WorldWideScience

Sample records for hub height depending

  1. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs...

  2. Comparative efficiency of wind turbines with different heights of rotor hubs: performance evaluation for Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukovs, V P; Zacepins, A J; Bezrukovs, V V

    2014-01-01

    Performance evaluation of wind turbines (WT) for different heights of the rotor hub is made based on the wind speed and direction data obtained in 2009–2013 on-shore in the north of Latvia using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measurement system mounted on a 60 m mast. Based on the measurement analysis results, wind speed distribution curves have been modelled for heights of up to 200 m using power and logarithmic (log) law approximation methods. The curves for the modelled Weibull's parameters are plotted in dependence on height. The efficiency comparison is made for different WT types taking into account the distribution of the wind energy potential in height in the Latvian territory. The annual electric energy production was calculated for the WTs with different heights of rotor hubs. In the calculations the technical data on the following WT types were used: E-3120 (50 kW, hub height 20.5/30.5/36.5/42.7 m), E-33 (330 kW, hub height 37/44/49/50 m), E-48 (800 kW, hub height 50/60/75 m) and E-82 (2.3 MW, hub height of 78/85/98/108/138 m)

  3. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  4. Optimum hub height of a wind turbine for maximizing annual net profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Annual Net Profit was proposed to optimize the hub height of a wind turbine. • Procedures of the hub height optimization method were introduced. • Effect of local wind speed characteristics on optimum hub height was illustrated. • Effect of rated power on optimum hub height was negligible in the range 0.75–3 MW. • Rated speed and cut-out speed had great effects on optimum hub height. - Abstract: The optimization method of the hub height, which can ensure the economic feasibility of the wind turbine, is proposed in this study. Annual Net Profit is suggested as an objective function and the optimization procedure is developed. The effects of local wind speed and wind turbine power characteristics on the optimum hub height are investigated. The optimum hub height decreased as the mean wind speed and wind shear exponent increased. Rated power had little effect on optimum hub height; it follows that the economies of scale are negligible in the rated power range of 0.75–3 MW. Among the wind turbine power characteristics, rated speed and cut-out speed most strongly affected the optimum hub height

  5. Benefits of Two Turbine Rotor Diameters and Hub Heights in the Same Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stanley, Andrew P. J. [Brigham Young University; Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2018-01-12

    Significant turbine-wake interactions greatly reduce power output in a wind farm. If different turbine hub heights and rotor diameters are included in the same wind farm, the wake interference in the farm will be reduced, resulting in a lower cost of energy (COE) than a farm with identical turbines. In this paper, we present a method to model wind farm COE in farms with hub heights and rotor diameters that vary across the wind farm. We also demonstrate how to optimize these wind farms to minimize COE. The results show that COE can be greatly reduced in wind farms with non-homogeneous turbines, especially when the turbines are spaced close together. For a unidirectional wind rose, including different turbine design in the wind farm has a similar decrease in COE to spreading the wind turbines farther apart. When the rotor diameter and hub height of the wind turbines in a farm are optimized uniformly, a COE decrease of 4% to 13% (depending on the grid spacing and wind shear exponent) is achieved compared to the baseline. When the rotor diameter and turbine heights are optimized non-uniformly, with two different diameters and heights throughout the farm, there is a COE decrease of 22% to 41% compared to the baseline. For a more spread wind rose with a dominant probability from the west, there is a COE decrease between 3% and 10% for uniformly optimized rotor diameter and height compared to the baseline. With two optimized rotor diameters and heights through the farm, a COE decrease of 3% to 19% is achieved. For a similar wind rose shifted such that the dominant wind direction is from the northwest, a COE decrease between 3% and 10% results from uniformly optimized wind turbines compared to the baseline. A COE decrease of 3% to 17% compared to the baseline occurs with two different turbines are optimized throughout the wind farm.

  6. Comparison of the effectiveness of analytical wake models for wind farm with constant and variable hub heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Longyan; Tan, Andy C.C.; Cholette, Michael; Gu, Yuantong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effectiveness of three analytical wake models is studied. • The results of the analytical wake models are compared with the CFD simulations. • The results of CFD simulation are verified by comparison to the offshore wind farm observation data. • The onshore wind farm with both constant and different hub height turbines are analyzed. • PARK model is able to predict the total wind farm power production well with tuned surface roughness value. - Abstract: Extensive power losses of wind farm have been witnessed due to the wake interactions between wind turbines. By applying analytical wake models which describe the wind speed deficits in the wake quantitatively, the power losses can be regained to a large extent through wind farm layout optimization, and this has been extensively reported in literature. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the analytical wake models in predicting the wind farm power production have rarely been studied and compared for wind farm with both constant and variable wind turbine hub heights. In this study, the effectiveness of three different analytical wake models (PARK model, Larsen model and B-P model) is thoroughly compared over a wide range of wake properties. After the validation with the observation data from offshore wind farm, CFD simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of the analytical wake models for an onshore wind farm. The results show that when using the PARK model the surface roughness value (z 0 ) must be carefully tuned to achieve good performance in predicting the wind farm power production. For the other two analytical wake models, their effectiveness varies depending on the situation of wind farm (offshore or onshore) and the wind turbine hub heights (constant or variable). It was found that the results of B-P model agree well with the CFD simulations for offshore wind farm, but not for the onshore wind farm. The Larsen model is more accurate for the wind farm with variable wind turbine

  7. Hexcrete Tower for Harvesting Wind Energy at Taller Hub Heights - Budget Period 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sritharan, Sri [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Interest in designing taller towers for wind energy production in the United States (U.S.) has been steadily growing. In May 2015, it was revealed that taller towers will make wind energy production a reality in all 50 states, including some states that have nearly zero renewables in their energy portfolio. Facilitating wind energy production feasibility in all 50 states will no doubt contribute to increasing the electricity produced by wind from 4.5% in 2013 to a targeted scenario of 35% by 2050 in the Wind Vision report. This project focuses on the Hexcrete tower concept developed for tall towers using High Strength Concrete (HSC) and/or Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC). Among other benefits, the Hexcrete concept overcomes transportation and logistical challenges, thus facilitating construction of towers with hub heights of 100-m (328-ft) and higher. The goal of this project is to facilitate widespread deployment of Hexcrete towers for harvesting wind energy at 120 to 140-m (394 to 459-ft) hub heights and reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of wind energy production in the U.S. The technical scope of the project includes detailed design and optimization of at least three wind turbine towers using the Hexcrete concept together with experimental validation and LCOE analyses and development of a commercialization plan.

  8. Synergizing two NWP models to improve hub-height wind speed forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Taylor, P. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the methods used to optimize hub-height wind speed forecasts. Statistical and physical forecast paradigms were considered. Forecast errors are often dictated by phase error, while refined NWP modelling is limited by data availability. A nested meso-scale NWP model was combined with a physical model to predict wind and power forecasts. Maps of data sources were included as well as equations used to derive predictions. Data from meteorological masts located near the Great Lakes were used to demonstrate the model. The results were compared with other modelling prediction methods. Forecasts obtained using the modelling approach can help operators in scheduling and trading procedures. Further research is being conducted to determine if the model can be used to improve ramp forecasts. tabs., figs.

  9. Final Report for Project: Impacts of stratification and non-equilibrium winds and waves on hub-height winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Edward G. [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-07-14

    ) primarily experienced weakly-unstable conditions, while stability at the ASIT tower (with a larger influence of offshore winds) experiences a mix of both unstable and stable conditions, where the summer months are predominantly stable. Wind-wave misalignment likely explains the large scatter in observed non-dimensional surface roughness under swell-dominated conditions. Andreas et al.’s (2012) relationship between u* and the 10-m wind speed under predicts the increased u* produced by wave-induced pressure drag produced by misaligned winds and waves. Incorporating wave-state (speed and direction) influences in parameterizations improves predictive skill. In a broad sense, these results suggest that one needs information on winds, temperature, and wave state to upscale buoy measurements to hub-height and across the rotor plane. Our parameterization of wave-state influences on surface drag has been submitted for inclusion in the next publicly available release. In combination, our project elucidates the impacts of two important physical processes (non-equilibrium wind/waves and stratification) on the atmosphere within which offshore turbines operate. This knowledge should help guide and inform manufacturers making critical decisions surrounding design criteria of future turbines to be deployed in the coastal zone. Reductions in annually averaged hub height wind speed error using our new wave-state-aware surface layer parameterization are relatively modest. However since wind turbine power production depends on the wind speed cubed, the error in estimated power production is close to 5%; which is significant and can substantially impact wind resource assessment and decision making with regards to the viability of particular location for a wind plant location. For a single 30-hour forecast, significant reductions in wind speed prediction errors can yield substantially improved wind power forecast skill, thereby mitigating costs and/or increasing revenue through improved

  10. Quadratic Assignment of Hubs in p-Hub Median Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin

    We introduce Generalized p-Hub Median Problem (GpHMP) that seeks to locate p hub nodes and install p distinct hub facilities/operators on the hubs while discount factor resulted by consolidation of flow on the hub links depends on the facilities/operators that are installed/operating on both hub...

  11. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Luo,1,2 Linghong Guo,1 Xi-Jian Dai,3 Qinglai Wang,2 Wenzhong Zhu,2 Xinjun Miao,2 Honghan Gong1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs.Results: Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, right hippocampus (BA 35, 36, and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11 and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18, and left precuneus (BA 7, 19. SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R2=0.296, P=0.006.Conclusion: The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear

  12. Human factors related to time-dependent infection control measures: "Scrub the hub" for venous catheters and feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, Lindsay; Epstein, Elizabeth; Blackman, Amy; Jin, Li; Kaufman, David A

    2017-06-01

    The use of catheter hub decontamination protocols is a common practice to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections. However, few data exist on the most effective disinfection procedure prior to hub access accounting for human factors and time-dependent practices in real time in the clinical setting. An observational design with a multimodal intervention was used in this study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Direct observations on nurse compliance of scrub times with decontamination when accessing of venous catheter and feeding tube hubs were conducted during 3 phases: (1) baseline period prior to any interventions; (2) during an educational intervention phase; and (3) during a timer intervention period when using a timing device, either an actual timer or music button. Overall, both education and the timing device interventions increased the mean scrub time ± SD of venous catheter hubs. Mean baseline scrub times of 10 ± 5 seconds were lower compared with 23 ± 12 seconds after educational intervention (P music button use (P observed with scrub times of feeding tubes. Time-based infection control measures, such as scrubbing the hub, must be implemented with aids that qualify specific times to account for human factors, to ensure adherence to time-dependent measures aimed at decreasing nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring RSSI Dependency on Height in UHF for throughput optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maliwatu, R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available in the area. When raised beyond 8.5 m further signal strength gain stifles, possibly due to effects of multi-path fading. The contribution of this paper is firstly, the implication of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) dependency on height and secondly...

  14. Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v(t)=? a(t) dt (1) and x(t)=? v(t) dt. Mobile devices such as…

  15. Social inequalities in height: persisting differences today depend upon height of the parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galobardes

    Full Text Available Substantial increases in height have occurred concurrently with economic development in most populations during the last century. In high-income countries, environmental exposures that can limit genetic growth potential appear to have lessened, and variation in height by socioeconomic position may have diminished. The objective of this study is to investigate inequalities in height in a cohort of children born in the early 1990s in England, and to evaluate which factors might explain any identified inequalities.12,830 children from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a population based cohort from birth to about 11.5 years of age, were used in this analysis. Gender- and age-specific z-scores of height at different ages were used as outcome variables. Multilevel models were used to take into account the repeated measures of height and to analyze gender- and age-specific relative changes in height from birth to 11.5 years. Maternal education was the main exposure variable used to examine socioeconomic inequalities. The roles of parental and family characteristics in explaining any observed differences between maternal education and child height were investigated. Children whose mothers had the highest education compared to those with none or a basic level of education, were 0.39 cm longer at birth (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.48. These differences persisted and at 11.5 years the height difference was 1.4 cm (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.74. Several other factors were related to offspring height, but few changed the relationship with maternal education. The one exception was mid-parental height, which fully accounted for the maternal educational differences in offspring height.In a cohort of children born in the 1990s, mothers with higher education gave birth to taller boys and girls. Although height differences were small they persisted throughout childhood. Maternal and paternal height fully explained these differences.

  16. Non-Linear Dependence of the Height of a Chain Fountain on Drop Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Y.; Kearns, F.; Mustafa, T.; Salih, R.; Ioratim-Uba, A.; Udall, I.; Usama, M.

    2015-01-01

    If the end of a long chain, which is contained in an elevated beaker, is dropped over the edge of the beaker and falls, it is observed that as the speed of the chain increases the chain rises to form a loop well above the top of the beaker. The name "chain fountain" has been applied to this phenomenon. In this study the dependence of the…

  17. Intradiscal pressure depends on recent loading and correlates with disc height and compressive stiffness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergroesen, P.P.A.; van der Veen, A.J.; van Royen, B.J.; Kingma, I.; Smit, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Intervertebral discs exhibit time-dependent deformation (creep), which could influence the relation between applied stress and intradiscal pressure. This study investigates the effect of prolonged dynamic loading on intradiscal pressure, disc height and compressive stiffness, and examines

  18. Investigation of temperature dependent barrier height of Au/ZnO/Si schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.; Mahmood, K.; Rabia, S.; BM, S.; Shahid, M. Y.; Hasan, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements have been performed to investigate the inhomogeneity in the temperature dependent barrier heights of Au/ZnO/Si Schottky barrier diode in the temperature range 150 - 400K. The room temperature values for ideality factor and barrier height were found to be 2.9 and 0.60 eV respectively indicating the inhomogenity in the barrier heights of grown samples. The Richardson plot and ideality factor verses barrier height graph were also drawn to verified the discontinuity between Au and ZnO. This barrier height inhomogenity was explained by applying Gaussian distribution model. The extrapolation of the linear Fap (n) plot to n= 1 has given a homogeneous barrier height of approximately 1.1 eV. Fap versus 1/T plot was drawn to obtain the values of mean barrier height for Au/ZnO/Si Schottky diode (1.1 eV) and standard deviation(ds) (0.02 V) at zero bais. (author)

  19. Investigation of temperature dependent barrier height of Au/ZnO/Si schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M; Mahmood, K; Rabia, S; M, Samaa B; Shahid, M Y; Hasan, M A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements have been performed to investigate the inhomogeneity in the temperature dependent barrier heights of Au/ZnO/Si Schottky barrier diode in the temperature range 150 – 400K. The room temperature values for ideality factor and barrier height were found to be 2.9 and 0.60 eV respectively indicating the inhomogenity in the barrier heights of grown samples. The Richardson plot and ideality factor verses barrier height graph were also drawn to verified the discontinuity between Au and ZnO. This barrier height inhomogenity was explained by applying Gaussian distribution model. The extrapolation of the linear Φ ap (n) plot to n= 1 has given a homogeneous barrier height of approximately 1.1 eV. Φ ap versus 1/T plot was drawn to obtain the values of mean barrier height for Au/ZnO/Si Schottky diode (1.1 eV) and standard deviation(δ s ) (0.02 V) at zero bais

  20. Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyid Hasan Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by

  1. How Big is Too Big for Hubs: Marginal Profitability in Hub-and-Spoke Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Leola B.; Schmidt, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing the scale of hub operations at major airports has led to concerns about congestion at excessively large hubs. In this paper, we estimate the marginal cost of adding spokes to an existing hub network. We observe entry/non-entry decisions on potential spokes from existing hubs, and estimate both a variable profit function for providing service in markets using that spoke as well as the fixed costs of providing service to the spoke. We let the fixed costs depend upon the scale of operations at the hub, and find the hub size at which spoke service costs are minimized.

  2. Mesa-height Dependent Quantum Efficiency Characteristics of InGaN Micro-LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Kang, Chun Hong; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of mesa-height dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN/GaN micro-LED is presented. Device with a large etch-depth (> 1.3 µm) shows significant strain relief with aggravated current crowding.

  3. Exponential dependence of potential barrier height on biased voltages of inorganic/organic static induction transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Yang Jianhong; Cai Xueyuan; Wang Zaixing

    2010-01-01

    The exponential dependence of the potential barrier height φ c on the biased voltages of the inorganic/organic static induction transistor (SIT/OSIT) through a normalized approach in the low-current regime is presented. It shows a more accurate description than the linear expression of the potential barrier height. Through the verification of the numerical calculated and experimental results, the exponential dependence of φ c on the applied biases can be used to derive the I-V characteristics. For both SIT and OSIT, the calculated results, using the presented relationship, are agreeable with the experimental results. Compared to the previous linear relationship, the exponential description of φ c can contribute effectively to reduce the error between the theoretical and experimental results of the I-V characteristics. (semiconductor devices)

  4. The mass dependence of the signal peak height of a Bragg-curve ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenhav, N.J.; Stelzer, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Bragg-curve detector of the parallel plate ionization chamber type generates a signal that is a distorted replica of the original Bragg-curve. In result of this distortion, the signal peak height is not only a function of the atomic number of the heavy ion, as it is often stated, but also of the particle mass. This mass effect was studied with the aid of computer simulation, and it was found to be dependent on the Frisch grid to anode gap width and on the detector gas. The charge resolution of the detector is affected very significantly by this mass dependence of the signal peak height. Therefore, a careful selection of the detector gas and the grid to anode gap width is necessary, if good charge resolution over a wide range of heavy ions is required. (orig.)

  5. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  6. Joint Hub Network Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once. Rather, the partners will have a more cautious attitude and build the hub facilities one-by-one. In the proposed framework, every time a new hub is introduced, partners will have the opportunity to dec...

  7. Logistics hubs: an integration of transport infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available " that have jumped on the band wagon pushing for logistics hubs to be established in their regions or within their areas of jurisdiction. The feasibility of a logistics hub is dependent on a number of criteria with access to ideally more than two...

  8. Modelling of epitaxial film growth with an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier dependent on the step height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, F F; Ferreira, S C; Ferreira, S O

    2011-01-01

    The formation of mounded surfaces in epitaxial growth is attributed to the presence of barriers against interlayer diffusion in the terrace edges, known as Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barriers. We investigate a model for epitaxial growth using an ES barrier explicitly dependent on the step height. Our model has an intrinsic topological step barrier even in the absence of an explicit ES barrier. We show that mounded morphologies can be obtained even for a small barrier while a self-affine growth, consistent with the Villain-Lai-Das Sarma equation, is observed in the absence of an explicit step barrier. The mounded surfaces are described by a super-roughness dynamical scaling characterized by locally smooth (facetted) surfaces and a global roughness exponent α > 1. The thin film limit is featured by surfaces with self-assembled three-dimensional structures having an aspect ratio (height/width) that may increase or decrease with temperature depending on the strength of the step barrier. (fast track communication)

  9. Hub and Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Gary Alan

    2010-01-01

    The project is for the central building of a community center used by the communities of Blacksburg and Christiansburg. The building is a space configured as a hub that uses axes to determine entering, exiting and vertical movement. The hub configuration of the building is in concentric rings around the atrium in both space and materials. As materials were brought into the building, they enhanced the strong axial configuration and emphasized the layers surrounding the central hub space of ...

  10. Virtual Campus Hub technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercoulen, Frank; Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio

    This deliverable briefly describes which technological components have been delivered for the Virtual Campus Hub and how they can be used. A detailed discussion of the technical details of the components, how they were realized and how they fit the VCH concept can be found in deliverables D5.......4. Virtual Campus Hub Technology Evaluation Report and D6.7 The Virtual Campus Hub Concept....

  11. Plasma current dependence of the edge pedestal height in JET ELM-free H-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, M.F.F; Lomas, P.; Gowers, C.; Guo, H.; Hawkes, N.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Jones, T.; Parail, V.V.; Rimini, F.; Schunke, B.

    2000-01-01

    Some models for the suppression of turbulence in the L to H transition, suggest that the width of the H-mode edge barrier is either proportional or is of the order of the thermal or the fast-ion poloidal Larmor radius. This would require that the width of the edge barrier should depend on the plasma current. This dependence has been clearly verified at JET in experiments designed to control the edge MHD stability of ELM-free hot-ion H-mode plasmas. The effects of isotopic mass and the applicability of several edge barrier models to the hot-ion H-mode plasmas were analysed in (Guo H Y et al 2000 Edge transport barrier in JET hot-ion H-modes Nucl. Fusion 40 69) using a large database containing both deuterium-only and deuterium-tritium plasmas. This database has now been enlarged to include discharges from a plasma shape scan, allowing one to study the dependence of the pedestal height on the edge shear. In addition, the range of plasma currents was extended up to 6 MA. It is shown that the edge data are best described by a model where the edge barrier width is determined by the fast ions weighted towards the components with largest poloidal Larmor radii. However, it is not possible to conclusively eliminate the thermal ion model. (author)

  12. Plasma current dependence of the edge pedestal height in JET ELM-free H-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, M.; Lomas, P.; Gowers, C.

    2000-01-01

    Models for the suppression of turbulence in the L to H transition, suggest that the width of the H-mode edge barrier is either proportional or is of the order of the ion poloidal Larmor radius. This would require that the width of the edge barrier should depend on the plasma current. This dependence has been clearly verified at JET in experiments designed to control the edge MHD stability of ELM-free hot-ion H-mode plasmas. The effects of isotopic mass and the applicability of several edge barrier models to the hot-ion H-mode plasmas were analysed in using a large database containing both Deuterium-only (DD) and Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. This database has now been enlarged to include discharges from a plasma shape scan, allowing to study the dependence of the pedestal height on the edge shear. In addition the range of plasma currents was extended up to 6 MA. It is shown that the edge data is best described by a model where the edge barrier width is determined by the fast ions weighted towards the components with largest poloidal Larmor radii. However, it is not possible to eliminate conclusively the thermal ion model. (author)

  13. Joint Hub Network Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once.

  14. Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex.

  15. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  16. Using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT) in Cytoscape to Identify Contextually Relevant Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Lynn, David J

    2017-09-13

    Highly connected nodes in biological networks are called network hubs. Hubs are topologically important to the structure of the network and have been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), an application within Cytoscape 3, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene or protein expression data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes than expected by chance. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat).

  18. Plant height and grain yield of soybean depending on the year, irrigation and variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Galić Šubašić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-year field trials determined the influence of the year, irrigation treatment and varieties on plant height and grain yield of soybeans in the eastern Croatia conditions. All three investigated factors, as well as their interactions, with the exception of irrigation interactions and varieties that were significant at P=0.05, show a statistically significant influence (P=0.01 on the height of soybean plants. Soybean grain yields, as well as all their interactions, affect the significance level P=0.01. The obtained values of soybean grain yields during the study (mostly greater than 3000 kg ha-1 indicate the importance of selecting appropriate varieties and irrigation treatment in adapting soybean production to adverse weather effects of the year.

  19. Apparent Transition in the Human Height Distribution Caused by Age-Dependent Variation during Puberty Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takaki; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Kuninaka, Hiroto

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we examine the validity of the transition of the human height distribution from the log-normal distribution to the normal distribution during puberty, as suggested in an earlier study [Kuninaka et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 78 (2009) 125001]. Our data analysis reveals that, in late puberty, the variation in height decreases as children grow. Thus, the classification of a height dataset by age at this stage leads us to analyze a mixture of distributions with larger means and smaller variations. This mixture distribution has a negative skewness and is consequently closer to the normal distribution than to the log-normal distribution. The opposite case occurs in early puberty and the mixture distribution is positively skewed, which resembles the log-normal distribution rather than the normal distribution. Thus, this scenario mimics the transition during puberty. Additionally, our scenario is realized through a numerical simulation based on a statistical model. The present study does not support the transition suggested by the earlier study.

