the amended theory with experiments from a Berkeley x-space relaxometer and a Berkeley x-space projection MPI scanner. Our theory and experimental data indicate that relaxation reduces SNR and asymmetrically blurs the image in the scanning direction. While relaxation effects can have deleterious effects on the MPI scan, we show theoretically and experimentally that x-space reconstruction remains robust in the presence of relaxation. Furthermore, the role of relaxation in x-space theory provides guidance as we develop methods to minimize relaxation-induced blurring. This will be an important future area of research for the MPI community.

  16. Effectiveness of relaxation techniques before diagnostic screening of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Aiger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological arousal was observed in cancer patients during the application of relaxation techniques prior to a diagnostic scan (PET-CT. The aim of the study is twofold: firstly, it is sought to establish whether such techniques can minimize patient arousal before diagnostic screening begins, and secondly to measure which of them are most effective. The dependent variable is electrodermal activity, recording the attentional level and emotional response, and the independent variable comprises the relaxation techniques used, namely Jacobson, breathing and visualization. The 39 patients were split into experimental groups to whom the relaxation techniques (Jacobson, breathing exercises, and visualization were applied before they went for the PET-CT. An activity-module procedure was applied to track electrodermal activity during the relaxation sessions, consisting of instructions, timeout; wait, task; relaxation and end of the recording session. The control group received no relaxation techniques before the PET-CT. Session-end results show that patients who perform relaxation techniques achieve greater attentional focus using Jacobson's technique (M = .212 and enhanced emotional containment using visualization (M = .206. It is concluded that relaxation techniques minimize the state of activation during the waiting period before a diagnostic scan.

  17. Structural relaxation of Ni-Si-B amorphous ribbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurikova, A.; Csach, K.; Miskuf, J.; Ocelik, V.

    The structural relaxation of the Ni-Si-B amorphous ribbon was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry and thermomechanical analysis. It was shown that considerable length changes associated with reversible structural relaxation were revealed after a previous creep applied at higher

  18. Dielectric relaxation phenomena of rigid polar liquid molecules ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The probability of showing double relaxation is ... liquids can, however, be inferred from the measured relaxation time τ by Cole–Cole [3], ... A graphical method [13] was, soon employed from Fr¨ohlich's distribution function [14] to ...... tive to choose a few data for some systems for which chi-square values were adjusted to.

  19. Morphology and annealing kinetics of ion tracks in minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewing R. C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the morphology and annealing kinetics of ion tracks in Durango apatite using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering. The non-destructive, artefact-free technique enables us to determine the track radii with a resolution of fractions of a nanometre. The tracks were generated using different heavy ions with energies between 185 MeV and 2.6 GeV. The track morphology is consistent with the formation of long cylindrical amorphous tracks. The annealing kinetics, measured by SAXS in combination with ex situ and in situ annealing experiments, suggests structural relaxation followed by recrystallisation of the damaged material. The measurement methodology shown here provides a new means for in-depth studies of ion-track formation in minerals under a wide variety of geological conditions.

  20. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalysis oxidation of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Y.; Sadiq, A.

    1987-10-01

    An irreversible kinetic surface-reaction model, based upon the reaction of carbon monoxide nd oxygen on a catalyst surface is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The adsorbed molecules/atoms on the surface undergo both first and second order kinetic phase transitions. The first order transition is found to occur at x/sub/co=x/sub/2=0.5255 with an error bar of 0.0003, where x/sub/co is the concentration of carbon monoxide in the gas phase. The time evolution of this catalytic reaction is studied both analytically and by computer simulation. Slightly above x/sub/2, the oxygen coverage relaxation time for the oxygen is found to diverage as the inverse of 3.54 times the absolute of the difference of x/sub/2 and x/sub/co. (orig./A.B.)

  1. The Gaussian radial basis function method for plasma kinetic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvijoki, E., E-mail: eero.hirvijoki@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Candy, J.; Belli, E. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Embréus, O. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-10-30

    Description of a magnetized plasma involves the Vlasov equation supplemented with the non-linear Fokker–Planck collision operator. For non-Maxwellian distributions, the collision operator, however, is difficult to compute. In this Letter, we introduce Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) to discretize the velocity space of the entire kinetic system, and give the corresponding analytical expressions for the Vlasov and collision operator. Outlining the general theory, we also highlight the connection to plasma fluid theories, and give 2D and 3D numerical solutions of the non-linear Fokker–Planck equation. Applications are anticipated in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. - Highlights: • A radically new method to address the velocity space discretization of the non-linear kinetic equation of plasmas. • Elegant and physically intuitive, flexible and mesh-free. • Demonstration of numerical solution of both 2-D and 3-D non-linear Fokker–Planck relaxation problem.

  2. Strengthening and stress relaxation of Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Otto

    2010-01-01

    undisturbed far-field for the long lasting periods of geological times. Consequently, demands on concepts for backfilling and closure of a repository in a clay-stone formation as well as model calculations for safety analyses generally do not take into account convergence by viscous deformation, which would result from stress re-distribution at underground openings. Although there is some doubt, whether Opalinus Clay is creeping at all, some very long lasting laboratory tests were performed on this item in the author's laboratory. A nearly linear dependence of the long-term creep rate on the deviatoric stress was found. In recent work, the technique of stress-relaxation was used. For this, strengthening by strain rate controlled deformation was stopped, i.e. the strain was kept constant for a long time, and the relaxation of the stress was measured. In course of this technique, the deformability which may result from artefacts is ruled out as far as possible by compaction and strengthening. Then, the stress relaxation - if any - will be maintained by true long-term deformation processes which should be active and responsible for any convergence in an at least only partly backfilled mine. In this contribution, the results of the laboratory work and their discussion will be presented. (authors)

  3. Magnetic relaxation in analytical, coordination and bioinorganic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, O.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic relaxation is a special type of nuclear magnetic resonance in which the rate is measured of energy transfer between the excited nuclei and their molecular medium (spin-lattice relaxation) or the whole nuclear spin system (spin-spin relaxation). Nuclear magnetic relaxation relates to nuclei with a spin of 1/2, primarily H 1 1 , and is mainly measured in water solutions. It is suitable for (1) analytical chemistry because the relaxation time rapidly reduces in the presence of paramagnetic ions, (2) the study of complex compounds, (3) the study of biochemical reactions in the presence of different metal ions. It is also suitable for testing the composition of a flowing liquid. Its disadvantage is that it requires complex and expensive equipment. (Ha)

  4. Mechanism of nuclear cross-relaxation in magnetically ordered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buishvili, L L; Volzhan, E B; Giorgadze, N P [AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Fiziki

    1975-09-01

    A mechanism of two-step nuclear relaxation in magnetic ordered dielectrics is proposed. The case is considered where the energy conservation in the cross relaxation (CR) process is ensured by the lattice itself without spin-spin interactions. Expressions have been obtained describing the temperature dependence of the CR rate. For a nonuniform broadened NMR line it has been shown that the spin-lattice relaxation time for a spin packet taken out from the equilibrium may be determined by the CR time owing to the mechanism suggested. When the quantization axes for electron and nuclear spins coincide, the spin-lattice relaxation is due to the three-magnon mechanism. The cross-relaxation stage has been shown to play a significant role in the range of low temperatures (T<10 deg K) and to become negligible with a temperature increase.

