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Sample records for hubble ultra-deep field

  1. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Beckwith, S V W; Koekemoer, A M; Caldwell, J A R; Ferguson, H C; Hook, R; Lucas, R A; Bergeron, L E; Corbin, M; Jogee, S; Panagia, N; Robberto, M; Royle, P; Somerville, R S; Sosey, M; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Caldwell, John A. R.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Hook, Richard; Lucas, Ray A.; Bergeron, Louis E.; Corbin, Michael; Jogee, Shardha; Panagia, Nino; Robberto, Massimo; Royle, Patricia; Somerville, Rachel S.; Sosey, Megan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), a one million second exposure of an 11 square minute-of-arc region in the southern sky with the Hubble Space Telescope. The exposure time was divided among four filters, F435W (B435), F606W (V606), F775W (i775), and F850LP (z850), to give approximately uniform limiting magnitudes mAB~29 for point sources. The image contains at least 10,000 objects presented here as a catalog. Few if any galaxies at redshifts greater than ~4 resemble present day spiral or elliptical galaxies. Using the Lyman break dropout method, we find 504 B-dropouts, 204 V-dropouts, and 54 i-dropouts. Using these samples that are at different redshifts but derived from the same data, we find no evidence for a change in the characteristic luminosity of galaxies but some evidence for a decrease in their number densities between redshifts of 4 and 7. The ultraviolet luminosity density of these samples is dominated by galaxies fainter than the characteristic luminosity, and the HUDF reveal...

  2. High Redshift Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Hathi, Nimish P

    2008-01-01

    My dissertation presents results from three recent investigations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) focusing on understanding structural and physical properties of high redshift galaxies. Here I summarize results from these studies. This thesis work was conducted at Arizona State University under the guidance of Prof. Rogier Windhorst and Prof. Sangeeta Malhotra.

  3. A Deep ALMA Image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Although primarily designed as a high-resolution imaging spectrometer at submillimetre/millimetre wavelengths, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has a vital role to play in producing the key deep, unconfused, submillimetre/millimetre continuum surveys required to bridge the current gap in our understanding of visible and dust-obscured star formation in the young Universe. The first such survey has now been completed, comprising a mosaic of 45 ALMA pointings at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, covering the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). This deep, homogeneous ALMA survey, combined with the wealth of existing data in the HUDF, has already provided new clarity on the nature of dusty star-forming galaxies, and the relative evolution of dust-obscured and unobscured star formation over cosmic time.

  4. A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlop, J S; Biggs, A D; Geach, J E; Michalowski, M J; Ivison, R J; Rujopakarn, W; van Kampen, E; Kirkpatrick, A; Pope, A; Scott, D; Swinbank, A M; Targett, T A; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Best, P N; Bruce, V A; Chapin, E L; Charlot, S; Cirasuolo, M; Coppin, K E K; Ellis, R S; Finkelstein, S L; Hayward, C C; Hughes, D H; Ibar, E; Khochfar, S; Koprowski, M P; Narayanan, D; Papovich, C; Peacock, J A; Robertson, B; Vernstrom, T; van der Werf, P P; Wilson, G W; Yun, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first, deep ALMA imaging covering the full 4.5 sq arcmin of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) as previously imaged with WFC3/IR on HST. Using a mosaic of 45 pointings, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3mm image of the HUDF, achieving an rms sensitivity of 35 microJy, at a resolution of 0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ~50 >3.5sigma peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with flux densities S(1.3) > 120 microJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts ( = 2.15), and 12 are also detected at 6GHz in new deep JVLA imaging. Due to the wealth of supporting data in this unique field, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star-formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-z Universe; indeed at z > 2 our ALMA sample contains 7 of the 9 galaxies in the HUDF with M* > 2 x 10^10 Msun and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, re...

  5. The 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12): Observational Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Koekemoer, Anton M; McLure, Ross J; Dunlop, James S; Robertson, Brant E; Ono, Yoshiaki; Schenker, Matthew A; Ouchi, Masami; Bowler, Rebecca A A; Rogers, Alexander B; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P; Furlanetto, Steven R; Cirasuolo, Michele; Wild, V; Targett, T

    2012-01-01

    We present the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field campaign (UDF12), a large 128-orbit Cycle 19 \\HST\\ program aimed at extending previous WFC3/IR observations of the UDF by quadrupling the exposure time in the F105W filter, imaging in an additional F140W filter, and extending the F160W exposure time by 50%. The principal scientific goal of this project is to determine whether galaxies reionized the universe; our observations are designed to provide a robust determination of the star formation density at $z$$\\,\\gtrsim\\,$8, improve measurements of the ultraviolet continuum slope at $z$$\\,\\sim\\,7\\,-\\,$8, facilitate the construction of new samples of $z$$\\,\\sim\\,9\\,-\\,$10 candidates, and enable the detection of sources up to $z$$\\,\\sim\\,$12. For this project we committed to combining these and other WFC3/IR imaging observations of the UDF area into a single homogeneous dataset, to provide the deepest near-infrared observations of the sky currently achievable. In this paper we present the observational overview of the pr...

  6. Near-UV Sources in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Voyer, Elysse N; Siana, Brian; Gardner, Jonathan P; Quirk, Cori; Teplitz, Harry I

    2009-01-01

    The catalog from the first high resolution U-band image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 through the F300W filter, is presented. We detect 96 U-band objects and compare and combine this catalog with a Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) B-selected catalog that provides B, V, i, and z photometry, spectral types, and photometric redshifts. We have also obtained Far-Ultraviolet (FUV, 1614 \\AA) data with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys Solar Blind Channel (ACS/SBC) and with Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We detected 31 sources with ACS/SBC, 28 with GALEX/FUV, and 45 with GALEX/NUV. The methods of observations, image processing, object identification, catalog preparation, and catalog matching are presented.

  7. Near-UV Sources in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Voyrer, Elysse; de Mello, Duilia F.; Siana, Brian; Quirk, Cori; Teplitz, Harry I.

    2009-01-01

    The catalog from the first high resolution U-band image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, taken with Hubble s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 through the F300W filter, is presented. We detect 96 U-band objects and compare and combine this catalog with a Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) B-selected catalog that provides B, V, i, and z photometry, spectral types, and photometric redshifts. We have also obtained Far-Ultraviolet (FUV, 1614 Angstroms) data with Hubble s Advanced Camera for Surveys Solar Blind Channel (ACS/SBC) and with Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We detected 31 sources with ACS/SBC, 28 with GALEX/FUV, and 45 with GALEX/NUV. The methods of observations, image processing, object identification, catalog preparation, and catalog matching are presented.

  8. Ultra-deep K-band Imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, G. B.; Marchesini, D.; Labbé, I.; Spitler, L.; Lange-Vagle, D.; Barker, E. A.; Tanaka, M.; Fontana, A.; Galametz, A.; Ferré-Mateu, A.; Kodama, T.; Lundgren, B.; Martis, N.; Muzzin, A.; Stefanon, M.; Toft, S.; van der Wel, A.; Vulcani, B.; Whitaker, K. E.

    2016-09-01

    We have recently completed a deep near-infrared imaging survey with the High Acuity Wide Field K-band Imager (HAWK-I), nicknamed KIFF (Ks-band Imaging of the Frontier Fields). KIFF provides ultra-deep images of six fields around massive galaxy clusters that have also recently been observed with the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes as part of the Frontier Fields programme. Each of the KIFF mosaics is among the deepest Ks-band images ever obtained, and, with a boost from strong gravitational lensing by the galaxy clusters, they will be used to reveal the stellar populations of galaxies seen only a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Fully reduced images are made available to the community through the Phase 3 infrastructure of the ESO Science Archive Facility.

  9. UVUDF: Ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble ultra deep field with wide-field camera 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc; Colbert, James W.; Hanish, Daniel J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bond, Nicholas A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; De Mello, Duilia F. [Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ravindranath, Swara, E-mail: hit@ipac.caltech.edu [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India); and others

    2013-12-01

    We present an overview of a 90 orbit Hubble Space Telescope treasury program to obtain near-ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using the Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS detector with the F225W, F275W, and F336W filters. This survey is designed to: (1) investigate the episode of peak star formation activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 2.5; (2) probe the evolution of massive galaxies by resolving sub-galactic units (clumps); (3) examine the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from galaxies at z ∼ 2-3; (4) greatly improve the reliability of photometric redshift estimates; and (5) measure the star formation rate efficiency of neutral atomic-dominated hydrogen gas at z ∼ 1-3. In this overview paper, we describe the survey details and data reduction challenges, including both the necessity of specialized calibrations and the effects of charge transfer inefficiency. We provide a stark demonstration of the effects of charge transfer inefficiency on resultant data products, which when uncorrected, result in uncertain photometry, elongation of morphology in the readout direction, and loss of faint sources far from the readout. We agree with the STScI recommendation that future UVIS observations that require very sensitive measurements use the instrument's capability to add background light through a 'post-flash'. Preliminary results on number counts of UV-selected galaxies and morphology of galaxies at z ∼ 1 are presented. We find that the number density of UV dropouts at redshifts 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 is largely consistent with the number predicted by published luminosity functions. We also confirm that the image mosaics have sufficient sensitivity and resolution to support the analysis of the evolution of star-forming clumps, reaching 28-29th magnitude depth at 5σ in a 0.''2 radius aperture depending on filter and observing epoch.

  10. Ultra-deep Ks-band Imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Brammer, Gabriel B; Labbé, Ivo; Spitler, Lee; Lange-Vagle, Daniel; Barker, Elizbeth A; Tanaka, Masayuki; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lundgren, Britt; Martis, Nicholas; Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro; Toft, Sune; van der Wel, Arjen; Vulcani, Benedetta; Whitaker, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the "KIFF" project, which provides ultra-deep Ks-band imaging of all six of the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters Abell 2744, MACS-0416, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS-0717 and MACS-1149. All of these fields have recently been observed with large allocations of Directors' Discretionary Time with the HST and Spitzer telescopes covering 0.4 < lambda < 1.6 microns and 3.6--4.5 microns, respectively. VLT/HAWK-I integrations of the first four fields reach 5-sigma limiting depths of Ks~26.0 (AB, point sources) and have excellent image quality (FWHM ~ 0."4). Shorter Keck/MOSFIRE integrations of the MACS-0717 (MACS-1149) field better observable in the north reach limiting depths Ks=25.5 (25.1) with seeing FWHM ~0."4 (0."5). In all cases the Ks-band mosaics cover the primary cluster and parallel HST/ACS+WFC3 fields. The total area of the Ks-band coverage is 490 arcmin^2. The Ks-band at 2.2 microns crucially fills the gap between the reddest HST filter (1.6 micron ~ H-band) and the IRAC 3.6 ...

  11. Ultra-deep K S-band Imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Marchesini, Danilo; Labbé, Ivo; Spitler, Lee; Lange-Vagle, Daniel; Barker, Elizbeth A.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lundgren, Britt; Martis, Nicholas; Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro; Toft, Sune; van der Wel, Arjen; Vulcani, Benedetta; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-09-01

    We present an overview of the “KIFF” project, which provides ultra-deep K s -band imaging of all six of the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters, Abell 2744, MACS-0416, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS-0717, and MACS-1149. All of these fields have recently been observed with large allocations of Directors’ Discretionary Time with the Hubble and Spitzer telescopes, covering 0.4\\lt λ \\lt 1.6 μ {{m}} and 3.6-4.5 μ {{m}}, respectively. VLT/HAWK-I integrations of the first four fields reach 5σ limiting depths of {K}s˜ 26.0 (AB, point sources) and have excellent image quality (FWHM ˜ 0.″4). The MACS-0717 and MACS-1149 fields are observable from the northern hemisphere, and shorter Keck/MOSFIRE integrations on those fields reach limiting depths of K s = 25.5 and 25.1, with a seeing FWHM of ˜ 0.″4 and 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5. In all cases the K s -band mosaics cover the primary cluster and parallel HST/ACS+WFC3 fields. The total area of the K s -band coverage is 490 arcmin2. The K s -band at 2.2 μ {{m}} crucially fills the gap between the reddest HST filter (1.6 μ {{m}} ˜ H band) and the IRAC 3.6 μ {{m}} passband. While reaching the full depths of the space-based imaging is not currently feasible from the ground, the deep K s -band images provide important constraints on both the redshifts and the stellar population properties of galaxies extending well below the characteristic stellar mass across most of the age of the universe, down to and including the redshifts of the targeted galaxy clusters (z≲ 0.5). Reduced, aligned mosaics of all six survey fields are provided.

  12. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF TADPOLE GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Gardner, Jonathan P. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Voyer, Elysse N. [Randstad at Google, 1129 San Antonio Road, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Mello, Duilia de; Soto, Emmaris [Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Petty, Sara [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Kassin, Susan; Ravindranath, Swara [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Multiwavelength data are essential in order to provide a complete picture of galaxy evolution and to inform studies of galaxies’ morphological properties across cosmic time. Here we present the results of a multiwavelength investigation of the morphologies of “tadpole” galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.314 < z < 3.175) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. These galaxies were previously selected from deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) F775W data based on their distinct asymmetric knot-plus-tail morphologies. Here we use deep Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared imaging in addition to the HST optical data in order to study the rest-frame UV/optical morphologies of these galaxies across the redshift range 0.3 < z < 3.2. This study reveals that the majority of these galaxies do retain their general asymmetric morphology in the rest-frame optical over this redshift range, if not the distinct “tadpole” shape. The average stellar mass of tadpole galaxies is lower than that of field galaxies, with the effect being slightly greater at higher redshift within the errors. Estimated from spectral energy distribution fits, the average age of tadpole galaxies is younger than that of field galaxies in the lower-redshift bin, and the average metallicity is lower (whereas the specific star formation rate for tadpoles is roughly the same as field galaxies across the redshift range probed here). These average effects combined support the conclusion that this subset of galaxies is in an active phase of assembly, either late-stage merging or cold gas accretion causing localized clumpy star formation.

  13. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Survey Description

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We present the rationale for and the observational description of ASPECS: The ALMA SPECtroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF), the cosmological deep field that has the deepest multi-wavelength data available. Our overarching goal is to obtain an unbiased census of molecular gas and dust continuum emission in high-redshift (z$>$0.5) galaxies. The $\\sim$1$'$ region covered within the UDF was chosen to overlap with the deepest available imaging from HST. Our ALMA observations consist of full frequency scans in band 3 (84-115 GHz) and band 6 (212-272 GHz) at approximately uniform line sensitivity ($L'_{\\rm CO}\\sim$2$\\times$10$^{9}$ K km/s pc$^2$), and continuum noise levels of 3.8 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ and 12.7 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$, respectively. The molecular surveys cover the different rotational transitions of the CO molecule, leading to essentially full redshift coverage. The [CII] emission line is also covered at redshifts $6.0

  14. Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: I. Detection, Multiband Photometry, Photometric Redshifts, and Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, D; Sánchez, S F; Jee, M; Bouwens, R; Ford, H; Coe, Dan; Benitez, Narciso; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Jee, Myungkook; Bouwens, Rychard; Ford, Holland

    2006-01-01

    We present aperture-matched PSF-corrected BVi'z'JH photometry and Bayesian photometric redshifts (BPZ) for objects detected in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), 8,042 of which are detected at the 10-sigma level (e.g., i'<29.01 or z'<28.43). Most of our objects are defined identically to those in the public STScI catalogs, enabling straightforward object-by-object comparison. We have combined detections from i', z', J+H, and B+V+i'+z' images into a single comprehensive segmentation map. Using a new program called SExSeg we are able to force this segmentation map into SExtractor for photometric analysis. The resulting photometry is corrected for the wider NIC3 PSFs using our ColorPro software. We also correct for the ACS z'-band PSF halo. The NIC3 magnitudes are found to be too faint relative to the ACS fluxes. Based on BPZ SED fits to objects of know spectroscopic redshift, we derived corrections of -0.30 +/- 0.03 mag in J and -0.18 +/- 0.04 mag in H. The offsets appear to be supported by a recent recal...

  15. Star-Forming Galaxies at z~2 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Kong; Wei Zhang; Min Wang

    2008-01-01

    Using a simple color selection based on B-, z- and K-band photometry, BzK =(z - K)AB - (B - z)AB -0.2, we picked out 52 star-forming galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5(sBzKs) from a K-band selected sample (KVega < 22.0) in an area of ~ 5.5 arcmin2 of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). We develop a new photometric redshift method, and the error in our photometric redshifts is less than 0.02(1 + z). From the photometric redshift distribution, we find the BzK color criterion can be used to select star-forming galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with KVega < 22.0. Down to KVega < 22.0, the number counts of sBzKs increase linearly with the K magnitude; the sBzKs are strongly clustered, and most of them have irregular morphologies on the ACS images. They have a median reddening of E(B -V) ~ 0.28, an average star formation rate of ~ 36 M⊙ yr-1 and a typical stellar mass of ~ 1010M⊙. The UV criterion for the galaxies at z~2 can select most of the faint sBzKs in the UDF, but it does not work well for bright, massive, highly-reddened, actively star-forming galaxies.

  16. Classification of extremely red objects in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-Wen Fang; Xu Kong; Min Wang

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of the classification of Extremely Red Objects (EROs). The analysis is based on the multi-band spatial-and ground-based observa-tions (HST/ACS-BViz, HST/NICMOS-JH, VLT-JHK) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). Over a total sky area of 5.50 arcmin2 in the UDF, we select 24 EROs with the color criterion (i-K)vega 3.9, corresponding to (I-K)vega 4.0, down to KVega = 22. We develop four methods to classify EROs into Old passively evolving Galaxies (OGs) and Dusty star-forming Galaxies (DGs), including (i-K) vs. (J-K) color diagram,spectral energy distribution fitting method, Spitzer MIPS 24μm image matching, and nonparametric measure of galaxy morphology, and found that the classification results from these methods agree well. Using these four classification methods, we classify our EROs sample into 60Gs and 8 DGs to KVega < 20.5, and 80Gs and 16 DGs to KVega < 22, respectively. The fraction of DGs increases from 8/14 at KVega < 20.5to 16/24 at Kvega < 22. To study the morphology of galaxies with its wavelength, we measure the central concentration and the Gini coefficient for the 24 EROs in our sample in HST/ACS-i, z and HST/NICMOS-J, H bands. We find that the morphological param-eters of galaxies in our sample depend on the wavelength of observation, which suggests that caution is necessary when comparing single wavelength band images of galaxies at a variety of redshifts.

  17. Lensing signals in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field using all 2nd order shape deformations

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, John; Shmakova, Marina; Anderson, Jay

    2006-01-01

    The long exposure times of the HST Ultra-Deep Field plus the use of an empirically derived position-dependent PSF, have enabled us to measure a cardioid/displacement distortion map coefficient as well as improving upon the sextupole map coefficient. We confirmed that curved background galaxies are clumped on the same angular scale as found in the HST Deep Field North. The new cardioid/displacement map coefficient is strongly correlated to a product of the sextupole and quadrupole coefficients...

  18. Lensing signals in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field using all 2nd order shape deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J; Anderson, J; Irwin, John; Shmakova, Marina; Anderson, Jay

    2006-01-01

    The long exposure times of the HST Ultra-Deep Field plus the use of an empirically derived position-dependent PSF, have enabled us to measure a cardioid/displacement distortion map coefficient as well as improving upon the sextupole map coefficient. We confirmed that curved background galaxies are clumped on the same angular scale as found in the HST Deep Field North. The new cardioid/displacement map coefficient is strongly correlated to a product of the sextupole and quadrupole coefficients. One would expect to see such a correlation from fits to background galaxies with quadrupole and sextupole moments. Events that depart from this correlation are expected to arise from map coefficient changes due to lensing, and several galaxy subsets selected using this criteria are indeed clumped.

  19. UVUDF: Ultraviolet Through Near-infrared Catalog and Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Marc; Gardner, Jonathan P; Coe, Dan; Bond, Nicholas A; Koekemoer, Anton M; Grogin, Norman; Kurczynski, Peter; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Bourque, Matthew; Atek, Hakim; Brown, Thomas M; Colbert, James W; Codoreanu, Alex; Ferguson, Henry C; Finkelstein, Steven L; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gronwall, Caryl; Hanish, Daniel J; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Mehta, Vihang; de Mello, Duilia F; Ravindranath, Swara; Ryan, Russell E; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Soto, Emmaris; Voyer, Elysse N

    2015-01-01

    We present photometry and derived redshifts from up to eleven bandpasses for 9927 galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep field (UDF), covering an observed wavelength range from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to the near-infrared (NIR) with Hubble Space Telescope observations. Our Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/UV F225W, F275W, and F336W image mosaics from the ultra-violet UDF (UVUDF) imaging campaign are newly calibrated to correct for charge transfer inefficiency, and use new dark calibrations to minimize background gradients and pattern noise. Our NIR WFC3/IR image mosaics combine the imaging from the UDF09 and UDF12 campaigns with CANDELS data to provide NIR coverage for the entire UDF field of view. We use aperture-matched point-spread function corrected photometry to measure photometric redshifts in the UDF, sampling both the Lyman break and Balmer break of galaxies at z~0.8-3.4, and one of the breaks over the rest of the redshift range. Our comparison of these results with a compilation of robust spectroscopic redsh...

  20. Galaxy formation in the reionization epoch as hinted by Wide Field Camera 3 observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Jing Yan; Rogier A.Windhorst; Nimish P.Hathi; Seth H.Cohen; Russell E.Ryan; Robert W.O'Connell; Patrick J.McCarthy

    2010-01-01

    We present a large sample of candidate galaxies at z ≈ 7-10,selected in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using the new observations of the Wide Field Camera 3that was recently installed on the Hubble Space Telescope.Our sample is composed of 20 z850-dropouts(four new discoveries),15 Y105-dropouts(nine new discoveries)and 20 J125-dropouts(all new discoveries).The surface densities of the z850-dropouts are close to what was predicted by earlier studies,however,those of the Y105-and J125-dropouts are quite unexpected.While no Y105-or J125-dropouts have been found at AB < 28.0 mag,their surface densities seem to increase sharply at fainter levels.While some of these candidates seem to be close to foreground galaxies and thus could possibly be gravitationally lensed,the overall surface densities after excluding such cases are still much higher than what would be expected if the luminosity function does not evolve from z~7 to 10.Motivated by such steep increases,we tentatively propose a set of Schechter function parameters to describe the luminosity functions at z ≈ 8 and 10.As compared to their counterpart at z ≈ 7,here L*decreases by a factor demanded by the existing observations,they are allowed and seem to agree with the data better than other alternatives.If these luminosity functions are still valid beyond our current detection limit,this would imply a sudden emergence of a large number of low-luminosity galaxies when looking back in time to z ≈ 10,which,while seemingly exotic,would naturally fit in the picture of the cosmic hydrogen reionization.These early galaxies could easily account for the ionizing photon budget required by the reionization,and they would imply that the global star formation rate density might start from a very high value at z ≈ 10,rapidly reach the minimum at z ≈ 7,and start to rise again towards z ≈ 6.In this scenario,the majority of the stellar mass that the universe assembled through the reionization epoch seems still

  1. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular gas reservoirs in high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Decarli, Roberto; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Rob; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the molecular gas properties of high-$z$ galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets a $\\sim1$ arcmin$^2$ region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3mm and 1mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities $L_{\\rm{}IR}>10^{11}$ L$_\\odot$, i.e. a detection in CO emission was expected. Out these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than typically found in starburst/SMG/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star-formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): The CO-detected galaxies in the U...

  2. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular Gas Reservoirs in High-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F.; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C.; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Rob; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We study the molecular gas properties of high-z galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets an ˜1 arcmin2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3 and 1 mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11 {L}⊙ , i.e., a detection in CO emission was expected. Out of these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than those typically found in starburst/sub-mm galaxy/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in the context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): the CO-detected galaxies in the UDF tend to reside on the low-{L}{IR} envelope of the scatter in the {L}{IR}{--}{L}{CO}\\prime relation, but exceptions exist. For the CO-detected sources, we find an average depletion time of ˜1 Gyr, with significant scatter. The average molecular-to-stellar mass ratio ({M}{{H}2}/M *) is consistent with earlier measurements of main-sequence galaxies at these redshifts, and again shows large variations among sources. In some cases, we also measure dust continuum emission. On average, the dust-based estimates of the molecular gas are a factor ˜2-5× smaller than those based on CO. When we account for detections as well as non-detections, we find large diversity in the molecular gas properties of the high-redshift galaxies covered by ASPECS.

  3. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Search for [CII] Line and Dust Emission in 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, M.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Bouwens, R.; Oesch, P. A.; Carilli, C. L.; Bauer, F. E.; Da Cunha, E.; Daddi, E.; Gónzalez-López, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Weiss, A.; Anguita, T.; Bacon, R.; Bell, E.; Bertoldi, F.; Cortes, P.; Cox, P.; Hodge, J.; Ibar, E.; Inami, H.; Infante, L.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Ota, K.; Popping, G.; van der Werf, P.; Wagg, J.; Fudamoto, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We present a search for [C ii] line and dust continuum emission from optical dropout galaxies at z > 6 using ASPECS, our Atacama Large Millimeter submillimeter Array Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-deep Field (UDF). Our observations, which cover the frequency range of 212-272 GHz, encompass approximately the range of 6 4.5σ, two of which correspond to blind detections with no optical counterparts. At this significance level, our statistical analysis shows that about 60% of our candidates are expected to be spurious. For one of our blindly selected [C ii] line candidates, we tentatively detect the CO(6-5) line in our parallel 3 mm line scan. None of the line candidates are individually detected in the 1.2 mm continuum. A stack of all [C ii] candidates results in a tentative detection with S 1.2 mm = 14 ± 5 μJy. This implies a dust-obscured star-formation rate (SFR) of (3 ± 1) M ⊙ yr-1. We find that the two highest-SFR objects have candidate [C ii] lines with luminosities that are consistent with the low-redshift L [C ii] versus SFR relation. The other candidates have significantly higher [C ii] luminosities than expected from their UV-based SFR. At the current sensitivity, it is unclear whether the majority of these sources are intrinsically bright [C ii] emitters, or spurious sources. If only one of our line candidates was real (a scenario greatly favored by our statistical analysis), we find a source density for [C ii] emitters at 6 universe.

  4. The Abundance of Star-Forming Galaxies in the Redshift Range 8.5 to 12: New Results from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S; Dunlop, James S; Robertson, Brant E; Ono, Yoshiaki; Schenker, Matthew A; Koekemoer, Anton; Bowler, Rebecca A A; Ouchi, Masami; Rogers, Alexander B; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P; Furlanetto, Steven R; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the deepest search to date for star-forming galaxies beyond a redshift z~8.5 utilizing a new sequence of near-infrared Wide Field Camera 3 images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. This `UDF12' campaign completed in September 2012 doubles the earlier exposures with WFC3/IR in this field and quadruples the exposure in the key F105W filter used to locate such distant galaxies. Combined with additional imaging in the F140W filter, the fidelity of high redshift candidates is greatly improved. Using spectral energy distribution fitting techniques on objects selected from a deep multi-band near-infrared stack we find 7 promising z>8.5 candidates. As none of the previously claimed UDF candidates with 8.510 galaxies with JWST.

  5. A Matched Catalogue of z> 5.9 Galaxies in the WFC3 Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    There have been several independent analyses of the recent Wide Field Camera 3 images of the Hubble Deep Field, selecting galaxies at z>6 through the Lyman break technique. Presented here is a matched catalogue of objects in common between the analyses posted to this preprint server, listing the different catalogue names associated with the same sources.

  6. The Contribution of High Redshift Galaxies to Cosmic Reionization: New Results from Deep WFC3 Imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Andrew; Ellis, Richard; Stark, Daniel; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Chiu, Kuenley; Lacy, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We have searched for star-forming galaxies at z~7 by applying the Lyman-break technique to newly-released 1.1micron Y-band images from WFC3 on HST. By comparing these images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with the ACS z'-band (0.85micron), we identify objects with red colours, (z'-Y)_AB>1.3), consistent with the Ly-alpha forest absorption at z~6.7-8.8. We identify 12 of these z'-drops down to a limiting magnitude Y_AB0.5), and the clumping factor of the Universe is low. Even then, we need to invoke a large contribution from galaxies below our detection limit. The apparent shortfall in ionizing photons might be alleviated if stellar populations at high redshift are low metallicity or have a top-heavy IMF.

  7. ALMA spectroscopic survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Continuum number counts, resolved 1.2-mm extragalactic background, and properties of the faintest dusty star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Walter, Fabian; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Bauer, Franz E; Carilli, Christopher; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto J; Bell, Eric; Bertoldi, Frank; Bacon, Roland; Bouwens, Rychard; Cortes, Paulo; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ibar, Eduardo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Karim, Alexander; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kauzuaki; Popping, Gergö; Sheth, Kartik; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of a deep (1$\\sigma$=13 $\\mu$Jy) cosmological 1.2-mm continuum map based on ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. In the 1 arcmin$^2$ covered by ASPECS we detect nine sources at $>3.5\\sigma$ significance at 1.2-mm. Our ALMA--selected sample has a median redshift of $z=1.6\\pm0.4$, with only one galaxy detected at z$>$2 within the survey area. This value is significantly lower than that found in millimeter samples selected at a higher flux density cut-off and similar frequencies. Most galaxies have specific star formation rates similar to that of main sequence galaxies at the same epoch, and we find median values of stellar mass and star formation rates of $4.0\\times10^{10}\\ M_\\odot$ and $\\sim40~M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, respectively. Using the dust emission as a tracer for the ISM mass, we derive depletion times that are typically longer than 300 Myr, and we find molecular gas fractions ranging from $\\sim$0.1 to 1.0. As noted by previous studies, these values ar...

  8. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Search for [CII] line and dust emission in $6

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Walter, Fabian; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal; Carilli, Christopher; Bauer, Franz E; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Bacon, Roland; Bell, Eric; Bertoldi, Frank; Cortes, Paulo; Cox, Pierre; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ibar, Eduardo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Karim, Alexander; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kauzuaki; Popping, Gergö; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for [CII] line and dust continuum emission from optical dropout galaxies at $z>6$ using ASPECS, our ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF). Our observations, which cover the frequency range $212-272$ GHz, encompass approximately the range $6$4.5 $\\sigma$, two of which correspond to blind detections with no optical counterparts. At this significance level, our statistical analysis shows that about 60\\% of our candidates are expected to be spurious. For one of our blindly selected [CII] line candidates, we tentatively detect the CO(6-5) line in our parallel 3-mm line scan. None of the line candidates are individually detected in the 1.2 mm continuum. A stack of all [CII] candidates results in a tentative detection with $S_{1.2mm}=14\\pm5\\mu$Jy. This implies a dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) of $(3\\pm1)$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We find that the two highest--SFR objects have candidate [CII] lines with luminosities that are consistent with the low-redshift $L_{\\rm [C...

  9. ALMA spectroscopic survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: CO luminosity functions and the evolution of the cosmic density of molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Decarli, Roberto; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R J; Popping, Gergö; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the {\\em Hubble} Ultra Deep Field (UDF) in band 3 and band 6, to place blind constraints on the CO luminosity function and the evolution of the cosmic molecular gas density as a function of redshift up to $z\\sim 4.5$. This study is based on galaxies that have been solely selected through their CO emission and not through any other property. In all of the redshift bins the ASPECS measurements reach the predicted `knee' of the CO luminosity function (around $5\\times10^{9}$ K km/s pc$^2$). We find clear evidence of an evolution in the CO luminosity function with respect to $z\\sim 0$, with more CO luminous galaxies present at $z\\sim 2$. The observed galaxies at $z\\sim 2$ also appear more gas-rich than predicted by recent semi-analytical models. The comoving cosmic molecular gas density within galaxies as a function of redshift shows a factor 3-10 drop from $z \\sim 2$ to $z \\sim 0$ (with significant error bars), and possibly a decline at $z>3$. This tre...

  10. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Infrared Excess of UV-selected z=2-10 galaxies as a function of UV-continuum Slope and Stellar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwens, Rychard; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; da Cunha, Elisabete; Labbe, Ivo; Bauer, Franz; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Chapman, Scott; Daddi, Emanuele; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ivison, Rob; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; van der Werf, Paul; Weiss, Axel; Cox, Pierre; Elbaz, David; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Oesch, Pascal; Wagg, Jeff; Wilkins, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We make use of deep 1.2mm-continuum observations (12.7microJy/beam RMS) of a 1 arcmin^2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to probe dust-enshrouded star formation from 330 Lyman-break galaxies spanning the redshift range z=2-10 (to ~2-3 Msol/yr at 1sigma over the entire range). Given the depth and area of ASPECS, we would expect to tentatively detect 35 galaxies extrapolating the Meurer z~0 IRX-beta relation to z>~2 (assuming T_d~35 K). However, only 6 tentative detections are found at z>~2 in ASPECS, with just two at >>3sigma. Subdividing z=2-10 galaxies according to stellar mass, UV luminosity, and UV-continuum slope and stacking the results, we only find a significant detection in the most massive (>10^9.75 Msol) subsample, with an infrared excess (IRX=L_{IR}/L_{UV}) consistent with previous z~2 results. However, the infrared excess we measure from our large selection of sub-L* (~2 galaxies. We furthermore find that the evolution of IRX-stellar mass relationship depends on the evolution of the dust temp...

  11. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Implications for Spectral Line Intensity Mapping at Millimeter Wavelengths and CMB Spectral Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, C. L.; Chluba, J.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Aravena, M.; Wagg, J.; Popping, G.; Cortes, P.; Hodge, J.; Weiss, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Riechers, D.

    2016-12-01

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99 and 242 GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for spectral line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the ALMA spectral deep field observations “ASPECS” survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242 GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [C ii] 158 μm line emission from very high redshift galaxies (z ˜ 6-7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean line surface brightness, independent of conversion factors, excitation, or other galaxy formation model assumptions. The mean surface brightness in the 99 GHZ band is: T B = 0.94 ± 0.09 μK. In the 242 GHz band, the mean brightness is: T B = 0.55 ± 0.033 μK. These should be interpreted as lower limits on the average sky signal, since we only include lines detected individually in the blind survey, while in a low resolution intensity mapping experiment, there will also be the summed contribution from lower luminosity galaxies that cannot be detected individually in the current blind survey.

  12. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Infrared Excess of UV-Selected z = 2-10 Galaxies as a Function of UV-Continuum Slope and Stellar Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard J.; Aravena, Manuel; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; da Cunha, Elisabete; Labbé, Ivo; Bauer, Franz E.; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Chapman, Scott; Daddi, Emanuele; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ivison, Rob J.; Karim, Alex; Le Fevre, Olivier; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R.; van der Werf, Paul; Weiss, Axel; Cox, Pierre; Elbaz, David; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Oesch, Pascal; Wagg, Jeff; Wilkins, Steve

    2016-12-01

    We make use of deep 1.2 mm continuum observations (12.7 μJy beam-1 rms) of a 1 arcmin2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to probe dust-enshrouded star formation from 330 Lyman-break galaxies spanning the redshift range z = 2-10 (to ˜2-3 M ⊙ yr-1 at 1σ over the entire range). Given the depth and area of ASPECS, we would expect to tentatively detect 35 galaxies, extrapolating the Meurer z ˜ 0 IRX-β relation to z ≥ 2 (assuming dust temperature T d ˜ 35 K). However, only six tentative detections are found at z ≳ 2 in ASPECS, with just three at >3σ. Subdividing our z = 2-10 galaxy samples according to stellar mass, UV luminosity, and UV-continuum slope and stacking the results, we find a significant detection only in the most massive (>109.75 M ⊙) subsample, with an infrared excess (IRX = L IR/L UV) consistent with previous z ˜ 2 results. However, the infrared excess we measure from our large selection of sub-L ∗ (<109.75 M ⊙) galaxies is {0.11}-0.42+0.32 ± 0.34 (bootstrap and formal uncertainties) and {0.14}-0.14+0.15 ± 0.18 at z = 2-3 and z = 4-10, respectively, lying below even an IRX-β relation for the Small Magellanic Cloud (95% confidence). These results demonstrate the relevance of stellar mass for predicting the IR luminosity of z ≳ 2 galaxies. We find that the evolution of the IRX-stellar mass relationship depends on the evolution of the dust temperature. If the dust temperature increases monotonically with redshift (\\propto {(1+z)}0.32) such that T d ˜ 44-50 K at z ≥ 4, current results are suggestive of little evolution in this relationship to z ˜ 6. We use these results to revisit recent estimates of the z ≥ 3 star formation rate density.

  13. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Continuum Number Counts, Resolved 1.2 mm Extragalactic Background, and Properties of the Faintest Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, M.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Da Cunha, E.; Bauer, F. E.; Carilli, C. L.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Weiss, A.; Anguita, T.; Assef, R. J.; Bell, E.; Bertoldi, F.; Bacon, R.; Bouwens, R.; Cortes, P.; Cox, P.; Gónzalez-López, J.; Hodge, J.; Ibar, E.; Inami, H.; Infante, L.; Karim, A.; Le Le Fèvre, O.; Magnelli, B.; Ota, K.; Popping, G.; Sheth, K.; van der Werf, P.; Wagg, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present an analysis of a deep (1σ = 13 μJy) cosmological 1.2 mm continuum map based on ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. In the 1 arcmin2 covered by ASPECS we detect nine sources at \\gt 3.5σ significance at 1.2 mm. Our ALMA-selected sample has a median redshift of z=1.6+/- 0.4, with only one galaxy detected at z > 2 within the survey area. This value is significantly lower than that found in millimeter samples selected at a higher flux density cutoff and similar frequencies. Most galaxies have specific star formation rates (SFRs) similar to that of main-sequence galaxies at the same epoch, and we find median values of stellar mass and SFRs of 4.0× {10}10 {M}⊙ and ˜ 40 {M}⊙ yr-1, respectively. Using the dust emission as a tracer for the interstellar medium (ISM) mass, we derive depletion times that are typically longer than 300 Myr, and we find molecular gas fractions ranging from ˜0.1 to 1.0. As noted by previous studies, these values are lower than those using CO-based ISM estimates by a factor of ˜2. The 1 mm number counts (corrected for fidelity and completeness) are in agreement with previous studies that were typically restricted to brighter sources. With our individual detections only, we recover 55% ± 4% of the extragalactic background light (EBL) at 1.2 mm measured by the Planck satellite, and we recover 80% ± 7% of this EBL if we include the bright end of the number counts and additional detections from stacking. The stacked contribution is dominated by galaxies at z˜ 1{--}2, with stellar masses of (1-3) × 1010 M {}⊙ . For the first time, we are able to characterize the population of galaxies that dominate the EBL at 1.2 mm.

  14. CANDELS Multiwavelength catalogs: Source Identification and Photometry in the CANDELS UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey Field

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, Audrey; Fontana, Adriano; Ferguson, Henry C; Ashby, M L N; Barro, Guillermo; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Donley, Jennifer L; Faber, Sandy M; Grogin, Norman; Guo, Yicheng; Huang, Kuang-Han; Kocevski, Dale D; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Peth, Michael; Willner, S P; Almaini, Omar; Cooper, Michael; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Conselice, Christopher J; Dickinson, Mark; Dunlop, James S; Fazio, G G; Foucaud, Sebastien; Gardner, Jonathan P; Giavalisco, Mauro; Hathi, N P; Hartley, Will G; Koo, David C; Lai, Kamson; de Mello, Duilia F; McLure, Ross J; Lucas, Ray A; Paris, Diego; Pentericci, Laura; Santini, Paola; Simpson, Chris; Sommariva, Veronica; Targett, Thomas; Weiner, Benjamin J; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    We present the multiwavelength - ultraviolet to mid-infrared - catalog of the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS) field observed as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). Based on publicly available data, the catalog includes: the CANDELS data from the Hubble Space Telescope (near-infrared WFC3 F125W and F160W data and visible ACS F606W and F814W data), u-band data from CFHT/Megacam, B, V, Rc, i' and z' band data from Subaru/Suprime-Cam, Y and Ks band data from VLT/HAWK-I, J, H and K bands data from UKIDSS (Data Release 8), and Spitzer/IRAC data (3.6, 4.5 from SEDS, 5.8 and 8.0um from SpUDS). The present catalog is F160W-selected and contains 35932 sources over an area of 201.7 square arcmin and includes radio and X-ray detected sources and spectroscopic redshifts available for 210 sources.

  15. Interstellar extinction and the distribution of stellar populations in the direction of the ultra-deep Chandra Galactic field

    CERN Document Server

    Revnivtsev, M; Burenin, R; Grindlay, J E; Karasev, D; Forman, W

    2010-01-01

    We studied the stellar population in the central 6.6x6.6arcmin,region of the ultra-deep (1Msec) Chandra Galactic field - the "Chandra bulge field" (CBF) approximately 1.5 degrees away from the Galactic Center - using the Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC blue (F435W) and red (F625W) images. We mainly focus on the behavior of red clump giants - a distinct stellar population, which is known to have an essentially constant intrinsic luminosity and color. By studying the variation in the position of the red clump giants on a spatially resolved color-magnitude diagram, we confirm the anomalous total-to-selective extinction ratio, as reported in previous work for other Galactic bulge fields. We show that the interstellar extinction in this area is = 4 on average, but varies significantly between ~3-5 on angular scales as small as 1 arcminute. Using the distribution of red clump giants in an extinction-corrected color-magnitude diagram, we constrain the shape of a stellar-mass distribution model in the direction of thi...

  16. High-Redshift Extremely Red Objects in the HST Ultra Deep Field Revealed by the GOODS IRAC Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, H; Eisenhardt, P R M; Ferguson, H C; Grogin, N A; Paolillo, M; Chary, R R; Casertano, S; Stern, D; Reach, W T; Moustakas, L A; Fall, S M; Yan, Haojing; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Casertano, Stefano; Stern, Daniel; Reach, William T.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2004-01-01

    Using early data from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, taken for the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), we identify and study objects that are well-detected at 3.6um, but are very faint (and in some cases, invisible) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) ACS and NICMOS images and in very deep VLT Ks-band imaging. We select a sample of 17 objects with f_nu(3.6um)/f_nu(z_{850})>20. The analysis of their spectral energy-distributions (SEDs) from 0.4 to 8.0um shows that the majority of these objects cannot be satisfactorily explained without a well-evolved stellar population. We find that most of them can be well fitted by a simple two-component model, where the primary component represents a massive, old population that dominates the strong IR emission, while the secondary component represents a low amplitude, on-going star-formation process that accounts for the weak optical fluxes. Their estimated photometric redshifts (z_p) range from 1.6 to 2.9, with the median a...

  17. Hubble Deep Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, H.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Deep Fields are two small areas of the sky that were carefully selected for deep observations by the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST). They represent the deepest optical observations to date and reveal galaxies as faint as V=30, 4 billion times fainter than can be seen with the unaided eye....

  18. Ultra-Deep Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Small Magellanic Cloud: The Initial Mass Function of Stars with M <~ 1 Msun

    CERN Document Server

    Kalirai, Jason S; Dotter, Aaron; Richer, Harvey B; Fahlman, Gregory G; Hansen, Brad M S; Hurley, Jarrod; Reid, I Neill; Rich, R Michael; Shara, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) based on ultra-deep, high-resolution photometry of >5,000 stars in the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) galaxy. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observations reveal this rich, co-spatial population behind the foreground globular cluster 47 Tuc, which we targeted for 121 HST orbits. The stellar main sequence of the SMC is measured in the F606W, F814W color-magnitude diagram (CMD) down to ~30th magnitude, and is cleanly separated from the foreground star cluster population using proper motions. We simulate the SMC population by extracting stellar masses (single and unresolved binaries) from specific IMFs, and converting those masses to luminosities in our bandpasses. The corresponding photometry for these simulated stars is drawn directly from a rich cloud of 4 million artificial stars, thereby accounting for the real photometric scatter and completeness of the data. Over a continuous and well ...

  19. ULTRA-DEEP HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION OF STARS WITH M {approx}< 1 M {sub Sun}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Anderson, Jay; Dotter, Aaron; Reid, I. Neill [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Richer, Harvey B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Fahlman, Gregory G. [National Research Council, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hansen, Brad M. S.; Rich, R. Michael [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Hurley, Jarrod [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); Shara, Michael M., E-mail: jkalirai@stsci.edu, E-mail: jayander@stsci.edu, E-mail: dotter@stsci.edu, E-mail: richer@astro.ubc.ca, E-mail: greg.fahlman@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: jhurley@swin.edu.au, E-mail: mshara@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present a new measurement of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) based on ultra-deep, high-resolution photometry of >5000 stars in the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) galaxy. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys observations reveal this rich, cospatial population behind the foreground globular cluster 47 Tuc, which we targeted for 121 HST orbits. The stellar main sequence of the SMC is measured in the F606W, F814W color-magnitude diagram down to {approx}30th magnitude, and is cleanly separated from the foreground star cluster population using proper motions. We simulate the SMC population by extracting stellar masses (single and unresolved binaries) from specific IMFs and converting those masses to luminosities in our bandpasses. The corresponding photometry for these simulated stars is drawn directly from a rich cloud of 4 million artificial stars, thereby accounting for the real photometric scatter and completeness of the data. Over a continuous and well-populated mass range of M = 0.37-0.93 M {sub Sun} (e.g., down to a {approx}75% completeness limit at F606W = 28.7), we demonstrate that the IMF is well represented by a single power-law form with slope {alpha} = -1.90 ({sup +0.15} {sub -0.10}) (3{sigma} error) (e.g., dN/dM{proportional_to} M {sup {alpha}}). This is shallower than the Salpeter slope of {alpha} = -2.35, which agrees with the observed stellar luminosity function at higher masses. Our results indicate that the IMF does not turn over to a more shallow power-law form within this mass range. We discuss implications of this result for the theory of star formation, the inferred masses of galaxies, and the (lack of a) variation of the IMF with metallicity.

  20. Ultra-Deep Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Small Magellanic Cloud: The Initial Mass Function of Stars with M <~ 1 M ⊙

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Anderson, Jay; Dotter, Aaron; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Hurley, Jarrod; Reid, I. Neill; Rich, R. Michael; Shara, Michael M.

    2013-02-01

    We present a new measurement of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) based on ultra-deep, high-resolution photometry of >5000 stars in the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) galaxy. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys observations reveal this rich, cospatial population behind the foreground globular cluster 47 Tuc, which we targeted for 121 HST orbits. The stellar main sequence of the SMC is measured in the F606W, F814W color-magnitude diagram down to ~30th magnitude, and is cleanly separated from the foreground star cluster population using proper motions. We simulate the SMC population by extracting stellar masses (single and unresolved binaries) from specific IMFs and converting those masses to luminosities in our bandpasses. The corresponding photometry for these simulated stars is drawn directly from a rich cloud of 4 million artificial stars, thereby accounting for the real photometric scatter and completeness of the data. Over a continuous and well-populated mass range of M = 0.37-0.93 M ⊙ (e.g., down to a ~75% completeness limit at F606W = 28.7), we demonstrate that the IMF is well represented by a single power-law form with slope α = -1.90 (+0.15 -0.10) (3σ error) (e.g., dN/dMvprop M α). This is shallower than the Salpeter slope of α = -2.35, which agrees with the observed stellar luminosity function at higher masses. Our results indicate that the IMF does not turn over to a more shallow power-law form within this mass range. We discuss implications of this result for the theory of star formation, the inferred masses of galaxies, and the (lack of a) variation of the IMF with metallicity. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal GO-11677.

  1. HST/ACS Observations of RR Lyrae Stars in Six Ultra-Deep Fields of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, E. J.; Smith, E.; Brown, T. M.; Sweigart, A. V.; Kalirai, J. S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Guhathakurta, P.; Renzini, A.; Rich, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present HST/ACS observations of RR Lyrae variable stars in six ultra deep fields of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), including parts of the halo, disk, and giant stellar stream. Past work on the RR Lyrae stars in M31 has focused on various aspects of the stellar populations that make up the galaxy s halo, including their distances and metallicities. This study builds upon this previous work by increasing the spatial coverage (something that has been lacking in previous studies) and by searching for these variable stars in constituents of the galaxy not yet explored. Besides the 55 RR Lyrae stars we found in our initial field located 11kpc from the galactic nucleus, we find additional RR Lyrae stars in four of the remaining five ultra deep fields as follows: 21 in the disk, 24 in the giant stellar stream, 3 in the halo field 21kpc from the galactic nucleus, and 5 in one of the halo fields at 35kpc. No RR Lyrae were found in the second halo field at 35kpc. The RR Lyrae populations of these fields appear to mostly be of Oosterhoff I type, although the 11kpc field appears to be intermediate or mixed. We will discuss the properties of these stars including period and reddening distributions. We calculate metallicities and distances for the stars in each of these fields using different methods and compare the results, to an extent that has not yet been done. We compare these methods not just on RR Lyrae in our M31 fields, but also on a data set of Milky Way field RR Lyrae stars.

  2. The construction of technical standard system for ultra deep and high sour gas fields in Northeast Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yintao; Liao Chengrui; Yang Yukun

    2012-01-01

    To deal with the exploitation difficulties of gas fields in Northeast Sichuan with deep marine strata, after re- searching the relative standards domestic and abroad extensively, summarizing and promoting the successful experiences and failure lessons of project construction technology application scientifically, Sinopec has established an integrated technical standard system for the exploration and development of ultra deep and high sour gas fields. The system consists of 51 enterprise standards and covers 7 professions including geophysical prospecting, drilling, drilling log, well log- ging, gas formation test and production, sour gas gathering and transferring system, and HSE (health, safety, environ- ment). It guides and guarantees the safe, high-quality and high-efficiency project construction effectively by means of enhancing the engineering design criterion, recommending the data processing and interpretation methods, identifying the requirements of operation and field inspection and standardizing the application of technical equipments.

  3. MUSE deep-fields: the Ly α luminosity function in the Hubble Deep Field-South at 2.91 < z < 6.64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Alyssa B.; Guiderdoni, Bruno; Blaizot, Jérémy; Wisotzki, Lutz; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Garel, Thibault; Richard, Johan; Bacon, Roland; Bina, David; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Contini, Thierry; den Brok, Mark; Hashimoto, Takuya; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Pelló, Roser; Schaye, Joop; Schmidt, Kasper B.

    2017-10-01

    We present the first estimate of the Ly α luminosity function using blind spectroscopy from the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer, MUSE, in the Hubble Deep Field-South. Using automatic source-detection software, we assemble a homogeneously detected sample of 59 Ly α emitters covering a flux range of -18.0 Hubble Ultra Deep Field that will increase the size of our sample by almost a factor of 10.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: z~4-7 Lyman break galaxies in Hubble deep fields (Harikane+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikane, Y.; Ouchi, M.; Ono, Y.; More, S.; Saito, S.; Lin, Y.-T.; Coupon, J.; Shimasaku, K.; Shibuya, T.; Price, P. A.; Lin, L.; Hsieh, B.-C.; Ishigaki, M.; Komiyama, Y.; Silverman, J.; Takata, T.; Tamazawa, H.; Toshikawa, J.

    2016-07-01

    We use 10 deep optical-near-IR imaging data sets of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)-North-Deep, GOODS-North-Wide, GOODS-South-Deep, GOODS-South-Wide, Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS)-All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), CANDELS-Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS), CANDELS-Ultra Deep Survey (UDS), Hubble Frontier Field (HFF)-Abell2744P, and HFF-MACS0416P that are taken with ACS and WFC3 on the HST. The total area of the Hubble data is ~600arcmin2. The typical FWHMs of the PSFs of ACS and WFC3 images are 0.1" and 0.2", respectively. (1 data file).

  5. The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Borncamp, David; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Martlin, Catherine; Porterfield, Blair; Sunnquist, Ben; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Grogin, Norman A.; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Ogaz, Sara; Robberto, Massimo; Sembach, Kenneth; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt

    2017-08-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The entire program has now completed successfully for all 6 clusters, namely Abell 2744, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223,. Each of these was observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, obtaining images in ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W) on both the main cluster and the parallel field in all cases. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including cumulative-depth data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth releases after the completion of each epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected drizzled mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The full set of resulting high-level science products and mosaics are publicly delivered to the community via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  6. UVUDF: Ultraviolet Imaging of the Hubble Ultradeep Field with Wide-field Camera 3

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, Harry I; Kurczynski, Peter; Bond, Nicholas A; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M; Atek, Hakim; Brown, Thomas M; Coe, Dan; Colbert, James W; Ferguson, Henry C; Finkelstein, Steven L; Gardner, Jonathan P; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gronwall, Caryl; Hanish, Daniel J; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; de Mello, Duilia F; Ravindranath, Swara; Ryan, Russell E; Siana, Brian D; Scarlata, Claudia; Soto, Emmaris; Voyer, Elysse N; Wolfe, Arthur M

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of a 90-orbit Hubble Space Telescope treasury program to obtain near ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using the Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS detector with the F225W, F275W, and F336W filters. This survey is designed to: (i) Investigate the episode of peak star formation activity in galaxies at 1

  7. The Hubble Deep Field South Flanking Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, R A; Brown, T M; Casertano, S; Conselice, C J; De Mello, D F; Dickinson, M E; Ferguson, H C; Fruchter, A S; Gardner, J P; Gilmore, D; González-Lopezlira, R A; Heyer, I; Hook, R N; Kaiser, M E; Mack, J; Makidon, R B; Martin, C L; Mutchler, M Y; Smith, T E; Stiavelli, M; Teplitz, H I; Wiggs, M S; Williams, R E; Zurek, D R; Lucas, Ray A.; Baum, Stefi A.; Brown, Thomas M.; Casertano, Stefano; Conselice, Chris; Mello, Duilia de; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gilmore, Diane; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.; Heyer, Inge; Hook, Richard N.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Mack, Jennifer; Makidon, Russell; Martin, Crystal L.; Mutchler, Max; Stiavelli, Massimo; Teplitz, Harry I.; Wiggs, Michael S.; Williams, Robert E.; Zurek, David R.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Hubble Deep Field South program, a set of shorter 2-orbit observations were obtained of the area adjacent to the deep fields. The WFPC2 flanking fields cover a contiguous solid angle of 48 square arcminutes. Parallel observations with the STIS and NICMOS instruments produce a patchwork of additional fields with optical and near-infrared (1.6 micron) response. Deeper parallel exposures with WFPC2 and NICMOS were obtained when STIS observed the NICMOS deep field. These deeper fields are offset from the rest, and an extended low surface brightness object is visible in the deeper WFPC2 flanking field. In this data paper, which serves as an archival record of the project, we discuss the observations and data reduction, and present SExtractor source catalogs and number counts derived from the data. Number counts are broadly consistent with previous surveys from both ground and space. Among other things, these flanking field observations are useful for defining slit masks for spectroscopic follow-up o...

  8. The Morphology of Passively Evolving Galaxies at Z-2 from HST/WFC3 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassata, P.; Giavalisco, M.; Guo, Yicheng; Ferguson, H.; Koekemoer, A.; Renzini, A.; Fontana, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Dickinson, M.; Casertano, S.; Conselice, C.J.; Grogin, N.; Lotz, J.M.; Papovich, C.; Lucas, R.A.; Straughn, A.; Gardner, J.P.; Moustakas, L.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss near-IR images of six passive galaxies (SSFRmorphology of such systems to date. We find that the light profile of these; galaxies is generally regular and well described by a Sersic model with index typical of today's spheroids. We confirm the existence of compact and massive early-type galaxies at z approx. 2: four out of six galaxies have T(sub e) approx. 1 kpc or less. The WFC3 images achieve limiting surface brightness mu approx. 26.5 mag/sq arcsec in the F160W bandpass; yet there is no evidence of a faint halo in the five compact galaxies of our sample, nor is a halo observed in their stacked image. We also find very weak "morphological k-correction" in the galaxies between the rest-frame UV (from the ACS z band), and the rest-frame optical (WFC3 H band): the visual classification, Sersic indices and physical sizes of these galaxies are independent or only mildly dependent on the wavelength, within the errors.

  9. The UV Continuum of $z>1$ Star-forming Galaxies in the Hubble Ultraviolet UltraDeep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Kurczynski, Peter; Rafelski, Marc; Teplitz, Harry I; Acquaviva, Viviana; Brown, Thomas M; Coe, Dan; de Mello, Duilia F; Grogin, Norman A; Finkelstein, Steven; Koekemoer, Anton M; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the UV continuum slope, $\\beta$, for 923 galaxies in the range $1 = -1.382~(-1.830)\\pm0.002$ (random) $\\pm0.1$ (systematic). We find comparable scatter in $\\beta$ (standard deviation = 0.43) to local dwarf galaxies and 30% larger scatter than $z>2$ galaxies. We study the trends of $\\beta$ with redshift and absolute magnitude for binned sub-samples and find a modest color-magnitude relation, $d\\beta/dM = -0.11 \\pm 0.01$ and no evolution in $d\\beta/dM$ with redshift. A modest increase in dust reddening with redshift and luminosity, $\\Delta E(B-V) \\sim 0.1$, and a comparable increase in the dispersion of dust reddening at $z2$, we find trends that are consistent with previous works; combining our data with the literature in the range $1

  10. Evolution of the Sizes of Galaxies over 7Hubble Ultra Deep Field Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Schenker, Matthew A; Ellis, Richard S; McLure, Ross J; Dunlop, James S; Robertson, Brant E; Koekemoer, Anton M; Bowler, Rebecca A A; Rogers, Alexander B; Schneider, Evan; Charlot, Stephane; Stark, Daniel P; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Furlanetto, Steven R; Cirasuolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z~7-12 using deep images from the UDF12 campaign, data which offers two distinct advantages over that used in earlier work. Firstly, we utilize the increased S/N ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved size measurements for known galaxies at z=6.5-8 in the HUDF. Specifically, we stack the new deep F140W image with the existing F125W data in order to provide improved measurements of the half-light radii of z-dropouts. Similarly we stack this image with the new deep UDF12 F160W image to obtain new size measurements for a sample of Y-dropouts. Secondly, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z>8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to significantly higher redshifts. Restricting our size measurements to sources which are now detected at >15sigma, we confirm earlier indications that the average hal...

  11. Ultra-deep Large Binocular Camera U-band Imaging of the GOODS-North Field: Depth vs. Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Grazian, Andrea; Boutsia, Konstantina; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele; O'Connell, Robert W.; Paris, Diego; Rutkowski, Michael J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Testa, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of the trade-off between depth and resolution using a large number of U-band images in the GOODS-North field obtained with the Large Binocular Camera (LBC) on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Having acquired over 30 hours of total exposure time (315 images, each 5-6 min), we generated multiple image mosaics, starting with the subset of images with the best (FWHM light-profiles to SB ~ 32 mag arcsec-2. This helps constrain how much flux can be missed in galaxy outskirts, which is important for studies of Extragalactic Background Light.In the future, we will expand our analysis of the GOODS-N field to ~26 hours of LBT/LBC R-band surface photometry to similar depths.

  12. A Large-Scale Super-Structure at z=0.65 in the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galametz, Audrey; Candels Clustering Working Group

    2017-07-01

    In hierarchical structure formation scenarios, galaxies accrete along high density filaments. Superclusters represent the largest density enhancements in the cosmic web with scales of 100 to 200 Mpc. As they represent the largest components of LSS, they are very powerful tools to constrain cosmological models. Since they also offer a wide range of density, from infalling group to high density cluster core, they are also the perfect laboratory to study the influence of environment on galaxy evolution. I will present a newly discovered large scale structure at z=0.65 in the UKIDSS UDS field. Although statistically predicted, the presence of such structure in UKIDSS, one of the most extensively covered and studied extragalactic field, remains a serendipity. Our follow-up confirmed more than 15 group members including at least three galaxy clusters with M200 10^14Msol . Deep spectroscopy of the quiescent core galaxies reveals that the most massive structure knots are at very different formation stage with a range of red sequence properties. Statistics allow us to map formation age across the structure denser knots and identify where quenching is most probably occurring across the LSS. Spectral diagnostics analysis also reveals an interesting population of transition galaxies we suspect are transforming from star-forming to quiescent galaxies.

  13. The Hubble Deep Field South STIS Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, J P; Brown, T M; Carollo, C M; Christensen, J; Dashevsky, I; Dickinson, M E; Espey, B R; Ferguson, H C; Fruchter, A S; Gonnella, A M; González-Lopezlira, R A; Hook, R N; Kaiser, M E; Martin, C L; Sahu, K C; Savaglio, S; Smith, T E; Teplitz, H I; Williams, R E; Wilson, J

    1999-01-01

    We present the imaging observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph of the Hubble Deep Field - South. The field was imaged in 4 bandpasses: a clear CCD bandpass for 156 ksec, a long-pass filter for 22-25 ksec per pixel typical exposure, a near-UV bandpass for 23 ksec, and a far-UV bandpass for 52 ksec. The clear visible image is the deepest observation ever made in the UV-optical wavelength region, reaching a 10 sigma AB magnitude of 29.4 for an object of area 0.2 square arcseconds. The field contains QSO J2233-606, the target of the STIS spectroscopy, and extends 50"x50" for the visible images, and 25"x25" for the ultraviolet images. We present the images, catalog of objects, and galaxy counts obtained in the field.