  20. Modeling a secular trend by Monte Carlo simulation of height biased migration in a spatial network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    Background: In a recent Monte Carlo simulation, the clustering of body height of Swiss military conscripts within a spatial network with characteristic features of the natural Swiss geography was investigated. In this study I examined the effect of migration of tall individuals into network hubs on the dynamics of body height within the whole spatial network. The aim of this study was to simulate height trends. Material and methods: Three networks were used for modeling, a regular rectangular fishing net like network, a real world example based on the geographic map of Switzerland, and a random network. All networks contained between 144 and 148 districts and between 265-307 road connections. Around 100,000 agents were initially released with average height of 170 cm, and height standard deviation of 6.5 cm. The simulation was started with the a priori assumption that height variation within a district is limited and also depends on height of neighboring districts (community effect on height). In addition to a neighborhood influence factor, which simulates a community effect, body height dependent migration of conscripts between adjacent districts in each Monte Carlo simulation was used to re-calculate next generation body heights. In order to determine the direction of migration for taller individuals, various centrality measures for the evaluation of district importance within the spatial network were applied. Taller individuals were favored to migrate more into network hubs, backward migration using the same number of individuals was random, not biased towards body height. Network hubs were defined by the importance of a district within the spatial network. The importance of a district was evaluated by various centrality measures. In the null model there were no road connections, height information could not be delivered between the districts. Results: Due to the favored migration of tall individuals into network hubs, average body height of the hubs, and later

  1. Solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation with a realistic diffusion coefficient and time dependent mixing height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Etman, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    One dimensional model for the dispersion of a passive atmospheric contaminant (neglecting chemical reactions) in the atmospheric boundary layer is introduced. The differential equation representing the dispersion of pollutants is solved on the basis of gradient-transfer theory (K- theory). The present approach deals with a more appropriate and realistic profile for the diffusion coefficient K, which is expressed in terms of the friction velocity U, the vertical coordinate z and the depth of the mixing layer h, which is taken time dependent. After some mathematical simplification, the equation analytic obtained solution can be easily applied to case study concerning atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  2. The Banana Genome Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D’Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world’s favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/ PMID:23707967

  3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MAIZE STEMS DEPENDING ON THE CUTTING HEIGHT OF PLANTS AT HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneus KOWALIK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in the two years in Trzcianka near Nowy Tomyśl, on brown soil, IIIa – IVa with pH 7.1 – 7.2. Plants of five maize cultivars were cut at the height of 15 cm and 55 cm. The lower parts of stems with leaves which remain on the field in case of high cutting, were characterized by a smaller content of protein and by a greater content of fibre, in comparison with the higher parts of plants. The energetic value of 1 kg of dry matter of the lower 40 cm part with leaves expressed in MJ NEL, in spite of significant differences in the chemical composition, was only insignificantly lower than the upper part. The content of dry matter, the chemical composition and the energetic value of both parts differed, depending on the cultivar.

  4. Control networks and hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Caterina; Sun, Haoxin; Petersen, Steven E

    2018-03-01

    Executive control functions are associated with frontal, parietal, cingulate, and insular brain regions that interact through distributed large-scale networks. Here, we discuss how fMRI functional connectivity can shed light on the organization of control networks and how they interact with other parts of the brain. In the first section of our review, we present convergent evidence from fMRI functional connectivity, activation, and lesion studies that there are multiple dissociable control networks in the brain with distinct functional properties. In the second section, we discuss how graph theoretical concepts can help illuminate the mechanisms by which control networks interact with other brain regions to carry out goal-directed functions, focusing on the role of specialized hub regions for mediating cross-network interactions. Again, we use a combination of functional connectivity, lesion, and task activation studies to bolster this claim. We conclude that a large-scale network perspective provides important neurobiological constraints on the neural underpinnings of executive control, which will guide future basic and translational research into executive function and its disruption in disease. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  6. Growth hormone therapy for children born small for gestational age: height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Hokken-Koelega, Anita

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 3% of children are born small for gestational age (SGA), and approximately 10% of SGA children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life. Among short SGA children, growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner; experience with long-term therapy is limited. To delineate the dose dependency of long-term height gain among short SGA children receiving GH therapy. We performed an epianalysis of the first adult height data for SGA children (n = 28) enrolled in 3 randomized trials comparing the growth-promoting efficacy of 2 continuous GH regimens (33 or 67 microg/kg per day for approximately 10 years, starting at approximately 5 years of age); in addition, we performed a meta-analysis of the adult height results published previously and those presented here. Epianalysis outcomes (n = 28) suggested that adult height increased more with a higher-dose regimen than with a lower-dose regimen. In the meta-analysis (n = 82), the higher-dose regimen was found to elicit a long-term height gain superior to that achieved with the lower-dose regimen by a mean of 0.4 SD (approximately 1 inch). Children who were shorter at the start of therapy experienced more long-term height gain. These findings confirm GH therapy as an effective and safe approach to reduce the adult height deficit that short SGA children otherwise face. In addition, the first meta-analysis indicated that height gain is less dose dependent over the long term than over the short term, at least within the dose range explored to date. For SGA children whose stature is not extremely short, current data support the use of a GH dose of approximately 33 microg/kg per day from start to adult height, particularly if treatment starts at a young age; shorter children (for example, height below -3 SD) might benefit from an approach in which short-term catch-up growth is achieved with a higher dose (> or =50 microg/kg per day) and long-term growth

  7. Soft hub for bearingless rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Soft hub concepts which allow the direct replacement of articulated rotor systems by bearingless types without any change in controllability or need for reinforcement to the drive shaft and/or transmission/fuselage attachments of the helicopter were studied. Two concepts were analyzed and confirmed for functional and structural feasibility against a design criteria and specifications established for this effort. Both systems are gimballed about a thrust carrying universal elastomeric bearing. One concept includes a set of composite flexures for drive torque transmittal from the shaft to the rotor, and another set (which is changeable) to impart hub tilting stiffness to the rotor system as required to meet the helicopter application. The second concept uses a composite bellows flexure to drive the rotor and to augment the hub stiffness provided by the elastomeric bearing. Each concept was assessed for weight, drag, ROM cost, and number of parts and compared with the production BO-105 hub.

  8. Predicting the binding patterns of hub proteins: a study using yeast protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson M Andorf

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions are critical to elucidating the role played by individual proteins in important biological pathways. Of particular interest are hub proteins that can interact with large numbers of partners and often play essential roles in cellular control. Depending on the number of binding sites, protein hubs can be classified at a structural level as singlish-interface hubs (SIH with one or two binding sites, or multiple-interface hubs (MIH with three or more binding sites. In terms of kinetics, hub proteins can be classified as date hubs (i.e., interact with different partners at different times or locations or party hubs (i.e., simultaneously interact with multiple partners.Our approach works in 3 phases: Phase I classifies if a protein is likely to bind with another protein. Phase II determines if a protein-binding (PB protein is a hub. Phase III classifies PB proteins as singlish-interface versus multiple-interface hubs and date versus party hubs. At each stage, we use sequence-based predictors trained using several standard machine learning techniques.Our method is able to predict whether a protein is a protein-binding protein with an accuracy of 94% and a correlation coefficient of 0.87; identify hubs from non-hubs with 100% accuracy for 30% of the data; distinguish date hubs/party hubs with 69% accuracy and area under ROC curve of 0.68; and SIH/MIH with 89% accuracy and area under ROC curve of 0.84. Because our method is based on sequence information alone, it can be used even in settings where reliable protein-protein interaction data or structures of protein-protein complexes are unavailable to obtain useful insights into the functional and evolutionary characteristics of proteins and their interactions.We provide a web server for our three-phase approach: http://hybsvm.gdcb.iastate.edu.

  9. Women's preferences for sexual dimorphism in height depend on menstrual cycle phase and expected duration of relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Boguslaw; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2005-09-01

    Human mate preferences are related to many morphological traits, such as female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), male height or facial symmetry. People also vary in preferences for sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS = male height/female height) between themselves and a potential partner. Here, we demonstrate that women adjust their preference for SDS not only in relation to their own height but also in relation to (1) the phase of menstrual cycle during which their preferences were studied and (2) the sexual strategy (short- versus long-term) they were asked to choose. Taller males (larger SDS) were preferred more often when women were in the follicular (i.e. fertile) phase of their menstrual cycle and when the partners were chosen for short-term relationships. These effects were independent of woman's height. The results show that women in a potentially fertile phase of their menstrual cycle and when choosing a partner who might be less likely to invest in children select genes of taller males.

  10. The Virtual Campus Hub Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Monaco, Lucio

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final concept of Virtual Campus Hub. It gives...

  11. Composite hub/metal blade compressor rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S.

    1978-01-01

    A low cost compressor rotor was designed and fabricated for a small jet engine. The rotor hub and blade keepers were compression molded with graphite epoxy. Each pair of metallic blades was held in the hub by a keeper. All keepers were locked in the hub with circumferential windings. Feasibility of fabrication was demonstrated in this program.

  12. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  13. Impact of height-dependent drainage forcing on the stable atmospheric boundary layer over a uniform slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, A.J.; Rees, J.M.; Derbyshire, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SBL) overlying a uniform shallow slope with a gradient of the order of 1:1000. By relaxing the assumption made in a previous study that the slope-induced drainage force is constant across the boundary layer, analysis has been performed that demonstrates that a realistic form for the drainage forcing is a term proportional to (1-z/h) 1/2 , where z is the height above the ground and h is the depth of the boundary layer. Modified expressions for the maximum sustainable surface buoyancy flux and Zilitinkevich's ratio are derived.

  14. Optimal hub location in pipeline networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, D.R.; Wirasinghe, S.C.; Chakma, A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses optimization strategies and techniques for the location of natural gas marketing hubs in the North American gas pipeline network. A hub is a facility at which inbound and outbound network links meet and freight is redirected towards their destinations. Common examples of hubs used in the gas pipeline industry include gas plants, interconnects and market centers. Characteristics of the gas pipeline industry which are relevant to the optimization of transportation costs using hubs are presented. Allocation techniques for solving location-allocation problems are discussed. An outline of the research in process by the authors in the field of optimal gas hub location concludes the paper.

  15. Investigation of the height dependency of optical turbulence in the surface layer over False Bay (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Detlev; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Günter, Willie; Griffith, Derek; Eisele, Christian; Sucher, Erik; Seiffer, Dirk; Stein, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulence impacts on the propagation of electro-optical radiation. Typical manifestations of optical turbulence are scintillation (intensity fluctuations), beam wander and (for laser systems) reduction of beam quality. For longer propagation channels, it is important to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution (inhomogeneity) of the optical turbulence. In the framework of the First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment (FESTER) optical turbulence was measured between June 2015 and February 2016 over a 1.8 km over-water link over False Bay. The link ran from the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) at Simons Town to the lighthouse at Roman Rock Island. Three Boundary layer scintillometers (BLS900) allowed assessing the vertical distribution of optical turbulence at three different heights between 5 and 12 m above the water surface. The expected decrease with Cn2 with height is not always found. These results are analyzed in terms of the meteorological scenario, and a comparison is made with a fourth optical link providing optical turbulence data over a 8.69 km path from IMT to St. James, roughly perpendicular to the three 1.8 km paths.

  16. Innovation Hub How-To

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    in establishing an innovative environment: carefully considering the decision to set up such a center, hiring the right people, designing a framework for effective output, creating a buffer from bureaucratic distractions, securing a leader to champion the effort, focusing on business outcomes, fostering...... disruptive over incremental innovation, and being patient. Regardless of where an innovation hub is established, the key to success lies in hiring creative, intrinsically motivated staff and then giving them the freedom to do what they do best....

  17. Learning Graphical Models With Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kean Ming; London, Palma; Mohan, Karthik; Lee, Su-In; Fazel, Maryam; Witten, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    We consider the problem of learning a high-dimensional graphical model in which there are a few hub nodes that are densely-connected to many other nodes. Many authors have studied the use of an ℓ 1 penalty in order to learn a sparse graph in the high-dimensional setting. However, the ℓ 1 penalty implicitly assumes that each edge is equally likely and independent of all other edges. We propose a general framework to accommodate more realistic networks with hub nodes, using a convex formulation that involves a row-column overlap norm penalty. We apply this general framework to three widely-used probabilistic graphical models: the Gaussian graphical model, the covariance graph model, and the binary Ising model. An alternating direction method of multipliers algorithm is used to solve the corresponding convex optimization problems. On synthetic data, we demonstrate that our proposed framework outperforms competitors that do not explicitly model hub nodes. We illustrate our proposal on a webpage data set and a gene expression data set.

  18. Impact of Tidal Level Variations on Wave Energy Absorption at Wave Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy absorption of the wave energy converters (WEC characterized by a limited stroke length —like the point absorbers developed at Uppsala University—depends on the sea level variation at the deployment site. In coastal areas characterized by high tidal ranges, the daily energy production of the generators is not optimal. The study presented in this paper quantifies the effects of the changing sea level at the Wave Hub test site, located at the south-west coast of England. This area is strongly affected by tides: the tidal height calculated as the difference between the Mean High Water Spring and the Mean Low Water Spring in 2014 was about 6.6 m. The results are obtained from a hydro-mechanic model that analyzes the behaviour of the point absorber at the Wave Hub, taking into account the sea state occurrence scatter diagram and the tidal time series at the site. It turns out that the impact of the tide decreases the energy absorption by 53%. For this reason, the need for a tidal compensation system to be included in the design of the WEC becomes compelling. The economic advantages are evaluated for different scenarios: the economic analysis proposed within the paper allows an educated guess to be made on the profits. The alternative of extending the stroke length of the WEC is investigated, and the gain in energy absorption is estimated.

  19. [P wave dispersion increased in childhood depending on blood pressure, weight, height, and cardiac structure and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-González, Elibet; González-Rodríguez, Emilio; Llanes-Camacho, María Del Carmen; Garí-Llanes, Merlin; García-Nóbrega, Yosvany; García-Sáez, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics. In the frame of the PROCDEC II project, children from 8 to 11 years old, without known heart conditions were studied. Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive (25.91±5.96g/m(2.7)) and hypertensive (30.34±8.48g/m(2.7)) showed significant differences P=.000. When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are 50.38% with normal left ventricular mass index and P wave dispersion was increased versus 13.36% of normotensive. Multiple regression demonstrated that the mean blood pressure, duration of A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height have a value of r=0.88 as related to P wave dispersion. P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion. Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. SUN HUB – ENERGY HUB FOR OUTDOOR TABLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    connections, providing opportunity to stream music via Bluetooth and play it from a handheld device to the table and lastly to provide LED lighting on the table during the dark hours. 3 prototypes of the system was built and tested at the Roskilde Festival 2017. Electrical logger units were built into the 3...... on festivals where people camps for several days it can be hard to have your portable units charged. In this this work we report a solar powered hub, as an add-on to a table in the urban environment for charging mobile phones and tablets and other handheld devices through USBs, charging laptops through AC...

  1. LOCATING HUBS IN TRANSPORT NETWORKS: AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Teodorović; Milica Šelmić; Ivana Vukićević

    2014-01-01

    Hub facilities serve as switching and transshipment points in transportation and communication networks as well as in logistic systems. Hub networks have an influence on flows on the hub-to-hub links and ensure benefit from economies of scale in inter-hub transportation. The key factors for designing a successful hub-and-spoke network are to determine the optimal number of hubs, to properly locate hubs, and to allocate the non-hubs to the hubs. This paper presents the model to determine the l...

  2. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT: A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Muetze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly connected nodes (hubs in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.   Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat.

  3. Capacitated Hub Routing Problem in Hub-and-Feeder Network Design: Modeling and Solution Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gelareh , Shahin; Neamatian Monemi , Rahimeh; Semet , Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we address the Bounded Cardinality Hub Location Routing with Route Capacity wherein eachhub acts as a transshipment node for one directed route. The number of hubs lies between a minimum anda maximum and the hub-level network is a complete subgraph. The transshipment operations take place atthe hub nodes and flow transfer time from a hub-level transporter to a spoke-level vehicle influences spoketo-hub allocations. We propose a mathematical model and a b...

  4. Wave Transformation for International Hub Port Planning (Transformasi Gelombang untuk Perencanaan Pelabuhan Hub Internasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Nugroho Sugianto

    2015-02-01

    archipelagic countries in the world, therefore port has vital role in economic development. Port is not just as a complement to the infrastructure, but it must be planned and managed properly and attention to the dynamics of marine phenomena such as ocean wave patterns. Ocean wave data become important factors in planning coastal building, since it is influenced by wave height, tides and waves transformation. The purpose of this study was to analyse characteristic and forms wave transformations for planning of international hub port at Kuala Tanjung, Baru Bara District North Sumatra. This port is one of two Indonesian government's plan in the development of international hub port. Quantitative method was used in this study by statistical calculations and mathematical modeling with hydrodinamic modules and spectral wave to determine the direction of wave propagation and transformation. Results show that based on ECMWF data during 1999-June 2014, known significant wave height (Hs maximum of 1.69 m and maximum period (Ts of 8 secs. The classification wave characteristics iswave transition (d.L-1: 0.27–0.48 and by the period are classified as gravitational waves. Wave transformation occurs due to the soaling, withKs 0.93–0.98 and the wave refraction Kr 0.97–0.99. Whereas Hb of 1.24 meters anddb 1.82 meters. The effectiveness of the design of the terminal building at the Port of Kuala Tanjung overall for the season amounted to 79.8%, which is quite effective in reducing the wave. Keywords: wave transformation, wave height and period, Port of Kuala Tanjung

  5. Hub location proplems under polyhedral demand uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Meraklı, Merve

    2015-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 69-74). Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of Industrial Engineering, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. Hubs are points of consolidation and transshipment in many-to-many distribution systems that bene t from economies of scale. In hub location problems, the aim is to locate hub facilities such that each pairwise demand is satis ed and the total cost is minimized. The problem...

  6. Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an initial high level strategy for carrying out the responsibilities of the national Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub to deliver a standards based service...

  7. MODELS AND METHODS FOR LOGISTICS HUB LOCATION: A REVIEW TOWARDS TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Luisa dos Santos Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Logistics hubs affect the distribution patterns in transportation networks since they are flow-concentrating structures. Indeed, the efficient moving of goods throughout supply chains depends on the design of such networks. This paper presents a literature review on the logistics hub location problem, providing an outline of modeling approaches, solving techniques, and their applicability to such context. Two categories of models were identified. While multi-criteria models may seem best suited to find optimal locations, they do not allow an assessment of the impact of new hubs on goods flow and on the transportation network. On the other hand, single-criterion models, which provide location and flow allocation information, adopt network simplifications that hinder an accurate representation of the relationshipbetween origins, destinations, and hubs. In view of these limitations we propose future research directions for addressing real challenges of logistics hubs location regarding transportation networks design.

  8. Wuthering Heights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronte, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his

  9. Virtual Campus Hub technical evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercoulen, Frank; Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio

    This report describes and discusses the technical achievements of the Virtual Campus Hub project and formulates a brief agenda for the future.......This report describes and discusses the technical achievements of the Virtual Campus Hub project and formulates a brief agenda for the future....

  10. Dynamic hubs show competitive and static hubs non-competitive regulation of their interaction partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurv Goel

    Full Text Available Date hub proteins have 1 or 2 interaction interfaces but many interaction partners. This raises the question of whether all partner proteins compete for the interaction interface of the hub or if the cell carefully regulates aspects of this process? Here, we have used real-time rendering of protein interaction networks to analyse the interactions of all the 1 or 2 interface hubs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the cell cycle. By integrating previously determined structural and gene expression data, and visually hiding the nodes (proteins and their edges (interactions during their troughs of expression, we predict when interactions of hubs and their partners are likely to exist. This revealed that 20 out of all 36 one- or two- interface hubs in the yeast interactome fell within two main groups. The first was dynamic hubs with static partners, which can be considered as 'competitive hubs'. Their interaction partners will compete for the interaction interface of the hub and the success of any interaction will be dictated by the kinetics of interaction (abundance and affinity and subcellular localisation. The second was static hubs with dynamic partners, which we term 'non-competitive hubs'. Regulatory mechanisms are finely tuned to lessen the presence and/or effects of competition between the interaction partners of the hub. It is possible that these regulatory processes may also be used by the cell for the regulation of other, non-cell cycle processes.

  11. PASSENGER FLOWS PREDICTION IN MAJOR TRANSPORTATION HUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ozerova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linear regression equations. Passenger transport vessel areas and branches of industry are interconnected and are in the ratio of passengers and production. Findings. It is found that the coefficient of correlation is in complex dependence on the duration of the period of retrospective analysis. Evaluation of reliability correlation coefficients and coefficients of predictive models led to the conclusion that the population gives the most accurate prediction of passenger flows, providing account of changes in Ukraine during the period of transformation. Originality. Equations of dependence on the impact of macroeconomic indicators were obtained and the evaluation of the reliability results was received. Practical value. The results of analysis and calculations will make short-term forecasting of traffic flow.

  12. Spectral Analysis of the Wake behind a Helicopter Rotor Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrin, Christopher; Reich, David; Schmitz, Sven; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48" Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. LDV and PIV measurements in the far-wake consistently showed a six-per-revolution flow structure, in addition to stronger two- and four-per-revolution structures. These six-per-revolution structures persisted into the far-field, and have no direct geometric counterpart on the hub model. The current study will examine the Reynolds number dependence of these structures and present higher-order statistics of the turbulence within the wake. In addition, current activity using the EFPL Large Water Tunnel at Oklahoma State University will be presented. This effort uses a more canonical configuration to identify the source for these six-per-revolution structures, which are assumed to be a non-linear interaction between the two- and four-per-revolution structures.

  13. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    , but can smooth discriminative signals in the population, degrading predictive performance. We present a novel hub-detection optimized for supervised learning that both clusters network nodes based on population level variation in connectivity and also takes the learning problem into account. The found......A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied...... hubs are a low-dimensional representation of the network and are chosen based on predictive performance as features for a linear regression. We apply our method to the problem of finding age-related changes in structural connectivity. We compare our supervised hub-detection (SHD) to an unsupervised hub...

  14. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  15. Capacitated Bounded Cardinality Hub Routing Problem: Model and Solution Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gelareha, Shahin; Monemic, Rahimeh Neamatian; Semetd, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the Bounded Cardinality Hub Location Routing with Route Capacity wherein each hub acts as a transshipment node for one directed route. The number of hubs lies between a minimum and a maximum and the hub-level network is a complete subgraph. The transshipment operations take place at the hub nodes and flow transfer time from a hub-level transporter to a spoke-level vehicle influences spoke- to-hub allocations. We propose a mathematical model and a branch-and-cut algor...

  16. Epidemics in Complex Networks: The Diversity of Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim; Gallos, Lazaros K.; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Makse, Hernan A.

    2009-03-01

    Many complex systems are believed to be vulnerable to spread of viruses and information owing to their high level of interconnectivity. Even viruses of low contagiousness easily proliferate the Internet. Rumors, fads, and innovation ideas are prone to efficient spreading in various social systems. Another commonly accepted standpoint is the importance of the most connected elements (hubs) in the spreading processes. We address following questions. Do all hubs conduct epidemics in the same manner? How does the epidemics spread depend on the structure of the network? What is the most efficient way to spread information over the system? We analyze several large-scale systems in the framework of of the susceptible/infective/removed (SIR) disease spread model which can also be mapped to the problem of rumor or fad spreading. We show that hubs are often ineffective in the transmission of virus or information owing to the highly heterogeneous topology of most networks. We also propose a new tool to evaluate the efficiency of nodes in spreading virus or information.

  17. Temperature and voltage dependence of barrier height and ideality factor in Au/0.07 graphene-doped PVA/n-Si structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındal Yerişkin, S.; Balbaşı, M.; Demirezen, S.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Au/0.07 graphene-doped PVA/n-Si structures were fabricated and current conduction mechanism in these structures were investigated in the temperature range of 80-380 K through forward bias current-voltage ( I- V) measurements. Main electrical parameters were extracted from I-V data. Zero-bias barrier height (\\overline{Φ}_{B0}) and ideality factor (n) were found strong functions of temperature and their values ranged from 0.234 eV and 4.98 (at 80 K) to 0.882 eV and 1.15 (at 380 K), respectively. Φ ap versus q/2k T plot was drawn to obtain an evidence of a Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights (BHs) and it revealed two distinct linear regions with different slopes and intercepts. The mean values of BH ( Φ Bo) and zero-bias standard deviation (σ s ) were obtained from the intercept and slope of the linear regions of this plot as 1.30 eV and 0.16 V for the first region (280-380 K) and 0.74 eV and 0.085 V for the second region (80-240 K), respectively. Thus, the values of \\overline{Φ}_{B0} and effective Richardson constant ( A*) were also found from the intercept and slope of the modified Richardson plot [ln( I s /T 2) - q 2 σ o 2 /2k 2 T 2 vs q/ kT] as 1.31 eV and 130 A/cm2 K2 for the first region and 0.76 eV and 922 A/cm2 K2 for the second region, respectively. The value of A* for the first region was very close to the theoretical value for n-Si (112 A/cm2 K2). The energy density distribution profile of surface states (Nss) was also extracted from the forward bias I-V data by taking into account voltage dependent effective BH (Φe) and n.