  5. Stress relaxation and hillock growth in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.S.; Li, C.Y.

    1978-01-01

    The relaxation of thermal stress in a thin film adhering to a substrate of differing expansion coefficient is discussed. Good agreement is found between literature data on relaxation during isothermal anneals of Pb films at up to 350 0 K and model calculations based on a state variable description of plastic flow. The stress system during relaxation is explored, and the absence of diffusional creep is explained. The plasticity-dominated relaxation process suggested by this analysis is shown to be in good qualitative agreement with data on rapid relaxation over the course of a cycle between room and cryogenic temperatures. The implications of this for long-range material transport in the film are discussed. It is shown that hillock volume should increase over the course of a temperature cycle. Finally, a mechanism for hillock nucleation based on grain boundary sliding is suggested

  6. Interpreting equilibrium-conductivity and conductivity-relaxation measurements to establish thermodynamic and transport properties for multiple charged defect conducting ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huayang; Ricote, Sandrine; Coors, W Grover; Kee, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A model-based interpretation of measured equilibrium conductivity and conductivity relaxation is developed to establish thermodynamic, transport, and kinetics parameters for multiple charged defect conducting (MCDC) ceramic materials. The present study focuses on 10% yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BZY10). In principle, using the Nernst-Einstein relationship, equilibrium conductivity measurements are sufficient to establish thermodynamic and transport properties. However, in practice it is difficult to establish unique sets of properties using equilibrium conductivity alone. Combining equilibrium and conductivity-relaxation measurements serves to significantly improve the quantitative fidelity of the derived material properties. The models are developed using a Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) formulation, which enables the quantitative representation of conductivity relaxations caused by very large changes in oxygen partial pressure.

  7. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  8. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette D Rieg

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH. However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs and humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL. RESULTS: In the IPL (GP, milrinone (10 µM lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP, milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120% and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823, adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536 and protein kinase A (KT 5720, but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME. In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%, however only if pre-constricted. DISCUSSION: Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  9. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Annette D; Suleiman, Said; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Braunschweig, Till; Spillner, Jan W; Schröder, Thomas; Verjans, Eva; Schälte, Gereon; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs) is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs) and humans. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL). In the IPL (GP), milrinone (10 µM) lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP), milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120%) and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823), adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536) and protein kinase A (KT 5720), but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME). In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%), however only if pre-constricted. Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  10. Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zrake, Jonathan [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Arons, Jonathan [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ -problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ -ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.

  11. Vertical dimonsion changes after muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahroodi MH

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 116 edentulous patients in the age group 37-90 yrs were selected. Out of the above,"n12 patients had visited the dept. Of prosthodontics for the first time for treatment. Other 34 of them were"npatients of the dental school and the rest were from Kahrizak and Nikan sanatoriums."nInitially, the V.D. of rest was measured as usual for all the patients. After subjecting them to the excercises of completely opening and closing of the mouth for 15 no. of times, the rest position was measured again. Results show that the changes in V.D.R. after, excercises, relaxing the elevator and depressor muscles and the duration of usage of prosthesis, the following conclusions are obtained."n1. There is an increase in V.D.R. after tiring out the elevator and depressor muscles of the jaws."n2. There is a direct co - relation between the increased V.D.R. and duration of use of prosthesis after excercises."n3. Change in the V.D.R. after excercise is notably more in women."n4. No definite conclusion is obtained in the relationship between changes in V.D.R. after excercises and use of prosthesis during sleep."n5. As above no conclusions as yet can be deduced between changes in V.D.R. and different operators.

  12. NMR relaxation studies with MnDPDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southon, T.E.; Grant, D.; Bjoernerud, A.; Moen, O.M.; Spilling, B.; Martinsen, I.; Refsum, H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Our studies were designed to compare the efficacy of mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, Teslascan) as a tissue-specific MR agent with that of manganese chloride (MnCl 2 ), to compare the efficacy of different doses and rates of administration of MnDPDP, and to collect the data needed for predicting optimum pulse sequences. Material and Methods: The dose response for the relaxation rates R1 and R2 at 0.47 T, and the manganese (Mn) concentrations in rat liver and in the liver, pancreas, heart and adrenals of pigs was determined for both MnDPDP and MnCl 2 administered i.v. Computer simulations were carried out to model the effects of different tissue Mn concentrations and TR on signal intensities and contrast-to-noise ratios. Results: In rat liver and pig organs both compounds produced a positive dose-response in R1 and tissue Mn concentration, and only small or no response in R2. The Mn concentration in rat liver was positively correlated with R1, regardless of the form in which Mn was given, or the rate of administration. Optimal imaging parametes are therefore expected to be different pre- and post-MnDPDP administration. (orig./AJ)

  13. Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrake, Jonathan; Arons, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ-problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ-ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.

  14. Mixing, ergodicity and slow relaxation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I. V. L.; Vainstein, M. H.; Lapas, L. C.; Batista, A. A.; Oliveira, F. A.

    2006-11-01

    Investigations on diffusion in systems with memory [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] have established a hierarchical connection between mixing, ergodicity, and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). This hierarchy means that ergodicity is a necessary condition for the validity of the FDT, and mixing is a necessary condition for ergodicity. In this work, we compare those results with recent investigations using the Lee recurrence relations method [M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 2547; M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 250601; M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. Lee shows that ergodicity is violated in the dynamics of the electron gas [M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. This reinforces both works and implies that the results of [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] are more general than the framework in which they were obtained. Some applications to slow relaxation phenomena are discussed.

  15. A comparative study of ultraviolet photoconductivity relaxation in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Gupta, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    Photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin films deposited by three different techniques namely rf diode sputtering, rf magnetron sputtering, and electrophoretic deposition has been investigated in the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) configuration. A significant variation in the crystallinity, surface morphology, and photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin film with change in growth kinetics suggest that the presence of defect centers and their density govern the photodetector relaxation properties. A relatively low density of traps compared to the true quantum yield is found very crucial for the realization of practical ZnO thin film based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector.

  16. A comparative study of ultraviolet photoconductivity relaxation in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Harish Kumar; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin films deposited by three different techniques namely rf diode sputtering, rf magnetron sputtering, and electrophoretic deposition has been investigated in the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) configuration. A significant variation in the crystallinity, surface morphology, and photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin film with change in growth kinetics suggest that the presence of defect centers and their density govern the photodetector relaxation properties. A relatively low density of traps compared to the true quantum yield is found very crucial for the realization of practical ZnO thin film based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector.

  17. Electron spin echo study of the E'-center phase relaxation in γ-irradiated quartz glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.I.; Petrun'kin, V.Yu.; Rubinov, S.V.; Uspenskij, L.I.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental studies of phase relaxation of E'-centres in γ-irradiated quartz glass are conducted by the method of electron spin echo (ESE) for different concentrations of paramagnetic centres. Contribution of mechanisms of spectral and prompt diffusion to kinetics of amplitude drop of echo signal is proved to reduce with growth of delay time between exciting microwave pulse that results in increase of phase memory time at large delays. The mentioned property can be used in electric controlled delay lines on the base of ESE

  18. Kinetic energy absorbing pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricmont, R.J.; Hamilton, P.A.; Ming Long Ting, R.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors, fuel processing plants etc incorporate pipes and conduits for fluids under high pressure. Fractures, particularly adjacent to conduit elbows, produce a jet of liquid which whips the broken conduit at an extremely high velocity. An enormous impact load would be applied to any stationary object in the conduit's path. The design of cellular, corrugated metal impact pads to absorb the kinetic energy of the high velocity conduits is given. (U.K.)