  14. Ultra Deep Wave Equation Imaging and Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander M. Popovici; Sergey Fomel; Paul Sava; Sean Crawley; Yining Li; Cristian Lupascu

    2006-09-30

    In this project we developed and tested a novel technology, designed to enhance seismic resolution and imaging of ultra-deep complex geologic structures by using state-of-the-art wave-equation depth migration and wave-equation velocity model building technology for deeper data penetration and recovery, steeper dip and ultra-deep structure imaging, accurate velocity estimation for imaging and pore pressure prediction and accurate illumination and amplitude processing for extending the AVO prediction window. Ultra-deep wave-equation imaging provides greater resolution and accuracy under complex geologic structures where energy multipathing occurs, than what can be accomplished today with standard imaging technology. The objective of the research effort was to examine the feasibility of imaging ultra-deep structures onshore and offshore, by using (1) wave-equation migration, (2) angle-gathers velocity model building, and (3) wave-equation illumination and amplitude compensation. The effort consisted of answering critical technical questions that determine the feasibility of the proposed methodology, testing the theory on synthetic data, and finally applying the technology for imaging ultra-deep real data. Some of the questions answered by this research addressed: (1) the handling of true amplitudes in the downward continuation and imaging algorithm and the preservation of the amplitude with offset or amplitude with angle information required for AVO studies, (2) the effect of several imaging conditions on amplitudes, (3) non-elastic attenuation and approaches for recovering the amplitude and frequency, (4) the effect of aperture and illumination on imaging steep dips and on discriminating the velocities in the ultra-deep structures. All these effects were incorporated in the final imaging step of a real data set acquired specifically to address ultra-deep imaging issues, with large offsets (12,500 m) and long recording time (20 s).

  15. Illuminating gas inflows/outflows in the MUSE deepest fields : Lyα nebulae around forming galaxies at z ≃ 3.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanzella, E.; Balestra, I.; Gronke, M.; Karman, W.; Caminha, G. B.; Dijkstra, M.; Rosati, P.; De Barros, S.; Caputi, K.; Grillo, C.; Tozzi, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Mercurio, A.; Gilli, R.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the discovery of extended Ly-alpha nebulae at z~3.3 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF, ~ 40 kpc X 80 kpc) and behind the Hubble Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACSJ0416 (~ 40kpc), spatially associated with groups of star-forming galaxies. VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy reveals

  16. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...

  17. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.;

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...

  18. WSRT observations of the Hubble Deep Field region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, MA; de Bruyn, AG; Giroletti, M; Baan, WA; Schilizzi, RT

    We present deep WSRT 1.4 GHz observations of the Hubble Deep Field region. At the 5 sigma level, the WSRT clearly detects 85 regions of radio emission in a 10' x 10' field centred on the HDF Eight of these regions fall within the HDF itself, four of these are sources that have not previously been

  19. Surface Brightness Profiles of Composite Images of Compact Galaxies at Z approximately equal 4-6 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-07

    significant number of low luminosity dwarf galaxies were present at these times, and were the main contributor to finish the process of reionization of the...z 6 has implications for the reionization of the Universe. From observations of the appearance of complete Gunn–Peterson troughs in the spectra of...z 5.8 quasars (Fan et al. 2006), we know that the epoch of reionization had ended by z 6. From the steep (α = −1.8) faint-end slope of the

  20. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: implications for spectral line intensity mapping at millimeter wavelengths and CMB spectral distortions

    CERN Document Server

    Carilli, C L; Decarli, R; Walter, F; Aravena, M; Wagg, J; Popping, G; Cortes, P; Hodge, J; Weiss, A; Bertoldi, F; Riechers, D

    2016-01-01

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99GHz and 242GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for specrtal line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the 'ASPECS' survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [CII] 158$\\mu$m line emission from very high redshift galaxies ($z \\sim 6$ to 7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early Universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean...

  1. Tracing the Mass Growth and Star Formation Rate Evolution of Massive Galaxies from z~6 to z~1 in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Lundgren, Britt F; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Trenti, Michele; Bouwens, Rychard; Gonzalez, Valentino; Illingworth, Garth; Magee, Daniel; Oesch, Pascal; Stiavelli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of $\\sim$1500 H160-selected photometric galaxies detected to a limiting magnitude of 27.8 in the HUDF, using imaging from the HST WFC3/IR camera in combination with archival UV, optical, and NIR imaging. We fit photometric redshifts and stellar population estimates for all galaxies with well-determined Spitzer IRAC fluxes, allowing for the determination of the cumulative mass function within the range $14$.

  2. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory; 4, Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, B M

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by ISO at 6.7 and 15 micron in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches. We find fifteen ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I(AB) < 23] galaxies in the HDF, and one with an I(AB)=19.9 star, while a further eleven are associated with objects in the Hubble Flanking Fields (ten galaxies and one star). Amongst optically bright HDF galaxies, ISO tends to detect luminous, star-forming galaxies at fairly high redshift and with disturbed morphologies, in preference to nearby ellipticals.

  3. Radio Emission from Galaxies In The Hubble Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, E A; Fomalont, E B; Windhorst, R A; Partridge, R B

    1998-01-01

    We report on sensitive radio observations made with the VLA at 8.5 GHz, centered on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). We collected data in the A, CnB, C, DnC, and D configurations, corresponding to angular resolutions ranging from 0.3" to 10". We detected 29 radio sources in a complete sample within 4.6' of the HDF center and above a flux density limit of 9.0 microjy (5 sigma). Seven of these sources are located within the HDF itself, while the remaining 22 sources are covered by the Hubble Flanking Fields (HFFs) or ground based optical images. All of the sources in the HDF are identified with galaxies with a mean magnitude R = 21.7, while the mean magnitude of the identifications outside the HDF is R = 22.1. Three radio sources have no optical counterparts to R = 27. Based on a radio and optical positional coincidence, we detected an additional 19 radio sources in this field (seven of which are contained in the HDF) with 6.3 microjy < S < 9.0 (3.5 sigma < S < 5 sigma) and and R < 25, but which are ...

  4. WFPC2 Observations of the Hubble Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Casertano, S; Dickinson, M; Ferguson, H C; Fruchter, A S; González-Lopezlira, R A; Heyer, I; Hook, R N; Levay, Z G; Lucas, R A; Mack, J; Makidon, R B; Mutchler, M Y; Smith, T E; Stiavelli, M; Wiggs, M S; Williams, R E; Casertano, Stefano; Mello, Duilia de; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C; Fruchter, Andrew S; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A; Heyer, Inge; Hook, Richard N; Levay, Zolt; Lucas, Ray A; Mack, Jennifer; Makidon, Russell B; Mutchler, Max; Stiavelli, Massimo; Wiggs, Michael S; Williams, Robert E

    2000-01-01

    The Hubble Deep Field-South observations targeted a high-galactic-latitude field near QSO J2233-606. We present WFPC2 observations of the field in four wide bandpasses centered at roughly 300, 450, 606, and 814 nm. Observations, data reduction procedures, and noise properties of the final images are discussed in detail. A catalog of sources is presented, and the number counts and color distributions of the galaxies are compared to a new catalog of the HDF-N that has been constructed in an identical manner. The two fields are qualitatively similar, with the galaxy number counts for the two fields agreeing to within 20%. The HDF-S has more candidate Lyman-break galaxies at z > 2 than the HDF-N. The star-formation rate per unit volume computed from the HDF-S, based on the UV luminosity of high-redshift candidates, is a factor of 1.9 higher than from the HDF-N at z ~ 2.7, and a factor of 1.3 higher at z ~ 4.

  5. Characterizing Intracluster Light in the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Takahiro; Abramson, Louis E.; Treu, Tommaso; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Vulcani, Benedetta; Wang, Xin

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the intracluster light (ICL) in the six Hubble Frontier Field clusters at 0.3Hubble Space Telescope imaging to map the ICL’s diffuse light out to clustrocentric radii R∼ 300 {kpc} ({μ }{ICL}∼ 27 mag arcsec‑2). From these maps, we construct radial color and stellar mass profiles via SED fitting and find clear negative color gradients in all systems with increasing distance from the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG). While this implies older/more metal-rich stellar components in the inner part of the ICL, we find that the ICL mostly consists of a ≲ 2 {Gyr} population, and plausibly originated with {log}{M}* /{M}ȯ ≲ 10 cluster galaxies. Furthermore, we find that 10%–15% of the ICL’s mass at large radii (≳ 150 kpc) lies in a younger/bluer stellar population (∼1 Gyr), a phenomenon not seen in local samples. We attribute this light to the higher fraction of star-forming/(post-)starburst galaxies in clusters at z∼ 0.5. Ultimately, we find the ICL’s total mass to be {log}{M}* {ICL}/{M}ȯ ∼ 11–12, constituting 5%–20% of the clusters’ total stellar mass, or about half of the value at z∼ 0. The above implies distinct formation histories for the ICL and BCGs/other massive cluster galaxies; i.e., the ICL at this epoch is still being constructed rapidly (∼ 40 {M}ȯ yr‑1), while the BCGs have mostly completed their evolution. To be consistent with the ICL measurements of local massive clusters, such as Virgo, our data suggest mass acquisition mainly from quiescent cluster galaxies is the principal source of ICL material in the subsequent ∼5 Gyr of cosmic time.

  6. The Hubble Deep Field and the Early Evolution of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, P

    1997-01-01

    I review some recent progress made in our understanding of galaxy evolution and the cosmic history of star formation. The Hubble Deep Field (HDF) imaging survey has achieved the sensitivity to capture the bulk of the extragalactic background light from discrete sources. No evidence is found in the optical number-magnitude relation down to AB=29 mag for a large amount of star formation at high redshifts. The emission history of the universe at ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared wavelengths can be modeled from the present epoch to z~4 by tracing the evolution with cosmic time of the galaxy luminosity density, as determined from several deep spectroscopic samples and the HDF. The global spectrophotometric properties of field galaxies are well fitted by a simple stellar evolution model, defined by a time-dependent star formation rate (SFR) per unit comoving volume and a universal initial mass function which is relatively rich in massive stars. The SFR density is found to rise sharply, by about an order of ma...

  7. Analog Circuits in Ultra-Deep-Submicron CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne-Johan; Nauta, Bram; Langevelde, van Ronald; Tuinhout, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Modern and future ultra-deep-submicron (UDSM) technologies introduce several new problems in analog design. Nonlinear output conductance in combination with reduced voltage gain pose limits in linearity of (feedback) circuits. Gate-leakage mismatch exceeds conventional matching tolerances. Increasin

  8. BUDHIES: a Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffé, Y. L.; Verheijen, M. A.; Poggianti, B. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Deshev, B. Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES), that has detected over 150 galaxies at z˜ 0.2 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Our multi-wavelength study is the first where optical properties and HI content are combined at a redshift where

  9. BUDHIES: a Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffé, Y. L.; Verheijen, M. A.; Poggianti, B. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Deshev, B. Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES), that has detected over 150 galaxies at z˜ 0.2 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Our multi-wavelength study is the first where optical properties and HI content are combined at a redshift where

  10. Thick Disks in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Tompkins, Brittany; Jenks, Leah G.

    2017-09-01

    Thick disk evolution is studied using edge-on galaxies in two Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels. The galaxies were separated into 72 clumpy types and 35 spiral types with bulges. Perpendicular light profiles in F435W, F606W, and F814W (B, V, and I) passbands were measured at 1 pixel intervals along the major axes and fitted to sech2 functions convolved with the instrument line spread function (LSF). The LSF was determined from the average point spread function of ∼20 stars in each passband and field, convolved with a line of uniform brightness to simulate disk blurring. A spread function for a clumpy disk was also used for comparison. The resulting scale heights were found to be proportional to galactic mass, with the average height for a 1010±0.5 M ⊙ galaxy at z = 2 ± 0.5 equal to 0.63 ± 0.24 kpc. This value is probably the result of a blend between thin and thick disk components that cannot be resolved. Evidence for such two-component structure is present in an inverse correlation between height and midplane surface brightness. Models suggest that the thick disk is observed best between the clumps, and there the average scale height is 1.06 ± 0.43 kpc for the same mass and redshift. A 0.63 ± 0.68 mag V ‑ I color differential with height is also evidence for a mixture of thin and thick components.

  11. A molecular line scan in the Hubble deep field north

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Colombo, D.; Da Cunha, E.; Rix, H.-W. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carilli, C. [NRAO, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Riechers, D. [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cox, P.; Neri, R.; Downes, D. [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d' Hères (France); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Bell, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Daddi, E.; Sargent, M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ellis, R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lentati, L.; Maiolino, R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Menten, K. M., E-mail: decarli@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2014-02-20

    We present a molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) that covers the entire 3 mm window (79-115 GHz) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our CO redshift coverage spans z ≲ 0.45, 1 ≲ z ≲ 1.9 and all z ≳ 2. We reach a CO detection limit that is deep enough to detect essentially all z > 1 CO lines reported in the literature so far. We have developed and applied different line-searching algorithms, resulting in the discovery of 17 line candidates. We estimate that the rate of false positive line detections is ∼2/17. We identify optical/NIR counterparts from the deep ancillary database of the HDF-N for seven of these candidates and investigate their available spectral energy distributions. Two secure CO detections in our scan are identified with star-forming galaxies at z = 1.784 and at z = 2.047. These galaxies have colors consistent with the 'BzK' color selection and they show relatively bright CO emission compared with galaxies of similar dust continuum luminosity. We also detect two spectral lines in the submillimeter galaxy HDF 850.1 at z = 5.183. We consider an additional nine line candidates as high quality. Our observations also provide a deep 3 mm continuum map (1σ noise level = 8.6 μJy beam{sup –1}). Via a stacking approach, we find that optical/MIR bright galaxies contribute only to <50% of the star formation rate density at 1 < z < 3, unless high dust temperatures are invoked. The present study represents a first, fundamental step toward an unbiased census of molecular gas in 'normal' galaxies at high-z, a crucial goal of extragalactic astronomy in the ALMA era.

  12. Probing the z > 6 universe with the first Hubble Frontier Fields cluster A2744.

    OpenAIRE

    Atek, Hakim,; Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Clement, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald; Jauzac, Mathilde; Jullo, Eric; Laporte, Nicolas; Limousin, Marceau; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-01-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields program combines the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with the gravitational lensing of massive galaxy clusters to probe the distant universe to an unprecedented depth. Here, we present the results of the first combined HST and Spitzer observations of the cluster A-2744. We combine the full near-infrared data with ancillary optical images to search for gravitationally lensed high-redshift (z gsim 6) galaxies. We report the detection of 15 I 814 dropo...

  13. The UV Luminosity Function at 6 < z < 10 from the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields program has obtained deep optical and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging of six galaxy clusters and associated parallel fields. The depth of the imaging (m_AB ~ 29) means we can identify faint galaxies at z > 6, and those in the cluster fields also benefit from magnification due to strong gravitational lensing that allows us to reach intrinsic absolute magnitudes of M_UV ~ -12.5 at z ~ 6. Here, we present the UV luminosity functions at 6 Universe may have provided sufficient ionizing radiation to sustain reionization.

  14. Morphologies of local Lyman break galaxy analogs II: A Comparison with galaxies at z=2-4 in ACS and WFC3 images of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Overzier, R A; Schiminovich, D; Basu-Zych, A; Goncalves, T; Martin, D C; Rich, R M

    2009-01-01

    Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) display a range in structures (from single/compact to clumpy/extended) that is different from typical local star-forming galaxies. Recently, we have introduced a sample of rare, nearby (z2 galaxies. This leaves open the possibility that clumpy accretion and mergers remain important in driving the evolution of these starbursts, together with rapid gas accretion through other means.

  15. Young Galaxy Candidates in the Hubble Frontier Fields. I. Abell 2744

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, W Zheng X; Zitrin, A; Ford, H C; Huang, X; Broadhurst, T; Molino, A; Diego, J M; Bauer, L Infante F E; Kelson, D D

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of 18 Lyman-break candidates at z>~7.0, in the completed WFC3/IR data Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) observations of Abell 2744 (z=0.308), plus Spitzer/IRAC data and archival ACS data. Half of these candidates fall in the range of 8 7.

  16. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  17. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.;

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  18. AGN populations in GOODS-N through eMERGE ultra-deep JVLA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Daria; Bondi, M.; Prandoni, I.; Beswick, R. J.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Wrigley, N.; Smail, I. R.; McHardy, I.; Ivison, R.; eMERGE Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    Multi-wavelength studies of deep radio fields show a composite population of star-forming galaxies, radio-quiet and radio-loud AGNs, with the formers dominating at the lowest flux densities (sources is still matter of debate. The most direct way to identify faint AGN-driven radio emission is the detection of embedded radio cores in the host galaxies, through ultra-deep and very high resolution radio observations. This would open the perspective of studying the whole AGN population in the radio band, including the radio-quiet component traditionally selected at other wavelengths (opt/IR/X-ray). Assessing the faint AGN component in deep radio fields, will provide an important tool to understand the role of nuclear activity in distant galaxies and its possible co-evolution with star-formation processes, as radio wavelengths are not affected by dust extinction and/or gas absorption. In my talk I will report about the e-MERLIN Galaxy Evolution Survey (eMERGE, PI: Muxlow), a legacy project which aims at undertaking a spatially-resolved study of AGN and star formation processes up to high redshift in a 30 arcmin diameter field in the GOODS-N region, through ultra-deep (sub-microJy rms), sub-arcsec (50-500 mas) imaging at 1.4 and 5 GHz, using combined JVLA and eMERLIN observations. I will focus on the 5 GHz JVLA mosaic observations and catalogue of GOODS-N (94 sources), in the framework of the eMERGE project, and on the study of a larger sample of GOODS-N galaxies (300 objects) selected at 1.4 GHz to constrain the presence of AGN cores in moderate-to-high redshift (1information.

  19. New ultra deep blue emitters based on chrysene chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwangyu; Kang, Seokwoo; Jung, Hyocheol; Lee, Hayoon; Lee, Jaehyun; Kim, Beomjin; Park, Jongwook

    2016-09-01

    Chrysene, which has a wide band gap, was selected as an emission core to develop and study new materials that emit ultra-deep-blue light with high efficiency. Six compounds introducing various side groups were designed and synthesized: 6, 12-bis(30,50-diphenylphenyl)chrysene (TP-C-TP), 6-(30,50-diphenylphenyl)-12-(3,5-diphenylbiphenyl-400-yl)chrysene (TP-C-TPB) and 6,12-bis(300,500-diphenylbiphenyl-40-yl)chrysene (TPB-C-TPB), which contained bulky aromatic si de groups; and N,N,N0 ,N0-tetraphenyl-chrysene-6,12-diamine (DPA-C-DPA), [12-(4-diphenylamino-phenyl)-chrysene-6-yl]-diphenylamine(DPA-C-TPA) and 6,12-bis[4-(diphenylamino)phenyl]chrysene (TPA-C-TPA), which contained aromatic amine groups, were designed to afford improved hole injection properties. The synthesized materials showed maxi mum absorption wavelengths at 342-402 nm in the film state and exhibited deep-blue photoluminescence (PL) emission s at 417-464 nm. The use of TP-C-TPB in a non-doped organic light emitting diode (OLED) device resulted in ultra-deep-blue emission with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.02% and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coo rdinates (CIE x, y) of (0.154, 0.042) through effective control of the internal conjugation length and suppression of the p -p* stacking. The use of TPA-C-TPA, which includes an aromatic amine side group, afforded an excellent EQE of 4.83 % and excellent color coordinates CIE x, y of (0.147, 0.077).

  20. Evolution of Star Formation in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey Field - II. Star Formation as a Function of Stellar Mass Between z=1.46 and z=0.63

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Alyssa B; Baldry, Ivan K; James, Phil A; Collins, Chris A; Ouchi, Masami; Yuma, Suraphong; Dunlop, James S; Smith, Daniel J B

    2015-01-01

    We present new results on the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate as a function of stellar mass in the SXDS-UDS field. We make use of narrow-band selected emission line galaxies in four redshift slices between z = 1.46 and z = 0.63, and compute stellar masses by fitting a series of templates to recreate each galaxy's star formation history. We determine mass-binned luminosity functions in each redshift slice, and derive the star formation rate density (rhoSFR) as a function of mass using the [OIII] or [OII] emission lines. We calculate dust extinction and metallicity as a function of stellar mass, and investigate the effect of these corrections on the shape of the overall rhoSFR(M). We find that both these corrections are crucial for determining the shape of the rhoSFR(M), and its evolution with redshift. The fully corrected rhoSFR(M) is a relatively flat distribution, with the normalisation moving towards lower values of rhoSFR with increasing cosmic time/decreasing redshift, and requiring star forma...

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Deep Field Lesson Package. Teacher's Guide, Grades 6-8. Amazing Space: Education On-Line from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This lesson guide accompanies the Hubble Deep Field set of 10 lithographs and introduces 4 astronomy lesson plans for middle school students. Lessons include: (1) "How Many Objects Are There?"; (2) "Classifying and Identifying"; (3) "Estimating Distances in Space"; and (4) "Review and Assessment." Appendices…

  2. Quantum fields from the Hubble to the Planck scale

    CERN Document Server

    Kachelriess, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces quantum field theory, together with its most important applications to cosmology and astroparticle physics, in a coherent framework. The path integral approach is employed right from the start, and the use of Green functions and generating functionals is illustrated first in quantum mechanics and then in scalar field theory. Massless spin one and two fields are discussed on an equal footing, and gravity is presented as a gauge theory in close analogy with the Yang-Mills case. Concepts relevant to modern research such as helicity methods, effective theories, decoupling, or the stability of the electroweak vacuum are introduced. Various applications such as topological defects, dark matter, baryogenesis, processes in external gravitational fields, inflation and black holes help students to bridge the gap between undergraduate courses and the research literature.

  3. The possible detection of high redshift Type II QSOs in deep fields

    OpenAIRE

    Meiksin, Avery

    2005-01-01

    The colours of high redshift Type II QSOs are synthesized from observations of moderate redshift systems. It is shown that Type II QSOs are comparable to starbursts in their success at matching the colours of z_850-dropouts and i_775-drops in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and more naturally account for the bluest objects detected. Type II QSOs may also account for some of the i_775-drops detected in the GOODS fields. It is shown that by combining imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope an...

  4. Making Data Mobile: The Hubble Deep Field Academy iPad app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Cordes, K.; Davis, S.; Eisenhamer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Many school districts are purchasing iPads for educators and students to use as learning tools in the classroom. Educators often prefer these devices to desktop and laptop computers because they offer portability and an intuitive design, while having a larger screen size when compared to smart phones. As a result, we began investigating the potential of adapting online activities for use on Apple’s iPad to enhance the dissemination and usage of these activities in instructional settings while continuing to meet educators’ needs. As a pilot effort, we are developing an iPad app for the “Hubble Deep Field Academy” - an activity that is currently available online and commonly used by middle school educators. The Hubble Deep Field Academy app features the HDF-North image while centering on the theme of how scientists use light to explore and study the universe. It also includes features such as embedded links to vocabulary, images and videos, teacher background materials, and readings about Hubble’s other deep field surveys. It is our goal is to impact students’ engagement in STEM-related activities, while enhancing educators’ usage of NASA data via new and innovative mediums. We also hope to develop and share lessons learned with the E/PO community that can be used to support similar projects. We plan to test the Hubble Deep Field Academy app during the school year to determine if this new activity format is beneficial to the education community.

  5. Lens Models Under the Microscope: Comparison of Hubble Frontier Field Cluster Magnification Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Priewe, Jett; Liesenborgs, Jori; Coe, Dan; Rodney, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Using the power of gravitational lensing magnification by massive galaxy clusters, the Hubble Frontier Fields provide deep views of six patches of the high redshift Universe. The combination of deep Hubble imaging and exceptional lensing strength has revealed the greatest numbers of multiply-imaged galaxies available to constrain models of cluster mass distributions. However, even with O(100) images per cluster, the uncertainties associated with the reconstructions are not negligible. The goal of this paper is to present a quantitative and visual impression of the diversity of model magnification predictions. We examine 7 and 9 mass models of Abell 2744 and MACS J0416, respectively, submitted to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes for public distribution in September 2015. The dispersion between model predictions increases from 20% at common low magnifications (\\mu~2) to 70% at rare high magnifications (\\mu~40). MACS J0416 exhibits smaller dispersions than Abell 2744 for 2<\\mu<10. We show that mag...

  6. AAT Imaging and Microslit Spectroscopy in the Southern Hubble Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Glazebrook, K; Mann, R G; Monbleau, D; Oliver, S; Verma, A; Boyle, Brian; Glazebrook, Karl; Mann, Robert G.; Monbleau, Davienne; Oliver, Sebastian; Verma, Aprajita

    2006-01-01

    We present a deep photometric (B- and R-band) catalog and an associated spectroscopic redshift survey conducted in the vicinity of the Hubble Deep Field South. The spectroscopy yields 53 extragalactic redshifts in the range 0field to over 200 objects. The targets are selected from deep AAT prime focus images complete to R<24 and spectroscopy is 50% complete at R=23. There is now strong evidence for a rich cluster at z\\simeq 0.58 flanking the WFPC2 field which is consistent with a known absorber of the bright QSO in this field. We find that photometric redshifts of z<1 galaxies in this field based on HST data are accurate to \\sigma_z/(1+z)=0.03 (albeit with small number statistics). The observations were carried out as a community service for Hubble Deep Field science, to demonstrate the first use of the `nod & shuffle' technique with a classical multi-object spectrograph and to test the use of `microslits' for ultra-high mu...

  7. Hubble Frontier Fields: systematic errors in strong lensing models of galaxy clusters - implications for cosmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acebron, Ana; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Tilquin, André; Giocoli, Carlo; Jauzac, Mathilde; Mahler, Guillaume; Richard, Johan

    2017-09-01

    Strong gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters is a fundamental tool to study dark matter and constrain the geometry of the Universe. Recently, the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields programme has allowed a significant improvement of mass and magnification measurements but lensing models still have a residual root mean square between 0.2 arcsec and few arcseconds, not yet completely understood. Systematic errors have to be better understood and treated in order to use strong lensing clusters as reliable cosmological probes. We have analysed two simulated Hubble-Frontier-Fields-like clusters from the Hubble Frontier Fields Comparison Challenge, Ares and Hera. We use several estimators (relative bias on magnification, density profiles, ellipticity and orientation) to quantify the goodness of our reconstructions by comparing our multiple models, optimized with the parametric software lenstool, with the input models. We have quantified the impact of systematic errors arising, first, from the choice of different density profiles and configurations and, secondly, from the availability of constraints (spectroscopic or photometric redshifts, redshift ranges of the background sources) in the parametric modelling of strong lensing galaxy clusters and therefore on the retrieval of cosmological parameters. We find that substructures in the outskirts have a significant impact on the position of the multiple images, yielding tighter cosmological contours. The need for wide-field imaging around massive clusters is thus reinforced. We show that competitive cosmological constraints can be obtained also with complex multimodal clusters and that photometric redshifts improve the constraints on cosmological parameters when considering a narrow range of (spectroscopic) redshifts for the sources.

  8. Young Galaxy Candidates in the Hubble Frontier Fields. II. MACS,J0416-2403

    CERN Document Server

    Infante, Leopoldo; Laporte, Nicolas; Troncoso, Paulina; Molino, Alberto; Diego, Jose M; Bauer, Franz E; Zitrin, Adi; Moustakas, John; Huang, Xingxing; Shu, Xinwen; Bina, David; Brammer, Gabriel B; Broadhurst, Tom; Ford, Holland C; Garcia, Stefano; Kim, Sam

    2015-01-01

    We searched for z > 7 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) in the optical-to-mid-infrared Hubble Frontier Field and associated parallel field observations of the strong-lensing cluster MACS J0416-2403. We discovered 22 candidates, of which six lie at z > 9 and one lies at z > 10. Based on the Hubble and Spitzer photometry, all have secure photometric redshifts and a negligible probability of being at lower redshifts, according to their peak probability ratios, R. This substantial increase in the number of known high-redshift galaxies allows a solid determination of the luminosity function at z > 8. The number of high-z candidates in the parallel field is considerably higher than that in the Abell 2744 parallel field. Our candidates have median stellar masses of log(M_*) ~ 8.40^{+0.55}_{-0.31}~Msun, SFRs of ~ 1.6^{+0.5}_{-0.4} Msun yr^-1, and SFR-weighted ages of < 310^{+70}_{-140} Myr. Finally, we are able to put strong constraints on the z = 7,8,9 and 10 luminosity functions. One of the objects in the cluster fiel...

  9. Investigating the merger origin of Early-Type Galaxies using ultra-deep optical images

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, P -A; Alatalo, K; Blitz, L; Bois, M; Bournaud, F; Bureau, M; Cappellari, M; Cote, P; Davies, R L; Davis, T A; de Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, E; Ferrarese, L; Ferriere, E; Gwyn, S; Khochfar, S; Krajnovic, D; Kuntschner, H; Lablanche, P -Y; MacArthur, L; McDermid, R M; Michel-Dansac, L; Morganti, R; Naab, T; Oosterloo, T; Sarzi, M; Scott, N; Serra, P; Weijmans, A; Young, L M

    2011-01-01

    The mass assembly of galaxies leaves various imprints on their surroundings, such as shells, streams and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of these fine structures depend on the mechanism driving the mass assembly: e.g. a monolithic collapse, rapid cold-gas accretion followed by violent disk instabilities, minor mergers or major dry / wet mergers. Therefore, by studying the outskirts of galaxies, one can learn about their main formation mechanism. I present here our on-going work to characterize the outskirts of Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), which are powerful probes at low redshift of the hierarchical mass assembly of galaxies. This work relies on ultra-deep optical images obtained at CFHT with the wide-field of view MegaCam camera of field and cluster ETGs obtained as part of the Atlas-3D and NGVS projects. State of the art numerical simulations are used to interpret the data. The images reveal a wealth of unknown faint structures at levels as faint as 29 mag arcsec-2 in the g-band. Initial results fo...

  10. Wide Field Camera 3: A Powerful New Imager for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is a powerful UV/visible/near-infrared camera in development for installation into the Hubble Space Telescope during upcoming Servicing Mission 4. WFC3 provides two imaging channels. The UVIS channel incorporates a 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD focal plane with sensitivity from 200 to 1000 nm. The IR channel features a 1024 x 1024 pixel HgCdTe focal plane covering 850 to 1700 nm. We report here on the design of the instrument, the performance of its flight detectors, results of the ground test and calibration program, and the plans for the Servicing Mission installation and checkout.

  11. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Larger Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J. L.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by shuttle mission STS-125 in 2009. In space for 16 years, the surface accumulated hundreds of impact features on the zinc orthotitanate paint, some penetrating through into underlying metal. Larger impacts were seen in photographs taken from within the shuttle orbiter during service missions, with spallation of paint in areas reaching 1.6 cm across, exposing alloy beneath. Here we describe larger impact shapes, the analysis of impactor composition, and the micrometeoroid (MM) types responsible.

  12. Integrated techniques for rapid and highly-efficient development and production of ultra-deep tight sand gas reservoirs of Keshen 8 Block in the Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unusually ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure gas reservoirs in the Keshen 8 Block on the Kelasu structural belt of the Tarim Basin are also featured by high temperature, well-developed fault fissures, huge thickness, tight matrix, complex oil–water distribution, etc., which brings about great difficulties to reserves evaluation and further development. In view of this, an overall study was made on the fine description of reservoir fractures and their seepage mechanism, technical problems were being tackled on seismic data processing and interpretation of complex and high & steep structural zones, optimal development design, safe & rapid drilling and completion wells, reservoir stimulation, dynamic monitoring, etc. to promote the development level of such ultra-deep tight gas reservoirs, and 22 complete sets of specific techniques were formulated in the fields of high-efficiency well spacing, safe and fast drilling, recovery enhancement by well completion transformation, efficient development of optimization design, and so on. Through the technical progress and innovative management of integrated exploration & development, reserves evaluation and productivity construction have been completed on the Keshen 8 Block in the last three years of the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011–2015, as a result, rapid and high-efficiency productivity construction is realized, and a new area is explored in the development of ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure fractured tight sand gas reservoirs. This study is of great reference to the development of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad.

  13. Multi-Objective Optimization of A Semisubmersible for Ultra-Deep Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin-quan; TAN Jia-hua

    2008-01-01

    Semisubmersible will work well when oil exploitation goes to ultra-deep water because of its variable load capacities, and good motion performance in extreme waves. It is considered to be a main type of platform while the water depth is more than 3000 meters. This paper establishes a multi-objective optimization model of semisubmersible for ultra-deep water, and it is solved by a multi-objective genetic algorithm-NSGA-II. The model is applied to a practical design, and Pareto results are obtained. The effectiveness of the method is verified by hydrodynamic analysis.

  14. Probing the z>6 Universe with the first Hubble Frontier Fields cluster Abell 2744

    CERN Document Server

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Clement, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald; Jauzac, Mathilde; Jullo, Eric; Laporte, Nicolas; Limousin, Marceau; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2013-01-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program combines the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with the gravitational lensing of massive galaxy clusters to probe the distant Universe to an unprecedented depth. Here, we present the results of the first combined HST and Spitzer observations of the cluster Abell 2744. We combine the newly acquired near-infrared data with ancillary optical images to search for gravitationally lensed high-redshift (z > 6) galaxies. We report the detection of 17 I814-dropout candidates and one Y105-dropout in a total survey area of 1.43 arcmin^2 in the source plane. The predictions of our lens model allow us to also identify five multiply-imaged systems lying at redshifts between z ~ 6 and z ~ 8. Thanks to constraints from the mass distribution in the cluster, we were able to estimate the effective survey volume corrected for completeness and magnification effects. This was in turn used to estimate the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function (LF) at z ~ 6-8. Our LF resul...

  15. ESO Imaging Survey. Hubble Deep Field South Optical-Infrared Observations, Data Reduction and Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Da Costa, L N; Rengelink, R B; Zaggia, S R; Benoist, C; Erben, T; Wicenec, A; Scodeggio, M; Olsen, L F; Guarnieri, M D; Deul, E; D'Odorico, S; Hook, R N; Moorwood, A F M; Slijkhuis, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents ground-based data obtained from deep optical and infrared observations of the HST Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) field carried out at the ESO 3.5 New Technology Telescope (NTT). These data were taken as part of the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) program, a public survey coordinated by ESO and member states, in preparation for the first year of operation of the VLT. Deep CCD images are available for five optical passbands, reaching 2 sigma limiting magnitudes of U_AB~27.0, B_AB~26.5, V_AB~26, R_AB~26, I_AB~25, covering a region of ~25 square arcmin, which includes the HST WPFC2 field. The infrared observations cover a total area of ~42 square arcmin and include both the HST WFPC2 and STIS fields. The observations of the WFPC2 region were conducted in JHKs passbands, reaching J_AB~25, and H_AB and K_AB~24.0. Due to time constraints, the adjacent field, covering the STIS field, has been observed only in R, I and JHKs, while no observations were conducted covering the NIC3 field. This paper describ...

  16. Probing the z > 6 universe with the first Hubble frontier fields cluster A2744

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Richard, Johan [CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. André, 69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Clement, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85721 (United States); Ebeling, Harald [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Jauzac, Mathilde [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 South Africa (South Africa); Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille (France); Laporte, Nicolas [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Natarajan, Priyamvada [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields program combines the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with the gravitational lensing of massive galaxy clusters to probe the distant universe to an unprecedented depth. Here, we present the results of the first combined HST and Spitzer observations of the cluster A-2744. We combine the full near-infrared data with ancillary optical images to search for gravitationally lensed high-redshift (z ≳ 6) galaxies. We report the detection of 15 I {sub 814} dropout candidates at z ∼ 6-7 and one Y {sub 105} dropout at z ∼ 8 in a total survey area of 1.43 arcmin{sup 2} in the source plane. The predictions of our lens model also allow us to identify five multiply imaged systems lying at redshifts between z ∼ 6 and z ∼ 8. Thanks to constraints from the mass distribution in the cluster, we were able to estimate the effective survey volume corrected for completeness and magnification effects. This was in turn used to estimate the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function (LF) at z ∼ 6-8. Our LF results are generally in agreement with the most recent blank field estimates, confirming the feasibility of surveys through lensing clusters. Although based on a shallower observations than what will be achieved in the final data set including the full Advanced Camera for Survey observations, the LF presented here goes down to M {sub UV} ∼–18.5, corresponding to 0.2L {sup *} at z ∼ 7 with one identified object at M {sub UV} ∼–15 thanks to the highly magnified survey areas. This early study forecasts the power of using massive galaxy clusters as cosmic telescopes and its complementarity to blank fields.

  17. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z greater than 6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z greater than 10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (less than 50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and discuss recent progress in constructing the observatory.

  18. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Smaller Particle Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J.C.; Opiela, J.; Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G.; Webb, R.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The radiator shield on the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was subject to optical inspection following return from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2009. The survey revealed over 600 impact features of > 300 micrometers diameter, from exposure in space for 16 years. Subsequently, an international collaborative programme of analysis was organized to determine the origin of hypervelocity particles responsible for the damage. Here we describe examples of the numerous smaller micrometeoroid (MM) impact features (< 700 micrometers diameter) which excavated zinc orthotitanate (ZOT) paint from the radiator surface, but did not incorporate material from underlying Al alloy; larger impacts are described by [3]. We discuss recognition and interpretation of impactor remains, and MM compositions found on WFPC2.

  19. Radio Observations of the Hubble Deep Field South region: I. Survey Description and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, R P; Jackson, C A; Boyle, B J; Ekers, R D; Mitchell, D A; Sault, R J; Wieringa, M H; Williams, R E; Hopkins, A M; Higdon, J; Norris, Ray P.; Huynh, Minh T.; Jackson, Carole A.; Boyle, Brian J.; Ekers, Ronald. D.; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Sault, Robert J.; Wieringa, Mark H.; Williams, Robert E.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Higdon, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series describing the results of the Australia Telescope Hubble Deep Field South (ATHDFS) radio survey. The survey was conducted at four wavelengths - 20, 11, 6, and 3 cm, over a 4-year period, and achieves an rms sensitivity of about 10 microJy at each wavelength. We describe the observations and data reduction processes, and present data on radio sources close to the centre of the HDF-S. We discuss in detail the properties of a subset of these sources. The sources include both starburst galaxies and galaxies powered by an active galactic nucleus, and range in redshift from 0.1 to 2.2. Some of them are characterised by unusually high radio-to-optical luminosities, presumably caused by dust extinction.

  20. The Star Formation History of Galaxies Measured from Individual Pixels. I. The Hubble Deep Field North

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, A; Hopkins, A M; Budavari, T; Szalay, A S; Csabai, I; Schmidt, S J; Adams, C; Petrovic, N D; Conti, Alberto; Connolly, Andrew J.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Szalay, Alex S.; Csabai, Istvan; Schmidt, Samuel J.; Adams, Carla; Petrovic, Nada

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the photometric information contained in individual pixels of galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDFN) using a new technique, _pixel-z_, that combines predictions of evolutionary synthesis models with photometric redshift template fitting. Each spectral energy distribution template is a result of modeling of the detailed physical processes affecting gas properties and star formation efficiency. The criteria chosen to generate the SED templates is that of sampling a wide range of physical characteristics such as age, star formation rate, obscuration and metallicity. A key feature of our method is the sophisticated use of error analysis to generate error maps that define the reliability of the template fitting on pixel scales and allow for the separation of the interplay among dust, metallicity and star formation histories. This technique offers a number of advantages over traditional integrated color studies. As a first application, we derive the star formation and metallicity histories of gal...

  1. Origin of Ultra-Deep Diamonds: Chemical Interaction of Ca-CARBONATE and the Earth's Lower Mantle Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, A. V.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.; Litvin, Yu. A.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the work is experimental study of physicochemical conditions of origin of ultra-deep diamonds in the substance of the Earth's lower mantle (LM) based on the experimental criterium of syngenesis of diamond and primary inclusions of LM mineral. Magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O, Mg-Fe perovskite (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 and Ca-perovskite CaSiO3 mainly present the LM substance and are frequently disclosed as primary inclusions in ultra-deep diamonds together with Ca-, (Ca, Mg, Fe)-, Na-Ca-carbonates. For the upper mantle conditions, the mantle-carbonatite conception of diamond genesis was developed based on the effects of congruent melting of carbonates and complete liquid miscibility of carbonate-silicate melts. Melting of Ca-carbonate and CaCO3 - (Mg,Fe)O, CaCO3 - (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 systems, stability of the melts and their decomposition were studied in static high pressure experiments at pressures of 16 to 55 GPa and temperatures of 1600 to 3900 K using diamond anvil cell technique with laser heating. It was determined that melting of Ca-carbonate is congruent at the PT-conditions of the lower mantle and characterized by an expanded field of liquid Ca-carbonate phase. We observed formation of graphite (below 16 GPa) and diamond (between 16 and 43 GPa) on decomposition of the CaCO3 melt at temperatures above 3400 K. At temperatures below 3400 K congruent melting of calcium carbonate was confirmed. Also it was shown that CaCO3 - (Mg,Fe)O - (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 system is capable to form diamonds together with Ca-carbonate, magnesiowustite and perovskite as syngenesis minerals at PT-conditions of the lower mantle. We observed formation diamond (between 40 and 55 GPa) on decomposition of the CaCO3 from CaCO3 - (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 melt at temperatures above 2000 K. The experimental data on phase relations at the melting and decomposition of CaCO3 and CaCO3-(Mg,Fe)O-(Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 system as well as diamond crystallization are applied to the problem of formation of natural ultra-deep

  2. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.

  3. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Drilling Ultra-Deep Wells on...) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling before: (1) March 26, 2003... qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my lease not be applied? 203.34 Section 203.34...

  4. Young Galaxy Candidates in the Hubble Frontier Fields - III. MACSJ0717.5+3745

    CERN Document Server

    Laporte, N; Iribarren, P Troncoso; Zheng, W; Molino, A; Bauer, F E; Bina, D; Broadhurst, Tom; Chillingarian, I; Garcia, S; Kim, S; Marques-Chaves, R; Moustakas, J; Pelló, R; Pérez-Fournon, I; Shu, X; Streblyanska, A; Zitrin, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our search for and study of $z \\gtrsim 6$ galaxy candidates behind the third Frontier Fields (FF) cluster, MACSJ0717.5+3745, and its parallel field, combining data from Hubble and Spitzer. We select 39 candidates using the Lyman Break technique, for which the clear non-detection in optical make the extreme mid-$z$ interlopers hypothesis unlikely. We also take benefit from $z \\gtrsim 6$ samples selected using previous Frontier Fields datasets of Abell 2744 and MACS0416 to improve the constraints on the properties of very high-redshift objects. We compute the redshift and the physical properties, such emission lines properties, star formation rate, reddening, and stellar mass for all Frontier Fields objects from their spectral energy distribution using templates including nebular emission lines. We study the relationship between several physical properties and confirm the trend already observed in previous surveys for evolution of star formation rate with galaxy mass, and...

  5. The MUSE 3D view of the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, R; Richard, J; Contini, T; Drake, A; Franx, M; Tacchella, S; Vernet, J; Wisotzki, L; Blaizot, J; Bouché, N; Bouwens, R; Cantalupo, S; Carollo, C M; Carton, D; Caruana, J; Clément, B; Dreizler, S; Epinat, B; Guiderdoni, B; Herenz, C; Husser, T -O; Kamann, S; Kerutt, J; Kollatschny, W; Krajnovic, D; Lilly, S; Martinsson, T; Michel-Dansac, L; Patricio, V; Schaye, J; Shirazi, M; Soto, K; Soucail, G; Steinmetz, M; Urrutia, T; Weilbacher, P; de Zeeuw, T

    2014-01-01

    We observed the Hubble Deep Field South with the new panoramic integral field spectrograph MUSE that we built and just commissioned at the VLT. The data cube resulting from 27 hours of integration covers one arcmin^2 field of view at an unprecedented depth with a 1 sigma emission line surface brightness limit of 1x$10^{-19}$ erg/s/cm$^2$/arcsec$^2$ and contains ~90,000 spectra. We present the combined and calibrated data cube, and we perform a first-pass analysis of the sources detected in the HDF-S imaging. We measured the redshifts of 189 sources up to a magnitude F814W = 29.5, increasing by more than an order of magnitude the number of known spectroscopic redshifts in this field. We also discovered 26 Lya emitting galaxies which are not detected in the HST WFPC2 deep broad band images. The intermediate spectral resolution of 2.3{\\AA} allows us to separate resolved asymmetric Lya emitters, [O II] emitters, and C III] emitters and the large instantaneous wavelength range of 4500{\\AA} helps to identify single...

  6. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...

  7. Lens models under the microscope: comparison of Hubble Frontier Field cluster magnification maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priewe, Jett; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Liesenborgs, Jori; Coe, Dan; Rodney, Steven A.

    2017-02-01

    Using the power of gravitational lensing magnification by massive galaxy clusters, the Hubble Frontier Fields provide deep views of six patches of the high redshift Universe. The combination of deep Hubble imaging and exceptional lensing strength has revealed the greatest numbers of multiply-imaged galaxies available to constrain models of cluster mass distributions. However, even with $\\mathcal{O}(100)$ images per cluster, the uncertainties associated with the reconstructions are not negligible. The goal of this paper is to show the diversity of model magnification predictions. We examine 7 and 9 mass models of Abell 2744 and MACS J0416, respectively, submitted to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes for public distribution in September 2015. The dispersion between model predictions increases from 30% at common low magnifications ($\\mu\\sim2$) to 70% at rare high magnifications ($\\mu\\sim40$). MACS J0416 exhibits smaller dispersions than Abell 2744 for $2<\\mu<10$. We show that magnification maps based on different lens inversion techniques typically differ from each other by more than their quoted statistical errors. This suggests that some models underestimate the true uncertainties, which are primarily due to various lensing degeneracies. Though the exact mass sheet degeneracy is broken, its generalized counterpart is not broken at least in Abell 2744. Other, local degeneracies are also present in both clusters. Our comparison of models is complementary to the comparison of reconstructions of known synthetic mass distributions. By focusing on observed clusters, we can identify those that are best constrained, and therefore provide the clearest view of the distant Universe.

  8. The Hubble Frontier Fields: Engaging Multiple Audiences in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program began in late 2013 and is led by observations from NASA’s Great Observatories. The observations, now complete, allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein’s theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has engaged multiple audiences over the past three years to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the STScI outreach program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the public and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. In addition, we are leveraging the reach of the new NASA’s Universe of Learning education program to bring the science of the Frontier Fields to informal education audiences. The main underpinnings of the STScI outreach program and the Universe of Learning education program are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging the infrastructure of these education and outreach programs to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.This talk will feature highlights over the past three years of the program. We will highlight OPO’s strategies and infrastructure that allows for the quick delivery of groundbreaking science to the education community and public.

  9. Development of a novel low frequency GPR system for ultra-deep detection in Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianlei; Peng, Suping; Yang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Mine disasters sources is the main source of the underground coal mine accidents in China. This paper describes the development of a novel explosion proof ground penetrating radar (GPR) for mine disasters sources detection, aiming to solve the current problems of the small detection range and low precision in the mine advanced detection in China. A high performance unipolar pulse transmitting unit is developed by using avalanche transistors, and an effective pulse excitation source network. And a new pluggable combined low-frequency antenna involving three frequencies with 12.5MHz, 25 MHz and 50MHz, is designed and developed. The plate-type structure is designed, aiming to enhance the directivity of the antenna, and the achievement of the antenna impedance matching is implemented in the feed point based on the extensions interface design, enhancing the antenna bandwidth and reducing the standing wave interference. Moreover, a high precision stepper delay circuit is designed by transforming the number of the operational amplifier step and using the differential compensation between the metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, aiming to improve the accuracy of the signal acquisition system. In order to adapt to the mine environment, the explosion-proof design is implemented for the GPR system, including the host, transmitter, receiver, battery box, antenna, and other components.Mine detection experiments is carried out and the results show: the novel GPR system can effectively detect the location and depth of the geological disasters source with the depth greater than30 m and the diameter greater than 3m, the maximum detection depth can be up to 80m, which break the current detection depth limitations within 30m, providing an effective technical support for the ultra-deep mine disasters detection and the safety problems in coal mine production.

  10. Tracing Evolution of Starbursts and AGNs using Ultra-deep Radio and mm/smm Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min S.; Gim, Hansung; Morrison, Glenn; Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Owen, Frazer; Kellermann, Ken; Aretxaga, Itziar; Giavalisco, Mauro; Hughes, David; Lowenthal, James; Miller, Neal; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-08-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a rapid build up of metals among massive galaxies during their rapid growth via an intense starburst in the early epochs. These star formation activities may be largely obscured in the UV and optical light, as in the local universe. If the growth of supermassive blackholes occurs at or nearly the same time, the accompanying AGN activity may also be heavily obscured. Ultra-deep surveys in the radio and far-infrared can offer extinction-free view of these systems, and the advent of new facilities such as the Jansky VLA, ALMA, and LMT now allows us to probe directly the population of starburst galaxies that are responsible for the bulk of the stellar mass build-up during the epoch of galaxy growth (SFR > 10-100 M⊙/yr at z≈2 or earlier). We will present our analysis of the properties of the micro-Jansky radio sources identified by new Jansky VLA surveys of the GOODS and COSMOS fields using the rich archival data already available (Herschel, Spitzer, Chandra, ALMA, LMT, etc.). Specifically, we find evidence for two populations of microJy radio sources with distinct spectral index distribution. We explore whether this reflects differences in the underlying powering mechanisms by examining their radio-FIR correlation and X-ray properties. We also find the previously reported apparent systematic change in the "q-value" with increasing redshift, and we examine the reality of this trend in some detail. Finally, we will also examine the spatial extent of activities for a subset of the sample where high angular resolution (better than 1") information is available.

  11. A New Method for Wide-Field Near-IR Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Momcheva, Ivelina G; van der Wel, Arjen; Brammer, Gabriel B; Mackenty, John; Nelson, Erica J; Leja, Joel; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    We present a new technique for wide and shallow observations using the near-infrared channel of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Wide-field near-IR surveys with HST are generally inefficient, as guide star acquisitions make it impractical to observe more than one pointing per orbit. This limitation can be circumvented by guiding with gyros alone, which is possible as long as the telescope has three functional gyros. The method presented here allows us to observe mosaics of eight independent WFC3-IR pointings in a single orbit by utilizing the fact that HST drifts by only a very small amount in the 25 seconds between non-destructive reads of unguided exposures. By shifting the reads and treating them as independent exposures the full resolution of WFC3 can be restored. We use this "drift and shift" (DASH) method in the Cycle 23 COSMOS-DASH program, which will obtain 456 WFC3 $H_{160}$ pointings in 57 orbits, covering an area of 0.6 degree$^2$ in the COSMOS field down to $H_{160} ...

  12. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  13. Photometric Redshifts in the Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North (H-HDF-N)

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G; Luo, B; Brandt, W N; Alexander, D M; Bauer, F E; Cui, W; Kong, X; Lehmer, B D; Wang, J -X; Wu, X -B; Yuan, F; Yuan, Y -F; Zhou, H Y

    2014-01-01

    We derive photometric redshifts (\\zp) for sources in the entire ($\\sim0.4$ deg$^2$) Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North (\\hdfn) field with the EAzY code, based on point spread function-matched photometry of 15 broad bands from the ultraviolet (\\bandu~band) to mid-infrared (IRAC 4.5 $\\mu$m). Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We evaluate the \\zp~quality by comparing \\zp~with spectroscopic redshifts (\\zs) when available, and find a value of normalized median absolute deviation \\sigm$=$0.029 and an outlier fraction of 5.5\\% (outliers are defined as sources having $\\rm |\\zp - \\zs|/(1+\\zs) > 0.15$) for non-X-ray sources. More specifically, we obtain \\sigm$=0.024$ with 2.7\\% outliers for sources brighter than $R=23$~mag, \\sigm$=0.035$ with 7.4\\% outliers for sources fainter than $R=23$~mag, \\sigm$=$0.026 with 3.9\\% outliers for sources having $z1$. Our \\zp\\ quality shows an overall improvement over an earlier \\zp\\ work that focused only on the central \\hdfn\\ area. We also classify each object as star or...

  14. A New Method for Wide-field Near-IR Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; van der Wel, Arjen; Brammer, Gabriel B.; MacKenty, John; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    We present a new technique for wide and shallow observations using the near-infrared channel of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Wide-field near-IR surveys with HST are generally inefficient, as guide star acquisitions make it impractical to observe more than one pointing per orbit. This limitation can be circumvented by guiding with gyros alone, which is possible as long as the telescope has three functional gyros. The method presented here allows us to observe mosaics of eight independent WFC3-IR pointings in a single orbit by utilizing the fact that HST drifts by only a very small amount in the 25 s between non-destructive reads of unguided exposures. By shifting the reads and treating them as independent exposures the full resolution of WFC3 can be restored. We use this “drift and shift” (DASH) method in the Cycle 23 COSMOS-DASH program, which will obtain 456 WFC3 H 160 pointings in 57 orbits, covering an area of 0.6 degree in the COSMOS field down to H 160 = 25. When completed, the program will more than triple the area of extra-galactic survey fields covered by near-IR imaging at HST resolution. We demonstrate the viability of the method with the first four orbits (32 pointings) of this program. We show that the resolution of the WFC3 camera is preserved, and that structural parameters of galaxies are consistent with those measured in guided observations.

  15. Threaded connection qualification procedures utilized for an ultra-deep, high-pressure gas well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minge, J.C.; Pejac, R.D.; Asbill, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the premium connection qualification program used to qualify three different connections for the production tubular strings used in an ultra-deep, high pressure gas well. A total of eight connection types were tested during the program. Four connections failed to meet the program's acceptance criteria. Full-scale test procedures and the data acquisition system used to collect, store, reduce, and plot strain gauge data while testing are discussed.

  16. The Extraordinary Amount of Substructure in the Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster Abell 2744

    CERN Document Server

    Jauzac, M; Schwinn, J; Harvey, D; Baugh, C M; Robertson, A; Bose, S; Massey, R; Owers, M; Ebeling, H; Shan, H Y; Jullo, E; Kneib, J -P; Richard, J; Atek, H; Clément, B; Egami, E; Israel, H; Knowles, K; Limousin, M; Natarajan, P; Rexroth, M; Taylor, P; Tchernin, C

    2016-01-01

    We present a joint optical/X-ray analysis of the massive galaxy cluster Abell 2744 (z=0.308). Our strong- and weak-lensing analysis within the central region of the cluster, i.e., at R<1Mpc from the brightest cluster galaxy, reveals eight substructures, including the main core. All of these dark-matter halos are detected with a significance of at least 5sigma and feature masses ranging from 0.5 to 1.4x10^{14}Msun within R<150kpc. Merten et al. (2011) and Medezinski et al. (2016) substructures are also detected by us. We measure a slightly higher mass for the main core component than reported previously and attribute the discrepancy to the inclusion of our tightly constrained strong-lensing mass model built on Hubble Frontier Fields data. X-ray data obtained by XMM-Newton reveal four remnant cores, one of them a new detection, and three shocks. Unlike Merten et al. (2011), we find all cores to have both dark and luminous counterparts. A comparison with clusters of similar mass in the MXXL simulations yie...

  17. X-ray Sources in the Hubble Deep Field Detected by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Hornschemeier, A E; Garmire, G P; Schneider, D P; Broos, P S; Townsley, L K; Bautz, M W; Burrows, D N; Chartas, G; Feigelson, E D; Griffiths, R; Lumb, D H; Nousek, J A; Sargent, W L W

    2000-01-01

    We present first results from an X-ray study of the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) and its environs obtained using 166 ks of data collected by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This is the deepest X-ray observation ever reported, and in the HDF-N itself we detect six X-ray sources down to a 0.5--8 keV flux limit of 4E-16 erg cm^-2 s^-1. Comparing these sources with objects seen in multiwavelength HDF-N studies shows positional coincidences with the extremely red object NICMOS J123651.74 +621221.4, an active galactic nucleus (AGN), three elliptical galaxies, and one nearby spiral galaxy. The X-ray emission from the ellipticals is consistent with that expected from a hot interstellar medium, and the spiral galaxy emission may arise from a `super-Eddington' X-ray binary or ultraluminous supernova remnant. Four of the X-ray sources have been detected at radio wavelengths. We also place X-ray upper limits on AGN candidates found in the HDF-N, and we present the t...

  18. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory; 2, Source detection and photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Goldschmidt, P

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 micron. We have constructed algorithmically selected ``complete'' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15 micron image, and 7 sources in the 6.7 micron image. The typical flux limit at 15 micron is 0.2 mJy and at 6.7 micron is 0.04 mJy. We have selected ``supplementary'' samples of 3 sources at 15 micron and 20 sources at 6.7 micron by eye. We discuss the completeness and reliability of the connected pixel source detect ion algorithm used, by comparing the intrinsic and estimated properties of simulated data, and also by estimating the noise properties of the real data. The most pessimistic estimate of the number of spurious sources in the ``complete'' samples is 1 at 15 micron and 2 at 6.7 micron, and in the ``supplementary'' lists is 1 at 15 micron and 5 at 6.7 micron.

  19. Hubble Frontier Fields: Predictions for the Return of SN Refsdal with MUSE and GMOS Spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Jauzac, M; Limousin, M; Knowles, K; Mahler, G; Smith, G P; Kneib, J -P; Jullo, E; Natarajan, P; Ebeling, H; Atek, H; Massey, R; Rexroth, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-precision mass model of the galaxy cluster MACSJ1149.6+2223, based on a strong-gravitational-lensing analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. Our model includes 12 new multiply imaged galaxies, bringing the total to 22, comprised of 65 individual lensed images. Unlike the first two HFF clusters, Abell 2744 and MACSJ0416.1$-$2403, MACSJ1149 does not reveal as many multiple images in the HFF data as expected. Using the Lenstool software package and the new sets of multiple images, we model the cluster with several cluster-scale dark-matter halos and additional galaxy-scale halos for the cluster members. Consistent with previous analyses, we find the system to be complex, composed of four cluster-scale halos. Their spatial distribution and compactness, however, makes MACSJ1149 a less powerful lens. Our best-fit model predicts image positions with an RMS of 1.11". We measure the total projected mass inside a 200~kpc aperture as ($1.800\\pm 0.004$)$\\times 10^{14}$M$_{...

  20. Photometric Redshifts in the Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Xue, Yongquan

    2015-08-01

    We derive photometric redshifts (\\zp) for sources in the entire (˜0.4 deg^2) Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North (H-HDF-N) field with the EAzY code, based on point spread function-matched photometry of 15 broad bands from the ultraviolet to mid-infrared (IRAC 4.5um). Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We evaluate the \\zp~quality by comparing \\zp~with spectroscopic redshifts (\\zs) when available, and find a value of normalized median absolute deviation \\sigm=0.029 and an outlier fraction of 5.5\\% (outliers are defined as sources having |\\zp - \\zs|/(1+\\zs)>0.15) for non-X-ray sources. More specifically, we obtain \\sigm=0.024 with 2.7\\% outliers for sources brighter than R=23mag, \\sigm=0.035 with 7.4\\% outliers for sources fainter than R=23mag, \\sigm=0.026 with 3.9\\% outliers for sources having zoutliers for sources having z>1. Our \\zp\\ quality shows an overall improvement over an earlier \\zp\\ work that focused only on the central H-HDF-N area. We also classify each object as star or galaxy through template spectral energy distribution fitting and complementary morphological parametrization, resulting in 4959 stars and 126,719 galaxies. Furthermore, we match our catalog with the 2Ms Chandra Deep Field-North main X-ray catalog. For the 462 matched non-stellar X-ray sources (281 having \\zs), we improve their \\zp~quality by adding three additional AGN templates, achieving \\sigm=0.035 and an outlier fraction of 12.5\\%. We make our catalog publicly available presenting both photometry and \\zp, and provide guidance on how to make use of our catalog. (This work has been published as Yang, Xue, et al. 2014, ApJS, 215, 27; December 2014.)

  1. Photometric Redshifts in the Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North (H-HDF-N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Cui, W.; Kong, X.; Lehmer, B. D.; Wang, J.-X.; Wu, X.-B.; Yuan, F.; Yuan, Y.-F.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We derive photometric redshifts (z phot) for sources in the entire (~0.4 deg2) Hawaii-Hubble Deep Field-North (H-HDF-N) field with the EAzY code, based on point-spread-function-matched photometry of 15 broad bands from the ultraviolet (U band) to mid-infrared (IRAC 4.5 μm). Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We evaluate the z phot quality by comparing z phot with spectroscopic redshifts (z spec) when available, and find a value of normalized median absolute deviation σNMAD = 0.029 and an outlier fraction of 5.5% (outliers are defined as sources having |zphot - zspec |/(1 + zspec ) > 0.15) for non-X-ray sources. More specifically, we obtain σNMAD = 0.024 with 2.7% outliers for sources brighter than R = 23 mag, σNMAD = 0.035 with 7.4% outliers for sources fainter than R = 23 mag, σNMAD = 0.026 with 3.9% outliers for sources having z outliers for sources having z > 1. Our z phot quality shows an overall improvement over an earlier z phot work that focused only on the central H-HDF-N area. We also classify each object as a star or galaxy through template spectral energy distribution fitting and complementary morphological parameterization, resulting in 4959 stars and 126,719 galaxies. Furthermore, we match our catalog with the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North main X-ray catalog. For the 462 matched non-stellar X-ray sources (281 having z spec), we improve their z phot quality by adding three additional active galactic nucleus templates, achieving σNMAD = 0.035 and an outlier fraction of 12.5%. We make our catalog publicly available presenting both photometry and z phot, and provide guidance on how to make use of our catalog.