  18. Report on survey on international hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Hirobumi; Hoshino, Junko; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Okada, Sohei

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is promoting initiative to form an international hub in line with its aim to accept more researchers/engineers from all over the world. Establishment of 'the Committee for JAEA Internationalization Initiative' was planned in 2010 so as to intensify this initiative, and in February, 2010, we visited research institutions in Europe, which include European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the construction site of ITER in Cadarache, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), with the intention to survey and learn their advanced activities and systems in regard to the International Hub, so that the committee will be able to make fruitful discussion. This report describes strategy taken in each institution for an International Hub, and the state of each institution regarding acceptance and management of overseas researchers and engineers, research environment, living environment/health and welfare, and PR activities/coexistence with the local community. (author)

  19. Transaction hubs: can tame energy market communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilos, C.

    2002-07-01

    The nature and function of transaction hubs is described in view of their growing usefulness as electric industry deregulation takes hold and with it the urgent requirement for trading partners to exchange information quickly and efficiently. The paper stresses the many difficulties involved in communications between trading partners since each partner operates under a different set of business rules, with the result that there are 'language differences' to overcome, not to mention the sheer volume of data that must be handled. To make it all work, companies turn increasingly to products like communication hubs. They are able to overcome the fact that different companies have different systems, different data formats and different business rules, and are able to help companies to package, transmit, receive and process information. The principal advantage of a hub is that no one has to learn anyone else's interface. Everyone can continue to use their own data format and transaction models. The hub supplies the protocols and processing rules needed to work with any of the partners connected to the hub. In order to achieve the level of efficiency and reliability required in a hub, certain design principles must be satisfied. These are : scalability, facilities for load balancing, availability of standard routine services, ability to recognize a process as consisting of various transactions, and a transaction as belonging to a specific process, ability to allow the user to configure expiration times around the business processes according to market rules, facility to easily configure validation rules, ability to handle exceptions, ability to interoperate with many middle-ware products, and to manage work flow in a manner that is transparent to operating personnel.

  20. Hub Status and Indexation of Container Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-An Park

    2015-06-01

    This study develops two sub-indexes of port classification and capacity, and combines cases of these two sub-indexes into various types in order to find a proper port hub index. The paper demonstrates how different types of port hub index are useful measurements for evaluating outputs and inputs of container ports. In a case analysis we show that the indexes of period variables and lagged variables have more explanatory power with regard to changes of port throughputs and high correlation with inputs.

  1. Permasalahan P-Hub Median Dengan Lintasan Terpendek

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Raja David

    2013-01-01

    Hub are facilities that serve as sorting, switching, and transhipment in a transportation network. P-hub median problem is a discrete case location allocation problem which all hub is fully connected. In this paper will be intoduced Mixed Integrer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation models of cost for p-hub median problem allocation for uncapacitaced single allocation p-hub median(USApHMP). In this paper also introduced Floyd-Warshall shortest path algorithm to solve p-hub median problems a...

  2. Gas and LNG trading hubs, hub indexation and destination flexibility in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng; Padinjare Variam, Hari Malamakkavu

    2016-01-01

    In the East Asian gas markets, issues like gas trading hubs, hub indexed pricing, and destination flexibility are being debated. This paper examines the impact of a change in East Asia's pricing benchmark and contract flexibility on the regional and global gas markets. The paper uses the Nexant World Gas Model, a linear program with global cost minimization as the objective. To our knowledge, this study on hub competition, price benchmark change and contract flexibility improvement in East Asia will be the first in the literature and have real policy relevance. The results show that both price benchmark change and contract flexibility improvements will create an overall benefit for the world and East Asia importers, but the impacts are different among exporters and importers. However, there is no evidence of competition among different benchmark hubs and no evidence that destination restrictions cause the “Asia Premium”. It implies that removal of destination clauses has higher priority than the change to hub indexation for Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei, but both should be treated equally in China. The study also suggests that East Asian importers should cooperate among themselves and with exporters to facilitate the hub creation and contract changes in East Asia. - Highlights: •Gas trading hubs in Japan and China are not mutually exclusive. •Both price benchmark changes and contract flexibility improvements are beneficial. •The “Asian Premium” is not caused by destination restriction. •Destination flexibility is much more important than hub indexation in East Asia except China. •Hub indexation is as important as destination flexibility in China due to pipeline imports.

  3. The home hemodialysis hub: physical infrastructure and integrated governance structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark R; Young, Bessie A; Fox, Sally J; Cleland, Calli J; Walker, Robert J; Masakane, Ikuto; Herold, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    An effective home hemodialysis program critically depends on adequate hub facilities and support functions and on transparent and accountable organizational processes. The likelihood of optimal service delivery and patient care will be enhanced by fit-for-purpose facilities and implementation of a well-considered governance structure. In this article, we describe the required accommodation and infrastructure for a home hemodialysis program and a generic organizational structure that will support both patient-facing clinical activities and business processes. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  4. Height increment of beech and maple depending on the amount of incident light in the Badin primeval forest; Vyskovy prirastok buka a javora v zavislosti od mnozstva dopadajuceho svetla v pralese Badin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havasova, M [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra regionalnej geografie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Processed study is devoted to a dependency of height increase of natural regeneration of beech and maple in Badin primeval forest . In selected site discontinuities there were chosen 2 tran-sects 1 m in width and oriented towards East - West and North - South, passing through the centre of the discontinuity. Heights of beech and maple individuals, as well as the rate of their annual increase (for 2010) were measured there. These data were then transformed to the values of reduced elevation gain. The amount of incident radiation was measured by hemispherical photographs, and we set the values of direct (DSF) and indirect sunlight (ISF). Globally, a negative effect of direct sunlight on the height growth of beech was shown. For height growth of maple no significant effect of different values of ISF or DFS was demonstrated, Justas well as no tran-sect orientation. Beech reached higher gains than maple. Overall bigger gains of the ground wood were achieved on the north side of the discontinuity. Height increment of beech and maple depending on the amount of incident light in the Badin primeval forest. (author)

  5. Emerging Education Hubs: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder; Ho, K.-C.; Yeoh, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of a globalising post-Fordist political economy, countries and universities are increasingly pursuing strategic transnational education and research alliances. This article analyses the Global Schoolhouse, a key education policy platform that aims to transform Singapore into a knowledge and innovation hub by establishing networks…

  6. Hub location problems in transportation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a 4-index formulation for the uncapacitated multiple allocation hub location problem tailored for urban transport and liner shipping network design. This formulation is very tight and most of the tractable instances for MIP solvers are optimally solvable at the root node....... also introduce fixed cost values for Australian Post (AP) dataset....

  7. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  8. Hubs and spokes in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2017-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries are involved in much more RTAs than others. Furthermore, some countries take in a position as a hub: they have trade agreements with many other countries, while their partner countries are much less involved in RTA relations. Even

  9. Multiple-Localization and Hub Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Motonori; Gonja, Hideki; Koike, Ryotaro; Fukuchi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamental for all biological phenomena, and protein-protein interaction networks provide a global view of the interactions. The hub proteins, with many interaction partners, play vital roles in the networks. We investigated the subcellular localizations of proteins in the human network, and found that the ones localized in multiple subcellular compartments, especially the nucleus/cytoplasm proteins (NCP), the cytoplasm/cell membrane proteins (CMP), and the nucleus/cytoplasm/cell membrane proteins (NCMP), tend to be hubs. Examinations of keywords suggested that among NCP, those related to post-translational modifications and transcription functions are the major contributors to the large number of interactions. These types of proteins are characterized by a multi-domain architecture and intrinsic disorder. A survey of the typical hub proteins with prominent numbers of interaction partners in the type revealed that most are either transcription factors or co-regulators involved in signaling pathways. They translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, triggered by the phosphorylation and/or ubiquitination of intrinsically disordered regions. Among CMP and NCMP, the contributors to the numerous interactions are related to either kinase or ubiquitin ligase activity. Many of them reside on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane, and act as the upstream regulators of signaling pathways. Overall, these hub proteins function to transfer external signals to the nucleus, through the cell membrane and the cytoplasm. Our analysis suggests that multiple-localization is a crucial concept to characterize groups of hub proteins and their biological functions in cellular information processing. PMID:27285823

  10. Data Collection and Management with ENSITE HUB: ENSITE HUB Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    ER D C/ CE RL S R- 17 -1 4 Engineer Site Identification for the Tactical Environment (ENSITE) Data Collection and Management with ENSITE...and Management with ENSITE HUB ENSITE HUB Version 1.0 Juliana M. Wilhoit, Natalie R. Myers, and George W. Calfas Construction Engineering Research...and standardized manner. With such a tool, CB planners (as well as designers, operators, and manag - ers) can rapidly assess possible current and

  11. THE ROLE OF AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT IN HUBS SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Iurievich Bely

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Article contains approaches to development and functioning of transport-logistic nodes – hubs – in modern conditions. There is hub classification and examples of them on different transport modes. An important component in providing reliability of hub work is automobile transport.

  12. Southwest Regional Climate Hub and California Subsidiary Hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Elias; Caiti Steele; Kris Havstad; Kerri Steenwerth; Jeanne Chambers; Helena Deswood; Amber Kerr; Albert Rango; Mark Schwartz; Peter Stine; Rachel Steele

    2015-01-01

    This report is a joint effort of the Southwest Regional Climate Hub and the California Subsidiary Hub (Sub Hub). The Southwest Regional Climate Hub covers Arizona, California, Hawai‘i and the U.S. affiliated Pacific Islands, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah and contains vast areas of western rangeland, forests, and high-value specialty crops (Figure 1). The California Sub...

  13. Report on survey on international Hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Hirobumi; Hoshino, Junko; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Okada, Sohei

    2011-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is promoting initiative to form an international Center of Excellence in line with its aim to accept more researchers/engineers from all over the world. Establishment of 'the Committee for JAEA Internationalization Initiative' was planned in 2010 so as to intensify this initiative, and in February, 2010, we visited research institutions in Europe, which include European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the construction site of ITER in Cadarache, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), with the intention to survey and learn their advanced activities and systems in regard to the International Hub, so that the committee will be able to make fruitful discussion. This report describes strategy taken in each institution for an International Hub, and the state of each institution regarding acceptance and management of overseas researchers and engineers, research environment, living environment/health and welfare, and PR activities/coexistence with the local community. (author)

  14. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  15. Hub River: A private power prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the challenges of financing an independent power project in a developing country. The oil-fired plant is to be located on the Hub River in Baluchistan on the Arabian Sea coast. The topics of the article include a description of the team that put the project together, the financing plans, the risk in the face of political unrest and change of governments, and the beginning of construction of the project

  16. A State Cyber Hub Operations Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    current and future decision support. Finally, the Hub operations team must track and report key performance indictors ( KPIs ) (established by the state...Region); then mutually agreed-upon core KPIs should be identified and reported at this time. The goal of the Act Element is to implement the decision...Force Headquarters Page 58 JIE Joint Information Environment JMC JIE Management Construct KPI Key Performance Indicator LEA Law Enforcement

  17. Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.

  18. Experimental Investigation of a Helicopter Rotor Hub Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Elbing, Brian; Schmitz, Sven

    2013-11-01

    A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48'' Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. The main objectives of the experiment were to understand the spatial- and temporal content of the unsteady wake downstream of a rotor hub up to a distance corresponding to the empennage. Primary measurements were the total hub drag and velocity measurements at three nominal downstream locations. Various flow structures were identified and linked to geometric features of the hub model. The most prominent structures were two-per-revolution (hub component: scissors) and four-per-revolution (hub component: main hub arms) vortices shed by the hub. Both the two-per-revolution and four-per-revolution structures persisted far downstream of the hub, but the rate of dissipation was greater for the four-per-rev structures. This work provides a dataset for enhanced understanding of the fundamental physics underlying rotor hub flows and serves as validation data for future CFD analyses.

  19. Dynamically Allocated Hub in Task-Evoked Network Predicts the Vulnerable Prefrontal Locus for Contextual Memory Retrieval in Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Osada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging and neurophysiology have revealed that multiple areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC are activated in a specific memory task, but severity of impairment after PFC lesions is largely different depending on which activated area is damaged. The critical relationship between lesion sites and impairments has not yet been given a clear mechanistic explanation. Although recent works proposed that a whole-brain network contains hubs that play integrative roles in cortical information processing, this framework relying on an anatomy-based structural network cannot account for the vulnerable locus for a specific task, lesioning of which would bring impairment. Here, we hypothesized that (i activated PFC areas dynamically form an ordered network centered at a task-specific "functional hub" and (ii the lesion-effective site corresponds to the "functional hub," but not to a task-invariant "structural hub." To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments in macaques performing a temporal contextual memory task. We found that the activated areas formed a hierarchical hub-centric network based on task-evoked directed connectivity, differently from the anatomical network reflecting axonal projection patterns. Using a novel simulated-lesion method based on support vector machine, we estimated severity of impairment after lesioning of each area, which accorded well with a known dissociation in contextual memory impairment in macaques (impairment after lesioning in area 9/46d, but not in area 8Ad. The predicted severity of impairment was proportional to the network "hubness" of the virtually lesioned area in the task-evoked directed connectivity network, rather than in the anatomical network known from tracer studies. Our results suggest that PFC areas dynamically and cooperatively shape a functional hub-centric network to reallocate the lesion-effective site depending on the cognitive processes, apart from

  20. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  1. Electric wheel hub motor; Elektrischer Radnabenmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeninger, Michael; Kock, Alexander [IFAM Bremen (Germany); Horch, Felix [IFAM Bremen (Germany). Komponentenentwicklung; Pleteit, Hermann [IFAM Bremen (Germany). Abt. Giessereitechnologie und Komponentenentwicklung

    2012-02-15

    The bundled competences of the participating Fraunhofer Institutes have made it possible to develop a wheel hub motor that has essentially overcome currently existing technical hurdles, enabling its use in a vehicle. In addition to direct technical challenges such as sealing against external influences, high bearing stiffness requirements, necessary high torque densities and simple integration in the chassis, the safety aspects required by modern vehicles were also taken into account. A drive system that guarantees safe driving states, even in the case of malfunction, was developed through the combination of recuperative braking with a classic mechanical braking system and redundant motor design. (orig.)

  2. Hypocretin as a Hub for Arousal and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Tyree

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The lateral hypothalamus is comprised of a heterogeneous mix of neurons that serve to integrate and regulate sleep, feeding, stress, energy balance, reward, and motivated behavior. Within these populations, the hypocretin/orexin neurons are among the most well studied. Here, we provide an overview on how these neurons act as a central hub integrating sensory and physiological information to tune arousal and motivated behavior accordingly. We give special attention to their role in sleep-wake states and conditions of hyper-arousal, as is the case with stress-induced anxiety. We further discuss their roles in feeding, drug-seeking, and sexual behavior, which are all dependent on the motivational state of the animal. We further emphasize the application of powerful techniques, such as optogenetics, chemogenetics, and fiber photometry, to delineate the role these neurons play in lateral hypothalamic functions.

  3. Strategic analysis on establishing a natural gas trading hub in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Tong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the LNG importing price premium in the Asia–Pacific markets has become increasingly high, generating great effects on the economic development in China. In addition, the natural gas dependence degree is expanding continuously, making it extremely urgent to establish a natural gas trading hub in China, with the aim to ensure national energy security, to gain the pricing power, and to build the regional benchmark prices. Through a comparative analysis of internal strength/weakness and external competitiveness, we concluded that with intensively-issued supporting policies on the natural gas sector, the initiation of spot and futures markets, the rapid growth of gas production and highly-improved infrastructures, as well as Shanghai's advantageous location, China has more advantages in establishing an Asian Natural Gas Trading Hub than other counties like Singapore, Japan and Malaysia. Moreover, based on the SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat and the marketization process analysis, the following strategies were presented: to impel the establishment of a natural gas trading hub depending on the gas supply condition, to follow the policies to complete the gas storage system, to form regional communities by taking comparative advantages, and to reinforce the marketization reform and regulation system establishment with foreign experiences for reference. This study rationalized the necessity and practicality of establishing a natural gas trading hub in China and will help China make a proper decision and find a periodical strategic path in this sector.

  4. Experimental Investigation of a Helicopter Rotor Hub Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David

    The rotor hub system is by far the largest contributor to helicopter parasite drag and a barrier to increasing helicopter forward-flight speed and range. Additionally, the hub sheds undesirable vibration- and instability-inducing unsteady flow over the empennage. The challenges associated with rotor hub flows are discussed, including bluff body drag, interactional aerodynamics, and the effect of the turbulent hub wake on the helicopter empennage. This study was conducted in three phases to quantify model-scale rotor hub flows in water tunnels at The Pennsylvania State University Applied research lab. The first phase investigated scaling and component interaction effects on a 1:17 scale rotor hub model in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Effects of Reynolds number, advance ratio, and hub geometry configuration on the drag and wake shed from the rotor hub were quantified using load cell measurements and particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The second phase focused on flow visualization and measurement on a rotor hub and rotor hub/pylon geometry in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Stereo PIV was conducted in a cross plane downstream of the hub and flow visualization was conducted using oil paint and fluorescent dye. The third phase concentrated on high accuracy load measurement and prediction up to full-scale Reynolds number on a 1:4.25 scale model in the 48-inch diameter water tunnel. Measurements include 6 degree of freedom loads on the hub and two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry in the wake. Finally, results and conclusions are discussed, followed by recommendations for future investigations.

  5. Numerical study of hub taper angle on podded propeller performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.F.; Veitch, B.; Bose, N.; Liu, P.

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the majority of podded propulsion systems are of the pulling type, because this type provides better hydrodynamic efficiency than the pushing type. There are several possible explanations for the better overall performance of a puller type podded propulsor. One is related to the difference in hub shape. Puller and pusher propellers have opposite hub taper angles, hence different hub and blade root shape. These differences cause changes in the flow condition and possibly influence the overall performance. The current study focuses on the variation in performance of pusher and puller propellers with the same blade sections, but different hub taper angles. A hyperboloidal low order source doublet steady/unsteady time domain panel method code was modified and used to evaluate effects of hub taper angle on the open water propulsive performance of some fixed pitch screw propellers used in podded propulsion systems. The modified code was first validated against measurements of two model propellers in terms of average propulsive performance and good agreement was found. Major findings include significant effects of hub taper angle on propulsive performance of tapered hub propellers and noticeable effects of hub taper angle on sectional pressure distributions of tapered hub propeller blades. (author)

  6. Review of research on AFPM hub motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo DAI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of new energy vehicles is an important way to promote the sustainable development of automobile industry, and it is also the key measure to solve the problems of energy and environment. As an important type of new energy vehicles, electric vehicles will play an important role in the future competition in the automotive industry, especially in the field of electric vehicle driven by wheel. With the advantages of compact structure, high power density, low working noise and good heat dissipation performance, the AFPM motor has gradually become the preferred object of the hub driving device. Based on the statement of the technical development and research status about AFPM motor, this paper mainly analyzes the engineering application and technical problems of AFPM motor in hub drive, especially the matching of AFPM motor with other systems and the problem of heat dissipation at high load conditions, and looks forward to the key role in the future development of the automotive industry. This paper will play a certain reference and guiding role in the application of AFPM motor in the field of new energy vehicles.

  7. The development of gas hubs in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriello, Caterina; Polo, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of wholesale markets for natural gas at the different stages of market liberalization. We identify three steps in the process: wholesale trade initially develops to cope with balancing needs when the shippers and suppliers segments become more fragmented; once the market becomes more liquid, it turns out to be a second source of gas procurement in alternative to long term contracts; finally, to manage price risk financial instruments are traded. We review in detail the different regulatory measures that must be introduced to create an efficient and functioning wholesale gas market. Finally, we analyze the evolution of gas hubs in the UK, the Netherlands, Germany and Italy in terms of market rules and market liquidity. We argue that each of these country cases can be easily located into the evolutionary path we have highlighted at the beginning, with the UK and the Netherlands leading the process, Germany and Italy constrained by limited supply; Italy is also showing an interesting counterfactual. -- Highlights: •The paper illustrates development paths for natural gas hubs in Europe. •Wholesale trade increases with competition. •The regulatory settings of UK, Netherlands, Germany and Italy are reviewed. •Each country is located into the evolutionary path highlighted in the analytical framework

  8. Fall from heights: does height really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizo, G; Sciarretta, J D; Gibson, S; Muertos, K; Romano, A; Davis, J; Pepe, A

    2018-06-01

    Fall from heights is high energy injuries and constitutes a fraction of all fall-related trauma evaluations while bearing an increase in morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that despite advancements in trauma care, the overall survivability has not improved in this subset of trauma patients. All adult trauma patients treated after sustaining a fall from heights during a 40-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Admission demographics, clinical data, fall height (ft), injury patterns, ISS, GCS, length of stay, and mortality were reviewed. 116 patients sustained a fall from heights, 90.4% accidental. A mean age of 37± 14.7 years, 86% male, and a fall height of 19 ± 10 ft were encountered. Admission GCS was 13 ± 2 with ISS 10 ± 11. Overall LOS was 6.6 ± 14.9 days and an ICU LOS of 2.8 ± 8.9 days. Falls ≥ 25 ft.(16%) had lower GCS 10.4 ± 5.8, increased ISS 22.6 ± 13.8, a fall height 37.9 ± 13.1 ft and associated increased mortality (p < 0.001). Mortality was 5.2%, a mean distance fallen of 39 ± 22 ft. and an ISS of 31.5 ±16.5. Brain injury was the leading cause of death, 50% with open skull fractures. Level of height fallen is a good predictor of overall outcome and survival. Despite advances in trauma care, death rates remain unchanged. Safety awareness and injury prevention programs are needed to reduce the risk of high-level falls.

  9. Hub exchange operations in intermodal hub-and spoke networks: A performance comparison of rail-rail exchange facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bontekoning, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of hub-and-spoke networks in intermodal transport is suggested as one of the potential solutions for helping to increase the intermodal market share. Traditionally, trains are shunted at hubs; this is a time-consuming process. Since the early 1990s a new type of intermodal terminal, specifically designed for fast tran-shipment at nodes in hub-and-spoke networks, has been introduced in Europe. These hub terminals could replace this time-consuming shunting. Studies on the new...

  10. Temperature dependence of the Schottky-barrier heights of n-type semiconductors in the temperature range of 7 to 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.P.; Lee, T.C.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    In this note we present the results of the temperature dependence of the SBH in Au/n-Si, Ag/n-GaAs, and Au/n-GaAs in the temperature range of 7 to 300 K from our internal photoemission measurements. (orig.)

  11. Developmental Changes in Brain Network Hub Connectivity in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Simon T E; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat; Allen, Nicholas B; Whittle, Sarah; Fulcher, Ben D; Zalesky, Andrew; Fornito, Alex

    2015-06-17

    The human brain undergoes substantial development throughout adolescence and into early adulthood. This maturational process is thought to include the refinement of connectivity between putative connectivity hub regions of the brain, which collectively form a dense core that enhances the functional integration of anatomically distributed, and functionally specialized, neural systems. Here, we used longitudinal diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to characterize changes in connectivity between 80 cortical and subcortical anatomical regions over a 2 year period in 31 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Connectome-wide analysis indicated that only a small subset of connections showed evidence of statistically significant developmental change over the study period, with 8% and 6% of connections demonstrating decreased and increased structural connectivity, respectively. Nonetheless, these connections linked 93% and 90% of the 80 regions, respectively, pointing to a selective, yet anatomically distributed pattern of developmental changes that involves most of the brain. Hub regions showed a distinct tendency to be highly connected to each other, indicating robust "rich-club" organization. Moreover, connectivity between hubs was disproportionately influenced by development, such that connectivity between subcortical hubs decreased over time, whereas frontal-subcortical and frontal-parietal hub-hub connectivity increased over time. These findings suggest that late adolescence is characterized by selective, yet significant remodeling of hub-hub connectivity, with the topological organization of hubs shifting emphasis from subcortical hubs in favor of an increasingly prominent role for frontal hub regions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359078-10$15.00/0.

  12. Using the CER Hub to ensure data quality in a multi-institution smoking cessation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kari L; Kirillova, Olga; Gillespie, Suzanne E; Hsiao, David; Pishchalenko, Valentyna; Pai, Akshatha Kalsanka; Puro, Jon E; Plumley, Robert; Kudyakov, Rustam; Hu, Weiming; Allisany, Art; McBurnie, MaryAnn; Kurtz, Stephen E; Hazlehurst, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) studies involving multiple institutions with diverse electronic health records (EHRs) depend on high quality data. To ensure uniformity of data derived from different EHR systems and implementations, the CER Hub informatics platform developed a quality assurance (QA) process using tools and data formats available through the CER Hub. The QA process, implemented here in a study of smoking cessation services in primary care, used the 'emrAdapter' tool programmed with a set of quality checks to query large samples of primary care encounter records extracted in accord with the CER Hub common data framework. The tool, deployed to each study site, generated error reports indicating data problems to be fixed locally and aggregate data sharable with the central site for quality review. Across the CER Hub network of six health systems, data completeness and correctness issues were prevalent in the first iteration and were considerably improved after three iterations of the QA process. A common issue encountered was incomplete mapping of local EHR data values to those defined by the common data framework. A highly automated and distributed QA process helped to ensure the correctness and completeness of patient care data extracted from EHRs for a multi-institution CER study in smoking cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. A versatile framework for cooperative hub network development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for cooperative hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for the transshipment of goods is expensive and, therefore, involves considerable risks for cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at

  14. A versatile framework for cooperative hub network development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, Frans; Borm, Peter; Dullaert, Wout; Hamers, Herbert

    This paper introduces a framework for cooperative hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for the transshipment of goods is expensive and, therefore, involves considerable risks for cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at

  15. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  16. International Education Hubs: Collaboration for Competitiveness and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of education hubs, a recent phenomenon in international higher education. Three models of hubs are examined in relation to the forces, risks, and opportunities of globalization and how local and international collaborations are essential for both global competitiveness and sustainability.