  19. Saturation mechanism of decaying ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with kinetic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idomura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We present full-f gyrokinetic simulations of the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence including kinetic electrons. By comparing decaying ITG turbulence simulations with adiabatic and kinetic electron models, an impact of kinetic electrons on the ITG turbulence is investigated. It is found that significant electron transport occurs even in the ITG turbulence, and both ion and electron temperature profiles are relaxed. In steady states, both cases show upshifts of nonlinear critical ion temperature gradients from linear ones, while their saturation mechanisms are qualitatively different. In the adiabatic electron case, the ITG mode is stabilized by turbulence driven zonal flows. On the other hand, in the kinetic electron case, passing electrons transport shows fine resonant structures at mode rational surfaces, which generate corrugated density profiles. Such corrugated density profiles lead to fine radial electric fields following the neoclassical force balance relation. The resulting E × B shearing rate greatly exceeds the linear growth rate of the ITG mode. (author)

  20. Relaxation theory of spin-3/2 Ising system near phase transition temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Dynamics of a spin-3/2 Ising system Hamiltonian with bilinear and biquadratic nearest-neighbour exchange interactions is studied by a simple method in which the statistical equilibrium theory is combined with the Onsager's theory of irreversible thermodynamics. First, the equilibrium behaviour of the model in the molecular-field approximation is given briefly in order to obtain the phase transition temperatures, i.e. the first- and second-order and the tricritical points. Then, the Onsager theory is applied to the model and the kinetic or rate equations are obtained. By solving these equations three relaxation times are calculated and their behaviours are examined for temperatures near the phase transition points. Moreover, the z dynamic critical exponent is calculated and compared with the z values obtained for different systems experimentally and theoretically, and they are found to be in good agrement. (general)

  1. Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) Code User Manual: Acadia - Version 4.01.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael J.; White, Todd; Mangini, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Data-Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) code is a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solver that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to help mission support teams generate high-value predictive solutions for hypersonic flow field problems. The DPLR Code Package is an MPI-based, parallel, full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes CFD solver with generalized models for finite-rate reaction kinetics, thermal and chemical non-equilibrium, accurate high-temperature transport coefficients, and ionized flow physics incorporated into the code. DPLR also includes a large selection of generalized realistic surface boundary conditions and links to enable loose coupling with external thermal protection system (TPS) material response and shock layer radiation codes.

  2. Numerical method of lines for the relaxational dynamics of nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, A K; Menon, Gautam I; Adhikari, R

    2008-08-01

    We propose an efficient numerical scheme, based on the method of lines, for solving the Landau-de Gennes equations describing the relaxational dynamics of nematic liquid crystals. Our method is computationally easy to implement, balancing requirements of efficiency and accuracy. We benchmark our method through the study of the following problems: the isotropic-nematic interface, growth of nematic droplets in the isotropic phase, and the kinetics of coarsening following a quench into the nematic phase. Our results, obtained through solutions of the full coarse-grained equations of motion with no approximations, provide a stringent test of the de Gennes ansatz for the isotropic-nematic interface, illustrate the anisotropic character of droplets in the nucleation regime, and validate dynamical scaling in the coarsening regime.

  3. A group-kinetic theory of turbulent collective collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchen, C.M.; Misguich, J.H.

    1983-05-01

    The main objective is the derivation of the kinetic equation of turbulence which has a memory in the turbulent collision integral. We consider the basic pair-interaction, and the interaction between a fluctuation and the organized cluster of other fluctuations in the collection systems, called the multiple interaction. By a group-scaling procedure, a fluctuation is decomposed into three groups to represent the three coupled transport processes of evolution, transport coefficient, and relaxation. The kinetic equation of the scaled singlet distribution is capable of investigating the spectrum of turbulence without the need of the knowledge of the pair distribution. The exact propagator describes the detailed trajectory in the phase space, and is fundamental to the Lagrangian-Eulerian transformation. We calculate the propagator and its scaled groups by means of a probability of retrograde transition. Thus our derivation of the kinetic equation of the distribution involves a parallel development of the kinetic equations of the propagator and the transition probability. In this way, we can avoid the assumptions of independence and normality. Our result shows that the multiple interaction contributes to a shielding and an enchancement of the collision in weak turbulence and strong turbulence, respectively. The weak turbulence is dominated by the wave resonance, and the strong turbulence is dominated by the diffusion

  4. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules. [Relaxation rates, self-relaxation, upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasch, C.J.

    1978-09-01

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.

  5. On aggregation of relaxed T-indistinguishability operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuster-Parra, P.

    2017-07-01

    The notion of T -indistinguishability operator was introduced by E. Trillas in [7] with the aim of fuzzifying the classical (crisp) notion of equivalence relation. Relaxed metrics and indistinguishability operators are closely related. Indeed, in [1] it has been stated that the logical counterpart for relaxed metrics is, in some sense, a generalized indistinguishability operator (relaxed T -indistinguishability operator). Notice that the notion of T -indistinguishability operator is retrieved as a particular case of relaxed T -indistinguishability operator whenever the relaxed T - indistinguishability operator satisfies also the reflexivity. In fact, a relaxed indistinguishability operator is a indistinguishability operator if and only if it holds the reflexivity. The same occurs when we consider T -indistinguishability operator that separates points. Several authors have studied the aggregation of some classes of fuzzy relations (see [3, 4, 5, 6]), where it is stated that transitivity is one of the most important properties of a fuzzy relation. In [5] a study of aggregation of T-indistinguishability operators is presented, motivated by this work the aim of this study is to analyze the case of aggregating relaxed T-indistinguishability operators. (Author)

  6. Relaxed Bell inequalities and Kochen-Specker theorems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Michael J. W. [Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    The combination of various physically plausible properties, such as no signaling, determinism, and experimental free will, is known to be incompatible with quantum correlations. Hence, these properties must be individually or jointly relaxed in any model of such correlations. The necessary degrees of relaxation are quantified here via natural distance and information-theoretic measures. This allows quantitative comparisons between different models in terms of the resources, such as the number of bits of randomness, communication, and/or correlation, that they require. For example, measurement dependence is a relatively strong resource for modeling singlet-state correlations, with only 1/15 of one bit of correlation required between measurement settings and the underlying variable. It is shown how various ''relaxed'' Bell inequalities may be obtained, which precisely specify the complementary degrees of relaxation required to model any given violation of a standard Bell inequality. The robustness of a class of Kochen-Specker theorems, to relaxation of measurement independence, is also investigated. It is shown that a theorem of Mermin remains valid unless measurement independence is relaxed by 1/3. The Conway-Kochen ''free will'' theorem and a result of Hardy are less robust, failing if measurement independence is relaxed by only 6.5% and 4.5%, respectively. An appendix shows that existence of an outcome-independent model is equivalent to existence of a deterministic model.

  7. On the Volterra integral equation relating creep and relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderssen, R S; De Hoog, F R; Davies, A R

    2008-01-01

    The evolving stress–strain response of a material to an applied deformation is causal. If the current response depends on the earlier history of the stress–strain dynamics of the material (i.e. the material has memory), then Volterra integral equations become the natural framework within which to model the response. For viscoelastic materials, when the response is linear, the dual linear Boltzmann causal integral equations are the appropriate model. The choice of one rather than the other depends on whether the applied deformation is a stress or a strain, and the associated response is, respectively, a creep or a relaxation. The duality between creep and relaxation is known explicitly and is referred to as the 'interconversion equation'. Rheologically, its importance relates to the fact that it allows the creep to be determined from knowledge of the relaxation and vice versa. Computationally, it has been known for some time that the recovery of the relaxation from the creep is more problematic than the creep from the relaxation. Recent research, using discrete models for the creep and relaxation, has confirmed that this is an essential feature of interconversion. In this paper, the corresponding result is generalized for continuous models of the creep and relaxation

  8. State resolved vibrational relaxation modeling for strongly nonequilibrium flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar

    2011-05-01

    Vibrational relaxation is an important physical process in hypersonic flows. Activation of the vibrational mode affects the fundamental thermodynamic properties and finite rate relaxation can reduce the degree of dissociation of a gas. Low fidelity models of vibrational activation employ a relaxation time to capture the process at a macroscopic level. High fidelity, state-resolved models have been developed for use in continuum gas dynamics simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). By comparison, such models are not as common for use with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In this study, a high fidelity, state-resolved vibrational relaxation model is developed for the DSMC technique. The model is based on the forced harmonic oscillator approach in which multi-quantum transitions may become dominant at high temperature. Results obtained for integrated rate coefficients from the DSMC model are consistent with the corresponding CFD model. Comparison of relaxation results obtained with the high-fidelity DSMC model shows significantly less excitation of upper vibrational levels in comparison to the standard, lower fidelity DSMC vibrational relaxation model. Application of the new DSMC model to a Mach 7 normal shock wave in carbon monoxide provides better agreement with experimental measurements than the standard DSMC relaxation model.