  2. Edwin Hubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    泓傑

    2006-01-01

    Edwin Powell Hubble(1889—1953)was an American astronomer, renowned for his discovery of galaxies beyond the Milky Way and the cosmological Redshift. Hubble was a tall,elegant,athletic man who at age 30 had an

  3. H0, q0 and the local velocity field. [Hubble and deceleration constants in Big Bang expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to find a systematic deviation from linearity for distances that are under the control of the Virgo cluster, and to determine the value of the mean random motion about the systematic flow, in order to improve the measurement of the Hubble and the deceleration constants. The velocity-distance relation for large and intermediate distances is studied, and type I supernovae are calibrated relatively as distance indicators and absolutely to obtain a new value for the Hubble constant. Methods of determining the deceleration constant are assessed, including determination from direct measurement, mean luminosity density, virgocentric motion, and the time scale test. The very local velocity field is investigated, and a solution is preferred with a random peculiar radial velocity of very nearby field galaxies of 90-100 km/s, and a Virgocentric motion of the local group of 220 km/s, leading to an underlying expansion rate of 55, in satisfactory agreement with the global value.

  4. Young galaxy candidates in the Hubble Frontier Fields. I. A2744

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland C.; Huang, Xingxing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Shu, Xinwen [CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Molino, Alberto [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n. E-18008 Granada (Spain); Diego, Jose M. [IFCA, Instituto de Física de Cantabria, UC-CSIC, s/n. E-39005 Santander (Spain); Infante, Leopoldo; Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kelson, Daniel D. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Smit, Renske [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of 24 Lyman-break candidates at 7 ≲ z ≲ 10.5, in the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data of A2744 (z = 0.308), plus Spitzer/IRAC data and archival ACS data. The sample includes a triple image system with a photometric redshift of z ≅ 7.4. This high redshift is geometrically confirmed by our lens model corresponding to deflection angles that are 12% larger than the lower-redshift systems used to calibrate the lens model at z = 2.019. The majority of our high-redshift candidates are not expected to be multiply lensed given their locations in the image plane and the brightness of foreground galaxies, but are magnified by factors of ∼1.3-15, so that we are seeing further down the luminosity function than comparable deep-field imaging. It is apparent that the redshift distribution of these sources does not smoothly extend over the full redshift range accessible at z < 12, but appears to break above z = 9. Nine candidates are clustered within a small region of 20'' across, representing a potentially unprecedented concentration. Given the poor statistics, however, we must await similar constraints from the additional HFF clusters to properly examine this trend. The physical properties of our candidates are examined using the range of lens models developed for the HFF program by various groups including our own, for a better estimate of underlying systematics. Our spectral-energy-distribution fits for the brightest objects suggest stellar masses of ≅ 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, star formation rates of ≅ 4 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, and a typical formation redshift of z ≲ 19.

  5. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .3. Source counts and P(D) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.J.; Goldschmidt, P.; Franceschini, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present source counts at 6.7 and 15 mu m from our maps of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region, reaching 38.6 mu Jy at 6.7 mu m and 255 mu Jy at 15 mu m. These are the first ever extragalactic number counts to be presented at 6.7 mu m, and are three decades fainter than IRAS at 12 mu m. Both...

  6. Hubble Frontier Fields: predictions for the return of SN Refsdal with the MUSE and GMOS spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauzac, M.; Richard, J.; Limousin, M.; Knowles, K.; Mahler, G.; Smith, G. P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Jullo, E.; Natarajan, P.; Ebeling, H.; Atek, H.; Clément, B.; Eckert, D.; Egami, E.; Massey, R.; Rexroth, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present a high-precision mass model of the galaxy cluster MACS J1149.6+ 2223, based on a strong gravitational lensing analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data and spectroscopic follow-up with Gemini/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs (GMOS) and Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). Our model includes 12 new multiply imaged galaxies, bringing the total to 22, composed of 65 individual lensed images. Unlike the first two HFF clusters, Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J1149 does not reveal as many multiple images in the HFF data. Using the LENSTOOL software package and the new sets of multiple images, we model the cluster with several cluster-scale dark matter haloes and additional galaxy-scale haloes for the cluster members. Consistent with previous analyses, we find the system to be complex, composed of five cluster-scale haloes. Their spatial distribution and lower mass, however, makes MACS J1149 a less powerful lens. Our best-fitting model predicts image positions with an rms of 0.91 arcsec. We measure the total projected mass inside a 200-kpc aperture as (1.840 ± 0.006) × 1014 M⊙, thus reaching again 1 per cent precision, following our previous HFF analyses of MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744. In light of the discovery of the first resolved quadruply lensed supernova, SN Refsdal, in one of the multiply imaged galaxies identified in MACS J1149, we use our revised mass model to investigate the time delays and predict the rise of the next image between 2015 November and 2016 January.

  7. Mass and magnification maps for the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields clusters: implications for high redshift studies

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, J; Limousin, M; Jullo, E; Clément, B; Ebeling, H; Kneib, J P; Atek, H; Natarajan, P; Egami, E; Livermore, R; Bower, R

    2014-01-01

    Extending over three Hubble Space Telescope (HST) cycles, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) initiative constitutes the largest commitment ever of HST time to the exploration of the distant Universe via gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters. We here present models of the mass distribution in the six HFF cluster lenses, derived from a joint strong- and weak-lensing analysis anchored by a total of 618 multiple-image systems identified in existing HST data. The resulting maps of the projected mass distribution and of the gravitational magnification effectively calibrate the HFF clusters as gravitational telescopes. Allowing the computation of search areas in the source plane, these maps are provided to the community to facilitate the exploitation of forthcoming HFF data for quantitative studies of the gravitationally lensed population of background galaxies. Our models of the gravitational magnification afforded by the HFF clusters allow us to quantify the lensing-induced boost in sensitivity over blank...

  8. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...... reduction. The observed source density appears to approach the CAM confusion limit at 15 mu m, and fluctuations in the 6.7-mu m sky background may be identifiable with similar spatial fluctuations in the HDF galaxy counts. ISO appears to be detecting comparable field galaxy populations to the HDF, and our...

  9. Determining mutant spectra of three RNA viral samples using ultra-deep sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H

    2012-06-06

    RNA viruses have extremely high mutation rates that enable the virus to adapt to new host environments and even jump from one species to another. As part of a viral transmission study, three viral samples collected from naturally infected animals were sequenced using Illumina paired-end technology at ultra-deep coverage. In order to determine the mutant spectra within the viral quasispecies, it is critical to understand the sequencing error rates and control for false positive calls of viral variants (point mutantations). I will estimate the sequencing error rate from two control sequences and characterize the mutant spectra in the natural samples with this error rate.

  10. New constraints on the average escape fraction of Lyman continuum radiation in z~4 galaxies from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS)

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, F; Guaita, L; Ribeiro, B; Castellano, M; Schaerer, D; Hathi, N P; Lemaux, B C; Grazian, A; Fevre, O Le; Garilli, B; Maccagni, D; Amorin, R; Bardelli, S; Cassata, P; Fontana, A; Koekemoer, A M; Brun, V Le; Tasca, L A M; Thomas, R; Vanzella, E; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E

    2016-01-01

    Determining the average fraction of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons escaping high redshift galaxies is essential to understand how reionization proceeded in the z>6 Universe. We want to measure the LyC signal from a sample of sources in the CDFS and COSMOS fields for which ultra-deep VIMOS spectroscopy as well as multi-wavelength HST imaging are available. We select a sample of 46 galaxies at $z\\sim 4$ from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) database, such that the VUDS spectra contain the LyC part of the spectra i.e. the rest-frame range $880-910\\AA$; taking advantage of the HST imaging we apply a careful cleaning procedure and reject all the sources showing nearby clumps with different colours, that could potentially be lower redshift interlopers. After this procedure the sample is reduced to 33 galaxies. We measure the ratio between ionizing flux (LyC at $895\\AA$) and non ionizing emission (at $\\sim 1500 \\AA$) for all individual sources. We also produce a normalized stacked spectrum of all sources. Assuming ...

  11. THE UV CONTINUUM OF z > 1 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE ULTRAVIOLET ULTRADEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rafelski, Marc [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Acquaviva, Viviana [New York City College of Technology, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); De Mello, Duilia F. [Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Siana, Brian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We estimate the UV continuum slope, β, for 923 galaxies in the range 1 < z < 8 in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF). These data include 460 galaxies at 1 < z < 2 down to an absolute magnitude M{sub UV}=−14(∼0.006 L{sub z=1}{sup ∗};0.02 L{sub z=0}{sup ∗}), comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We combine deep HST/UVIS photometry in F225W, F275W, F336W wavebands (UVUDF) with recent data from HST/WFC3/IR (HUDF12). Galaxies in the range 1 < z < 2 are significantly bluer than local dwarf galaxies. We find their mean (median) values <β > = – 1.382(– 1.830) ± 0.002 (random) ± 0.1 (systematic). We find comparable scatter in β (standard deviation = 0.43) to local dwarf galaxies and 30% larger scatter than z > 2 galaxies. We study the trends of β with redshift and absolute magnitude for binned sub-samples and find a modest color-magnitude relation, dβ/dM = –0.11 ± 0.01, and no evolution in dβ/dM with redshift. A modest increase in dust reddening with redshift and luminosity, ΔE(B – V) ∼ 0.1, and a comparable increase in the dispersion of dust reddening at z < 2, appears likely to explain the observed trends. At z > 2, we find trends that are consistent with previous works; combining our data with the literature in the range 1 < z < 8, we find a color evolution with redshift, dβ/dz = –0.09 ± 0.01 for low luminosity (0.05 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}), and dβ/dz = –0.06 ± 0.01 for medium luminosity (0.25 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}) galaxies.

  12. Far-Ultraviolet Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field North: Star Formation in Normal Galaxies at z<1

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, H I; Brown, T M; Chary, R; Colbert, J W; Conselice, C J; De Mello, D F; Dickinson, M; Ferguson, H C; Gardner, J P; Menanteau, F; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet (FUV) imaging of the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) taken with the Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS/SBC) and the FUV MAMA detector of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The full WFPC2 deep field has been observed at 1600 Angstroms. We detect 134 galaxies and one star down to a limit of FUV_{AB} ~ 29. All sources have counterparts in the WFPC2 image. Redshifts (spectroscopic or photometric) for the detected sources are in the range 0field of view. Six of the 13 Chandra sources at z<0.85 in the HDF-N are detected in the FUV, and those are consistent with starbursts rather than AGN. Cross-correlating with Spitzer sources in the field, we find that the FUV detections show general agreement with the expected L_IR/L_UV vs. Beta relationship. We...

  13. The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey: Lyman Alpha Emission and Stellar Populations of Star-Forming Galaxies at 2

    CERN Document Server

    Hathi, Nimish P

    2016-01-01

    The extensive ground-based spectroscopy campaign from the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS), and the deep multi-wavelength photometry in three very well observed extragalactic fields (ECDFS, COSMOS, VVDS), allow us to investigate physical properties of a large sample (~4000 galaxies) of spectroscopically confirmed faint (i_{AB}20A) increases from ~10% at z~2 to ~40% at z~5-6, which is consistent with previous studies that employ higher Lyman alpha EW cut. This increase in the LAE fraction could be, in part, due to a decrease in the dust content of galaxies as redshift increases. When we compare best-fit SED estimated stellar parameters for LAEs and non-LAEs, we find that E(B-V) is smaller for LAEs at all redshifts and the difference in the median E(B-V) between LAEs and non-LAEs increases as redshift increases, from 0.05 at z~2 to 0.1 at z~3.5 to 0.2 at z~5-6. For the luminosities probed here (~L*), we find that star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses of galaxies, with and without Lyman alpha in emission,...

  14. Size evolution of star-forming galaxies with 2 Ultra-Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Maccagni, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A.; Pforr, J.; Tresse, L.; Dunlop, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The size of a galaxy encapsulates the signature of the different physical processes driving its evolution. The distribution of galaxy sizes in the Universe as a function of cosmic time is therefore a key to understand galaxy evolution. Aims: We aim to measure the average sizes and size distributions of galaxies as they are assembling before the peak in the comoving star formation rate density of the Universe to better understand the evolution of galaxies across cosmic time. Methods: We used a sample of ~1200 galaxies in the COSMOS and ECDFS fields with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts 2 ≤ zspec ≤ 4.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS), representative of star-forming galaxies with iAB ≤ 25. We first derived galaxy sizes by applying a classical parametric profile-fitting method using GALFIT. We then measured the total pixel area covered by a galaxy above a given surface brightness threshold, which overcomes the difficulty of measuring sizes of galaxies with irregular shapes. We then compared the results obtained for the equivalent circularized radius enclosing 100% of the measured galaxy light r100T ~2.2 to those obtained with the effective radius re,circ measured with GALFIT. Results: We find that the sizes of galaxies computed with our non-parametric approach span a wide range but remain roughly constant on average with a median value r100T ~2.2 kpc for galaxies with 2 Program 185.A-0791.

  15. VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS): Witnessing the Assembly of a Massive Cluster at $z\\sim3.3$

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaux, B C; Tasca, L A M; Fèvre, O Le; Zamorani, G; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Pentericci, L; Thomas, R; Vanzella, E; Zucca, E; Amorin, R; Bardelli, S; Capak, P; Cassarà, L; Castellano, M; Cimatti, A; Cuby, J G; de la Torre, S; Durkalec, A; Fontana, A; Giavalisco, M; Grazian, A; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Moreau, C; Paltani, S; Ribeiro, B; Salvato, M; Schaerer, D; Scodeggio, M; Sommariva, V; Talia, M; Taniguchi, Y; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Wang, P W; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Fotopoulou, S; Gal, R R; Kocevski, D D; López-Sanjuan, C; Lubin, L M; Mellier, Y; Sadibekova, T; Scoville, N

    2014-01-01

    Using new spectroscopic observations obtained as part of the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS), we perform a systematic search for overdense environments in the early universe ($z>2$) and report here on the discovery of Cl J0227-0421, a massive proto-cluster at $z=3.29$. This proto-cluster is characterized by both the large overdensity of spectroscopically confirmed members, $\\delta_{gal}=10.5\\pm2.8$, and a significant overdensity in photometric redshift members. The halo mass of this proto-cluster is estimated, by a variety of methods, to be roughly $3\\times10^{14}$ $\\mathcal{M}_{\\odot}$ at $z\\sim3.3$, which, evolved to $z=0$ results in a halo mass rivaling or exceeding that of the Coma cluster. The properties of 19 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies are compared with a large sample of VUDS/VVDS galaxies in lower density field environments at similar redshifts. We find tentative evidence for an excess of redder, brighter, and more massive galaxies within the confines of the proto-cluster relative to th...

  16. Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Experimental Simulation of Micrometeoroid Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M. C.; Kearsley, A. T.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Spratt, J.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Ross, D. K.; Opiela, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact features have been recognized on painted surfaces returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Here we describe experiments that help us to understand their creation, and the preservation of micrometeoroid (MM) remnants. We simulated capture of silicate and sulfide minerals on the Zinc orthotitanate (ZOT) paint and Al alloy plate of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) radiator, which was returned from HST after 16 years in low Earth orbit (LEO). Our results also allow us to validate analytical methods for identification of MM (and orbital debris) impacts in LEO.

  17. Potential importance of ultra-deep penetration for operation of IFE power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinkova, Michaela, E-mail: martimi2@fjfi.cvut.cz [ELI—Extreme Light Infrastructure, Za Radnici 835, 252 41 Dolni Brezany (Czech Republic); Shmatov, Mikhail L., E-mail: M.Shmatov@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Ultra-deep penetration of target fragments can be dangerous for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants. • Low-density Xe does not protect the reactor chamber from some target fragments. • Formation of fragments of hohlraums and/or cones seems to be unavoidable. - Abstract: Possibility of damage of inertial fusion energy power plants caused by ultra-deep penetration of fragments of targets with hohlraums and/or cones for fast ignition has been investigated in this study. Some issues related to the formation of high-velocity solid and liquid fragments of targets and their deceleration and heating in the reaction chamber filled with low-density Xe gas have been studied. It was found that with a Xe gas mass density of approximately 6 μg/cm{sup 3} and reaction chamber internal radius of 6 m, a liquid spherical gold fragment with a radius of 5–7 μm could reach the chamber wall with a velocity >1 km/s.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Two groups have recently used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC 2) to acquire new high-resolution images of the planet Neptune. Members of the WFPC-2 Science Team, lead by John Trauger, acquired the first series of images on 27 through 29 June 1994. These were the highest resolution images of Neptune taken since the Voyager-2 flyby in August of 1989. A more comprehensive program is currently being conducted by Heidi Hammel and Wes Lockwood. These two sets of observations are providing a wealth of new information about the structure, composition, and meteorology of this distant planet's atmosphere.Neptune is currently the most distant planet from the sun, with an orbital radius of 4.5 billion kilometers (2.8 billion miles, or 30 Astronomical Units). Even though its diameter is about four times that of the Earth (49,420 vs. 12,742 km), ground-based telescopes reveal a tiny blue disk that subtends less than 1/1200 of a degree (2.3 arc-seconds). Neptune has therefore been a particularly challenging object to study from the ground because its disk is badly blurred by the Earth's atmosphere. In spite of this, ground-based astronomers had learned a great deal about this planet since its position was first predicted by John C. Adams and Urbain Leverrier in 1845. For example, they had determined that Neptune was composed primarily of hydrogen and helium gas, and that its blue color caused by the presence of trace amounts of the gas methane, which absorbs red light. They had also detected bright cloud features whose brightness changed with time, and tracked these clouds to infer a rotation period between 17 and 22 hours.When the Voyager-2 spacecraft flew past the Neptune in 1989, its instruments revealed a surprising array of meteorological phenomena, including strong winds, bright, high-altitude clouds, and two large dark spots attributed to long-lived giant storm systems. These bright clouds and dark spots were tracked as they moved

  19. Accounting for Cosmic Variance in Studies of Gravitationally-Lensed High-Redshift Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Field Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Brant E; Dunlop, James S; McLure, Ross J; Stark, Daniel P; McLeod, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this {\\it Letter}, we demonstrate there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ~35% at redshift z~7 to >~65% at z~10. Previous studies of high redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.

  20. Accounting for Cosmic Variance in Studies of Gravitationally Lensed High-redshift Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Field Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Stark, Dan P.; McLeod, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ~35% at redshift z ~ 7 to >~ 65% at z ~ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.

  1. Adaptive Optics Views of the Hubble Deep Fields Final report on LLNL LDRD Project 03-ERD-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, C E; Gavel, D; Pennington, D; Gibbard, S; van Dam, M; Larkin, J; Koo, D; Raschke, L; Melbourne, J

    2007-02-17

    We used laser guide star adaptive optics at the Lick and Keck Observatories to study active galactic nuclei and galaxies, with emphasis on those in the early Universe. The goals were to observe large galaxies like our own Milky Way in the process of their initial assembly from sub-components, to identify central active galactic nuclei due to accreting black holes in galaxy cores, and to measure rates of star formation and evolution in galaxies. In the distant universe our focus was on the GOODS and GEMS fields (regions in the Northern and Southern sky that include the Hubble Deep Fields) as well as the Extended Groth Strip and COSMOS fields. Each of these parts of the sky has been intensively studied at multiple wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the XMM Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and several ground-based telescopes including the Very Large Array radio interferometer, in order to gain an unbiased view of a significant statistical sample of galaxies in the early universe.

  2. The Hubble effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

  3. Accurate De Novo Prediction of Protein Contact Map by Ultra-Deep Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Sun, Siqi; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Renyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    Protein contacts contain key information for the understanding of protein structure and function and thus, contact prediction from sequence is an important problem. Recently exciting progress has been made on this problem, but the predicted contacts for proteins without many sequence homologs is still of low quality and not very useful for de novo structure prediction. This paper presents a new deep learning method that predicts contacts by integrating both evolutionary coupling (EC) and sequence conservation information through an ultra-deep neural network formed by two deep residual neural networks. The first residual network conducts a series of 1-dimensional convolutional transformation of sequential features; the second residual network conducts a series of 2-dimensional convolutional transformation of pairwise information including output of the first residual network, EC information and pairwise potential. By using very deep residual networks, we can accurately model contact occurrence patterns and complex sequence-structure relationship and thus, obtain higher-quality contact prediction regardless of how many sequence homologs are available for proteins in question. Our method greatly outperforms existing methods and leads to much more accurate contact-assisted folding. Tested on 105 CASP11 targets, 76 past CAMEO hard targets, and 398 membrane proteins, the average top L long-range prediction accuracy obtained by our method, one representative EC method CCMpred and the CASP11 winner MetaPSICOV is 0.47, 0.21 and 0.30, respectively; the average top L/10 long-range accuracy of our method, CCMpred and MetaPSICOV is 0.77, 0.47 and 0.59, respectively. Ab initio folding using our predicted contacts as restraints but without any force fields can yield correct folds (i.e., TMscore>0.6) for 203 of the 579 test proteins, while that using MetaPSICOV- and CCMpred-predicted contacts can do so for only 79 and 62 of them, respectively. Our contact-assisted models also have

  4. Accurate De Novo Prediction of Protein Contact Map by Ultra-Deep Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Renyu

    2017-01-01

    Motivation Protein contacts contain key information for the understanding of protein structure and function and thus, contact prediction from sequence is an important problem. Recently exciting progress has been made on this problem, but the predicted contacts for proteins without many sequence homologs is still of low quality and not very useful for de novo structure prediction. Method This paper presents a new deep learning method that predicts contacts by integrating both evolutionary coupling (EC) and sequence conservation information through an ultra-deep neural network formed by two deep residual neural networks. The first residual network conducts a series of 1-dimensional convolutional transformation of sequential features; the second residual network conducts a series of 2-dimensional convolutional transformation of pairwise information including output of the first residual network, EC information and pairwise potential. By using very deep residual networks, we can accurately model contact occurrence patterns and complex sequence-structure relationship and thus, obtain higher-quality contact prediction regardless of how many sequence homologs are available for proteins in question. Results Our method greatly outperforms existing methods and leads to much more accurate contact-assisted folding. Tested on 105 CASP11 targets, 76 past CAMEO hard targets, and 398 membrane proteins, the average top L long-range prediction accuracy obtained by our method, one representative EC method CCMpred and the CASP11 winner MetaPSICOV is 0.47, 0.21 and 0.30, respectively; the average top L/10 long-range accuracy of our method, CCMpred and MetaPSICOV is 0.77, 0.47 and 0.59, respectively. Ab initio folding using our predicted contacts as restraints but without any force fields can yield correct folds (i.e., TMscore>0.6) for 203 of the 579 test proteins, while that using MetaPSICOV- and CCMpred-predicted contacts can do so for only 79 and 62 of them, respectively. Our contact

  5. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory; 1, Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Serjeant, S

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 micron and 15 micron from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observation strategy and the data reduction. The observed source density appears to approach the CAM confusion limit at 15 micron, and fluctuations in the 6.7 micron sky background may be identifiable with similar spatial fluctuations in the HDF galaxy counts. ISO appears to be detecting comparable field galaxy populations to the HDF, and our data yields strong evidence that future IR missions (such as SIRTF, FIRST and WIRE) as well as SCUBA and millimetre arrays will easily detect field galaxies out to comparably high redshifts.

  6. On the Frontier of the Hunt for Jellyfish Galaxies: Ram-Pressure Stripping in the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Conor; Ebeling, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Using quantitative morphological selection criteria, we search for evidence of galaxies experiencing ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in the Hubble Frontier Fields. The broader areal coverage of these clusters, provided by the complementary parallel fields, allow us to sample regions near to the expected stripping radius of the cluster (˜1 Mpc), where we expect to find the highest density of events. Expanding the number of known events (especially at large cluster-centric radii) will allow us to disentangle the relative contributions of "normal" galaxy infall and cluster mergers in producing the events we observe. We present observational characteristics of the best RPS candidates from the Frontier Fields. Finally, we use these objects, along with RPS events previously identified in the literature, to make quantitative comparisons with predictions of theoretical and numerical models of ram-pressure stripping.

  7. A Type Ia Supernova at Redshift 1.55 in Hubble Space Telescope Infrared Observations from CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Rodney, Steven A; Dahlen, Tomas; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Ferguson, Henry C; Hjorth, Jens; Frederiksen, Teddy F; Weiner, Benjamin J; Mobasher, Bahram; Casertano, Stefano; Jones, David O; Challis, Peter; Faber, S M; Filippenko, Alexei V; Garnavich, Peter; Graur, Or; Grogin, Norman A; Hayden, Brian; Jha, Saurabh W; Kirshner, Robert P; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton; McCully, Curtis; Patel, Brandon; Rajan, Abhijith; Scarlata, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SNIa) at redshift z=1.55 with the infrared detector of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3-IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This object was discovered in CANDELS imaging data of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and followed as part of the CANDELS+CLASH Supernova project, comprising the SN search components from those two HST multi-cycle treasury programs. This is the highest redshift SNIa with direct spectroscopic evidence for classification. It is also the first SN Ia at z>1 found and followed in the infrared, providing a full light curve in rest-frame optical bands. The classification and redshift are securely defined from a combination of multi-band and multi-epoch photometry of the SN, ground-based spectroscopy of the host galaxy, and WFC3-IR grism spectroscopy of both the SN and host. This object is the first of a projected sample at z>1.5 that will be discovered by the CANDELS and CLASH programs. The full CANDELS+CLASH SN Ia sample will enable unique tests f...

  8. 30 CFR 203.41 - If I have a qualified deep well or a qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on...) produced gas or oil from any deep well or ultra-deep well, has a qualified deep well or qualified phase 1 ultra-deep well, earns an RSV specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (2) produced gas or oil from...

  9. Hubble Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, S.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Initially introduced as a way to demonstrate the expansion of the universe, and subsequently to determine the expansion rate (the HUBBLE CONSTANT H0), the Hubble diagram is one of the classical cosmological tests. It is a plot of apparent fluxes (usually expressed as magnitudes) of some types of objects at cosmological distances, against their REDSHIFTS. It is used as a tool to measure the glob...

  10. The Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 Test of Surfaces in the Outer Solar System: Spectral Variation on Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Wesley C; Glass, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Here we present additional photometry of targets observed as part of the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 Test of Surfaces in the Outer Solar System. 12 targets were re-observed with the Wide Field Camera 3 in optical and NIR wavebands designed to compliment those used during the first visit. Additionally, all observations originally presented by Fraser and Brown (2012) were reanalyzed through the same updated photometry pipeline. A reanalysis of the optical and NIR colour distribution reveals a bifurcated optical colour distribution and only two identifiable spectral classes, each of which occupies a broad range of colours and have correlated optical and NIR colours, in agreement with our previous findings. We report the detection of significant spectral variations on 5 targets which cannot be attributed to photometry errors, cosmic rays, point spread function or sensitivity variations, or other image artifacts capable of explaining the magnitude of the variation. The spectrally variable objects are found to have ...

  11. Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Badon, Amaury; Lerosey, Geoffroy; Boccara, Albert C; Fink, Mathias; Aubry, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Multiple scattering of waves in disordered media is a nightmare whether it be for detection or imaging purposes. The best approach so far to get rid of multiple scattering is optical coherence tomography. It basically combines confocal microscopy and coherence time-gating to discriminate ballistic photons from a predominant multiple scattering background. Nevertheless, the imaging depth range remains limited to 1 mm at best in human soft tissues. Here we propose a matrix approach of optical imaging to push back this fundamental limit. By combining a matrix discrimination of ballistic waves and iterative time-reversal, we show both theoretically and experimentally an extension of the imaging-depth limit by at least a factor two compared to optical coherence tomography. In particular, the reported experiment demonstrates imaging through a strongly scattering layer from which only one reflected photon over 1000 billion is ballistic. This approach opens a new route towards ultra-deep tissue imaging.

  12. Hybrid nanowedge plasmonic waveguide for low loss propagation with ultra-deep-subwavelength mode confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Youqiao; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang

    2014-02-15

    In this Letter, a novel waveguide based on hybrid surface plasmon polaritons (HSPPs) is proposed and numerically analyzed. This waveguide consists of two dielectric nanowires placed on both sides of a nanowedge-patterned metal film, which can confine light in the ultra-deep-subwavelength region (ranging from λ²/4000 to λ²/400) with a long propagation length (ranging from 1200 to 3500 μm). Compared to a previous HSPPs waveguide without the nanowedges, with the same propagation length, our proposed structure has much higher mode confinement with 1 order of magnitude smaller normalized mode area. An investigation of the effect of structural perturbations indicates that our proposed waveguide also has good tolerance of fabrication errors. The proposed waveguide could be an interesting alternative structure to realize nanolasers and optical trapping.

  13. Obscured quasars at high redshift in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Ismael; Almaini, Omar; Hartley, Will; Mortlock, Alice; Lira, Paulina

    2014-07-01

    Obscured quasars hidden in deep X-ray surveys can be recovered by looking at mid-infrared wavelengths, where dust re-radiates the absorbed radiation. Here we present a sample of obscured quasars in the redshift range 1 < z < 4 based on data from the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS), the deepest near-IR survey over ~ 1 sq. deg. to date. Candidates that are primarily selected by their 24 μm emission are probed by decomposing their spectral energy distribution (SED) to disentangle the emission from the AGN and its host galaxy. We show preliminary results on their host galaxy properties as well as their clustering, showing that obscured quasars are found in galaxies located in the green valley, residing in dark matter haloes not different from normal galaxies at those redshifts.

  14. Ultra-deep sequencing reveals the subclonal structure and genomic evolution of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Thomassen, Mads; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a subgroup of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is primarily caused by alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Recent DNA sequencing studies suggests that HNSCC are very heterogeneous between patients; however the intra-patient subclonal...... structure remains unexplored due to lack of sampling multiple tumor biopsies from each patient. Materials and methods: To examine the clonal structure and describe the genomic cancer evolution we applied whole-exome sequencing combined with targeted ultra-deep targeted sequencing on biopsies from 5stage IV...... complex subclonal architectures comprising distinct subclones only found in geographically distinct regions of the tumors. The metastatic potential of the tumor is acquired early in the tumor evolution, as indicated by the lymph node sharing the majority of the mutations with the tumor biopsies, while...

  15. Parallax Beyond a Kiloparsec from Spatially Scanning the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Riess, Adam G; Anderson, Jay; Mackenty, John; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2014-01-01

    We use a newly developed observing mode on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), spatial scanning, to increase source sampling a thousand-fold and measure changes in source positions to a precision of 20--40 microarcseconds, more than an order of magnitude better than attainable in pointed observations. This observing mode can usefully measure the parallaxes of bright stars at distances of up to 5 kpc, a factor of ten farther than achieved thus far with HST. Long-period classical Cepheid variable stars in the Milky Way, nearly all of which reside beyond 1 kpc, are especially compelling targets for parallax measurements from scanning, as they may be used to anchor a determination of the Hubble constant to ~1%. We illustrate the method by measuring to high precision the parallax of a classical Cepheid, SY Aurigae, at a distance of more than 2 kpc, using 5 epochs of spatial-scan data obtained at intervals of 6 months. Rapid spatial scans also enable photometric measurements of bright M...

  16. A Novel Leakage-tolerant Domino Logic Circuit With Feedback From Footer Transistor In Ultra Deep Submicron CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Peiravi, Ali; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    As the CMOS manufacturing process scales down into the ultra deep sub-micron regime, the leakage current becomes an increasingly more important consideration in VLSI circuit design. In this paper, a high speed and noise immune domino logic circuit is presented which uses the property of the footer...

  17. Position-specific automated processing of V3 env ultra-deep pyrosequencing data for predicting HIV-1 tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne, Nicolas; Saliou, Adrien; Carcenac, Romain; Lefebvre, Caroline; Dubois, Martine; Cazabat, Michelle; Nicot, Florence; Loiseau, Claire; Raymond, Stéphanie; Izopet, Jacques; Delobel, Pierre

    2015-11-20

    HIV-1 coreceptor usage must be accurately determined before starting CCR5 antagonist-based treatment as the presence of undetected minor CXCR4-using variants can cause subsequent virological failure. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of HIV-1 V3 env allows to detect low levels of CXCR4-using variants that current genotypic approaches miss. However, the computation of the mass of sequence data and the need to identify true minor variants while excluding artifactual sequences generated during amplification and ultra-deep pyrosequencing is rate-limiting. Arbitrary fixed cut-offs below which minor variants are discarded are currently used but the errors generated during ultra-deep pyrosequencing are sequence-dependant rather than random. We have developed an automated processing of HIV-1 V3 env ultra-deep pyrosequencing data that uses biological filters to discard artifactual or non-functional V3 sequences followed by statistical filters to determine position-specific sensitivity thresholds, rather than arbitrary fixed cut-offs. It allows to retain authentic sequences with point mutations at V3 positions of interest and discard artifactual ones with accurate sensitivity thresholds.

  18. Frontier Fields: High-Redshift Predictions and Early Results

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Dan; Zitrin, Adi

    2014-01-01

    The Frontier Fields program is obtaining deep Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope images of new "blank" fields and nearby fields gravitationally lensed by massive galaxy clusters. The Hubble images of the lensed fields are revealing nJy sources (AB mag > 31), the faintest galaxies yet observed. In this paper, we present high-redshift (z > 6) number count predictions for the full program and candidates in three of the first Hubble Frontier Fields images. The full program will transform our understanding of galaxy evolution in the first 600 million years (z > 9). Where previous programs yielded perhaps a dozen z > 9 candidates, the Frontier Fields may yield ~70 (~6 per field). We base this estimate on an extrapolation of luminosity functions observed between 4 9. This might suggest a deficit of faint z > 9 galaxies as also reported in the Ultra Deep Field (even while excesses of brighter z > 9 galaxies were reported in shallower fields). At these redshifts, cosmic variance (field-to-field variation) is expected...

  19. Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Microanalysis and Recognition of Micrometeoroid Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V. V.; Colaux, J. L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Postflight surveys of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope have located hundreds of features on the 2.2 by 0.8 m curved plate, evidence of hypervelocity impact by small particles during 16 years of exposure to space in low Earth orbit (LEO). The radiator has a 100 - 200 micron surface layer of white paint, overlying 4 mm thick Al alloy, which was not fully penetrated by any impact. Over 460 WFPC2 samples were extracted by coring at JSC. About half were sent to NHM in a collaborative program with NASA, ESA and IBC. The structural and compositional heterogeneity at micrometer scale required microanalysis by electron and ion beam microscopes to determine the nature of the impactors (artificial orbital debris, or natural micrometeoroids, MM). Examples of MM impacts are described elsewhere. Here we describe the development of novel electron beam analysis protocols, required to recognize the subtle traces of MM residues.

  20. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Sace Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Ion Beam Analysis of Subtle Impactor Traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V. V.; Colaux, J. L.; Kearsley, A. T.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of origin for particles responsible for impact damage on spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) relies upon postflight analysis of returned materials. A unique opportunity arose in 2009 with collection of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) from HST by shuttle mission STS-125. A preliminary optical survey confirmed that there were hundreds of impact features on the radiator surface. Following extensive discussion between NASA, ESA, NHM and IBC, a collaborative research program was initiated, employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ion beam analysis (IBA) to determine the nature of the impacting grains. Even though some WFPC2 impact features are large, and easily seen without the use of a microscope, impactor remnants may be hard to find.

  1. Characterizing Intra-cluster light at $z\\sim0.5$ in the Hubble Frontier Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Morishita, Takahiro; Treu, Tommaso; Schmidt, Kasper B; Vulcani, Benedetta; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the intra-cluster light (ICL) in 4 Hubble Frontier Fields clusters at $0.310.5$) and the cores of the brightest cluster galaxies, implying that the ICL and more-massive cluster galaxies are built-up via distinct processes. The stellar mass of the ICL ranges from $11.1< \\logmicl <11.9$, implying an ICL stellar mass fraction of $\\sim10$-$20\\%$, about half of the local value. Hence, we posit that the amount of ICL has rapidly increased since $z\\sim1$, and is still being constructed, at a rate of $\\sim200\\, \\Msun\\, {\\rm yr^{-1}}$ at $z\\sim0.5$ by cluster specific mechanisms such as galaxy interactions and the stripping of low-mass galaxies.

  2. The Evolution of Early-type Field Galaxies Selected from a NICMOS Map of the Hubble Deep Field North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, R; Stanford, S A; Budavari, T; Conselice, C J

    2004-03-03

    The redshift distribution of well-defined samples of distant early-type galaxies offers a means to test the predictions of monolithic and hierarchical galaxy formation scenarios. NICMOS maps of the entire Hubble Deep Field North in the F110W and F160W filters, when combined with the available WFPC2 data, allow us to calculate photometric redshifts and determine the morphological appearance of galaxies at rest-frame optical wavelengths out to z {approx} 2.5. Here we report results for two subsamples of early-type galaxies, defined primarily by their morphologies in the F160W band, which were selected from the NICMOS data down to H{sub 160AB} < 24.0. A primary subsample is defined as the 34 galaxies with early-type galaxy morphologies and early-type galaxy spectral energy distributions. The secondary subsample is defined as those 42 objects which have early-type galaxy morphologies with non-early type galaxy spectral energy distributions. The observed redshift distributions of our two early-type samples do not match that predicted by a monolithic collapse model, which shows an overabundance at z > 1.5. A (V/V{sub max}) test confirms this result. When the effects of passive luminosity evolution are included in the calculation, the mean value of Vmax for the primary sample is 0.22 {+-} 0.05, and 0.31 {+-} 0.04 for all the early-types. A hierarchical formation model better matches the redshift distribution of the HDF-N early-types at z > 1.5, but still does not adequately describe the observed early-types. The hierarchical model predicts significantly bluer colors on average than the observed early-type colors, and underpredicts the observed number of early-types at z {approx} 2. Though the observed redshift distribution of the early-type galaxies in our HDF-NICMOS sample is better matched by a hierarchical galaxy formation model, the reliability of this conclusion is tempered by the restricted sampling area and relatively small number of early-type galaxies selected by

  3. 3D-HST: A wide-field grism spectroscopic survey with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; Kriek, Mariska; Nelson, Erica; Schmidt, Kasper; Bezanson, Rachel; da Cunha, Elisabete; Erb, Dawn; Fan, Xiaohui; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; Illingworth, Garth; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt; Magee, Dan; Marchesini, Danilo; McCarthy, Patrick; Momcheva, Ivelina; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan; Steidel, Charles; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine; Williams, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the processes that shape galaxies in the distant Universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of ~7000 galaxies at 1

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motions along the Sagittarius Stream: I. Observations and Results for Stars in Four Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Carlin, Jeffrey L; Majewski, Steven R; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Law, David R; Anderson, Jay; Siegel, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) study of stellar proper motions (PMs) for four fields spanning 200 degrees along the Sagittarius (Sgr) stream: one field in the trailing arm, one field near the Sgr dSph tidal radius, and two fields in the leading arm. From data with 6-9 year time baselines, we determine absolute PMs of dozens of individual stars per field, using established techniques that use distant background galaxies to define a stationary reference frame. Stream stars are identified based on combined color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and PM information. The results are broadly consistent with the few existing PM measurements for the Sgr dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) and the trailing arm. However, our new results provide the highest PM accuracy for the stream to date, the first PM measurements for the leading arm, and the first PM measurements for individual stream stars [We also serendipitously determine the PM of the globular cluster NGC 6652 to be ($\\mu_{\\rm W}$, $\\mu_{\\rm N}$) = (5.66 $\\pm$ 0.07...

  5. ACCOUNTING FOR COSMIC VARIANCE IN STUDIES OF GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELD CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Dan P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; McLeod, Derek, E-mail: brant@email.arizona.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ∼35% at redshift z ∼ 7 to ≳ 65% at z ∼ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.

  6. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...

  7. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.;

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...

  8. Near-infrared Emission Spectrum of WASP-103b Using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Zhao, Ming; Line, Michael; Ngo, Henry; Mawet, Dimitri; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wright, Jason T.; Kreidberg, Laura; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather

    2017-01-01

    We present here our observations and analysis of the dayside emission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-103b. We observed WASP-103b during secondary eclipse using two visits of the Hubble Space Telescope with the G141 grism on Wide Field Camera 3 in spatial scan mode. We generated secondary eclipse light curves of the planet in both blended white-light and spectrally binned wavechannels from 1.1 {to} 1.7 μ {{m}} and corrected the light curves for flux contamination from a nearby companion star. We modeled the detector systematics and secondary eclipse spectrum using Gaussian process regression and found that the near-IR emission spectrum of WASP-103b is featureless across the observed near-IR region to down to a sensitivity of 175 ppm, and shows a shallow slope toward the red. The atmosphere has a single brightness temperature of {T}{{B}}=2890 K across this wavelength range. This region of the spectrum is indistinguishable from isothermal, but may not manifest from a physically isothermal system, i.e., pseudo-isothermal. A solar-metallicity profile with a thermal inversion layer at 10‑2 bar fits the spectrum of WASP-103b with high confidence, as do an isothermal profile with solar metallicity and a monotonically decreasing atmosphere with C/O > 1. The data rule out a monotonically decreasing atmospheric profile with solar composition, and we rule out a low-metallicity decreasing profile as unphysical for this system. The pseudo-isothermal profile could be explained by a thermal inversion layer just above the layer probed by our observations, or by clouds or haze in the upper atmosphere. Transmission spectra at optical wavelengths would allow us to better distinguish between potential atmospheric models. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  9. An international multicenter study on HIV-1 drug resistance testing by 454 ultra-deep pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simen, Birgitte B; Braverman, Michael S; Abbate, Isabella; Aerssens, Jeroen; Bidet, Yannick; Bouchez, Olivier; Gabriel, Christian; Izopet, Jacques; Kessler, Harald H; Stelzl, Evelyn; Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schlapbach, Ralph; Radonic, Aleksander; Paredes, Roger; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Sakwa, James; St John, Elizabeth P; Schmitz-Agheguian, Gudrun G; Metzner, Karin J; Däumer, Martin P

    2014-08-01

    The detection of mutant spectra within the viral quasispecies is critical for therapeutic management of HIV-1 infections. Routine clinical application of ultrasensitive genotyping requires reproducibility and concordance within and between laboratories. The goal of the study was to evaluate a new protocol on HIV-1 drug resistance testing by 454 ultra-deep pyrosequencing (454-UDS) in an international multicenter study. Sixteen blinded HIV-1 subtype B samples were provided for 454-UDS as both RNA and cDNA with viral titers of 88,600-573,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. Eight overlapping amplicons spanning protease (PR) codons 10-99 and reverse transcriptase (RT) codons 1-251 were generated using molecular barcoded primers. 454-UDS was performed using the 454 Life Sciences/Roche GS FLX platform. PR and RT sequences were analyzed using 454 Life Sciences Amplicon Variant Analyzer (AVA) software. Quantified variation data were analyzed for intra-laboratory reproducibility and inter-laboratory concordance. Routine population sequencing was performed using the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. Eleven laboratories and the reference laboratory 454 Life Sciences sequenced the HIV-1 sample set. Data presented are derived from seven laboratories and the reference laboratory since severe study protocol execution errors occurred in four laboratories leading to exclusion. The median sequencing depth across all sites was 1364 reads per position (IQR=809-2065). 100% of the ViroSeq-reported mutations were also detected by 454-UDS. Minority HIV-1 drug resistance mutations, defined as HIV-1 drug resistance mutations identified at frequencies of 1-25%, were only detected by 454-UDS. Analysis of 10 preselected majority and minority mutations were consistently found across sites. The analysis of drug-resistance mutations detected between 1 and 10% demonstrated high intra- and inter-laboratory consistency in frequency estimates for both RNA and prepared cDNA samples, indicating robustness of the

  10. Wide-Field Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Globular Cluster System in NGC 1399*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzia, Thomas H.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Goudfrooij, Paul; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Angelini, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive high spatial resolution imaging study of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 1399, thecentral giant elliptical cD galaxy in the Fornax galaxy cluster, conducted with the Advanced Camera for Surveys(ACS) aboard theHubble Space Telescope(HST).Using a novel technique to construct drizzled point-spreadfunction libraries for HSTACS data, we accurately determine the fidelity of GC structural parameter measurementsfrom detailed artificial star cluster experiments and show the superior robustness of the GC half-light radius,rh,compared with other GC structural parameters, such as King core and tidal radius. The measurement ofrhfor themajor fraction of the NGC 1399 GC system reveals a trend of increasingrhversus galactocentric distance,Rgal,out to about 10 kpc and a flat relation beyond. This trend is very similar for blue and red GCs, which are found tohave a mean size ratio ofrh,redrh,blue0.820.11 at all galactocentric radii from the core regions of the galaxyout to40 kpc. This suggests that the size difference between blue and red GCs is due to internal mechanismsrelated to the evolution of their constituent stellar populations. Modeling the mass density profile of NGC 1399shows that additional external dynamical mechanisms are required to limit the GC size in the galaxy halo regionstorh2 pc. We suggest that this may be realized by an exotic GC orbit distribution function, an extended darkmatter halo, andor tidal stress induced by the increased stochasticity in the dwarf halo substructure at largergalactocentric distances. We compare our results with the GCrhdistribution functions in various galaxies and findthat the fraction of extended GCs withrh5 pc is systematically larger in late-type galaxies compared with GCsystems in early-type galaxies. This is likely due to the dynamically more violent evolution of early-type galaxies.We match our GCrhmeasurements with radial velocity data from the literature and split the resulting sample at

  11. Ultra-deep GEMINI near-infrared observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624

    CERN Document Server

    Saracino, S; Ferraro, F R; Geisler, D; Mauro, F; Lanzoni, B; Origlia, L; Miocchi, P; Cohen, R E; Villanova, S; Bidin, C Moni

    2016-01-01

    We used ultra-deep $J$ and $K_s$ images secured with the near-infrared GSAOI camera assisted by the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system GeMS at the GEMINI South Telescope in Chile, to obtain a ($K_s$, $J-K_s$) color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624. We obtained the deepest and most accurate near-infrared CMD from the ground for this cluster, by reaching $K_s$ $\\sim$ 21.5, approximately 8 magnitudes below the horizontal branch level. The entire extension of the Main Sequence (MS) is nicely sampled and at $K_s$ $\\sim$ 20 we detected the so-called MS "knee" in a purely near-infrared CMD. By taking advantage of the exquisite quality of the data, we estimated the absolute age of NGC 6624 ($t_{age}$ = 12.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 Gyr), which turns out to be in good agreement with previous studies in the literature. We also analyzed the luminosity and mass functions of MS stars down to M $\\sim$ 0.45 M$_{\\odot}$ finding evidence of a significant increase of low-mass stars at increasing distances f...

  12. Breaking the 1000-gene barrier for Mimivirus using ultra-deep genome and transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mimivirus, a giant dsDNA virus infecting Acanthamoeba, is the prototype of the mimiviridae family, the latest addition to the family of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs. Its 1.2 Mb-genome was initially predicted to encode 917 genes. A subsequent RNA-Seq analysis precisely mapped many transcript boundaries and identified 75 new genes. Findings We now report a much deeper analysis using the SOLiD™ technology combining RNA-Seq of the Mimivirus transcriptome during the infectious cycle (202.4 Million reads, and a complete genome re-sequencing (45.3 Million reads. This study corrected the genome sequence and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our results also provided clear evidence of previously overlooked transcription units, including an important RNA polymerase subunit distantly related to Euryarchea homologues. The total Mimivirus gene count is now 1018, 11% greater than the original annotation. Conclusions This study highlights the huge progress brought about by ultra-deep sequencing for the comprehensive annotation of virus genomes, opening the door to a complete one-nucleotide resolution level description of their transcriptional activity, and to the realistic modeling of the viral genome expression at the ultimate molecular level. This work also illustrates the need to go beyond bioinformatics-only approaches for the annotation of short protein and non-coding genes in viral genomes.

  13. Nonlinear quasi-static analysis of ultra-deep-water top-tension riser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanghai; Qiu, Xingqi; Wang, Ke; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-09-01

    In order to analyse the ultra-deep-water top-tension riser deformation in drilling conditions, a nonlinear quasi-static analysis model and equation are established. The riser in this model is regarded as a simply supported beam located in the vertical plane and is subjected to non-uniform axial and lateral forces. The model and the equation are solved by the finite element method. The effects of riser outside diameter, top tension ratio, sea surface current velocity, drag force coefficient, floating system drift distance and water depth on the riser lateral displacement are discussed. Results show that the riser lateral displacement increase with the increase in the sea surface current velocity, drag force coefficient and water depth, whereas decrease with the increase in the riser outside diameter, top tension ratio. The top tension ratio has an important influence on the riser deformation and it should be set reasonably under different circumstances. The drift of the floating system has a complicated influence on the riser deformation and it should avoid a large drift distance in the proceedings of drilling and production.

  14. Investigation on the Hydrodynamic Performance of An Ultra Deep Turret-Moored FLNG System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-hua; YANG Jian-min; HU Zhi-qiang; XIAO Long-fei; PENG Tao

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic performance of an ultra deep turret-moored Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) system is investigated.Hydrodynamic modeling of a turret-moored FLNG system,in consideration of the coupling effects of the vessel and its mooring lines,has been addressed in details.Based on the boundary element method,a 3-D panel model of the FLNG vessel and the related free water surface model are established,and the first-order and second-order mean-drift wave loads and other hydrodynamic coefficients are calculated.A systematic model test program consisting of the white noise wave test,offset test and irregular wave test combined with current and wind,etc.is performed to verify the numerical model.Owing to the depth limit of the water basin,the model test is carried out for the hydrodynamics of the FLNG coupled with only the truncated mooring system.The numerical simulation model features well the hydrodynamic performance of the FLNG system obtained from the model tests.The hydrodynamic characteristics presented in both the numerical simulations and the physical model tests would serve as the guidance for the ongoing project of FLNG system.

  15. Ultra-deep catalog of X-ray groups in the ECDF-S

    CERN Document Server

    Finoguenov, A; Cooper, M; Allevato, V; Cappelluti, N; Choi, A; Heymans, C; Bauer, F E; Ziparo, F; Ranalli, P; Silverman, J; Brandt, W N; Xue, Y Q; Mulchaey, J; Howes, L; Schmid, C; Wilman, D; Comastri, A; Hasinger, G; Mainieri, V; Luo, B; Tozzi, P; Rosati, P; Capak, P; Popesso, P

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-deep observations of ECDF-S with Chandra and XMM-Newton enable a search for extended X-ray emission down to an unprecedented flux of $2\\times10^{-16}$ ergs s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. We present the search for the extended emission on spatial scales of 32$^{\\prime\\prime}$ in both Chandra and XMM data, covering 0.3 square degrees and model the extended emission on scales of arcminutes. We present a catalog of 46 spectroscopically identified groups, reaching a redshift of 1.6. We show that the statistical properties of ECDF-S, such as logN-logS and X-ray luminosity function are broadly consistent with LCDM, with the exception that dn/dz/d$\\Omega$ test reveals that a redshift range of $0.2

  16. New optimized drill pipe size for deep-water, extended reach and ultra-deep drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, Michael J.; Delgado, Ivanni [Grant Prideco, Inc., Hoston, TX (United States); Falcao, Jose Luiz; Sato, Ademar Takashi [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moura, Carlos Amsler [Comercial Perfuradora Delba Baiana Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A new drill pipe size, 5-7/8 in. OD, represents enabling technology for Extended Reach Drilling (ERD), deep water and other deep well applications. Most world-class ERD and deep water wells have traditionally been drilled with 5-1/2 in. drill pipe or a combination of 6-5/8 in. and 5-1/2 in. drill pipe. The hydraulic performance of 5-1/2 in. drill pipe can be a major limitation in substantial ERD and deep water wells resulting in poor cuttings removal, slower penetration rates, diminished control over well trajectory and more tendency for drill pipe sticking. The 5-7/8 in. drill pipe provides a significant improvement in hydraulic efficiency compared to 5-1/2 in. drill pipe and does not suffer from the disadvantages associated with use of 6-5/8 in. drill pipe. It represents a drill pipe assembly that is optimized dimensionally and on a performance basis for casing and bit programs that are commonly used for ERD, deep water and ultra-deep wells. The paper discusses the engineering philosophy behind 5-7/8 in. drill pipe, the design challenges associated with development of the product and reviews the features and capabilities of the second-generation double-shoulder connection. The paper provides drilling case history information on significant projects where the pipe has been used and details results achieved with the pipe. (author)

  17. Ultra deep sub-kpc view of nearby massive compact galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Ferre-Mateu, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Using Gemini North telescope ultra deep and high resolution (sub-kpc) K-band adaptive optics imaging of a sample of 4 nearby (z~0.15) massive (~10^{11}M_{sun}) compact (R<1.5 kpc) galaxies, we have explored the structural properties of these rare objects with an unprecedented detail. Our surface brightness profiles expand over 12 magnitudes in range, allowing us to explore the presence of any faint extended envelope on these objects down to stellar mass densities ~10^{6} M_{sun}/kpc^{2} at radial distances of ~15 kpc. We find no evidence for any extended faint tail altering the compactness of these galaxies. Our objects are elongated, resembling visually S0 galaxies and have a central stellar mass density well above the stellar mass densities of objects with similar stellar mass but normal size in the present universe. If these massive compact objects will eventually transform into normal size galaxies, the processes driving this size growth will have to migrate around 2-3x10^{10}M_{sun} stellar mass from ...

  18. The sizes of $z\\sim6-8$ lensed galaxies from the Hubble Frontier Fields Abell 2744 data

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamata, Ryota; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Oguri, Masamune; Ouchi, Masami

    2014-01-01

    We investigate sizes of $z\\sim6-8$ dropout galaxies using the complete data of the Abell 2744 cluster and parallel fields in the Hubble Frontier Fields program. By directly fitting light profiles of observed galaxies with lensing-distorted S\\'ersic profiles on the image plane with the \\texttt{glafic} software, we accurately measure intrinsic sizes of 31 $z\\sim6-7$ and eight $z\\sim8$ galaxies, including those as faint as $M_{\\mathrm{UV}}\\simeq-17$. We find that half-light radii $r_\\mathrm{e}$ positively correlates with UV luminosity at each redshift, although the correlation is not very tight. Largest ($r_\\mathrm{e}>0.8$ kpc) galaxies are mostly red in UV color while smallest ($r_\\mathrm{e} < 0.05$ kpc) ones tend to be blue. We also find that galaxies with multiple cores tend to be brighter. Combined with previous results at $2.5\\lesssim z\\lesssim12$, our result confirms that the average $r_{\\mathrm{e}}$ of bright ($(0.3-1)L^\\star_{z=3}$) galaxies scales as $r_{\\mathrm{e}}\\propto(1+z)^{-m}$ with $m=1.31\\pm0...

  19. Hubble Frontier Fields: The Geometry and Dynamics of the Massive Galaxy Cluster Merger MACSJ0416.1-2403

    CERN Document Server

    Jauzac, Mathilde; Eckert, Dominique; Ebeling, Harald; Richard, Johan; Limousin, Marceau; Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Clément, Benjamin; Egami, Eiichi; Harvey, David; Knowles, Kenda; Massey, Richard; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Rexroth, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We use a joint optical/X-ray analysis to constrain the geometry and history of the ongoing merging event in the massive galaxy cluster MACSJ0416.1-2403 (z=0.397). Our investigation of cluster substructure rests primarily on a strong- and weak-lensing mass reconstruction based on the deep, high-resolution images obtained for the Hubble Frontier Fields initiative. To reveal the system's dynamics, we complement this lensing analysis with a study of the intra-cluster gas using shallow Chandra data, and a three-dimensional model of the distribution and motions of cluster galaxies derived from over 100 spectroscopic redshifts. The multi-scale grid model obtained from our combined weak- and strong-lensing analysis provides a high-precision mass reconstruction to cluster-centric distances of almost 1 Mpc. Our analysis detects the two well known mass concentrations near the centre of the field. A pronounced offset between collisional and collisionless matter is only observed for the SW cluster component, while excelle...

  20. HST Frontier Fields: WFC3/IR data processing, persistence, time-variable background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandrika, Harish G.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Mack, Jennifer; Robberto, Massimo; Hilbert, Bryan; Sabbi, Elena; Hubble Frontier Fields Pipeline Team, WFC3 Team

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) pipeline and WFC3 teams discuss the specialized procedures for processing IR data for the Frontier Fields program. Frontier Fields is a Director's Discretionary program that uses ultra-deep imaging to observe lensing galaxy clusters in an effort to search for the most distant observable galaxy. The program uses both the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR) observing the prime and parallel areas of each field simultaneously. The WFC3/IR data are processed through a pipeline which performs calibrations not included in the standard CalWF3 software including persistence correction, Time-Variable-Background (TVB) correction, and scripts used to create satellite trail masks. Here the HFF pipeline team present the individual methods that perform the corrections and showcase the results of these corrections on sample data of Abell 370, Abell S1063 and others.

  1. A Geometrically Supported $z\\sim10$ Candidate Multiply-Imaged by the Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster Abell 2744

    CERN Document Server

    Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Moustakas, John; Lam, Daniel; Shu, Xinwen; Huang, Xingxing; Diego, Jose M; Ford, Holland; Lim, Jeremy; Bauer, Franz E; Infante, Leopoldo; Kelson, Daniel D; Molino, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The deflection angles of lensed sources increase with their distance behind a given lens. We utilize this geometric effect to corroborate the $z_{phot}\\simeq9.8$ photometric redshift estimate of a faint near-IR dropout, triply-imaged by the massive galaxy cluster Abell 2744 in deep Hubble Frontier Fields images. The multiple images of this source follow the same symmetry as other nearby sets of multiple images which bracket the critical curves and have well defined redshifts (up to $z_{spec}\\simeq3.6$), but with larger deflection angles, indicating that this source must lie at a higher redshift. Similarly, our different parametric and non-parametric lens models all require this object be at $z\\gtrsim4$, with at least 95\\% confidence, thoroughly excluding the possibility of lower-redshift interlopers. To study the properties of this source we correct the two brighter images for their respective magnifications, leading to a SFR of $\\sim0.3 M_{\\odot}$/yr, a stellar mass of $\\sim4\\times10^{7} M_{\\odot}$, and an a...

  2. O-6 Optical Property Degradation of the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera-2 Pick Off Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Karen M.; Hughes, D. W.; Lauer, H. V.; Burkett, P. J.; Reed, B. B.

    2011-01-01

    Degradation in the performance of optical components can be greatly affected by exposure to the space environment. Many factors can contribute to such degradation including surface contaminants; outgassing; vacuum, UV, and atomic oxygen exposure; temperature cycling; or combinations of parameters. In-situ observations give important clues to degradation processes, but there are relatively few opportunities to correlate those observations with post-flight ground analyses. The return of instruments from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) after its final servicing mission in May 2009 provided such an opportunity. Among the instruments returned from HST was the Wide-Field Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC-2), which had been exposed to the space environment for 16 years. This work focuses on the identifying the sources of degradation in the performance of the Pick-off mirror (POM) from WFPC-2. Techniques including surface reflectivity measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, FTIR (and ATR-FTIR) analyses, SEM/EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with and without ion milling, and wet and dry physical surface sampling were performed. Destructive and contact analyses took place only after completion of the non-destructive measurements. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was then repeated to determine the extent of contaminant removal by the destructive techniques, providing insight into the nature and extent of polymerization of the contaminant layer.

  3. Near-IR Emission Spectrum of WASP-103b using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3

    CERN Document Server

    Cartier, Kimberly M S; Zhao, Ming; Line, Michael; Ngo, Henry; Mawet, Dimitri; Stassun, Keivan G; Wright, Jason T; Kreidberg, Laura; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    We present here our observations and analysis of the dayside emission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-103b. We observed WASP-103b during secondary eclipse using two visits of the Hubble Space Telescope with the G141 grism on Wide Field Camera 3 in spatial scan mode. We generated secondary eclipse light curves of the planet in both blended white-light and spectrally binned wavechannels from 1.1-1.7 micron and corrected the light curves for flux contamination from a nearby companion star. We modeled the detector systematics and secondary eclipse spectrum using Gaussian process regression and found that the near-IR emission spectrum of WASP-103b is featureless across the observed near-IR region to down to a sensitivity of 175 ppm, and shows a shallow slope towards the red. The atmosphere has a single brightness temperature of T_B = 2890 K across this wavelength range. This region of the spectrum is indistinguishable from isothermal, but may not manifest from a physically isothermal system, i.e. pseudo-isotherma...

  4. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .3. Source counts and P(D) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.J.; Goldschmidt, P.; Franceschini, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present source counts at 6.7 and 15 mu m from our maps of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region, reaching 38.6 mu Jy at 6.7 mu m and 255 mu Jy at 15 mu m. These are the first ever extragalactic number counts to be presented at 6.7 mu m, and are three decades fainter than IRAS at 12 mu m. Both sou...... is ruled out at > 3 sigma, while two models which fit the steep IRAS 60-mu m counts are acceptable. This provides important confirmation of the strong evolution seen in IRAS surveys. One of these models can then be ruled out from the 6.7-mu M data....... source counts and a P(D) analysis suggest that we have reached the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) confusion limit at 15 mu m: this will have important implications for future space missions. These data provide an excellent reference point for other ongoing ISO surveys. A no-evolution model at 15 mu m...