  17. Climate programs update: USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub update

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM OVERVIEW: The overarching goal of the USDA SW Climate Hub is to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in addressing the effects of climate change including prolonged drought, increased insect outbreaks and severe wildfires. In the first year of operations, the SW Climate Hub (est. Februa...

  18. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses the competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an existing dominating operator, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes i...

  19. Lean GHTorrent : GitHub data on demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gousios, G.; Vasilescu, B.N.; Serebrenik, A.; Zaidman, A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, GitHub has become the largest code host in the world, with more than 5M developers collaborating across 10M repositories. Numerous popular open source projects (such as Ruby on Rails, Homebrew, Bootstrap, Django or jQuery) have chosen GitHub as their host and have migrated their

  20. Development of Europe's gas hubs: Implications for East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunpeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas trading hubs have been initially developed in the US in 1980s, UK in 1990s, more recently in European in the 2000s and mulled in East Asia now. Due to its freshness and diversification in nationality, governance and culture, the European hub experience can offer valuable lessons for East Asia. This paper seeks to advance understanding of gas hub development in Europe and provide lessons for East Asia. The European experience highlights that market liberalization and transition of gas pricing mechanism are necessary in creating the competitive markets that are needed for functional gas hubs. Political will and regulations further safeguard the competition environment needed for hub development. Natural factors, such as significant domestic production and culture could have a significant impact on the hub development and transition of pricing mechanism. In East Asia, the path to gas trading hubs might be more difficult than in Europe but a growing market creates an opportunity to start new terms with new contracts. Nevertheless, East Asian needs to work hard to development its indigenous gas or LNG trading hubs.

  1. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Feng, J. J.; Wu, G. K.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  2. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H; Feng, J J; Wu, G K; Luo, X Q

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  3. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  4. Development of an improved low profile hub seal refurbishment tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagg, L.

    1997-01-01

    The hub seal area of a fuel channel feeder coupling can be exposed to oxygen in the atmosphere if protective measures are not taken during maintenance outages. Exposure to oxygen can lead to pitting of the hub seal area. Although this is a rare occurrence, the resulting possibility of the feeder coupling leakage led to the development of a feeder hub refurbishment tool. To reduce time and man-rem exposure during feeder hub seal refurbishment, an improved low profile hub seat refurbishing tool has been developed. The improved tool design will allow for quick and controlled removal of material, and the restoration of a roll-burnished finish equivalent to the original requirements. The new tool can be used in maintenance operations, with the end fitting present, as well as under retube-type circumstances, with the end fitting removed. (author)

  5. Idea Hubs as Nexus of Collective Creativity in Digital Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciriello, Raffaele; Richter, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Digital innovation radically transforms the nature of corporate innovation practices, implying a growing need for deeper understanding its origins and outcomes. In this paper, we conceptualize the focal points of social networking in digital innovation as idea hubs. We focus our analysis...... on instances of idea hubs in two multinational European software companies, where we conducted a case study over a two-year period, and collected data in form of interviews, digital documents, and participant observations. In doing so, we identify a set of social networking practices in which idea hubs serve...... of digital artifacts individuals can choose from, offline interaction still plays a major role in facilitating digital innovation....

  6. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor hub concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P. G. C.

    1983-01-01

    Two variations of the helicopter bearingless main rotor hub concept are proposed as bases for further development in the preliminary design phase of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) program. This selection was the result of an evaluation of three bearingless hub concepts and two articulated hub concepts with elastomeric bearings. The characteristics of each concept were evaluated by means of simplified methodology. These characteristics included the assessment of stability, vulnerability, weight, drag, cost, stiffness, fatigue life, maintainability, and reliability.

  7. Flow Merging and Hub Route Optimization in Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerui Weng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal hub routing problem of merged tasks in collaborative transportation. This problem allows all carriers’ transportation tasks to reach the destinations optionally passing through 0, 1, or 2 hubs within limited distance, while a cost discount on arcs in the hub route could be acquired after paying fixed charges. The problem arises in the application of logistics, postal services, airline transportation, and so forth. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer programming model, and provide two heuristic approaches, respectively, based on Lagrangian relaxation and Benders decomposition. Computational experiments show that the algorithms work well.

  8. Liner Shipping Hub Network Design in a Competitive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    A new mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an alliance, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes its market share...... — proportional to service time and transportation cost —by locating a predefined number of hubs at candidate ports and designing its network. While general-purpose solvers do not solve instances of even small size, an accelerated lagrangian method coupled with a primal heuristic obtains very good bounds. Our...

  9. Dependence of optimal wind turbine spacing on wind farm length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria

    2016-01-01

    Recent large eddy simulations have led to improved parameterizations of the effective roughness height of wind farms. This effective roughness height can be used to predict the wind velocity at hub-height as function of the geometric mean of the spanwise and streamwise turbine spacings and the

  10. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this 'physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean' was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the 'physiological sequence of lumbar disc height' leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [de

  11. The East African Resilience Innovation Hub | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project leadership The Resilience Innovation Hub will be housed within a ... Region at the Levy Mwanawasa Regional Centre, Lusaka -Conflict Early Warning and ... Authority on Development, Addis Ababa This initiative will support innovative ...

  12. A Hub Matrix Theory and Applications to Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung HT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers communications and network systems whose properties are characterized by the gaps of the leading eigenvalues of for a matrix . It is shown that a sufficient and necessary condition for a large eigen-gap is that is a "hub" matrix in the sense that it has dominant columns. Some applications of this hub theory in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO wireless systems are presented.

  13. DigitalHub: A Repository Focused on the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilik, Violeta; Hebal, Piotr; Olson, Anton; Wishnetsky, Susan; Pastva, Joelen; Kubilius, Ramune; Shank, Jonathan; Gutzman, Karen; Chung, Margarita; Holmes, Kristi

    2018-01-01

    The DigitalHub scholarly repository was developed and launched at the Galter Health Sciences Library for the Feinberg School of Medicine and the greater Northwestern Medicine community. The repository was designed to allow scholars the ability to create, share, and preserve a range of citable digital outputs. This article traces the evolution of DigitalHub's development and engagement activities, highlighting project challenges, innovations, success stories, and the team-based approach that was employed to successfully achieve project goals.

  14. North West Surrey's locality hubs - delivering integrated care

    OpenAIRE

    Compton, Lisa; Wilkinson, Peter; Lawn, Liz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: North West Surrey CCG (NWSCCG) is establishing Locality Hubs – physical buildings offering a fully integrated GP-led, multi-disciplinary ‘one-stop-shop’ services in the community for a defined cohort of frail elderly patients with multiple core morbidities. Hubs will ultimately deliver proactive and reactive care, available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.The key drivers are;Ageing population, people living longer & more people living with chronic conditionsCost & demand...

  15. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  16. Dimensional consistency achieved in high-performance synchronizing hubs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, P.; Campos, M.; Torralba, M.

    2013-01-01

    The tolerances of parts produced for the automotive industry are so tight that any small process variation may mean that the product does not fulfill them. As dimensional tolerances decrease, the material properties of parts are expected to be improved. Depending on the dimensional and material requirements of a part, different production routes are available to find robust processes, minimizing cost and maximizing process capability. Dimensional tolerances have been reduced in recent years, and as a result, the double pressing-double sintering production via ( 2 P2S ) has again become an accurate way to meet these increasingly narrow tolerances. In this paper, it is shown that the process parameters of the first sintering have great influence on the following production steps and the dimensions of the final parts. The roles of factors other than density and the second sintering process in defining the final dimensions of product are probed. All trials were done in a production line that produces synchronizer hubs for manual transmissions, allowing the maintenance of stable conditions and control of those parameters that are relevant for the product and process. (Author) 21 refs.

  17. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Identification of promising Twin Hub networks : Report of Work Package 1 of the Intermodal rail freight Twin hub Network Northwest Europe - project (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Meijer, S.; Witteveen, C.; Meijers, B.M.; Pekin, E.; Macharis, C.; Kiel, J.; Kawabata, Y.; Vos, W.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first deliverable of the project Intermodal Rail Freight Twin Hub Network Northwest Europe. We call its subject Twin hub network and the organisational entity to carry out the actions the Twin hub project. The project is funded by INTERREG NWE (programme IVb). Its work started in

  19. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  20. Sci-Hub provides access to nearly all scholarly literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Daniel S; Romero, Ariel Rodriguez; Levernier, Jacob G; Munro, Thomas Anthony; McLaughlin, Stephen Reid; Greshake Tzovaras, Bastian; Greene, Casey S

    2018-03-01

    The website Sci-Hub enables users to download PDF versions of scholarly articles, including many articles that are paywalled at their journal's site. Sci-Hub has grown rapidly since its creation in 2011, but the extent of its coverage has been unclear. Here we report that, as of March 2017, Sci-Hub's database contains 68.9% of the 81.6 million scholarly articles registered with Crossref and 85.1% of articles published in toll access journals. We find that coverage varies by discipline and publisher, and that Sci-Hub preferentially covers popular, paywalled content. For toll access articles, we find that Sci-Hub provides greater coverage than the University of Pennsylvania, a major research university in the United States. Green open access to toll access articles via licit services, on the other hand, remains quite limited. Our interactive browser at https://greenelab.github.io/scihub allows users to explore these findings in more detail. For the first time, nearly all scholarly literature is available gratis to anyone with an Internet connection, suggesting the toll access business model may become unsustainable. © 2018, Himmelstein et al.

  1. HIV protein sequence hotspots for crosstalk with host hub proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sarmady

    Full Text Available HIV proteins target host hub proteins for transient binding interactions. The presence of viral proteins in the infected cell results in out-competition of host proteins in their interaction with hub proteins, drastically affecting cell physiology. Functional genomics and interactome datasets can be used to quantify the sequence hotspots on the HIV proteome mediating interactions with host hub proteins. In this study, we used the HIV and human interactome databases to identify HIV targeted host hub proteins and their host binding partners (H2. We developed a high throughput computational procedure utilizing motif discovery algorithms on sets of protein sequences, including sequences of HIV and H2 proteins. We identified as HIV sequence hotspots those linear motifs that are highly conserved on HIV sequences and at the same time have a statistically enriched presence on the sequences of H2 proteins. The HIV protein motifs discovered in this study are expressed by subsets of H2 host proteins potentially outcompeted by HIV proteins. A large subset of these motifs is involved in cleavage, nuclear localization, phosphorylation, and transcription factor binding events. Many such motifs are clustered on an HIV sequence in the form of hotspots. The sequential positions of these hotspots are consistent with the curated literature on phenotype altering residue mutations, as well as with existing binding site data. The hotspot map produced in this study is the first global portrayal of HIV motifs involved in altering the host protein network at highly connected hub nodes.

  2. Flow Structures within a Helicopter Rotor Hub Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Reich, David; Schmitz, Sven

    2015-11-01

    A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48'' Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. The measurement suite included total hub drag and wake velocity measurements (LDV, PIV, stereo-PIV) at three downstream locations. The main objective was to understand the spatiotemporal evolution of the unsteady wake between the rotor hub and the nominal location of the empennage (tail). Initial analysis of the data revealed prominent two- and four-per-revolution fluid structures linked to geometric hub features persisting into the wake far-field. In addition, a six-per-revolution fluid structure was observed in the far-field, which is unexpected due to the lack of any hub feature with the corresponding symmetry. This suggests a nonlinear interaction is occurring within the wake to generate these structures. This presentation will provide an overview of the experimental data and analysis with particular emphasis on these six-per-revolution structures.

  3. Gradient-Based Optimization of Wind Farms with Different Turbine Heights: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Andrew P. J.; Thomas, Jared; Ning, Andrew; Annoni, Jennifer; Dykes, Katherine; Fleming, Paul

    2017-05-08

    Turbine wakes reduce power production in a wind farm. Current wind farms are generally built with turbines that are all the same height, but if wind farms included turbines with different tower heights, the cost of energy (COE) may be reduced. We used gradient-based optimization to demonstrate a method to optimize wind farms with varied hub heights. Our study includes a modified version of the FLORIS wake model that accommodates three-dimensional wakes integrated with a tower structural model. Our purpose was to design a process to minimize the COE of a wind farm through layout optimization and varying turbine hub heights. Results indicate that when a farm is optimized for layout and height with two separate height groups, COE can be lowered by as much as 5%-9%, compared to a similar layout and height optimization where all the towers are the same. The COE has the best improvement in farms with high turbine density and a low wind shear exponent.

  4. Gradient-Based Optimization of Wind Farms with Different Turbine Heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Andrew P. J.; Thomas, Jared; Ning, Andrew; Annoni, Jennifer; Dykes, Katherine; Fleming, Paul

    2017-01-09

    Turbine wakes reduce power production in a wind farm. Current wind farms are generally built with turbines that are all the same height, but if wind farms included turbines with different tower heights, the cost of energy (COE) may be reduced. We used gradient-based optimization to demonstrate a method to optimize wind farms with varied hub heights. Our study includes a modified version of the FLORIS wake model that accommodates three-dimensional wakes integrated with a tower structural model. Our purpose was to design a process to minimize the COE of a wind farm through layout optimization and varying turbine hub heights. Results indicate that when a farm is optimized for layout and height with two separate height groups, COE can be lowered by as much as 5%-9%, compared to a similar layout and height optimization where all the towers are the same. The COE has the best improvement in farms with high turbine density and a low wind shear exponent.

  5. Microfluidic hubs, systems, and methods for interface fluidic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Michael S; Claudnic, Mark R; Kim, Hanyoup; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; Van De Vreugde, James L

    2015-01-27

    Embodiments of microfluidic hubs and systems are described that may be used to connect fluidic modules. A space between surfaces may be set by fixtures described herein. In some examples a fixture may set substrate-to-substrate spacing based on a distance between registration surfaces on which the respective substrates rest. Fluidic interfaces are described, including examples where fluid conduits (e.g. capillaries) extend into the fixture to the space between surfaces. Droplets of fluid may be introduced to and/or removed from microfluidic hubs described herein, and fluid actuators may be used to move droplets within the space between surfaces. Continuous flow modules may be integrated with the hubs in some examples.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of the GFRP material wheel hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the current bicycle wheel was replaced by the ones which composed by the wheel hub with Glassfiber Reinforced Plastic (alkali free thin-walled cylinder material, hereinafter referred to as GFRP material and the protective components made up of rubber outer pneumatic pad. With the help of the basic theory of elastic-plastic mechanics, the finite element “Nonlinear buckling” analysis of the wheel was carried out. The results show that the maximum elastic deformation of the wheel hub and the critical value of buckling failure load were restricted by the elasticity under the condition of external loads. Considering with the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the GFRP value of the material, it is demonstrated that the material is feasible to be used for wheel hub.

  7. APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This plan details command co-ordination and support responses of Commonwealth and State Authorities in the event of an accident with offsite consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plan has been prepared by the AAEC Local Liaison Working Party, comprising representatives of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, NSW Police Department, NSW Board of Fire Commissioners, NSW State Emergency Services and Civil Defence Organisation, NSW Department of Health, NSW Department of Environment and Planning and Sutherland Shire Council

  8. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D.; Bethmann, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs

  9. FEM analysis of hollow hub forming in rolling extrusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of numerical calculations of rolling extrusion process of a hollow hub. As the flanges manufacturing at both sides of the product is required, in the analyzed process of rolling extrusion, a rear bumper was implemented as additional tool limiting axial metal flow. Numerical calculations of the hub forming process were conducted basing on finite element method, applying software Deform3D and Simufact in conditions of three dimensional state of strain. The obtained satisfactory results show that it is possible to conduct the further research works of experimental character, with the application of a modernized aggregate for the rolling extrusion process PO-2.

  10. Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust optimization framework for energy hub management. It is well known that the operation of energy systems can be negatively affected by uncertain parameters, such as stochastic load demand or generation. In this regard, it is of high significance to propose efficient...... tools in order to deal with uncertainties and to provide reliable operating conditions. On a broader scale, an energy hub includes diverse energy sources for supplying both electrical load and heating/cooling demands with stochastic behaviors. Therefore, this paper utilizes the Information Decision Gap...

  11. Analysis and Modeling of Ground Operations at Hub Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Stephen (Technical Monitor); Andersson, Kari; Carr, Francis; Feron, Eric; Hall, William D.

    2000-01-01

    Building simple and accurate models of hub airports can considerably help one understand airport dynamics, and may provide quantitative estimates of operational airport improvements. In this paper, three models are proposed to capture the dynamics of busy hub airport operations. Two simple queuing models are introduced to capture the taxi-out and taxi-in processes. An integer programming model aimed at representing airline decision-making attempts to capture the dynamics of the aircraft turnaround process. These models can be applied for predictive purposes. They may also be used to evaluate control strategies for improving overall airport efficiency.

  12. GeoTrust Hub: A Platform For Sharing And Reproducing Geoscience Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Goodall, J. L.; Choi, E.; Bhatt, A.; Peckham, S. D.; Foster, I.; Ton That, D. H.; Essawy, B.; Yuan, Z.; Dash, P. K.; Fils, G.; Gan, T.; Fadugba, O. I.; Saxena, A.; Valentic, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent requirements of scholarly communication emphasize the reproducibility of scientific claims. Text-based research papers are considered poor mediums to establish reproducibility. Papers must be accompanied by "research objects", aggregation of digital artifacts that together with the paper provide an authoritative record of a piece of research. We will present GeoTrust Hub (http://geotrusthub.org), a platform for creating, sharing, and reproducing reusable research objects. GeoTrust Hub provides tools for scientists to create `geounits'--reusable research objects. Geounits are self-contained, annotated, and versioned containers that describe and package computational experiments in an efficient and light-weight manner. Geounits can be shared on public repositories such as HydroShare and FigShare, and also using their respective APIs reproduced on provisioned clouds. The latter feature enables science applications to have a lifetime beyond sharing, wherein they can be independently verified and trust be established as they are repeatedly reused. Through research use cases from several geoscience laboratories across the United States, we will demonstrate how tools provided from GeoTrust Hub along with Hydroshare as its public repository for geounits is advancing the state of reproducible research in the geosciences. For each use case, we will address different computational reproducibility requirements. Our first use case will be an example of setup reproducibility which enables a scientist to set up and reproduce an output from a model with complex configuration and development environments. Our second use case will be an example of algorithm/data reproducibility, where in a shared data science model/dataset can be substituted with an alternate one to verify model output results, and finally an example of interactive reproducibility, in which an experiment is dependent on specific versions of data to produce the result. Toward this we will use software and data

  13. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  14. Accuracy of recumbent height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Crider, J B; Kelley, C; Dickinson, L C

    1985-01-01

    Since many patients requiring specialized nutritional support are bedridden, measurement of height for purposes of nutritional assessment or prescription must often be done with the patient in bed. This study examined the accuracy of measuring body height in bed in the supine position. Two measurements were performed on 108 ambulatory inpatients: (1) standing height using a standard height-weight scale, and (2) bed height using a flexible tape. Patients were divided into four groups based on which of two researchers performed each of the two measurements. Each patient was also weighed and self-reported height, weight, sex, and age were recorded. Bed height was significantly longer than standing height by 3.68 cm, but the two measurements were equally precise. It was believed, however, that this 2% difference was probably not clinically significant in most circumstances. Bed height correlated highly with standing height (r = 0.95), and the regression equation was standing height = 13.82 +/- 0.09 bed height. Patients overestimated their heights. Heights recorded by nurses were more accurate when patients were measured than when asked about their heights, but the patients were more often asked than measured.

  15. Analysis of Sci-Hub downloads of computer science papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andročec Darko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific knowledge is disseminated by research papers. Most of the research literature is copyrighted by publishers and avail- able only through paywalls. Recently, some websites offer most of the recent content for free. One of them is the controversial website Sci-Hub that enables access to more than 47 million pirated research papers. In April 2016, Science Magazine published an article on Sci-Hub activity over the period of six months and publicly released the Sci-Hub’s server log data. The mentioned paper aggregates the view that relies on all downloads and for all fields of study, but these findings might be hiding interesting patterns within computer science. The mentioned Sci-Hub log data was used in this paper to analyse downloads of computer science papers based on DBLP’s list of computer science publications. The top downloads of computer science papers were analysed, together with the geographical location of Sci-Hub users, the most downloaded publishers, types of papers downloaded, and downloads of computer science papers per publication year. The results of this research can be used to improve legal access to the most relevant scientific repositories or journals for the computer science field.

  16. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how

  17. Portable Desktop Apps with GitHub Electron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Wouldn't it be nice if you could develop applications that work everywhere, regardless of Operating System or Platform? Even better, what if you could employ the same front-end technologies you use for your web/mobile apps? Meet GitHub Electron.

  18. The East African Resilience Innovation Hub | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The hub will explore several research streams to examine why interventions succeed or fail, and how individuals, communities, and states can cope with and overcome conflict and violence. Researchers will also look at how to support peacemaking processes and increase disaster prevention efforts. Their work will respond ...

  19. DAVINC3I: moving towards responsive hub network designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, R.; Keizer, de M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Wenink, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch floricultural sector is generally appreciated for its world leadership; the Netherlands is the flower trading hub for the European market. There are two trends affecting this position. First, virtualisation makes trade flows relatively footloose and flexible. Moreover, it enables the use

  20. Deconstructing Hub Drag. Part 2. Computational Development and Anaysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    leveraged a Vertical Lift Consortium ( VLC )-funded hub drag scaling research effort. To confirm this objective, correlations are performed with the...Technology™ Demonstrator aircraft using an unstructured computational solver. These simpler faired elliptical geome- tries can prove to be challenging ...possible. However, additional funding was obtained from the Vertical Lift Consortium ( VLC ) to perform this study. This analysis is documented in

  1. Memory for target height is scaled to observer height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2012-04-01

    According to the embodied approach to visual perception, individuals scale the environment to their bodies. This approach highlights the central role of the body for immediate, situated action. The present experiments addressed whether body scaling--specifically, eye-height scaling--occurs in memory when action is not immediate. Participants viewed standard targets that were either the same height as, taller than, or shorter than themselves. Participants then viewed a comparison target and judged whether the comparison was taller or shorter than the standard target. Participants were most accurate when the standard target height matched their own heights, taking into account postural changes. Participants were biased to underestimate standard target height, in general, and to push standard target height away from their own heights. These results are consistent with the literature on eye-height scaling in visual perception and suggest that body scaling is not only a useful metric for perception and action, but is also preserved in memory.

  2. Concordant preferences for actual height and facial cues to height

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Daniel Edward; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical height has a well-documented effect on human mate preferences. In general, both sexes prefer opposite-sex romantic relationships in which the man is taller than the woman, while individual preferences for height are affected by a person’s own height. Research in human mate choice has demonstrated that attraction to facial characteristics, such as facial adiposity, may reflect references for body characteristics. Here, we tested preferences for facial cues to height. In general, incre...