  9. Relaxing music counters heightened consolidation of emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S; Wong, Wendy Wing; Velik, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    Emotional events tend to be retained more strongly than other everyday occurrences, a phenomenon partially regulated by the neuromodulatory effects of arousal. Two experiments demonstrated the use of relaxing music as a means of reducing arousal levels, thereby challenging heightened long-term recall of an emotional story. In Experiment 1, participants (N=84) viewed a slideshow, during which they listened to either an emotional or neutral narration, and were exposed to relaxing or no music. Retention was tested 1 week later via a forced choice recognition test. Retention for both the emotional content (Phase 2 of the story) and material presented immediately after the emotional content (Phase 3) was enhanced, when compared with retention for the neutral story. Relaxing music prevented the enhancement for material presented after the emotional content (Phase 3). Experiment 2 (N=159) provided further support to the neuromodulatory effect of music by post-event presentation of both relaxing music and non-relaxing auditory stimuli (arousing music/background sound). Free recall of the story was assessed immediately afterwards and 1 week later. Relaxing music significantly reduced recall of the emotional story (Phase 2). The findings provide further insight into the capacity of relaxing music to attenuate the strength of emotional memory, offering support for the therapeutic use of music for such purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in carbon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, A.M., E-mail: pan@bgu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Sergeev, N.A. [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, 70-451 Szczecin (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Interpretation of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation data in the carbon nanostructures is usually based on the analysis of fluctuations of dipole-dipole interactions of nuclear spins and anisotropic electron-nuclear interactions responsible for chemical shielding, which are caused by molecular dynamics. However, many nanocarbon systems such as fullerene and nanotube derivatives, nanodiamonds and carbon onions reveal noticeable amount of paramagnetic defects with unpaired electrons originating from dangling bonds. The interaction between nuclear and electron spins strongly influences the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, but usually is not taken into account, thus the relaxation data are not correctly interpreted. Here we report on the temperature dependent NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation measurements of intercalated fullerenes C{sub 60}(MF{sub 6}){sub 2} (M=As and Sb), where nuclear relaxation is caused by both molecular rotation and interaction between nuclei and unpaired electron spins. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the spin-lattice relaxation data taking into account both these contributions. Good agreement between the experimental data and calculations is obtained. The developed approach would be useful in interpreting the NMR relaxation data in different nanostructures and their intercalation compounds.

  11. Relaxation dynamics and coherent energy exchange in coupled vibration-cavity polaritons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Blake S.; Fears, Kenan P.; Dressick, Walter J.; Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Spann, Bryan T.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2016-09-01

    Coherent coupling between an optical transition and confined optical mode have been investigated for electronic-state transitions, however, only very recently have vibrational transitions been considered. Here, we demonstrate both static and dynamic results for vibrational bands strongly coupled to optical cavities. We experimentally and numerically describe strong coupling between a Fabry-Pérot cavity and carbonyl stretch ( 1730 cm 1) in poly-methylmethacrylate and provide evidence that the mixed-states are immune to inhomogeneous broadening. We investigate strong and weak coupling regimes through examination of cavities loaded with varying concentrations of a urethane monomer. Rabi splittings are in excellent agreement with an analytical description using no fitting parameters. Ultrafast pump-probe measurements reveal transient absorption signals over a frequency range well-separated from the vibrational band, as well as drastically modified relaxation rates. We speculate these modified kinetics are a consequence of the energy proximity between the vibration-cavity polariton modes and excited state transitions and that polaritons offer an alternative relaxation path for vibrational excitations. Varying the polariton energies by angle-tuning yields transient results consistent with this hypothesis. Furthermore, Rabi oscillations, or quantum beats, are observed at early times and we see evidence that these coherent vibration-cavity polariton excitations impact excited state population through cavity losses. Together, these results indicate that cavity coupling may be used to influence both excitation and relaxation rates of vibrations. Opening the field of polaritonic coupling to vibrational species promises to be a rich arena amenable to a wide variety of infrared-active bonds that can be studied in steady state and dynamically.

  12. Dietary polyphenols generate nitric oxide from nitrite in the stomach and induce smooth muscle relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Barbara S.; Gago, Bruno; Barbosa, Rui M.; Laranjinha, Joao

    2009-01-01

    Nitrite, considered a biological waste and toxic product, is being regarded as an important physiological molecule in nitric oxide (·NO) biochemistry. Because the interaction of dietary phenolic compounds and nitrite would be kinetically (due to the high concentrations achieved) and thermodynamically (on basis of the redox potentials) feasible in the stomach, we have studied the potential reduction of nitrite by polyphenols present in several dietary sources. By measuring the time courses of ·NO production in simulated gastric juice (pH 2), the efficiency of the compounds studied is as follows: Epicatechin-3-O-gallate > quercetin > procyanidin B8 dimer > oleuropein > procyanidin B2 dimer > chlorogenic acid > epicatechin > catechin > procyanidin B5 dimer. The initial rates of ·NO production fall in a narrow range (ca. 1-5 μM s -1 ) but the distinct kinetics of the decay of ·NO signals suggest that competition reactions for ·NO are operative. The proof of concept that, in the presence of nitrite, phenol-containing dietary products induce a strong increase of ·NO in the stomach was established in an in vivo experiment with healthy volunteers consuming lettuce, onions, apples, wine, tea, berries and cherries. Moreover, selected mixtures of oleuropein and catechin with low nitrite (1 μM) were shown to induce muscle relaxation of stomach strips in a structure-dependent way. Data presented here brings strong support to the concept that polyphenols consumed in a variety of dietary products, under gastric conditions, reduce nitrite to ·NO that, in turn, may exert a biological impact as a local relaxant.

  13. Calcite Dissolution Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berelson, W.; Subhas, A.; Dong, S.; Naviaux, J.; Adkins, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    A geological buffer for high atmospheric CO2 concentrations is neutralization via reaction with CaCO3. We have been studying the dissolution kinetics of carbonate minerals using labeled 13C calcite and Picarro-based measurements of 13C enrichments in solution DIC. This methodology has greatly facilitated our investigation of dissolution kinetics as a function of water carbonate chemistry, temperature and pressure. One can adjust the saturation state Omega by changing the ion activity product (e.g. adjusting carbonate ion concentration), or by changing the solubility product (e.g. adjusting temperature or pressure). The canonical formulation of dissolution rate vs. omega has been refined (Subhas et al. 2015) and shows distinct non-linear behavior near equilibrium and rates in sea water of 1-3 e-6 g/cm2day at omega = 0.8. Carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of dissolved CO2 to carbonic acid, was shown (in concentrations 500x. This result points to the importance of carbonic acid in enhancing dissolution at low degrees of undersaturation. CA activity and abundance in nature must be considered regarding the role it plays in catalyzing dissolution. We also have been investigating the role of temperature on dissolution kinetics. An increase of 16C yields an order of magnitude increase in dissolution rate. Temperature (and P) also change Omega critical, the saturation state where dissolution rates change substantially. Increasing pressure (achieved in a pressure reaction chamber we built) also shifts Omega critical closer to equilibrium and small pressure increases have large impact on dissolution kinetics. Dissolution rates are enhanced by an order of magnitude for a change in pressure of 1500 psi relative to the dissolution rate achieved by water chemistry effects alone for an omega of 0.8. We've shown that the thermodynamic determination of saturation state does not adequately describe the kinetics of dissolution. The interplay of mineral

  14. Myofilament calcium sensitivity: Role in regulation of in vivo cardiac contraction and relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myofilament calcium sensitivity is an often-used indicator of cardiac muscle function, often assessed in disease states such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. While calcium sensitivity measurement provides important insights into the mechanical force-generating capability of a muscle at steady-state, the dynamic behavior of the muscle cannot be sufficiently assessed with a force-pCa curve alone. The dissociation constant (Kd of the force-pCa curve depends on the ratio of the apparent on-rate (kon and apparent off-rate (koff of calcium on TnC and as a stand-alone parameter cannot provide an accurate depiction of the dynamic contraction and relaxation behavior without the additional quantification of kon or koff, or actually measuring dynamic twitch kinetics in an intact muscle. In this review, we examine the effect of length, frequency, and beta-adrenergic stimulation on myofilament calcium sensitivity and dynamic contraction, the effect of membrane permeabilization on calcium sensitivity, and the dynamic consequences of various myofilament protein mutations with potential implications in contractile and relaxation behavior.