  5. X-ray properties of UV-selected star forming galaxies at z~1 in the Hubble Deep Field North

    CERN Document Server

    Laird, E S; Adelberger, K L; Steidel, C C; Reddy, N A

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray emission from a large sample of ultraviolet (UV) selected, star forming galaxies with 0.74Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) region. By excluding all sources with significant detected X-ray emission in the 2 Ms Chandra observation we are able to examine the properties of galaxies for which the emission in both UV and X-ray is expected to be predominantly due to star formation. Stacking the X-ray flux from 216 galaxies in the soft and hard bands produces significant detections. The derived mean 2-10 keV rest-frame luminosity is 2.97+/-0.26x10^(40) erg/s, corresponding to an X-ray derived star formation rate (SFR) of 6.0+/-0.6 Msolar/yr. Comparing the X-ray value with the mean UV derived SFR, uncorrected for attenuation, we find that the average UV attenuation correction factor is \\~3. By binning the galaxy sample according to UV magnitude and colour, correlations between UV and X-ray emission are also examined. We find a strong positive correlation between ...

  6. Testing light-traces-mass in Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster MACS-J0416.1-2403

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesta, Kevin; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Mohammed, Irshad; Saha, Prasenjit; Liesenborgs, Jori

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the projected mass distribution of a massive merging Hubble Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0416 using the genetic algorithm based free-form technique called Grale. The reconstructions are constrained by 149 lensed images identified by Jauzac et al. using HFF data. No information about cluster galaxies or light is used, which makes our reconstruction unique in this regard. Using visual inspection of the maps, as well as galaxy-mass correlation functions we conclude that overall light does follow mass. Furthermore, the fact that brighter galaxies are more strongly clustered with mass is an important confirmation of the standard biasing scenario in galaxy clusters. On the smallest scales, approximately less than a few arcseconds, the resolution afforded by 149 images is still not sufficient to confirm or rule out galaxy-mass offsets of the kind observed in ACO 3827. We also compare the mass maps of MACSJ0416 obtained by three different groups: Grale, and two parametric Lenstool reconstructions from the CATS and Sharon/Johnson teams. Overall, the three agree well; one interesting discrepancy between Grale and Lenstool galaxy-mass correlation functions occurs on scales of tens of kpc and may suggest that cluster galaxies are more biased tracers of mass than parametric methods generally assume.

  7. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory; 3, Source counts and P(D) analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, S

    1997-01-01

    We present source counts at 6.7 micron and 15 micron from our maps of the Hubble Deep Field region, reaching 38.6 microJy at 6.7 micron and 255 microJy at 15 micron. These are the first ever extra-galactic number counts to be presented at 6.7 micron and are 3 decades fainter than IRAS at 12 micron. Both source counts and a P(D) analysis suggest we have reached the ISO confusion limit at 15 micron: this will have important implications for future space missions. These data provide an excellent reference point for other ongoing ISO surveys. A no-evolution model at 15 micron is ruled out at >3 sigma, while two models which fit the steep IRAS 60 micron counts are acceptable. This provides important confirmation of the strong evolution seen in IRAS surveys. One of these models can then be ruled out from the 6.7 micron data.

  8. A free-form lensing model of A370 revealing stellar mass dominated BCGs, in Hubble Frontier Fields images

    CERN Document Server

    Diego, Jose M; Broadhurst, Tom; Lam, Daniel; Vega-Ferrero, Jesus; Zheng, Wei; Lee, Slanger; Morishita, Takahiro; Bernstein, Gary; Lim, Jeremy; Silk, Joseph; Ford, Holland

    2016-01-01

    We derive a free-form mass distribution for the unrelaxed cluster A370 (z=0.375), using the latest Hubble Frontier Fields images and GLASS spectroscopy. Starting from a reliable set of 10 multiply lensed systems we produce a free-form lens model that identifies ~ 80 multiple-images. Good consistency is found between models using independent subsamples of these lensed systems, with detailed agreement for the well resolved arcs. The mass distribution has two very similar concentrations centred on the two prominent Brightest Cluster Galaxies (or BCGs), with mass profiles that are accurately constrained by a uniquely useful system of long radially lensed images centred on both BCGs. We show that the lensing mass profiles of these BCGs are mainly accounted for by their stellar mass profiles, with a modest contribution from dark matter within r<100 kpc of each BCG. This conclusion may favour a cooled cluster gas origin for BCGs, rather than via mergers of normal galaxies for which dark matter should dominate ove...

  9. Testing light-traces-mass in Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster MACS-J0416.1-2403

    CERN Document Server

    Sebesta, Kevin; Mohammed, Irshad; Saha, Prasenjit; Liesenborgs, Jori

    2015-01-01

    We reconstruct the projected mass distribution of a massive merging Hubble Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0416 using the genetic algorithm based free-form technique called Grale. The reconstructions are constrained by 149 lensed images identified by Jauzac et al. using HFF data. No information about cluster galaxies or light is used, which makes our reconstruction unique in this regard. Using visual inspection of the maps, as well as galaxy-mass correlation functions we conclude that overall light does follow mass. Furthermore, the fact that brighter galaxies are more strongly clustered with mass is an important confirmation of the standard biasing scenario in galaxy clusters. On the smallest scales, approximately less than a few arcseconds the resolution afforded by 149 images is still not sufficient to confirm or rule out galaxy-mass offsets of the kind observed in ACO 3827. We also compare the mass maps of MACSJ0416 obtained by three different groups: Grale, and two parametric Lenstool reconstructions from t...

  10. The HST/WFC3 Quicklook Project: A User Interface to Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Matthew; Bajaj, Varun; Bowers, Ariel; Dulude, Michael; Durbin, Meredith; Gosmeyer, Catherine; Gunning, Heather; Khandrika, Harish; Martlin, Catherine; Sunnquist, Ben; Viana, Alex

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument, comprised of two detectors, UVIS (Ultraviolet-Visible) and IR (Infrared), has been acquiring ~ 50-100 images daily since its installation in 2009. The WFC3 Quicklook project provides a means for instrument analysts to store, calibrate, monitor, and interact with these data through the various Quicklook systems: (1) a ~ 175 TB filesystem, which stores the entire WFC3 archive on disk, (2) a MySQL database, which stores image header data, (3) a Python-based automation platform, which currently executes 22 unique calibration/monitoring scripts, (4) a Python-based code library, which provides system functionality such as logging, downloading tools, database connection objects, and filesystem management, and (5) a Python/Flask-based web interface to the Quicklook system. The Quicklook project has enabled large-scale WFC3 analyses and calibrations, such as the monitoring of the health and stability of the WFC3 instrument, the measurement of ~ 20 million WFC3/UVIS Point Spread Functions (PSFs), the creation of WFC3/IR persistence calibration products, and many others.

  11. Research and Industrial Application of Drilling Technology of Ultra-deep Wells%超深井钻井技术研究及工业化应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金成; 牛新明; 张进双

    2015-01-01

    陆上油气勘探开发正向着超深层领域发展,中国石化钻遇的超深井普遍存在着压力系统复杂、地层岩性复杂、储层流体复杂、工程力学复杂等工程地质特征。钻井工程面临着设计优化难、施工风险大、钻井速度慢、工程质量控制难度大等技术问题。在钻井施工中表现为钻井周期长、复杂情况和故障多、工程投资大,甚至有些井难以钻达目的层。2005年以来,中国石化石油工程技术研究院联合石油高校、油田企业组成“产—学—研”攻关团队,以川东北、塔里木盆地超深层油气勘探开发为依托,紧密围绕“优质、安全、高效”攻关目标,强化室内模拟和理论分析,加强以新型工具和新材料为载体的技术攻关,强化技术集成应用,研究形成了多信息综合反演钻井地质环境因素精细描述技术、基于钻井工程风险评价的井身结构优化设计方法、大尺寸井眼气体钻井及流体安全转换技术、高效破岩工具及配套技术、基于常规导向的超深水平井井眼轨迹控制技术、超高温及超高密度钻井液技术、高酸性气田胶乳防气窜水泥浆固井技术等7项技术创新成果,并开展了现场试验及工业化应用,形成了超深井钻井配套技术,使我国超深井钻井技术跨入了世界先进行列。%Offshore oil and gas exploration is advancing to the ultra-deep structure field.For Sinopec, it is very common to encounter the complicated geological characteristics of complex pressure system, ancient sedimentary, HTHP, fluid toxicity and difficulties in engineering mechanics.In terms of drilling engineering, the technical problems exist in design optimiza-tion, high construction risk, slow drilling speed and quality control.In well drilling construction, long drilling period, com-plex circumstances, multiple faults, large investment and even being difficult to reach the target layer

  12. Photometric redshifts and selection of high redshift galaxies in the NTT and Hubble Deep Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, A; Poli, F; Giallongo, E; Arnouts, S; Cristiani, S; Moorwood, A F M; Saracco, P

    2000-01-01

    We present and compare in this paper new photometric redshift catalogs of the galaxies in three public fields: the NTT Deep Field, the HDF-N and the HDF-S. Photometric redshifts have been obtained for thewhole sample, by adopting a $\\chi^2$ minimization technique on a spectral library drawn from the Bruzual and Charlot synthesis models, with the addition of dust and intergalactic absorption. The accuracy, determined from 125 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, is $\\sigma_z\\sim 0.08 (0.3)$ in the redshift intervals $z=0-1.5 (1.5-3.5)$. The global redshift distribution of I-selected galaxies shows a distinct peak at intermediate redshifts, z~0.6 at I_{AB}5 candidates in the HDF filter set and that the 4 brightest candidates at $z>5$ in the HDF-S are indeed most likely M stars. (ABRIDGED)

  13. Comparing the Evolution of the Galaxy Disk Sizes with CDM Models The Hubble Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Giallongo, E; Poli, F; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A

    2000-01-01

    The intrinsic sizes of the field galaxies with I-19) galaxies is skewed with respect to the CDM predictions and an excess of small-size disks (R_d<2 kpc) is already present at z~ 0.5. The excess persists up to z~3 and involves brighter galaxies . Such an excess may be reduced if luminosity-dependent effects, like starburst activity in interacting galaxies, are included in the physical mechanisms governing the star formation history in CDM models.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope: Wide field and planetary camera instrument handbook. Version 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the development and construction of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WF/PC). The WF/PC is a duel two dimensional spectrophotometer with rudimentary polarimetric and transmission grating capabilities. The instrument operates from 1150 to 11000 A with a resolution of 0.1 arcsec per pixel or 0.043 arcsec per pixel. Data products and standard calibration methods are briefly summarized.

  15. Ultra-deep GEMINI Near-infrared Observations of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6624.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Lanzoni, B.; Origlia, L.; Miocchi, P.; Cohen, R. E.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2016-11-01

    We used ultra-deep J and K s images secured with the near-infrared (NIR) GSAOI camera assisted by the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system GeMS at the GEMINI South Telescope in Chile, to obtain a (K s , J - K s ) color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624. We obtained the deepest and most accurate NIR CMD from the ground for this cluster, by reaching K s ˜ 21.5, approximately 8 mag below the horizontal branch level. The entire extension of the Main Sequence (MS) is nicely sampled and at K s ˜ 20 we detected the so-called MS “knee” in a purely NIR CMD. By taking advantage of the exquisite quality of the data, we estimated the absolute age of NGC 6624 (t age = 12.0 ± 0.5 Gyr), which turns out to be in good agreement with previous studies in the literature. We also analyzed the luminosity and mass functions of MS stars down to M ˜ 0.45 M⊙, finding evidence of a significant increase of low-mass stars at increasing distances from the cluster center. This is a clear signature of mass segregation, confirming that NGC 6624 is in an advanced stage of dynamical evolution. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). Based on observations gathered with ESO-VISTA telescope (program ID 179.B-2002).

  16. Ultra-deep sequencing of mouse mitochondrial DNA: mutational patterns and their origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ameur

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations of mtDNA are implicated in the aging process, but there is no universally accepted method for their accurate quantification. We have used ultra-deep sequencing to study genome-wide mtDNA mutation load in the liver of normally- and prematurely-aging mice. Mice that are homozygous for an allele expressing a proof-reading-deficient mtDNA polymerase (mtDNA mutator mice have 10-times-higher point mutation loads than their wildtype siblings. In addition, the mtDNA mutator mice have increased levels of a truncated linear mtDNA molecule, resulting in decreased sequence coverage in the deleted region. In contrast, circular mtDNA molecules with large deletions occur at extremely low frequencies in mtDNA mutator mice and can therefore not drive the premature aging phenotype. Sequence analysis shows that the main proportion of the mutation load in heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice and their wildtype siblings is inherited from their heterozygous mothers consistent with germline transmission. We found no increase in levels of point mutations or deletions in wildtype C57Bl/6N mice with increasing age, thus questioning the causative role of these changes in aging. In addition, there was no increased frequency of transversion mutations with time in any of the studied genotypes, arguing against oxidative damage as a major cause of mtDNA mutations. Our results from studies of mice thus indicate that most somatic mtDNA mutations occur as replication errors during development and do not result from damage accumulation in adult life.

  17. Diversity of Pneumocystis jirovecii during Infection Revealed by Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanio, Alexandre; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Mercier-Delarue, Séverine; Dromer, Françoise; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is an uncultivable fungal pathogen responsible for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients, the physiopathology of which is only partially understood. The diversity of the Pneumocystis strains associated with acute infection has mainly been studied by Sanger sequencing techniques precluding any identification of rare genetic events (< 20% frequency). We used next-generation sequencing to detect minority variants causing infection, and analyzed the complexity of the genomes of infection-causing P. jirovecii. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) of PCR amplicons of two nuclear target region [internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)] and one mitochondrial DNA target region [the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA large subunit gene (mtLSU)] was performed on 31 samples from 25 patients. UDPS revealed that almost all patients (n = 23/25, 92%) were infected with mixtures of strains. An analysis of repeated samples from six patients showed that the proportion of each variant change significantly (by up to 30%) over time on treatment in three of these patients. A comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear UDPS data revealed heteroplasmy in P. jirovecii. The recognition site for the homing endonuclease I-SceI was recovered from the mtLSU gene, whereas its two conserved motifs of the enzyme were not. This suggests that heteroplasmy may result from recombination induced by unidentified homing endonucleases. This study sheds new light on the biology of P. jirovecii during infection. PCP results from infection not with a single microorganism, but with a complex mixture of different genotypes, the proportions of which change over time due to intricate selection and reinfection mechanisms that may differ between patients, treatments, and predisposing diseases.

  18. Fundamental Physics with the Hubble Frontier Fields: Constraining Dark Matter Models with the Abundance of Extremely Faint and Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menci, N.; Merle, A.; Totzauer, M.; Schneider, A.; Grazian, A.; Castellano, M.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the measured abundance of ultra-faint lensed galaxies at z≈ 6 in the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) provides stringent constraints on the parameter space of (i) dark matter models based on keV sterile neutrinos; (ii) “fuzzy” wavelike dark matter models, based on Bose–Einstein condensates of ultra-light particles. For the case of sterile neutrinos, we consider two production mechanisms: resonant production through mixing with active neutrinos and the decay of scalar particles. For the former model, we derive constraints for the combination of sterile neutrino mass {m}ν and mixing parameter {\\sin }2(2θ ) which provide the tightest lower bounds on the mixing angle (and hence on the lepton asymmetry) derived so far by methods independent of baryonic physics. For the latter we compute the allowed combinations of the scalar mass, its coupling to the Higgs field, and the Yukawa coupling of scalar to sterile neutrinos. We compare our results to independent existing astrophysical bounds on sterile neutrinos in the same mass range. For the case of “fuzzy” dark matter, we show that the observed number density ≈ 1/{{Mpc}}3 of high-redshift galaxies in the HFF sets a lower limit {m}\\psi ≥slant 8\\cdot {10}-22 eV (at the 3-σ confidence level) on the particle mass, a result that strongly disfavors wavelike bosonic dark matter as a viable model for structure formation. We discuss the impact on our results of uncertainties due to systematics in the selection of highly magnified, faint galaxies at high redshift.

  19. 16 micron Imaging around the Hubble Deep Field North with the Spitzer IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, H I; Chary, R; Colbert, J W; Armus, L; Weedman, D

    2005-01-01

    We present a pilot study of 16 micron imaging within the GOODS northern field. Observations were obtained using the PeakUp imaging capability of the Spitzer IRS. We survey 35 square arcminutes to an average 3 sigma depth of 0.075 mJy and detect 149 sources. The survey partially overlaps the area imaged at 15 microns by ISO, and we demonstrate that our photometry and galaxy-number counts are consistent with their measurements. We infer the total infrared luminosity of 16 micron detections using a comparison to local templates and find a wide range of L_IR} from ~10^9 to 10^{12} L_sun. Approximately one fifth of the detected sources have counterparts in the Chandra 2 Msec catalog, and we show that the hard band (2-8 keV) detected sources are likely to have strong AGN contributions to the X-ray flux. The ultradeep sensitivity of Chandra implies some X-ray detections may be purely starbursting objects. We examine the 16 to 24 micron flux ratio and conclude that it shows evidence for the detection of redshifted PA...

  20. The Star Formation Main Sequence in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Paola; Fontana, Adriano; Castellano, Marco; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Merlin, Emiliano; Amorin, Ricardo; Cullen, Fergus; Daddi, Emanuele; Dickinson, Mark; Dunlop, James S.; Grazian, Andrea; Lamastra, Alessandra; McLure, Ross J.; Michałowski, Michał. J.; Pentericci, Laura; Shu, Xinwen

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M), i.e., the main sequence (MS) relation of star-forming galaxies, at 1.3≤slant zFrontier Fields, on the basis of rest-frame UV observations. Gravitational lensing combined with deep HST observations allows us to extend the analysis of the MS down to {log} M/{M}ȯ ∼ 7.5 at z≲ 4 and {log} M/{M}ȯ ∼ 8 at higher redshifts, a factor of ∼10 below most previous results. We perform an accurate simulation to take into account the effect of observational uncertainties and correct for the Eddington bias. This step allows us to reliably measure the MS and in particular its slope. While the normalization increases with redshift, we fit an unevolving and approximately linear slope. We nicely extend to lower masses the results of brighter surveys. Thanks to the large dynamic range in mass and by making use of the simulation, we analyzed any possible mass dependence of the dispersion around the MS. We find tentative evidence that the scatter decreases with increasing mass, suggesting a larger variety of star formation histories in low-mass galaxies. This trend agrees with theoretical predictions and is explained as either a consequence of the smaller number of progenitors of low-mass galaxies in a hierarchical scenario and/or of the efficient but intermittent stellar feedback processes in low-mass halos. Finally, we observe an increase in the SFR per unit stellar mass with redshift milder than predicted by theoretical models, implying a still incomplete understanding of the processes responsible for galaxy growth.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Bright Galactic X-Ray Binaries in Crowded Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Margon, Bruce; Wachter, Stefanie; Anderson, Scott F.

    1996-01-01

    We report high spatial resolution HST imagery and photometry of three well-studied, intense Galactic X-ray binaries, X2129+470, CAL 87, and GX 17+2. All three sources exhibit important anomalies that are not readily interpreted by conventional models. Each source also lies in a severely crowded field, and in all cases the anomalies would be removed if much of the light observed from the ground in fact came from a nearby, thus far unresolved superposed companion. For V1727 Cyg (X2129+470), we find no such companion. We also present an HST FOS spectrum and broadband photometry which is consistent with a single, normal star. The supersoft LMC X-ray source CAL 87 was already known from ground-based work to have a companion separated by O.9 minutes from the optical counterpart; our HST images clearly resolve these objects and yield the discovery of an even closer, somewhat fainter additional companion. Our photometry indicates that contamination is not severe outside eclipse, where the companions only contribute 20% of the light in V, but during eclipse more than half of the V light comes from the companions. The previously determined spectral type of the CAL 87 secondary may need to be reevaluated due to this significant contamination, with consequences on inferences of the mass of the components. We find no companions to NP Ser (= X1813-14, = GX 17+2). However, for this object we point out a small but possibly significant astrometric discrepancy between the position of the optical object and that of the radio source which is the basis for the identification. This discrepancy needs to be clarified.

  2. A GEOMETRICALLY SUPPORTED z ∼ 10 CANDIDATE MULTIPLY IMAGED BY THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER A2744

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zheng, Wei; Huang, Xingxing; Ford, Holland [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Lam, Daniel; Lim, Jeremy [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Shu, Xinwen [CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Diego, Jose M. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Bauer, Franz E.; Infante, Leopoldo [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kelson, Daniel D. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Molino, Alberto, E-mail: adizitrin@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía - CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n. E-18008, Granada (Spain)

    2014-09-20

    The deflection angles of lensed sources increase with their distance behind a given lens. We utilize this geometric effect to corroborate the z {sub phot} ≅ 9.8 photometric redshift estimate of a faint near-IR dropout, triply imaged by the massive galaxy cluster A2744 in deep Hubble Frontier Fields images. The multiple images of this source follow the same symmetry as other nearby sets of multiple images that bracket the critical curves and have well-defined redshifts (up to z {sub spec} ≅ 3.6), but with larger deflection angles, indicating that this source must lie at a higher redshift. Similarly, our different parametric and non-parametric lens models all require this object be at z ≳ 4, with at least 95% confidence, thoroughly excluding the possibility of lower-redshift interlopers. To study the properties of this source, we correct the two brighter images for their magnifications, leading to a star formation rate of ∼0.3 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, a stellar mass of ∼4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, and an age of ≲ 220 Myr (95% confidence). The intrinsic apparent magnitude is 29.9 AB (F160W), and the rest-frame UV (∼1500 Å) absolute magnitude is M {sub UV,} {sub AB} = –17.6. This corresponds to ∼0.1 L{sub z=8}{sup ∗} (∼0.2 L{sub z=10}{sup ∗}, adopting dM*/dz ∼ 0.45), making this candidate one of the least luminous galaxies discovered at z ∼ 10.

  3. Atmospheric Characterization of Five Hot Jupiters with the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee; Mandell, Avi M.

    2014-01-01

    We probe the structure and composition of the atmospheres of five hot Jupiter exoplanets using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. We use the G141 grism (1.1-1.7 micrometers) to study TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b in transit; TrES-3b in secondary eclipse; and WASP-4b in both. This wavelength region includes a predicted absorption feature from water at 1.4 micrometers, which we expect to be nondegenerate with the other molecules that are likely to be abundant for hydrocarbon-poor (e.g., solar composition) hot Jupiter atmospheres. We divide our wavelength regions into 10 bins. For each bin we produce a spectrophotometric light curve spanning the time of transit or eclipse. We correct these light curves for instrumental systematics without reference to an instrument model. For our transmission spectra, our mean 1s precision per bin corresponds to variations of 2.1, 2.8, and 3.0 atmospheric scale heights for TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b, respectively. We find featureless spectra for these three planets. We are unable to extract a robust transmission spectrum for WASP-4b. For our dayside emission spectra, our mean 1 sigma precision per bin corresponds to a planet-to-star flux ratio of 1.5 x 10(exp -4) and 2.1 x 10(exp -4) for WASP-4b and TrES-3b, respectively. We combine these estimates with previous broadband measurements and conclude that for both planets isothermal atmospheres are disfavored. We find no signs of features due to water. We confirm that WFC3 is suitable for studies of transiting exoplanets, but in staring mode multivisit campaigns are necessary to place strong constraints on water abundance.

  4. A RIGOROUS FREE-FORM LENS MODEL OF A2744 TO MEET THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CHALLENGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Daniel; Lim, Jeremy [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Diego, Jose M. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ford, Holland C.; Zheng, Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging of the most powerful lensing clusters provides access to the most magnified distant galaxies. The challenge is to construct lens models capable of describing these complex massive, merging clusters so that individual lensed systems can be reliably identified and their intrinsic properties accurately derived. We apply the free-form lensing method (WSLAP+) to A2744, providing a model independent map of the cluster mass, magnification, and geometric distance estimates to multiply lensed sources. We solve simultaneously for a smooth cluster component on a pixel grid, together with local deflections by the cluster member galaxies. Combining model prediction with photometric redshift measurements, we correct and complete several systems recently claimed and identify four new systems totaling 65 images of 21 systems spanning a redshift range of 1.4 < z < 9.8. The reconstructed mass shows small enhancements in the directions where significant amounts of hot plasma can be seen in X-ray. We compare photometric redshifts with ''geometric redshifts'', finding a high level of self-consistency. We find excellent agreement between predicted and observed fluxes with a best-fit slope of 0.999 ± 0.013 and an rms of ∼0.25 mag, demonstrating that our magnification correction of the lensed background galaxies is very reliable. Intriguingly, few multiply lensed galaxies are detected beyond z ≅ 7.0, despite the high magnification and the limiting redshift of z ≅ 11.5 permitted by the HFF filters. With the additional HFF clusters, we can better examine the plausibility of any pronounced high-z deficit with potentially important implications for the reionization epoch and the nature of dark matter.

  5. Atmospheric Characterization of Five Hot Jupiters with the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee; Mandell, Avi M.

    2014-01-01

    We probe the structure and composition of the atmospheres of five hot Jupiter exoplanets using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. We use the G141 grism (1.1-1.7 micrometers) to study TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b in transit; TrES-3b in secondary eclipse; and WASP-4b in both. This wavelength region includes a predicted absorption feature from water at 1.4 micrometers, which we expect to be nondegenerate with the other molecules that are likely to be abundant for hydrocarbon-poor (e.g., solar composition) hot Jupiter atmospheres. We divide our wavelength regions into 10 bins. For each bin we produce a spectrophotometric light curve spanning the time of transit or eclipse. We correct these light curves for instrumental systematics without reference to an instrument model. For our transmission spectra, our mean 1s precision per bin corresponds to variations of 2.1, 2.8, and 3.0 atmospheric scale heights for TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b, respectively. We find featureless spectra for these three planets. We are unable to extract a robust transmission spectrum for WASP-4b. For our dayside emission spectra, our mean 1 sigma precision per bin corresponds to a planet-to-star flux ratio of 1.5 x 10(exp -4) and 2.1 x 10(exp -4) for WASP-4b and TrES-3b, respectively. We combine these estimates with previous broadband measurements and conclude that for both planets isothermal atmospheres are disfavored. We find no signs of features due to water. We confirm that WFC3 is suitable for studies of transiting exoplanets, but in staring mode multivisit campaigns are necessary to place strong constraints on water abundance.

  6. Atmospheric characterization of five hot Jupiters with the wide field Camera 3 on the Hubble space telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mandell, Avi M., E-mail: sranjan@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    We probe the structure and composition of the atmospheres of five hot Jupiter exoplanets using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. We use the G141 grism (1.1-1.7 μm) to study TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b in transit; TrES-3b in secondary eclipse; and WASP-4b in both. This wavelength region includes a predicted absorption feature from water at 1.4 μm, which we expect to be nondegenerate with the other molecules that are likely to be abundant for hydrocarbon-poor (e.g., solar composition) hot Jupiter atmospheres. We divide our wavelength regions into 10 bins. For each bin we produce a spectrophotometric light curve spanning the time of transit or eclipse. We correct these light curves for instrumental systematics without reference to an instrument model. For our transmission spectra, our mean 1σ precision per bin corresponds to variations of 2.1, 2.8, and 3.0 atmospheric scale heights for TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b, respectively. We find featureless spectra for these three planets. We are unable to extract a robust transmission spectrum for WASP-4b. For our dayside emission spectra, our mean 1σ precision per bin corresponds to a planet-to-star flux ratio of 1.5 × 10{sup –4} and 2.1 × 10{sup –4} for WASP-4b and TrES-3b, respectively. We combine these estimates with previous broadband measurements and conclude that for both planets isothermal atmospheres are disfavored. We find no signs of features due to water. We confirm that WFC3 is suitable for studies of transiting exoplanets, but in staring mode multivisit campaigns are necessary to place strong constraints on water abundance.

  7. The Hubble Exoplanet Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura; Carson, J.; Ruwadi, D.; Low, K.; Jordan, S.; Schneider, G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a status report on the Hubble Exoplanet Classroom, an interactive website designed to engage 8-12th grade students in physical science concepts using the exciting field of exoplanet studies. Addressing national teaching standards, the webpage allows educators to enhance their physical science, physics, and astronomy curriculum with student-driven lessons. The webpage records students' performance on lessons and quizzes and compiles the results, which can be accessed by the instructor using a secure website.

  8. Empirical predictions for (sub-)millimeter line and continuum deep fields

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Elisabete; Decarli, Roberto; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Ivison, Rob; Maiolino, Roberto; Riechers, Dominik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Smail, Ian; Weiss, Axel

    2013-01-01

    [abridged] Modern (sub-)millimeter/radio interferometers will enable us to measure the dust and molecular gas emission from galaxies that have luminosities lower than the Milky Way, out to high redshifts and with unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. This will provide new constraints on the star formation properties and gas reservoir in galaxies throughout cosmic times through dedicated deep field campaigns targeting the CO/[CII] lines and dust continuum emission. In this paper, we present empirical predictions for such (sub-)millimeter line and continuum deep fields. We base these predictions on the deepest available optical/near-infrared ACS and NICMOS data on the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Using a physically-motivated spectral energy distribution model, we fit the observed optical/near-infrared emission of 13,099 galaxies with redshifts up to z=5, and obtain median likelihood estimates of their stellar mass, star formation rate, dust attenuation and dust luminosity. We derive statistical constrai...

  9. Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing (UDPS) Data Treatment to Study Amplicon HCV Minor Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Josep; Esteban, Juan I.; Cubero, María; Garcia-Cehic, Damir; Perales, Celia; Casillas, Rosario; Alvarez-Tejado, Miguel; Rodríguez-Frías, Francisco; Guardia, Jaume; Domingo, Esteban; Quer, Josep

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability and reproducibility of HCV viral quasispecies quantification by ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) methods. Our study has been divided in two parts. First of all, by UDPS sequencing of clone mixes samples we have established the global noise level of UDPS and fine tuned a data treatment workflow previously optimized for HBV sequence analysis. Secondly, we have studied the reproducibility of the methodology by comparing 5 amplicons from two patient samples on three massive sequencing platforms (FLX+, FLX and Junior) after applying the error filters developed from the clonal/control study. After noise filtering the UDPS results, the three replicates showed the same 12 polymorphic sites above 0.7%, with a mean CV of 4.86%. Two polymorphic sites below 0.6% were identified by two replicates and one replicate respectively. A total of 25, 23 and 26 haplotypes were detected by GS-Junior, GS-FLX and GS-FLX+. The observed CVs for the normalized Shannon entropy (Sn), the mutation frequency (Mf), and the nucleotidic diversity (Pi) were 1.46%, 3.96% and 3.78%. The mean absolute difference in the two patients (5 amplicons each), in the GS-FLX and GS-FLX+, were 1.46%, 3.96% and 3.78% for Sn, Mf and Pi. No false polymorphic site was observed above 0.5%. Our results indicate that UDPS is an optimal alternative to molecular cloning for quantitative study of HCV viral quasispecies populations, both in complexity and composition. We propose an UDPS data treatment workflow for amplicons from the RNA viral quasispecies which, at a sequencing depth of at least 10,000 reads per strand, enables to obtain sequences and frequencies of consensus haplotypes above 0.5% abundance with no erroneous mutations, with high confidence, resistant mutants as minor variants at the level of 1%, with high confidence that variants are not missed, and highly confident measures of quasispecies complexity. PMID:24391758

  10. A Novel Leakage-tolerant Domino Logic Circuit With Feedback From Footer Transistor In Ultra Deep Submicron CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Peiravi, Ali; Mahmoodi, Hamid

    As the CMOS manufacturing process scales down into the ultra deep sub-micron regime, the leakage current becomes an increasingly more important consideration in VLSI circuit design. In this paper, a high speed and noise immune domino logic circuit is presented which uses the property of the footer...... transistor to alleviate the sensitivity of the dynamic node to noise and results in improved performance. The new circuit has been added to conventional footed standard domino logic for highly improving leakage tolerance, especially at the beginning of the evaluation phase. According to simulation results...

  11. Hubble, Hubble's law and the expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble's name is associated closely with the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and distances of galaxies. Hubble also did a lot of pioneering work on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at Hubble's law and discuss how it relates with models of the universe. We also give a historical perspective of the discoveries that led to the Hubble's law.

  12. Hubble, Hubble's law and the expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble's name is associated closely with the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and distances of galaxies. Hubble also did a lot of pioneering work on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at Hubble's law and discuss how it relates with models of the universe. We also give a historical perspective of the discoveries that led to the Hubble's law.

  13. A Panchromatic Catalog of Early-type Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift in the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Kaviraj, S.; O'Connell, R. W.; Hathi, N. P.; Windhorst, R. A.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Crockett, R. M.; Yan, H.; Kimble, R. A.; Silk, J.; McCarthy, P. J.; Koekemoer, A.; Balick, B.; Bond, H. E.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Paresce, F.; Saha, A.; Trauger, J. T.; Walker, A. R.; Whitmore, B. C.; Young, E. T.

    2012-03-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 lsim z lsim 1.5, with each redshift spectroscopically confirmed by previous published surveys of the ERS field. We combine our measured WFC3 ERS and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-S photometry to gain continuous sensitivity from the rest-frame far-UV to near-IR emission for each ETG. The superior spatial resolution of the HST over this panchromatic baseline allows us to classify the ETGs by their small-scale internal structures, as well as their local environment. By fitting stellar population spectral templates to the broadband photometry of the ETGs, we determine that the average masses of the ETGs are comparable to the characteristic stellar mass of massive galaxies, 1011 publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  14. A Panchromatic Catalog of Early-Type Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift in the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science Field

    CERN Document Server

    Rutkowski, M J; Kaviraj, S; O'Connell, R W; Hathi, N P; Windhorst, R A; Ryan, R E; Crockett, R M; Yan, H; Kimble, R A; Silk, J; McCarthy, P J; Koekemoer, A; Balick, B; Bond, H E; Calzetti, D; Disney, M J; Dopita, M A; Frogel, J A; Hall, D N B; Holtzman, J A; Paresce, F; Saha, A; Trauger, J T; Walker, A R; Whitmore, B C; Young, E T

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually-selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 < z < 1.5, with each redshift spectroscopically-confirmed by previous published surveys of the ERS field. We combine our measured WFC3 ERS and ACS GOODS-S photometry to gain continuous sensitivity from the rest-frame far-UV to near-IR emission for each ETG. The superior spatial resolution of the HST over this panchromatic baseline allows us to classify the ETGs by their small-scale internal structures, as well as their local environment. By fitting stellar population spectral templates to the broad-band photometry of the ETGs, we determine that the average masses of the ETGs are comparable to the characteristic stellar mass ...

  15. The Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera. 1: Methodology and results on the field near 3C 273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R. E.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Neuschaefer, L. W.; Casertano, S.; Im, M.; Wyckoff, E. W.; Ellis, R. S.; Gilmore, G. F.; Elson, R. A. W.; Glazebrook, K.

    1994-01-01

    We present results from the Medium Deep Survey (MDS), a Key Project using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Wide Field Camera (WFC) images of random fields have been taken in 'parallel mode' with an effective resolution of 0.2 sec full width at half maximum (FWHM) in the V(F555W) and I(F785LP) filters. The exposures presented here were targeted on a field away from 3C 273, and resulted in approximately 5 hr integration time in each filter. Detailed morphological structure is seen in galaxy images with total integrated magnitudes down to V approximately = 22.5 and I approximately = 21.5. Parameters are estimated that best fit the observed galaxy images, and 143 objects are identified (including 23 stars) in the field to a fainter limiting magnitude of I approximately = 23.5. We outline the extragalactic goals of the HST Medium Deep Survey, summarize our basic data reduction procedures, and present number (magnitude) counts, a color-magnitude diagram for the field, surface brightness profiles for the brighter galaxies, and best-fit half-light radii for the fainter galaxies as a function of apparent magnitude. A median galaxy half-light radius of 0.4 sec is measured, and the distribution of galaxy sizes versus magnitude is presented. We observe an apparent deficit of galaxies with half-light radii between approximately 0.6 sec and 1.5 sec, with respect to standard no-evolution or mild evolution cosmological models. An apparent excess of compact objects (half-light radii approximately 0.1 sec) is also observed with respect to those models. Finally, we find a small excess in the number of faint galaxy pairs and groups with respect to a random low-redshift field sample.

  16. The VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey: ~10,000 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to study galaxy assembly at early epochs 2

    CERN Document Server

    Fevre, O Le; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Pentericci, L; Thomas, R; Vanzella, E; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Amorin, R; Bardelli, S; Capak, P; Cassara, L; Castellano, M; Cimatti, A; Cuby, J G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; Durkalec, A; Fontana, A; Giavalisco, M; Grazian, A; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Lemaux, B C; Moreau, C; Paltani, S; Ribeiro, B; Salvato, M; Schaerer, D; Scodeggio, M; Sommariva, V; Talia, M; Taniguchi, Y; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Wang, P W; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Fotopoulo, S; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Mellier, Y; Scoville, N

    2014-01-01

    We present the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS), a spectroscopic redshift survey of ~10.000 very faint galaxies to study the major phase of galaxy assembly 2fields: COSMOS, ECDFS and VVDS-02h, with targets selection based on an inclusive combination of photometric redshifts and color properties. Spectra covering 3650

  17. Discovery of a rich proto-cluster at z=2.9 and associated diffuse cold gas in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS)

    CERN Document Server

    Cucciati, O; Lemaux, B C; Bardelli, S; Cimatti, A; Fevre, O Le; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Pentericci, L; Tasca, L A M; Thomas, R; Vanzella, E; Zucca, E; Amorin, R; Capak, P; Cassara, L; Castellano, M; Cuby, J G; de la Torre, S; Durkalec, A; Fontana, A; Giavalisco, M; Grazian, A; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Moreau, C; Paltani, S; Ribeiro, B; Salvato, M; Schaerer, D; Scodeggio, M; Sommariva, V; Talia, M; Taniguchi, Y; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Wang, P W; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Fotopoulou, S; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Mellier, Y; Scoville, N

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We characterise a massive proto-cluster at z=2.895 that we found in the COSMOS field using the spectroscopic sample of the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS). This is one of the rare structures at z~3 not identified around AGNs or radio galaxies, so it is an ideal laboratory to study galaxy formation in dense environments. The structure comprises 12 galaxies with secure spectroscopic redshift in an area of 7'x8', in a z bin of Dz=0.016. The measured galaxy number overdensity is delta_g=12+/-2. This overdensity has total mass of M~8.1x10^(14)M_sun in a volume of 13x15x17 Mpc^3. Simulations indicate that such an overdensity at z~2.9 is a proto-cluster that will collapse in a cluster of total mass M~2.5x10^(15)M_sun at z=0. We compare the properties of the galaxies within the overdensity with a control sample at the same redshift but outside the overdensity. We did not find any statistically significant difference between the properties (stellar mass, SFR, sSFR, NUV-r, r-K) of the galaxies inside and outs...

  18. The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey First Data Release: spectra and spectroscopic redshifts of 698 objects up to z~6 in CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Tasca, L A M; Ribeiro, B; Thomas, R; Moreau, C; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Brun, V Le; Lemaux, B C; Maccagni, D; Pentericci, L; Schaerer, D; Vanzella, E; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Amorin, R; Bardelli, S; Cassara, L P; Castellano, M; Cimatti, A; Cucciati, O; Durkalec, A; Fontana, A; Giavalisco, M; Grazian, A; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Paltani, S; Pforr, J; Scodeggio, M; Sommariva, V; Talia, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Capak, P; Charlot, S; Contini, T; de la Torre, S; Dunlop, J; Fotopoulou, S; Guaita, L; Koekemoer, A; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Mellier, Y; Salvato, M; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Wang, P W

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the first data release (DR1) of the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). The DR1 includes all low-resolution spectroscopic data obtained in 276.9 arcmin2 of the CANDELS-COSMOS and CANDELS-ECFDS survey areas, including accurate spectroscopic redshifts z_spec and individual spectra obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT. A total of 698 objects have a measured redshift, with 677 galaxies, two type-I AGN and a small number of 19 contaminating stars. The targets of the spectroscopic survey are selected primarily on the basis of their photometric redshifts to ensure a broad population coverage. About 500 galaxies have z_spec>2, 48 with z_spec>4, and the highest reliable redshifts reach beyond z_spec=6. This dataset approximately doubles the number of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts at z>3 in these fields. We discuss the general properties of the sample in terms of the spectroscopic redshift distribution, the distribution of Lyman-alpha equivalent widths, and physical properties including stellar m...

  19. A theoretical Deduction from the Hubble law based on a Modified Newtonian Dynamics with field of Yukawa inverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, N.

    2017-07-01

    At cosmic scales the dynamics of the Universe are almost exclusively prescribed by the force of gravity; however the assumption of the law of gravitation, depending on the inverse of the distance, leads to the known problems of the rotation curves of galaxies and missing mass (dark matter). The problem of the coupling of gravity to changes in scale and deviations from the law of the inverse square is an old problem (Laplace, 1805; Seeliger 1898), which has motivated alternatives to Newtonian dynamics compatible with observations. The present paper postulates a modified Newtonian dynamics by adding an inverse Yukawa potential: U(r)≡U0(M)(r-r0)e-α/r is the the potential per unit mass (in N/kg) as a function of the barionic mass that causes the field, r0 is of the order of 50h-1 Mpc and alpha is a coupling constant of the order of 2.5 h-1 Mpc. This potential is zero within the solar system, slightly attractive at interstellar distances, very attractive in galactic range and repulsive at cosmic scales. Its origin is the barionic matter, it allows to include the Milgrow MoND theory to explain the rotation curves, it is compatible with the experiments Eovos type, and allows to deduce the law of Hubble to cosmic scales, in the form H0=100h km/s Mpc≍U0(M)/c, where U0(M)≍ 4pi×6.67 10-11m/s2, is obtained from the Laplace's equation, assuming that the gravitational force is the law of the inverse of the square plus a non-linear term type Yukawa inverse. It is concluded that the modification of the law of gravity with nonlinear terms, allows to model the dynamics of the Universe on a large scale and include non-locality without dark matter. (See Falcon et al. 2014, International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 4, 551-559).

  20. Quasispecies dynamics in main core epitopes of hepatitis B virus by ultra-deep-pyrosequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Homs; Maria Buti; David Tabernero; Josep Quer; Alex Sanchez; Noelia Corral; Rafael Esteban

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the variability of the main immunodominant motifs of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core gene by ultra-deep-pyrosequencing (UDPS).METHODS:Four samples (2 genotype A and 2 genotype D) from 4 treatment-naive patients were assessed for baseline variability.Two additional samples from one patient (patient 4,genotype D) were selected for analysis:one sample corresponded to a 36-mo treatment-free period from baseline and the other to the time of viral breakthrough after 18 mo of lamivudine treatment.The HBV region analyzed covered amino acids 40 to 95 of the core gene,and included the two main epitopic regions,Th50-69 and B74-84.UDPS was carried out in the Genome Sequencer FLX system (454 Life Sciences,Roche).After computer filtering of UDPS data based on a Poisson statistical model,122 813 sequences were analyzed.The most conserved position detected by UDPS was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis and evaluated in cell culture.RESULTS:Positions with highest variability rates were mainly located in the main core epitopes,confirming their role as immune-stimulating regions.In addition,the distribution of variability showed a relationship with HBV genotype.Patient 1 (genotype A) presented the lowest variability rates and patient 2 (genotype A) had 3 codons with variability higher than 1%.Patient 3 and 4 (both genotype D) presented 5 and 8 codons with variability higher than 1%,respectively.The median baseline frequencies showed that genotype A samples had higher variability in epitopic positions than in the other positions analyzed,approaching significance (P =0.07,sample 1 and P =0.05,sample 2).In contrast,there were no significant differences in variability between the epitopic and other positions in genotype D cases.Interestingly,patient 1 presented a completely mutated motif from amino acid 64 to 67 (E64LMT67),which is commonly recognized by T helper cells.Additionally,the variability observed in all 4 patients was particularly associated with the E64

  1. Deep and Ultra-deep Underground Observatory for In Situ Stress, Fluids, and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutt, D. F.; Wang, H.; Kieft, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    The question 'How deeply does life extend into the Earth?' forms a single, compelling vision for multidisciplinary science opportunities associated with physical and biological processes occurring naturally or in response to construction in the deep and ultra-deep subsurface environment of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the former Homestake mine. The scientific opportunity is to understand the interaction between the physical environment and microbial life, specifically, the coupling among (1) stress state and deformation; (2) flow and transport and origin of fluids; and (3) energy and nutrient sources for microbial life; and (4) microbial identity, diversity and activities. DUSEL-Homestake offers the environment in which these questions can be addressed unencumbered by competing human activities. Associated with the interaction among these variables are a number of questions that will be addressed at variety of depths and scales in the facility: What factors control the distribution of life as a function of depth and temperature? What patterns in microbial diversity, microbial activity and nutrients are found along this gradient? How do state variables (stress, strain, temperature, and pore pressure) and constitutive properties (permeability, porosity, modulus, etc.) vary with scale (space, depth, time) in a large 4D heterogeneous system: core - borehole - drift - whole mine - regional? How are fluid flow and stress coupled in a low-permeability, crystalline environment dominated by preferential flow paths? How does this interaction influence the distribution of fluids, solutes, gases, colloids, and biological resources (e.g. energy and nutritive substrates) in the deep continental subsurface? What is the interaction between geomechanics/geohydrology and microbiology (microbial abundance, diversity, distribution, and activities)? Can relationships elucidated within the mechanically and hydrologically altered subsurface habitat

  2. MUSE Deep-Fields: The Lya Luminosity Function in the Hubble Deep Field South at 2.91 < z < 6.64

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Alyssa B; Blaizot, Jeremy; Wisotzki, Lutz; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Garel, Thibault; Richard, Johan; Bacon, Roland; Bina, David; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Contini, Thierry; Brock, Mark den; Hashimoto, Takuya; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Pello, Roser; Schaye, Joop; Schmidt, Kasper B

    2016-01-01

    We present the first estimate of the Ly{\\alpha} luminosity function using blind spectroscopy from the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer, MUSE, in the Hubble Deep Field South. Using automatic source-detection software, we assemble a homogeneously-detected sample of 59 Ly{\\alpha} emitters covering a flux range of -18.0 < log10 (F) < -16.3 (erg s^-1 cm^-2), corresponding to luminosities of 41.4 < log10 (L) < 42.8 (erg s^-1). As recent studies have shown, Ly{\\alpha} fluxes can be underestimated by a factor of two or more via traditional methods, and so we undertake a careful assessment of each object's Ly{\\alpha} flux using a curve-of-growth analysis to account for extended emission. We describe our self-consistent method for determining the completeness of the sample, and present an estimate of the global Ly{\\alpha} luminosity function between redshifts 2.91 < z < 6.64 using the 1/Vmax estimator. We find the luminosity function is higher than many number densities reported in the literature by ...

  3. The intense starburst HDF 850.1 in a galaxy overdensity at z ≈ 5.2 in the Hubble Deep Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Carilli, Chris; Bertoldi, Frank; Cox, Pierre; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Dickinson, Mark; Downes, Dennis; Elbaz, David; Ellis, Richard; Hodge, Jacqueline; Neri, Roberto; Riechers, Dominik A; Weiss, Axel; Bell, Eric; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Krips, Melanie; Krumholz, Mark; Lentati, Lindley; Maiolino, Roberto; Menten, Karl; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robertson, Brant; Spinrad, Hyron; Stark, Dan P; Stern, Daniel

    2012-06-13

    The Hubble Deep Field provides one of the deepest multiwavelength views of the distant Universe and has led to the detection of thousands of galaxies seen throughout cosmic time. An early map of the Hubble Deep Field at a wavelength of 850 micrometres, which is sensitive to dust emission powered by star formation, revealed the brightest source in the field, dubbed HDF 850.1 (ref. 2). For more than a decade, and despite significant efforts, no counterpart was found at shorter wavelengths, and it was not possible to determine its redshift, size or mass. Here we report a redshift of z = 5.183 for HDF 850.1, from a millimetre-wave molecular line scan. This places HDF 850.1 in a galaxy overdensity at z ≈ 5.2, corresponding to a cosmic age of only 1.1 billion years after the Big Bang. This redshift is significantly higher than earlier estimates and higher than those of most of the hundreds of submillimetre-bright galaxies identified so far. The source has a star-formation rate of 850 solar masses per year and is spatially resolved on scales of 5 kiloparsecs, with an implied dynamical mass of about 1.3 × 10(11) solar masses, a significant fraction of which is present in the form of molecular gas. Despite our accurate determination of redshift and position, a counterpart emitting starlight remains elusive.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Discovery of a Probable Caustic-Crossing Event in the MACS1149 Galaxy Cluster Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Rodney, Steven; Diego, Jose Maria; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Selsing, Jonatan; Balestra, Italo; Benito, Alberto Molino; Bradac, Marusa; Bradley, Larry; Brammer, Gabriel; Cenko, Brad; Christensen, Lise; Coe, Dan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan; Frye, Brenda; Graham, Melissa; Graur, Or; Grillo, Claudio; Hjorth, Jens; Howell, Andy; Jauzac, Mathilde; Jha, Saurabh; Kaiser, Nick; Kawamata, Ryota; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Lotz, Jennifer; Matheson, Thomas; McCully, Curtis; Merten, Julian; Nonino, Mario; Oguri, Masamune; Richard, Johan; Riess, Adam; Rosati, Piero; Schmidt, Kasper Borello; Sharon, Keren; Smith, Nathan; Strolger, Lou; Treu, Tommaso; Wang, Xin; Weiner, Ben; Williams, Liliya; Zheng, Weikang

    2016-05-01

    While monitoring the MACS1149 (z = 0.54) galaxy cluster as part of the RefsdalRedux program (PID 14199; PI Kelly) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 IR camera, we have detected a rising transient that appears to be coincident ( Target-of-opportunity optical follow-up imaging in several ACS and WFC3 bands with the FrontierSN program (PID 14208; PI Rodney) has revealed that its rest-frame ultraviolet through optical spectrum may be reasonably well fit with that of a B star at z=1.49 exhibiting a strong Balmer break.

  5. Optimum design and global analysis of flexible jumper for an innovative subsurface production system in ultra-deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Zhen, Xing-wei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Wen-hua

    2014-04-01

    The study focuses on the flexible jumper issue of Subsurface Tension Leg Production (STLP) system concept, which is considered as a competing alternative system to support well completion devices and rigid risers in ultra-deep water for offshore petroleum production. The paper presents analytical and numerical approaches for the optimum design and global analysis of the flexible jumper. Criteria using catenary concept are developed to define the critical length for optimum design. Based on the criteria, detailed hydrodynamic analyses including quasi-static analysis, modal analysis, and dynamic analysis are performed. Modal analysis with respect to the quasi-static analysis shows that the existence of resonant modes requires special consideration. The results of dynamic analysis confirm the effectiveness of the de-coupled effect from the jumper on STLP system. The approaches developed in the study also have wide application prospect in reference to the optimum design and analysis of any Hybrid Riser (HR) concept.

  6. The Subclonal Structure and Genomic Evolution of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Revealed by Ultra-deep Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Thomassen, Mads; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a subgroup of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is primarily caused by alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Recent DNA sequencing studies suggests that HNSCC are very heterogeneous between patients; however the intra-patient subclonal...... structure remains unexplored due to lack of sampling multiple tumor biopsies from each patient. Materials and methods: To examine the clonal structure and describe the genomic cancer evolution we applied whole-exome sequencing combined with targeted ultra-deep targeted sequencing on biopsies from 5stage IV...... complex subclonal architectures comprising distinct subclones only found in geographically distinct regions of the tumors. The metastatic potential of the tumor is acquired early in the tumor evolution, as indicated by the lymph node sharing the majority of the mutations with the tumor biopsies, while...

  7. 30 CFR 203.31 - If I have a qualified phase 2 or qualified phase 3 ultra-deep well, what royalty relief would...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Drilling Ultra... phase 3 ultra-deep well, 0 BCF. (b)(1) This paragraph applies if your lease: (i) Has produced gas or oil... your lease for this RSV because the well was drilled after the relief authorized here became...

  8. Constraints on the inverse power-law scalar field dark energy model from strong gravitational lensing data and updated Hubble parameter measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yun; Cao, Shuo; Huang, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2013-01-01

    We constrain the scalar field dark energy model with an inverse power-law potential, i.e., $V(\\phi)\\propto {\\phi}^{-\\alpha}$ ($\\alpha>0$), from the recent cosmological observations. We compile an updated sample of Hubble parameter measurements including 31 independent data points to constrain the parameters of the inverse power-law scalar field dark energy model. Our results show that the constraining power of the updated sample of $H(z)$ data is almost comparable to that of the SCP Union2 compilation, and a bit stronger than that of SCP Union2.1. The recent sample of the strong gravitational lensing is also adopted to confine the model, the results of which are compatible with those from other data fittings. A joint analysis of the strong gravitational lensing data with the more restrictive updated Hubble parameter measurements and the Type Ia supernovae data from SCP Union2 indicates that the recent observations still can not distinguish whether dark energy is a time-independent cosmological constant or a t...

  9. Parallax of Galactic Cepheids from Spatially Scanning the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope: The Case of SS Canis Majoris

    CERN Document Server

    Casertano, Stefano; Anderson, Richard I; Bowers, J Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I; Cukierman, Aviv R; Filippenko, Alexei V; Graham, Melissa L; MacKenty, John W; Melis, Carl; Tucker, Brad E; Upadhya, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision measurement of the parallax for the 12-day Cepheid SS Canis Majoris, obtained via spatial scanning with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Spatial scanning enables astrometric measurements with a precision of 20-40 muas, an order of magnitude better than pointed observations. SS CMa is the second Cepheid targeted for parallax measurement with HST, and is the first of a sample of eighteen long-period >~ 10 days) Cepheids selected in order to improve the calibration of their period-luminosity relation and eventually permit a determination of the Hubble constant H_0 to better than 2%. The parallax of SS CMa is found to be 348 +/- 38 muas, corresponding to a distance of 2.9 +/- 0.3 kpc. We also present a refinement of the static geometric distortion of WFC3 obtained using spatial scanning observations of calibration fields, with a typical magnitude <~0.01 pixels on scales of 100 pixels.

  10. My Most Memorable AAS Meeting, or How Stephen Hawking's Chauffeur and Chubby Wise's Fiddle Are Related to the Hubble Deep Field (At Least In My Mind and Experience!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R. A.

    1999-05-01

    Sometimes, in the most extraordinary conditions and times, strange things happen which remind us of just how small a world we really inhabit, and how so many varied things may suddenly be juxtaposed in our lives, and in the lives of others. My most memorable AAS meeting involves not only the meeting but events while getting there. It was January 1996, and we had just finished our observations and initial data reduction of the Hubble Deep Field, the members of the HDF working group doggedly coming in to the STScI by various means over the December holidays and the New Year, in the midst of several blizzards which even closed STScI for a number of days. Not surprisingly, work on the HDF AAS presentations was ongoing until the last minute, until people left snowy Baltimore for sunny San Antonio. My street was plowed for the first time in a week a few hours before my 6AM flight, so after digging out my car, with no time for sleep, between 3AM and 6AM on the morning I left, I soon discovered my own surprising connections between Stephen Hawking's chauffeur, Chubby Wise's fiddle, and the Hubble Deep Field. I'll elaborate in this paper if you're curious!

  11. Ultra-deep sequencing of foraminiferal microbarcodes unveils hidden richness of early monothalamous lineages in deep-sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecroq, Béatrice; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Bachar, Dipankar; Christen, Richard; Esling, Philippe; Baerlocher, Loïc; Østerås, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent; Pawlowski, Jan

    2011-08-09

    Deep-sea floors represent one of the largest and most complex ecosystems on Earth but remain essentially unexplored. The vastness and remoteness of this ecosystem make deep-sea sampling difficult, hampering traditional taxonomic observations and diversity assessment. This problem is particularly true in the case of the deep-sea meiofauna, which largely comprises small-sized, fragile, and difficult-to-identify metazoans and protists. Here, we introduce an ultra-deep sequencing-based metagenetic approach to examine the richness of benthic foraminifera, a principal component of deep-sea meiofauna. We used Illumina sequencing technology to assess foraminiferal richness in 31 unsieved deep-sea sediment samples from five distinct oceanic regions. We sequenced an extremely short fragment (36 bases) of the small subunit ribosomal DNA hypervariable region 37f, which has been shown to accurately distinguish foraminiferal species. In total, we obtained 495,978 unique sequences that were grouped into 1,643 operational taxonomic units, of which about half (841) could be reliably assigned to foraminifera. The vast majority of the operational taxonomic units (nearly 90%) were either assigned to early (ancient) lineages of soft-walled, single-chambered (monothalamous) foraminifera or remained undetermined and yet possibly belong to unknown early lineages. Contrasting with the classical view of multichambered taxa dominating foraminiferal assemblages, our work reflects an unexpected diversity of monothalamous lineages that are as yet unknown using conventional micropaleontological observations. Although we can only speculate about their morphology, the immense richness of deep-sea phylotypes revealed by this study suggests that ultra-deep sequencing can improve understanding of deep-sea benthic diversity considered until now as unknowable based on a traditional taxonomic approach.

  12. Dynamics of hepatitis B virus quasispecies in association with nucleos(tide analogue treatment determined by ultra-deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Nishijima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although the advent of ultra-deep sequencing technology allows for the analysis of heretofore-undetectable minor viral mutants, a limited amount of information is currently available regarding the clinical implications of hepatitis B virus (HBV genomic heterogeneity. METHODS: To characterize the HBV genetic heterogeneity in association with anti-viral therapy, we performed ultra-deep sequencing of full-genome HBV in the liver and serum of 19 patients with chronic viral infection, including 14 therapy-naïve and 5 nucleos(tide analogue(NA-treated cases. RESULTS: Most genomic changes observed in viral variants were single base substitutions and were widely distributed throughout the HBV genome. Four of eight (50% chronic therapy-naïve HBeAg-negative patients showed a relatively low prevalence of the G1896A pre-core (pre-C mutant in the liver tissues, suggesting that other mutations were involved in their HBeAg seroconversion. Interestingly, liver tissues in 4 of 5 (80% of the chronic NA-treated anti-HBe-positive cases had extremely low levels of the G1896A pre-C mutant (0.0%, 0.0%, 0.1%, and 1.1%, suggesting the high sensitivity of the G1896A pre-C mutant to NA. Moreover, various abundances of clones resistant to NA were common in both the liver and serum of treatment-naïve patients, and the proportion of M204VI mutants resistant to lamivudine and entecavir expanded in response to entecavir treatment in the serum of 35.7% (5/14 of patients, suggesting the putative risk of developing drug resistance to NA. CONCLUSION: Our findings illustrate the strong advantage of deep sequencing on viral genome as a tool for dissecting the pathophysiology of HBV infection.

  13. Hubble multi-scalar inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Abedi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Multiple field models of inflation exhibit new features than single field models. In this work, we study the hierarchy of parameters based on Hubble expansion rate in curved field space and derive the system of flow equations that describe their evolution. Then we focus on obtaining derivatives of number of $e$-folds with respect to scalar fields during inflation and at hypersurface of the end of inflation.

  14. A PANCHROMATIC CATALOG OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT IN THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Kaviraj, S.; Crockett, R. M.; Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A.; Bond, H. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kimble, R. A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Disney, M. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Physics and Astronomy, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-03-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.5, with each redshift spectroscopically confirmed by previous published surveys of the ERS field. We combine our measured WFC3 ERS and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-S photometry to gain continuous sensitivity from the rest-frame far-UV to near-IR emission for each ETG. The superior spatial resolution of the HST over this panchromatic baseline allows us to classify the ETGs by their small-scale internal structures, as well as their local environment. By fitting stellar population spectral templates to the broadband photometry of the ETGs, we determine that the average masses of the ETGs are comparable to the characteristic stellar mass of massive galaxies, 10{sup 11} < M{sub *}[M{sub Sun }]<10{sup 12}. By transforming the observed photometry into the Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV and NUV, Johnson V, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey g' and r' bandpasses we identify a noteworthy diversity in the rest-frame UV-optical colors and find the mean rest-frame (FUV-V) = 3.5 and (NUV-V) = 3.3, with 1{sigma} standard deviations {approx_equal}1.0. The blue rest-frame UV-optical colors observed for most of the ETGs are evidence for star formation during the preceding gigayear, but no systems exhibit UV-optical photometry consistent with major recent ({approx}<50 Myr) starbursts. Future publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  15. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2003-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velo...

  16. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2003-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velo...