  3. Multiple Hub Network Choice in the Liberalized European Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berechman, Joseph; deWit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A key question that so far has received relatively little attention in the germane literature is that of the changes at various airports as a result of the EU liberalization policies. That is, presently, most major European airports still benefit from the so-called home-carrier phenomenon where the country's publicly or semi-publicly owned carrier uses the country's main airport as its gateway hub and, consequently, the home-carrier is also the principal user of this airport (in terms of proportion of total aircraft movements, number of passengers transported, connections, slots ownership, etc.). The country's main airport has substantially benefited from these monopoly conditions of airline captivity, strongly determined by the bilateral system of international air transport regulation. Therefore, European major airports were used to operate in essentially different markets, compared to the increasingly competitive markets of their home based carriers. This partly explains relative stability of transport volumes and financial results of European major airports compared to the relatively volatile financial results of most European national airlines. However, the liberalization of European aviation is likely to change this situation. Market access is open now to all community carriers, i.e. carriers with majority ownership and effective control in the hands of EU citizens. Ticket prices are free, governments can only intervene in case of dumping or excessive pricing. A community airline can choose its seat in any of the 15 member states. Licensing procedures are harmonized between member states. In the last few months community carriers have had unrestricted route access within the EU. Most probably this development will be extended to countries inside and outside Europe. Last year the European Commission got the mandate to start negotiations with 10 other European countries. In the meantime the EC has also started negotiations with the USA on so-called soft rights

  4. The taking of Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandilands, B.

    1993-01-01

    Plans for a new research reactor at Lucas Heights have sparked a 'civil war' in New South Wales. The author considers the arguments. The leading antagonists are the local government body - The Sutherland Shire Council, Greenpeace, and the Sutherland Shire Environment Centre. Many of the economic benefits claimed for the existing and proposed replacement reactor have been tagged with question marks. However, ANSTO is confident of refuting claims that the money could be better spent on alternative methods of producing medical isotopes and neutron streams for industry or research, such as particle accelerators. If ANSTO's critics have their way, non-reactor-dependent work like the laser enrichment project could continue without the alleged hazards of sustained nuclear fission. If ANSTO wins the day, a far more efficient reactor will be built which is capable of keeping pace with the emerging nuclear industries of Asia. ills

  5. Managing effective and efficient hub operations : a study of ground time management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yunita, Theresia

    2009-01-01

    This Logistics Design Project was carried out at KLM Aircraft Services (AS), from February 2008 - April 2009. The project focuses on ideal description of KLM operational controls for daily executions at the hub and within the AS processes. The daily execution at the hub is managed by the Hub Control

  6. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  7. Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Mungov, G.; Sweeney, A.; Arcos, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 Mw earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height, NCEI will consider adding an additional field for the maximum peak measurement.

  8. Pinoy Nutrition Hub: The Philippine Experience in Addressing Moderate Malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Arlo; Fuentes, Eureka; Duque, Yvonette; Soriano, Nezer; Gomez, Marijo

    2014-01-01

    Full text: • Objective: Malnutrition is a persistent problem in the Philippines. The 2011 survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute reported that 3 out of 10 children are malnourished. Data shows 20.2% of children 0-47 months are underweight while 33.6% are stunted. This rate is higher in depressed areas in the country. PD Hearth is a time and tested effective program model to address malnutrition. But the PDH has minimum standards that need to be followed in the program implementation. However, a developing country like the Philippines has limitations in its resources and implementations. This paper aims to share the Philippine experience in addressing moderate malnutrition through a contextualized and modified PD Hearth approach. The specific objectives of this paper are: - to describe the challenges in implementing PD Hearth in the context of the Philippines; - to describe the innovations and modifications in the PD Hearth; - and, to illustrate the successful intervention of the PNH program against malnourished children in the community. • Methods: The Pinoy Nutrition Hub model is an innovation of PD Hearth approach. The first step was the participatory approach evaluation of existing programs on MNCHN in the communities. The next step was for the stakeholders to identify the gaps and address them. This was followed by gathering lessons learned and good practices that arose from implementing PD Hearth. Innovations were adopted to address restrictions and maximize learning in its implementation. The contextualized approach was called Pinoy Nutrition Hub (PNH). • Outcomes: - The PNH was piloted in three Area Development Programs (ADP) that represent the three island groups of the Philippines. All three ADPs reported improvement in the weight of the malnourished children enrolled in the program. Below is an illustration of the how the actual weight of children in the Visayas ADP increased. Figure 1 (Display Omitted). Average Weight of Malnourished

  9. Lazy Updating of hubs can enable more realistic models by speeding up stochastic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlert, Kurt; Loewe, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    To respect the nature of discrete parts in a system, stochastic simulation algorithms (SSAs) must update for each action (i) all part counts and (ii) each action's probability of occurring next and its timing. This makes it expensive to simulate biological networks with well-connected “hubs” such as ATP that affect many actions. Temperature and volume also affect many actions and may be changed significantly in small steps by the network itself during fever and cell growth, respectively. Such trends matter for evolutionary questions, as cell volume determines doubling times and fever may affect survival, both key traits for biological evolution. Yet simulations often ignore such trends and assume constant environments to avoid many costly probability updates. Such computational convenience precludes analyses of important aspects of evolution. Here we present “Lazy Updating,” an add-on for SSAs designed to reduce the cost of simulating hubs. When a hub changes, Lazy Updating postpones all probability updates for reactions depending on this hub, until a threshold is crossed. Speedup is substantial if most computing time is spent on such updates. We implemented Lazy Updating for the Sorting Direct Method and it is easily integrated into other SSAs such as Gillespie's Direct Method or the Next Reaction Method. Testing on several toy models and a cellular metabolism model showed >10× faster simulations for its use-cases—with a small loss of accuracy. Thus we see Lazy Updating as a valuable tool for some special but important simulation problems that are difficult to address efficiently otherwise

  10. Sensitivity of Turbine-Height Wind Speeds to Parameters in Planetary Boundary-Layer and Surface-Layer Schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Berg, Larry K.; Ma, Po-Lun; Wharton, Sonia; Bulaevskaya, Vera; Yan, Huiping; Hou, Zhangshuan; Shaw, William J.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the sensitivity of simulated turbine-height wind speeds to 26 parameters within the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) planetary boundary-layer scheme and MM5 surface-layer scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting model over an area of complex terrain. An efficient sampling algorithm and generalized linear model are used to explore the multiple-dimensional parameter space and quantify the parametric sensitivity of simulated turbine-height wind speeds. The results indicate that most of the variability in the ensemble simulations is due to parameters related to the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), Prandtl number, turbulent length scales, surface roughness, and the von Kármán constant. The parameter associated with the TKE dissipation rate is found to be most important, and a larger dissipation rate produces larger hub-height wind speeds. A larger Prandtl number results in smaller nighttime wind speeds. Increasing surface roughness reduces the frequencies of both extremely weak and strong airflows, implying a reduction in the variability of wind speed. All of the above parameters significantly affect the vertical profiles of wind speed and the magnitude of wind shear. The relative contributions of individual parameters are found to be dependent on both the terrain slope and atmospheric stability.

  11. Dimensional consistency achieved in high-performance synchronizing hubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, P.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The tolerances of parts produced for the automotive industry are so tight that any small process variation may mean that the product does not fulfill them. As dimensional tolerances decrease, the material properties of parts are expected to be improved. Depending on the dimensional and material requirements of a part, different production routes are available to find robust processes, minimizing cost and maximizing process capability. Dimensional tolerances have been reduced in recent years, and as a result, the double pressing-double sintering production via (“2P2S” has again become an accurate way to meet these increasingly narrow tolerances. In this paper, it is shown that the process parameters of the first sintering have great influence on the following production steps and the dimensions of the final parts. The roles of factors other than density and the second sintering process in defining the final dimensions of product are probed. All trials were done in a production line that produces synchronizer hubs for manual transmissions, allowing the maintenance of stable conditions and control of those parameters that are relevant for the product and process.

    Las tolerancias en componentes fabricados para la industria del automóvil son tan estrechas que cualquier modificación en las variables del proceso puede provocar que no se cumplan. Una disminución de las tolerancias dimensionales, puede significar una mejora en las propiedades de las piezas. Dependiendo de los requerimientos dimensionales y del material, distintas rutas de procesado pueden seguirse para encontrar un método de procesado robusto, que minimice costes y maximice la capacidad del proceso. En los últimos años, la tolerancia dimensional se ha ajustado gracias a métodos de procesado como el doble prensado/doble sinterizado (“2P2S”, método de gran precisión para conseguir estrechas tolerancias. En este trabajo, se muestra que los parámetros de procesado

  12. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  13. The deep-sea hub of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghinolfi, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Calzas, A. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/IN2P3), Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille (France); Dinkespiler, B. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/IN2P3), Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille (France); Cuneo, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Favard, S. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/IN2P3), Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille (France); Hallewell, G. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/IN2P3), Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille (France)]. E-mail: gregh@cppm.in2p3.fr; Jaquet, M. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/IN2P3), Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille (France); Musumeci, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Papaleo, R. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Raia, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Valdy, P. [IFREMER - Institut francais de recherche pour l' exploitation de la mer, Centre de La Seyne, 83500 La Seyne sur mer (France); Vernin, P. [DSM-DAPNIA, CEA SACLAY, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-15

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, currently under construction at 2500 m depth off the French Mediterranean coast, will contain 12 detection lines, powered and read out through a deep-sea junction box (JB) hub. Electrical energy from the shore station is distributed through a transformer with multiple secondary windings and a plugboard with 16 deep sea-mateable electro-optic connectors. Connections are made to the JB outputs using manned or remotely operated submersible vehicles. The triply redundant power management and slow control system is based on two identical AC-powered systems, communicating with the shore through 160 Mb/s fibre G-links and a third battery-powered system using a slower link. We describe the power and slow control systems of the underwater hub.

  14. The deep-sea hub of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghinolfi, M.; Calzas, A.; Dinkespiler, B.; Cuneo, S.; Favard, S.; Hallewell, G.; Jaquet, M.; Musumeci, M.; Papaleo, R.; Raia, G.; Valdy, P.; Vernin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, currently under construction at 2500 m depth off the French Mediterranean coast, will contain 12 detection lines, powered and read out through a deep-sea junction box (JB) hub. Electrical energy from the shore station is distributed through a transformer with multiple secondary windings and a plugboard with 16 deep sea-mateable electro-optic connectors. Connections are made to the JB outputs using manned or remotely operated submersible vehicles. The triply redundant power management and slow control system is based on two identical AC-powered systems, communicating with the shore through 160 Mb/s fibre G-links and a third battery-powered system using a slower link. We describe the power and slow control systems of the underwater hub

  15. Addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Saraiva de Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When considering hub-and-spoke networks with single allocation, the absence of alternative routes makes this kind of systems specially vulnerable to congestion effects. In order to improve the design of such networks, congestion costs must be addressed. This article deploys two different techniques for addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks: the Generalized Benders Decomposition and the Outer Approximation method. Both methods are able to solve large scale instances. Computational experiments show how the adoption of advanced solution strategies, such as Pareto-optimal cut generation on the Master Problem branch-and-bound tree, may be decisive. They also demonstrate that the solution effort is not only associated with the size of the instances, but also with their combination of the installation and congestion costs.

  16. Channel Bonding in Linux Ethernet Environment using Regular Switching Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-wen Hsueh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth plays an important role for quality of service in most network systems. There are many technologies developed to increase host bandwidth in a LAN environment. Most of them need special hardware support, such as switching hub that supports IEEE Link Aggregation standard. In this paper, we propose a Linux solution to increase the bandwidth between hosts with multiple network adapters connected to a regular switching hub. The approach is implemented as two Linux kernel modules in a LAN environment without modification to the hardware and operating systems on host machines. Packets are dispatched to bonding network adapters for transmission. The proposed approach is backward compatible, flexible and transparent to users and only one IP address is needed for multiple bonding network adapters. Evaluation experiments in TCP and UDP transmission are shown with bandwidth gain proportionally to the number of network adapters. It is suitable for large-scale LAN systems with high bandwidth requirement, such as clustering systems.

  17. Regional Hub port development : the case of Montevideo, Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmsmeier, Gordon; Martínez Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Fiess, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on port development in Uruguay in an environment of trilateral interport competition. The regional characteristics of port development in terms of their geographical, functional and operational characteristics are discussed by analysing the port system’s evolution. The case of Montevideo as the success or failure of a regional hub port development strategy is analysed in detail. Particular attention is given to the evolution and impact of the liner shipping service network...

  18. Strategies for contracting gas storage and hub services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auld, J.

    1996-01-01

    The many efficiencies that can be gained by the natural gas industry in effectively using storage, were demonstrated. The circumstances under which the natural gas industry uses storage and how Market Centres or Hub Services can be strategically used in offering companies the highest flexibility in a tough marketplace, were explained. For example, in North America, storage played an important role during the winter of 95/96, which will be remembered for its extreme cold. That year provided the first true opportunity to test the natural gas delivery system since deregulation in 1985. The fact that natural gas supplies continued to be delivered throughout the entire winter was attributed to the use of stored gas held in reserves to meet the severe demand. The companies that did well, relied on storage and also on the services offered by Hub Services which increased margins for all players in the natural gas industry. Using storage, companies can ensure that field deliveries of gas are kept constant by having storage facilities absorb the swings in market demand. The companies that learn to use storage effectively can create competitive edges over their competition and provide more value to their customers. The three main categories of hub services were also described. These are parking (interruptible storage), gas loans (stored gas can be offered to customers on a term basis for low daily rates), and title exchange (the transfer of gas between buyer and seller). The strategic use of parking, loaned gas, title exchange, direct connections, and InterHub Services can provide customers even greater benefits than are provided by storage-based services. 6 figs

  19. Location of an intermediate hub for port activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Ş.; Ştefănică, C.; Roşca, E.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.

    2015-11-01

    An intermediate hub might increase the accessibility level of ports but also hinterland and so it can be considered more than a facility with a transhipment role. These hubs might lead to the development of other transport services and enhance their role in gathering and covering economic centres within hinterlands and also getting the part of logistic facility for the ports, with effects on port utilization and its connectivity to global economy. A new location for a hub terminal leads to reduced transport distances within hinterland, with decreased transport costs and external effects, so with gains in people's life quality. Because the production and distribution systems are relatively fixed on short and medium term and the location decisions are strategic and on long term, the logistic chains activities location models have to consider the uncertainties regarding the possible future situations. In most models, production costs are considered equal, the location problem reducing itself to a problem that aims to minimize the total transport costs, meaning the transport problem. The main objective of the paper is to locate a hub terminal that links the producers of cereals that are going to be exported by naval transportation with the Romanian fluvial-maritime ports (Galaţi, Brăila). GIS environment can be used to integrate and analyse a great amount of data and has the ability of using functions as location - allocation models necessary both to private and public sector, being able to determine the optimal location for services like factories, warehouses, logistic platforms and other public services.

  20. Idea Exchange Music Hub Hits the Right Note in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Bester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Libraries and Galleries has made many changes over the last two years, rebranding as Idea Exchange and adding 3D printers, creative spaces and many on-site events. This article focuses on one of the organization’s newest innovations, the addition of a Music Hub, and the challenges of creating a space where members can learn and collaborate musically without disturbing those around them.

  1. Revisiting date and party hubs: novel approaches to role assignment in protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Agarwal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of "date" and "party" hubs has been influential in the study of protein-protein interaction networks. Date hubs display low co-expression with their partners, whilst party hubs have high co-expression. It was proposed that party hubs are local coordinators whereas date hubs are global connectors. Here, we show that the reported importance of date hubs to network connectivity can in fact be attributed to a tiny subset of them. Crucially, these few, extremely central, hubs do not display particularly low expression correlation, undermining the idea of a link between this quantity and hub function. The date/party distinction was originally motivated by an approximately bimodal distribution of hub co-expression; we show that this feature is not always robust to methodological changes. Additionally, topological properties of hubs do not in general correlate with co-expression. However, we find significant correlations between interaction centrality and the functional similarity of the interacting proteins. We suggest that thinking in terms of a date/party dichotomy for hubs in protein interaction networks is not meaningful, and it might be more useful to conceive of roles for protein-protein interactions rather than for individual proteins.

  2. Research dedusting efficiency of the inertial hub with adjustable parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharapov Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of construction materials every year production increases, thus increasing emissions pollutants into the atmosphere subjected to cleaning. At the enterprises of building materials production equipment becoming outdated both morally and physically exhausted their useful life. Technological design standards in the operation of purification equipment has undergone a number of changes. There are a large number of works devoted to the theory of cyclone separation. They examined calculation method and to determine the minimum size of particles is separated completely from the air stream in a cyclone. In theory, the high efficiency cyclones are relatively small separation of particles from the air stream. The experiments show that certain fractions of full capture occurs from the cyclones and out relatively large particles. Designed dust device hubs. They capture dust particles with low specific density and smaller than 5–10 microns. Rational use of hubs is achieved in the aspiration systems high performance. They are placed in front of or between the filter and the cyclone filter. Hub much reduces the amount of dust-laden air directed onto a thin cleaning. This reduces energy consumption for manufacturing as a whole, as well as, due to a possible decrease in performance fine filters, reducing their initial cost, metal consumption, maintenance costs and reduce the area occupied by them.

  3. Altered network hub connectivity after acute LSD administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Müller

    Full Text Available LSD is an ambiguous substance, said to mimic psychosis and to improve mental health in people suffering from anxiety and depression. Little is known about the neuronal correlates of altered states of consciousness induced by this substance. Limited previous studies indicated profound changes in functional connectivity of resting state networks after the administration of LSD. The current investigation attempts to replicate and extend those findings in an independent sample. In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, 100 μg LSD and placebo were orally administered to 20 healthy participants. Resting state brain activity was assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Within-network and between-network connectivity measures of ten established resting state networks were compared between drug conditions. Complementary analysis were conducted using resting state networks as sources in seed-to-voxel analyses. Acute LSD administration significantly decreased functional connectivity within visual, sensorimotor and auditory networks and the default mode network. While between-network connectivity was widely increased and all investigated networks were affected to some extent, seed-to-voxel analyses consistently indicated increased connectivity between networks and subcortical (thalamus, striatum and cortical (precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex hub structures. These latter observations are consistent with findings on the importance of hubs in psychopathological states, especially in psychosis, and could underlay therapeutic effects of hallucinogens as proposed by a recent model. Keywords: LSD, fMRI, Functional connectivity, Networks, Hubs

  4. Publishing and sharing of hydrologic models through WaterHUB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, V.; Ruddell, B. L.; Song, C.; Zhao, L.; Kim, J.; Assi, A.

    2011-12-01

    Most hydrologists use hydrologic models to simulate the hydrologic processes to understand hydrologic pathways and fluxes for research, decision making and engineering design. Once these tasks are complete including publication of results, the models generally are not published or made available to the public for further use and improvement. Although publication or sharing of models is not required for journal publications, sharing of models may open doors for new collaborations, and avoids duplication of efforts if other researchers are interested in simulating a particular watershed for which a model already exists. For researchers, who are interested in sharing models, there are limited avenues to publishing their models to the wider community. Towards filling this gap, a prototype cyberinfrastructure (CI), called WaterHUB, is developed for sharing hydrologic data and modeling tools in an interactive environment. To test the utility of WaterHUB for sharing hydrologic models, a system to publish and share SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) is developed. Users can utilize WaterHUB to search and download existing SWAT models, and also upload new SWAT models. Metadata such as the name of the watershed, name of the person or agency who developed the model, simulation period, time step, and list of calibrated parameters also published with individual model.

  5. Matrix logistics indicators assessment of distributed transport hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Arefyev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper is devoted to the distributed transport hub substantiation and assessment. The paper  was an example of the technique and form an array of logistical factors as variables that determine this condition. Experience in organizing multimodal transport showed that the "bottleneck" of transport logistics are items of cargo handling ports, terminals, freight stations and warehouses. At the core of the solution of these problems is the problem of estimating the variables determine the Multi-purpose Hubs. The aim is to develop a method of forming the system of logistical multiplying factors determine the role of each of the types in the technologiacal process of distributed Multi-purpose Hubs. Methods: The assessment model for the formation of Distributed Transport Units  can be based on formal methods to predict the behavior of complex systems engineering complexes. Then one of the approaches to the solution of the problem may be the matrix method of technological factors. Results and conclusions: The proposed methodology of the selection and validation of logistic coefficients has the practical importance in the models development for assessing the condition and behavior of Distributed Transport.

  6. Height premium for job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The height of watermelons with wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15–22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067–83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions. (paper)

  8. Partial synchronization in networks of non-linearly coupled oscillators: The Deserter Hubs Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Celso, E-mail: cbnfreitas@gmail.com; Macau, Elbert, E-mail: elbert.macau@inpe.br [Associate Laboratory for Computing and Applied Mathematics - LAC, Brazilian National Institute for Space Research - INPE (Brazil); Pikovsky, Arkady, E-mail: pikovsky@uni-potsdam.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Germany and Department of Control Theory, Nizhni Novgorod State University, Gagarin Av. 23, 606950, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    We study the Deserter Hubs Model: a Kuramoto-like model of coupled identical phase oscillators on a network, where attractive and repulsive couplings are balanced dynamically due to nonlinearity of interactions. Under weak force, an oscillator tends to follow the phase of its neighbors, but if an oscillator is compelled to follow its peers by a sufficient large number of cohesive neighbors, then it actually starts to act in the opposite manner, i.e., in anti-phase with the majority. Analytic results yield that if the repulsion parameter is small enough in comparison with the degree of the maximum hub, then the full synchronization state is locally stable. Numerical experiments are performed to explore the model beyond this threshold, where the overall cohesion is lost. We report in detail partially synchronous dynamical regimes, like stationary phase-locking, multistability, periodic and chaotic states. Via statistical analysis of different network organizations like tree, scale-free, and random ones, we found a measure allowing one to predict relative abundance of partially synchronous stationary states in comparison to time-dependent ones.

  9. Virtual Hubs for facilitating access to Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel Á.; Ernst, Julia; Brumana, Raffaella; Brauman, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In October 2014 the ENERGIC-OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". In ENERGIC-OD, Virtual Hubs are conceived as information systems supporting the full life cycle of Open Data: publishing, discovery and access. They facilitate the use of Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and data services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus, beyond a certain extent, heterogeneity is irreducible especially in interdisciplinary contexts. ENERGIC-OD Virtual Hubs address heterogeneity adopting a mediation and brokering approach: specific components (brokers) are dedicated to harmonize service interfaces, metadata and data models, enabling seamless discovery and access to heterogeneous infrastructures and datasets. As an innovation project, ENERGIC-OD will integrate several existing technologies to implement Virtual Hubs as single points of access to geospatial datasets provided by new or existing platforms and infrastructures, including INSPIRE-compliant systems and Copernicus services. ENERGIC OD will deploy a

  10. More practical critical height sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  11. Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class...... of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...

  12. Unified height systems after GOCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  13. Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower limb measurements, such as knee height, as well as upper limb measures ... had with bone injuries/fractures affecting height or ulna length; and n = 1 had a ... and heels, buttocks and upper back in contact with the vertical surface of the .... found striking similarity in linear growth of infants to five-year- olds among all ...

  14. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  15. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  16. HuB (elavl2 mRNA is restricted to the germ cells by post-transcriptional mechanisms including stabilisation of the message by DAZL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E Wiszniak

    Full Text Available The ability of germ cells to carry out a gene regulatory program distinct from the surrounding somatic tissue, and their capacity to specify an entire new organism has made them a focus of many studies that seek to understand how specific regulatory mechanisms, particularly post-transcriptional mechanisms, contribute to cell fate. In zebrafish, germ cells are specified through the inheritance of cytoplasmic determinants, termed the germ plasm, which contains a number of maternal mRNAs and proteins. Investigation of several of these messages has revealed that the restricted localisation of these mRNAs to the germ plasm and subsequent germ cells is due to cis-acting sequence elements present in their 3'UTRs. Here we show that a member of the Hu family of RNA-binding proteins, HuB, is maternally provided in the zebrafish embryo and exhibits germ cell specific expression during embryogenesis. Restriction of HuB mRNA to the germ cells is dependent on a number of sequence elements in its 3'UTR, which act to degrade the mRNA in the soma and stabilise it in the germ cells. In addition, we show that the germ cell specific RNA-binding protein DAZL is able to promote HuB mRNA stability and translation in germ cells, and further demonstrate that these activities require a 30 nucleotide element in the 3'UTR. Our study suggests that DAZL specifically binds the HuB 3'UTR and protects the message from degradation and/or enhances HuB translation, leading to the germ cell specific expression of HuB protein.

  17. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McQuillan

    Full Text Available Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20. There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT, paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.

  18. Analysis of Wheel Hub Motor Drive Application in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuechao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of the performance characteristics of centralized and distributed drive electric vehicles, we found that the wheel hub motor drive mode of the electric vehicles with distributed drive have compact structure, high utilization ratio of interior vehicle space, lower center of vehicle gravity, good driving stability, easy intelligent control and many other advantages, hence in line with the new requirements for the development of drive performance of electric vehicles, and distributed drive will be the ultimate mode of electric vehicles in the future.