  15. The feasibility of parameterizing four-state equilibria using relaxation dispersion measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pilong; Martins, Ilídio R. S.; Rosen, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Coupled equilibria play important roles in controlling information flow in biochemical systems, including allosteric molecules and multidomain proteins. In the simplest case, two equilibria are coupled to produce four interconverting states. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of determining the degree of coupling between two equilibria in a four-state system via relaxation dispersion measurements. A major bottleneck in this effort is the lack of efficient approaches to data analysis. To this end, we designed a strategy to efficiently evaluate the smoothness of the target function surface (TFS). Using this approach, we found that the TFS is very rough when fitting benchmark CPMG data to all adjustable variables of the four-state equilibria. After constraining a portion of the adjustable variables, which can often be achieved through independent biochemical manipulation of the system, the smoothness of TFS improves dramatically, although it is still insufficient to pinpoint the solution. The four-state equilibria can be finally solved with further incorporation of independent chemical shift information that is readily available. We also used Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate how well each adjustable parameter can be determined in a large kinetic and thermodynamic parameter space and how much improvement can be achieved in defining the parameters through additional measurements. The results show that in favorable conditions the combination of relaxation dispersion and biochemical manipulation allow the four-state equilibrium to be parameterized, and thus coupling strength between two processes to be determined.

  16. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nogara

    Full Text Available In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy and show that both the divalent cation bound to the regulatory light chain and the N-terminus of the regulatory light chain play a role in the stability of the super-relaxed state. One probe showed a shift to shorter wavelengths in the super-relaxed state such that a ratio of intensities at 440nm to that at 520nm provided a measure of the population of the super-relaxed state amenable for high throughput screens for finding potential pharmaceuticals. The results provide a proof of concept that small molecules that bind to this region can destabilize the super-relaxed state and provide a method to search for small molecules that do so leading to a potentially effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  17. Nonequilibrium relaxations within the ground-state manifold in the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a triangular lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhye; Lee, Sung Jong; Kim, Bongsoo

    2007-02-01

    We present an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study on the nonequilibrium kinetics of triangular antiferromagnetic Ising model within the ground state ensemble which consists of sectors, each of which is characterized by a unique value of the string density p through a dimer covering method. Building upon our recent work [Phys. Rev. E 68, 066127 (2003)] where we considered the nonequilibrium relaxation observed within the dominant sector with p=2/3, we here focus on the nonequilibrium kinetics within the minor sectors with psimple scaling behavior A(t)=A(t/tau(A)(p)), where the time scale tau(A)(p) shows a power-law divergence with vanishing p as tau(A)(p) approximately p(-phi) with phi approximately or equal to 4. These features can be understood in terms of random walk nature of the fluctuations of the strings within the typical separation between neighboring strings.

  18. Relaxivity of blood pool contrast agent depends on the host tissue as suggested by semianalytical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G

    Concentration of MRI contrast agents (CA) is commonly determined indirectly using their relaxation effect. In quantitative perfusion studies, the change in the relaxation following a bolus passage is converted into concentrations assuming identical relaxivities for tissue and blood. Simulations...

  19. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry for characterization of hydrogel polymerization kinetics and physical entrapment capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, E; Harling, S; Ludwig, F; Menzel, H; Schilling, M

    2008-05-21

    Hydrogels have the potential for providing drug delivery systems with long release rates. The polymerization kinetics and the physical entrapment capacity of photo-cross-linked hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydroxyethylstarch hydrogels are investigated with a non-destructive method. For this purpose, superparamagnetic nanoparticles as replacements for biomolecules are used as probes. By analyzing their magnetic relaxation behavior, the amounts of physically entrapped and mobile nanoparticles can be determined. The hydrogels were loaded with five different concentrations of nanoparticles. Different methods of analysis of the relaxation curves and the influence of the microviscosity are discussed. This investigation allows one to optimize the UV light irradiation time and to determine the amount of physically entrapped nanoparticles in the hydrogel network. It was found that the polymerization kinetics is faster for decreasing nanoparticle concentration but not all nanoparticles can be physically entrapped in the network.

  20. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry for characterization of hydrogel polymerization kinetics and physical entrapment capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heim, E; Ludwig, F; Schilling, M [Institut fuer Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Harling, S; Menzel, H [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: e.heim@tu-bs.de

    2008-05-21

    Hydrogels have the potential for providing drug delivery systems with long release rates. The polymerization kinetics and the physical entrapment capacity of photo-cross-linked hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydroxyethylstarch hydrogels are investigated with a non-destructive method. For this purpose, superparamagnetic nanoparticles as replacements for biomolecules are used as probes. By analyzing their magnetic relaxation behavior, the amounts of physically entrapped and mobile nanoparticles can be determined. The hydrogels were loaded with five different concentrations of nanoparticles. Different methods of analysis of the relaxation curves and the influence of the microviscosity are discussed. This investigation allows one to optimize the UV light irradiation time and to determine the amount of physically entrapped nanoparticles in the hydrogel network. It was found that the polymerization kinetics is faster for decreasing nanoparticle concentration but not all nanoparticles can be physically entrapped in the network.

  1. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry for characterization of hydrogel polymerization kinetics and physical entrapment capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, E; Ludwig, F; Schilling, M; Harling, S; Menzel, H

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogels have the potential for providing drug delivery systems with long release rates. The polymerization kinetics and the physical entrapment capacity of photo-cross-linked hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydroxyethylstarch hydrogels are investigated with a non-destructive method. For this purpose, superparamagnetic nanoparticles as replacements for biomolecules are used as probes. By analyzing their magnetic relaxation behavior, the amounts of physically entrapped and mobile nanoparticles can be determined. The hydrogels were loaded with five different concentrations of nanoparticles. Different methods of analysis of the relaxation curves and the influence of the microviscosity are discussed. This investigation allows one to optimize the UV light irradiation time and to determine the amount of physically entrapped nanoparticles in the hydrogel network. It was found that the polymerization kinetics is faster for decreasing nanoparticle concentration but not all nanoparticles can be physically entrapped in the network

  2. Non-monotonic behaviour in relaxation dynamics of image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Tomoko; Okada, Masato

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the relaxation dynamics of image restoration through a Bayesian approach. The relaxation dynamics is much faster at zero temperature than at the Nishimori temperature where the pixel-wise error rate is minimized in equilibrium. At low temperature, we observed non-monotonic development of the overlap. We suggest that the optimal performance is realized through premature termination in the relaxation processes in the case of the infinite-range model. We also performed Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to clarify the underlying mechanism of non-trivial behaviour at low temperature by checking the local field distributions of each pixel

  3. Contractive relaxation systems and interacting particles for scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakis, M.A.; Tzavaras, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a class of semi linear hyperbolic systems with relaxation that are contractive in the L 1 -norm and admit invariant regions. We show that, as the relaxation parameter ξ goes to zero, their solutions converge to a weak solution of the scalar multidimensional conversation law that satisfies the Kruzhkov conditions. In the case of one space dimension, we propose certain interacting particle systems, whose mesoscopic limit is the systems with relaxation and their macroscopic dynamics is described by entropy solutions of a scalar conservation law. (author)

  4. Relaxation peak near 200 K in NiTi alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J. S.; Schaller, R.; Benoit, W.

    1989-10-01

    Internal friction (IF), frequency ( f), electrical resistance ( R) and zero point movement of the torsion pendulum (ɛ) have been measured in near equi-atomic NiTi alloy in order to clarify the mechanism for the relaxation peak near 200 K. The height of the relaxation peak decreases successively with thermal cycling and settles down to a lower stable value in running 15 cycles. However, the electrical resistance of the sample shows a variation in contrast with the internal friction. Both of them will return to the initial state after a single annealing at 773 K for 1 h. The probable mechanism of this relaxation peak was discussed.