  17. Are Ultra-faint Galaxies at z = 6-8 Responsible for Cosmic Reionization? Combined Constraints from the Hubble Frontier Fields Clusters and Parallels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atek, Hakim; Richard, Johan; Jauzac, Mathilde; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Limousin, Marceau; Schaerer, Daniel; Jullo, Eric; Ebeling, Harald; Egami, Eiichi; Clement, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the Frontier Fields to accurately measure the galaxy rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function (UV LF) in the redshift range z ˜ 6-8. We combine observations in three lensing clusters, A2744, MACS 0416, and MACS 0717, and their associated parallel fields to select high-redshift dropout candidates. We use the latest lensing models to estimate the flux magnification and the effective survey volume in combination with completeness simulations performed in the source plane. We report the detection of 227 galaxy candidates at z = 6-7 and 25 candidates at z ˜ 8. While the total survey area is about 4 arcmin2 in each parallel field, it drops to about 0.6-1 arcmin2 in the cluster core fields because of the strong lensing. We compute the UV LF at z ˜ 7 using the combined galaxy sample and perform Monte Carlo simulations to determine the best-fit Schechter parameters. We are able to reliably constrain the LF down to an absolute magnitude of MUV = -15.25, which corresponds to 0.005 L⋆. More importantly, we find that the faint-end slope remains steep down to this magnitude limit with α =-{2.04}-0.17+0.13. We find a characteristic magnitude of {M}\\star =-{20.89}-0.72+0.60 and log(ϕ⋆) = -{3.54}-0.45+0.48. Our results confirm the most recent results in deep blank fields but extend the LF measurements more than two magnitudes deeper. The UV LF at z ˜ 8 is not very well constrained below MUV = -18 owing to the small number statistics and incompleteness uncertainties. To assess the contribution of galaxies to cosmic reionization, we derive the UV luminosity density at z ˜ 7 by integrating the UV LF down to an observational limit of MUV = -15. We show that our determination of log(ρUV) = 26.2 ± 0.13 (erg s-1 Hz-1 Mpc-3) can be sufficient to maintain reionization with an escape fraction of ionizing radiation of fesc = 10%-15%. Future Hubble Frontier Fields observations will certainly improve the constraints on the UV LF at

  18. The Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC): Survey Design and Deep Public UBVRIz' Images and Catalogs of the Extended Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Gawiser, E; Herrera, D H; Maza, J; Castander, F J; Infante, L; Lira, P; Quadri, R; Toner, R; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Altmann, M; Assef, R; Christlein, D; Coppi, P S; Duran, M F; Franx, M; Galaz, G; Huerta, L; Liu, C; López, S; Méndez, R; Moore, D C; Rubio, M; Ruiz, M T; Toft, S; Yi, S K

    2006-01-01

    We present UBVRIz' optical images of the 0.32 square degree Extended Hubble Deep Field South. This is one of four fields comprising the MUSYC survey, which is optimized for the study of galaxies at z=3, AGN demographics, and Galactic structure. We calculate corrected aperture photometry and its uncertainties and find through tests that these provide a significant improvement upon standard techniques. Our photometric catalog of 62968 objects is complete to a total magnitude of R_AB=25. We select z=3 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates from their UVR colors and find a sky surface density of 1.4/sq. arcmin and an angular correlation function w(theta) = 2.3+-1.0 theta^{-0.8}. (Abridged)

  19. Exploring the NRO Opportunity for a Hubble-Sized Wide-Field Near-IR Space Telescope - New WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Alan; Spergel, David; Mountain, Matt; Postman, Mark; Elliott, Erin; Bendek, Eduardo; Bennett, David; Dalcanton, Julianne; Gaudi, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; hide

    2013-01-01

    We discuss scientific, technical, and programmatic issues related to the use of an NRO 2.4m telescope for the WFIRST initiative of the 2010 Decadal Survey. We show that this implementation of WFIRST, which we call "NEW WFIRST," would achieve the goals of the NWNH Decadal Survey for the WFIRST core programs of Dark Energy and Microlensing Planet Finding, with the crucial benefit of deeper and/or wider near-IR surveys for GO science and a potentially Hubble-like Guest Observer program. NEW WFIRST could also include a coronagraphic imager for direct detection of dust disks and planets around neighboring stars, a high-priority science and technology precursor for future ambitious programs to image Earth-like planets around neighboring stars.

  20. Exploring the NRO Opportunity for a Hubble-sized Wide-field Near-IR Space Telescope -- NEW WFIRST

    CERN Document Server

    Dressler, Alan; Mountain, Matt; Postman, Marc; Elliott, Erin; Bendek, Eduardo; Bennett, David; Dalcanton, Julianne; Gaudi, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Guyon, Olivier; Hirata, Christopher; Kalirai, Jason; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Kruk, Jeff; Macintosh, Bruce; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Penny, Matthew; Perlmutter, Saul; Rieke, George; Riess, Adam; Rhoads, James; Shaklan, Stuart; Somerville, Rachel; Stern, Daniel; Thompson, Rodger; Weinberg, David

    2012-01-01

    We discuss scientific, technical and programmatic issues related to the use of an NRO 2.4m telescope for the WFIRST initiative of the 2010 Decadal Survey. We show that this implementation of WFIRST, which we call "NEW WFIRST," would achieve the goals of the NWNH Decadal Survey for the WFIRST core programs of Dark Energy and Microlensing Planet Finding, with the crucial benefit of deeper and/or wider near-IR surveys for GO science and a potentially Hubble-like Guest Observer program. NEW WFIRST could also include a coronagraphic imager for direct detection of dust disks and planets around neighboring stars, a high-priority science and technology precursor for future ambitious programs to image Earth-like planets around neighboring stars.

  1. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies I. Hubble Space Telescope / Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2014-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with $\\tau$ $\\sim$ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs (dTrans), and dwarf ellipticals (dEs) can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH ($\\tau$ $\\sim$ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages $>$ 10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z=2 ranges considerably (80\\%...

  2. DEEP CHANDRA MONITORING OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 4649. II. WIDE-FIELD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, MI 48824 (United States); Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Luo, Bin; Kim, Dong-Woo; Fragos, Tassos [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodie, Jean P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gallagher, John S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Kalogera, Vassiliki [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); King, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: strader@pa.msu.edu [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2012-11-20

    We present g and z photometry and size estimates for globular clusters (GCs) in the massive Virgo elliptical NGC 4649 (M60) using a five-pointing Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys mosaic. The metal-poor GCs show a monotonic negative metallicity gradient of -0.43 {+-} 0.10 dex per dex in radius over the full radial range of the data, out to {approx}24 kpc. There is evidence for substantial color substructure among the metal-rich GCs. The metal-poor GCs have typical sizes {approx}0.4 pc larger than the metal-rich GCs out to large galactocentric distances ({approx}> 20 kpc), favoring an intrinsic explanation for the size difference rather than projection effects. There is no clear relation between half-light radius and galactocentric distance beyond {approx}15 kpc, suggesting that the sizes of GCs are not generically set by tidal limitation. Finally, we identify {approx}20 candidate ultracompact dwarfs that extend down to surprisingly faint absolute magnitudes (M{sub z} {approx} -8.5), and may bridge the gap between this class and 'extended clusters' in the Local Group. Three of the brighter candidates have published radial velocities and can be confirmed as bona fide ultracompact dwarfs; follow-up spectroscopy will determine the nature of the remainder of the candidates.

  3. Ultra-Deep Sequencing Analysis of the Hepatitis A Virus 5'-Untranslated Region among Cases of the Same Outbreak from a Single Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Kanda, Tatsuo; Jiang, Xia; Nakamura, Masato; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Gonoi, Tohru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a causative agent of acute viral hepatitis for which an effective vaccine has been developed. Here we describe ultra-deep pyrosequences (UDPSs) of HAV 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) among cases of the same outbreak, which arose from a single source, associated with a revolving sushi bar. We determined the reference sequence from HAV-derived clone from an attendant by the Sanger method. Sixteen UDPSs from this outbreak and one from another sporadic case were compared with this reference. Nucleotide errors yielded a UDPS error rate of hepatitis A and HAV 5'UTR substitutions. It might be more interesting to perform ultra-deep sequencing of full length HAV genome in order to reveal possible unknown genomic determinants associated with disease severity. Further studies will be needed. PMID:24396287

  4. The Faint-end of the UV Luminosity Function at z~6 to z~8: Combined Constraints from the Hubble Frontier Fields Clusters and Parallels

    CERN Document Server

    Atek, Hakim; Jauzac, Mathilde; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Limousin, Marceau; Schaerer, Daniel; Jullo, Eric; Ebeling, Harald; Egami, Eiichi; Clement, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the Frontier Fields to accurately measure the galaxy rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function (UV LF) in the redshift range $z \\sim 6-8$. We combine observations in three lensing clusters A2744, MACS0416, MACS0717 and their associated parallels fields to select high-redshift dropout candidates. We use the latest lensing models to estimate the flux magnification and the effective survey volume in combination with completeness simulations performed in the source plane. We report the detection of 227 galaxy candidates at $z=6-7$ and 25 candidates at $z \\sim 8$. While the total total survey area is about 4 arcmin$^{2}$ in each parallel field, it drops to about 0.6 to 1 arcmin$^{2}$ in the cluster core fields because of the strong lensing. We compute the UV luminosity function at $z \\sim 7$ using the combined galaxy sample and perform Monte Carlo simulations to determine the best fit Schechter parameters. We are able to reliably constrain the LF down to an absolute m...

  5. Hubble Frontier Fields First Complete Cluster Data: Faint Galaxies at $z\\sim 5-10$ for UV Luminosity Functions and Cosmic Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Oguri, Masamune; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ono, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    We present the comprehensive analyses of faint dropout galaxies up to $z\\sim 10$ with the first full-depth data set of Abell 2744 lensing cluster and parallel fields completed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program in July 2014. We identify $54$ dropouts at $z \\sim 5-10$ in the HFF fields, and strikingly enlarge the size of $z\\sim 9$ galaxy sample obtained to date. Although the number of highly magnified ($\\mu \\sim 10$) galaxies is small due to the tiny survey volume of strong lensing, our study reaches the galaxies' intrinsic luminosities comparable to the deepest-field HUDF studies. We derive UV luminosity functions with these faint dropouts, carefully evaluating the combination of observational incompleteness and lensing effects in the image plane by intensive simulations including magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images, with the evaluations of mass model dependences. Our results confirm that the faint-end slope, $\\alpha$, is as steep as $-2$ at $z \\sim 6-8$, and significantly strengt...

  6. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  7. A molecular line scan in the Hubble deep field north: Constraints on the co luminosity function and the cosmic H{sub 2} density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, F.; Decarli, R.; Da Cunha, E. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sargent, M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Carilli, C. [NRAO, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickinson, M.; Daddi, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Riechers, D. [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ellis, R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stark, D.; Weiner, B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Bell, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Cox, P.; Downes, D.; Neri, R. [IRAM, 300 rue de la piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d' Hères (France); Lentati, L.; Maiolino, R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Menten, K. M., E-mail: walter@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2014-02-20

    We present direct constraints on the CO luminosity function at high redshift and the resulting cosmic evolution of the molecular gas density, ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z), based on a blind molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our line scan of the entire 3 mm window (79-115 GHz) covers a cosmic volume of ∼7000 Mpc{sup 3}, and redshift ranges z < 0.45, 1.01 < z < 1.89 and z > 2. We use the rich multiwavelength and spectroscopic database of the HDF-N to derive some of the best constraints on CO luminosities in high redshift galaxies to date. We combine the blind CO detections in our molecular line scan (presented in a companion paper) with stacked CO limits from galaxies with available spectroscopic redshifts (slit or mask spectroscopy from Keck and grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope) to give first blind constraints on high-z CO luminosity functions and the cosmic evolution of the H{sub 2} mass density ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) out to redshifts z ∼ 3. A comparison to empirical predictions of ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) shows that the securely detected sources in our molecular line scan already provide significant contributions to the predicted ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) in the redshift bins (z) ∼ 1.5 and (z) ∼ 2.7. Accounting for galaxies with CO luminosities that are not probed by our observations results in cosmic molecular gas densities ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) that are higher than current predictions. We note, however, that the current uncertainties (in particular the luminosity limits, number of detections, as well as cosmic volume probed) are significant, a situation that is about to change with the emerging ALMA observatory.

  8. UltraVISTA: a new ultra-deep near-infrared survey in COSMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCracken, H. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Dunlop, J.; Franx, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Fèvre, O.; Holt, J.; Caputi, K. I.; Goranova, Y.; Buitrago, F.; Emerson, J. P.; Freudling, W.; Hudelot, P.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Magnard, F.; Mellier, Y.; Møller, P.; Nilsson, K. K.; Sutherland, W.; Tasca, L.; Zabl, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the first data release of the UltraVISTA near-infrared imaging survey of the COSMOS field. We summarise the key goals and design of the survey and provide a detailed description of our data reduction techniques. We provide stacked, sky-subtracted images in YJHKs and narrow-

  9. UltraVISTA : a new ultra-deep near-infrared survey in COSMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCracken, H. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Dunlop, J.; Franx, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Fevre, O.; Holt, J.; Caputi, K. I.; Goranova, Y.; Buitrago, F.; Emerson, J. P.; Freudling, W.; Hudelot, P.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Magnard, F.; Mellier, Y.; Moller, P.; Nilsson, K. K.; Sutherland, W.; Tasca, L.; Zabl, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the first data release of the UltraVISTA near-infrared imaging survey of the COSMOS field. We summarise the key goals and design of the survey and provide a detailed description of our data reduction techniques. We provide stacked, sky-subtracted images in YJHK(s) and narro

  10. Old Massive Ellipticals and S0 in the Hubble Deep Field Vanish from View at $z>1.3$ : Possible Solutions of the Enigma

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, A; Granato, G L; Bressan, A; Danese, L; Franceschini, Alberto; Silva, Laura; Granato, Gian Luigi; Bressan, Alessandro; Danese, Luigi

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of a bright K-band selected sample of early-type galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, as representative of the field galaxy population. This dataset is unique as for the morphological information on faint high-z sources, and for complete photometric and spectroscopic coverage. The majority of bright early-type galaxies in this field are found at redshifts $z \\leq 1.3$ to share common properties with those of high-z cluster samples, as for the age and mass of the dominant stellar population -- which are found to be as old as 3-5 Gyr and as massive as $10^{11} M_\\odot$ already at $z\\simeq 1$. There is no evidence of a steepening of the mass function from $z$=0 to $z$=1, as inferred by some authors from analyses of optically-selected samples and favoured by hierarchical clustering models forming most of the E/S0s at $z1.3$, which would be expected as clearly detectable above the flux limits, given the aged properties of the lower redshift counterparts. So, something hide them at...

  11. Spatial Periodicity of Galaxy Number Counts, CMB Anisotropy, and SNIa Hubble Diagram Based on the Universe Accompanied by a Non-Minimally Coupled Scalar Field

    CERN Document Server

    Hirano, Koichi; Komiya, Zen

    2008-01-01

    We have succeeded in establishing a cosmological model with a non-minimally coupled scalar field $\\phi$ that can account not only for the spatial periodicity or the {\\it picket-fence structure} exhibited by the galaxy $N$-$z$ relation of the 2dF survey but also for the spatial power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) temperature anisotropy observed by the WMAP satellite. The Hubble diagram of our model also compares well with the observation of Type Ia supernovae. The scalar field of our model universe starts from an extremely small value at around the nucleosynthesis epoch, remains in that state for sufficiently long periods, allowing sufficient time for the CMB temperature anisotropy to form, and then starts to grow in magnitude at the redshift $z$ of $\\sim 1$, followed by a damping oscillation which is required to reproduce the observed picket-fence structure of the $N$-$z$ relation. To realize such behavior of the scalar field, we have found it necessary to introduce a new form of...

  12. The Local Group: the ultimate deep field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Weisz, Daniel R.; Bullock, James S.; Cooper, Michael C.

    2016-10-01

    Near-field cosmology - using detailed observations of the Local Group and its environs to study wide-ranging questions in galaxy formation and dark matter physics - has become a mature and rich field over the past decade. There are lingering concerns, however, that the relatively small size of the present-day Local Group (˜2 Mpc diameter) imposes insurmountable sample-variance uncertainties, limiting its broader utility. We consider the region spanned by the Local Group's progenitors at earlier times and show that it reaches 3 arcmin ≈ 7 comoving Mpc in linear size (a volume of ≈350 Mpc3) at z = 7. This size at early cosmic epochs is large enough to be representative in terms of the matter density and counts of dark matter haloes with Mvir(z = 7) ≲ 2 × 109 M⊙. The Local Group's stellar fossil record traces the cosmic evolution of galaxies with 103 ≲ M⋆(z = 0)/M⊙ ≲ 109 (reaching M1500 > -9 at z ˜ 7) over a region that is comparable to or larger than the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) for the entire history of the Universe. In the JWST era, resolved stellar populations will probe regions larger than the HUDF and any deep JWST fields, further enhancing the value of near-field cosmology.

  13. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  14. Hubble Frontier Fields : A High-Precision Strong-Lensing Mass Model of the Massive Galaxy Cluster Abell 2744 using 150 Multiple Images

    CERN Document Server

    Jauzac, Mathilde; Jullo, Eric; Clément, Benjamin; Limousin, Marceau; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ebeling, Harald; Atek, Hakim; Massey, Richard; Eckert, Dominique; Egami, Eiichi; Rexroth, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-precision mass model of galaxy cluster Abell 2744, based on a strong-gravitational-lensing analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data, which now include both Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide-Field Camera 3 observations to the final depth. Taking advantage of the unprecedented depth of the visible and near-infrared data, we identify 33 new multiply imaged galaxies, bringing the total to 51, comprising 159 individual lensed images. In the process, we correct previous erroneous identifications and positions of multiple systems in the northern part of the cluster core. With the Lenstool software and the new sets of multiple images, we model the cluster using two cluster-scale dark matter halos plus galaxy-scale halos for the cluster members. Our best-fit model predicts image positions with an RMS error of 0.69", which constitutes an improvement by almost a factor of two over previous parametric models of this cluster. We measure the total projected mass inside ...

  15. The Intense Starburst HDF850.1 in a Galaxy Overdensity at z=5.2 in the Hubble Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Fabian; Carilli, C; Bertoldi, F; Cox, P; Da Cunha, E; Daddi, E; Dickinson, M; Downes, D; Elbaz, D; Ellis, R; Hodge, J; Neri, R; Riechers, D; Weiss, A; Bell, E; Dannerbauer, H; Krips, M; Krumholz, M; Lentati, L; Maiolino, R; Menten, K; Rix, H -W; Robertson, B; Spinrad, H; Stark, D; Stern, D

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Deep Field (HDF) is a region in the sky that provides one of the deepest multi-wavelength views of the distant universe and has led to the detection of thousands of galaxies seen throughout cosmic time. An early map of the HDF at a wavelength of 850 microns that is sensitive to dust emission powered by star formation revealed the brightest source in the field, dubbed HDF850.1. For more than a decade, this source remained elusive and, despite significant efforts, no counterpart at shorter wavelengths, and thus no redshift, size or mass, could be identified. Here we report, using a millimeter wave molecular line scan, an unambiguous redshift determination for HDF850.1 of z=5.183. This places HDF850.1 in a galaxy overdensity at z~5.2 in the HDF, corresponding to a cosmic age of only 1.1 Gyr after the Big Bang. This redshift is significantly higher than earlier estimates and higher than most of the >100 sub-millimeter bright galaxies identified to date. The source has a star formation rate of 850 M_sun...

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science data: Panchromatic Faint Object Counts from 0.2-2 microns wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Windhorst, Rogier A; Hathi, Nimish P; McCarthy, Patrick J; Ryan, Russell E; Jr.,; Yan, Haojing; Baldry, Ivan K; Driver, Simon P; Frogel, Jay A; Hill, David T; Kelvin, Lee S; Koekemoer, Anton M; Mechtley, Matt; O'Connell, Robert W; Robotham, Aaron S G; Rutkowski, Michael J; Seibert, Mark; Tuffs, Richard J; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard E; Bushouse, Howard; Calzetti, Daniela; Crockett, Mark; Disney, Michael J; Dopita, Michael A; Hall, Donald N B; Holtzman, Jon A; Kaviraj, Sugata; Kimble, Randy A; MacKenty, John W; Mutchler, Max; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abihit; Silk, Joseph I; Trauger, John; Walker, Alistair R; Whitmore, Bradley C; Young, Erick

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Early Release Science (ERS) observations in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) South field. The new WFC3 ERS data provide calibrated, drizzled mosaics in the mid-UV filters F225W, F275W, and F336W, as well as in the near-IR filters F098W (\\Ys), F125W (J), and F160W (H) in 1-2 HST orbits per filter. Together with the existing HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-South mosaics in the BVi'z' filters, these panchromatic 10-band ERS data cover 40-50 square arcmin from from 0.2-1.7 \\mum\\ in wavelength at 0\\arcspt 07-0\\arcspt 15 FWHM resolution and 0\\arcspt 090 multidrizzled pixels to depths of AB\\cle 26.0-27.0 mag (5-sigma) for point sources, and AB\\cle 25.5-26.5 mag for compact galaxies. In this paper, we describe: a) the scientific rationale, and the data taking plus reduction procedures of the panchromatic 10-band ERS mosaics; b) the procedure of generating object catalogs across the 10 different ERS filters, and the ...

  17. The Hubble Catalog of Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K.; Bonanos, A.; Gavras, P.; Yang, M.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Moretti, M. I.; Karampelas, A.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Spetsieri, Z.; Pouliasis, E.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Charmandaris, V.; Tsinganos, K.; Laskaris, N.; Kakaletris, G.; Nota, A.; Lennon, D.; Arviset, C.; Whitmore, B.; Budavari, T.; Downes, R.; Lubow, S.; Rest, A.; Strolger, L.; White, R.

    2017-09-01

    We aim to construct an exceptionally deep (V ≲ 27) catalog of variable objects in selected Galactic and extragalactic fields visited multiple times by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). While HST observations of some of these fields were searched for specific types of variables before (most notably, the extragalactic Cepheids), we attempt a systematic study of the population of variable objects of all types at the magnitude range not easily accessible with ground-based telescopes. The variability timescales that can be probed range from hours to years depending on how often a particular field has been visited. For source extraction and cross-matching of sources between visits we rely on the Hubble Source Catalog which includes 107 objects detected with WFPC2, ACS, and WFC3 HST instruments. The lightcurves extracted from the HSC are corrected for systematic effects by applying local zero-point corrections and are screened for bad measurements. For each lightcurve we compute variability indices sensitive to a broad range of variability types. The indices characterize the overall lightcurve scatter and smoothness. Candidate variables are selected as having variability index values significantly higher than expected for objects of similar brightness in the given set of observations. The Hubble Catalog of Variables will be released in 2018.

  18. The Hubble Catalog of Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolovsky K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to construct an exceptionally deep (V ≲ 27 catalog of variable objects in selected Galactic and extragalactic fields visited multiple times by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST. While HST observations of some of these fields were searched for specific types of variables before (most notably, the extragalactic Cepheids, we attempt a systematic study of the population of variable objects of all types at the magnitude range not easily accessible with ground-based telescopes. The variability timescales that can be probed range from hours to years depending on how often a particular field has been visited. For source extraction and cross-matching of sources between visits we rely on the Hubble Source Catalog which includes 107 objects detected with WFPC2, ACS, and WFC3 HST instruments. The lightcurves extracted from the HSC are corrected for systematic effects by applying local zero-point corrections and are screened for bad measurements. For each lightcurve we compute variability indices sensitive to a broad range of variability types. The indices characterize the overall lightcurve scatter and smoothness. Candidate variables are selected as having variability index values significantly higher than expected for objects of similar brightness in the given set of observations. The Hubble Catalog of Variables will be released in 2018.

  19. Deep VLT/HAWKI and Keck/MOSFIRE K-band imaging of the Hubble Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Gabriel; Marchesini, Danilo

    2015-08-01

    We will present recently-obtained deep K-band imaging of the first four Frontier Fields, Abell 2744 and MACS 0416 with the VLT/HAWK-I instrument and MACS-0717 and MACS-1149 with Keck/MOSFIRE. The final HAWK-I mosaics reach a depth of K~26 AB (5-sigma) with superb ground-based image quality ~0.4" FWHM across the field; shorter integrations with MOSFIRE reach K~25 AB and with FWHM~0.5". The 7'x7' HAWKI field of view provides ideal simultaneous coverage of both the HST cluster and parallel fields (with additional area also covered by Subaru optical and IRAC imaging), and the K band at 2.2 µm crucially fills the gap between the deep space-based imaging bandpasses observed with HST and Spitzer. The addition of the 2.2 µm imaging and photometry greatly improves the constraints on both the photometric redshifts and the stellar-population properties of galaxies extending well below the characteristic stellar mass across most of the age of the universe, down to, and including, the redshifts of the targeted galaxy clusters. The reduced, aligned mosaics of all the K-band fields are made freely available to the Frontier Fields community; identical deep HAWK-I observations of the final two Frontier Fields (Abell 370 and Abell S1063) have been awarded and will be obtained in the upcoming ESO observing periods.

  20. New subsea X tree generation brings innovative features providing efficiency for ultra deep waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Gustavo Bellot de Almeida; Labes, Alan Zaragoza [FMC Technologies, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The EVDT has been developed for global applications. Based upon the widely field proven 10 K Vertical Tree and 15 K HPHT Tree, the system has incorporated the latest technological advancements. The Tubing Hanger System and installation tooling are available up to a 7 inch bore for 10,000 psi applications and a 5 inch bore for 15,000 psi applications. The Tubing Hanger can be installed using a Tubing Head when flexibility for sequencing of events is required during offshore installations. Or it can simply land into the wellhead, eliminating the Tubing Head. This allows for a more efficient installation when completion and drilling operations are conducted without retrieving the Sub sea Blow Out Preventer (BOP) and Riser. The EVDT incorporates a retrievable Flow Module downstream of the wing valve that can be configured to project specific variances such as production, gas injection and water injection service. The Flow Module can also be configured to include Multi-Phase Flow Meters, sensors, and gauges. This allows an upgrade sub sea without having to pull and re-run the entire Tree system. These features allowed the system to hit the mark regarding what the industry needs today and also allowed to accommodate technologies that will arise in the years to come. (author)

  1. HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS FIRST COMPLETE CLUSTER DATA: FAINT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 5-10 FOR UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND COSMIC REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kawamata, Ryota; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Oguri, Masamune, E-mail: ishigaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-20

    We present comprehensive analyses of faint dropout galaxies up to z ∼ 10 with the first full-depth data set of the A2744 lensing cluster and parallel fields observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program. We identify 54 dropouts at z ∼ 5-10 in the HFF fields and enlarge the size of the z ∼ 9 galaxy sample obtained to date. Although the number of highly magnified (μ ∼ 10) galaxies is small because of the tiny survey volume of strong lensing, our study reaches the galaxies' intrinsic luminosities comparable to the deepest-field HUDF studies. We derive UV luminosity functions with these faint dropouts, carefully evaluating by intensive simulations the combination of observational incompleteness and lensing effects in the image plane, including magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images, with the evaluation of mass model dependencies. Our results confirm that the faint-end slope, α, is as steep as –2 at z ∼ 6-8 and strengthen the evidence for the rapid decrease of UV luminosity densities, ρ{sub UV}, at z > 8 from the large z ∼ 9 sample. We examine whether the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease trend can be reconciled with the large Thomson scattering optical depth, τ{sub e}, measured by cosmic microwave background experiments, allowing a large space of free parameters, such as an average ionizing photon escape fraction and a stellar-population-dependent conversion factor. No parameter set can reproduce both the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease and the large τ {sub e}. It is possible that the ρ{sub UV} decrease moderates at z ≳ 11, that the free parameters significantly evolve toward high z, or that there exist additional sources of reionization such as X-ray binaries and faint active galactic nuclei.

  2. The Local Group: The Ultimate Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S; Cooper, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Near-field cosmology - using detailed observations of the Local Group and its environs to study wide-ranging questions in galaxy formation and dark matter physics - has become a mature and rich field over the past decade. There are lingering concerns, however, that the relatively small size of the present-day Local Group ($\\sim$ 2 Mpc diameter) imposes insurmountable sample-variance uncertainties, limiting its broader utility. We consider the evolution of the Local Group with time and show that it reaches $3' \\approx 7$ co-moving Mpc in linear size (a volume of $\\approx 350\\,{\\rm Mpc}^3$) at $z=7$. The Local Group is a representative portion of the Universe at early cosmic epochs according to multiple metrics. In a sense, the Local Group is therefore the ultimate deep field: its stellar fossil record traces the cosmic evolution for galaxies with $10^{3} 38$ at $z\\sim7$) over a region that, in terms of size, is comparable to or larger than the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) for the entire history of the Unive...

  3. The Structure of Nuclear Star Clusters in Nearby Late-type Spiral Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Daniel J; Seth, Anil C; Brok, Mark den; Cappelari, Michele; Greene, Jenny E; Ho, Luis C; Neumayer, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging of a sample of ten of the nearest and brightest nuclear clusters residing in late-type spiral galaxies, in seven bands that span the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared. Structural properties of the clusters were measured by fitting two-dimensional surface brightness profiles to the images using GALFIT. The clusters exhibit a wide range of structural properties. For six of the ten clusters in our sample, we find changes in the effective radius with wavelength, suggesting radially varying stellar populations. In four of the objects, the effective radius increases with wavelength, indicating the presence of a younger population which is more concentrated than the bulk of the stars in the cluster. However, we find a general decrease in effective radius with wavelength in two of the objects in our sample, which may indicate extended, circumnuclear star formation. We also find a general trend of increasing roundness of the clusters at longer waveleng...

  4. Near-Infrared Imaging of a z=6.42 Quasar Host Galaxy With the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3

    CERN Document Server

    Mechtley, Matt; Ryan, Russell E; Schneider, Glenn; Cohen, Seth H; Jansen, Rolf A; Fan, Xiaohui; Hathi, Nimish P; Keel, William C; Koekemoer, Anton M; Röttgering, Huub; Scannapieco, Evan; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A; Yan, Haojing

    2012-01-01

    We report on deep near-infrared F125W (J) and F160W (H) Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images of the z=6.42 quasar J1148+5251 to attempt to detect rest-frame near-ultraviolet emission from the host galaxy. These observations included contemporaneous observations of a nearby star of similar near-infrared colors to measure temporal variations in the telescope and instrument point spread function (PSF). We subtract the quasar point source using both this direct PSF and a model PSF. Using direct subtraction, we measure an upper limit for the quasar host galaxy of m_J>22.8, m_H>23.0 AB mag (2 sigma). After subtracting our best model PSF, we measure a limiting surface brightness from 0.3"-0.5" radius of mu_J > 23.5, mu_H > 23.7 AB magarc (2 sigma). We test the ability of the model subtraction method to recover the host galaxy flux by simulating host galaxies with varying integrated magnitude, effective radius, and S\\'ersic index, and conducting the same analysis. These models indicate that the surface b...

  5. Galaxy Zoo CANDELS Data Release I: Morphologies of ~50,000 Galaxies With z ≤ 3 in Deep Hubble Legacy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Brooke; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen; Willett, Kyle; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Closson Ferguson, Henry; Faber, Sandra M.; Galaxy Zoo Team, CANDELS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present quantified visual morphologies of approximately 48,000 galaxies in rest-frame optical to z ~ 3, using galaxies observed in three Hubble Space Telescope legacy fields by the Cosmic And Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and classified by participants in the Galaxy Zoo project. Each galaxy received an average of 43 independent classifications, which we combine into detailed morphological information on galaxy features such as clumpiness, bar instabilities, spiral structure, and merger and tidal signatures. We apply a consensus-based classifier weighting method that preserves classifier independence while effectively down-weighting significantly errant classifications. Comparing the Galaxy Zoo classifications to previous human and machine classifications of the same galaxies shows very good agreement; in some cases the high number of independent classifications provided by Galaxy Zoo provides an advantage in selecting galaxies with a particular morphological profile, while in others the combination of Galaxy Zoo with other classifications is a more promising approach than using any one method alone. We combine the Galaxy Zoo classifications of "smooth" galaxies with parametric morphologies to select a sample of featureless disks at 1 ≤ z ≤ 2, which may represent a dynamically warmer progenitor population to the settled disk galaxies seen at later epochs.

  6. Extremely Small Sizes for Faint z~2-8 Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Fields: A Key Input For Establishing their Volume Density and UV Emissivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwens, R J; Oesch, P A; Atek, H; Lam, D; Stefanon, M

    2016-01-01

    We provide the first observational constraints on the sizes of the faintest galaxies lensed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) clusters. Ionizing radiation from faint galaxies likely drives cosmic reionization, and the HFF initiative provides a key opportunity to find such galaxies. Yet, we cannot really assess their ionizing emissivity without a robust measurement of their sizes, since this is key to quantifying both their prevalence and the faint-end slope to the UV luminosity function. Here we provide the first such size constraints with 2 new techniques. The first utilizes the fact that the detectability of highly-magnified galaxies as a function of shear is very dependent on a galaxy's size. Only the most compact galaxies will remain detectable in regions of high shear (vs. a larger detectable size range for low shear), a phenomenon we carefully quantify using simulations. Remarkably, however, no correlation is found between the surface density of faint galaxies and the predicted shear, using 87 faint h...

  7. THE FLAT TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b FROM WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Irwin, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Miller-Ricci Kempton, Eliza; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); McCullough, Peter R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Burke, Christopher J. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Homeier, Derek, E-mail: zberta@cfa.harvard.edu [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574, CNRS, Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2012-03-01

    Capitalizing on the observational advantage offered by its tiny M dwarf host, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) grism measurements of the transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b. These are the first published WFC3 observations of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere. After correcting for a ramp-like instrumental systematic, we achieve nearly photon-limited precision in these observations, finding the transmission spectrum of GJ1214b to be flat between 1.1 and 1.7 {mu}m. Inconsistent with a cloud-free solar composition atmosphere at 8.2{sigma}, the measured achromatic transit depth most likely implies a large mean molecular weight for GJ1214b's outer envelope. A dense atmosphere rules out bulk compositions for GJ1214b that explain its large radius by the presence of a very low density gas layer surrounding the planet. High-altitude clouds can alternatively explain the flat transmission spectrum, but they would need to be optically thick up to 10 mbar or consist of particles with a range of sizes approaching 1 {mu}m in diameter.

  8. The z~6 Luminosity Function Fainter than -15 mag from the Hubble Frontier Fields: New Insights into the Impact of Magnification Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwens, R J; Illingworth, G D; Ellis, R S; Stefanon, M

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program has substantial potential for constraining both the properties and prevalence of faint galaxies in the early universe. Yet the accuracy of results derived in high magnification regions using lensing clusters is limited due to systematics. We present a new forward-modeling formalism to incorporate the impact of magnification uncertainties into luminosity function results, by exploiting the availability of many independent magnification models for the same clusters. One public lensing model is treated as the truth and used to construct a mock set of lensed high-redshift galaxies, which can then be analyzed using another magnification model (typically a median model) to construct a LF. Leveraging this formalism against the most comprehensive and faintest selection of lensed z~6 galaxies to date (drawn from the first 4 HFF clusters), we derive direct constraints on the shape of the UV LF to -13.5 mag and with much greater uncertainties to -12.5 mag. Our simulations reveal ...

  9. IRAC Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field South: Star Formation Histories and Stellar Masses of Red Galaxies at z>2

    CERN Document Server

    Labbé, I; Franx, M; Rudnick, G; Barmby, P; Daddi, E; Van Dokkum, P G; Fazio, G G; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Moorwood, A F M; Rix, H W; Rottgering, H; Trujillo, I; Van der Werf, P P

    2005-01-01

    We present deep 3.6 - 8 micron imaging of the Hubble Deep Field South with IRAC on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We study Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs) at z>2 selected by Js - Ks > 2.3 and compare them to a sample of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z=2-3. The observed UV-to-8 micron spectral energy distributions are fit with stellar population models to constrain star formation histories and derive stellar masses. We find that 70% of the DRGs are best described by dust-reddened star forming models and 30% are very well fit with old and ``dead'' models. Using only the I - Ks and Ks - 4.5 micron colors we can effectively separate the two groups. The dead systems are among the most massive at z~2.5 (mean stellar mass = 0.8 x 10^11 Msun) and likely formed most of their stellar mass at z>5. To a limit of 0.5 x 10^11 Msun their number density is ~10 x lower than that of local early-type galaxies. Furthermore, we use the IRAC photometry to derive rest-frame near-infrared J, H, and K fluxes. The DRGs and LBGs together s...

  10. A Free-Form mass model of the Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster AS1063 (RXC J2248.7-4431) with over one hundred constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Diego, Jose M; Wong, Jess; Silk, Joseph; Lim, Jeremy; Zheng, Wei; Lam, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We derive a free-form mass distribution for the massive cluster AS1063 (z=0.348) using the completed optical imaging from the Hubble Frontier Fields programme. Based on a subset of 11 multiply lensed systems with spectroscopic redshift we produce a lens model that is accurate enough to unveil new multiply lensed systems, totalling over a 100 arclets, and to estimate their redshifts geometrically. Consistency is found between this precise model and that obtained using only the subset of lensed sources with spectroscopically measured redshifts. No significant offset is found between the centroid of our mass distribution and that of the X-ray emission map, suggesting a relatively relaxed state for this cluster, although a relatively large elongation of the mass distribution is apparent relative to the X-ray map. For the well resolved lensed images we provide detailed model comparisons to illustrate the precision of our model and hence the reliability of our de-lensed sources. A clear linear structure is associat...

  11. A Stringent Limit on the Warm Dark Matter Particle Masses from the Abundance of z=6 Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Castellano, M; Sanchez, N G

    2016-01-01

    We show that the recently measured UV luminosity functions of ultra-faint lensed galaxies at z= 6 in the Hubble Frontier Fields provide an unprecedented probe for the mass m_X of the Warm Dark Matter candidates independent of baryonic physics. Comparing the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies with the maximum number density of dark matter halos in WDM cosmologies sets a robust limit m_X> 2.9 keV for the mass of thermal relic WDM particles at a 1-sigma confidence level, m_X> 2.4 keV at 2-sigma, and m_X> 2.1 keV at 3-sigma. These constitute the tightest constraints on WDM particle mass derived to date independently of the baryonic physics involved in galaxy formation. We discuss the impact of our results on the production mechanism of sterile neutrinos. In particular, if sterile neutrinos are responsible for the 3.5 keV line reported in observations of X-ray clusters, our results firmly rule out the Dodelson-Widrow production mechanism, and yield m_{sterile}> 6.1 keV for sterile neutrinos produced via t...

  12. Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and even the general public. The origins of three of the most well-known discoveries are examined: The distances to nearby spiral nebulae, the classification of extragalactic-nebulae and the Hubble constant. In the case of the first two a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place, but little credit was given. The Hubble Constant had already been estimated in 1927 by Georges Lemaitre with roughly the same value that Hubble obtained in 1929 using redshifts provided mostly by Vesto M. Slipher. These earlier estimates were not adopted or were forgotten by the astronomical community for complex scientific, sociological and psychological reasons.

  13. Ultra-deep T cell receptor sequencing reveals the complexity and intratumour heterogeneity of T cell clones in renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinger, Marco; Quezada, Sergio A; Peggs, Karl S; Furness, Andrew J S; Fisher, Rosalie; Marafioti, Teresa; Shende, Vishvesh H; McGranahan, Nicholas; Rowan, Andrew J; Hazell, Steven; Hamm, David; Robins, Harlan S; Pickering, Lisa; Gore, Martin; Nicol, David L; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The recognition of cancer cells by T cells can impact upon prognosis and be exploited for immunotherapeutic approaches. This recognition depends on the specific interaction between antigens displayed on the surface of cancer cells and the T cell receptor (TCR), which is generated by somatic rearrangements of TCR α- and β-chains (TCRb). Our aim was to assess whether ultra-deep sequencing of the rearranged TCRb in DNA extracted from unfractionated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) samples can provide insights into the clonality and heterogeneity of intratumoural T cells in ccRCCs, a tumour type that can display extensive genetic intratumour heterogeneity (ITH). For this purpose, DNA was extracted from two to four tumour regions from each of four primary ccRCCs and was analysed by ultra-deep TCR sequencing. In parallel, tumour infiltration by CD4, CD8 and Foxp3 regulatory T cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with TCR-sequencing data. A polyclonal T cell repertoire with 367-16 289 (median 2394) unique TCRb sequences was identified per tumour region. The frequencies of the 100 most abundant T cell clones/tumour were poorly correlated between most regions (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.218 to 0.465). 3-93% of these T cell clones were not detectable across all regions. Thus, the clonal composition of T cell populations can be heterogeneous across different regions of the same ccRCC. T cell ITH was higher in tumours pretreated with an mTOR inhibitor, which could suggest that therapy can influence adaptive tumour immunity. These data show that ultra-deep TCR-sequencing technology can be applied directly to DNA extracted from unfractionated tumour samples, allowing novel insights into the clonality of T cell populations in cancers. These were polyclonal and displayed ITH in ccRCC. TCRb sequencing may shed light on mechanisms of cancer immunity and the efficacy of immunotherapy approaches.

  14. Clinical pharmacogenomic testing of KRAS, BRAF and EGFR mutations by high resolution melting analysis and ultra-deep pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agúndez José AG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream factors KRAS and BRAF are mutated in several types of cancer, affecting the clinical response to EGFR inhibitors. Mutations in the EGFR kinase domain predict sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib in lung adenocarcinoma, while activating point mutations in KRAS and BRAF confer resistance to the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab in colorectal cancer. The development of new generation methods for systematic mutation screening of these genes will allow more appropriate therapeutic choices. Methods We describe a high resolution melting (HRM assay for mutation detection in EGFR exons 19-21, KRAS codon 12/13 and BRAF V600 using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Somatic variation of KRAS exon 2 was also analysed by massively parallel pyrosequencing of amplicons with the GS Junior 454 platform. Results We tested 120 routine diagnostic specimens from patients with colorectal or lung cancer. Mutations in KRAS, BRAF and EGFR were observed in 41.9%, 13.0% and 11.1% of the overall samples, respectively, being mutually exclusive. For KRAS, six types of substitutions were detected (17 G12D, 9 G13D, 7 G12C, 2 G12A, 2 G12V, 2 G12S, while V600E accounted for all the BRAF activating mutations. Regarding EGFR, two cases showed exon 19 deletions (delE746-A750 and delE746-T751insA and another two substitutions in exon 21 (one showed L858R with the resistance mutation T590M in exon 20, and the other had P848L mutation. Consistent with earlier reports, our results show that KRAS and BRAF mutation frequencies in colorectal cancer were 44.3% and 13.0%, respectively, while EGFR mutations were detected in 11.1% of the lung cancer specimens. Ultra-deep amplicon pyrosequencing successfully validated the HRM results and allowed detection and quantitation of KRAS somatic mutations. Conclusions HRM is a rapid and sensitive method for moderate

  15. Accelerated Evolution of Ly$\\alpha$ Luminosity Function at $\\textit{z} \\gtrsim 7$ Revealed by the Subaru Ultra-Deep Survey for Ly$\\alpha$ Emitters at $\\textit{z}=7.3$

    CERN Document Server

    Konno, Akira; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Furusawa, Hisanori; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Naito, Yoshiaki; Momose, Rieko; Yuma, Suraphong; Iye, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We present the ultra-deep Subaru narrowband imaging survey for Lya emitters (LAEs) at $z=7.3$ in SXDS and COSMOS fields with a total integration time of 106 hours. Exploiting our new sharp bandwidth filter, NB101, installed on Suprime-Cam, we have reached $L(Lya)=2.4\\times10^{42} \\ erg \\ s^{-1}$ ($5\\sigma$) for $z=7.3$ LAEs, about 4 times deeper than previous Subaru $z \\gtrsim 7$ studies, which allows us to reliably investigate evolution of Lya luminosity function (LF), for the first time, down to the luminosity limit same as those of Subaru $z=3.1-6.6$ LAE samples. Surprisingly, we only find three and four LAEs in SXDS and COSMOS fields, respectively, while one expects a total of $\\sim 65$ LAEs by our survey in the case of no Lya LF evolution from $z=6.6$ to $7.3$.We identify a decrease of Lya LF from $z=6.6$ to $7.3$ at the $>90\\%$ confidence level from our $z=7.3$ Lya LF.Moreover, the evolution of Lya LF is clearly accelerated at $z>6.6$ beyond the measurement uncertainties including cosmic variance. Becau...

  16. Hubble Frontier Fields: a high-precision strong-lensing analysis of the massive galaxy cluster Abell 2744 using ˜180 multiple images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauzac, M.; Richard, J.; Jullo, E.; Clément, B.; Limousin, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Ebeling, H.; Natarajan, P.; Rodney, S.; Atek, H.; Massey, R.; Eckert, D.; Egami, E.; Rexroth, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a high-precision mass model of galaxy cluster Abell 2744, based on a strong gravitational-lensing analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data, which now include both Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 observations to the final depth. Taking advantage of the unprecedented depth of the visible and near-infrared data, we identify 34 new multiply imaged galaxies, bringing the total to 61, comprising 181 individual lensed images. In the process, we correct previous erroneous identifications and positions of multiple systems in the northern part of the cluster core. With the LENSTOOL software and the new sets of multiple images, we model the cluster using two cluster-scale dark matter haloes plus galaxy-scale haloes for the cluster members. Our best-fitting model predicts image positions with an rms error of 0.79 arcsec, which constitutes an improvement by almost a factor of 2 over previous parametric models of this cluster. We measure the total projected mass inside a 200 kpc aperture as (2.162 ± 0.005) × 1014 M⊙, thus reaching 1 per cent level precision for the second time, following the recent HFF measurement of MACSJ0416.1-2403. Importantly, the higher quality of the mass model translates into an overall improvement by a factor of 4 of the derived magnification factor. Together with our previous HFF gravitational lensing analysis, this work demonstrates that the HFF data enables high-precision mass measurements for massive galaxy clusters and the derivation of robust magnification maps to probe the early Universe.

  17. Long-term monitoring drug resistance by ultra-deep pyrosequencing in a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patient exposed to several unsuccessful therapy schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sede, M; Ojeda, D; Cassino, L; Westergaard, G; Vazquez, M; Benetti, S; Fay, F; Tanno, H; Quarleri, J

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the spectrum and dynamics of low-prevalent HBV mutations in the reverse transcriptase (rt) and S antigen by ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS). Samples were obtained from a chronically infected patient who was followed throughout a thirteen-year period. This technology enabled simultaneous analysis of 4084 clonally amplified fragments from the patient allowing detecting low prevalent (therapy was started, polymerase and consequently envelope gene mutations appeared at several positions at a higher frequency than before, including the entecavir resistance-associated mutation rtT184L.

  18. The Hubble Deep Field North SCUBA Super-map IV - Characterizing submillimetre galaxies using deep Spitzer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, A; Dickinson, M; Chary, R R; Morrison, G; Borys, C; Sajina, A; Alexander, D M; Daddi, E; Frayer, D; MacDonald, E; Stern, D; Pope, Alexandra; Scott, Douglas; Dickinson, Mark; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Morrison, Glenn; Borys, Colin; Sajina, Anna; Alexander, David M.; Daddi, Emanuele; Frayer, David; Donald, Emily Mac; Stern, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We present SEDs, Spitzer colours, and IR luminosities for 850 micron selected galaxies in the GOODS-N field. Using the deep Spitzer Legacy images and new data and reductions of the VLA-HDF radio data, we find statistically secure counterparts for 60 per cent (21/35) of our submm sample, and identify tentative counterparts for another 12 objects. This is the largest sample of submm galaxies with statistically secure counterparts detected in the radio and with Spitzer. We find that in most cases the 850 micron emission is dominated by a single 24 micron source. A composite rest-frame SED shows that the submm sources peak at longer wavelengths than those of local ULIRGs of the same luminosity and therefore appear to be cooler. The SEDs of submm galaxies are also different from those of their high redshift neighbours, the near-IR selected BzK galaxies, whose mid-IR to radio SEDs are more like those of local ULIRGs. Using 24 micron. 850 micron and 1.4 GHz observations, we fit templates that span the mid-IR through...

  19. Data Collected During the Post-Flight Survey of Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Features on the Hubble Wide Field Planetary Camera 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiela, J. N.; Liou, J.-C.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of five weeks during the summer of 2009, personnel from the NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office and Meteoroid Environment Office performed a post-flight examination of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) radiator. The objective was to record details about all micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impact features with diameters of 300 micron and larger. The WFPC-2 was located in a clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Using a digital microscope, the team examined and recorded position, diameter, and depth information for each of 685 craters. Taking advantage of the digital microscope's data storage and analysis features, the actual measurements were extracted later from the recorded images, in an office environment at the Johnson Space Center. Measurements of the crater include depth and diameter. The depth was measured from the undisturbed paint surface to the deepest point within the crater. Where features penetrate into the metal, both the depth in metal and the paint thickness were measured. In anticipation of hypervelocity tests and simulations, several diameter measurements were taken: the spall area, the area of any bare metal, the area of any discolored ("burned") metal, and the lips of the central crater. In the largest craters, the diameter of the crater at the surface of the metal was also measured. The location of each crater was recorded at the time of inspection. This paper presents the methods and results of the crater measurement effort, including the size and spatial distributions of the impact features. This effort will be followed by taking the same measurements from hypervelocity impact targets simulating the WFPC-2 radiator. Both data sets, combined with hydrocode simulation, will help validate or improve the MMOD environment in low Earth orbit.

  20. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF A z = 6.42 QUASAR HOST GALAXY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechtley, M.; Windhorst, R. A.; Cohen, S. H.; Jansen, R. A.; Scannapieco, E. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Ryan, R. E.; Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schneider, G.; Fan, X. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Keel, W. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Roettgering, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Strauss, M. A. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Yan, H. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Missouri, 701 South College Ave, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We report on deep near-infrared F125W (J) and F160W (H) Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images of the z = 6.42 quasar J1148+5251 to attempt to detect rest-frame near-ultraviolet emission from the host galaxy. These observations included contemporaneous observations of a nearby star of similar near-infrared colors to measure temporal variations in the telescope and instrument point-spread function (PSF). We subtract the quasar point source using both this direct PSF and a model PSF. Using direct subtraction, we measure an upper limit for the quasar host galaxy of m{sub J} > 22.8 and m{sub H} > 23.0 AB mag (2 {sigma}). After subtracting our best model PSF, we measure a limiting surface brightness from 0.''3 to 0.''5 radius of {mu}{sub J} > 23.5 and {mu}{sub H} > 23.7 AB mag arcsec{sup -2} (2 {sigma}). We test the ability of the model subtraction method to recover the host galaxy flux by simulating host galaxies with varying integrated magnitude, effective radius, and Sersic index, and conducting the same analysis. These models indicate that the surface brightness limit ({mu}{sub J} > 23.5 AB mag arcsec{sup -2}) corresponds to an integrated upper limit of m{sub J} > 22-23 AB mag, consistent with the direct subtraction method. Combined with existing far-infrared observations, this gives an infrared excess log (IRX) > 1.0 and corresponding ultraviolet spectral slope {beta} > -1.2 {+-} 0.2. These values match those of most local luminous infrared galaxies, but are redder than those of almost all local star-forming galaxies and z {approx_equal} 6 Lyman break galaxies.

  1. Extremely Small Sizes for Faint z ˜ 2-8 Galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Fields: A Key Input for Establishing Their Volume Density and UV Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Oesch, P. A.; Atek, H.; Lam, D.; Stefanon, M.

    2017-07-01

    We provide the first observational constraints on the sizes of the faintest galaxies lensed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) clusters. Ionizing radiation from faint galaxies likely drives cosmic reionization, and the HFF initiative provides a key opportunity to find such galaxies. However, we cannot assess their ionizing emissivity without a robust measurement of their sizes, since this is key to quantifying both their prevalence and the faint-end slope to the UV luminosity function. Here we provide the first size constraints with two new techniques. The first utilizes the fact that the detectability of highly magnified galaxies as a function of shear is very dependent on a galaxy’s size. Only the most compact galaxies remain detectable in high-shear regions (versus a larger detectable size range for low shear), a phenomenon we quantify using simulations. Remarkably, however, no correlation is found between the surface density of faint galaxies and the predicted shear, using 87 high-magnification (μ =10-100) z˜ 2-8 galaxies seen behind the first four HFF clusters. This can only be the case if faint (˜ -15 mag) galaxies have significantly smaller sizes than more luminous galaxies, i.e., ≲ 30 mas or 160-240 pc. As a second size probe, we rotate and stack 26 faint high-magnification sources along the major shear axis. Less elongation is found even for objects with an intrinsic half-light radius of 10 mas. Together, these results indicate that extremely faint z˜ 2-8 galaxies have near point-source profiles (half-light radii <30 mas and perhaps 5-10 mas). These results suggest smaller completeness corrections and hence shallower faint-end slopes for the z˜ 2-8 LFs than derived in some recent studies (by {{Δ }}α ≳ 0.1-0.3).

  2. The Hubble Legacy Fields (HLF-GOODS-S) v1.0 Data Products: Combining 2387 Orbits of GOODS-S/CDF-S Region ACS and WFC3/IR Images

    CERN Document Server

    Illingworth, Garth; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal; Labbe, Ivo; van Dokkum, Pieter; Whitaker, Katherine; Holden, Bradford; Franx, Marijn; Gonzalez, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    We have submitted to MAST the 1.0 version data release of the Hubble Legacy Fields (HLF) project covering a 25 x 25 arcmin area over the GOOD-S (ECDF-S) region from the HST archival program AR-13252. The release combines exposures from Hubble's two main cameras, the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS/WFC) and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR), taken over more than a decade between mid-2002 to early 2016. The HLF includes essentially all optical (ACS/WFC F435W, F606W, F775W, F814W and F850LP filters) and infrared (WFC3/IR F105W, F125W, F140W, and F160W filters) data taken by Hubble over the original CDF-S region including the GOODS-S, ERS, CANDELS and many other programs (31 in total). The data has been released at https://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/hlf/ as images with a common astrometric reference frame, with corresponding inverse variance weight maps. We provide one image per filter for WFC3/IR at 60 mas per pixel resolution and two ACS/WFC images per filter, at both 30 and 60 mas per pixel. Since this comprehe...

  3. Concordance between allele-specific PCR and ultra-deep pyrosequencing for the detection of HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gillian M; Morris, Lynn; Moorthy, Anitha; Coovadia, Ashraf; Abrams, Elaine J; Strehlau, Renate; Kuhn, Louise; Persaud, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genotyping technologies have allowed for detection of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations present at low levels. The presence and percentage of Y181C and K103N drug-resistant variants in the blood of 105 subtype C HIV-infected infants who failed single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis for HIV transmission were compared using two highly sensitive genotyping methods, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Significant correlations in detection between both methods were found for both Y181C (correlation coefficients of 0.94 [95% CI 0.91-0.96]) and K103N (0.89 [95% CI 0.84 – 0.92]) mutations. The majority of discordant specimens (3/5 Y181C and 8/11 K103N) had wild-type variants when population sequencing was used, but mutant variants were detectable at very low levels (≤5%) with either assay. This difference is most likely due to stochastic variations in the appearance of mutant variants. Overall, both AS-PCR and ultra-deep pyrosequencing methods have proven to be sensitive and accurate, and may confidently be used where feasible. PMID:25034127

  4. Illuminating gas in-/outflows in the MUSE deepest fields: discovery of Ly-alpha nebulae around forming galaxies at z~3.3

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Gronke, M; Karman, W; Caminha, G B; Dijkstra, M; Rosati, P; De Barros, S; Caputi, K; Grillo, C; Tozzi, P; Meneghetti, M; Mercurio, A; Gilli, R

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of extended Ly-alpha nebulae at z~3.3 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF, ~ 40 kpc X 80 kpc) and behind the Hubble Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACSJ0416 (~ 40kpc), spatially associated with groups of star-forming galaxies. VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy reveals a complex structure with a spatially-varying double peaked Ly-alpha emission. Overall, the spectral profiles of the two Ly-alpha nebulae are remarkably similar, both showing a prominent blue emission, more intense and slightly broader than the red peak. From the first nebula, located in the HUDF, no X-ray emission has been detected, disfavoring the possible presence of AGNs. Spectroscopic redshifts have been derived for 11 galaxies within two arcsec from the nebula and spanning the redshift range 1.037

  5. Illuminating gas inflows/outflows in the MUSE deepest fields: Lyα nebulae around forming galaxies at z ≃ 3.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, E.; Balestra, I.; Gronke, M.; Karman, W.; Caminha, G. B.; Dijkstra, M.; Rosati, P.; De Barros, S.; Caputi, K.; Grillo, C.; Tozzi, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Mercurio, A.; Gilli, R.

    2017-03-01

    We report the identification of extended Lyα nebulae at z ≃ 3.3 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF, ≃40 kpc × 80 kpc) and behind the Hubble Frontier Field galaxy cluster MACSJ0416 (≃40 kpc), spatially associated with groups of star-forming galaxies. VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy reveals a complex structure with a spatially varying double-peaked Lyα emission. Overall, the spectral profiles of the two Lyα nebulae are remarkably similar, both showing a prominent blue emission, more intense and slightly broader than the red peak. From the first nebula, located in the HUDF, no X-ray emission has been detected, disfavouring the possible presence of active galactic nuclei. Spectroscopic redshifts have been derived for 11 galaxies within 2 arcsec from the nebula and spanning the redshift range 1.037 masses per year. A possible scenario is that of a group of young, star-forming galaxies emitting ionizing radiation that induces Lyα fluorescence, therefore revealing the kinematics of the surrounding gas. Also Lyα powered by star formation and/or cooling radiation may resemble the double-peaked spectral properties and the morphology observed here. If the intense blue emission is associated with inflowing gas, then we may be witnessing an early phase of galaxy or a proto-cluster (or group) formation.

  6. Hubble's Nobel Prize

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, D S L

    2001-01-01

    Astronomy is not in the list of natural sciences aimed at by the Nobel awards. In spite of that, there were, throughout the 1930s until the early 1950s, effective moves by important scientists to distinguish Hubble with the Prize. A short report on these attempts is made as well as speculation on what would be the citation for the prize in view of the broad range of Hubble's scientific achievements. Within this context, the opportunity is also taken for publicizing the Crafoord Prize which does consider astronomy.

  7. Did Edwin Hubble plagiarize?

    CERN Document Server

    Shaviv, Giora

    2011-01-01

    Recently Block published an astro-ph [arXiv:1106.3928 (2011)] insinuating that Hubble censored a prior publication of his famous and seminal discovery of the expansion of the universe. This issue was investigated by us in detail as part of the book: The Quest for Chemical Element Genesis and What the Chemical Elements Tell about the Universe (Accepted for publication, Springer Pub. Heidelberg, 2011.) Since the book is due in few months, we extract here the relevant parts. Our summary: We exonerate Hubble from the charge that he censored or ignored or plagiarized Lemaitre's earlier theoretical discovery.

  8. THE STRUCTURE OF NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS IN NEARBY LATE-TYPE SPIRAL GALAXIES FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, Daniel J.; Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Seth, Anil C.; Brok, Mark den [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cappellari, Michele [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall—Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Neumayer, Nadine [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging of a sample of ten of the nearest and brightest nuclear clusters (NCs) residing in late-type spiral galaxies, in seven bands that span the near-UV to the near-IR. Structural properties of the clusters were measured by fitting two-dimensional surface brightness profiles to the images using GALFIT. The clusters exhibit a wide range of structural properties, with F814W absolute magnitudes that range from −11.2 to −15.1 mag and F814W effective radii that range from 1.4 to 8.3 pc. For 6 of the 10 clusters in our sample, we find changes in the effective radius with wavelength, suggesting radially varying stellar populations. In four of the objects, the effective radius increases with wavelength, indicating the presence of a younger population that is more concentrated than the bulk of the stars in the cluster. However, we find a general decrease in effective radius with wavelength in two of the objects in our sample, which may indicate extended, circumnuclear star formation. We also find a general trend of increasing roundness of the clusters at longer wavelengths, as well as a correlation between the axis ratios of the NCs and their host galaxies. These observations indicate that blue disks aligned with the host galaxy plane are a common feature of NCs in late-type galaxies, but are difficult to detect in galaxies that are close to face-on. In color–color diagrams spanning the near-UV through the near-IR, most of the clusters lie far from single-burst evolutionary tracks, showing evidence for multi-age populations. Most of the clusters have integrated colors consistent with a mix of an old population (>1 Gyr) and a young population (∼100–300 Myr). The wide wavelength coverage of our data provides a sensitivity to populations with a mix of ages that would not be possible to achieve with imaging in optical bands only. The surface brightness profiles presented in this work will be used for future

  9. Strong-lensing analysis of MACS J0717.5+3745 from Hubble Frontier Fields observations: How well can the mass distribution be constrained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, M.; Richard, J.; Jullo, E.; Jauzac, M.; Ebeling, H.; Bonamigo, M.; Alavi, A.; Clément, B.; Giocoli, C.; Kneib, J.-P.; Verdugo, T.; Natarajan, P.; Siana, B.; Atek, H.; Rexroth, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present a strong-lensing analysis of MACSJ0717.5+3745 (hereafter MACS J0717), based on the full depth of the Hubble Frontier Field (HFF) observations, which brings the number of multiply imaged systems to 61, ten of which have been spectroscopically confirmed. The total number of images comprised in these systems rises to 165, compared to 48 images in 16 systems before the HFF observations. Our analysis uses a parametric mass reconstruction technique, as implemented in the Lenstool software, and the subset of the 132 most secure multiple images to constrain a mass distribution composed of four large-scale mass components (spatially aligned with the four main light concentrations) and a multitude of galaxy-scale perturbers. We find a superposition of cored isothermal mass components to provide a good fit to the observational constraints, resulting in a very shallow mass distribution for the smooth (large-scale) component. Given the implications of such a flat mass profile, we investigate whether a model composed of "peaky" non-cored mass components can also reproduce the observational constraints. We find that such a non-cored mass model reproduces the observational constraints equally well, in the sense that both models give comparable total rms. Although the total (smooth dark matter component plus galaxy-scale perturbers) mass distributions of both models are consistent, as are the integrated two-dimensional mass profiles, we find that the smooth and the galaxy-scale components are very different. We conclude that, even in the HFF era, the generic degeneracy between smooth and galaxy-scale components is not broken, in particular in such a complex galaxy cluster. Consequently, insights into the mass distribution of MACS J0717 remain limited, emphasizing the need for additional probes beyond strong lensing. Our findings also have implications for estimates of the lensing magnification. We show that the amplification difference between the two models is larger

  10. Hubble 15 years of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Kornmesser, M

    2006-01-01

    Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery was a key element of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration activities for the 1990 launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. As an observatory in space, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time, both in terms of scientific output and its immediate public appeal.