  19. Fixed-axis electric sail deployment dynamics analysis using hub-mounted momentum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, JoAnna; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2018-03-01

    The deployment dynamics of a spin stabilized electric sail (E-sail) with a hub-mounted control actuator are investigated. Both radial and tangential deployment mechanisms are considered to take the electric sail from a post-launch stowed configuration to a fully deployed configuration. The tangential configuration assumes the multi-kilometer tethers are wound up on the exterior of the spacecraft hub, similar to yo-yo despinner configurations. The deployment speed is controlled through the hub rate. The radial deployment configuration assumes each tether is on its own spool. Here both the hub and spool rate are control variables. The sensitivity of the deployment behavior to E-sail length, maximum rate and tension parameters is investigated. A constant hub rate deployment is compared to a time varying hub rate that maintains a constant tether tension condition. The deployment time can be reduced by a factor of 2 or more by using a tension controlled deployment configuration.

  20. An Endosymbiotic Evolutionary Algorithm for the Hub Location-Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ung Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a capacitated hub location-routing problem (HLRP which combines the hub location problem and multihub vehicle routing decisions. The HLRP not only determines the locations of the capacitated p-hubs within a set of potential hubs but also deals with the routes of the vehicles to meet the demands of customers. This problem is formulated as a 0-1 mixed integer programming model with the objective of the minimum total cost including routing cost, fixed hub cost, and fixed vehicle cost. As the HLRP has impractically demanding for the large sized problems, we develop a solution method based on the endosymbiotic evolutionary algorithm (EEA which solves hub location and vehicle routing problem simultaneously. The performance of the proposed algorithm is examined through a comparative study. The experimental results show that the proposed EEA can be a viable solution method for the supply chain network planning.

  1. Looking Into Pandora's Box: The Content Of Sci-Hub And Its Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Greshake, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growth of Open Access, potentially illegally circumventing paywalls to access scholarly publications is becoming a more mainstream phenomenon. The web service Sci-Hub is amongst the biggest facilitators of this, offering free access to around 62 million publications. So far it is not well studied how and why its users are accessing publications through Sci-Hub. By utilizing the recently released corpus of Sci-Hub and comparing it to the data of  ~28 million downloads done through ...

  2. Multi-Item Distribution Policies with Supply Hub and Lateral Transshipment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Jin-Hong; Jiang Rui-Xuan; Zheng Gui

    2015-01-01

    Supply Hub is defined as the horizontal coordination among the suppliers while lateral transshipment is a horizontal coordination policy among the retailers. By considering the Supply Hub and lateral transshipment simultaneously, ones can reduce the total cost of the supply chain system and improve the response to customer requirement and the customers’ satisfaction. We investigate the distribution policies for the supply chain which consists of multisuppliers, single Supply Hub, and multidis...

  3. Using hybrid latent class model for city-HUBs´users behaviour analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Di Ciommo, Floridea; Monzón de Cáceres, Andrés; Oña, Rocío de; Oña López, Juan de; Hernández del Olmo, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Data from an attitudinal survey and stated preference ranking experiment conducted in two urban European interchanges (i.e. City-HUBs) in Madrid (Spain) and Thessaloniki (Greece) show that the importance that City-HUBs users attach to the intermodal infrastructure varies strongly as a function of their perceptions of time spent in the interchange (i.e.intermodal transfer and waiting time). A principal components analysis allocates respondents (i.e. city-HUB users) to two classes with substant...

  4. Effect of firing conditions & release height on terminal performance of submunitions and conditions for optimum height of release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Gite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Submunitions should exhibit optimum terminal performance at target end when released from certain pre-determined height. Selection of an optimum height of release of the submunitions depends on the terminal parameters like forward throw, remaining velocity, impact angle and flight time. In this paper, the effects of initial firing conditions and height of release on terminal performance of submunitions discussed in detail. For different height of release, the relation between range and forward throw is also established & validated for a number of firing altitude and rocket configurations.

  5. Altered cortical hubs in functional brain networks in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xujing; Zhang, Jiuquan; Zhang, Youxue; Chen, Heng; Li, Rong; Wang, Jian; Chen, Huafu

    2015-11-01

    Cortical hubs are highly connected nodes in functional brain networks that play vital roles in the efficient transfer of information across brain regions. Although altered functional connectivity has been found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the changing pattern in functional network hubs in ALS remains unknown. In this study, we applied a voxel-wise method to investigate the changing pattern of cortical hubs in ALS. Through resting-state fMRI, we constructed whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks by measuring the temporal correlations of each pair of brain voxels and identified hubs using the graph theory method. Specifically, a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map was derived from the data on 20 patients with ALS and 20 healthy controls. The brain regions with high FCS values were regarded as functional network hubs. Functional hubs were found mainly in the bilateral precuneus, parietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and in several visual regions and temporal areas in both groups. Within the hub regions, the ALS patients exhibited higher FCS in the prefrontal cortex compared with the healthy controls. The FCS value in the significantly abnormal hub regions was correlated with clinical variables. Results indicated the presence of altered cortical hubs in the ALS patients and could therefore shed light on the pathophysiology mechanisms underlying ALS.

  6. SHMF: Interest Prediction Model with Social Hub Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyuan Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks, microblog has become the major social communication tool. There is a lot of valuable information such as personal preference, public opinion, and marketing in microblog. Consequently, research on user interest prediction in microblog has a positive practical significance. In fact, how to extract information associated with user interest orientation from the constantly updated blog posts is not so easy. Existing prediction approaches based on probabilistic factor analysis use blog posts published by user to predict user interest. However, these methods are not very effective for the users who post less but browse more. In this paper, we propose a new prediction model, which is called SHMF, using social hub matrix factorization. SHMF constructs the interest prediction model by combining the information of blogs posts published by both user and direct neighbors in user’s social hub. Our proposed model predicts user interest by integrating user’s historical behavior and temporal factor as well as user’s friendships, thus achieving accurate forecasts of user’s future interests. The experimental results on Sina Weibo show the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed model.

  7. Managing the cellular redox hub in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2012-02-01

    Light-driven redox chemistry is a powerful source of redox signals that has a decisive input into transcriptional control within the cell nucleus. Like photosynthetic electron transport pathways, the respiratory electron transport chain exerts a profound control over gene function, in order to balance energy (reductant and ATP) supply with demand, while preventing excessive over-reduction or over-oxidation that would be adversely affect metabolism. Photosynthetic and respiratory redox chemistries are not merely housekeeping processes but they exert a controlling influence over every aspect of plant biology, participating in the control of gene transcription and translation, post-translational modifications and the regulation of assimilatory reactions, assimilate partitioning and export. The number of processes influenced by redox controls and signals continues to increase as do the components that are recognized participants in the associated signalling pathways. A step change in our understanding of the overall importance of the cellular redox hub to plant cells has occurred in recent years as the complexity of the management of the cellular redox hub in relation to metabolic triggers and environmental cues has been elucidated. This special issue describes aspects of redox regulation and signalling at the cutting edge of current research in this dynamic and rapidly expanding field. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Design and Development of an Integrated Workstation Automation Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andrew; Ghatikar, Girish; Sartor, Dale; Lanzisera, Steven

    2015-03-30

    Miscellaneous Electronic Loads (MELs) account for one third of all electricity consumption in U.S. commercial buildings, and are drivers for a significant energy use in India. Many of the MEL-specific plug-load devices are concentrated at workstations in offices. The use of intelligence, and integrated controls and communications at the workstation for an Office Automation Hub – offers the opportunity to improve both energy efficiency and occupant comfort, along with services for Smart Grid operations. Software and hardware solutions are available from a wide array of vendors for the different components, but an integrated system with interoperable communications is yet to be developed and deployed. In this study, we propose system- and component-level specifications for the Office Automation Hub, their functions, and a prioritized list for the design of a proof-of-concept system. Leveraging the strength of both the U.S. and India technology sectors, this specification serves as a guide for researchers and industry in both countries to support the development, testing, and evaluation of a prototype product. Further evaluation of such integrated technologies for performance and cost is necessary to identify the potential to reduce energy consumptions in MELs and to improve occupant comfort.

  9. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  10. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  11. Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.

  12. Predicting highly-connected hubs in protein interaction networks by QSAR and biological data descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, Michael; Byler, Kendall; Cherkasov, Artem

    2009-01-01

    Hub proteins (those engaged in most physical interactions in a protein interaction network (PIN) have recently gained much research interest due to their essential role in mediating cellular processes and their potential therapeutic value. It is straightforward to identify hubs if the underlying PIN is experimentally determined; however, theoretical hub prediction remains a very challenging task, as physicochemical properties that differentiate hubs from less connected proteins remain mostly uncharacterized. To adequately distinguish hubs from non-hub proteins we have utilized over 1300 protein descriptors, some of which represent QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) parameters, and some reflect sequence-derived characteristics of proteins including domain composition and functional annotations. Those protein descriptors, together with available protein interaction data have been processed by a machine learning method (boosting trees) and resulted in the development of hub classifiers that are capable of predicting highly interacting proteins for four model organisms: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. More importantly, through the analyses of the most relevant protein descriptors, we are able to demonstrate that hub proteins not only share certain common physicochemical and structural characteristics that make them different from non-hub counterparts, but they also exhibit species-specific characteristics that should be taken into account when analyzing different PINs. The developed prediction models can be used for determining highly interacting proteins in the four studied species to assist future proteomics experiments and PIN analyses. Availability The source code and executable program of the hub classifier are available for download at: http://www.cnbi2.ca/hub-analysis/ PMID:20198194

  13. Orbital Hub: a concept for human spaceflight beyond ISS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Stephan S.; Maiwald, Volker; Philpot, Claudia; Quantius, Dominik; Romberg, Oliver; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Vrakking, Vincent; Zeidler, Conrad

    2018-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the greatest endeavour in low-Earth orbit since the beginning of the space age and the culmination of human outposts like Skylab and Mir. While a clear schedule has yet to be drafted, it is expected that ISS will cease operation in the 2020s. What could be the layout for a human outpost in LEO with lessons learnt from ISS? What are the use cases and applications of such an outpost in the future? The System Analysis Space Segment group of the German Aerospace Center investigated these and other questions and developed the Orbital Hub concept. In this paper an overview is presented of how the overall concept has been derived and its properties and layouts are described. Starting with a workshop involving the science community, the scientific requirements have been derived and Strawman payloads have been defined for use in further design activities. These design activities focused on Concurrent Engineering studies, where besides DLR employees participants from the industry and astronauts were involved. The result is an expandable concept that is composed of two main parts, the Base Platform, home for a permanent crew of up to three astronauts, and the Free Flyer, an uncrewed autonomous research platform. This modular approach provides one major advantage: the decoupling of the habitat and payload leading to increased quality of the micro-gravity environment. The former provides an environment for human physiology experiments, while the latter allows science without the perturbations caused by a crew, e.g. material experiments or Earth observation. The Free Flyer is designed to operate for up to 3 months on its own, but can dock with the space station for maintenance and experiment servicing. It also has a hybrid propulsion system, chemical and electrical, for different applications. The hub's design allows launch with just three launches, as the total mass of all the hub parts is about 60,000 kg. The main focus of the design is

  14. International environmental and occupational health: From individual scientists to networked science Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. Published in 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Slug flow transitions in horizontal gas/liquid two-phase flows. Dependence on channel height and system pressure for air/water and steam/water two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hideo

    1996-05-01

    The slug flow transitions and related phenomena for horizontal two-phase flows were studied for a better prediction of two-phase flows that typically appear during the reactor loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). For better representation of the flow conditions experimentally, two large-scaled facility: TPTF for high-pressure steam/water two-phase flows and large duct test facility for air/water two-phase flows, were used. The visual observation of the flow using a video-probe was performed in the TPTF experiments for good understanding of the phenomena. The currently-used models and correlations based mostly on the small-scale low-pressure experiments were reviewed and improved based on these experimental results. The modified Taitel-Dukler model for prediction of transition into slug flow from wavy flow and the modified Steen-Wallis correlation for prediction of onset of liquid entrainment from the interfacial waves were obtained. An empirical correlation for the gas-liquid interfacial friction factor was obtained further for prediction of liquid levels at wavy flow. The region of slug flow regime that is generally under influences of the channel height and system pressure was predicted well when these models and correlations were applied together. (author). 90 refs

  16. Competition and coordination in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets: An industry pre-merger case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper investigates the nature of conduct that existed in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets prior to the recent merger wave of the legacy carriers. We explore the strategic importance of network carrier hubs in form of “spheres of influence” on airline market conduct. We also simultaneously recognize the overgrowing role played by Low Cost Carriers (LCC over the years by estimating two conduct parameters - one in markets where LCCs directly compete head-to-head with legacy carriers and the other for markets which LCCs do not serve but has presence in the hub airports or adjacent airports comprising the market endpoints. Thus our supply side framework also sheds some light on the issue of perfect contestability in airline industry. Design/methodology/approach: We estimate a structural oligopoly model for differentiated products with competitive interactions using DB1B data for first quarter of 2004. Findings: Our results imply that the nature of competition is more aggressive relative to Bertrand behavior in hub-to-hub markets and that these markets are less than perfectly contestable. Originality/value: This paper adds to the empirical literature of airline competition by enabling estimation of the actual conduct parameter assuming firm price setting behavior in presence of product differentiation. Contrary to existing literature on airline competition, a structural model enables us to systematically separate out effects of demand, cost and strategic factors on observed airline prices.

  17. Network performance, hub connectivity potential, and competitive position of primary airports in Asia/Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumoto, H.; Veldhuis, J.; de Wit, J.; Burghouwt, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, hub-and-spoke network configurations are more and more developed in the Asia/Pacific region. In this paper, it is argued that the measurement of network performance in hub-and-spoke systems should take into account the quantity and quality of both direct and indirect connections. The

  18. 78 FR 20314 - Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-44-000] Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 28, 2013, Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, L.L.C. filed to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions to among others, update...

  19. Hub network design for sparse travel demand within the African aviation industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ssamula, B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available and analysed to reveal that the best option for a hub network is the so-called geo-political network. A geo-political network is where hubs are created in the North, South, East and West of Africa, at airports with strong political influence, high passenger...

  20. A note on hierarchical hubbing for a generalization of the VPN problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.K. Olver (Neil)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractRobust network design refers to a class of optimization problems that occur when designing networks to efficiently handle variable demands. In this context, Fréchette et al. (2013) recently explored hierarchical hubbing: a routing strategy involving a multiplicity of "hubs" connected to

  1. A note on hierarchical hubbing for a generalization of the VPN problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Robust network design refers to a class of optimization problems that occur when designing networks to efficiently handle variable demands. In this context, Fréchette et al. (2013) recently explored hierarchical hubbing: a routing strategy involving a multiplicity of "hubs" connected to terminals

  2. Client and event driven data hub system at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilminster, Ben; McFarland, Kevin; Vaiciulis, Tony; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Shimojima, Makoto

    2001-01-01

    The Consumer-Server Logger (CSL) system at the Collider Detector at Fermilab is a client and event driven data hub capable of receiving physics events from multiple connections, and logging them to multiple streams while distributing them to multiple online analysis programs (consumers). Its multiple-partitioned design allows data flowing through different paths of the detector sub-systems to be processed separately. The CSL system, using a set of internal memory buffers and message queues mapped to the location of events within its programs, and running on an SGI 2200 Server, is able to process at least the required 20 MB/s of constant event logging (75 Hz of 250 KB events) while also filtering up to 10 MB/s to consumers requesting specific types of events

  3. Midwest gas and power markets, hubs, pipelines, and interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirick, J.

    2001-01-01

    The existing interstate pipelines and proposed pipeline projects for the Chicago hub area were illustrated. The presentation explained why energy suppliers in the current competitive market need to balance and manage energy and transportation services for gas-fired power generators in terms of hourly winter and summer peaking services. The new infrastructure of the energy market will include new pipelines, storage and balancing to meet the ever increasing power demand. One of the options to meet power demand is to increase natural gas supply, transportation, storage, and hourly balancing capabilities. Other options are to build nuclear or coal-fired power generating facilities, or to go with renewables such as solar and wind power. Energy conservation and the reduction of natural gas usage per capita is another option to eliminate blackouts. This presentation also addressed the role that local distribution companies (LDC) and unbundling will play in the choice of these options. tabs., figs

  4. Features analysis for identification of date and party hubs in protein interaction network of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araabi Babak N

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been understood that biological networks have modular organizations which are the sources of their observed complexity. Analysis of networks and motifs has shown that two types of hubs, party hubs and date hubs, are responsible for this complexity. Party hubs are local coordinators because of their high co-expressions with their partners, whereas date hubs display low co-expressions and are assumed as global connectors. However there is no mutual agreement on these concepts in related literature with different studies reporting their results on different data sets. We investigated whether there is a relation between the biological features of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins and their roles as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs, and date hubs. We propose a classifier that separates these four classes. Results We extracted different biological characteristics including amino acid sequences, domain contents, repeated domains, functional categories, biological processes, cellular compartments, disordered regions, and position specific scoring matrix from various sources. Several classifiers are examined and the best feature-sets based on average correct classification rate and correlation coefficients of the results are selected. We show that fusion of five feature-sets including domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, and composition pairs with two and one gaps provide the best discrimination with an average correct classification rate of 77%. Conclusions We study a variety of known biological feature-sets of the proteins and show that there is a relation between domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, composition pairs with two and one gaps of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins, and their roles in the protein interaction network as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs and date hubs. This study also confirms the

  5. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  6. A collaborative scheduling model for the supply-hub with multiple suppliers and multiple manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Lv, Fei; Guan, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment.

  7. A Collaborative Scheduling Model for the Supply-Hub with Multiple Suppliers and Multiple Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment.

  8. A Collaborative Scheduling Model for the Supply-Hub with Multiple Suppliers and Multiple Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fei; Guan, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment. PMID:24892104

  9. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  10. 17 Years of Cloud Heights from Terra, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R.

    2017-12-01

    The effective cloud height, H, is the integral of observed cloud-top heights, weighted by their frequency of occurrence. Here we look at changes in the effective cloud height, H', as measured by the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) on the first Earth Observing System platform, Terra. Terra was launched in December 1999, and now has over 17 years of consistently measured climate records. Globally, HG' has an important influence on Earth's climate, whereas regionally, HR' is a useful measure of low frequency changes in circulation patterns. MISR has a sampling error in the annual mean HG' of ≈11 m, allowing fairly small interannual variations to be detected. This paper extends the previous 15-year summary that showed significant differences in the long term mean hemispheric cloud height changes. Also of interest are the correlations in tropical cloud height changes and related teleconnections. The largest ephemeral values in the annual HR' [over 1.5 km] are noted over the Central Pacific and the Maritime Continent. These changes are strongly anticorrelated with each other, being directly related to changes in ENSO. They are also correlated with the largest ephemeral changes in HG'. Around the equator, we find at least four distinct centres of similar fluctuations in cloud height. This paper examines the relative time dependence of these regional height changes, separately for La Niña and El Niño events, and stresses the value of extending the time series of uniformly measured cloud heights from space beyond EOS-Terra.

  11. 76 FR 10328 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Vestas Nacelles America, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles, Hubs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Status; Vestas Nacelles America, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles, Hubs, Blades and Towers), Brighton, Denver...-purpose subzone at the wind turbine nacelle, hub, blade and tower manufacturing and warehousing facilities... status for activity related to the manufacturing and warehousing of wind turbine nacelles, hubs, blades...

  12. A novel method to identify hub pathways of rheumatoid arthritis based on differential pathway networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi-Tong; Sun, Yong-Hua; Zong, Shi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify hub pathways of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a novel method based on differential pathway network (DPN) analysis. The present study proposed a DPN where protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was integrated with pathway‑pathway interactions. Pathway data was obtained from background PPI network and the Reactome pathway database. Subsequently, pathway interactions were extracted from the pathway data by building randomized gene‑gene interactions and a weight value was assigned to each pathway interaction using Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) to identify differential pathway interactions. Differential pathway interactions were visualized using Cytoscape to construct a DPN. Topological analysis was conducted to identify hub pathways that possessed the top 5% degree distribution of DPN. Modules of DPN were mined according to ClusterONE. A total of 855 pathways were selected to build pathway interactions. By filtrating pathway interactions of weight values >0.7, a DPN with 312 nodes and 791 edges was obtained. Topological degree analysis revealed 15 hub pathways, such as heparan sulfate/heparin‑glycosaminoglycan (HS‑GAG) degradation, HS‑GAG metabolism and keratan sulfate degradation for RA based on DPN. Furthermore, hub pathways were also important in modules, which validated the significance of hub pathways. In conclusion, the proposed method is a computationally efficient way to identify hub pathways of RA, which identified 15 hub pathways that may be potential biomarkers and provide insight to future investigation and treatment of RA.

  13. Fatigue based design and analysis of wheel hub for Student formula car by Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, V.; Ranganathan, A. S.; Satish, S.; Alexis, S. John; Siva kumar, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the existing design of Wheel hub used for Student formula cars, the brake discs cannot be removed easily since the disc is mounted in between the knuckle and hub. In case of bend or any other damage to the disc, the replacement of the disc becomes difficult. Further using OEM hub and knuckle that are used for commercial vehicles will result in increase of unsprung mass, which should be avoided in Student formula cars for improving the performance. In this design the above mentioned difficulties have been overcome by redesigning the hub in such a way that the brake disc could be removed easily by just removing the wheel and the caliper and also it will have reduced weight when compared to existing OEM hub. A CAD Model was developed based on the required fatigue life cycles. The forces acting on the hub were calculated and linear static structural analysis was performed on the wheel hub for three different materials using ANSYS Finite Element code V 16.2. The theoretical fatigue strength was compared with the stress obtained from the structural analysis for each material.

  14. Mechanical Design, Analysis, and Testing of a Two-Bladed Wind Turbine Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, J.

    2002-06-01

    Researchers at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in Golden, Colorado, began performing the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment in 1993 to better understand the unsteady aerodynamics and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines. The experiment consists of an extensively instrumented, downwind, three-bladed, 20-kilowatt wind turbine. In May 1995, I received a request from the NWTC to design a two-bladed hub for the experiment. For my thesis, I present the results of the mechanical design, analysis, and testing of the hub. The hub I designed is unique because it runs in rigid, teetering, or independent blade-flapping modes. In addition, the design is unusual because it uses two servomotors to pitch the blades independently. These features are used to investigate new load reduction, noise reduction, blade pitch optimization, and yaw control techniques for two-bladed turbines. I used a methodology by G. Phal and W. Bietz to design the hub. The hub meets all the performance specifications except that it achieves only 90% of the specified teeter range. In my thesis, I focus on the analysis and testing of the hub body. I performed solid-mechanics calculations, ran a finite-element analysis simulation, and experimentally investigated the structural integrity of the hub body.

  15. Incremental Optimization of Hub and Spoke Network for the Spokes’ Numbers and Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hub and spoke network problem is solved as part of a strategic decision making process which may have a profound effect on the future of enterprises. In view of the existing network structure, as time goes on, the number of spokes and the flow change because of different sources of uncertainty. Hence, the incremental optimization of hub and spoke network problem is considered in this paper, and the policy makers should adopt a series of strategies to cope with the change, such as setting up new hubs, adjusting the capacity level of original hubs, or closing some original hubs. The objective is to minimize the total cost, which includes the setup costs for the new hubs, the closure costs, and the adjustment costs for the original hubs as well as the flow routing costs. Two mixed-integer linear programming formulations are proposed and analyzed for this problem. China Deppon Logistics as an example is performed to present computational analysis, and we analyze the changes in the solutions driven by the number of spokes and the flow. The tests also allow an analysis to consider the effect of variation in parameters on network.

  16. Connectome hubs at resting state in children and adolescents: Reproducibility and psychopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Sato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain hubs are key integrative regions in brain networks. Recently, brain hubs identified through resting-state fMRI have emerged as interesting targets to increase understanding of the relationships between large-scale functional networks and psychopathology. However, few studies have directly addressed the replicability and consistency of the hub regions identified and their association with symptoms. Here, we used the eigenvector centrality (EVC measure obtained from graph analysis of two large, independent population-based samples of children and adolescents (7–15 years old; total N = 652; 341 subjects for site 1 and 311 for site 2 to evaluate the replicability of hub identification. Subsequently, we tested the association between replicable hub regions and psychiatric symptoms. We identified a set of hubs consisting of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus (IPL/IPS. Moreover, lower EVC values in the right IPS were associated with psychiatric symptoms in both samples. Thus, low centrality of the IPS was a replicable sign of potential vulnerability to mental disorders in children. The identification of critical and replicable hubs in functional cortical networks in children and adolescents can foster understanding of the mechanisms underlying mental disorders.

  17. Equations for predicting diameter, height, crown width, and leaf area of San Joaquin Valley street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Although the modeling of energy-use reduction, air pollution uptake, rainfall interception, and microclimate modification associated with urban trees depends on data relating diameter at breast height (dbh) , crown height, crown diameter, and leaf area to tree age or dbh, scant information is available for common municipal tree species . I n this study , tree height ,...