  5. Stress relaxation characteristics of type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjoine, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The stress relaxation of type 304 stainless steel below 900 0 F (482 0 C) is practically time independent after 100 h and has a maximum of about 18 per cent. The per cent relaxation decreases with increasing degree of cold work and with decreasing stress. Above 900 0 F the per cent relaxation increases with time, temperature, and cold work. The initial stress can also be increased for cold work materials so that the remaining stress can be maintained at a higher value even up to 1200 0 F (649 0 C). Time-temperature parameters are practical to correlate and extrapolate the data in the higher temperature range. (author)

  6. Strain Relaxation and Vacancy Creation in Thin Platinum Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, W.; Chakravarty, S.; Schmidt, H.; Baehtz, C.; Leitenberger, W.; Bruns, M.; Kobler, A.; Kuebel, C.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron based combined in situ x-ray diffractometry and reflectometry is used to investigate the role of vacancies for the relaxation of residual stress in thin metallic Pt films. From the experimentally determined relative changes of the lattice parameter a and of the film thickness L the modification of vacancy concentration and residual strain was derived as a function of annealing time at 130 deg. C. The results indicate that relaxation of strain resulting from compressive stress is accompanied by the creation of vacancies at the free film surface. This proves experimentally the postulated dominant role of vacancies for stress relaxation in thin metal films close to room temperature.

  7. Calorimetric and relaxation properties of xylitol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Khalid; Sjöström, Johan; Jansson, Helén; Swenson, Jan

    2012-03-01

    We present the first broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and differential scanning calorimetry study of supercooled xylitol-water mixtures in the whole concentration range and in wide frequency (10-2-106 Hz) and temperature (120-365 K) ranges. The calorimetric glass transition, Tg, decreases from 247 K for pure xylitol to about 181 K at a water concentration of approximately 37 wt. %. At water concentrations in the range 29-35 wt. % a plentiful calorimetric behaviour is observed. In addition to the glass transition, almost simultaneous crystallization and melting events occurring around 230-240 K. At higher water concentrations ice is formed during cooling and the glass transition temperature increases to a steady value of about 200 K for all higher water concentrations. This Tg corresponds to an unfrozen xylitol-water solution containing 20 wt. % water. In addition to the true glass transition we also observed a glass transition-like feature at 220 K for all the ice containing samples. However, this feature is more likely due to ice dissolution [A. Inaba and O. Andersson, Thermochim. Acta, 461, 44 (2007)]. In the case of the BDS measurements the presence of water clearly has an effect on both the cooperative α-relaxation and the secondary β-relaxation. The α-relaxation shows a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence and becomes faster with increasing concentration of water. The fragility of the solutions, determined by the temperature dependence of the α-relaxation close to the dynamic glass transition, decreases with increasing water content up to about 26 wt. % water, where ice starts to form. This decrease in fragility with increasing water content is most likely caused by the increasing density of hydrogen bonds, forming a network-like structure in the deeply supercooled regime. The intensity of the secondary β-relaxation of xylitol decreases noticeably already at a water content of 2 wt. %, and at a water content above 5 wt. % it has been replaced by a

  8. The ultrasonic relaxation spectra for furfural molecules undergoing conformational changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaev, S. Z.; Telyaev, S. Q.; Egamberdiev, K.

    2011-01-01

    The acoustic spectra of liquid furfural have been investigated in the frequency range from 0.1MHz to 150 MHz and at the temperatures from 303.15 K to 333.15 K. The ultrasonic spectra of pure furfural show two relaxation processes. One relaxation process is located in the frequency range ∼0.2 MHz, and the second in the frequency range ∼2 MHz. The process with the lower relaxation frequency has been assigned to the 'X0-cis and X0-trans' internal rotation of furfural molecules. (authors)

  9. A Linearized Relaxing Algorithm for the Specific Nonlinear Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mio Horai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for the specific nonlinear and nonconvex global optimization problem by using a linear relaxation technique. To simplify the specific nonlinear and nonconvex optimization problem, we transform the problem to the lower linear relaxation form, and we solve the linear relaxation optimization problem by the Branch and Bound Algorithm. Under some reasonable assumptions, the global convergence of the algorithm is certified for the problem. Numerical results show that this method is more efficient than the previous methods.

  10. Constraints on relaxation rates for N-level quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Solomon, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    We study the constraints imposed on the population and phase relaxation rates by the physical requirement of completely positive evolution for open N-level systems. The Lindblad operators that govern the evolution of the system are expressed in terms of observable relaxation rates, explicit formulas for the decoherence rates due to population relaxation are derived, and it is shown that there are additional, nontrivial constraints on the pure dephasing rates for N>2. Explicit, experimentally testable inequality constraints for the decoherence rates are derived for three- and four-level systems, and the implications of the results are discussed for generic ladder, Λ, and V systems and transitions between degenerate energy levels

  11. Relaxation towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1995-01-01

    We study the relaxation phenomenon towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions. In particular the dependence of the relaxation frequency for the equal time of flight solution on the junction parameters is derived. The analysis is based on a phase-locked map and is compared with direct...... numerical experiments performed both on the map and on the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. As an interesting result we find that very close to a bifurcation the relaxation frequency is exactly equal to the half of the step frequency, i.e., the frequency characterizing the period-one solution....

  12. Transient competitive complexation in biological kinetic isotope fractionation explains nonsteady isotopic effects: Theory and application to denitrification in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Federico; Riley, William J.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical formulation of biological kinetic isotope fractionation often assumes first-order or Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the latter solved under the quasi-steady state assumption. Both formulations lead to a constant isotope fractionation factor, therefore they may return incorrect estimations of isotopic effects and misleading interpretations of isotopic signatures when fractionation is not a steady process. We have analyzed the isotopic signature of denitrification in biogeochemical soil systems by Menyailo and Hungate (2006) in which high and variable 15N-N2O enrichment during N2O production and inverse isotope fractionation during N2O consumption could not be explained with first-order kinetics and the Rayleigh equation, or with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. When Michaelis-Menten kinetics were coupled to Monod kinetics to describe biomass and enzyme dynamics, and the quasi-steady state assumption was relaxed, transient Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics accurately reproduced the observed concentrations, and variable and inverse isotope fractionations. These results imply a substantial revision in modeling isotopic effects, suggesting that steady state kinetics such as first-order, Rayleigh, and classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics should be superseded by transient kinetics in conjunction with biomass and enzyme dynamics.

  13. Relationship between Structural and Stress Relaxation in a Block-Copolymer Melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Amish J.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Garetz, Bruce A.; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between structural relaxation on molecular length scales and macroscopic stress relaxation was explored in a disordered block-copolymer melt. Experiments show that the structural relaxation time, measured by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy is larger than the terminal stress relaxation time, measured by rheology, by factors as large as 100. We demonstrate that the structural relaxation data are dominated by the diffusion of intact micelles while the stress relaxation data are dominated by contributions due to disordered concentration fluctuations

  14. The onset of fluid-dynamical behavior in relativistic kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2017-11-01

    In this proceedings we discuss recent findings regarding the large order behavior of the Chapman-Enskog expansion in relativistic kinetic theory. It is shown that this series in powers of the Knudsen number has zero radius of convergence in the case of a Bjorken expanding fluid described by the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation. This divergence stems from the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes, which give non-perturbative contributions to the Knudsen series.

  15. Generalized multivariate Fokker-Planck equations derived from kinetic transport theory and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    We study many particle systems in the context of mean field forces, concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients, generalized equilibrium distributions, and quantum statistics. Using kinetic transport theory and linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics we derive for these systems a generalized multivariate Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that this Fokker-Planck equation describes relaxation processes, has stationary maximum entropy distributions, can have multiple stationary solutions and stationary solutions that differ from Boltzmann distributions

  16. Dynamics of the α-relaxation in glass-forming polymers. Study by neutron scattering and relaxation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, J.