  11. Casing selection and correlation technology for ultra-deep, ultra-high pressure, high H{sub 2}S gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan, Sichuan (China); Southwest Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation; Lin, Y.; Taihe, S. [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation; Liao, P.; Shen, X. [Southwest Oil and Gas Co., Daxian (China). Northeast Sichuan Gas Field; Liu, H.; Zhao, H. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan, Sichuan (China)

    2010-07-01

    This poster highlighted some economical and suitable methods of choosing well casings for ultra-deep, ultra-high pressure, ultra-high temperature wells where acid gas injection is used for enhanced recovery. In China's northern Sichuan province, such wells tend to be sour. Casing failures have occurred at well temperatures below 90 degrees C due to the severity of the sour environment and sulphide stress cracking (SSC) of carbon and low-alloy steels. The plastic creep of rock salt, gypsum and clay shale may create high external collapse pressure on the outside surface of the casing. Sulphur resistant casings, such as C110 are required to meet ultra-high pressure criteria of more than 100 MPa, and also to meet high sulphur resistance criteria. This poster outlined an economical and suitable method of string design combined with sulphur resistance packer completion technology to address this current problem. tabs., figs.

  12. Finding the needle in the haystack: differentiating "identical" twins in paternity testing and forensics by ultra-deep next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Lehmann, Jacqueline; Schilling, Elmar; Gradl, Georg; Richter, Daniel C; Wiehler, Jens; Rolf, Burkhard

    2014-03-01

    Monozygotic (MZ) twins are considered being genetically identical, therefore they cannot be differentiated using standard forensic DNA testing. Here we describe how identification of extremely rare mutations by ultra-deep next generation sequencing can solve such cases. We sequenced DNA from sperm samples of two twins and from a blood sample of the child of one twin. Bioinformatics analysis revealed five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in the twin father and the child, but not in the twin uncle. The SNPs were confirmed by classical Sanger sequencing. Our results give experimental evidence for the hypothesis that rare mutations will occur early after the human blastocyst has split into two, the origin of twins, and that such mutations will be carried on into somatic tissue and the germline. The method provides a solution to solve paternity and forensic cases involving monozygotic twins as alleged fathers or originators of DNA traces.

  13. Optimum Design and Global Analysis of Flexible Jumper for An Innovative Subsurface Production System in Ultra-Deep Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一; 甄兴伟; 张崎; 王文华

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on the flexible jumper issue of Subsurface Tension Leg Production (STLP) system concept, which is considered as a competing alternative system to support well completion devices and rigid risers in ultra-deep water for offshore petroleum production. The paper presents analytical and numerical approaches for the optimum design and global analysis of the flexible jumper. Criteria using catenary concept are developed to define the critical length for optimum design. Based on the criteria, detailed hydrodynamic analyses including quasi-static analysis, modal analysis, and dynamic analysis are performed. Modal analysis with respect to the quasi-static analysis shows that the existence of resonant modes requires special consideration. The results of dynamic analysis confirm the effectiveness of the de-coupled effect from the jumper on STLP system. The approaches developed in the study also have wide application prospect in reference to the optimum design and analysis of any Hybrid Riser (HR) concept.

  14. Ultra-deep sequencing reveals high prevalence and broad structural diversity of hepatitis B surface antigen mutations in a global population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencay, Mikael; Hübner, Kirsten; Gohl, Peter; Seffner, Anja; Weizenegger, Michael; Neofytos, Dionysios; Batrla, Richard; Woeste, Andreas; Kim, Hyon-Suk; Westergaard, Gaston; Reinsch, Christine; Brill, Eva; Thu Thuy, Pham Thi; Hoang, Bui Huu; Sonderup, Mark; Spearman, C Wendy; Pabinger, Stephan; Gautier, Jérémie; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Fasano, Massimo; Santantonio, Teresa; Gaeta, Giovanni B; Nauck, Markus; Kaminski, Wolfgang E

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has a significant impact on the performance of diagnostic screening tests and the clinical outcome of hepatitis B infection. Neutralizing or diagnostic antibodies against the HBsAg are directed towards its highly conserved major hydrophilic region (MHR), in particular towards its "a" determinant subdomain. Here, we explored, on a global scale, the genetic diversity of the HBsAg MHR in a large, multi-ethnic cohort of randomly selected subjects with HBV infection from four continents. A total of 1553 HBsAg positive blood samples of subjects originating from 20 different countries across Africa, America, Asia and central Europe were characterized for amino acid variation in the MHR. Using highly sensitive ultra-deep sequencing, we found 72.8% of the successfully sequenced subjects (n = 1391) demonstrated amino acid sequence variation in the HBsAg MHR. This indicates that the global variation frequency in the HBsAg MHR is threefold higher than previously reported. The majority of the amino acid mutations were found in the HBV genotypes B (28.9%) and C (25.4%). Collectively, we identified 345 distinct amino acid mutations in the MHR. Among these, we report 62 previously unknown mutations, which extends the worldwide pool of currently known HBsAg MHR mutations by 22%. Importantly, topological analysis identified the "a" determinant upstream flanking region as the structurally most diverse subdomain of the HBsAg MHR. The highest prevalence of "a" determinant region mutations was observed in subjects from Asia, followed by the African, American and European cohorts, respectively. Finally, we found that more than half (59.3%) of all HBV subjects investigated carried multiple MHR mutations. Together, this worldwide ultra-deep sequencing based genotyping study reveals that the global prevalence and structural complexity of variation in the hepatitis B surface antigen have, to date, been significantly underappreciated.

  15. Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?

    CERN Document Server

    Way, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

  16. Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

  17. The Hubble Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Neal

    2015-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H0 values of around 72-74 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), with typical errors of 2-3 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s(-1) Mpc(-1) and typical errors of 1-2 km s(-1) Mpc(-1). The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  18. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N Z; Blain, A W; Calzetti, D; Comastri, A; Capak, P; Carilli, C; Carlstrom, J E; Carollo, C M; Colbert, J; Daddi, E; Ellis, Richard S; Elvis, M; Ewald, S P; Fall, M; Franceschini, A; Giavalisco, M; Green, W; Griffiths, R E; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Kneib, J P; Koda, J; Koekemoer, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S; Liu, C T; McCracken, H J; Massey, R; Mellier, Y; Miyazaki, S; Mobasher, B; Mould, J; Norman, C; Réfrégier, A; Renzini, A; Rhodes, J; Rich, M; Sanders, D B; Schiminovich, D; Schinnerer, E; Scodeggio, M; Sheth, K; Shopbell, P L; Taniguchi, Y; Tyson, N; Urry, C M; Van Waerbeke, L; Vettolani, P; White, S D M; Yan, L

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) was initiated with an extensive allocation (590 orbits in Cycles 12-13) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for high resolution imaging. Here we review the characteristics of the HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and parallel observations with NICMOS and WFPC2. A square field (1.8$\\sq$\\deg) has been imaged with single-orbit ACS I-F814W exposures with 50% completeness for sources 0.5\\arcsec in diameter at I$_{AB} $ = 26.0 mag. The ACS imaging is a key part of the COSMOS survey, providing very high sensitivity and high resolution (0.09\\arcsec FWHM, 0.05\\arcsec pixels) imaging and detecting a million objects. These images yield resolved morphologies for several hundred thousand galaxies. The small HST PSF also provides greatly enhanced sensitivity for weak lensing investigations of the dark matter distribution.

  19. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Jackson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  20. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This picture shows a Hubble Space Telescope image of the inner parts of the Crab. The pulsar itself is visible as the left of the pair of stars near the center of the frame. Surrounding the pulsar is a complex of sharp knots and wisp-like features. This image is one of a sequence of Hubble images taken over the course of several months. This sequence shows that the inner part of the Crab Nebula is far more dynamic than previously understood. The Crab literally 'changes it stripes' every few days as these wisps stream away from the pulsar at half the speed of light. The Hubble Space Telescope photo was taken Nov. 5, 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 at a wavelength of around 550 nanometers, in the middle of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  1. The Carnegie Hubble Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Vicky; Mnso, Andy; Persson, S. E.; Rigby, Jane; Sturch, Laura; Stetson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of 2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 micron data using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include JWST in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 microns is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 microns, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 micron observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of the Hubble constant including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We are undertaking three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, which when combined will allow a robust constraint on the effect. Finally, we are providing a new mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  3. The Carnegie Hubble Program

    CERN Document Server

    Freedman, Wendy L; Scowcroft, Vicky; Monson, Andy; Persson, S E; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane; Sturch, Laura; Stetson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of 2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 micron data using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include JWST in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 microns is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 microns, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 micron observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of the Hubble constant including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We are undertaking three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, whi...

  4. PLANCK and WMAP constraints on generalised Hubble flow inflationary trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contaldi, Carlo R.; Horner, Jonathan S., E-mail: c.contaldi@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.horner11@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    We use the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to constrain the space of possible single field, inflationary Hubble flow trajectories when compared to the WMAP and PLANK satellites Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) results. This method yields posteriors on the space of Hubble Slow Roll (HSR) parameters that uniquely determine the history of the Hubble parameter during the inflating epoch. The trajectories are used to numerically determine the observable primordial power spectrum and bispectra that can then be compared to observations. Our analysis is used to infer the most likely shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) and also yields a prediction for, B, the dimensionless amplitude of the non-Gaussian bispectrum.

  5. Seismic survey across the Japan trench using ultra-deep water OBSs to reveal the structural evolution within the incoming plate prior to subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, G.; Takahashi, T.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Yamada, T.

    2013-12-01

    Dehydration processes and the expulsion of the water from the subducting oceanic plate affect various subduction-zone processes, including arc volcanism and generation of earthquakes and tremor. Since the amount of chemically bound water in the oceanic plate is highest in serpentinized mantle, it is important to reveal the water amount that penetrates into the oceanic mantle prior to subduction. In 2009, we conducted wide-angle seismic surveys in the outer rise regions of the Japan trench and the Kuril trench. We found that the P-wave velocity (Vp) within the oceanic crust and mantle gradually decreases toward the trench axis. In addition, we found the Vp/Vs ratio within the oceanic crust gradually increases toward the trench, suggesting the water infiltration into the oceanic crust. However, we could not observe any changes in Vp/Vs ratio within the oceanic mantle. This was probably because our seismic survey profile did not cover the area where we would expect the largest structural changes, the trench axis, because the trench axis was too deep to operate our conventional Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs). To examine the Vp/Vs ratio at the area where the largest structural changes are expected and to evaluate the amount of the water penetrating into the oceanic mantle prior to subduction, we need a seismic survey across the trench axis. In August 2013, we plan to conduct an extensive seismic survey across the Japan trench using newly developed 10 ultra-deep water OBSs that are capable of operating at the deepest point of the Japan trench. The seismic profile is a trenchward extension of the existing outer rise profile and we are going to analyze the new data by combining with the existing seismic survey data in order to reveal the structural evolution of the incoming Pacific plate from the outer rise to the trench axis. Since all the ultra-deep water OBSs are equipped with 3-component geophones (or 3-component accelerometers), we have a possibility to determine S

  6. Cosmology: From Hubble to HST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1997-03-01

    The Hubble constant sets the size and age of the Universe, and, together with independent determinations of the age, provides a consistency check of the standard cosmology. The Hubble constant also provides an important test of our most attractive paradigm for extending the standard cosmology, inflation and cold dark matter.

  7. HUBBLE SEES A VAST 'CITY' OF STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In these pictures, a 'city' of a million stars glitters like a New York City skyline. The images capture the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years from Earth in the southern constellation Tucana. Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers went hunting in this large city for planetary companions: bloated gaseous planets that snuggle close to their parent stars, completing an orbit in a quick three to five days. To their surprise, they found none. This finding suggests that the cluster's environment is too hostile for breeding planets or that it lacks the necessary elements for making them. The picture at left, taken by a terrestrial telescope, shows most of the cluster, a tightly packed group of middle-aged stars held together by mutual gravitational attraction. The box near the center represents the Hubble telescope's view. The image at right shows the Hubble telescope's close-up look at a swarm of 35,000 stars near the cluster's central region. The stars are tightly packed together: They're much closer together than our Sun and its closest stars. The picture, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, depicts the stars' natural colors and tells scientists about their composition and age. For example, the red stars denote bright red giants nearing the end of their lives; the more common yellow stars are similar to our middle-aged Sun. Most of the stars in the cluster are believed to have formed about 10 billion years ago. The bright, blue stars -- thought to be remnants of stellar collisions and mergers -- provide a few rejuvenated, energetic stars in an otherwise old system. The Hubble picture was taken in July 1999. Credits for Hubble image: NASA and Ron Gilliland (Space Telescope Science Institute) Credits for ground-based image: David Malin, c Anglo-Australian Observatory

  8. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE FAINT END OF THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼ 7-8 USING THE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING OF THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER A2744

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Richard, Johan; Clement, Benjamin [CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. André, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Jauzac, Mathilde [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Schaerer, Daniel [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Limousin, Marceau; Jullo, Eric [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Natarajan, Priyamvada [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Egami, Eiichi [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ebeling, Harald [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Exploiting the power of gravitational lensing, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program aims at observing six massive galaxy clusters to explore the distant universe far beyond the limits of blank field surveys. Using the complete Hubble Space Telescope observations of the first HFF cluster A2744, we report the detection of 50 galaxy candidates at z ∼ 7 and eight candidates at z ∼ 8 in a total survey area of 0.96 arcmin{sup 2} in the source plane. Three of these galaxies are multiply imaged by the lensing cluster. Using an updated model of the mass distribution in the cluster we were able to calculate the magnification factor and the effective survey volume for each galaxy in order to compute the ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function (LF) at both redshifts 7 and 8. Our new measurements reliably extend the z ∼ 7 UV LF down to an absolute magnitude of M {sub UV} ∼ –15.5. We find a characteristic magnitude of M{sub UV}{sup ⋆}=−20.90{sub −0.73}{sup +0.90} mag and a faint-end slope α=−2.01{sub −0.28}{sup +0.20}, close to previous determinations in blank fields. We show here for the first time that this slope remains steep down to very faint luminosities of 0.01 L {sup *}. Although prone to large uncertainties, our results at z ∼ 8 also seem to confirm a steep faint-end slope below 0.1 L {sup *}. The HFF program is therefore providing an extremely efficient way to study the faintest galaxy populations at z > 7 that would otherwise be inaccessible with current instrumentation. The full sample of six galaxy clusters will provide even better constraints on the buildup of galaxies at early epochs and their contribution to cosmic reionization.

  9. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Neal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. In the last 20 years, much progress has been made and estimates now range between 60 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, with most now between 70 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, a huge improvement over the factor-of-2 uncertainty which used to prevail. Further improvements which gave a generally agreed margin of error of a few percent rather than the current 10% would be vital input to much other interesting cosmology. There are several programmes which are likely to lead us to this point in the next 10 years.

  10. A major merger origin for the high fraction of galaxies at 2Ultra-Deep Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, B; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Lemaux, B C; Maccagni, D; Schaerer, D; Tasca, L A M; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Amorín, R; Bardelli, S; Hathi, N P; Koekemoer, A; Pforr, J

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged) The properties of stellar clumps in star forming galaxies and their evolution over the redshift range $2\\lesssim z \\lesssim 6$ are presented and discussed in the context of the build-up of massive galaxies at early cosmic times. We use HST/ACS images of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) to identify clumps within a 20 kpc radius. We find that the population of galaxies with more than one clump is dominated by galaxies with two clumps, representing $\\sim21-25$\\% of the population, while the fraction of galaxies with 3, or 4 and more, clumps is 8-11 and 7-9\\%, respectively. The fraction of clumpy galaxies is in the range $\\sim35-55\\%$ over $2

  11. An Ultra-Deep Targeted Sequencing Gene Panel Improves the Prognostic Stratification of Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Chen, Shu-Jen; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Yang, Lan-Yan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Chen, I-How; Chang, Kai-Ping; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Chen, Hua-Chien; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-02-01

    An improved prognostic stratification of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and pathologically positive (pN+) nodes is urgently needed. Here, we sought to examine whether an ultra-deep targeted sequencing (UDT-Seq) gene panel may improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group.A mutation-based signature affecting 10 genes (including genetic mutations in 6 oncogenes and 4 tumor suppressor genes) was devised to predict disease-free survival (DFS) in 345 primary tumor specimens obtained from pN+ OSCC patients. Of the 345 patients, 144 were extracapsular spread (ECS)-negative and 201 were ECS-positive. The 5-year locoregional control, distant metastases, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival (OS) rates served as outcome measures.The UDT-Seq panel was an independent risk factor (RF) for 5-year locoregional control (P = 0.0067), distant metastases (P = 0.0001), DFS (P stratification for all the survival endpoints as compared with traditional AJCC staging (P stratification than traditional AJCC staging. It was also able to predict prognosis in OSCC patients regardless of ECS presence.

  12. Discovering extremely compact and metal-poor, star-forming dwarf galaxies out to z ~ 0.9 in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Amorín, Ricardo; Castellano, M; Grazian, A; Tasca, L A M; Fontana, A; Pentericci, L; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Thomas, R; Vanzella, E; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Bardelli, S; Capak, P; Cassará, L; Cimatti, A; Cuby, J G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; Durkalec, A; Giavalisco, M; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Lemaux, B C; Moreau, C; Paltani, S; Ribeiro, B; Salvato, M; Schaerer, D; Scodeggio, M; Talia, M; Taniguchi, Y; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Wang, P W; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Fotopoulou, S; López-Sanjuan, C; Mellier, Y; Scoville, N

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of 31 low-luminosity (-14.5 < M_{AB}(B) < -18.8), extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at 0.3 < z < 0.9 identified by their unusually high rest-frame equivalent widths (100 < EW[OIII] < 1700 A) as part of the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). VIMOS optical spectra of unprecedented sensitivity ($I_{AB}$ ~ 25 mag) along with multiwavelength photometry and HST imaging are used to investigate spectrophotometric properties of this unique sample and explore, for the first time, the very low stellar mass end (M* < 10^8 M$_{\\odot}$) of the luminosity-metallicity (LZR) and mass-metallicity (MZR) relations at z < 1. Characterized by their extreme compactness (R50 < 1 kpc), low stellar mass and enhanced specific star formation rates (SFR/M* ~ 10^{-9} - 10^{-7} yr^{-1}), the VUDS EELGs are blue dwarf galaxies likely experiencing the first stages of a vigorous galaxy-wide starburst. Using T_e-sensitive direct and strong-line methods, we find that VUDS EELGs are low-metall...

  13. Characterization of the Drug Resistance Profiles of Patients Infected with CRF07_BC Using Phenotypic Assay and Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Szu-Wei; Li, Wei-You; Wang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chou, Chih-Hung; Chen, Marcelo; Huang, Hsien-Da; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lu, Po-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Fan; Oka, Shinichi; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2017-01-01

    The usefulness of ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) for the diagnosis of HIV-1 drug resistance (DR) remains to be determined. Previously, we reported an explosive outbreak of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 07_BC among injection drug users (IDUs) in Taiwan in 2004. The goal of this study was to characterize the DR of CRF07_BC strains using different assays including UDPS. Seven CRF07_BC isolates including 4 from early epidemic (collected in 2004-2005) and 3 from late epidemic (collected in 2008) were obtained from treatment-naïve patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Viral RNA was extracted directly from patient's plasma or from cultural supernatant and the pol sequences were determined using RT-PCR sequencing or UDPS. For comparison, phenotypic drug susceptibility assay using MAGIC-5 cells (in-house phenotypic assay) and Antivirogram were performed. In-house phenotypic assay showed that all the early epidemic and none of the late epidemic CRF07_BC isolates were resistant to most protease inhibitors (PIs) (4.4-47.3 fold). Neither genotypic assay nor Antivirogram detected any DR mutations. UDPS showed that early epidemic isolates contained 0.01-0.08% of PI DR major mutations. Furthermore, the combinations of major and accessory PI DR mutations significantly correlated with the phenotypic DR. The in-house phenotypic assay is superior to other conventional phenotypic assays in the detection of DR variants with a frequency as low as 0.01%.

  14. Unveiling the Galaxy Population at 1.3 < z < 4: the HUDF05 NICMOS Parallel Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Sara M.; deMello, Duilia F.; Wiklind, Tomy; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mountain, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Using the Hubble Ultra Deep Field Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (HUDF-NICMOS) UDF05 parallel fields, we cross-matched 301 out of 630 galaxies with the ACS filters V606 and z850, NICMOS filters J110 and H160, and Spitzer IRAC filters at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 , and 8.0 (mu)m. We modeled the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to estimate: photometric redshifts, dust extinction, stellar mass, bolometric luminosity, starburst age and metallicity. To validate the photometric redshifts, comparisons with 16 spectroscopic redshifts give 75% within Delta or approx. 1.3. Based on the robustness of the photometric redshifts, we analyze a subsample of the 301 galaxies at 1.3 BoI) and the star formation rate increase significantly from z approx. 1.5 to 4. The Balmer decrement is indicative of more evolved galaxies, and at high redshifts, they serve as records of some of the first galaxies. Therefore, the galaxies in this sample are great candidates for future surveys with the James Webb Space Telescope and Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

  15. Near-Infrared Properties of Faint X-rays Sources from NICMOS Imaging in the Chandra Deep Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Colbert, J W; Yan, L; Malkan, M A; McCarthy, P; Colbert, James W.; Teplitz, Harry; Yan, Lin; Malkan, Matthew; Carthy, Patrick Mc

    2004-01-01

    We measure the near-infrared properties of 42 X-ray detected sources from the Chandra Deep Fields North and South, the majority of which lie within the NICMOS Hubble Deep Field North and Ultra Deep Field. We detect all 42 Chandra sources with NICMOS, with 95% brighter than H = 24.5. We find that X-ray sources are most often in the brightest and most massive galaxies. Neither the X-ray fluxes nor hardness ratios of the sample show any correlation with near-infrared flux, color or morphology. This lack of correlation indicates there is little connection between the two emission mechanisms and is consistent with the near-infrared emission being dominated by starlight rather than a Seyfert non-stellar continuum. Near-infrared X-ray sources make up roughly half of all extremely red (J-H > 1.4) objects brighter than H > 24.5. These red X-ray sources have a range of hardness ratios similar to the rest of the sample, decreasing the likelihood of dust-obscured AGN activity as the sole explanation for their red color. ...

  16. HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER This stunningly beautiful image [right] taken with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows the heart of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The ongoing violent star formation due to an ancient encounter with its large galactic neighbor, M81, gives this galaxy its disturbed appearance. The smaller picture at upper left shows the entire galaxy. The image was taken in December 1994 by the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope. Hubble's view is represented by the white outline in the center. In the Hubble image, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the huge lanes of dust that crisscross M82's disk are another telltale sign of the flurry of star formation. Below the center and to the right, a strong galactic wind is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas. More than 100 super star clusters -- very bright, compact groupings of about 100,000 stars -- are seen in this detailed Hubble picture as white dots sprinkled throughout M82's central region. The dark region just above the center of the picture is a huge dust cloud. A collaboration of European and American scientists used these clusters to date the ancient interaction between M82 and M81. About 600 million years ago, a region called 'M82 B' (the bright area just below and to the left of the central dust cloud) exploded with new stars. Scientists have discovered that this ancient starburst was triggered by the violent encounter with M81. M82 is a bright (eighth magnitude), nearby (12 million light-years from Earth) galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major (the Great Bear). The Hubble picture was taken Sept. 15, 1997. The natural-color composite was constructed from three Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures, which were combined in chromatic order: 4,250 seconds through a blue filter (428 nm); 2,800 seconds through a green filter (520 nm); and 2,200 seconds through a red (820 nm) filter. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of

  17. IMF dependence of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere, and its relation to the UV auroral oval observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field structure on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, together with the corresponding variations of the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere. Specifically we investigate the interval from 8 to 30 January 2004, when UV images of Saturn's southern aurora were obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST, and simultaneous interplanetary measurements were provided by the Cassini spacecraft located near the ecliptic ~0.2 AU upstream of Saturn and ~0.5 AU off the planet-Sun line towards dawn. Using the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere, we calculate the magnetospheric magnetic field structure for several values of the IMF vector representative of interplanetary compression regions. Variations in the magnetic structure lead to different shapes and areas of the open field line region in the ionosphere. Comparison with the HST auroral images shows that the area of the computed open flux region is generally comparable to that enclosed by the auroral oval, and sometimes agrees in detail with its poleward boundary, though more typically being displaced by a few degrees in the tailward direction.

  18. Frames of most uniform Hubble flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kraljic, David

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that the locally measured Hubble parameter converges quickest to the background value and the dipole structure of the velocity field is smallest in the reference frame of the Local Group of galaxies. We study the statistical properties of Lorentz boosts with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background frame which make the Hubble flow look most uniform around a particular observer. We use a very large N-Body simulation to extract the dependence of the boost velocities on the local environment such as underdensities, overdensities, and bulk flows. We find that the observation is not unexpected if we are located in an underdensity, which is indeed the case for our position in the universe. The amplitude of the measured boost velocity for our location is consistent with the expectation in the standard cosmology.

  19. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  20. INFRARED TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF THE EXOPLANETS HD 209458b AND XO-1b USING THE WIDE FIELD CAMERA-3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); McCullough, Peter; Crouzet, Nicolas [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Agol, Eric; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A.; Line, Michael [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haynes, Korey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Magic, Zazralt [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Mandell, Avi M.; Clampin, Mark [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Seager, Sara, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); and others

    2013-09-10

    Exoplanetary transmission spectroscopy in the near-infrared using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) NICMOS is currently ambiguous because different observational groups claim different results from the same data, depending on their analysis methodologies. Spatial scanning with HST/WFC3 provides an opportunity to resolve this ambiguity. We here report WFC3 spectroscopy of the giant planets HD 209458b and XO-1b in transit, using spatial scanning mode for maximum photon-collecting efficiency. We introduce an analysis technique that derives the exoplanetary transmission spectrum without the necessity of explicitly decorrelating instrumental effects, and achieves nearly photon-limited precision even at the high flux levels collected in spatial scan mode. Our errors are within 6% (XO-1) and 26% (HD 209458b) of the photon-limit at a resolving power of {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} {approx} 70, and are better than 0.01% per spectral channel. Both planets exhibit water absorption of approximately 200 ppm at the water peak near 1.38 {mu}m. Our result for XO-1b contradicts the much larger absorption derived from NICMOS spectroscopy. The weak water absorption we measure for HD 209458b is reminiscent of the weakness of sodium absorption in the first transmission spectroscopy of an exoplanet atmosphere by Charbonneau et al. Model atmospheres having uniformly distributed extra opacity of 0.012 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} account approximately for both our water measurement and the sodium absorption. Our results for HD 209458b support the picture advocated by Pont et al. in which weak molecular absorptions are superposed on a transmission spectrum that is dominated by continuous opacity due to haze and/or dust. However, the extra opacity needed for HD 209458b is grayer than for HD 189733b, with a weaker Rayleigh component.

  1. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosenfield, Philip; Weisz, Daniel R.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Gogarten, Stephanie M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lang, Dustin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lauer, Tod R.; Dong Hui [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kalirai, Jason S.; Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dorman, Claire E.; Guhathakurta, Puragra [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2012-06-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury program to image {approx}1/3 of M31's star-forming disk in six filters, spanning from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR). We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to resolve the galaxy into millions of individual stars with projected radii from 0 to 20 kpc. The full survey will cover a contiguous 0.5 deg{sup 2}area in 828 orbits. Imaging is being obtained in the F275W and F336W filters on the WFC3/UVIS camera, F475W and F814W on ACS/WFC, and F110W and F160W on WFC3/IR. The resulting wavelength coverage gives excellent constraints on stellar temperature, bolometric luminosity, and extinction for most spectral types. The data produce photometry with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4 at m{sub F275W} = 25.1, m{sub F336W} = 24.9, m{sub F475W} = 27.9, m{sub F814W} = 27.1, m{sub F110W} = 25.5, and m{sub F160W} = 24.6 for single pointings in the uncrowded outer disk; in the inner disk, however, the optical and NIR data are crowding limited, and the deepest reliable magnitudes are up to 5 mag brighter. Observations are carried out in two orbits per pointing, split between WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR cameras in primary mode, with ACS/WFC run in parallel. All pointings are dithered to produce Nyquist-sampled images in F475W, F814W, and F160W. We describe the observing strategy, photometry, astrometry, and data products available for the survey, along with extensive testing of photometric stability, crowding errors, spatially dependent photometric biases, and telescope pointing control. We also report on initial fits to the structure of M31's disk, derived from the density of red giant branch stars, in a way that is independent of assumed mass-to-light ratios and is robust to variations in dust extinction. These fits also show that the 10 kpc ring is not just a region of enhanced recent star formation, but is instead a dynamical

  2. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of partial surface protein genes from infectious Salmon Anaemia virus (ISAV suggest novel mechanisms involved in transition to virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turhan Markussen

    Full Text Available Uncultivable HPR0 strains of infectious salmon anaemia viruses (ISAVs infecting gills are non-virulent putative precursors of virulent ISAVs (vISAVs causing systemic disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The transition to virulence involves two molecular events, a deletion in the highly polymorphic region (HPR of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE gene and a Q266→L266 substitution or insertion next to the putative cleavage site (R267 in the fusion protein (F. We have performed ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS of these gene regions from healthy fish positive for HPR0 virus carrying full-length HPR sampled in a screening program, and a vISAV strain from an ISA outbreak at the same farming site three weeks later, and compared the mutant spectra. As the UDPS data shows the presence of both HE genotypes at both sampling times, and the outbreak strain was unlikely to be directly related to the HPR0 strain, this is the first report of a double infection with HPR0s and vISAVs. For F amplicon reads, mutation frequencies generating L266 codons in screening samples and Q266 codons in outbreak samples were not higher than at any random site. We suggest quasispecies heterogeneity as well as RNA structural properties are linked to transition to virulence. More specifically, a mechanism where selected single point mutations in the full-length HPR alter the RNA structure facilitating single- or sequential deletions in this region is proposed. The data provides stronger support for the deletion hypothesis, as opposed to recombination, as the responsible mechanism for generating the sequence deletions in HE.

  3. HIV-1 Tropism Dynamics and Phylogenetic Analysis from Longitudinal Ultra-Deep Sequencing Data of CCR5- and CXCR4-Using Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sede, Mariano M.; Moretti, Franco A.; Laufer, Natalia L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Coreceptor switch from CCR5 to CXCR4 is associated with HIV disease progression. The molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying the CCR5 to CXCR4 switch are the focus of intense recent research. We studied the HIV-1 tropism dynamics in relation to coreceptor usage, the nature of quasispecies from ultra deep sequencing (UDPS) data and their phylogenetic relationships. Methods Here, we characterized C2-V3-C3 sequences of HIV obtained from 19 patients followed up for 54 to 114 months using UDPS, with further genotyping and phylogenetic analysis for coreceptor usage. HIV quasispecies diversity and variability as well as HIV plasma viral load were measured longitudinally and their relationship with the HIV coreceptor usage was analyzed. The longitudinal UDPS data were submitted to phylogenetic analysis and sampling times and coreceptor usage were mapped onto the trees obtained. Results Although a temporal viral genetic structuring was evident, the persistence of several viral lineages evolving independently along the infection was statistically supported, indicating a complex scenario for the evolution of viral quasispecies. HIV X4-using variants were present in most of our patients, exhibiting a dissimilar inter- and intra-patient predominance as the component of quasispecies even on antiretroviral therapy. The viral populations from some of the patients studied displayed evidences of the evolution of X4 variants through fitness valleys, whereas for other patients the data favored a gradual mode of emergence. Conclusions CXCR4 usage can emerge independently, in multiple lineages, along the course of HIV infection. The mode of emergence, i.e. gradual or through fitness valleys seems to depend on both virus and patient factors. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that, besides becoming dominant after population-level switches, minor proportions of X4 viruses might exist along the infection, perhaps even at early stages of it. The fate of these minor

  4. Ultra-Deep Adsorptive Desulfurization of Light-Irradiated Diesel Fuel over Supported TiO2-CeO2 Adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoxing; Chen, Yongsheng; Fujii, Mamoru; Song, Chunshan [SCUT-China; (Penn)

    2014-02-13

    This study investigates ultra-deep adsorptive desulfurization (ADS) from light-irradiated diesel fuel over supported TiO2–CeO2 adsorbents. A 30-fold higher desulfurization capacity of 95 mL of fuel per gram of adsorbent (mL-F/g-sorb) or 1.143 mg of sulfur per gram of adsorbent (mg-S/g-sorb) was achieved from light-irradiated fuel over the original low-sulfur fuel containing about 15 ppm by weight (ppmw) of sulfur. The sulfur species on spent TiO2–CeO2/MCM-48 adsorbent was identified by sulfur K-edge XANES as sulfones and the adsorption selectivity to different compounds tested in a model fuel decreases in the order of indole > dibenzothiophenesulfone → dibenzothiophene > 4-methyldibenzothiophene > benzothiophene > 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene > phenanthrene > 2-methylnaphthalene ~ fluorene > naphthalene. The results suggest that during ADS of light-irradiated fuel, the original sulfur species were chemically transformed to sulfones, resulting in the significant increase in desulfurization capacity. For different supports for TiO2–CeO2 oxides, the ADS capacity increases with a decrease in the point of zero charge (PZC) value; for silica-supported TiO2–CeO2 oxides (the lowest PZC value of 2–4) with different surface areas, the ADS capacity increases monotonically with increasing surface area. The supported TiO2–CeO2/MCM-48 adsorbent can be regenerated using oxidative air treatment. The present study provides an attractive new path to achieve ultraclean fuel more effectively.

  5. Prevalence and evolution of low frequency HIV drug resistance mutations detected by ultra deep sequencing in patients experiencing first line antiretroviral therapy failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Vandenhende

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Clinical relevance of low-frequency HIV-1 variants carrying drug resistance associated mutations (DRMs is still unclear. We aimed to study the prevalence of low-frequency DRMs, detected by Ultra-Deep Sequencing (UDS before antiretroviral therapy (ART and at virological failure (VF, in HIV-1 infected patients experiencing VF on first-line ART. METHODS: Twenty-nine ART-naive patients followed up in the ANRS-CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, having initiated ART between 2000 and 2009 and experiencing VF (2 plasma viral loads (VL >500 copies/ml or one VL >1000 copies/ml were included. Reverse transcriptase and protease DRMs were identified using Sanger sequencing (SS and UDS at baseline (before ART initiation and VF. RESULTS: Additional low-frequency variants with PI-, NNRTI- and NRTI-DRMs were found by UDS at baseline and VF, significantly increasing the number of detected DRMs by 1.35 fold (p<0.0001 compared to SS. These low-frequency DRMs modified ARV susceptibility predictions to the prescribed treatment for 1 patient at baseline, in whom low-frequency DRM was found at high frequency at VF, and 6 patients at VF. DRMs found at VF were rarely detected as low-frequency DRMs prior to treatment. The rare low-frequency NNRTI- and NRTI-DRMs detected at baseline that correlated with the prescribed treatment were most often found at high-frequency at VF. CONCLUSION: Low frequency DRMs detected before ART initiation and at VF in patients experiencing VF on first-line ART can increase the overall burden of resistance to PI, NRTI and NNRTI.

  6. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Vazquez-Guillen

    Full Text Available Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM's at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (<20% of quasispecies could increase the risk of virologic failure. In this work, we analyzed the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by ultra-deep sequencing in pediatric patients under STI with the aim of determining the presence of high- and low-abundance DRM's in the viral rebounds generated by the STI. High-abundance mutations in protease and high- and low-abundance mutations in reverse transcriptase were detected but no one of these are directly associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM's during STI.

  7. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Guillen, Jose Manuel; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C.; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G.; Garcia-Campos, Jorge; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Paredes, Roger; Vielma-Ramirez, Herlinda J.; Ramirez, Teresa J.; Chavez-Garcia, Marcelino; Lopez-Guillen, Paulo; Briones-Lara, Evangelina; Sanchez-Sanchez, Luz M.; Vazquez-Martinez, Carlos A.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI) are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM’s) at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (<20% of quasispecies) could increase the risk of virologic failure. In this work, we analyzed the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by ultra-deep sequencing in pediatric patients under STI with the aim of determining the presence of high- and low-abundance DRM’s in the viral rebounds generated by the STI. High-abundance mutations in protease and high- and low-abundance mutations in reverse transcriptase were detected but no one of these are directly associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM’s during STI. PMID:26807922

  8. Ultra-deep sequencing confirms immunohistochemistry as a highly sensitive and specific method for detecting BRAF V600E mutations in colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössle, Matthias; Sigg, Michèle; Rüschoff, Jan H; Wild, Peter J; Moch, Holger; Weber, Achim; Rechsteiner, Markus P

    2013-11-01

    The activating BRAF (V600) mutation is a well-established negative prognostic biomarker in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC). A recently developed monoclonal mouse antibody (clone VE1) has been shown to detect reliably BRAF (V600E) mutated protein by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In this study, we aimed to compare the detection of BRAF (V600E) mutations by IHC, Sanger sequencing (SaS), and ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) in CRC. VE1-IHC was established in a cohort of 68 KRAS wild-type CRCs. The VE1-IHC was only positive in the three patients with a known BRAF (V600E) mutation as assessed by SaS and UDS. The test cohort consisted of 265 non-selected, consecutive CRC samples. Thirty-nine out of 265 cases (14.7%) were positive by VE1-IHC. SaS of 20 randomly selected IHC negative tumors showed BRAF wild-type (20/20). Twenty-four IHC-positive cases were confirmed by SaS (24/39; 61.5%) and 15 IHC-positive cases (15/39; 38.5%) showed a BRAF wild-type by SaS. UDS detected a BRAF (V600E) mutation in 13 of these 15 discordant cases. In one tumor, the mutation frequency was below our threshold for UDS positivity, while in another case, UDS could not be performed due to low DNA amount. Statistical analysis showed sensitivities of 100% and 63% and specificities of 95 and 100% for VE1-IHC and SaS, respectively, compared to combined results of SaS and UDS. Our data suggests that there is high concordance between UDS and IHC using the anti-BRAF(V600E) (VE1) antibody. Thus, VE1 immunohistochemistry is a highly sensitive and specific method in detecting BRAF (V600E) mutations in colorectal carcinoma.

  9. Ultra-deep Illumina sequencing accurately identifies MHC class IIb alleles and provides evidence for copy number variation in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighten, Jackie; van Oosterhout, Cock; Paterson, Ian G; McMullan, Mark; Bentzen, Paul

    2014-07-01

    We address the bioinformatic issue of accurately separating amplified genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) from artefacts generated during high-throughput sequencing workflows. We fit observed ultra-deep sequencing depths (hundreds to thousands of sequences per amplicon) of allelic variants to expectations from genetic models of copy number variation (CNV). We provide a simple, accurate and repeatable method for genotyping multigene families, evaluating our method via analyses of 209 b of MHC class IIb exon 2 in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Genotype repeatability for resequenced individuals (N = 49) was high (100%) within the same sequencing run. However, repeatability dropped to 83.7% between independent runs, either because of lower mean amplicon sequencing depth in the initial run or random PCR effects. This highlights the importance of fully independent replicates. Significant improvements in genotyping accuracy were made by greatly reducing type I genotyping error (i.e. accepting an artefact as a true allele), which may occur when using low-depth allele validation thresholds used by previous methods. Only a small amount (4.9%) of type II error (i.e. rejecting a genuine allele as an artefact) was detected through fully independent sequencing runs. We observed 1-6 alleles per individual, and evidence of sharing of alleles across loci. Variation in the total number of MHC class II loci among individuals, both among and within populations was also observed, and some genotypes appeared to be partially hemizygous; total allelic dosage added up to an odd number of allelic copies. Collectively, observations provide evidence of MHC CNV and its complex basis in natural populations.

  10. 3D-HST Data Release v3.0: Extremely Deep Spectra in the UDF and WFC3 Mosaics in the 3D-HST/CANDELS Fields

    CERN Document Server

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Momcheva, Ivelina; Skelton, Rosalind E; Whitaker, Katherine E

    2013-01-01

    3D-HST is a 248-orbit Treasury program to provide WFC3 and ACS grism spectroscopy over four extra-galactic fields (AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-South, and UDS), augmented with previously obtained data in GOODS-North. We present a new data release of the 3D-HST survey, version v3.0. This release follows the initial v0.5 release that accompanied the survey description paper (Brammer et al. 2012). The new v3.0 release includes the deepest near-IR HST grism spectra currently in existence, extracted from the 8-17 orbit depth observations in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Contamination-corrected 2D and 1D spectra, as well as derived redshifts, are made available for >250 objects in this 2'x2'field. The spectra are of extraordinary quality, and show emission features in many galaxies as faint as F140W=26-27, absorption features in quiescent galaxies at z~2, and several active galactic nuclei. In addition to these extremely deep grism data we provide reduced WFC3 F125W, F140W, and F160W image mosaics of all five 3D-HST/CANDELS...

  11. Hubble Parameter in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Wahba, M

    2009-01-01

    We discuss influences of bulk viscosity on the Early Universe, which is modeled by Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and Einstein field equations. We assume that the matter filling the isotropic and homogeneous background is relativistic viscous characterized by ultra-relativistic equations of state deduced from recent lattice QCD simulations. We obtain a set of complicated differential equations, for which we suggest approximate solutions for Hubble parameter $H$. We find that finite viscosity in Eckart and Israel-Stewart fluids would significantly modify our picture about the Early Universe.

  12. Analysis of ultra-deep pyrosequencing and cloning based sequencing of the basic core promoter/precore/core region of hepatitis B virus using newly developed bioinformatics tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhlid Yousif

    Full Text Available AIMS: The aims of this study were to develop bioinformatics tools to explore ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS data, to test these tools, and to use them to determine the optimum error threshold, and to compare results from UDPS and cloning based sequencing (CBS. METHODS: Four serum samples, infected with either genotype D or E, from HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients were randomly selected. UDPS and CBS were used to sequence the basic core promoter/precore region of HBV. Two online bioinformatics tools, the "Deep Threshold Tool" and the "Rosetta Tool" (http://hvdr.bioinf.wits.ac.za/tools/, were built to test and analyze the generated data. RESULTS: A total of 10952 reads were generated by UDPS on the 454 GS Junior platform. In the four samples, substitutions, detected at 0.5% threshold or above, were identified at 39 unique positions, 25 of which were non-synonymous mutations. Sample #2 (HBeAg-negative, genotype D had substitutions in 26 positions, followed by sample #1 (HBeAg-negative, genotype E in 12 positions, sample #3 (HBeAg-positive, genotype D in 7 positions and sample #4 (HBeAg-positive, genotype E in only four positions. The ratio of nucleotide substitutions between isolates from HBeAg-negative and HBeAg-positive patients was 3.5 ∶ 1. Compared to genotype E isolates, genotype D isolates showed greater variation in the X, basic core promoter/precore and core regions. Only 18 of the 39 positions identified by UDPS were detected by CBS, which detected 14 of the 25 non-synonymous mutations detected by UDPS. CONCLUSION: UDPS data should be approached with caution. Appropriate curation of read data is required prior to analysis, in order to clean the data and eliminate artefacts. CBS detected fewer than 50% of the substitutions detected by UDPS. Furthermore it is important that the appropriate consensus (reference sequence is used in order to identify variants correctly.

  13. HIV-1 transmission patterns in antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-infected North Americans based on phylogenetic analysis by population level and ultra-deep DNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa L Ross

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, especially drug-resistant HIV-1 variants remain a significant public health concern. In-depth phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences obtained in the screening phase from antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients seeking enrollment in EPZ108859, a large open-label study in the USA, Canada and Puerto Rico (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00440947 were examined for insights into the roles of drug resistance and epidemiological factors that could impact disease dissemination. Viral transmission clusters (VTCs were initially predicted from a phylogenetic analysis of population level HIV-1 pol sequences obtained from 690 antiretroviral-naïve subjects in 2007. Subsequently, the predicted VTCs were tested for robustness by ultra deep sequencing (UDS using pyrosequencing technology and further phylogenetic analyses. The demographic characteristics of clustered and non-clustered subjects were then compared. From 690 subjects, 69 were assigned to 1 of 30 VTCs, each containing 2 to 5 subjects. Race composition of VTCs were significantly more likely to be white (72% vs. 60%; p = 0.04. VTCs had fewer reverse transcriptase and major PI resistance mutations (9% vs. 24%; p = 0.002 than non-clustered sequences. Both men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM (68% vs. 48%; p = 0.001 and Canadians (29% vs. 14%; p = 0.03 were significantly more frequent in VTCs than non-clustered sequences. Of the 515 subjects who initiated antiretroviral therapy, 33 experienced confirmed virologic failure through 144 weeks while only 3/33 were from VTCs. Fewer VTCs subjects (as compared to those with non-clustering virus had HIV-1 with resistance-associated mutations or experienced virologic failure during the course of the study. Our analysis shows specific geographical and drug resistance trends that correlate well with transmission clusters defined by HIV sequences of similarity

  14. Planck Scale to Hubble Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    1998-01-01

    Within the context of the usual semi classical investigation of Planck scale Schwarzchild Black Holes, as in Quantum Gravity, and later attempts at a full Quantum Mechanical description in terms of a Kerr-Newman metric including the spinorial behaviour, we attempt to present a formulation that extends from the Planck scale to the Hubble scale. In the process the so called large number coincidences as also the hitherto inexplicable relations between the pion mass and the Hubble Constant, pointed out by Weinberg, turn out to be natural consequences in a consistent description.

  15. Discussion on Configuration of Subsea BOP Stack and Its Control System in Ultra-Deep Water%超深水防喷器组及其控制系统配置探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹式敬

    2012-01-01

    Based on the extreme challenge of environment in ultra-deep waters,the requirements on the BOP stack and its control system are very high in order to ensure secure operation. In view of the current situation,an unified standard for ultra-deep water BOP stack is still unavailable in the oil industry and the research and development of BOP stack is also in its infancy in China. An enhanced configuration was put forward through analyzing functions of the subsea BOP and its control system. Different from the present technical standard and the configuration of HYSY981 ultra-deep water drilling unit, the capacity of shear ram is improved and the backup and special control system are compulsory items in this configuration, which improves the safety and reliability of ultra-deep water drilling operation significantly.%超深水海域海洋环境极其复杂,对保证钻井安全的防喷器组及其控制系统的要求非常高.针对目前超深水防喷器组及控制系统没有统一的配置规范与标准和我国该方面产品研发及配置尚处于起始阶段的现状,提出了一种比较合理的防喷器组及控制系统配置方案.分析该方案中防喷器组中各种防喷器的功能和作用及控制系统的控制方法和特点,发现该方案与现行技术标准及HYSY981超深水钻井装置的防喷器组及其控制系统的配置方案相比,提高了对剪切防喷器的要求,并将备用控制系统和特殊控制系统作为了必配项目,超深水钻井作业的安全性和可靠性明显增强.

  16. The age of the universe, the Hubble constant, the accelerated expansion and the Hubble effect

    OpenAIRE

    Soares,Domingos

    2009-01-01

    The idea of an accelerating universe comes almost simultaneously with the determination of Hubble's constant by one of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Projects. The age of the universe dilemma is probably the link between these two issues. In an appendix, I claim that "Hubble's law" might yet to be investigated for its ultimate cause, and suggest the "Hubble effect" as the searched candidate.

  17. The age of the universe, the Hubble constant, the accelerated expansion and the Hubble effect

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Domingos

    2009-01-01

    The idea of an accelerating universe comes almost simultaneously with the determination of Hubble's constant by one of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Projects. The age of the universe dilemma is probably the link between these two issues. In an appendix, I claim that "Hubble's law" might yet to be investigated for its ultimate cause, and suggest the "Hubble effect" as the searched candidate.

  18. The 1% concordance Hubble constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L. [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hinshaw, G., E-mail: cbennett@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-10-20

    The determination of the Hubble constant has been a central goal in observational astrophysics for nearly a hundred years. Extraordinary progress has occurred in recent years on two fronts: the cosmic distance ladder measurements at low redshift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at high redshift. The CMB is used to predict the current expansion rate through a best-fit cosmological model. Complementary progress has been made with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at relatively low redshifts. While BAO data do not independently determine a Hubble constant, they are important for constraints on possible solutions and checks on cosmic consistency. A precise determination of the Hubble constant is of great value, but it is more important to compare the high and low redshift measurements to test our cosmological model. Significant tension would suggest either uncertainties not accounted for in the experimental estimates or the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology. In this paper we examine in detail the tension between the CMB, BAO, and cosmic distance ladder data sets. We find that these measurements are consistent within reasonable statistical expectations and we combine them to determine a best-fit Hubble constant of 69.6 ± 0.7 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. This value is based upon WMAP9+SPT+ACT+6dFGS+BOSS/DR11+H {sub 0}/Riess; we explore alternate data combinations in the text. The combined data constrain the Hubble constant to 1%, with no compelling evidence for new physics.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Observations of Escaping Lyman Continuum Radiation from Galaxies and Weak AGN at Redshifts z~2.3--5

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Brent M; Jansen, Rolf A; Cohen, Seth H; Jiang, Linhua; Dijkstra, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M; Bielby, Richard; Inoue, Akio K; MacKenty, John W; O'Connell, Robert W; Silk, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of escaping Lyman Continuum (LyC) radiation from 50 massive star-forming galaxies and 14 weak AGN with reliable spectroscopic redshifts at z~2.3--5.8. We analyzed HST WFC3/UVIS mosaics of the ERS field in three UV filters, and ACS B in the GOODS-South field to sample the rest-frame LyC over these redshifts. The average LyC emission of galaxies at z_mean=2.38, 2.68, 3.47, and 5.02 is detected at the >=3sigma level in image stacks of 11--15 galaxies in the WFC3/UVIS F225W, F275W, F336W, and ACS/WFC F435W filters. Their average LyC flux corresponds to AB~29.5--30.7 mag. The LyC flux of weak AGN is typically ~1 mag brighter at z~2.3--4.8, but averaged over ~4x fewer galaxies. The stacked galaxy LyC profiles are flatter than their non-ionizing UV-continuum profiles out to r~0".7, possibly indicating a radial porosity dependence in the ISM. The average LyC emission from AGN is more extended and sometimes more elongated compared to galaxies without AGN, possibly due to the viewing-angle at wh...

  20. Effect of substrate bias on negative bias temperature instability of ultra-deep sub-micro p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hu Shi-Gang

    2009-01-01

    The effect of substrate bias on the degradation during applying a negative bias temperature (NBT) stress is studied in this paper. With a smaller gate voltage stress applied, the degradation of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) is enhanced, and there comes forth an inflexion point. The degradation pace turns larger when the substrate bias is higher than the inflexion point. The substrate hot holes can be injected into oxide and generate additional oxide traps, inducing an inflexion phenomenon. When a constant substrate bias stress is applied, as the gate voltage stress increases, an inflexion comes into being also. The higher gate voltage causes the electrons to tunnel into the substrate from the poly, thereby generating the electron-hole pairs by impact ionization. The holes generated by impact ionization and the holes from the substrate all can be accelerated to high energies by the substrate bias. More additional oxide traps can be produced, and correspondingly, the degradation is strengthened by the substrate bias. The results of the alternate stress experiment show that the interface traps generated by the hot holes cannot be annealed, which is different from those generated by common holes.

  1. Accelerated evolution of the Lyα luminosity function at z ≳ 7 revealed by the Subaru ultra-deep survey for Lyα emitters at z = 7.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Akira; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Naito, Yoshiaki; Momose, Rieko; Yuma, Suraphong [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furusawa, Hisanori; Iye, Masanori, E-mail: konno@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    We present the ultra-deep Subaru narrowband imaging survey for Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 7.3 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) and Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) fields (∼0.5 deg{sup 2}) with a total integration time of 106 hr. Exploiting our new sharp bandwidth filter, NB101, installed on the Suprime-Cam, we have reached L(Lyα) = 2.4 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1} (5σ) for z = 7.3 LAEs, about four times deeper than previous Subaru z ≳ 7 studies, which allows us to reliably investigate the evolution of the Lyα luminosity function (LF) for the first time down to the luminosity limit same as those of Subaru z = 3.1-6.6 LAE samples. Surprisingly, we only find three and four LAEs in the SXDS and COSMOS fields, respectively, while one expects a total of ∼65 LAEs by our survey in the case of no Lyα LF evolution from z = 6.6 to 7.3. We identify a decrease of the Lyα LF from z = 6.6 to 7.3 at the >90% confidence level from our z = 7.3 Lyα LF with the best-fit Schechter parameters of L{sub Lyα}{sup ∗}=2.7{sub −1.2}{sup +8.0}×10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1} and ϕ{sup ∗}=3.7{sub −3.3}{sup +17.6}×10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3} for a fixed α = –1.5. Moreover, the evolution of the Lyα LF is clearly accelerated at z > 6.6 beyond the measurement uncertainties including cosmic variance. Because no such accelerated evolution of the UV-continuum LF or the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) is found at z ∼ 7, but suggested only at z > 8, this accelerated Lyα LF evolution is explained by physical mechanisms different from a pure SFR decrease but related to the Lyα production and escape in the process of cosmic reionization. Because a simple accelerating increase of intergalactic medium neutral hydrogen absorbing Lyα cannot be reconciled with Thomson scattering of optical depth measurements from WMAP and Planck, our findings may support new physical pictures suggested by recent theoretical studies, such as the existence of HI clumpy clouds within

  2. Dynamical decomposition of galaxies across the Hubble sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Meidt, S. E.; Martig, M.; Yildirim, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing and upcoming integral-field spectroscopic surveys will provide stellar kinematic maps of thousands of nearby galaxies across the Hubble sequence. For the first time, we have been able to construct Schwarzschild dynamical models that fit in detail elliptical through spiral galaxies from the

  3. Kennedy Educate to Innovate (KETI) Hubble Powerpoint Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The presentation describes the Hubble Space Telescope and it's contributions to astronomy. Also discussed are the James Webb Space Telescope and the kinds of careers that relate to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) that students can pursue in fields related to space telescopes.

  4. Kennedy Educate to Innovate (KETI) Hubble Powerpoint Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The presentation describes the Hubble Space Telescope and it's contributions to astronomy. Also discussed are the James Webb Space Telescope and the kinds of careers that relate to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) that students can pursue in fields related to space telescopes.

  5. Hubble Parameter in QCD Universe for finite Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A; Mansour, H; Harko, T

    2010-01-01

    The influence of perturbative bulk viscosity on the evolution of Hubble parameter in the QCD era of the early Universe has been analyzed, where Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric and Einstein field equations are utilized. Homogeneous and isotropic background matter is assumed to be characterized by barotropic equations of state deduced from recent lattice QCD simulations and heavy--ion collisions. Taking into account perturbative bulk viscosity coefficient, an estimation for the evolution of the Hubble parameter has been introduced and compared with its evolution in a non--viscous matter. A numerical solution for finite viscous Israel-Stewart background matter is also worked out. Both methods qualitatively agree in reproducing viscous Hubble parameter that turns to be slightly different from the non--viscous one. This treatment is strictly limited within a very narrow temperature-- or time--interval in QCD era, where the QGP matter is likely dominant.

  6. Planck and WMAP constraints on generalised Hubble flow inflationary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Contaldi, Carlo R

    2013-01-01

    We use the Hamilton--Jacobi formalism to constrain the space of possible single field, inflationary Hubble flow trajectories when compared to the WMAP and Planck satellites Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) results. This method yields posteriors on the space of Hubble Slow Roll (HSR) parameters that uniquely determine the history of the Hubble parameter during the inflating epoch. The trajectories are used to numerically determine the observable primordial power spectrum and bispectra that can then be compared to observations. Our analysis is used to infer the most likely shape of the inflaton potential $V(\\phi)$ and also yields a prediction for, $f_{\\rm NL}$, the dimensionless amplitude of the non-Gaussian bispectrum.

  7. The morphological mix of field galaxies to I=24.25 magnitudes (b=26 magnitudes) from a deep Hubble space telescope WFPC2 image

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, S P; Ostrander, E J; Keel, W C; Griffiths, R E; Ratnatunga, K U; Driver, Simon P; Windhorst, Rogier A; Ostrander, Eric J; Keel, William C; Griffiths, Richard E; Ratnatunga, Kavan U

    1995-01-01

    We determine the morphological mix of field galaxies down to m_{I}\\simeq 24.25 mag (m_{B}\\sim 26.0 mag) from a single ultradeep HST WFPC2 image in both the V_{606} and I_{814} filters. In total, we find 227 objects with m_{I}\\le 24.5 mag and classify these into three types: ellipticals (16%), early-type spirals (37%) and late-type spirals/Irregulars (47%). The differential number counts for each type are compared to simple models in a standard flat cosmology. We find that both the elliptical and early-type spiral number counts are well described by {\\it little or no}-evolution models, but only when normalized at b_{J} = 18.0 mag. Given the uncertainties in the luminosity function (LF) normalization, both populations are consistent with a mild evolutionary scenario based on a normal/low rate of star-formation. This constrains the end of the last {\\it major} star-formation epoch in the giant galaxy populations to z\\geq 0.8. Conversely, the density of the observed late-type/Irregular population is found to be a ...

  8. Hubble Law: Measure and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturel, Georges; Teerikorpi, Pekka; Baryshev, Yurij

    2017-09-01

    We have had the chance to live through a fascinating revolution in measuring the fundamental empirical cosmological Hubble law. The key progress is analysed: (1) improvement of observational means (ground-based radio and optical observations, space missions); (2) understanding of the biases that affect both distant and local determinations of the Hubble constant; (3) new theoretical and observational results. These circumstances encourage us to take a critical look at some facts and ideas related to the cosmological red-shift. This is important because we are probably on the eve of a new understanding of our Universe, heralded by the need to interpret some cosmological key observations in terms of unknown processes and substances.

  9. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bunker, A., E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  10. The Hubble-Depth Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbom Park

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante una simulaci n de N cuerpos de un modelo ACDM hemos desarrollado una b squeda de galaxias ficticias hasta la profundidad del Hubble. Para encontrar las galaxias en la distribuci on de part culas, identificamos los halos estables y autoligados mediante un m todo de b squeda de halos en el espacio real y en el cono de luz. Suponemos que cada halo contiene solamente una galaxia con un brillo monot nicamente proporcional a la masa del halo, para as ajustar la funci n de masa con la funci n de luminosidad gal actica obtenida en el Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS. Despu s de aplicar la correcciones K, y de evoluci n a las luminosidades observadas de las galaxias ficticias, hicimos estudios del corrimiento al rojo bajo varias restricciones observacionales. En particular, proponemos un nuevo estudio de corrimientos al rojo, llamado el Hubble Depth Survey, el cual est limitado hasta la magnitud r = 22 y alcanza la distancia de Hubble dH = 3000 h -1 Mpe

  11. HUBBLE FINDS A BARE BLACK HOLE POURING OUT LIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided a never-before-seen view of a warped disk flooded with a torrent of ultraviolet light from hot gas trapped around a suspected massive black hole. [Right] This composite image of the core of the galaxy was constructed by combining a visible light image taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), with a separate image taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera (FOC). While the visible light image shows a dark dust disk, the ultraviolet image (color-coded blue) shows a bright feature along one side of the disk. Because Hubble sees ultraviolet light reflected from only one side of the disk, astronomers conclude the disk must be warped like the brim of a hat. The bright white spot at the image's center is light from the vicinity of the black hole which is illuminating the disk. [Left] A ground-based telescopic view of the core of the elliptical galaxy NGC 6251. The inset box shows Hubble Space Telescope's field of view. The galaxy is 300 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Minor. Photo Credit: Philippe Crane (European Southern Observatory), and NASA

  12. Ultra-deep oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} catalyzed under mild conditions by polymolybdates supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Luis; Murrieta, Florentino; Navarrete, Juan; Jimenez-Cruz, Federico [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Procesos y Reactores, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Fuentes, Gustavo A.; Hernandez-Teran, Maria Eugenia [Area de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad A. Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-05-17

    The evaluation of the catalytic oxidative desulfurization (OD) activity of alumina-supported polymolybdates (Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was carried out using organosulfur model compounds and diesel fuel. Hydrogen peroxide was the oxidizing reagent. Ultra-deep desulfurization, 97.8% removal of sulfur in diesel fuel, was achieved by reaction under mild conditions followed by solvent extraction. The catalyst was prepared by equilibrium adsorption and characterized by infrared, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, {sup 31}P and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectroscopies. Our results indicate that the phosphomolybdate used during synthesis of the catalysts decomposes and forms hydrated hepta- and octamolybdates as well as phosphate ions on the surface of alumina. (author)

  13. Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

  14. Friedmann equation and Hubble condition

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgaertel, Hellmut

    2014-01-01

    The note presents results on the solutions of the Friedmann equation, which satisfy the Hubble condition, where the radiation term is taken into account. For these solutions the equation $\\sigma=\\sigma_{cr}$, where $\\sigma$ is the radiation invariant of the Friedmann equation and $\\sigma_{cr}$ the "critical radiation parameter", introduced in [5], is an analytic relation between the matter density and the radiation density at the present time and the cosmological constant which can be represented by two function branches, expressing the cosmological constant as unique functions of the matter and radiation density. These functions are the "frontier lines" between regions of constant type.