  18. Effects of stand density on top height estimation for ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ritchie; Jianwei Zhang; Todd Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    Site index, estimated as a function of dominant-tree height and age, is often used as an expression of site quality. This expression is assumed to be effectively independent of stand density. Observation of dominant height at two different ponderosa pine levels-of-growing-stock studies revealed that top height stability with respect to stand density depends on the...

  19. E-hubs: the new B2B (business-to-business) marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S; Sawhney, M

    2000-01-01

    Electronic hubs--Internet-based intermediaries that host electronic marketplaces and mediate transactions among businesses--are generating a lot of interest. Companies like Ariba, Chemdex, and Commerce One have already attained breathtaking stock market capitalizations. Venture capitalists are pouring money into more business-to-business start-ups. Even industrial stalwarts like GM and Ford are making plans to set up their own Web markets. As new entrants with new business models pour into the business-to-business space, it's increasingly difficult to make sense of the landscape. This article provides a blueprint of the e-hub arena. The authors start by looking at the two dimensions of purchasing: what businesses buy--manufacturing inputs or operating inputs--and how they buy--through systematic sourcing or spot sourcing. They classify B2B e-hubs into four categories: MRO hubs, yield managers, exchanges, and catalog hubs, and they discuss each type in detail. Drilling deeper into this B2B matrix, the authors look at how e-hubs create value--through aggregation and matching--and explain when each mechanism works best. They also examine the biases of e-hubs. Although many e-hubs are neutral--they're operated by independent third parties--some favor the buyers or sellers. The authors explain the differences and discuss the pros and cons of each position. The B2B marketplace is changing rapidly. This framework helps buyers, sellers, and market makers navigate the landscape by explaining what the different hubs do and how they add the most value.

  20. Modeling and optimization of a network of energy hubs to improve economic and emission considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroufmashat, Azadeh; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael; Sattari, Sourena; Roshandel, Ramin; Hajimiragha, Amir; Walker, Sean; Entchev, Evgueniy

    2015-01-01

    Energy hubs that incorporate a variety of energy generation and energy transformation technologies can be used to provide the energy storage needed to enable the efficient operation of a ‘smart energy network’. When these hubs are combined as a network and allowed to exchange energy, they create efficiency advantages in both financial and environmental performance. Further, the interconnectedness of the energy network design provides an added layer of reliability. In this paper, a complex network of energy hubs is modeled and optimized under different scenarios to examine both the financial viability and potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Two case studies consisting of two and three energy hubs within a network are considered. The modeling Scenarios vary according to the consideration of distributed energy systems and energy interaction between energy hubs. In the case of a network of two energy hubs, there is no significant economic or emissions benefit with only a 0.5% reduction in total cost and 3% reduction in CO_2 emission. In the case of a network of three energy hubs, there is a significant economic benefit ranging from 11% to 29%, and 11% emission reduction benefit, as well as a 13% reduction in natural gas consumption. - Highlights: • The generic form of the modified energy hub concept with network model is presented. • Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the benefits of energy hub network. • Distributed energy is shown to provide economic and environmental advantages. • Multi criteria optimization of the economic and environmental performance is done.

  1. Classification of gene expression data: A hubness-aware semi-supervised approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Krisztian

    2016-04-01

    Classification of gene expression data is the common denominator of various biomedical recognition tasks. However, obtaining class labels for large training samples may be difficult or even impossible in many cases. Therefore, semi-supervised classification techniques are required as semi-supervised classifiers take advantage of unlabeled data. Gene expression data is high-dimensional which gives rise to the phenomena known under the umbrella of the curse of dimensionality, one of its recently explored aspects being the presence of hubs or hubness for short. Therefore, hubness-aware classifiers have been developed recently, such as Naive Hubness-Bayesian k-Nearest Neighbor (NHBNN). In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised extension of NHBNN which follows the self-training schema. As one of the core components of self-training is the certainty score, we propose a new hubness-aware certainty score. We performed experiments on publicly available gene expression data. These experiments show that the proposed classifier outperforms its competitors. We investigated the impact of each of the components (classification algorithm, semi-supervised technique, hubness-aware certainty score) separately and showed that each of these components are relevant to the performance of the proposed approach. Our results imply that our approach may increase classification accuracy and reduce computational costs (i.e., runtime). Based on the promising results presented in the paper, we envision that hubness-aware techniques will be used in various other biomedical machine learning tasks. In order to accelerate this process, we made an implementation of hubness-aware machine learning techniques publicly available in the PyHubs software package (http://www.biointelligence.hu/pyhubs) implemented in Python, one of the most popular programming languages of data science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. City Hub : a cloud based IoT platform for Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, Rodger; Blackstock, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cloud based Smart City hubs are an attractive approach to addressing some of the complex issues faced when deploying PaaS infrastructure for Smart Cities. In this paper we introduce the general notion of IoT hubs and then discusses our work to generalize our IoT hub as a Smart City PaaS. Two key issues are identified, support for hybrid public/private cloud and interoperability. We briefly describe our approach to these issues and discuss our experiences deploying two cloud-based Smart City h...

  3. All for one : Factors for alignment of inter-dependent business processes at KLM and Schiphol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perié, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    As airline and hub competition becomes fiercer, airline-airport co-operation becomes a necessary option for both main carrier airlines and hub airports to face this competition together. The inter-dependency between airlines and airports in producing air-transport services is tight, i.e. their

  4. Hub nodes inhibit the outbreak of epidemic under voluntary vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haifeng; Wang Binghong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)], E-mail: bhwang@ustc.edu.cn; Zhang Jie; Small, Michael [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: ensmall@polyu.edu.hk; Zhou Changsong [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-02-15

    It is commonly believed that epidemic spreading on scale-free networks is difficult to control and that the disease can spread even with a low infection rate, lacking an epidemic threshold. In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on complex networks under the framework of game theory, in which a voluntary vaccination strategy is incorporated. In particular, individuals face the 'dilemma' of vaccination: they have to decide whether or not to vaccinate according to the trade-off between the risk and the side effects or cost of vaccination. Remarkably and quite excitingly, we find that disease outbreak can be more effectively inhibited on scale-free networks than on random networks. This is because the hub nodes of scale-free networks are more inclined to take self-vaccination after balancing the pros and cons. This result is encouraging as it indicates that real-world networks, which are often claimed to be scale free, can be favorably and easily controlled under voluntary vaccination. Our work provides a way of understanding how to prevent the outbreak of diseases under voluntary vaccination, and is expected to provide valuable information on effective disease control and appropriate decision-making.

  5. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative.

  6. Hierarchical feedback modules and reaction hubs in cell signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Lan, Yueheng

    2015-01-01

    Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks.

  7. Hierarchical feedback modules and reaction hubs in cell signaling networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Xu

    Full Text Available Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks.

  8. Hub nodes inhibit the outbreak of epidemic under voluntary vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haifeng; Wang Binghong; Zhang Jie; Small, Michael; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly believed that epidemic spreading on scale-free networks is difficult to control and that the disease can spread even with a low infection rate, lacking an epidemic threshold. In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on complex networks under the framework of game theory, in which a voluntary vaccination strategy is incorporated. In particular, individuals face the 'dilemma' of vaccination: they have to decide whether or not to vaccinate according to the trade-off between the risk and the side effects or cost of vaccination. Remarkably and quite excitingly, we find that disease outbreak can be more effectively inhibited on scale-free networks than on random networks. This is because the hub nodes of scale-free networks are more inclined to take self-vaccination after balancing the pros and cons. This result is encouraging as it indicates that real-world networks, which are often claimed to be scale free, can be favorably and easily controlled under voluntary vaccination. Our work provides a way of understanding how to prevent the outbreak of diseases under voluntary vaccination, and is expected to provide valuable information on effective disease control and appropriate decision-making.

  9. Hierarchical Feedback Modules and Reaction Hubs in Cell Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Lan, Yueheng

    2015-01-01

    Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks. PMID:25951347

  10. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    /unique environment (AE) model. Among women the heritability estimates were generally lower than among men with greater variation between countries, ranging from 0.68 to 0.84 when an additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model was used. In four populations where an AE model fit equally well...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...... or better, heritability ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. This difference between the sexes was mainly due to the effect of the shared environmental component of variance, which appears to be more important among women than among men in our study populations. Our results indicate that, in general, there are only...

  11. Influence of Hub Parameters on Joining Forces and Torque Transmission Output of Plastically-Joined Shaft-Hub-Connections with a Knurled Contact Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Suchý

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A knurled interference fit is a machine part connection made by a plastic joining, which includes the advantages of commonly-used shaft-hub-connections. The combination of the friction and form fit, which are responsible for torque transmission, results in a higher power density than conventional connections. In this paper, parameter gaps are bridged with the aim of enhance the design calculation of the knurled interference fit. Experimental investigations on the shaft chamfer angle (100Cr6 and hub-diameter-ratio (AlSi1MgMn were performed. The analytical approaches are developed for calculating the joining force and maximal torque capacity by accounting for experimentally investigated loss of load transmission at high hub-diameter-ratios and high shaft chamfer angles. The presented calculation approach is an accurate tool for the assessment of early machine designs of the knurled interference fit and helps to save from having to perform time-extensive tests.

  12. Modelagem para localização de hubs no transporte de encomendas expressas Modelling for location hubs in the express cargo transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Antonio Timaná Alamo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na presente pesquisa se propõe um modelo matemático de programação linear com variáveis binárias 0/1, para projetar a configuração de uma rede de distribuição de encomendas expressas, visando minimizar os custos e garantindo um bom nível de serviço. O modelo, que é uma modificação da formulação proposta por O’Kelly, define as posições dos hubs, a alocação deles às demais instalações físicas e a construção de roteiros com apenas uma parada intermediária, o que confere mais agilidade ao atendimento da demanda de transporte de carga. Considera-se a instalação de um único hub maior (Hub Principal, que serve como ponto de transbordo para os fluxos de carga entre as distintas regiões de um território, e um conjunto de terminais regionais (mini-hubs, servindo como ponto de conexão, unicamente, para os fluxos de carga existentes em um determinado raio de cobertura. Foram propostas extensões que incluem uma restrição da capacidade operacional do Hub Principal, para evitar seu congestionamento, e duas diferentes estratégias de induzir o aumento de fluxo de carga manipulado pelos mini-hubs. O modelo proposto e suas extensões foram aplicados ao estudo de um caso real, obtendo-se resultados consistentes e uma redução significativa no custo total da rede de distribuição da empresa analisada.This study proposes a mathematical model of linear programming with binary variables 0/1 to project the configuration of a distribution network for express cargo which aims to minimize costs and guarantee a high level of service. The model, which is a modification of the formulation proposed by O’Kelly, defines the position of the hubs, their allocation regarding the other physical installations, and the building of itineraries with only one intermediate stop, which increases agility in meeting the demand of cargo transport. It assumes the installation of a single, major hub (Main Hub, which serves as the transfer point for

  13. Variation of boundary-layer wind spectra with height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Petersen, Erik L.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2018-01-01

    This study revisits the height dependence of the wind speed power spectrum from the synoptic scale to the spectral gap. Measurements from cup anemometers and sonics at heights of 15 m to 244 m are used. The measurements are from one land site, one coastal land‐based site and three offshore sites...... the atmospheric tide. The second finding regards the height dependence of the general spectrum. We describe the dependence through a so‐called effective roughness, which is calculated from wind spectra and represents the energy removal at different frequencies, and thus surface conditions in the footprint areas....... The generalizable spectral properties of winds presented herein may prove useful for validating numerical models....

  14. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  15. Standardizing Scale Height Computation of Maven Ngims Neutral Data and Variations Between Exobase and Homeopause Scale Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, M. K.; Slipski, M.; Curry, S.; Williamson, H. N.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The MAVEN NGIMS team produces a level 3 product which includes the computation of Ar scale height an atmospheric temperatures at 200 km. In the latest version (v05_r01) this has been revised to include scale height fits for CO2, N2 O and CO. Members of the MAVEN team have used various methods to compute scale heights leading to significant variations in scale height values depending on fits and techniques within a few orbits even, occasionally, the same pass. Additionally fitting scale heights in a very stable atmosphere like the day side vs night side can have different results based on boundary conditions. Currently, most methods only compute Ar scale heights as it is most stable and reacts least with the instrument. The NGIMS team has chosen to expand these fitting techniques to include fitted scale heights for CO2, N2, CO, and O. Having compared multiple techniques, the method found to be most reliable for most conditions was determined to be a simple fit method. We have focused this to a fitting method that determines the exobase altidude of the CO2 atmosphere as a maximum altitude for the highest point for fitting, and uses the periapsis as the lowest point and then fits the altitude versus log(density). The slope of altitude vs log(density) is -1/H where H is the scale height of the atmosphere for each species. Since this is between the homeopause and the exobase, each species will have a different scale height by this point. This is being released as a new standardization for the level 3 product, with the understanding that scientists and team members will continue to compute more precise scale heights and temperatures as needed based on science and model demands. This is being released in the PDS NGIMS level 3 v05 files for August 2017. Additionally, we are examining these scale heights for variations seasonally, diurnally, and above and below the exobase. The atmosphere is significantly more stable on the dayside than on the nightside. We have also found

  16. Sci-Hub: What Librarians Should Know and Do about Article Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of journal articles has driven many researchers to turn to a new way of getting access: "pirate" article sites. Sci-Hub, the largest and best known of these sites, currently offers instant access to more than 58 million journal articles. Users attracted by the ease of use and breadth of the collection may not realize that these articles are often obtained using stolen credentials and downloading them may be illegal. This article will briefly describe Sci-Hub and how it works, the legal and ethical issues it raises, and the problems it may cause for librarians. Librarians should be aware of Sci-Hub and the ways it may change their patrons' expectations. They should also understand the risks Sci-Hub can pose to their patrons and their institutions.

  17. Puertos, espacio y globalización: el desarrollo de hubs en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Daniel Martner Peyrelongue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los puertos hubs se presentan como el nuevo paradigma de desarrollo del transporte y el comercio marítimo internacional en la globalización. Prácticamente todos los países latinoamericanos anuncian megaproyectos para el desarrollo de puertos hubs en sus litorales, generando grandes expectativas de desarrollo regional, con un débil sustento tanto teórico como empírico. En este sentido, el presente trabajo busca contribuir a la caracterización del modelo de puertos hubs en países periféricos dentro de la economíamundo capitalista, aludiendo, en especial, al caso mexicano. Se trata de aportar elementos de análisis para reconocer, a grandes rasgos, las posibilidades del desarrollo de hubs en los litorales mexicanos, desde la perspectiva de los estudios regionales y la geografía del transporte.

  18. A review study of the current research on energy hub for energy positive neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.W.W.; Labeodan, T.; Maassen, W.H.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    Energy positive neighborhoods and cities are emerging concepts aimed at addressing the current energy and environmental sustainability challenges. In this paper, the concept and current research on energy hubs relating to energy positive neighborhoods are presented. In addition to discussing

  19. Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunpeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the four papers in the special issues on ‘Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia’. The papers examine lessons and experience from European hub development, other commodity, the Japanese history on developing of futures markets and inter-fuel substitution in East Asia. The papers finds that liquid futures market is the key to formulate benchmark prices while a well-developed spot market is the foundation; political will and strong leadership are required to overcome the power of incumbents and to restructure the gas market that impede the the development of competitive markets; and East Asia needs to develop its indigenous gas or LNG trading hubs even in low oil prices period and its developing market allows easier changes in new contracts than in existing ones. This hub development requires governments to go through tough domestic market reforms, including liberalization and cooperation with each other and with gas exporters.

  20. Waves, currents and sediment transport modelling at the Wave Hub site

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Santamaria, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Primary supervisory team: Qingping Zou and Shunqi Pan This research project uses an integrated modelling system to investigate the effects of a wave farm on nearshore sediment transport at the Wave Hub site. The Wave Hub project is a large scale demonstration site for the development of the operation of arrays of wave energy generation devices located at the southwest coast of the UK where multiple field measurements took place. Particular attention of this study was paid to th...

  1. A genome-wide screen identifies conserved protein hubs required for cadherin-mediated cell–cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toret, Christopher P.; D’Ambrosio, Michael V.; Vale, Ronald D.; Simon, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Cadherins and associated catenins provide an important structural interface between neighboring cells, the actin cytoskeleton, and intracellular signaling pathways in a variety of cell types throughout the Metazoa. However, the full inventory of the proteins and pathways required for cadherin-mediated adhesion has not been established. To this end, we completed a genome-wide (∼14,000 genes) ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) screen that targeted Ca2+-dependent adhesion in DE-cadherin–expressing Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells in suspension culture. This novel screen eliminated Ca2+-independent cell–cell adhesion, integrin-based adhesion, cell spreading, and cell migration. We identified 17 interconnected regulatory hubs, based on protein functions and protein–protein interactions that regulate the levels of the core cadherin–catenin complex and coordinate cadherin-mediated cell–cell adhesion. Representative proteins from these hubs were analyzed further in Drosophila oogenesis, using targeted germline RNAi, and adhesion was analyzed in Madin–Darby canine kidney mammalian epithelial cell–cell adhesion. These experiments reveal roles for a diversity of cellular pathways that are required for cadherin function in Metazoa, including cytoskeleton organization, cell–substrate interactions, and nuclear and cytoplasmic signaling. PMID:24446484

  2. Transport of pollutants and sediment in the area of the Wave Hub (Celtic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Huntley, David

    2010-05-01

    Cornish coast being particularly affected. Sediment transport is also sensitive to the neap-spring phase of the tidal cycle. Residual currents caused by the non-linear tidal stream rectification are comparable or slower (depending on location) than the density driven currents caused by formation of temperature fronts. Location of the Wave Hub is particularly prone to strong transport of suspended particulate matter subject to availability of sediment on the seabed. These preliminary results suggest that the region of the Celtic Sea where the proposed Wave Hub is sited is an excellent location for assessing potential impacts of wave energy extraction. The authors wish to thank D. L. Aleynik for his help in setting up the POLCOMS model and the PRIMaRE project for providing computing facilities.

  3. Design and Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade Hub using Aluminium Alloy AA 6061-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, S.; Jaswanthvenkatram, V.; Sai kumar, Y. J. N. V.; Sohaib, S. Md.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the design and analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade hub using different material. The hub is very crucial part of the wind turbine, which experience the loads from the blades and the loads were transmitted to the main shaft. At present wind turbine is more expensive and weights more than a million pounds, with the nacelle, rotor hub and blades accounting for most of the weight. In this work Spheroidal graphite cast iron GGG 40.3 is replaced by aluminium alloy 6061-T6 to enhance the casting properties and also to improve the strength-weight ratio. This transition of material leads to reduction in weight of the wind turbine. All the loads caused by wind and extreme loads on the blades are transferred to the hub. Considering the IEC 61400-1 standard for defining extreme loads on the hub the stress and deflection were calculated on the hub by using Finite element Analysis. Result obtained from ANSYS is compared and discussed with the existing design.

  4. Testing and Life Prediction for Composite Rotor Hub Flexbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Gretchen B.

    2004-01-01

    A summary of several studies of delamination in tapered composite laminates with internal ply-drops is presented. Initial studies used 2D FE models to calculate interlaminar stresses at the ply-ending locations in linear tapered laminates under tension loading. Strain energy release rates for delamination in these laminates indicated that delamination would likely start at the juncture of the tapered and thin regions and grow unstably in both directions. Tests of glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy linear tapered laminates under axial tension delaminated as predicted. Nonlinear tapered specimens were cut from a full-size helicopter rotor hub and were tested under combined constant axial tension and cyclic transverse bending loading to simulate the loading experienced by a rotorhub flexbeam in flight. For all the tested specimens, delamination began at the tip of the outermost dropped ply group and grew first toward the tapered region. A 2D FE model was created that duplicated the test flexbeam layup, geometry, and loading. Surface strains calculated by the model agreed very closely with the measured surface strains in the specimens. The delamination patterns observed in the tests were simulated in the model by releasing pairs of MPCs along those interfaces. Strain energy release rates associated with the delamination growth were calculated for several configurations and using two different FE analysis codes. Calculations from the codes agreed very closely. The strain energy release rate results were used with material characterization data to predict fatigue delamination onset lives for nonlinear tapered flexbeams with two different ply-dropping schemes. The predicted curves agreed well with the test data for each case studied.

  5. A novel virtual hub approach for multisource downstream service integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Mattia; Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    A large development of downstream services is expected to be stimulated starting from earth observations (EO) datasets acquired by Copernicus satellites. An important challenge connected with the availability of downstream services is the possibility for their integration in order to create innovative applications with added values for users of different categories level. At the moment, the world of geo-information (GI) is extremely heterogeneous in terms of standards and formats used, thus preventing a facilitated access and integration of downstream services. Indeed, different users and data providers have also different requirements in terms of communication protocols and technology advancement. In recent years, many important programs and initiatives have tried to address this issue even on trans-regional and international level (e.g. INSPIRE Directive, GEOSS, Eye on Earth and SEIS). However, a lack of interoperability between systems and services still exists. In order to facilitate the interaction between different downstream services, a new architectural approach (developed within the European project ENERGIC OD) is proposed in this paper. The brokering-oriented architecture introduces a new mediation layer (the Virtual Hub) which works as an intermediary to bridge the gaps linked to interoperability issues. This intermediation layer de-couples the server and the client allowing a facilitated access to multiple downstream services and also Open Data provided by national and local SDIs. In particular, in this paper an application is presented integrating four services on the topic of agriculture: (i) the service given by Space4Agri (providing services based on MODIS and Landsat data); (ii) Gicarus Lab (providing sample services based on Landsat datasets) and (iii) FRESHMON (providing sample services for water quality) and services from a several regional SDIs.

  6. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  7. Telefacturing Based Distributed Manufacturing Environment for Optimal Manufacturing Service by Enhancing the Interoperability in the Hubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Manupati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent happenings are surrounding the manufacturing sector leading to intense progress towards the development of effective distributed collaborative manufacturing environments. This evolving collaborative manufacturing not only focuses on digitalisation of this environment but also necessitates service-dependent manufacturing system that offers an uninterrupted approach to a number of diverse, complicated, dynamic manufacturing operations management systems at a common work place (hub. This research presents a novel telefacturing based distributed manufacturing environment for recommending the manufacturing services based on the user preferences. The first step in this direction is to deploy the most advanced tools and techniques, that is, Ontology-based Protégé 5.0 software for transforming the huge stored knowledge/information into XML schema of Ontology Language (OWL documents and Integration of Process Planning and Scheduling (IPPS for multijobs in a collaborative manufacturing system. Thereafter, we also investigate the possibilities of allocation of skilled workers to the best feasible operations sequence. In this context, a mathematical model is formulated for the considered objectives, that is, minimization of makespan and total training cost of the workers. With an evolutionary algorithm and developed heuristic algorithm, the performance of the proposed manufacturing system has been improved. Finally, to manifest the capability of the proposed approach, an illustrative example from the real-time manufacturing industry is validated for optimal service recommendation.

  8. Transforming the New Brunswick Energy Hub: An Analysis on Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Christopher

    This research examines the benefits and disadvantages of instituting a shift from fossil fuel dependence to renewable sources of energy in New Brunswick. The New Brunswick Energy Hub is a complex system acting under the mandate of the White Paper New Brunswick Energy Policy. In my research, I consider information derived from statistical indicators developed by Patlitzianas, Doukas, Kagiannas and Psarras (2008) and compare these findings to the efficacy of energy policies in Germany, Denmark and Spain. These countries are similar to New Brunswick in climate and organizational complexity (US Department of Commerce, 2009). Weighing the outcomes of this comparative study, I discuss my recommendations highlighting the environmental and economic benefits. My research investigates subsidies in each country that allowed them early economic and environmental advantages. Specific regional considerations, such as Denmark's trend of selling energy technology for profit over domestic applications, inform my conclusions. The future New Brunswick Energy Policy should focus on creating favorable conditions for renewable energy development to occur. Some proven conditions include infrastructure development subsidies and the development and annual review of a competitive open access transmission tariff. With the expiry of the current White Paper comes the necessity of this investigation, and the opportunity to address the growing financial and environmental concerns that many politicians and policy planners have failed to deal with in past policies.