    1993-12-01

    The dynamics of the α-relaxation in three different polymeric systems, poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and poly(bisphenol A, 2-hydroxypropylether) (PH) has been studied by means of relaxation techniques and quasielastic neutron scattering (backscattering spectrometers IN10 and IN13 at the ILL-Grenoble). By using these techniques we have covered a wide time scale ranging from mesoscopic to macroscopic times (10 -10 -10 1 s). For analyzing the experimental data we have developed a phenomenological procedure in the frequency domain based on the Havriliak-Negami relaxation function, which in fact implies a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts relaxation function in the time domain. The results obtained indicate that the dynamics of the α-relaxation in a wide time scale shows a clear non-Debye behaviour. The shape of the relaxation functions is found to be similar for the different techniques used and independent of temperature and momentum transfer ( Q). Moreover, the characteristic relaxation times deduced from the fitting of the experimental data can also be described using only one Vogel-Fulcher functional form. Besides we found that the Q-dependence of the relaxation times obtained by QENS is given by a power law, τ( Q) ∞ Q- n ( n>2), n being dependent on the system, and that the Q-behaviour and the non-Debye behaviour are directly correlated. In the case of PVC, time of flight (TOF) neutron scattering experiments confirm these results in a shorter time scale (2×10 -11 -2× 10 -12 s). Moreover, TOF results also suggest the possibility of interpreting the “fast process” usually detected in glass-forming systems as a Debye-like short regime of the α-relaxation.

  17. Kinetics of the cooperative binding of glucose to dimeric yeast hexokinase P-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggett, J G; Kellett, G L

    1995-01-15

    Kinetic studies of the cooperative binding of glucose to yeast hexokinase P-I at pH 6.5 have been carried out using the fluorescence temperature-jump technique. Three relaxation effects were observed: a fast low-amplitude effect which could only be resolved at low glucose concentrations (tau 1(-1) = 500-800 s-1), an intermediate effect (tau 2) which showed a linear dependence of reciprocal relaxation time on concentration, and a slow effect (tau 3) which showed a curved dependence on glucose concentration, increasing from approximately 28 s-1 at low concentrations to 250 s-1 at high levels. The findings are interpreted in terms of the concerted Monod-Wyman-Changeux mechanism, the two faster relaxations being assigned to binding to the R and T states, and the slow relaxation to isomerization between the states. Quantitative fitting of the kinetic data to the mechanism has been carried out using independent estimates of the equilibrium parameters of the model; these have been derived from equilibrium dialysis data and by determining the enhancement of the intrinsic ATPase activity of the enzyme by the non-phosphorylatable sugar lyxose, which switches the conformation of the enzyme to the active R state.

  18. The spin relaxation of nitrogen donors in 6H SiC crystals as studied by the electron spin echo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, D.; Shanina, B.; Kalabukhova, E.; Pöppl, A.; Lančok, J.; Mokhov, E.

    2016-04-01

    We present the detailed study of the spin kinetics of the nitrogen (N) donor electrons in 6H SiC wafers grown by the Lely method and by the sublimation "sandwich method" (SSM) with a donor concentration of about 1017 cm-3 at T = 10-40 K. The donor electrons of the N donors substituting quasi-cubic "k1" and "k2" sites (Nk1,k2) in both types of the samples revealed the similar temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (T1-1), which was described by the direct one-phonon and two-phonon processes induced by the acoustic phonons proportional to T and to T9, respectively. The character of the temperature dependence of the T1-1 for the donor electrons of N substituting hexagonal ("h") site (Nh) in both types of 6H SiC samples indicates that the donor electrons relax through the fast-relaxing centers by means of the cross-relaxation process. The observed enhancement of the phase memory relaxation rate (Tm-1) with the temperature increase for the Nh donors in both types of the samples, as well as for the Nk1,k2 donors in Lely grown 6H SiC, was explained by the growth of the free electron concentration with the temperature increase and their exchange scattering at the N donor centers. The observed significant shortening of the phase memory relaxation time Tm for the Nk1,k2 donors in the SSM grown sample with the temperature lowering is caused by hopping motion of the electrons between the occupied and unoccupied states of the N donors at Nh and Nk1,k2 sites. The impact of the N donor pairs, triads, distant donor pairs formed in n-type 6H SiC wafers on the spin relaxation times was discussed.

  19. Kinetics of tetrataenite disordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Fillion, G.; Scorzelli, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrataenite is a chemically ordered L1 0 -type Fe 50 Ni 50 alloy detected for the first time in 1977 by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy studies in iron meteorites. The thermal history of meteorites, in particular short thermal events like those associated to hypervelocity impacts, can be constrained by tracing the presence of tetrataenite or its disordering into taenite. The knowledge of the disordering kinetics of tetrataenite, that is associated with changes in its magnetic properties, is still very fragmentary so that the time–temperature history of these meteorites cannot be constrained in details. Furthermore, knowledge of disordering kinetics is important due to potential technological application of tetrataenite as a rare-earth free strong magnet. Thus, this work provides the first time–temperature data for disordering reaction of tetrataenite. We have shown that disordering is not an instantaneous process but is a kinetic limited reaction. It was shown that disordering may take place at any temperature above the order–disorder transition for L 10 superstructure phase (∼320 °C) when the appropriate time-scale is considered. This result means that the apparent Curie point for tetrataenite is not an absolute property in the sense that any estimate of this parameter should be referred to a given time-scale. - Highlights: • The first time–temperature data for tetrataenite disordering reaction is provided. • Previous works does not give a complete picture of tetrataenite disordering. • Apparent Curie temperature of tetrataenite should be referred to a time-scale. • Tetrataenite can be used as a probe to detect thermal/shock events recorded in meteorites

  20. Quantum kinetic Ising models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, R; Cucchietti, F M; Lewenstein, M; Haake, F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a quantum generalization of classical kinetic Ising models (KIM), described by a certain class of quantum many-body master equations. Similarly to KIMs with detailed balance that are equivalent to certain Hamiltonian systems, our models reduce to a set of Hamiltonian systems determining the dynamics of the elements of the many-body density matrix. The ground states of these Hamiltonians are well described by the matrix product, or pair entangled projected states. We discuss critical properties of such Hamiltonians, as well as entanglement properties of their low-energy states.

  1. Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: mlingam@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Abdelhamid, Hamdi M., E-mail: hamdi@ppl.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); Hudson, Stuart R., E-mail: shudson@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of “ideal barriers” that prevent global relaxation and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects, and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposed for deriving the partially relaxed states.

  2. On the relaxation of cold electrons and hot ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapenko, I.F.; Bobylev, A.V.; Azevedo, C.A. de; Sakanaka, P.H.; Assis, A.S. de

    1998-01-01

    The relaxation process of a space uniform plasma composed of cold electrons and one species of hot ions is studied numerically using one- and two-dimensional Landau - Fokker - Planck codes. Relaxation of a monoenergetic ion beam is considered in possibly extreme temperature regimes. Special attention is paid to the deviation of the relaxation process from the classical picture, which is characterized by the close initial temperatures T e >(m e /m i ) 1/3 T i . The present results give quite a clear idea of the relaxation picture for any initial temperatures also in extreme temperature regimes. A difference scheme, preserving the number of particles and the energy, gives the possibility of solving the problem numerically without error accumulation, except for machine errors. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  3. Ber analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Thrampoulidis, Christos; Abbasi, Ehsan; Xu, Weiyu; Hassibi, Babak

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {±1}n to the convex set [-1,1]n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error Pe in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the Pe of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and that it approaches the (MFB) as m grows large compared to n. Our results also indicate that as m, n → ∞, for any fixed set of size k, the error events of the corresponding k bits in the box relaxation method are independent.