  15. Causes Analysis of Logging Obstructing and Sticking in the Ultra-deep Well and Solution Methods%超深井测井遇阻遇卡原因分析及解决对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗荣

    2012-01-01

    Because Ordovician reservoir is deeper, the drilled wells are ultra deep wells in Tahe oilfield. From engineering point, introduced are logging obstructing causes in ultra-deep wells, such as, irregular borehole, sand bridge, higher viscosity drilling fluid, poor quality of mud cake, heavy oil in wellbore, poor well trajectory, etc. Analyzed are three causes of logging sticking which are pressure difference, sloughing and key seating. By improving borehole cleanup and logging technology, the risk of logging obstructing and sticking is obviously controlled. Proposed are two solutions: The key to reduce the risk is to control drilling quality, and ensure the down hole tools and wireline safety when changing tool string connection mode.%塔河油田奥陶系油藏由于埋深较深,所钻井都为超深井.从工程角度介绍了井眼不规则、砂桥、钻井液黏度过高、泥饼质量差、井内出稠油、井眼轨迹不好等造成超深井测井遇阻等原因 ;对电缆仪器吸附卡、掉块卡、键槽卡3种超深井测井遇卡原因进行了分析.通过有针对性地进行测井前井筒准备、改进和完善测井工艺等2个方面工作,使工区测井遇阻卡情况得到明显控制.减少测井遇阻遇卡的核心是抓好钻井过程的控制 ;改变仪器串连接方式必须保证井下仪器和电缆的安全.

  16. 高速公路桥梁工程超深矩形深井基础施工%On foundation construction of ultra-deep rectangular deep well in expressway bridge project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠元

    2012-01-01

    Combining with the ultra-deep well construction of Laoyingyan Bridge of the eighth section of Huishui-Xingren expressway in Guizhou,the paper introduces the ultra-deep well construction technique of expressways bridge,adopts the manual hand-held pick or pickaxe for the upper gravel soil and gravel layer to excavate from the upper to lower layers,the full section smooth blasting technique to excavate in lower strong weathering and medium weathering limestone,the mast electric hoister to extract ballast,the ejector anchor primary support and the reinforced concrete wall protection,so it can fully complete the ultra-well construction with safety,excellence and efficiency.%结合贵州省惠水至兴仁高速公路八标段老鹰岩大桥超深深井施工实例,介绍了高速公路桥梁超深深井施工技术,上部碎石土、砾砂层采用人工手持风镐或十字镐从上到下逐层挖掘,下部强风化、中风化灰岩采用全断面光面爆破开挖,桅杆式电动卷扬机提碴,喷锚初期支护及钢筋混凝土护壁跟进,安全、优质、高效地完成了全部超深深井施工。

  17. Modified Hubble law, the time-varying Hubble parameter and the problem of dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian-Miin

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the solvable model of cosmology constructed in the Earth-related coordinate system, we derive the modified Hubble law. This law carries the slowly time-varying Hubble parameter. The modified Hubble law eliminates the need for dark energy.

  18. Modified Hubble law, the time-varying Hubble parameter and the problem of dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian-Miin

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the solvable model of cosmology constructed in the Earth-related coordinate system, we derive the modified Hubble law. This law carries the slowly time-varying Hubble parameter. The modified Hubble law eliminates the need for dark energy.

  19. Hubble 2008: Science Year in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Hubbles remarkable mission has now spanned 18 years. During that time, it has been at the nexus of perhaps the most exciting period of discovery in the history of astronomy. Simultaneously, Hubble has offered up some of the most daunting engineering challenges to humans working in space, and success in meeting those challenges has been among NASAs greatest triumphs.

  20. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors - A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Benedict, G Fritz; Nelan, Edmund P; Harrison, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor interferometric astrometry has produced precise and accurate parallaxes of astrophysical interesting stars and mass estimates for stellar companions. We review parallax results, and binary star and exoplanet mass determinations, and compare a subset of these parallaxes with preliminary Gaia results. The approach to single-field relative astrometry described herein may continue to have value for targets fainter than the Gaia limit in the coming era of 20-30m telescopes.

  1. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Snapshot Survey of 3CR Quasars: The Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Matthew D.; Miley, George K.; Sparks, William B.; Baum, Stefi A.; Biretta, John; Golombek, Daniel; de Koff, Sigrid; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    1999-08-01

    We present images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of 43 quasars selected from the 3CR radio catalog. The redshift range of the targets is large--0.3Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  2. The Hubble Sphere Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, J B; Pen, U L; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Bandura, Kevin; Pen, Ue Li

    2006-01-01

    An all sky redshift survey, using hydrogen 21 cm emission to locate galaxies, can be used to track the wavelength of baryon acoustic oscillations imprints from z ~ 1.5 to z = 0. This will allow precise determination of the evolution of dark energy. A telescope made of fixed parabolic cylindrical reflectors offers substantial benefit for such a redshift survey. Fixed cylinders can be built for low cost, and long cylinders also allow low cost fast fourier transform techniques to be used to define thousands of simultaneous beams. A survey made with fixed reflectors naturally covers all of the sky available from it's site with good uniformity, minimizing sample variance in the measurement of the acoustic peak wavelength. Such a survey will produce about a billion redshifts, nearly a thousand times the number available today. The survey will provide a three dimensional mapping of a substantial fraction of the Hubble Sphere.

  3. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Van Der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gordon, K. D.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Doradus) in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most famous objects in astronomy, with first astronomical references being more than 150 years old. Today the Tarantula Nebula and its ionizing cluster R136 are considered one of the few known starburst regions in the Local Group and an ideal test bed to investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of a prototypical starburst on a sub-cluster scale. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is a panchromatic imaging survey of the stellar populations and ionized gas in the Tarantula Nebula that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (eBook that explains how stars form and evolve using images from HTTP. The eBook utilizes emerging technology that works in conjunction with the built-in accessibility features in the Apple iPad to allow totally blind users to interactively explore complex astronomical images.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  5. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Photometry of the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E.; Hesser, James E.; Pryor, Carlton; Stetson, Peter B.

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the acquisition and processing of a large body of imaging data for three fields in the globular cluster M4 taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Analysis with the ALLFRAME package yielded the deepest photometry yet obtained for this cluster. The resulting data set for 4708 stars (positions and calibrated photometry in V, I, and, in two fields, U) spanning approximately six cluster core radii is presented. The scientific analysis is deferred to three companion papers, which investigate the significant white dwarf population discovered and the main-sequence population.

  6. HUBBLE WATCHES STAR TEAR APART ITS NEIGHBORHOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    ,000 years. Then the stellar wind collided with the material around the star and swept it up into a thin shell. That shell broke apart into the network of bright clumps seen in the image. The present-day strong wind of the Wolf-Rayet star has only now caught up with the outer edge of the shell, and is stripping away matter as it flows past [the tongue-shaped material in the upper right of the Hubble image]. The stellar wind continues moving outside the shell, slamming into more material and creating a shock wave. This powerful force produces an extremely hot, glowing skin [seen in blue], which envelops the bright nebula. A shock wave is analogous to the sonic boom produced by a jet plane that exceeds the speed of sound; in a cosmic setting, this boom is seen rather than heard. The outer material is too thin to see in the image until the shock wave hits it. The cosmic collision and subsequent shock wave implies that a large amount of matter resides outside the visible shell. The discovery of this material may explain the discrepancy between the mass of the entire shell (four solar masses) and the amount of matter the star lost when it was a red super-giant (15 solar masses). The nebula's short-term fate is less spectacular. As the stellar wind muscles past the clumps of material, the pressure around them drops. A decrease in pressure means that the clumps expand, leading to a steady decline in brightness and fading perhaps to invisibility. Later, the shell may be compressed and begin glowing again, this time as the powerful blast wave of the Wolf-Rayet star completely destroys itself in a powerful supernova explosion. The nebula resides in the constellation Cygnus, 4,700 light-years from Earth. If the nebula were visible to the naked eye, it would appear in the sky as an ellipse one-quarter the size of the full moon. The observations were taken in June 1995 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Scientists selected the colors in this composite image to correspond with

  7. HUBBLE CAPTURES THE HEART OF STAR BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) has captured a flurry of star birth near the heart of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1808. On the left are two images, one superimposed over the other. The black-and-white picture is a ground-based view of the entire galaxy. The color inset image, taken with the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), provides a close-up view of the galaxy's center, the hotbed of vigorous star formation. The ground-based image shows that the galaxy has an unusual, warped shape. Most spiral galaxies are flat disks, but this one has curls of dust and gas at its outer spiral arms (upper right-hand corner and lower left-hand corner). This peculiar shape is evidence that NGC 1808 may have had a close interaction with another nearby galaxy, NGC 1792, which is not in the picture Such an interaction could have hurled gas towards the nucleus of NGC 1808, triggering the exceptionally high rate of star birth seen in the WFPC2 inset image. The WFPC2 inset picture is a composite of images using colored filters that isolate red and infrared light as well as light from glowing hydrogen. The red and infrared light (seen as yellow) highlight older stars, while hydrogen (seen as blue) reveals areas of star birth. Colors were assigned to this false-color image to emphasize the vigorous star formation taking place around the galaxy's center. NGC 1808 is called a barred spiral galaxy because of the straight lines of star formation on both sides of the bright nucleus. This star formation may have been triggered by the rotation of the bar, or by matter which is streaming along the bar towards the central region (and feeding the star burst). Filaments of dust are being ejected from the core into a faint halo of stars surrounding the galaxy's disk (towards the upper left corner) by massive stars that have exploded as supernovae in the star burst region. The portion of the galaxy seen in this 'wide-field' image is

  8. Hubble Gallery of Jupiter's Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This is a Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of the four largest moons of Jupiter, first observed by the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei nearly four centuries ago. Located approximately one-half billion miles away, the moons are so small that, in visible light, they appear as fuzzy disks in the largest ground-based telescopes. Hubble can resolve surface details seen previously only by the Voyager spacecraft in the early 1980s. While the Voyagers provided close-up snapshots of the satellites, Hubble can now follow changes on the moons and reveal other characteristics at ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths.Over the past year Hubble has charted new volcanic activity on Io's active surface, found a faint oxygen atmosphere on the moon Europa, and identified ozone on the surface of Ganymede. Hubble ultraviolet observations of Callisto show the presence of fresh ice on the surface that may indicate impacts from micrometeorites and charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere.Hubble observations will play a complementary role when the Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter in December of this year.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  9. Featured Image: Mapping Jupiter with Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Zonal wind profile for Jupiter, describing the speed and direction of its winds at each latitude. [Simon et al. 2015]This global map of Jupiters surface (click for the full view!) was generated by the Hubble Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program, which aims to createnew yearly global maps for each of the outer planets. Presented in a study led by Amy Simon (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), the map above is the first generated for Jupiter in the first year of the OPAL campaign. It provides a detailed look at Jupiters atmospheric structure including the Great Red Spot and allowed the authors to measure the speed and direction of the wind across Jupiters latitudes, constructing an updated zonal wind profile for Jupiter.In contrast to this study, the Juno mission (which will be captured into Jupiters orbit today after a 5-year journey to Jupiter!) will be focusing more on the features below Jupiters surface, studying its deep atmosphere and winds. Some of Junos primary goals are to learn about Jupiters composition, gravitational field, magnetic field, and polar magnetosphere. You can follow along with the NASATV livestream as Juno arrives at Jupiter tonight; orbit insertion coverage starts at 10:30 EDT.CitationAmy A. Simon et al 2015 ApJ 812 55. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/1/55

  10. HUBBLE CAPTURES DYNAMICS OF CRAB NEBULA (color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A new sequence of Hubble Space Telescope images of the remnant of a tremendous stellar explosion is giving astronomers a remarkable look at the dynamic relationship between the tiny Crab Pulsar and the vast nebula that it powers. This colorful photo shows a ground-based image of the entire Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion witnessed over 900 years ago. The nebula, which is 10 light-years across, is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. The green, yellow and red filaments concentrated toward the edges of the nebula are remnants of the star that were ejected into space by the explosion. At the center of the Crab Nebula lies the Crab Pulsar -- the collapsed core of the exploded star. The Crab Pulsar is a rapidly rotating neutron star -- an object only about six miles across, but containing more mass than our Sun. As it rotates at a rate of 30 times per second the Crab Pulsar's powerful magnetic field sweeps around, accelerating particles, and whipping them out into the nebula at speeds close to that of light. The blue glow in the inner part of the nebula -- light emitted by energetic electrons as they spiral through the Crab's magnetic field -- is powered by the Crab Pulsar. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  11. Hubble expansion is not a velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we clarify the difference between the Hubble expansion and the Doppler shift pedagogically and illustrate both physically and mathematically why the Hubble expansion cannot be regarded as a velocity. Therefore, we suggest to replace the misleading word ‘recession velocity’ to be ‘Hubble recession’ to describe the cosmic expansion. We further derive how the peculiar velocity of a galaxy is related to its observed redshift and proper distance, which has practical use in the galaxy redshift and distance surveys.

  12. 柴油超深度加氢脱硫机理及氮化物影响的研究进展%Study on mechanism of diesel ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization and impact of nitrogen compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白天忠; 刘继华; 柳伟; 宋永一; 孙厚祥; 包洪洲

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of diesel ultra-deep desulfurization and impact of nitrogen compounds are introduced. The forms of nitrogen compounds, the relative reaction rate and HDS reaction route are specifically studied. The results show that the non-thiophene sulfides have a higher HDS activity, which can directly be hydrogenolyzed into hydrocarbons and H2S on the active site of hydrogenation catalysts. As the acid site of catalyst has a promoting effect on cracking reaction in hydrogenation process, the desulfurization rate and service life of catalyst should be optimally considered. The basic nitrogen compounds have a greater inhibition on HDS than non-basic nitrogen compounds. Different catalysts have different contaminant resistance performances. The impacts of nitrogen compounds on two HDS routes are different, I. E. The inhibition on HYD is greater than on DDS. The study on the mechanism of diesel ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization and inhibition of nitrogen compounds provides a good guideline for development of high-activity high-inhibition-resistance catalysts which can mitigate process conditions and extend catalyst life.%介绍了柴油超深度加氢脱硫(HDS)机理及氮化物对其的影响.介绍了硫化物存在形式、相对反应速率及其HDS反应路径.结果表明:非噻吩类硫化物HDS活性较高,在加氢催化剂活性中心上直接氢解生成相应的烃和H2S;催化剂的酸性在加氢精制工艺中对裂化反应有促进作用,必须考虑到脱硫率和催化剂寿命的最优化选择;碱性氮化物比非碱性氮化物对HDS的抑制作用强,不同催化剂的抗氮化物毒化能力不同,氮化物对HDS的两种路径影响不同,对加氢(HYD)路径的抑制作用强于直接氢解(DDS)路径;柴油馏分超深度HDS机理及氮化物对其抑制机理的研究,可以指导高活性、抗抑制剂催化剂的开发,从而缓和工艺条件,延长催化剂寿命.

  13. HUBBLE VIEWS ANCIENT STORM IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF JUPITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph. The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself. The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color, sometimes dramatically. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 and 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The mosaic presents a series of pictures of the Red Spot obtained by Hubble between 1992 and 1999. Astronomers study weather phenomena on other planets in order to gain a greater understanding of our own Earth's climate. Lacking a solid surface, Jupiter provides us with a laboratory experiment for observing weather phenomena under very different conditions than those prevailing on Earth. This knowledge can also be applied to places in the Earth's atmosphere that are over deep oceans, making them more similar to Jupiter's deep atmosphere. The Hubble images were originally collected by Amy Simon (Cornell U.), Reta Beebe (NMSU), Heidi Hammel (Space Science Institute, MIT), and their collaborators, and have been

  14. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury

    CERN Document Server

    Dalcanton, J J; Lang, D; Lauer, T R; Kalirai, J S; Seth, A C; Dolphin, A; Rosenfield, P; Weisz, D R; Bell, E F; Bianchi, L C; Boyer, M L; Caldwell, N; Dong, H; Dorman, C E; Gilbert, K M; Girardi, L; Gogarten, S M; Gordon, K D; Guhathakurta, P; Hodge, P W; Holtzman, J A; Johnson, L; Larsen, S S; Lewis, A; Melbourne, J L; Olsen, K A G; Rix, H -W; Rosema, K; Saha, A; Sarajedini, A; Skillman, E D; Stanek, K Z

    2012-01-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) is an on-going HST Multicycle Treasury program to image ~1/3 of M31's star forming disk in 6 filters, from the UV to the NIR. The full survey will resolve the galaxy into more than 100 million stars with projected radii from 0-20 kpc over a contiguous 0.5 square degree area in 828 orbits, producing imaging in the F275W and F336W filters with WFC3/UVIS, F475W and F814W with ACS/WFC, and F110W and F160W with WFC3/IR. The resulting wavelength coverage gives excellent constraints on stellar temperature, bolometric luminosity, and extinction for most spectral types. The photometry reaches SNR=4 at F275W=25.1, F336W=24.9, F475W=27.9, F814W=27.1, F110W=25.5, and F160W=24.6 for single pointings in the uncrowded outer disk; however, the optical and NIR data are crowding limited, and the deepest reliable magnitudes are up to 5 magnitudes brighter in the inner bulge. All pointings are dithered and produce Nyquist-sampled images in F475W, F814W, and F160W. We describe the...

  15. New Explanation of Hubble's Red Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong

    2016-03-01

    The balance system between dark massenergy (with a spacetime center) and stellar massenergy (with a massenergy center) cause a flat universe. In the flat universe, the Hubble 's redshift is caused by the Lorentz transformation (Einstein transformation). This paper will discuss about the relationship among Einstein transformation, Doppler effect, and Hubble 's redshift under the balanced and flat universe model. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2014.APR.Y9.1

  16. Hubble Case Studies of Transiting Giant Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Barker, Adrian; Benneke, Björn; Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michaël; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Jehin, Emmanuel; Knutson, Heather; Lewis, Nikole K.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Mandell, Avi; McCullough, Peter R.; Wakeford, Hannah R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of planets around other stars has entered a science-rich era of characterization, in which detailed information about individual planets can be inferred from observations beyond mere detection, which only yields bulk properties like mass or radius. Characterization probes more revealing quantities such as chemical abundances, albedo, and temperature/pressure profiles, which allow us to address larger questions of planet formation mechanisms, planetary evolution, and, eventually, habitability and presence of biosignature gases. The primary method for characterization of close-in planets is transit spectroscopy. This dissertation talk will focus on transiting exoplanet case studies with the Hubble Space Telescope’ Wide-Field Camera-3 (WFC-3) as a tool of exoplanet characterization in a near-infrared band dominated by strong water features. I will first present a characterization the WFC-3 systematic effects that must be mitigated to extract the incredibly small (tens to 200 parts per million) signals, and then a study of four transiting giant planets (HATS-7b, HAT-p-3b, HD 149026b, and WASP-18b) in transmission, and two (WASP-18b and CoRoT-2b) in eclipse. Finally, I will discuss the role of transit timing monitoring of WASP-18b with HST and other observatories as another clue to its evolution as a close-in, massive planet. The five planets range from Neptune-class to Super-Jupiter-class in size/mass. Though these planets may be relatively rare, their observability represents a unique opportunity to probe planet formation and evolution, as well as atmospheric structures in a high-irradiation environment. These observations also yield insights into aerosols (i.e. clouds/hazes) in the atmosphere; clouds and/or hazes should significantly impact atmospheric chemistry and observational signatures, and we as a community must get a better handle on the phenomenon of aerosols in advance of the next generation of space observatories, including JWST and WFIRST

  17. HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Cloud, because its chemical composition is different from that of the Milky Way. All of the chemical elements, other than hydrogen and helium, have only about one-tenth the abundances seen in our own galaxy. The study of N81 thus provides an excellent template for studying the star formation that occurred long ago in very distant galaxies, before nuclear reactions inside stars had synthesized the elements heavier than helium. The Small Magellanic Cloud, named after the explorer Ferdinand Magellan, lies 200,000 light-years away, and is visible only from the Earth's southern hemisphere. N 81 is the 81st nebula cataloged in a survey of the SMC carried out in the 1950's by astronomer Karl Henize, who later became an astronomer-astronaut who flew into space aboard NASA's space shuttle. The Hubble Heritage image of N 81 is a color representation of data taken in September, 1997, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Color filters were used to sample light emitted by oxygen ([O III]) and hydrogen (H-alpha, H-beta). N 81 is the target of investigations by European astronomers Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri from the Paris Observatory in France; Michael Rosa from the Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility in Munich, Germany; Hans Zinnecker of the Astrophysical Institute in Potsdam, Germany; Lise Deharveng of Marseille Observatory, France; and Vassilis Charmadaris of Cornell University, USA (formerly at Paris Observatory). Members of this team are interested in understanding the formation of hot, massive stars, especially under conditions different from those in the Milky Way. Image Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgement: Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France) EDITOR'S

  18. HUBBLE PROVIDES COMPLETE VIEW OF JUPITER'S AURORAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured a complete view of Jupiter's northern and southern auroras. Images taken in ultraviolet light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) show both auroras, the oval- shaped objects in the inset photos. While the Hubble telescope has obtained images of Jupiter's northern and southern lights since 1990, the new STIS instrument is 10 times more sensitive than earlier cameras. This allows for short exposures, reducing the blurring of the image caused by Jupiter's rotation and providing two to five times higher resolution than earlier cameras. The resolution in these images is sufficient to show the 'curtain' of auroral light extending several hundred miles above Jupiter's limb (edge). Images of Earth's auroral curtains, taken from the space shuttle, have a similar appearance. Jupiter's auroral images are superimposed on a Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image of the entire planet. The auroras are brilliant curtains of light in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Jovian auroral storms, like Earth's, develop when electrically charged particles trapped in the magnetic field surrounding the planet spiral inward at high energies toward the north and south magnetic poles. When these particles hit the upper atmosphere, they excite atoms and molecules there, causing them to glow (the same process acting in street lights). The electrons that strike Earth's atmosphere come from the sun, and the auroral lights remain concentrated above the night sky in response to the 'solar wind,' as Earth rotates underneath. Earth's auroras exhibit storms that extend to lower latitudes in response to solar activity, which can be easily seen from the northern U. S. But Jupiter's auroras are caused by particles spewed out by volcanoes on Io, one of Jupiter's moons. These charged particles are then magnetically trapped and begin to rotate with Jupiter, producing ovals of auroral light centered on Jupiter's magnetic poles in both the day and night skies

  19. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, Bradley C; Budavari, Tamas; Casertano, Stefano; Downes, Ronald A; Donaldson, Thomas; Fall, S Michael; Lubow, Stephen H; Quick, Lee; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wallace, Geoff; White, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Source Catalog is designed to help optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by combining the tens of thousands of visit-based source lists in the Hubble Legacy Archive into a single master catalog. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog includes WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR photometric data generated using SExtractor software to produce the individual source lists. The catalog includes roughly 80 million detections of 30 million objects involving 112 different detector/filter combinations, and about 160 thousand HST exposures. Source lists from Data Release 8 of the Hubble Legacy Archive are matched using an algorithm developed by Budavari & Lubow (2012). The mean photometric accuracy for the catalog as a whole is better than 0.10 mag, with relative accuracy as good as 0.02 mag in certain circumstances (e.g., bright isolated stars). The relative astrometric residuals are typically within 10 mas, with a value for the mode (i.e., most common value) of 2.3 mas. The absolute astro...

  20. 18 years of science with the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J

    2009-01-01

    After several decades of planning, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched in 1990 as the first of NASA's Great Observatories. After a rocky start arising from an error in the fabrication of its main mirror, it went on to change forever many fields of astronomy, and to capture the public's imagination with its images. An ongoing programme of servicing missions has kept the telescope on the cutting edge of astronomical research. Here I review the advances made possible by the HST over the past 18 years.

  1. Testing the Copernican Principle with Hubble Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Tong-Jie; Ma, Cong

    2012-01-01

    By way of expressing the Hubble expansion rate for the general Lema\\^{i}tre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric as a function of cosmic time, we test the scale on which the Copernican Principle holds in the context of a void model. By performing parameter estimation on the CGBH void model, we show the Hubble parameter data favors a void with characteristic radius of $2 \\sim 3$ Gpc. This brings the void model closer, but not yet enough, to harmony with observational indications given by the background kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and the normalization of near-infrared galaxy luminosity function. However, the test of such void models may ultimately lie in the future detection of the discrepancy between longitudinal and transverse expansion rates, a touchstone of inhomogeneous models. With the proliferation of observational Hubble parameter data and future large-scale structure observation, a definitive test could be performed on the question of cosmic homogeneity.

  2. The Appliacation of The Ultra-Deep Sidetrack Horizontal Well Logging Technology in Tahe Oilfield%超深侧钻水平井测井工艺在塔河油田的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗荣; 李双林; 罗军

    2012-01-01

    系统分析塔河油田超深侧钻水平井测井作业过程的施工难点,主要包括湿接头对接成功率低、仪器温度性能难以得到有效保证、仪器组合方式受到限制、施工过程中会存在一些井下风险等因素.从井筒准备、仪器串性能检测与组合、施工过程控制、井口电缆防护等4个方面入手,形成较完善的超深侧钻水平井测井工艺和配套施工方案.超深侧钻水平井测井如果井底温度超出了常规仪器175℃/140 MPa的工作范围,应使用高温仪器进行施工;施工前应认真检测仪器的温度性能;采取高温烘箱检测法时其加温温度应提高至175℃;井口电缆防碰装置对钻具输送时测井电缆在井口的安全起到了非常有效的保护;现场多个施工单位之间的紧密配合也是安全顺利取全取准测并资料的关键因素之一.该工艺能够应用到水平井和复杂深井直井施工中.超深侧钻水平井测井工艺在塔河油田先后完成近40井次的施工任务,一次施工成功率达到90%.%There are some difficulties in logging operations in the ultra-deep sidetracked horizontal wells in Tahe oilfield, such as poor wet-connector docking, strict tool temperature-resistant performance,limited logging tool combination and unknown downhole risks while conveying the drilling strings. To solve the above problems, proposed is a new and more complete ultra-deep sidetracked horizontal well logging technique and its supporting logging program, which includes wellbore preparation, tool performance test and combination, logging process control and protection of the wellhead cable. If the downhole temperature is above 175 ℃/140 MPa, we should use higher temperature-resistant logging tool; the tool's temperature performance must be carfully tested before logging operations; if the high temperature drying over testing method is used, the tool's temperature should be warmed up to 175 ℃. The anti

  3. On Bottom-Hole Pressure Calculation of Ultra-Deep Natural Gas Wells%天然气超深井井底压力计算与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨风杰; 胡晓芬; 鲁煜

    2015-01-01

    钻井液喷空后的井底压力可以精确计算,为正确地保证井底压力大于或等于地层压力提供了科学的数据.钻井液喷空后的深井超深井的天然气井 ,关井后的静气柱压力不是很小.井内有钻井液(或修井液)井底进入天然气时 ,井底压力在合理地处理井内天然气在井内的运移(体积法放压法)与二次循环法压井循环出进入井内的天然气是相同的 ,为钻井井控现场为避免压裂套管鞋处或地层压力低的地层提供了可靠的依据.%Bottom-hole pressure without drilling fluid can be accurately calculated to provide the scientific information for ensuring a bottom-hole pressure greater than or equal to formation pressure .Shut-in static gas pressure is not very small in deep or ultra-deep natural gas wells without drilling fluid .The bottom-hole pressure is the same while volumetric pressure release method or two-cycle method is used to deal with downhole natural gas ,providing a reliable basis for avoiding fracturing on casing shoe or on the formation with low pressure .

  4. Exploring for Galaxies in the First Billion Years with Hubble and Spitzer - Pathfinding for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Garth D.

    2017-01-01

    Hubble has revolutionized the field of distant galaxies through its deep imaging surveys, starting with the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) in 1995. That first deep survey revealed galaxies at redshift z~1-3 that provided insights into the development of the Hubble sequence. Each new HST instrument has explored new regimes, through the peak of star formation at z~2-3, just 2-3 billion years after the Big Bang, to our first datasets at a billion years at z~6, and then earlier to z~11. HST's survey capabilities were enhanced by 40X with ACS, and then similarly with the WFC3/IR, which opened up the first billion years to an unforeseen degree. I will discuss what we have learned from the remarkable HST and Spitzer imaging surveys (HUDF, GOODS, HUDF09/12 and CANDELS), as well as surveys of clusters like the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF). Lensing clusters provide extraordinary opportunities for characterizing the faintest earliest galaxies, but also present extraordinary challenges. Together these surveys have resulted in the measurement of the volume density of galaxies in the first billion years down to astonishingly faint levels. The role of faint galaxies in reionizing the universe is still much-discussed, but there is no doubt that such galaxies contribute greatly to the UV ionizing flux, as shown by deep luminosity function studies. Together Hubble and Spitzer have also established the stellar-mass buildup over 97% of cosmic history. Yet some of the greatest surprises have come from the discovery of very luminous galaxies at z~8-11, around 400-650 million years after the Big Bang. Spectroscopic followup by Keck of some of these very rare, bright galaxies has confirmed redshifts from z~7 to z~9, and revealed, surprisingly, strong Lyα emission near the peak of reionization when the HI fraction in the IGM is high. The recent confirmation of a z=11.1 galaxy, just 400 million years after the Big Bang, by a combination of Hubble and Spitzer data, moved Hubble into JWST territory

  5. WSRT Ultra-Deep Neutral Hydrogen Imaging of Galaxy Clusters at z=0.2, a Pilot Survey of Abell 963 and Abell 2192

    CERN Document Server

    Verheijen, Marc A W; Szomoru, A; Dwarakanath, K S; Poggianti, B M; Schiminovich, D

    2007-01-01

    A pilot study with the powerful new backend of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) of two galaxy clusters at z=0.2 has revealed neutral hydrogen emission from 42 galaxies. The WSRT probes a total combined volume of 3.4x10^4 Mpc^3 at resolutions of 54x86 kpc^2 and 19.7 km/s, surveying both clusters and the large scale structure in which they are embedded. In Abell 963, a dynamically relaxed, lensing Butcher-Oemler cluster with a high blue fraction, most of the gas-rich galaxies are located between 1 and 3 Mpc in projection, northeast from the cluster core. Their velocities are slightly redshifted with respect to the cluster, and this is likely a background group. None of the blue galaxies in the core of Abell 963 are detected in HI, although they have similar colors and luminosities as the HI detected galaxies in the cluster outskirts and field. Abell 2192 is less massive and more diffuse. Here, the gas-rich galaxies are more uniformly distributed. The detected HI masses range from 5x10^9 to 4x10^1...

  6. The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau

  7. The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau in

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  9. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  10. Dark Energy and the Hubble Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    The Big Bang predicted by Friedmann could not be empirically discovered in the 1920th, since global cosmological distances (more than 300-1000 Mpc) were not available for observations at that time. Lemaitre and Hubble studied receding motions of galaxies at local distances of less than 20-30 Mpc and found that the motions followed the (nearly) linear velocity-distance relation, known now as Hubble's law. For decades, the real nature of this phenomenon has remained a mystery, in Sandage's words. After the discovery of dark energy, it was suggested that the dynamics of local expansion flows is dominated by omnipresent dark energy, and it is the dark energy antigravity that is able to introduce the linear velocity-distance relation to the flows. It implies that Hubble's law observed at local distances was in fact the first observational manifestation of dark energy. If this is the case, the commonly accepted criteria of scientific discovery lead to the conclusion: In 1927, Lemaitre discovered dark energy and Hubble confirmed this in 1929.

  11. Local gravitational physics of the Hubble expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We study physical consequences of the Hubble expansion of FLRW manifold on measurement of space, time and light propagation in the local inertial frame. We analyse the solar system radar ranging and Doppler tracking experiments, and time synchronization. FLRW manifold is covered by global coordinates (t,y^i), where t is the cosmic time coinciding with the proper time of the Hubble observers. We introduce local inertial coordinates x^a=(x^0,x^i) in the vicinity of a world line of a Hubble observer with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and is materialized by the congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers being at rest with respect to the local spatial coordinates x^i. We consider geodesic motion of test particles and notice that the local coordinate time x^0=x^0(t) taken as a parameter along the world line of particle, is a function of the Hubble's observer time t. This function changes smoothly from x^0=t for a particle at rest (observer's c...

  12. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). X. Sub-kiloparsec Resolution Gas-phase Metallicity Maps at Cosmic Noon behind the Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster MACS1149.6+2223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Jones, Tucker A.; Treu, Tommaso; Morishita, Takahiro; Abramson, Louis E.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Malkan, Matthew A.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Fontana, Adriano; Grillo, Claudio; Henry, Alaina L.; Karman, Wouter; Kelly, Patrick L.; Mason, Charlotte A.; Mercurio, Amata; Rosati, Piero; Sharon, Keren; Trenti, Michele; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2017-03-01

    We combine deep Hubble Space Telescope grism spectroscopy with a new Bayesian method to derive maps of gas-phase metallicity for 10 star-forming galaxies at high redshift (1.2≲ z≲ 2.3). Exploiting lensing magnification by the foreground cluster MACS1149.6+2223, we reach sub-kiloparsec spatial resolution and push the limit of stellar mass associated with such high-z spatially resolved measurements below {10}8 {M}ȯ for the first time. Our maps exhibit diverse morphologies, indicative of various effects such as efficient radial mixing from tidal torques, rapid accretion of low-metallicity gas, and other physical processes that can affect the gas and metallicity distributions in individual galaxies. Based upon an exhaustive sample of all existing sub-kiloparesec resolution metallicity gradient measurements at high z, we find that predictions given by analytical chemical evolution models assuming a relatively extended star-formation profile in the early disk-formation phase can explain the majority of observed metallicity gradients, without involving galactic feedback or radial outflows. We observe a tentative correlation between stellar mass and metallicity gradients, consistent with the “downsizing” galaxy formation picture that more massive galaxies are more evolved into a later phase of disk growth, where they experience more coherent mass assembly at all radii and thus show shallower metallicity gradients. In addition to the spatially resolved analysis, we compile a sample of homogeneously cross-calibrated integrated metallicity measurements spanning three orders of magnitude in stellar mass at z ∼ 1.8. We use this sample to study the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) and find that the slope of the observed MZR can rule out the momentum-driven wind model at a 3σ confidence level.

  13. A consistent scalar-tensor cosmology for inflation, dark energy and the Hubble parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. H.-T.; Reid, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Rodrigues, D.; Al Alawi, M.; Bingham, R.; Mendonça, J. T.; Davies, T. B.

    2016-11-01

    A Friedman cosmology is investigated based on scalar-tensor gravitation with general metric coupling and scalar potential functions. We show that for a broad class of such functions, the scalar field can be dynamically trapped using a recently suggested mechanism. The trapped scalar can drive inflation and accelerated cosmic expansion, compatible with standard requirements. The inflationary phase admits a natural exit with a value of the Hubble parameter dictated by the duration of inflation in a parameter independent manner. For inflationary duration consistent with the GUT description, the resulting Hubble parameter is found to be consistent with its observed value.

  14. Hubble Views Ancient Storm in the Atmosphere of Jupiter - Montage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph.The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself.The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color, sometimes dramatically. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 & 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The mosaic presents a series of pictures of the Red Spot obtained by Hubble between 1992 and 1999 (see PIA01594 thru PIA01599 and PIA02400 thru PIA02402 for individual images).Astronomers study weather phenomena on other planets in order to gain a greater understanding of our own Earth's climate. Lacking a solid surface, Jupiter provides us with a laboratory experiment for observing weather phenomena under very different conditions than those prevailing on Earth. This knowledge can also be applied to places in the Earth's atmosphere that are over deep oceans, making them more similar to Jupiter's deep atmosphere.

  15. SPRINGTIME ON MARS: HUBBLE'S BEST VIEW OF THE RED PLANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope view of the planet Mars is the clearest picture ever taken from Earth, surpassed only by close-up shots sent back by visiting space probes. The picture was taken on February 25, 1995, when Mars was at a distance of approximately 65 million miles (103 million km) from Earth. Because it is spring in Mars' northern hemisphere, much of the carbon dioxide frost around the permanent water-ice cap has sublimated, and the cap has receded to a core of solid water-ice several hundred miles across. Towering 16 miles (25 km) above the surrounding plains, volcano Ascraeus Mons pokes above the cloud deck near the western or limb. This extinct volcano, measuring 250 miles (402 km) across, was discovered in the early 1970s by Mariner 9 spacecraft. Other key geologic features include (lower left) the Valles Marineris, an immense rift valley the length of the continental United States. Near the center of the disk lies the Chryse basin made up of cratered and chaotic terrain. The oval-looking Argyre impact basin (bottom), appears white due to clouds or frost. Seasonal winds carry dust to form striking linear features reminiscent of the legendary martian 'canals.' Many of these 'wind streaks' emanate from the bowl of these craters where dark coarse sand is swept out by winds. Hubble resolves several dozen impact craters down to 30-mile diameter. The dark areas, once misinterpreted as regions of vegetation by several early Mars watchers, are really areas of coarse sand that is less reflective than the finer, lighter dust. Seasonal changes in the surface appearance occur as winds move the dust and sand around. This picture was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in PC mode. The pictures were map-projected onto a sphere for accurate registration and perspective. Credit: Philip James (University of Toledo), Steven Lee (University of Colorado), NASA

  16. Ultra deep blue : the ultimate chess player

    OpenAIRE

    Devesa Gómez, Jaume

    2008-01-01

    Projecte d'adaptació del programa GNU Chess al sistema de grid computing 'Condor'. I amb això, es planteja un estudi sobre els algorismes de cerca i la seva aplicació en entorns distribuïts. Una sèrie de proves sobre unes mostres de una partida d'escacs contra el propi GNU Chess ens ajuden a posar de relleu els avantatges i inconvenients de cada un dels algorismes proposats. Proyecto de adapación del programa GNU Chess al sistema de grid computing 'Condor'. Y con eso, se plantea un estudio...

  17. Stellar disk truncations at high z : Probing inside-out galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo, [No Value; Pohlen, M

    2005-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic search for stellar disk truncations in disklike galaxies at intermediate redshift (z <1.1) using the Hubble Ultra Deep Field data. We use the position of the truncation as a direct estimator of the size of the stellar disk. After accounting for the surface brightness e

  18. Comparison of 454 Ultra-Deep Sequencing and Allele-Specific Real-Time PCR with Regard to the Detection of Emerging Drug-Resistant Minor HIV-1 Variants after Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Vertical Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hauser

    Full Text Available Pregnant HIV-infected women were screened for the development of HIV-1 drug resistance after implementation of a triple-antiretroviral transmission prophylaxis as recommended by the WHO in 2006. The study offered the opportunity to compare amplicon-based 454 ultra-deep sequencing (UDS and allele-specific real-time PCR (ASPCR for the detection of drug-resistant minor variants in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT.Plasma samples from 34 Tanzanian women were previously analysed by ASPCR for key resistance mutations in the viral RT selected by AZT, 3TC, and NVP (K70R, K103N, Y181C, M184V, T215Y/F. In this study, the RT region of the same samples was investigated by amplicon-based UDS for resistance mutations using the 454 GS FLX System.Drug-resistant HIV-variants were identified in 69% (20/29 of women by UDS and in 45% (13/29 by ASPCR. The absolute number of resistance mutations identified by UDS was twice that identified by ASPCR (45 vs 24. By UDS 14 of 24 ASPCR-detected resistance mutations were identified at the same position. The overall concordance between UDS and ASPCR was 61.0% (25/41. The proportions of variants quantified by UDS were approximately 2-3 times lower than by ASPCR. Amplicon generation from samples with viral loads below 20,000 copies/ml failed more frequently by UDS compared to ASPCR (limit of detection = 650 copies/ml, resulting in missing or insufficient sequence coverage.Both methods can provide useful information about drug-resistant minor HIV-1 variants. ASPCR has a higher sensitivity than UDS, but is restricted to single resistance mutations. In contrast, UDS is limited by its requirement for high viral loads to achieve sufficient sequence coverage, but the sequence information reveals the complete resistance patterns within the genomic region analysed. Improvements to the UDS limit of detection are in progress, and UDS could then facilitate monitoring of drug-resistant minor variants in the HIV-1 quasispecies.

  19. Delivering Hubble Discoveries to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Villard, R.; Weaver, D.; Cordes, K.; Knisely, L.

    2013-04-01

    Today's classrooms are significantly influenced by current news events, delivered instantly into the classroom via the Internet. Educators are challenged daily to transform these events into student learning opportunities. In the case of space science, current news events may be the only chance for educators and students to explore the marvels of the Universe. Inspired by these circumstances, the education and news teams developed the Star Witness News science content reading series. These online news stories (also available in downloadable PDF format) mirror the content of Hubble press releases and are designed for upper elementary and middle school level readers to enjoy. Educators can use Star Witness News stories to reinforce students' reading skills while exposing students to the latest Hubble discoveries.

  20. Hubble parameter data constraints on dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yun, E-mail: chenyun@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Ratra, Bharat, E-mail: ratra@phys.ksu.edu [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2011-09-20

    We use Hubble parameter versus redshift data from Stern et al. (2010) and Gaztanaga et al. (2009) to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmological models. These constraints are consistent with (through not as restrictive as) those derived from supernova Type Ia magnitude-redshift data. However, they are more restrictive than those derived from galaxy cluster angular diameter distance, and comparable with those from gamma-ray burst and lookback time data. A joint analysis of the Hubble parameter data with more restrictive baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale and supernova Type Ia apparent magnitude data favors a spatially-flat cosmological model currently dominated by a time-independent cosmological constant but does not exclude time-varying dark energy.

  1. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  2. The HST Frontier Fields: Complete High-Level Science Data Products for All 6 Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Borncamp, David; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Martlin, Catherine; Porterfield, Blair; Sunnquist, Ben; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Grogin, Norman A.; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Ogaz, Sara; Robberto, Massimo; Sembach, Kenneth; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt; HST Frontier Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program (PI: J. Lotz) is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The entire program has now completed successfully for all 6 clusters, namely Abell 2744, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223,. Each of these was observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, obtaining images in ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W) on both the main cluster and the parallel field in all cases. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including cumulative-depth data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth releases after the completion of each epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected drizzled mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The full set of resulting high-level science products and mosaics are publicly delivered to the community via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  3. Cosmic Supernova Rates and the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F

    2006-01-01

    We compute the type Ia, Ib/c and II supernova (SN) rates as functions of the cosmic time for galaxies of different morphological types. We use four different chemical evolution models, each one reproducing the features of a particular morphological type: E/S0, S0a/b, Sbc/d and Irr galaxies. We essentially describe the Hubble sequence by means of decreasing efficiency of star formation and increasing infall timescale. These models are used to study the evolution of the SN rates per unit luminosity and per unit mass as functions of cosmic time and as functions of the Hubble type. Our results indicate that: (i) the observed increase of the SN rate per unit luminosity and unit mass from early to late galaxy types is accounted for by our models. Our explanation of this effect is related to the fact that the latest Hubble types have the highest star formation rate per unit mass; (ii) By adopting a Scalo (1986) initial mass function in spiral disks, we find that massive single stars ending their lives as Wolf-Rayet ...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). III. (Sabbi+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, E.; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Zaritsky, D.; de Marchi, G.; Panagia, N.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Smith, L. J.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Evans, C. J.; Arab, H.; Boyer, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Ryon, J. E.; Zeidler, P.

    2016-02-01

    Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP; HST 12939, PI Elena Sabbi + HST 12499, PI Danny Lennon) was awarded 60 orbits of HST time in cycle 20 to survey the entire Tarantula Nebula (30 Doradus), using both the UVIS and the IR channels of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), and, in parallel, the Wide Field Channel (WFC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). See log of the observations (from 2011 Oct 03 to 2013 Sep 17) in table 1. (2 data files).

  5. Observing supernova 1987A with the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert P; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter M; Larsson, Josefin; Lawrence, Stephen S; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun S J; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John T; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J Craig

    2010-09-24

    Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 with the use of the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Lyα and Hα lines from shock emission continue to brighten, whereas their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad, blueshifted Lyα, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hot spots on the equatorial ring. We also detect N v λλ1239, 1243 angstrom line emission, but only to the red of Lyα. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of Hα, suggesting that the N4+ ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.

  6. Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter; Larsson, Josefin; Lawrence, Stephen; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 using the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Ly-a and H-a lines from shock emission continue to brighten, while their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad blueshifted Ly-a, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hotspots on the equatorial ring. We also detect NV~\\lambda\\lambda 1239,1243 A line emission, but only to the red of Ly-A. The profiles of the NV lines differ markedly from that of H-a, suggesting that the N^{4+} ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.

  7. The type Ia supernovae and the Hubble's constant

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Hubble's constant is usually surmised to be a constant; but the experiments show a large spread and conflicting estimates. According to the plasma-redshift theory, the Hubble's constant varies with the plasma densities along the line of sight. It varies then slightly with the direction and the distance to a supernova and a galaxy. The relation between the magnitudes of type Ia supernovae and their observed redshifts results in an Hubble's constant with an average value in intergalactic sp...

  8. Hubble Deep Fever A faint galaxy diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, S P

    1998-01-01

    The longstanding faint blue galaxy problem is gradually subsiding as a result of technological advancement, most notably from high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging. In particular two categorical facts have recently been established, these are: 1) The excess faint blue galaxies are of irregular morphologies, and, 2) the majority of these irregulars occur at redshifts 1 2. Taking these facts together we favour a scenario where the faint blue excess is primarily due to the formation epoch of spiral systems via merging at redshifts 1 < z < 2. The final interpretation now awaits refinements in our understanding of the local galaxy population !

  9. Hubble Parameter Corrected Interactions in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sadeghi

    2014-01-01

    character opening a room for different kinds of manipulations. In this paper we will consider a modification of an interaction Q, where we accept that interaction parameter b1 (order of unity in Q=3Hb1ρ is time dependent and presented as a linear function of Hubble parameter H of the form b0+btH, where b and b0 are constants. We consider two different models including modified Chaplygin gas and polytropic gas which have bulk viscosity. Then, we investigate problem numerically and analyze behavior of different cosmological parameters concerning fluids and behavior of the universe.

  10. HUBBLE PROBES THE VIOLENT BIRTH OF STARS IN GALAXY NGC 253 [Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An image of the spiral galaxy NGC 253, taken with a ground-based telescope. The galaxy is located about 8 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. Credit: Jay Gallagher (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Alan Watson (Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ), and NASA [Right] This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the core of the nearest starburst spiral galaxy, NGC 253, reveals violent star formation within a region 1,000 light-years across. A starburst galaxy has an exceptionally high rate of star birth, first identified by its excess of infrared radiation from warm dust. Hubble's high resolution allows astronomers to quantify complex structures in the starburst core of the galaxy for the first time, including luminous star clusters, dust lanes which trace regions of dense gas and filaments of glowing gas. Hubble identifies several regions of intense star formation, which include a bright, super-compact star cluster. These observations confirm that stars are often born in dense clusters within starbursts, and that dense gas coexists with and obscures the starburst core. This image was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (in PC mode). Credit: Carnegie Institution of Washington

  11. Globular Cluster Systems along the Hubble Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Edwin

    1996-07-01

    Globular Cluster Systems {GCSs} provide a powerful tool to differentiate between competing galaxy formation- and evolution scenarios. However, our current knowledge of GCS in spiral galaxies is based mainly on studies of the Galaxy and M31. Even though GCSs have been detected in other spiral galaxies, ground-based observations barely reach the peak of the Globular-Cluster luminosity function, and do not provide accurate colors. We propose a systematic study of the GCSs in 6 edge-on L* spiral galaxies beyond the Local Group, using WFPC2. These galaxies were carefully selected to meet several stringent criteria. With the new dithering techniques, it will be possible to resolve any faint background galaxies and obtain a clean sample of globular clusters for all galaxies in our sample. This will allow us to study the complete luminosity functions, {V-I} color distributions, and GCS richness for L* galaxies as a function of Hubble type {Sa, Sb, Sc}. These data will be used to study the relations between the galaxies' bulge and {thin/thick} disk properties and their GCSs. If, for example, GCS properties correlate with bulge properties, this will rule out any strong evolution along the Hubble Sequence towards earlier type spirals, from Sc to Sa, as has recently been proposed by Pfenniger et al. {1994}.

  12. Is Hubble's Expansion due to Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, R C

    2010-01-01

    {\\it The universe is expanding} is known (through Galaxy observations) since 1929 through Hubble's discovery ($V = H D$). Recently in 1999, it is found (through Supernovae observations) that the universe is not simply expanding but is accelerating too. We, however, hardly know only $4\\%$ of the universe. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite observational data suggest $73\\%$ content of the universe in the form of dark-energy, $23\\%$ in the form of non-baryonic dark-matter and the rest $4\\%$ in the form of the usual baryonic matter. The acceleration of the universe is ascribed to this dark-energy with bizarre properties (repulsive-gravity). The question is that whether Hubble's expansion is just due to the shock of big-bang & inflation or it is due to the repulsive-gravity of dark-energy? Now, it is believed to be due to dark-energy, say, by re-introducing the once-discarded cosmological-constant $\\Lambda$. In the present paper, it is shown that `the formula for acceleration due to dark...

  13. Cosmological test with the QSO Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Corredoira, M; Lusso, E; Risaliti, G

    2016-01-01

    A Hubble diagram (HD) has recently been constructed in the redshift range 099% C.L. The Quasi-Steady State Model is excluded at >95% C.L. The remaining four models (Lambda-CDM/wCDM, the R_h=ct Universe, the Friedmann open universe and a Static universe with a linear Hubble law) all pass the test. However, only Lambda-CDM/wCDM and $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ also pass the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test. The optimized parameters in Lambda-CDM/wCDM are Omega_m=0.20^{+0.24}_{-0.20} and w_{de}=-1.2^{+1.6}_{-infinity} (the dark-energy equation-of-state). Combined with the AP test, these values become Omega_m=0.38^{+0.20}_{-0.19} and w_{de}=-0.28^{+0.52}_{-0.40}. But whereas this optimization of parameters in Lambda-CDM/wCDM creates some tension with their concordance values, the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe has the advantage of fitting the QSO and AP data without any free parameters.

  14. Inverse Hubble Flows in Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Toalá, Jesús A; Colín, Pedro; Gómez, Gilberto C

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent numerical simulations of molecular cloud (MC)evolution, in which the clouds engage in global gravitational contraction, and local collapse events culminate significantly earlier than the global collapse, we investigate the growth of density perturbations embedded in a collapsing background, to which we refer as an Inverse Hubble Flow (IHF). We use the standard procedure for the growth of perturbations in a universe that first expands (the usual Hubble Flow) and then recollapses (the IHF). We find that linear density perturbations immersed in an IHF grow faster than perturbations evolving in a static background (the standard Jeans analysis). A fundamental distinction between the two regimes is that, in the Jeans case, the time $\\tau_\\mathrm{nl}$ for a density fluctuation to become nonlinear increases without limit as its initial value approaches zero, while in the IHF case $\\tau_\\mathrm{nl} \\le \\tau_\\mathrm{ff}$ always, where $\\tau_\\mathrm{ff}$ is the free-fall time of the background densit...

  15. HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a nearly face-on view of a swirling disk of dust and gas surrounding a developing star called AB Aurigae. The Hubble telescope image, taken in visible light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, shows unprecedented detail in the disk, including clumps of dust and gas that may be the seeds of planet formation. Normally, a young star's bright light prevents astronomers from seeing material closer to it. That's why astronomers used a coronograph in these two images of AB Aurigae to block most of the light from the star. The rest of the disk material is illuminated by light reflected from the gas and dust surrounding the star. The image on the left represents the best ground-based coronographic observation of AB Aurigae. Paul Kalas of the Space Telescope Science Institute took the image with the University of Hawaii's 2.2-meter telescope. The telescope's coronograph eclipsed a 33.5-billion-mile (53.6-billion-kilometer) area centered on the star. This area is nine times larger than our solar system. The picture shows that the star resides in a region of dust clouds - the semicircular-shaped material to the left of the star. The Hubble telescope image on the right shows a windowpane-shaped occulting bar -- the dark bands running vertically through the middle of the image and horizontally across the upper part of it. The occulting bar covers the innermost part of the disk and star, about 7.1 billion miles (11.5 billion kilometers) or 1.4 times our solar system's diameter. The diagonal lines are the remnants of the diffraction spikes produced in Hubble telescope images of bright stars. The disk is extremely wide: its diameter is roughly 1,300 times Earth's distance from the Sun. The disk material seen in this image is at a distance equivalent to well beyond Pluto's orbit. One faint background star is visible at 5 o'clock. The star's disk shows a wealth of structure, with bright spiral-shaped bands from 9 o'clock to 6 o

  16. European astronomers' successes with the Hubble Space Telescope*

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    [Figure: Laguna Nebula] Their work spans all aspects of astronomy, from the planets to the most distant galaxies and quasars, and the following examples are just a few European highlights from Hubble's second phase, 1994-96. A scarcity of midget stars Stars less massive and fainter than the Sun are much numerous in the Milky Way Galaxy than the big bright stars that catch the eye. Guido De Marchi and Francesco Paresce of the European Southern Observatory as Garching, Germany, have counted them. With the wide-field WFPC2 camera, they have taken sample censuses within six globular clusters, which are large gatherings of stars orbiting independently in the Galaxy. In every case they find that the commonest stars have an output of light that is only one-hundredth of the Sun's. They are ten times more numerous than stars like the Sun. More significant for theories of the Universe is a scarcity of very faint stars. Some astronomers have suggested that vast numbers of such stars could account for the mysterious dark matter, which makes stars and galaxies move about more rapidly than expected from the mass of visible matter. But that would require an ever-growing count of objects at low brightnesses, and De Marchi and Paresce find the opposite to be the case -- the numbers diminish. There may be a minimum size below which Nature finds starmaking difficult. The few examples of very small stars seen so far by astronomers may be, not the heralds of a multitude of dark-matter stars, but rareties. Unchanging habits in starmaking Confirmation that very small stars are scarce comes from Gerry Gilmore of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge (UK). He leads a European team that analyses long-exposure images in the WFPC2 camera, obtained as a by-product when another instrument is examining a selected object. The result is an almost random sample of well-observed stars and galaxies. The most remarkable general conclusion is that the make-up of stellar populations never seems to

  17. Zero CTE Glass in the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John

    2008-01-01

    Orbiting high above the turbulence of the Earth's atmosphere, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided breathtaking views of astronomical objects never before seen in such detail. The steady diffraction-limited images allow this medium-size telescope to reach faint galaxies fainter than 30th stellar magnitude. Some of these galaxies are seen as early as 2 billion years after the Big Bang in a 13.7 billion year old universe. Up until recently, astronomers assumed that all of the laws of physics and astronomy applied back then as they do today. Now, using the discovery that certain supernovae are "standard candles," astronomers have found that the universe is expanding faster today than it was back then: the universe is accelerating in its expansion. The Hubble Space Telescope is a two-mirror Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 2.4m aperture in low earth orbit. The mirrors are made of Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) glass by Corning Glass Works. This material allows rapid figuring and outstanding performance in space astronomy applications. The paper describes how the primary mirror was mis-figured in manufacturing and later corrected in orbit. Outstanding astronomical images taken over the last 17 years show how the application of this new technology has advanced our knowledge of the universe. Not only has the acceleration of the expansion been discovered, the excellent imaging capability of HST has allowed gravitational lensing to become a tool to study the distribution of dark matter and dark energy in distant clusters of galaxies. The HST has touched practically every field of astronomy enabling astronomers to solve many long-standing puzzles. It will be a long time until the end of the universe when the density is near zero and all of the stars have long since evaporated. It is remarkable that humankind has found the technology and developed the ability to interpret the measurements in order to understand this dramatic age we live in.

  18. Astronauts give Hubble a new lease of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Astronauts successfully repaired and upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope last month by performing five space walks each lasting more than six hours. The mission will improve Hubble's "observational power" by up to a factor of 100. The upgrade will also enable the 19-year-old instrument to carry on obtaining images of the early universe until 2014.

  19. Deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of IC 1613. II. The star formation history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skillman, ED; Tolstoy, E; Cole, AA; Dolphin, AE; Saha, A; Gallagher, JS; Dohm-Palmer, RC; Mateo, M

    2003-01-01

    We have taken deep images of an outlying field in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 with the WFPC2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the standard broadband F555W (V, 8 orbits) and F814W (I,16 orbits) filters. The photometry reaches to V=27.7 (M-V=+3.4) and I=27.1 (M-I=+2.8) at the 50

  20. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Hubble's success is the advantage of being in orbit, beyond the Earth's atmosphere. From there it enjoys a crystal-clear view of the universe - without clouds and atmospheric disturbances to blur its vision. European astronomer Guido De Marchi from ESO in Munich has been using Hubble since the early days of the project. He explains: "HST can see the faintest and smallest details and lets us study the stars with great accuracy, even where they are packed together - just as with those in the centre of our Galaxy". Dieter Reimers from Hamburg Observatory adds: "HST has capabilities to see ultraviolet light, which is not possible from the ground due to the blocking effect of the atmosphere. And this is really vital to our work, the main aim of which is to discover the chemical composition of the Universe." The Servicing Missions In the early plans for telescope operations, maintenance visits were to have been made every 2.5 years. And every five years HST should have been transported back to the ground for thorough overhaul. This plan has changed somewhat over time and a servicing scheme, which includes Space Shuttle Servicing Missions every three years, was decided upon. The two first Servicing Missions, in December 1993 (STS-61) and February 1997 (STS-82) respectively, were very successful. In the first three years of operations HST did not meet expectations because its primary mirror was 2 microns too flat at the edge. The first Servicing Mission in 1993 (on which the European astronaut Claude Nicollier flew) dealt with this problem by installing a new instrument with corrective optics (COSTAR - Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement). With this pair of "glasses" HST's golden age began. The images were as sharp as originally hoped and astonishing new results started to emerge on a regular basis. The first Servicing Mission also replaced the solar panels and installed a new camera (Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 - WFPC2). The High-Speed Photometer (HSP) was

  1. Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls.

  2. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  3. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  4. The Gamma Ray Bursts Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Dainotti, M G; De Laurentis, M; Izzo, L; Perillo, M

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to their enormous energy release, Gamma Rays Bursts (GRBs) have recently attracted a lot of interest to probe the Hubble diagram (HD) deep into the matter dominated era and hence complement Type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa). We consider here three different calibration methods based on the use of a fiducial LCDM model, on cosmographic parameters and on the local regression on SNeIa to calibrate the scaling relations proposed as an equivalent to the Phillips law to standardize GRBs finding any significant dependence. We then investigate the evolution of these parameters with the redshift to obtain any statistical improvement. Under this assumption, we then consider possible systematics effects on the HDs introduced by the calibration method, the averaging procedure and the homogeneity of the sample arguing against any significant bias.

  5. Disk heating agents across the Hubble sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Gerssen, J

    2012-01-01

    We measure the shape of the velocity ellipsoid in two late-type spiral galaxies (Hubble types Sc and Scd) and combine these results with our previous analyses of six early-type spirals (Sa to Sbc) to probe the relation between galaxy morphology and the ratio of the vertical and radial dispersions. We confirm at much higher significance (99.9 percent) our prior detection of a tight correlation between these quantities. We explore the trends of the magnitude and shape of the velocity ellipsoid axes with galaxy properties (colour, gas surface mass density, and spiral arm structure). The observed relationships allow for an observational identification of the radial and vertical disk heating agents in external disk galaxies.

  6. Bianchi I meets the Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Schucker, Thomas; Valent, Galliano

    2014-01-01

    We improve existing fits of the Bianchi I metric to the Hubble diagram of supernovae and find an intriguing yet non-significant signal for anisotropy that should be verified or falsified in the near future by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Since the literature contains two different formulas for the apparent luminosity as a function of time of flight in Bianchi I metrics, we present an independent derivation confirming the result by Saunders (1969). The present fit differs from earlier ones by Koivisto & Mota and by Campanelli et al. in that we use Saunders' formula, a larger sample of supernovae, Union 2 and JLA, and we use the general Bianchi I metric with three distinct eigenvalues.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope: A cosmic time machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, J. A.; Harms, R. J.; Brandt, J. C.; Bless, R. C.; Macchetto, F. D.; Jefferys, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is to explore the expanding and evolving universe. During the 3,000 operating hours every year for the next 15 years or more, the HST will be used to study: galaxies; pulsars; globular clusters; neighboring stars where planets may be forming; binary star systems; condensing gas clouds and their chemical composition; and the rings of Saturn and the swirling ultraviolet clouds of Venus. The major technical achievements - its nearly perfect mirrors, its precise guidance system of rate gyroscopes, reaction wheels, star trackers, and fine guidance sensors are briefly discussed. The scientific instruments on board HST are briefly described. The integration of the equipment and instruments is outlined. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has approved time for 162 observations from among 556 proposals. The mission operation and data flow are explained.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Battery Capacity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Orbital battery performance for the Hubble Space Telescope is discussed and battery life is predicted which supports decision to replace orbital batteries by 2009-2010 timeframe. Ground characterization testing of cells from the replacement battery build is discussed, with comparison of data from battery capacity characterization with cell studies of Cycle Life and 60% Stress Test at the Naval Weapons Surface Center (NWSC)-Crane, and cell Cycle Life testing at the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC). The contents of this presentation includes an update to the performance of the on-orbit batteries, as well as a discussion of the HST Service Mission 4 (SM4) batteries manufactured in 1996 and activated in 2000, and a second set of SM4 backup replacement batteries which began manufacture Jan 11, 2007, with delivery scheduled for July 2008.