  4. Strain relaxation of germanium-tin (GeSn) fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuye; Huang, Yi-Chiau; Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Wei; Lei, Dian; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Dong, Yuan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Shengqiang; Tan, Chuan Seng; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2018-02-01

    Strain relaxation of biaxially strained Ge1-xSnx layer when it is patterned into Ge1-xSnx fin structures is studied. Ge1-xSnx-on-insulator (GeSnOI) substrate was realized using a direct wafer bonding (DWB) technique and Ge1-xSnx fin structures were formed by electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning and dry etching. The strain in the Ge1-xSnx fins having fin widths (WFin) ranging from 1 μm down to 80 nm was characterized using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Raman measurements show that the strain relaxation increases with decreasing WFin. Finite element (FE) simulation shows that the strain component in the transverse direction relaxes with decreasing WFin, while the strain component along the fin direction remains unchanged. For various Ge1-xSnx fin widths, transverse strain relaxation was further extracted using micro-Raman spectroscopy, which is consistent with the simulation results.

  5. Relaxation-phenomena in LiAl/FeS-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borger, W.; Kappus, W.; Panesar, H. S.

    A theoretical model of the capacity of strongly relaxing electrochemical systems is applied to the LiAl/FeS system. Relaxation phenomena in LiAl and FeS electrodes can be described by this model. Experimental relaxation data indicate that lithium transport through the alpha-LiAl layer to the particle surface is the capacity limiting process at high discharge current density in the LiAl electrode in LiCl-KCl and LiF-LiCl-LiBr mixtures. Strong relaxation is observed in the FeS electrode with LiCl-KCl electrolyte caused by lithium concentration gradients and precipitation of KCl in the pores.

  6. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qingyong; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiansi; Dong Hao; Wang Yuxin; Shao Senhao

    2009-01-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle

  7. Density dependence of relaxation dynamics in glass formers, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anshul D S Parmar

    formers, we study the variation of relaxation dynamics with density, rather than temperature, as a control ... stronger behaviour, the use of scaled variables involving temperature and ... of the temperature dependence of B as written defines.

  8. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo; Nedergaard, Ove A.

    1999-01-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased...

  9. Relaxation behaviour of gasketed joints during assembly using finite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ghulam Ishaq Khan (GIK) Institute of ... Bolt scatter, bolt bending, joint relaxation and gasket stress variation are concluded the main .... In the present work, following two ..... American Society of Mech.

  10. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Qingyong [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: hedoubling@gmail.com; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiansi; Dong Hao; Wang Yuxin; Shao Senhao [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2009-02-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle.

  11. Ber analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Thrampoulidis, Christos

    2016-06-24

    We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {±1}n to the convex set [-1,1]n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error Pe in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the Pe of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and that it approaches the (MFB) as m grows large compared to n. Our results also indicate that as m, n → ∞, for any fixed set of size k, the error events of the corresponding k bits in the box relaxation method are independent.

  12. Slow logarithmic relaxation in models with hierarchically constrained dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Brey, J. J.; Prados, A.

    2000-01-01

    A general kind of models with hierarchically constrained dynamics is shown to exhibit logarithmic anomalous relaxation, similarly to a variety of complex strongly interacting materials. The logarithmic behavior describes most of the decay of the response function.

  13. Theoretical model of intravascular paramagnetic tracers effect on tissue relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of MRI tracers cannot be measured directly by MRI and is commonly evaluated indirectly using their relaxation effect. This study develops a comprehensive theoretical model to describe the transverse relaxation in perfused tissue caused by intravascular tracers. The model takes...... into account a number of individual compartments. The signal dephasing is simulated in a semianalytical way by embedding Monte Carlo simulations in the framework of analytical theory. This approach yields a tool for fast, realistic simulation of the change in the transverse relaxation. The results indicate...... with bulk blood. The enhancement of relaxation in tissue is due to the contrast in magnetic susceptibility between blood vessels and parenchyma induced by the presence of paramagnetic tracer. Beyond the perfusion measurements, the results can be applied to quantitation of functional MRI and to vessel size...

  14. Dielectric relaxation studies of dilute solutions of amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malathi, M.; Sabesan, R.; Krishnan, S

    2003-11-15

    The dielectric constants and dielectric losses of formamide, acetamide, N-methyl acetamide, acetanilide and N,N-dimethyl acetamide in dilute solutions of 1,4-dioxan/benzene have been measured at 308 K using 9.37 GHz, dielectric relaxation set up. The relaxation time for the over all rotation {tau}{sub (1)} and that for the group rotation {tau}{sub (2)} of (the molecules were determined using Higasi's method. The activation energies for the processes of dielectric relaxation and viscous flow were determined by using Eyring's rate theory. From relaxation time behaviour of amides in non-polar solvent, solute-solvent and solute-solute type of molecular association is proposed.

  15. 129 Xe NMR Relaxation-Based Macromolecular Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Muller D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dao, Phuong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jeong, Keunhong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Slack, Clancy C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Vassiliou, Christophoros C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Francis, Matthew B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-07-29

    A 129Xe NMR relaxation-based sensing approach is reported on that exploits changes in the bulk xenon relaxation rate induced by slowed tumbling of a cryptophane-based sensor upon target binding. The amplification afforded by detection of the bulk dissolved xenon allows sensitive detection of targets. The sensor comprises a xenon-binding cryptophane cage, a target interaction element, and a metal chelating agent. Xenon associated with the target-bound cryptophane cage is rapidly relaxed and then detected after exchange with the bulk. Here we show that large macromolecular targets increase the rotational correlation time of xenon, increasing its relaxation rate. Upon binding of a biotin-containing sensor to avidin at 1.5 μM concentration, the free xenon T2 is reduced by a factor of 4.

  16. Mechanical properties of plant cell walls probed by relaxation spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Laugesen; Ray, Peter Martin; Karlsson, Anders Ola

    2011-01-01

    Relax, that deduces relaxation spectra from appropriate rheological measurements is presented and made accessible through a Web interface. BayesRelax models the cell wall as a continuum of relaxing elements, and the ability of the method to resolve small differences in cell wall mechanical properties is demonstrated......Transformants and mutants with altered cell wall composition are expected to display a biomechanical phenotype due to the structural role of the cell wall. It is often quite difficult, however, to distinguish the mechanical behavior of a mutant's or transformant's cell walls from that of the wild...... type. This may be due to the plant’s ability to compensate for the wall modification or because the biophysical method that is often employed, determination of simple elastic modulus and breakstrength, lacks the resolving power necessary for detecting subtle mechanical phenotypes. Here, we apply...

  17. Relaxation Dynamics of Nanoparticle-Tethered Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sung A; Mangal, Rahul; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Relaxation dynamics of nanoparticle-tethered cis-1,4-polyisoprene (PI) are investigated using dielectric spectroscopy and rheometry. A model system composed of polymer chains densely grafted to spherical SiO2

  18. Electron spin relaxation in cryptochrome-based magnetoreception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattnig, Daniel R; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Hore, P J

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic compass sense of migratory birds is thought to rely on magnetically sensitive radical pairs formed photochemically in cryptochrome proteins in the retina. An important requirement of this hypothesis is that electron spin relaxation is slow enough for the Earth's magnetic field to have...... this question for a structurally characterized model cryptochrome expected to share many properties with the putative avian receptor protein. To this end we combine all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, Bloch-Redfield relaxation theory and spin dynamics calculations to assess the effects of spin relaxation...... on the performance of the protein as a compass sensor. Both flavin-tryptophan and flavin-Z˙ radical pairs are studied (Z˙ is a radical with no hyperfine interactions). Relaxation is considered to arise from modulation of hyperfine interactions by librational motions of the radicals and fluctuations in certain...

  19. Acquired relaxation of the right half of the diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmachev, V.V.; Romadanov, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Case is described of the development of complete relaxation of the right half of diaphragm following inflammatory respiratory disease accompanied by infections neuritis involving right phrenic nerve. Results of biomedical radiography and computerized tomography in dynamics are presented

  20. Stress relaxation of shear in metals during shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazyrin, V.P.; Platova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Constructed determining equation, taking into account stress relaxation of shear, was used to calculate the evolution of plane shock waves of primary and secondary compression in metals. Values of shear stress and viscosity coefficient were