  9. Hubble gets revitalised in new Servicing Mission for more and better science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    European astronomers look forward to use the new camera and perform new science building on the great breakthroughs they have already achieved." ACS is going to replace the Faint Object Camera, or FOC, built by ESA. The FOC, which has functioned perfectly since the beginning, has been a key instrument to get the best out of the unprecedented imaging capability of Hubble. The FOC was a "state-of-the art" instrument in the 80s, but the field of digital imaging has progressed so much in the past 20 years that, having fulfilled its scientific goals, this ESA flagship on Hubble is chivalrously giving way to newer technology. However, the story of FOC is not over yet: experts will still learn from it, as it will be brought back to Earth and inspected, to study the effects on the hardware of the long duration exposure in space. Hubble is expected to continue to explore the sky during the next decade, after which its work will be taken over by its successor, the powerful ESA/NASA/CSA(*) Next Generation Space Telescope. NGST's main focus will be observations of the faint infrared light from the first stars and galaxies in the Universe. Notes for editors The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international co-operation between ESA and NASA. It was launched in 1990. The partnership agreement between ESA and NASA was signed on 7 October 1977; as a result of this agreement European astronomers have guaranteed access to more than 20% of Hubble's observing time. Astronauts have already paid visits to Hubble in 1993, '97, '99 and now, in the spring of 2002, it is time for the fourth Servicing Mission (named Servicing Mission 3B), planned for launch on 28th February. Originally planned as one mission, the third Servicing Mission was split into two parts (Servicing Mission 3A and 3B) because of the sheer number of tasks to be carried out and the urgency with which Hubble's gyroscopes had to be replaced in late '99. In addition to the new solar panels and the ACS camera, astronauts will

  10. Hubble tracks down a galaxy cluster's dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Unique mass map hi-res Size hi-res: 495 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Unique mass map This is a mass map of galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 derived from an extensive Hubble Space Telescope campaign. The colour image is made from two images: a dark-matter map (the blue part of the image) and a 'luminous-matter' map determined from the galaxies in the cluster (the red part of the image). They were constructed by feeding Hubble and ground-based observations into advanced mathematical mass-mapping models. The map shows that dark matter is present where the galaxies clump together. The mass of the galaxies is shown in red, the mass of the dark matter in blue. The dark matter behaves like a 'glue', holding the cluster together. The dark-matter distribution in the cluster is not spherical. A secondary concentration of dark-matter mass is shown in blue to the upper right of the main concentration. Sky around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 hi-res Size hi-res: 3742 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Sky around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654 This is a 2.5-degree field around galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654. The cluster galaxies are visible in the centre of the image in yellow. The image is a colour composite constructed from three Digitized Sky Survey 2 images: Blue (shown in blue), Red (shown in green), and Infrared (shown in red). HST observes shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies hi-res Size hi-res: 5593 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, France/Caltech, USA) Hubble observes shapes of more than 7000 faint background galaxies Five days of observations produced the altogether 39 Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images required to map the mass of the galaxy cluster Cl0024+1654. Each WFPC2 image has a size of about 1/150 the diameter of the full Moon. In

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope: UV, Visible, and Near-Infrared Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope continues to push the limits on world-class astrophysics. Cameras including the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the new panchromatic Wide Field Camera 3 which was installed nu last year's successful servicing mission S2N4,o{fer imaging from near-infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. Spectroscopic studies of sources from black holes to exoplanet atmospheres are making great advances through the versatile use of STIS, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, also installed last year, is the most sensitive UV spectrograph to fly io space and is uniquely suited to address particular scientific questions on galaxy halos, the intergalactic medium, and the cosmic web. With these outstanding capabilities on HST come complex needs for laboratory astrophysics support including atomic and line identification data. I will provide an overview of Hubble's current capabilities and the scientific programs and goals that particularly benefit from the studies of laboratory astrophysics.

  12. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; Harrison, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor interferometric astrometry has produced precise and accurate parallaxes of astrophysical interesting stars and mass estimates for stellar companions. We review parallax results, and binary star and exoplanet mass determinations, and compare a subset of these parallaxes with preliminary {Gaia} results. The approach to single-field relative astrometry described herein may continue to have value for targets fainter than the {Gaia} limit in the coming era of 20-30 m telescopes. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  13. Evolution of the distance scale factor and the Hubble parameter in the light of Plancks results

    CERN Document Server

    Crevecoeur, Guibert U

    2016-01-01

    As the 2015 results of Plancks mission have recently been made available, it is interesting to check the evolution of the scale factor and of the Hubble parameter in the light of these results. Two models in line with Einsteins field equations and with the hot big bang scenario for a flat Universe are used to allow a comparison : (1) the classical one using density parameters for matter content (baryonic and dark matter) and dark energy ; (2) an alternative model, already used in the past, and assuming the Hubble parameter to contain a term constant in time. Both models are coherent with each other except for some discrepancy about the density, which can be ascribed to the different hypotheses made. This opens a way for further interpretation of the origin of dark matter and dark energy.

  14. A consistent scalar-tensor cosmology for inflation, dark energy and the Hubble parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C H -T; Murphy, A St J; Bingham, R; Mendonca, J T; Davies, T B

    2013-01-01

    A generic homogenous and isotropic cosmology is investigated based on the scalar-tensor theory of gravitation involving general metric coupling and scalar potential functions. We show that for a broad class of such functions, the scalar gravitational field can be dynamically trapped using a recently suggested mechanism. The corresponding scalar potential can drive inflation, accelerating expansion in the early and late universe respectively, with features consistent with standard requirements. Remarkably, the inflationary phase admits a natural exit with a well-defined value of the Hubble parameter dictated by the duration of inflation in a parameter independent manner, regardless of the detailed forms of the metric coupling and scalar potential. For an inflation duration consistent with the GUT description of the early universe, the resulting Hubble parameter is found to be consistent with its observed value.

  15. Multicolor observations of the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Saracco, P; Arnouts, S; Bianchi, S; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Grazian, A

    2001-01-01

    We present a deep multicolor (UBVIJsHKs) catalog of galaxies in the HDF-S, based on observations obtained with the HST WFPC2 in 1998 and VLT-ISAAC in 1999. The photometric procedures were tuned to derive a catalog optimized for the estimation of photometric redshifts. In particular we adopted a ``conservative'' detection threshold which resulted in a list of 1611 objects. The behavior of the observed source counts is in general agreement with the result of Casertano et al. (2000) in the HDF-S and Williams et al. (1996) in the HDF-N, while the corresponding counts in the HDF-N provided by Fernandez-Soto et al. (1999) are systematically lower by a factor 1.5 beyond I_AB=26. After correcting for the incompleteness of the source counts, the object surface density at I_AB2.7) were selected down to K_AB=24, plus 3 objects whose upper limit to the Ks flux is still compatible with the selection criterion. The corresponding surface density of EROs is (2.5+-0.8) per sq.arcmin ((3.2+-0.9) per sq.arcmin if we include the...

  16. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  17. The Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project III. Teh discovery of Cephids and a New Distance to M101 Using the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelson, Daniel D.; Madore, Barry

    1994-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 29 cephid variables in the galaxy M101 after using the original Wide Field Camera (WFC 1) and the new Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC 2) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), to observe a field in M101 at 14 independent epochs in F555W.

  18. A Unique test for Hubble's new Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    In mid-October, a team from the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA will perform a difficult, never-before-done test on one of the Hubble Space Telescope's new solar array panels. Two of these panels, or arrays, will be installed by astronauts in November 2001, when the Space Shuttle Columbia visits Hubble on a routine service mission. The test will ensure that the new arrays are solid and vibration free before they are installed on orbit. The test will be conducted at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Because of the array's size, the facility's special features, and ESA's longstanding experience with Hubble's solar arrays, ESTEC is the only place in the world the test can be performed. This test is the latest chapter in a longstanding partnership between ESA and NASA on the Hubble Space Telescope. The Large Space Simulator at ESTEC, ESA's world-class test facility, features a huge vacuum chamber containing a bank of extremely bright lights that simulate the Sun's intensity - including sunrise and sunset. By exposing the solar wing to the light and temperature extremes of Hubble's orbit, engineers can verify how the new set of arrays will act in space. Hubble orbits the Earth once every 90 minutes. During each orbit, the telescope experiences 45 minutes of searing sunlight and 45 minutes of frigid darkness. This test will detect any tiny vibrations, or jitters, caused by these dramatic, repeated changes. Even a small amount of jitter can affect Hubble's sensitive instruments and interfere with observations. Hubble's first set of solar arrays experienced mild jitter and was replaced in 1993 with a much more stable pair. Since that time, advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of even more efficient arrays. In 2001, NASA will take advantage of these improvements, by fitting Hubble with a third-generation set of arrays. Though smaller, this new set generates more power than the previous

  19. The HST Frontier Fields: High-Level Science Data Products for the First 4 Completed Clusters, and Latest Data on the Remaining Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Borncamp, David; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Porterfield, Blair; Grogin, Norman A.; Robberto, Massimo; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt; HST Frontier Fields Team

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The first four of these clusters are now complete, namely Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223, with each of these having been observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, using ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W). The remaining two clusters, Abell 370 and Abell S1063, are currently in progress. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including a total of 24 separate cumulative-depth data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth version 1.0 releases at the end of each completed epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The resulting high-level science products are delivered via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to the community on a rapid timescale to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  20. The HST Frontier Fields: High-Level Science Data Products for the First 4 Completed Clusters, and for the Last 2 Clusters Currently in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Borncamp, David; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Porterfield, Blair; Sunnquist, Ben; Grogin, Norman A.; Robberto, Massimo; Sembach, Kenneth; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt; HST Frontier Fields Team

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program (PI: J. Lotz) is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The first four of these clusters are now complete, namely Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223, with each of these having been observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, using ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W). The remaining two clusters, Abell 370 and Abell S1063, are currently in progress, with the first epoch for each having been completed. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including cumulative-depth v0.5 data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth version 1.0 releases after the completion of each epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The full set of resulting high-level science products are publicly delivered to the community via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the

  1. Weary Astronauts Return From Hubble Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Broward; Liston; 姜其宝

    2002-01-01

    在完成了对“哈勃”太空望远镜大修后,“带病”工作的美国“哥伦比亚”号航天飞机3月12日安全返回肯尼迪航天中心。在“哥伦比亚”号为期11天的飞行期间,宇航员为“哈勃”更换了电池板、电力控制装置等,并给望远镜装上功能更强的照相机。他们还创造了航天飞机一次飞行中,宇航员太空行走总时间最长的新记录。本文有两句写得颇有诗意: As Columbia’s wheels touched down on the three - mile landing strip(飞机的起落跑道) at Florida’s Kennedy Space Center, Hubble was flying more than 350miles above the Pacific Ocean, its systems performing well, NASA said。 译文:当“哥伦比亚”号航天飞机的轮子接触在佛罗里达州的肯尼迪航天中心3英里长的起落跑道时,哈勃望远镜正在太平洋上空350英里处飞行,它的系统工作正常。美国国家航空和宇宙航行局如是说。 注:上句所以如此具有文采,是因为使用了“对照”(contrast)的修辞手法。特别是其中两个数字的运用,真可咀嚼! 另一处是: Hubble has really opened our eyes to what the universe is made of , its struc-ture, and has helped us learn how little we know about the universe。 佳句!又使用了“对照”(contrast)的修辞手法!且更具哲理,发?

  2. HUBBLE WATCHES THE RED PLANET AS MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR BEGINS AEROBRAKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    his NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture of Mars was taken on Sept. 12, one day after the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft and only five hours before the beginning of autumn in the Martian northern hemisphere. (Mars is tilted on its axis like Earth, so it has similar seasonal changes, including an autumnal equinox when the Sun crosses Mars' equator from the northern to the southern hemisphere). This Hubble picture was taken in support of the MGS mission. Hubble is monitoring the Martian weather conditions during the early phases of MGS aerobraking; in particular, the detection of large dust storms are important inputs into the atmospheric models used by the MGS mission to plan aerobraking operations. Though a dusty haze fills the giant Hellas impact basin south of the dark fin-shaped feature Syrtis Major, the dust appears to be localized within Hellas. Unless the region covered expands significantly, the dust will not be of concern for MGS aerobraking. Other early signs of seasonal transitions on Mars are apparent in the Hubble picture. The northern polar ice cap is blanketed under a polar hood of clouds that typically start forming in late northern summer. As fall progresses, sunlight will dwindle in the north polar region and the seasonal polar cap of frozen carbon dioxide will start condensing onto the surface under these clouds. Hubble observations will continue until October 13, as MGS carefully uses the drag of the Martian atmosphere to circularize its orbit about the Red Planet. After mid-October, Mars will be too close to the Sun, in angular separation, for Hubble to safely view. The image is a composite of three separately filtered colored images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Resolution is 35 miles (57 kilometers) per pixel (picture element). The Pathfinder landing site near Ares Valles is about 2200 miles (3600 kilometers) west of the center of this image, so was not visible during this observation. Mars was 158

  3. The Hubble Relation for a Comprehensive Sample of QSOs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Basu

    2003-03-01

    A correlation between redshifts () and apparent magnitudes () (Hubble relation) of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSOs) has long been sought. Such a correlation exists for galaxies whose redshifts are of cosmological origin. However, a plot of the two quantities representing the Hubble diagram for QSOs exhibits, in general, a wild scatter. This raises the question whether redshifts of QSOs are cosmological. On the other hand, most luminous QSOs in groups, and subsamples with particular properties, have been reported to show the Hubble relation. In the present paper, we analyse all optically non-variable QSOs in a comprehensive sample. In our analysis we grouped the objects into certain intervals of apparent magnitudes. Correlations obtained between redshifts and magnitudes are all statistically robust. Also, the Hubble relation in the usual form = 5 log +C is obeyed very convincingly for QSOs with < 19.5.

  4. How Long Can the Hubble Space Telescope Operate Reliably?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Jordan, T.; Poivey, C.; Lum, G.; Haskins, D. N.; Pergosky, A. M.; Smith, D. C.; LaBel, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Total ionizing dose exposure of electronic parts in the Hubble Space Telescope is analyzed using 3-D ray trace and Monte Carlo simulations. Results are discussed along with other potential failure mechanisms for science operations.

  5. Carnegie Hubble Program: A Mid-Infrared Calibration of the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Burns, Chris; Monson, Andy; Persson, S. Eric; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Using a mid-infrared calibration of the Cepheid distance scale based on recent observations at 3.6 micrometers with the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have obtained a new, high-accuracy calibration of the Hubble constant. We have established the mid-IR zero point of the Leavitt law (the Cepheid period-luminosity relation) using time-averaged 3.6 micrometers data for 10 high-metallicity, MilkyWay Cepheids having independently measured trigonometric parallaxes. We have adopted the slope of the PL relation using time-averaged 3.6micrometers data for 80 long-period Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids falling in the period range 0.8 Hubble Space Telescope Key Project has decreased by over a factor of three. Applying the Spitzer calibration to the Key Project sample, we find a value of H(sub 0) = 74.3 with a systematic uncertainty of +/-2.1 (systematic) kilometers per second Mpc(sup -1), corresponding to a 2.8% systematic uncertainty in the Hubble constant. This result, in combination with WMAP7measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and assuming a flat universe, yields a value of the equation of state for dark energy, w(sub 0) = -1.09 +/- 0.10. Alternatively, relaxing the constraints on flatness and the numbers of relativistic species, and combining our results with those of WMAP7, Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations yield w(sub 0) = -1.08 +/- 0.10 and a value of N(sub eff) = 4.13 +/- 0.67, mildly consistent with the existence of a fourth neutrino species.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident, NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. The HST SM4 was subsequently reinstated and flown as Space Transportation System (STS)-125 because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damaged thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a viable crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of STS-125, the viability of the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For STS-125, there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue due to limited consumables (power, oxygen, etc.) available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depended upon several factors, including when a problem was identified; when and what actions, such as powering down, were begun to conserve consumables; and where the Launch on Need (LON) vehicle was in its ground processing cycle. Crew rescue success also needed to be weighed against preserving the Orbiter s ability to have a landing option in case there was a problem with the LON vehicle. This paper focuses on quantifying the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down strategies. Results from this effort supported NASA s decision to proceed with STS-125, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  7. UV/Visible Telescope with Hubble Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Submission Overview: Our primary objective is to convey a sense of the significant advances possible in astrophysics investigations for major Cosmic Origins COR program goals with a 2.4m telescope asset outfitted with one or more advanced UV visible instruments. Several compelling science objectives were identified based on community meetings these science objectives drove the conceptual design of instruments studied by the COR Program Office during July September 2012. This RFI submission encapsulates the results of that study, and suggests that a more detailed look into the instrument suite should be conducted to prove viability and affordability to support the demonstrated scientific value. This study was conducted in the context of a larger effort to consider the options available for a mission to dispose safely of Hubble hence, the overall architecture considered for the mission we studied for the 2.4m telescope asset included resource sharing. This mitigates combined cost and risk and provides naturally for a continued US leadership role in astrophysics with an advanced, general-purpose UV visible space telescope.

  8. Type Ia Supernovae and the Hubble Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, D

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this review is the work that has been done during the 1990s on using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to measure the Hubble constant ($H_0$). SNe Ia are well suited for measuring $H_0$. A straightforward maximum-light color criterion can weed out the minority of observed events that are either intrinsically subluminous or substantially extinguished by dust, leaving a majority subsample that has observational absolute-magnitude dispersions of less than $\\sigma_{obs}(M_B) \\simeq \\sigma_{obs}(M_V) \\simeq 0.3$ mag. Correlations between absolute magnitude and one or more distance-independent SN Ia or parent-galaxy observables can be used to further standardize the absolute magnitudes to better than 0.2 mag. The absolute magnitudes can be calibrated in two independent ways --- empirically, using Cepheid-based distances to parent galaxies of SNe Ia, and physically, by light curve and spectrum fitting. At present the empirical and physical calibrations are in agreement at $M_B \\simeq M_V \\simeq -19.4$ or -19....

  9. HUBBLE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT CONSTRAINTS ON DARK ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Omer; Mania, Data; Ratra, Bharat, E-mail: omer@phys.ksu.edu, E-mail: mania@phys.ksu.edu, E-mail: ratra@phys.ksu.edu [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    We use 21 Hubble parameter versus redshift data points from Simon et al., Gaztanaga et al., Stern et al., and Moresco et al. to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. The inclusion of the eight new measurements results in H(z) constraints more restrictive than those derived by Chen and Ratra. These constraints are now almost as restrictive as those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude versus redshift data, which now more carefully account for systematic uncertainties. This is a remarkable result. We emphasize, however, that SNIa data have been studied for a longer time than the H(z) data, possibly resulting in a better estimate of potential systematic errors in the SNIa case. A joint analysis of the H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially flat cosmological model currently dominated by a time-independent cosmological constant but does not exclude slowly evolving dark energy.

  10. Hubble parameter measurement constraints on dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Omer; Ratra, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    We use 21 Hubble parameter versus redshift data points, from Gazta\\~{n}aga et al. (2009), Stern et al. (2010), and Moresco et al. (2012), to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. This is the largest set of H(z) data considered to date. The inclusion of the 8 new Moresco et al. (2012) measurements results in H(z) constraints more restrictive than those derived by Chen & Ratra (2011b). These constraints are now almost as restrictive as those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude versus redshift data (Suzuki et al. 2012), which now more carefully account for systematic uncertainties. This is a remarkable result. We emphasize however that SNIa data have been studied for a longer time than the H(z) data, possibly resulting in a better estimate of potential systematic errors in the SNIa case. A joint analysis of the H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially-flat cosmological model cu...

  11. Determination of the Hubble Constant Using Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Sabour, Mohamed; Issa, Issa Ali; El-Nawawy, Mohamed Saleh; Kordi, Ayman; Almostafa, Zaki; El-Said, Ahmad Essam; Ali, Gamal Bakr

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a statistical treatment to use Cepheid variable stars as distance indicators. The expansion rate of the Universe is also studied here through deriving the value of the Hubble constant H0. A Gaussian function approximation is proposed to fit the absolute magnitude and period of Cepheid variables in our galaxy. The calculations are carried out on samples of Cepheids observed in 23 galaxies to derive the distance modulus (DM) of these galaxies based on the frequency distributions of their periods and intrinsic apparent magnitudes. The DM is the difference between the apparent magnitude for extragalactic Cepheids and the absolute magnitude of the galactic Cepheids at maximum number. It is calculated by using the comparison of the period distribution of Cepheids in our galaxy and in other galaxies. This method is preferred due to its simplicity to use and its efficiency in providing reliable DM. A linear fit with correlation coefficient of 99.68% has been found between the published distance ...

  12. Local Hubble Expansion: Current State of the Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2016-01-01

    We present a brief qualitative overview of the current state of the problem of Hubble expansion at the sufficiently small scales (e.g., in planetary systems or local intergalactic volume). The crucial drawbacks of the available theoretical treatments are emphasized, and the possible ways to avoid them are outlined. Attention is drawn to a number of observable astronomical phenomena that could be naturally explained by the local Hubble expansion.

  13. Replacement vs. Renovation: The Reincarnation of Hubble Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    At the original Hubble Middle School, neither the views (a congested Roosevelt Road and glimpses of downtown Wheaton) nor the century-old facility that offered them was very inspiring. Built at the start of the 20th century, the 250,000-square-foot building was converted from Wheaton Central High School to Hubble Middle School in the early 1980s.…

  14. Hubble Provides Infrared View of Jupiter's Moon, Ring, and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Probing Jupiter's atmosphere for the first time, the Hubble Space Telescope's new Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) provides a sharp glimpse of the planet's ring, moon, and high-altitude clouds.The presence of methane in Jupiter's hydrogen- and helium-rich atmosphere has allowed NICMOS to plumb Jupiter's atmosphere, revealing bands of high-altitude clouds. Visible light observations cannot provide a clear view of these high clouds because the underlying clouds reflect so much visible light that the higher level clouds are indistinguishable from the lower layer. The methane gas between the main cloud deck and the high clouds absorbs the reflected infrared light, allowing those clouds that are above most of the atmosphere to appear bright. Scientists will use NICMOS to study the high altitude portion of Jupiter's atmosphere to study clouds at lower levels. They will then analyze those images along with visible light information to compile a clearer picture of the planet's weather. Clouds at different levels tell unique stories. On Earth, for example, ice crystal (cirrus) clouds are found at high altitudes while water (cumulus) clouds are at lower levels.Besides showing details of the planet's high-altitude clouds, NICMOS also provides a clear view of the ring and the moon, Metis. Jupiter's ring plane, seen nearly edge-on, is visible as a faint line on the upper right portion of the NICMOS image. Metis can be seen in the ring plane (the bright circle on the ring's outer edge). The moon is 25 miles wide and about 80,000 miles from Jupiter.Because of the near-infrared camera's narrow field of view, this image is a mosaic constructed from three individual images taken Sept. 17, 1997. The color intensity was adjusted to accentuate the high-altitude clouds. The dark circle on the disk of Jupiter (center of image) is an artifact of the imaging system.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the

  15. Interferometric Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, G. F.; McArthur, B. E.; Franz, O. G.; Wasserman, L. H.; Henry, T. J.; Takato, T.; Strateva, I.

    2000-05-01

    We review recent results from fringe tracking (POS) and fringe scanning (TRANS) mode astrometry using Fine Guidance Sensor 3 aboard Hubble Space Telescope. The relatively large field of regard, faint limiting magnitude, and raw resolution of FGS 3 have allowed us to obtain sub-millisecond of arc precision parallaxes for several Cataclysmic Variables ( RW Tri & TV Col), a fundamental distance scale calibrator (RR Lyr), a Planetary Nebula central star (NGC 6853), and a hot White Dwarf binary (Feige 24). We have determined parallaxes, orbital parameters, and masses for low-mass binaries critical to the lower main sequence Mass-Luminosity Relationship (Gl 791.2, Wolf 1062, Gl 623). The Astrometry Science Team presently consists of W. H. Jefferys, P.I., G. F. Benedict, Deputy P.I., B. McArthur, O.G. Franz, L. H. Wasserman, L. W. Fredrick, W. van Altena, E. Nelan, R. Duncombe, P. J. Shelus, and P. D. Hemenway. This research had the support of NASA Grants NAS5-1603 (GSFC), and GO-06036.01-94A, GO-07491.01-97A (STScI).

  16. Type-Ia Supernova Rates to Redshift 2.4 from CLASH: the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, O; Maoz, D; Riess, A G; Jha, S W; Postman, M; Dahlen, T; Holoien, T W -S; McCully, C; Patel, B; Strolger, L -G; Benitez, N; Coe, D; Jouvel, S; Medezinski, E; Molino, A; Nonino, M; Bradley, L; Koekemoer, A; Balestra, I; Blondin, S; Cenko, S B; Clubb, K I; Dickinson, M E; Filippenko, A V; Frederiksen, T F; Garnavich, P; Hjorth, J; Jones, D O; Leibundgut, B; Matheson, T; Mobasher, B; Rosati, P; Silverman, J M; U, V; Jedruszczuk, K; Li, C; Lin, K; Mirmelstein, M; Neustadt, J; Ovadia, A; Rogers, E H

    2013-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, ~11 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z > 1.2. We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range 1.8 99% significance level.

  17. Carnegie Hubble Program: A Mid-Infrared Calibration of the Hubble Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Freedman, Wendy L; Scowcroft, Victoria; Burns, Chris; Monson, Andy; Persson, S Eric; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Using a mid-infrared calibration of the Cepheid distance scale based on recent observations at 3.6 um with the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have obtained a new, high-accuracy calibration of the Hubble constant. We have established the mid-IR zero point of the Leavitt Law (the Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation) using time-averaged 3.6 um data for ten high-metallicity, Milky Way Cepheids having independently-measured trigonometric parallaxes. We have adopted the slope of the PL relation using time-averaged 3.6 um data for 80 long-period Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids falling in the period range 0.8 < log(P) < 1.8. We find a new reddening-corrected distance to the LMC of 18.477 +/- 0.033 (systematic) mag. We re-examine the systematic uncertainties in H0, also taking into account new data over the past decade. In combination with the new Spitzer calibration, the systematic uncertainty in H0 over that obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Key Project has decreased by over a factor of three. App...

  18. Inflationary cosmology and the standard model Higgs with a small Hubble-induced mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kamada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamics of the standard model Higgs field in the inflationary cosmology. Since metastability of our vacuum is indicated by the current experimental data of the Higgs boson and top quark, inflation models with a large Hubble parameter may have a problem: In such models, the Higgs field rolls down towards the unwanted true vacuum due to the large fluctuation in the inflationary background. However, this problem can be relaxed by supposing an additional mass term for the Higgs field generated during and after inflation. We point out that it does not have to be larger than the Hubble parameter if the number of e-folds during inflation is not too large. We demonstrate that a high reheating temperature is favored in such a relatively small mass case and it can be checked by future gravitational wave observations. Such an induced mass can be generated by, e.g., a direct coupling to the inflaton field or nonminimal coupling to gravity.

  19. Critical points of the cosmic velocity and the uncertainties in the value of the Hubble constant

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hao; Naselsky, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The existence of critical points for the peculiar velocity field is a natural feature of the correlated vector field. These points appear in contact zones of the velocity domains with different orientation of the averaged velocity vector. At the same time peculiar velocities are the cause of the scatter of the Hubble expansion rate. We propose that a more precise determination of the Hubble constant can be made by restricting analysis to subsample of observational data containing only the zones around the critical points of the peculiar velocity field, associated with voids and saddle points. On large-scales the critical points where the first derivative of the gravitational potential vanishes can be easily identified using the density field and classified by the behavior of the Hessian of the gravitational potential. We use high- resolution N-body simulations to show that these regions are stable in time and hence are excellent tracers of the initial conditions. Furthermore, we show that the variance of the ...

  20. Hubble Camera Resumes Science Operation With Picture Of 'Butterfly' In Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    he Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this black-and-white image of the 'butterfly wing'-shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles. Our own Sun will eject a nebula about 5 billion years from now. However, the Sun is not a double star, so its nebula may well be more spherical in shape. The image was taken through a filter that shows the light of glowing

  1. Hubble Camera Resumes Science Operation With Picture Of 'Butterfly' In Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    he Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is back at work, capturing this black-and-white image of the 'butterfly wing'-shaped nebula, NGC 2346. The nebula is about 2,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. It represents the spectacular 'last gasp' of a binary star system at the nebula's center. The image was taken on March 6, as part of the recommissioning of the Hubble Space Telescope's previously installed scientific instruments following the successful servicing of the HST by NASA astronauts in February. WFPC2 was installed in HST during the servicing mission in 1993. At the center of the nebula lies a pair of stars that are so close together that they orbit around each other every 16 days. This is so close that, even with Hubble, the pair of stars cannot be resolved into its two components. One component of this binary is the hot core of a star that has ejected most of its outer layers, producing the surrounding nebula. Astronomers believe that this star, when it evolved and expanded to become a red giant, actually swallowed its companion star in an act of stellar cannibalism. The resulting interaction led to a spiraling together of the two stars, culminating in ejection of the outer layers of the red giant. Most of the outer layers were ejected into a dense disk, which can still be seen in the Hubble image, surrounding the central star. Later the hot star developed a fast stellar wind. This wind, blowing out into the surrounding disk, has inflated the large, wispy hourglass-shaped wings perpendicular to the disk. These wings produce the butterfly appearance when seen in projection. The total diameter of the nebula is about one-third of a light-year, or 2 trillion miles. Our own Sun will eject a nebula about 5 billion years from now. However, the Sun is not a double star, so its nebula may well be more spherical in shape. The image was taken through a filter that shows the light of glowing

  2. PACMan to Help Sort Hubble Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Every year, astronomers submit over a thousand proposals requesting time on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Currently, humans must sort through each of these proposals by hand before sending them off for review. Could this burden be shifted to computers?A Problem of VolumeAstronomer Molly Peeples gathered stats on the HST submissions sent in last week for the upcoming HST Cycle 25 (the deadline was Friday night), relative to previous years. This years proposal round broke the record, with over 1200 proposals submitted in total for Cycle 25. [Molly Peeples]Each proposal cycle for HST time attracts on the order of 1100 proposals accounting for far more HST time than is available. The proposals are therefore carefully reviewed by around 150 international members of the astronomy community during a six-month process to select those with the highest scientific merit.Ideally, each proposal will be read by reviewers that have scientific expertise relevant to the proposal topic: if a proposal requests HST time to study star formation, for instance, then the reviewers assigned to it should have research expertise in star formation.How does this matching of proposals to reviewers occur? The current method relies on self-reported categorization of the submitted proposals. This is unreliable, however; proposals are often mis-categorized by submitters due to misunderstanding or ambiguous cases.As a result, the Science Policies Group at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) which oversees the review of HST proposals must go through each of the proposals by hand and re-categorize them. The proposals are then matched to reviewers with self-declared expertise in the same category.With the number of HST proposals on the rise and the expectation that the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will elicit even more proposals for time than Hubble scientists at STScI and NASA are now asking: could the human hours necessary for this task be spared? Could a computer program

  3. Unveiling the nature of bright z ~ 7 galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R A A; McLure, R J; McLeod, D J

    2016-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging of 25 extremely luminous (-23.2 600A). We find that irregular, multiple-component morphologies suggestive of clumpy or merging systems are common (f_multi > 0.4) in bright z ~ 7 galaxies, and ubiquitous at the very bright end (M_UV 1000 similarly bright galaxies at z ~ 7. Our new HST imaging suggests that the vast majority of these galaxies will be spatially resolved by Euclid, mitigating concerns over dwarf star contamination.

  4. Perkinelmer Lamda 950 Measurements in Support of Nasa's Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    We present visible spectroscopy measurements using the PerkinElmer Lambda 950 grating monochromator in support of two projects at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The first and primary project to be discussed is the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 as an upgrade to the Hubble Space Telescope. Numerous optical filters were measured in the visible and near-infrared regions to experimentally vet the theoretical prediction upon which the filters were engineered. The second topic of our presentation will cover the measurement of SNAP prototype filters from three venders (ASAHI, BARR and JDSU) with applications towards NASAs the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM).

  5. Asteroid observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B.; Wells, Eddie N.; Chapman, Clark R.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    The ways that the asteroids can be studied with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are examined. Spectrophotometry of asteroids and the study of asteroid surfaces, shape, spins, configuration, normal reflectance, and limb darkening of asteroids using the HST are addressed along with the detection of asteroid satellites and the discovery of small asteroids using the HST. The relation of the HST to its ground system is described, as are the spectrophotometric instruments of the HST. Imaging with the HST using the Faint Object Camera and the Wide Field and Planetary Camera is examined. Finally, the SIRTF observatory, instrumentation, and capabilities for solar system science are discussed.

  6. Cosmic Collisions The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Martin, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Lars Lindberg Christensen, Raquel Yumi Shida & Davide De Martin Cosmic Collisions: The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies Like majestic ships in the grandest night, galaxies can slip ever closer until their mutual gravitational interaction begins to mold them into intricate figures that are finally, and irreversibly, woven together. It is an immense cosmic dance, choreographed by gravity. Cosmic Collisions contains a hundred new, many thus far unpublished, images of colliding galaxies from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. It is believed that many present-day galaxies, including the Milky Way, were assembled from such a coalescence of smaller galaxies, occurring over billions of years. Triggered by the colossal and violent interaction between the galaxies, stars form from large clouds of gas in firework bursts, creating brilliant blue star clusters. The importance of these cosmic encounters reaches far beyond the stunning Hubble images. They may, in fact, be among the most important processes that shape ...

  7. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  8. Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert P.; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The young remnant of supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) offers an unprecedented glimpse into the hydrodynamics and kinetics of fast astrophysical shocks. We have been monitoring SN 1987A with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since it was launched. The recent repair of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) allows us to compare observations in 2004, just before its demise, with those in 2010, shortly after its resuscitation by NASA astronauts. We find that the Ly-alpha and H-alpha lines from shock emission continue to brighten, while their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We report evidence for nearly coherent, resonant scattering of Lya photons (to blueshifts approximately -12,000 km /s) from hotspots on the equatorial ring. We also report emission to the red of Ly-alpha that we attribute to N v lambda lambda 1239,1243 Angstrom line emission. These lines are detectable because, unlike hydrogen atoms, N4+ ions emit hundreds of photons before they are ionized. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of H-alpha. We attribute this to scattering of N4+ ions by magnetic fields in the ionized plasma. Thus, N v emission provides a unique probe of the isotropization zone of the collisionless shock. Observations with the recently installed Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) will enable us to observe the N v lambda lambda 1239,1243 Angstrom line profiles with much higher signal-to-noise ratios than possible with STIS and may reveal lines of other highly ionized species (such as C IVlambda lambda 1548,1551 Angstrom) that will test our explanation for the N v emission

  9. DEEP HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING IN NGC 6397: STELLAR DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, J. S.; Richer, H.; Woodley, K. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Anderson, J.; Dotter, A.; Kalirai, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fahlman, G.; Stetson, P. [Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics, National Research Council, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hurley, J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Rich, R. M. [Division of Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Shara, M.; Zurek, D. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Multi-epoch observations with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope provide a unique and comprehensive probe of stellar dynamics within NGC 6397. We are able to confront analytic models of the globular cluster with the observed stellar proper motions. The measured proper motions probe well along the main sequence from 0.8 to below 0.1 M{sub Sun} as well as white dwarfs younger than 1 Gyr. The observed field lies just beyond the half-light radius where standard models of globular cluster dynamics (e.g., based on a lowered Maxwellian phase-space distribution) make very robust predictions for the stellar proper motions as a function of mass. The observed proper motions show no evidence for anisotropy in the velocity distribution; furthermore, the observations agree in detail with a straightforward model of the stellar distribution function. We do not find any evidence that the young white dwarfs have received a natal kick in contradiction with earlier results. Using the observed proper motions of the main-sequence stars, we obtain a kinematic estimate of the distance to NGC 6397 of 2.2{sup +0.5}{sub -0.7} kpc and a mass of the cluster of 1.1 {+-} 0.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} at the photometric distance of 2.53 kpc. One of the main-sequence stars appears to travel on a trajectory that will escape the cluster, yielding an estimate of the evaporation timescale, over which the number of stars in the cluster decreases by a factor of e, of about 3 Gyr. The proper motions of the youngest white dwarfs appear to resemble those of the most massive main-sequence stars, providing the first direct constraint on the relaxation time of the stars in a globular cluster of greater than or about 0.7 Gyr.

  10. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Ronald F

    2014-01-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the distances to stars listed in the 2011 HYG database "follow well the probabilities predicted by Benford's law", the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why star distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. Conversely, with the logical derivation given here, the empirical observations may be viewed as new independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  11. Constraining Ω with the fluctuation of the local Hubble flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Guo; Huan-Yuan Shan

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of the fluctuation of the local Hubble flow using 350 galaxies in the Local Volume (D<5 Mpc, hereafter LV) with accurate measurements of distances, positions and radial velocities, and compare the results with the theoretical prediction of the local Hubble flow induced by density perturbations. This allows us to set a useful constraint on the local Ω parameters: ΩM~0.6 and ΩΛ~0.7, which may serve as compelling evidence for the existence of dark energy in the local Universe.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Polarization Measurements of OMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Burton, Michael G.; Schultz, A. S. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 micrometer polarization measurements of positions in the BN region of the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1) made with NICMOS Camera 2 (0.2" resolution) on Hubble Space Telescope. Our goals are to seek the sources of heating for IRc2, 3, 4, and 7, identify possible young stellar objects (YSOs), and characterize the grain alignment in the dust clouds along the lines-of-sight to the stars. Our results are as follows: BN is approximately 29% polarized by dichroic absorption and appears to be the illuminating source for most of the nebulosity to its north and up to approximately 5" to its south. Although the stars are probably all polarized by dichroic absorption, there are a number of compact, but non-point-source, objects that could be polarized by a combination of both dichroic absorption and local scattering of star light. We identify several candidate YSOs, including an approximately edge-on bipolar YSO 8.7" east of BN, and a deeply-embedded IRc7, all of which are obviously self-luminous at mid-infrared wavelengths and may be YSOs. None of these is a reflection nebula illuminated by a star located near radio source I, as was previously suggested. Other IRc sources are clearly reflection nebulae: IRc3 appears to be illuminated by IRc2-B or a combination of the IRc2 sources, and IRc4 and IRc5 appear to be illuminated by an unseen star in the vicinity of radio source I, or by Star n or IRc2-A. Trends in the magnetic field direction are inferred from the polarization of the 26 stars that are bright enough to be seen as NICMOS point sources. Their polarization ranges from N less than or equal to 1% (all stars with this low polarization are optically visible) to greater than 40%. The most polarized star has a polarization position angle different from its neighbors by approximately 40 degrees, but in agreement with the grain alignment inferred from millimeter polarization measurements of the cold dust cloud in the southern part of OMC-1. The polarization

  13. Hubble Space Telescope: Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the Hubble Space Telescope and its mission. Topics include design changes, flight performance, and initial problems encountered. The Hubble's solar arrays and observations of space are discussed.

  14. Hubble: Linked Data Hub for Clinical Decision Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Magliacane, S.; Rietveld, L.; de Vries, G.; Wibisono, A.; Schlobach, S.; Simperl, E.; Norton, B.; Mladenic, D.; Della Valle, E.; Fundulaki, I.; Passant, A.; Troncy, R.

    2015-01-01

    The AERS datasets is one of the few remaining, large publicly available medical data sets that until now have not been published as Linked Data. It is uniquely positioned amidst other medical datasets. This paper describes the Hubble prototype system for clinical decision support that demonstrates

  15. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  16. Early Scientific Results from the Rejuvenated Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedner, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    With the complete success of Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope in May, 2009, the Observatory's capabilities are extremely broad and beyond anything it has previously been equipped with. I will present results on the important early science corning out of the telescope and discuss prospects for the future."

  17. Angular Momentum across the Hubble sequence from the CALIFA survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Lyubenova, Mariya; van de Ven, Glenn

    We investigate the stellar angular momentum of galaxies across the Hubble sequence from the CALIFA survey. The distribution of CALIFA elliptical and lenticular galaxies in the λRe - ɛe diagram is consistent with that shown by the Atlas3D survey. Our data, however, show that the location of spiral

  18. Short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A-L; Sibai, A; Mahfoud, L; Oubari, D; Ashkar, J; Fuleihan, N

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice. Prospective study. Eighteen non-dysphonic subjects (seven men and 11 women) with a history of hubble-bubble smoking and no history of cigarette smoking underwent acoustic analysis and laryngeal video-stroboscopic examination before and 30 minutes after hubble-bubble smoking. On laryngeal video-stroboscopy, none of the subjects had vocal fold erythema either before or after smoking. Five patients had mild vocal fold oedema both before and after smoking. After smoking, there was a slight increase in the number of subjects with thick mucus between the vocal folds (six, vs four before smoking) and with vocal fold vessel dilation (two, vs one before smoking). Acoustic analysis indicated a drop in habitual pitch, fundamental frequency and voice turbulence index after smoking, and an increase in noise-to-harmonics ratio. Even 30 minutes of hubble-bubble smoking can cause a drop in vocal pitch and an increase in laryngeal secretions and vocal fold vasodilation.

  19. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  20. Hubble Space Telescope On-orbit Transfer Function Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamudi, N.; Blair, M. A.; Clapp, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the On-orbit Transfer Function Test (TFT) designed for on-orbit vibration testing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The TFT provides means for extracting accurate on-orbit characteristics of HST flexible body dynamics, making it possible to check periodically the state of the vehicle on-orbit and to assess changes in modal parameters.

  1. Hubble expansion and structure formation in the "running FLRW model" of the cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Grande, Javier; Basilakos, Spyros; Plionis, Manolis

    2011-01-01

    A new class of FLRW cosmological models with time-evolving fundamental parameters should emerge naturally from a description of the expansion of the universe based on the first principles of quantum field theory and string theory. Within this general paradigm, one expects that both the gravitational Newton's coupling, G, and the cosmological term, Lambda, should not be strictly constant but appear rather as smooth functions of the Hubble rate. This scenario ("running FLRW model") predicts, in a natural way, the existence of dynamical dark energy without invoking the participation of extraneous scalar fields. In this paper, we perform a detailed study of these models in the light of the latest cosmological data, which serves to illustrate the phenomenological viability of the new dark energy paradigm as a serious alternative to the traditional scalar field approaches. By performing a joint likelihood analysis of the recent SNIa data, the CMB shift parameter, and the BAOs traced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,...

  2. Hubble Space Telescope: Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Schaefer, Gail H; Mason, Brian D; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera~3 (WFC3) of 70 Galactic Cepheids, typically within 1~kpc, with the aim of finding resolved physical companions. The WFC3 field typically covers the 0.1 pc area where companions are expected. In this paper, we identify 39 Cepheids having candidate companions, based on their positions in color--magnitude diagrams, and having separations $\\geq$5$"$ from the Cepheids. We use follow-up observations of 14 of these candidates with XMM-Newton, and of one of them with ROSAT, to separate X-ray-active young stars (probable physical companions) from field stars (chance alignments). Our preliminary estimate, based on the optical and X-ray observations, is that only 3\\% of the Cepheids in the sample have wide companions. Our survey easily detects resolved main-sequence companions as faint as spectral type K\

  3. A consistent scalar-tensor cosmology for inflation, dark energy and the Hubble parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.H.-T., E-mail: c.wang@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Reid, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Murphy, A.St.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Rodrigues, D.; Al Alawi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Bingham, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Mendonça, J.T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Davies, T.B. [Department of Physics, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-25

    A Friedman cosmology is investigated based on scalar-tensor gravitation with general metric coupling and scalar potential functions. We show that for a broad class of such functions, the scalar field can be dynamically trapped using a recently suggested mechanism. The trapped scalar can drive inflation and accelerated cosmic expansion, compatible with standard requirements. The inflationary phase admits a natural exit with a value of the Hubble parameter dictated by the duration of inflation in a parameter independent manner. For inflationary duration consistent with the GUT description, the resulting Hubble parameter is found to be consistent with its observed value. - Highlights: • First model for inflation and dark energy in cosmology and core-collapse supernovae in astronomy to be unified under the same theory. • Achieved with a natural simple extension of Einstein's General Relativity using a new scalar field. • Potentially far-researching consequences in cosmology for dark matter, dark energy and inflation, testable through core-collapse supernovae.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Combined Strong and Weak Lensing Analysis of the CLASH Sample: Mass and Magnification Models and Systematic Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Zitrin, Adi; Merten, Julian; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton; Coe, Dan; Maturi, Matteo; Bartelmann, Matthias; Postman, Marc; Umetsu, Keiichi; Seidel, Gregor; Sendra, Irene; Broadhurst, Tom; Balestra, Italo; Biviano, Andrea; Grillo, Claudio; Mercurio, Amata; Nonino, Mario; Rosati, Piero; Bradley, Larry; Carrasco, Mauricio; Donahue, Megan; Ford, Holland; Frye, Brenda L; Moustakas, John

    2014-01-01

    [ABRIDGED] We present results from an HST lensing analysis of the complete Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) cluster sample. We identify various new multiple-images previously undiscovered, allowing improved or first constraints on the cluster inner mass distributions and profiles. We combine these strong-lensing constraints with weak lensing shape measurements within the HST FOV to jointly constrain the mass distributions. The analysis is performed in two different common parameterizations (one adopts light-traces-mass for both galaxies and dark matter while the other adopts an analytical, elliptical NFW form for the dark matter), to provide a better assessment of the underlying systematics - which is most important for deep lensing surveys such as CLASH and the Hubble Frontier Fields, especially when studying high-redshift magnified objects. We find that the typical (median), relative systematic differences throughout the central FOV are $\\sim40\\%$ in the (dimensionless) mass density,...

  5. Hubble Unveils Colorful and Turbulent Star-Birth Region on 100,000th Orbit Milestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for orientation annotation In commemoration of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope completing its 100,000th orbit in its 18th year of exploration and discovery, scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md., have aimed Hubble totake a snapshot of a dazzling region of celestial birth and renewal. Hubble peered into a small portion of the nebula near the star cluster NGC 2074 (upper, left). The region is a firestorm of raw stellar creation, perhaps triggered by a nearby supernova explosion. It lies about 170,000 light-years away near the Tarantula nebula, one of the most active star-forming regions in our Local Group of galaxies. The three-dimensional-looking image reveals dramatic ridges and valleys of dust, serpent-head 'pillars of creation,' and gaseous filaments glowing fiercely under torrential ultraviolet radiation. The region is on the edge of a dark molecular cloud that is an incubator for the birth of new stars. The high-energy radiation blazing out from clusters of hot young stars already born in NGC 2074 is sculpting the wall of the nebula by slowly eroding it away. Another young cluster may be hidden beneath a circle of brilliant blue gas at center, bottom. In this approximately 100-light-year-wide fantasy-like landscape, dark towers of dust rise above a glowing wall of gases on the surface of the molecular cloud. The seahorse-shaped pillar at lower, right is approximately 20 light-years long, roughly four times the distance between our Sun and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. The region is in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a satellite of our Milky Way galaxy. It is a fascinating laboratory for observing star-formation regions and their evolution. Dwarf galaxies like the LMC are considered to be the primitive building blocks of larger galaxies. This representative color image was taken on August 10, 2008, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Red shows emission

  6. Hubble Unveils Colorful and Turbulent Star-Birth Region on 100,000th Orbit Milestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for orientation annotation In commemoration of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope completing its 100,000th orbit in its 18th year of exploration and discovery, scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md., have aimed Hubble totake a snapshot of a dazzling region of celestial birth and renewal. Hubble peered into a small portion of the nebula near the star cluster NGC 2074 (upper, left). The region is a firestorm of raw stellar creation, perhaps triggered by a nearby supernova explosion. It lies about 170,000 light-years away near the Tarantula nebula, one of the most active star-forming regions in our Local Group of galaxies. The three-dimensional-looking image reveals dramatic ridges and valleys of dust, serpent-head 'pillars of creation,' and gaseous filaments glowing fiercely under torrential ultraviolet radiation. The region is on the edge of a dark molecular cloud that is an incubator for the birth of new stars. The high-energy radiation blazing out from clusters of hot young stars already born in NGC 2074 is sculpting the wall of the nebula by slowly eroding it away. Another young cluster may be hidden beneath a circle of brilliant blue gas at center, bottom. In this approximately 100-light-year-wide fantasy-like landscape, dark towers of dust rise above a glowing wall of gases on the surface of the molecular cloud. The seahorse-shaped pillar at lower, right is approximately 20 light-years long, roughly four times the distance between our Sun and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. The region is in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a satellite of our Milky Way galaxy. It is a fascinating laboratory for observing star-formation regions and their evolution. Dwarf galaxies like the LMC are considered to be the primitive building blocks of larger galaxies. This representative color image was taken on August 10, 2008, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Red shows emission

  7. 一种利用电化学钝化极化现象的超深小孔电火花复合加工工艺%A New Electro-discharge Drilling Technique Based on Electrochemical Passivation Effect of Avoiding Side Discharge for Ultra Deep Micro Hole Machine-shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马名峻; 王德新

    2015-01-01

    通过对超深小孔电火花复合加工工艺的试验研究,研发了一种液体成膜的低浓度电解质环保水溶液,作为电火花高速小孔机专用工作液,用于超深小孔的电火花复合加工,成功解决了大深径比超深小孔的电火花加工工艺难题。而其中独具特点的“电极管平头低损耗”现象,也为解决诸如钨钼类高熔金属超深小孔及航空发动机叶片气膜孔加工等难题找到了一种新的工艺方法。%To drill the ultra deep micro hole by electrical-discharge machining technique ,mass of experiments were carried out with kinds of different technical approach. At last ,a new kind of appropriative working fluid was developed ,with which a layer of electrochemical passivation insulating film could be formed on the inner hole wall of the work piece to avoid side discharge ,the shape of the end of the electrode is flat instead of cone ,as a result. At the same time ,electrode loss was decreased significantly,based on which the efficiency of electrical-discharge drilling was improved. This kind of electrical-discharge machining working fluid could be applied for drilling deep hole on the tungsten molybdenum materials and manufacturing cooling film holes on aero engine blade.

  8. Stellar kinematics across the Hubble sequence in the CALIFA survey: General properties and aperture corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Falcón-Barroso, J; van de Ven, G; Méndez-Abreu, J; Aguerri, J A L; García-Lorenzo, B; Bekeraite, S; Sánchez, S F; Husemann, B; García-Benito, R; Mast, D; Walcher, C J; Zibetti, S; Barrera-Ballesteros, J K; Galbany, L; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Singh, R; Bosch, R C E van den; Wild, V; Zhu, L; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Fernandes, R Cid; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A; Gallazzi, A; Delgado, R M González; Marino, R A; Márquez, I; Pérez, E; Pérez, I; Roth, M M; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Ruíz-Lara, T; Wisotzki, L; Ziegler, B

    2016-01-01

    We present the stellar kinematic maps of a large sample of galaxies from the integral-field spectroscopic survey CALIFA. The sample comprises 300 galaxies displaying a wide range of morphologies across the Hubble sequence, from ellipticals to late-type spirals. This dataset allows us to homogeneously extract stellar kinematics up to several effective radii. In this paper, we describe the level of completeness of this subset of galaxies with respect to the full CALIFA sample, as well as the virtues and limitations of the kinematic extraction compared to other well-known integral-field surveys. In addition, we provide averaged integrated velocity dispersion radial profiles for different galaxy types, which are particularly useful to apply aperture corrections for single aperture measurements or poorly resolved stellar kinematics of high-redshift sources. The work presented in this paper sets the basis for the study of more general properties of galaxies that will be explored in subsequent papers of the survey.

  9. Isolated dSph galaxy KKs3 in the local Hubble flow

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Sharina, M E

    2015-01-01

    We present the SALT spectroscopy of a globular cluster in the center of the nearby isolated dSph galaxy KKs3 situated at a distance of 2.12 Mpc. Its heliocentric radial velocity is 316+-7 km/s that corresponds to V_{LG} = 112 km/s in the Local Group (LG) reference frame. We use its distance and velocity along with the data on other 35 field galaxies in the proximity of the LG to trace the local Hubble flow. Some basic properties of the local field galaxies: their morphology, absolute magnitudes, average surface brightnesses, specific star formation rates, and hydrogen mass-to-stellar mass ratios are briefly discussed. Surprisingly, the sample of the neighboring isolated galaxies displays no signs of compression under the influence of the expanding Local Void.

  10. Astrometry with the Hubble Space Telescope: Trigonometric Parallaxes of Selected Hyads

    CERN Document Server

    McArthur, Barbara E; Harrison, Thomas E; van Altena, William

    2011-01-01

    We present absolute parallaxes and proper motions for seven members of the Hyades open cluster, pre-selected to lie in the core of the cluster. Our data come from archival astrometric data from FGS 3, and newer data for 3 Hyads from FGS 1R, both white-light interferometers on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We obtain member parallaxes from six individual Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) fields and use the field containing van Altena 622 and van Altena 627 (= HIP 21138) as an example. Proper motions, spectral classifications and VJHK photometry of the stars comprising the astrometric refer- ence frames provide spectrophotometric estimates of reference star absolute parallaxes. Introducing these into our model as observations with error, we determine absolute parallaxes for each Hyad. The parallax of vA 627 is significantly improved by including a perturbation orbit for this previously known spectroscopic binary, now an astrometric binary. Compared to our original (1997) determina- tions, a combination of new data,...

  11. Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey -- UDS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Sandra

    2010-09-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the ?rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} to provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of ?ve widely separated ?elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a ?Wide? imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a ?Deep? imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.In combination with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef?cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include: - Structure in young

  12. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury X. Ultraviolet to Infrared Photometry of 117 Million Equidistant Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Dolphin, Andrew E; Weisz, Daniel R; Bell, Eric F; Bianchi, Luciana; Byler, Eleanor; Gilbert, Karoline M; Girardi, Leo; Gordon, Karl; Gregersen, Dylan; Johnson, L C; Kalirai, Jason; Lauer, Tod R; Monachesi, Antonela; Rosenfield, Philip; Seth, Anil; Skillman, Evan

    2014-01-01

    We have measured stellar photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in near ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F475W, F814W), and near infrared (F110W, F160W) bands for 117 million resolved stars in M31. As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey, we measured photometry with simultaneous point spread function fitting across all bands and at all source positions after precise astrometric image alignment (<5-10 milliarcsecond accuracy). In the outer disk, the photometry reaches a completeness-limited depth of F475W~28, while in the crowded, high surface brightness bulge, the photometry reaches F475W~25. We find that simultaneous photometry and optimized measurement parameters significantly increase the detection limit of the lowest resolution filters (WFC3/IR) providing color-magnitude diagrams that are up to 2.5 magnitudes deeper when compared with color-magnitude diagrams from WFC3/IR photometry alone. We pres...

  13. Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury IX: A Photometric Survey of Planetary Nebulae in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Veyette, Mark J; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Balick, Bruce; Caldwell, Nelson; Fouesneau, Morgan; Girardi, Leo; Gordon, Karl; Kalirai, Jason; Rosenfield, Phil; Seth, Anil

    2014-01-01

    We search Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) broadband imaging data from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey to identify detections of cataloged planetary nebulae (PNe). Of the 711 PNe currently in the literature within the PHAT footprint, we find 467 detected in the broadband. For these 467 we are able to refine their astrometric accuracy from ~0."3 to 0."05. Using the resolution of HST, we are able to show that 152 objects currently in the catalogs are definitively not PNe, and we show that 32 objects thought to be extended in ground-based images are actually point-like and therefore good PN candidates. We also find one PN candidate that is marginally resolved. If this is a PN, it is up to 0.7 pc in diameter. With our new photometric data, we develop a method of measuring the level of excitation in individual PNe by comparing broadband and narrowband imaging and describe the effects of excitation on a PN's photometric signature....

  14. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, Martha L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; De Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H(alpha) images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

  15. A Hubble diagram from Type II Supernovae based solely on photometry: the Photometric-Colour Method

    CERN Document Server

    T., de Jaeger; P., Anderson J; L., Galbany; M., Hamuy; M., Phillips M; M., Stritzinger; C., Gutiérrez; L., Bolt; R., Burns C; A., Campillay; S., Castellón; C., Contreras; G., Folatelli; L., Freedman W; Y., Hsiao E; K., Krisciunas; W., Krzeminski; H., Kuncarayakti; N., Morrell; F., Olivares E; E., Persson S; N, Suntzeff

    2015-01-01

    We present a Hubble diagram of type II supernovae using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I (CSP) for which optical and near-infrared light-curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the $V$ band and the second a colour term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the $(V-i)$ colour and the $r$ band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric colour method (PCM) with the standardised candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM, for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will in...

  16. A HUBBLE DIAGRAM FROM TYPE II SUPERNOVAE BASED SOLELY ON PHOTOMETRY: THE PHOTOMETRIC COLOR METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kuncarayakti, H. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Anderson, J. P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago (Chile); Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Stritzinger, M. D.; Contreras, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bolt, L. [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hgel 71, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Burns, C. R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Folatelli, G. [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CONICET, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Freedman, W. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Krisciunas, K. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Krzeminski, W., E-mail: dthomas@das.uchile.cl [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2015-12-20

    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V − i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data.

  17. The CALIFA survey across the Hubble sequence: How galaxies grow their bulges and disks

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, R M González; Pérez, E; Fernandes, R Cid; de Amorim, A L; Cortijo-Ferrero, C; Lacerda, E A D; Fernández, R López; Vale-Asari, N; Sánchez, S

    2015-01-01

    We characterize in detail the radial structure of the stellar population properties of 300 galaxies in the nearby universe, observed with integral field spectroscopy in the CALIFA survey. The sample covers a wide range of Hubble types, from spheroidal to spiral galaxies, ranging in stellar masses from $M_\\star \\sim 10^9$ to $7 \\times 10^{11}$ $M_\\odot$. We derive the stellar mass surface density ($\\mu_\\star$), light-weighted and mass-weighted ages ($\\langle {\\rm log}\\,age\\rangle _L$, $\\langle {\\rm log}\\,age\\rangle _M$), and mass-weighted metallicity ($\\langle {\\rm log}\\,Z_\\star\\rangle _M$), applying the spectral synthesis technique. We study the mean trends with galaxy stellar mass, $M_\\star$, and morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc and Sd). We confirm that more massive galaxies are more compact, older, more metal rich, and less reddened by dust. Additionally, we find that these trends are preserved spatially with the radial distance to the nucleus. Deviations from these relations appear correlated with Hubble...

  18. The Evolution of the Hubble Sequence: morpho-kinematics of distant galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Serrano, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of my thesis was to provide us, for the first time, with a reliable view of the distant Hubble sequence, and its evolution over the past 6 Gyr. To achieve this goal, we have created a new morphological classification method which (1) includes all the available observational data, (2) can be easily reproduced, and (3) presents a negligible subjectivity. This method allows us to study homogeneously the morphology of local and distant galaxies. The first step has been to study the evolution of galaxies using the IMAGES survey. This survey allowed us to establish the kinematic state of distant galaxies, to study the chemical evolution of galaxies over the past 8 Gyr, and to test important dynamical relations such as the Tully-Fisher relation. The information gained from kinematics is, indeed, crucial to guarantee a robust understanding of the different physical processes leading to the present day Hubble sequence. Using Integral Field Spectroscopy, we have been able to test our new morphologica...

  19. An Atlas of Hubble Space Telescope Spectra and Images of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Axon, D.; Scarlata, C.; Atkinson, J.; Batcheldor, D.; Binney, J.; Capetti, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Dressel, L.; Gerssen, J.; Macchetto, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Marconi, A.; Merrifield, M.; Ruiz, M.; Sparks, W.; Stiavelli, M.; Tsvetanov, Z.; van der Marel, R.

    2003-08-01

    We have observed 54 nearby spiral galaxies with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain optical long-slit spectra of nuclear gas disks and STIS optical (~R band) images of the central 5''×5'' of the galaxies. These spectra are being used to determine the velocity field of nuclear disks and hence to detect the presence of central massive black holes. Here we present the spectra for the successful observations. Dust obscuration can be significant at optical wavelengths, and so we also combine the STIS images with archival Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer H-band images to produce color maps to investigate the morphology of gas and dust in the central regions. We find a great variety in the different morphologies, from smooth distributions to well-defined nuclear spirals and dust lanes. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  20. The CALIFA Survey Across the Hubble Sequence: How Galaxies Grow their Bulges and Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzáez-Delgado, R. M.; García-Benito, R.; Pérez, E.; Cid Fernandes, R.; de Amorim, A. L.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López-Fernández, R.; Vale-Asari, R. L.; Sánchez, S.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    We characterize in detail the radial structure of the stellar population properties of 300 galaxies in the nearby universe, observed with integral field spectroscopy in the CALIFA survey. The sample covers a wide range of Hubble types, from spheroidal to spiral galaxies, ranging in stellar masses from M*˜109 to 7×1011 ⊙. We derive the stellar mass surface density (μ⋆), light-weighted and mass-weighted ages («log age»L, «log age»M), and mass-weighted metallicity («logZ⋆ »M), applying the spectral synthesis technique. We study the mean trends with galaxy stellar mass, M⋆, and morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc and Sd). We confirm that more massive galaxies are more compact, older, more metal rich, and less reddened by dust. Additionally, we find that these trends are preserved spatially with the radial distance to the nucleus. Deviations from these relations appear correlated with Hubble type: earlier types are more compact, older, and more metal rich for a given M⋆, which evidences that quenching is related to morphology, but not driven by mass.