  9. Using GitHub in the design of e-activities for software refactoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos LÓPEZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to design, plan, apply and assessment educational activities to help in the teaching-learning process of the concept of refactoring. The teaching methodology used is based on two pillars. The first is a progressive learning of the concept of refactoring by e-activities defined at different levels of knowledge of Bloom’s taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation. The second is the use of resources in e-activities that are related to those the student may find during their professional career oriented towards software development: integrated development environments and software project repositories. The result of this work is the definition of a set of Java code refactoring e-activities. The version control functionality of software project repository, i.e.; GitHub, is used in different ways depending on the type of e-activity. Under these assumptions five types of e-activities are designed: Reading and comprehensions, objective tests, problem-based learning, case studies and webinars. The e-activities designed are applied in the context of the course Software Engineering of the Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science at the University of Burgos. The paper concludes analyzing some consequences of the experience from the perspective of using these new e-activities in the teaching-learning process as from the perspective of workload involved for both the teacher and the student.

  10. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  11. Rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of three-dimensional hub-beams system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinyang; Lu Hao

    2007-01-01

    In the previous research of the coupling dynamics of a hub-beam system, coupling between the rotational motion of hub and the torsion deformation of beam is not taken into account since the system undergoes planar motion. Due to the small longitudinal deformation, coupling between the rotational motion of hub and the longitudinal deformation of beam is also neglected. In this paper, rigid-flexible coupling dynamics is extended to a hub-beams system with three-dimensional large overall motion. Not only coupling between the large overall motion and the bending deformation, but also coupling between the large overall motion and the torsional deformation are taken into account. In case of temperature increase, the longitudinal deformation caused by the thermal expansion is significant, such that coupling between the large overall motion and the longitudinal deformation is also investigated. Combining the characteristics of the hybrid coordinate formulation and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, the system generalized coordinates include the relative nodal displacement and the slope of each beam element with respect to the body-fixed frame of the hub, and the variables related to the spatial large overall motion of the hub and beams. Based on precise strain-displacement relation, the geometric stiffening effect is taken into account, and the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic equations are derived using velocity variational principle. Finite element method is employed for discretization. Simulation of a hub-beams system is used to show the coupling effect between the large overall motion and the torsional deformation as well as the longitudinal deformation. Furthermore, conservation of energy in case of free motion is shown to verify the formulation

  12. Medium-term energy hub management subject to electricity price and wind uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Arsalan; Falaghi, Hamid; Contreras, Javier; Ramezani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model for medium-term energy hub management is proposed. • Risk aversion is considered in medium-term energy hub management. • Stochastic programing is used to solve the medium-term energy hub management problem. • Electricity price and wind uncertainty are considered. - Abstract: Energy hubs play an important role in implementing multi-carrier energy systems. More studies are required in both their modeling and operating aspects. In this regard, this paper attempts to develop medium-term management of an energy hub in restructured power systems. A model is presented to manage an energy hub which has electrical energy and natural gas as inputs and electrical and heat energy as outputs. Electricity is procured in various ways, either purchasing it from a pool-based market and bilateral contracts, or producing it from a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) unit, a diesel generator unit and Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs). Pool prices and wind turbine production are subject to uncertainty, which makes energy management a complex puzzle. Heat demand is also procured by a furnace and a CHP unit. Energy hub managers should make decisions whether to purchase electricity from the electricity market and gas from the gas network or to produce electricity using a set of generators to meet the electrical and heat demands in the presence of uncertainties. The energy management objective is to minimize the total cost subject to several technical constraints using stochastic programming. Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR), a well-known risk measure, is used to reduce the unfavorable risk of costs. In doing so, the proposed model is illustrated using a sample test case with actual prices, load and wind speed data. The results show that the minimum cost is obtained by the best decisions involving the electricity market and purchasing natural gas for gas facilities. Considering risk also increases the total expected cost and decreases the CVaR.

  13. Disrupted Nodal and Hub Organization Account for Brain Network Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimori, Yuko; Cho, Sang-Soo; Criaud, Marion; Christopher, Leigh; Jacobs, Mark; Ghadery, Christine; Coakeley, Sarah; Harris, Madeleine; Mizrahi, Romina; Hamani, Clement; Lang, Anthony E; Houle, Sylvain; Strafella, Antonio P

    2016-01-01

    The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in Parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls (HCs) and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree. Hub regions were identified in the HC and patient groups. We found nodal and hub changes in patients compared with HCs, including the right pre-supplementary motor area (SMA), left anterior insula, bilateral mid-insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and right caudate nucleus. In general, nodal regions within the sensorimotor network (i.e., right pre-SMA and right mid-insula) displayed weakened connectivity, with the former node associated with more severe bradykinesia, and impaired integration with default mode network regions. The left mid-insula also lost its hub properties in patients. Within the executive networks, the left anterior insular cortex lost its hub properties in patients, while a new hub region was identified in the right caudate nucleus, paralleled by an increased level of inter- and intra-connectivity in the bilateral DLPFC possibly representing compensatory mechanisms. These findings highlight the diffuse changes in nodal organization and regional hub disruption accounting for the distributed abnormalities across brain networks and the clinical manifestations of PD.

  14. Disrupted nodal and hub organization account for brain network abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Koshimori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree. Hub regions were identified in the healthy control and patient groups. We found nodal and hub changes in patients compared with healthy controls, including the right pre-supplementary motor area, left anterior insula, bilateral mid-insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus. In general, nodal regions within the sensorimotor network (i.e. right pre-supplementary motor area and right mid-insula displayed weakened connectivity, with the former node associated with more severe bradykinesia, and impaired integration with default mode network regions. The left mid-insula also lost its hub properties in patients. Within the executive networks, the left anterior insular cortex lost its hub properties in patients, while a new hub region was identified in the right caudate nucleus, paralleled by an increased level of inter- and intra-connectivity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex possibly representing compensatory mechanisms. These findings highlight the diffuse changes in nodal organization and regional hub disruption accounting for the distributed abnormalities across brain networks and the clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease.

  15. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:\\ud To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood.\\ud \\ud STUDY DESIGN:\\ud Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother-child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estim...

  16. Mixing height determination from the momentum balance of the neutral or stable PBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, J.C. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    The mixing height is defined by the top of the layer of turbulent mixing. This height is equal to the height H of turbulent vertical momentum transport (fiction) in neutral or stable stratification. In very stable cases, the wave induced momentum transport must be excluded if the waves do not have mixing effects (e.g. break) within the frictional layer. Thus the conditions provided by the momentum balance determine the mixing height in most cases of mechanical turbulence. Mixing is a time dependent process and depends also on the height of release of substance to be mixed. It depends on the specific form of the exchange coefficient function whether the mixing time for the mixed layer is finite of infinite. If this time is infinite, an additional mixing time criterion for a substance released close to the ground must be applied for the determination of the corresponding mixing height. (au)

  17. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Christopher P.; Hamby, Stephen E.; Saleheen, Danish; Hopewell, Jenna C.; Zeng, Lingyao; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Burgess, Stephen; Amouyel, Phillipe; Anand, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Clarke, Robert J.; Collins, Rory; Dedoussis, George; Farrall, Martin; Franks, Paul W.; Groop, Leif; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, Erik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; König, Inke R.; Kooner, Jaspal; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winifred; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Peters, Annette; Perola, Markus; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ripatti, Samuli; Roberts, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; Shah, Svati H.; Schreiber, Stefan; Siegbahn, Agneta; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Veronesi, Giovani; Wareham, Nicholas; Willer, Cristen J.; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Erdmann, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested

  18. Analytical Formulation for Sizing and Estimating the Dimensions and Weight of Wind Turbine Hub and Drivetrain Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parsons, T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-09

    This report summarizes the theory, verification, and validation of a new sizing tool for wind turbine drivetrain components, the Drivetrain Systems Engineering (DriveSE) tool. DriveSE calculates the dimensions and mass properties of the hub, main shaft, main bearing(s), gearbox, bedplate, transformer if up-tower, and yaw system. The level of fi¬ delity for each component varies depending on whether semiempirical parametric or physics-based models are used. The physics-based models have internal iteration schemes based on system constraints and design criteria. Every model is validated against available industry data or finite-element analysis. The verification and validation results show that the models reasonably capture primary drivers for the sizing and design of major drivetrain components.

  19. The application of design criteria for locating a hub configured supply chain for a restaurant cluster in the Stellenbosch area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B. Struwig

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Restaurants, in general, utilise numerous suppliers. Normally they deliver on different days in the week and at different times during the day, logistically not an optimum approach. Not only does the current practice cause frequent interruptions, but by segregating the food supply chain unnecessary traffic is generated. This article investigated the need for developing a third party supplier hub, the best positioning of that hub and the most economical routes to the customers. With the aim of providing non-franchised restaurants with the necessary leverage to become market leaders, the hub is planned to only service the restaurants within the vicinity of the Stellenbosch area. In such a hub-configured supply chain, the suppliers would be delivering to the proposed hub, from where once-off deliveries to all the restaurants may be made on days and/or times determined by them. In order to investigate the benefits of providing such a hub structure, a systematic implementation approach was used. The first step was to do market research in order to establish the need for such a hub. That is, the viability of the hub from a restaurant’s perspective was established. The next step entailed the investigation of the design criteria needed in determining a favourable hub location. Four possible hub locations were identified. The Clark and Wright’s savings algorithm was then used to determine the optimal hub location and the feasibility of the results was verified with the aid of a global positioning system (GPS device. The last steps followed involved the determination of an effective hub floor plan that may be utilised, possible products that can be supplied to the restaurants and the necessary assets needed to provide the hub’s service. Finally, by incorporating all these facets, a cost analysis was done to determine the hub’s profitability.

  20. Abnormal hubs of white matter networks in the frontal-parieto circuit contribute to depression discrimination via pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiaolong; Wei, Maobin; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Jianhuai; Yan, Rui; Hua, Lingling; Zhao, Ke; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies had explored the diagnostic and prognostic value of the structural neuroimaging data of MDD and treated the whole brain voxels, the fractional anisotropy and the structural connectivity as classification features. To our best knowledge, no study examined the potential diagnostic value of the hubs of anatomical brain networks in MDD. The purpose of the current study was to provide an exploratory examination of the potential diagnostic and prognostic values of hubs of white matter brain networks in MDD discrimination and the corresponding impaired hub pattern via a multi-pattern analysis. We constructed white matter brain networks from 29 depressions and 30 healthy controls based on diffusion tensor imaging data, calculated nodal measures and identified hubs. Using these measures as features, two types of feature architectures were established, one only included hubs (HUB) and the other contained both hubs and non hubs. The support vector machine classifiers with Gaussian radial basis kernel were used after the feature selection. Moreover, the relative contribution of the features was estimated by means of the consensus features. Our results presented that the hubs (including the bilateral dorsolateral part of superior frontal gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus) played an important role in distinguishing the depressions from healthy controls with the best accuracy of 83.05%. Moreover, most of the HUB consensus features located in the frontal-parieto circuit. These findings provided evidence that the hubs could be served as valuable potential diagnostic measure for MDD, and the hub-concentrated lesion distribution of MDD was primarily anchored within the frontal-parieto circuit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In defense of the classical height system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Ismael; Vaníček, Petr; Sheng, Michael; Kingdon, Robert William; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2017-11-01

    In many European countries, normal heights referred to the quasi-geoid as introduced by Molodenskij in the mid-20th century are preferred to the classical height system that consists of orthometric heights and the geoid as a reference surface for these heights. The rationale for this choice is supposed to be that in the classical height system, neither the geoid, nor the orthometric height can be ever known with centimetre level accuracy because one would need to know the topographical mass density to a level that can never be achieved. The aim of this paper is to question the validity of this rationale. The common way of assessing the congruency of a local geoid model and the orthometric heights is to compare the geoid heights with the difference between orthometric heights provided by leveling and geodetic heights provided by GNSS. On the other hand, testing the congruency of a quasi-geoidal model with normal height a similar procedure is used, except that instead of orthometric heights, normal heights are employed. For the area of Auvergne, France, which is now a more or less standard choice for precise geoid or quasi-geoid testing, only the normal heights are supplied by the Institute Geographic National, the provider of the data. This is clearly the consequence of the European preference for the Molodenskij system. The quality of the height system is to be judged by the congruency of the difference of the geoid/quasi-geoid heights subtracted from the geodetic heights and orthometric/normal heights. To assess the congruency of the classical height system, the Helmert approximation of orthometric heights is typically used as the transformation between normal and Helmert's heights is easily done. However, the evaluation of the differences between Helmert's and the rigorous orthometric heights is somewhat more involved as will be seen from the review in this paper. For the area of interest, the differences between normal and Helmert's heights at the control

  2. nanoHUB.org: Experiences and Challenges in Software Sustainability for a Large Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Zentner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The science gateway nanoHUB.org, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF, serves a large scientific community dedicated to research and education in nanotechnology with community-contributed simulation codes as well as a vast repository of other materials such as recorded presentations, teaching materials, and workshops and courses. Nearly 330,000 users annually access over 4400 items of content on nanoHUB, including 343 simulation tools. Arguably the largest nanotechnology facility in the world, nanoHUB has led the way not only in providing open access to scientific code in the nanotechnology community, but also in lowering barriers to the use of that code, by providing a platform where developers are able to easily and quickly deploy code written in a variety of languages with user-friendly graphical user interfaces and where users can run the latest versions of codes transparently on the grid or other powerful resources without ever having to download or update code. Being a leader in open access code deployment provides nanoHUB with opportunities and challenges as it meets the current and future needs of its community. This paper discusses the experiences of nanoHUB in addressing and adapting to the changing landscape of scientific software in ways that best serve its community and meet the needs of the largest portion of its user base.

  3. Excitatory Neuronal Hubs Configure Multisensory Integration of Slow Waves in Association Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kuroki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Multisensory integration (MSI is a fundamental emergent property of the mammalian brain. During MSI, perceptual information encoded in patterned activity is processed in multimodal association cortex. The systems-level neuronal dynamics that coordinate MSI, however, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic hub-like network activity in the association cortex that regulates MSI. We engineered calcium reporter mouse lines based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor yellow cameleon (YC2.60 expressed in excitatory or inhibitory neurons. In medial and parietal association cortex, we observed spontaneous slow waves that self-organized into hubs defined by long-range excitatory and local inhibitory circuits. Unlike directional source/sink-like flows in sensory areas, medial/parietal excitatory and inhibitory hubs had net-zero balanced inputs. Remarkably, multisensory stimulation triggered rapid phase-locking mainly of excitatory hub activity persisting for seconds after the stimulus offset. Therefore, association cortex tends to form balanced excitatory networks that configure slow-wave phase-locking for MSI. Video Abstract: : Kuroki et al. performed cell-type-specific, wide-field FRET-based calcium imaging to visualize cortical network activity induced by multisensory inputs. They observed phase-locking of cortical slow waves in excitatory neuronal hubs in association cortical areas that may underlie multisensory integration. Keywords: wide-field calcium imaging, multisensory integration, cortical slow waves, association cortex, phase locking, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, spontaneous activity, excitatory neuron, inhibitory neuron, mouse

  4. TYPE PROJECTS HUB - AN INTERNATIONAL MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Nistor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact Hub is a global network of local spaces and communities designed to facilitate sustainable impact through collaboration. Local Impact Hubs are autonomous companies that offer co-working spaces, programming, events platforms, and communities of individuals and organizations with ideas to build a better world. Hub was established in 2005 in London with the aim of creating a space dedicated to inspire, connect and enable people to achieve a sustainable entrepreneurial idea. The idea was simple: There are a lot of people with good ideas for a "better world". What seem to be missing are places to help these people to move from intent to action and to find like-minded for a greater impact. In Romania about four years ago, first opened in Bucharest office space hubs in Romania (for entrepreneurs in technology and business where teams from different companies could collaborate. The idea to open a hub in Bucharest focused on social innovation and entrepreneurship appeared some time ago in the context in which part of the team now has worked since 2010 at the initiation and growth of a community to support social entrepreneurship. In all this diversity, there is a common mission: “we can create if we put all our innovation capacity in the common goal to create a positive impact through our work?”

  5. Experimental Investigation of Diffuser Hub Injection to Improve Centrifugal Compressor Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Results from a series of experiments to investigate whether centrifugal compressor stability could be improved by injecting air through the diffuser hub surface are reported. The research was conducted in a 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor configured with a vane-island diffuser. Injector nozzles were located just upstream of the leading edge of the diffuser vanes. Nozzle orientations were set to produce injected streams angled at 8, 0 and +8 degrees relative to the vane mean camber line. Several injection flow rates were tested using both an external air supply and recirculation from the diffuser exit. Compressor flow range did not improve at any injection flow rate that was tested. Compressor flow range did improve slightly at zero injection due to the flow resistance created by injector openings on the hub surface. Leading edge loading and semi-vaneless space diffusion showed trends similar to those reported earlier from shroud surface experiments that did improve compressor flow range. Opposite trends are seen for hub injection cases where compressor flow range decreased. The hub injection data further explain the range improvement provided by shroud-side injection and suggest that different hub-side techniques may produce range improvement in centrifugal compressors.

  6. Stochastic optimization of energy hub operation with consideration of thermal energy market and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahid-Pakdel, M.J.; Nojavan, Sayyad; Mohammadi-ivatloo, B.; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying heating market impact on energy hub operation considering price uncertainty. • Investigating impact of implementation of heat demand response on hub operation. • Presenting stochastic method to consider wind generation and prices uncertainties. - Abstract: Multi carrier energy systems or energy hubs has provided more flexibility for energy management systems. On the other hand, due to mutual impact of different energy carriers in energy hubs, energy management studies become more challengeable. The initial patterns of energy demands from grids point of view can be modified by optimal scheduling of energy hubs. In this work, optimal operation of multi carrier energy system has been studied in the presence of wind farm, electrical and thermal storage systems, electrical and thermal demand response programs, electricity market and thermal energy market. Stochastic programming is implemented for modeling the system uncertainties such as demands, market prices and wind speed. It is shown that adding new source of heat energy for providing demand of consumers with market mechanism changes the optimal operation point of multi carrier energy system. Presented mixed integer linear formulation for the problem has been solved by executing CPLEX solver of GAMS optimization software. Simulation results shows that hub’s operation cost reduces up to 4.8% by enabling the option of using thermal energy market for meeting heat demand.

  7. Characteristics of emulsion chamber family events produced at low heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, G.; Jing, C.; Zhu, Q.; Ding, L.

    1985-01-01

    The uncertainty of primary cosmic ray composition at 10 to the 14th power -10 to the 16th power eV is well known making the study of nuclear interaction mechanisms more difficult. Experimentally if one can identify effectively the family events produced at low heights, then an induced by primary protons might be separated. In this paper an attempt is made to simulate a family of events under the conditions of a mountain emulsion chamber experiments using a reasonable model. The aim is to search for the dependence of some experimentally observable quantities on the interaction height

  8. Surface-micromachined rotatable member having a low-contact-area hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Krygowski, Thomas W.

    2003-11-18

    A surface-micromachined rotatable member formed on a substrate and a method for manufacturing thereof are disclosed. The surface-micromachined rotatable member, which can be a gear or a rotary stage, has a central hub, and an annulus connected to the central hub by an overarching bridge. The hub includes a stationary axle support attached to the substrate and surrounding an axle. The axle is retained within the axle support with an air-gap spacing therebetween of generally 0.3 .mu.m or less. The rotatable member can be formed by alternately depositing and patterning layers of a semiconductor (e.g. polysilicon or a silicon-germanium alloy) and a sacrificial material and then removing the sacrificial material, at least in part. The present invention has applications for forming micromechanical or microelectromechanical devices requiring lower actuation forces, and providing improved reliability.

  9. Surface--micromachined rotatable member having a low-contact-area hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.

    2002-01-01

    A surface-micromachined rotatable member formed on a substrate and a method for manufacturing thereof are disclosed. The surface-micromachined rotatable member, which can be a gear or a rotary stage, has a central hub, and an annulus connected to the central hub by an overarching bridge. The hub includes a stationary axle support attached to the substrate and surrounding an axle. The axle is retained within the axle support with an air-gap spacing therebetween of generally 0.3 .mu.m or less. The rotatable member can be formed by alternately depositing and patterning layers of a semiconductor (e.g. polysilicon or a silicon-germanium alloy) and a sacrificial material and then removing the sacrificial material, at least in part. The present invention has applications for forming micromechanical or microelectromechanical devices requiring lower actuation forces, and providing improved reliability.

  10. Cortical hubs form a module for multisensory integration on top of the hierarchy of cortical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Zamora-López

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory stimuli entering the nervous system follow particular paths of processing, typically separated (segregated from the paths of other modal information. However, sensory perception, awareness and cognition emerge from the combination of information (integration. The corticocortical networks of cats and macaque monkeys display three prominent characteristics: (i modular organisation (facilitating the segregation, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Here, we study in detail the organisation and potential function of the cortical hubs by graph analysis and information theoretical methods. We find that the cortical hubs form a spatially delocalised, but topologically central module with the capacity to integrate multisensory information in a collaborative manner. With this, we resolve the underlying anatomical substrate that supports the simultaneous capacity of the cortex to segregate and to integrate multisensory information.

  11. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...... systems (ESSs), and heating/cooling devices such as electrical heater, heat-pumps and absorption chillers. The optimal scheduling and management of the examined energy hub assets in line with electrical transactions with distribution network is modeled as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem....... In this regard, optimal operating points of DG units as well as ESSs are calculated based on a cost-effective strategy. Degradation cost of ESSs is also taken into consideration for short-term scheduling. Simulation results demonstrate that including well-planned energy storage options together with optimal...

  12. The influence of hubs in the structure of a neuronal network during an epileptic seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Abner Cardoso; Cerdeira, Hilda A.; Machado, Birajara Soares

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose changes in the structure of a neuronal network with the intention to provoke strong synchronization to simulate episodes of epileptic seizure. Starting with a network of Izhikevich neurons we slowly increase the number of connections in selected nodes in a controlled way, to produce (or not) hubs. We study how these structures alter the synchronization on the spike firings interval, on individual neurons as well as on mean values, as a function of the concentration of connections for random and non-random (hubs) distribution. We also analyze how the post-ictal signal varies for the different distributions. We conclude that a network with hubs is more appropriate to represent an epileptic state.

  13. The BioHub Knowledge Base: Ontology and Repository for Sustainable Biosourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Warren J; Demetriou, George; Nenadic, Goran; Ruddock, Noel; Stevens, Robert; Winter, Jerry

    2016-06-01

    The motivation for the BioHub project is to create an Integrated Knowledge Management System (IKMS) that will enable chemists to source ingredients from bio-renewables, rather than from non-sustainable sources such as fossil oil and its derivatives. The BioHubKB is the data repository of the IKMS; it employs Semantic Web technologies, especially OWL, to host data about chemical transformations, bio-renewable feedstocks, co-product streams and their chemical components. Access to this knowledge base is provided to other modules within the IKMS through a set of RESTful web services, driven by SPARQL queries to a Sesame back-end. The BioHubKB re-uses several bio-ontologies and bespoke extensions, primarily for chemical feedstocks and products, to form its knowledge organisation schema. Parts of plants form feedstocks, while various processes generate co-product streams that contain certain chemicals. Both chemicals and transformations are associated with certain qualities, which the BioHubKB also attempts to capture. Of immediate commercial and industrial importance is to estimate the cost of particular sets of chemical transformations (leading to candidate surfactants) performed in sequence, and these costs too are captured. Data are sourced from companies' internal knowledge and document stores, and from the publicly available literature. Both text analytics and manual curation play their part in populating the ontology. We describe the prototype IKMS, the BioHubKB and the services that it supports for the IKMS. The BioHubKB can be found via http://biohub.cs.manchester.ac.uk/ontology/biohub-kb.owl .

  14. Mapping the changed hubs and corresponding functional connectivity in idiopathic restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Jiaojian; Hou, Yue; Qi, Zhigang; Wang, Li; Zhan, Shuqin; Wang, Rong; Wang, Yuping

    2018-05-01

    The hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, whether the changed pattern in functional network hubs contributes to the onset of leg discomfort symptoms in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and graph theory methods, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in RLS. First, we constructed the whole-brain voxelwise functional connectivity and calculated a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map in each of 16 drug-naive idiopathic RLS patients and 26 gender- and age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. Next, a two-sample t test was applied to compare the FCS maps between HC and RLS patients, and to identify significant changes in FCS in RLS patients. To further elucidate the corresponding changes in the functional connectivity patterns of the aberrant hubs in RLS patients, whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity analyses for the hub areas were performed. The hub analysis revealed decreased FCS in the cuneus, fusiform gyrus, paracentral lobe, and precuneus, and increased FCS in the superior frontal gyrus and thalamus in idiopathic drug-naive RLS patients. Subsequent functional connectivity analyses revealed decreased functional connectivity in sensorimotor and visual processing networks and increased functional connectivity in the affective cognitive network and cerebellar-thalamic circuit. Furthermore, the mean FCS value in the superior frontal gyrus was significantly correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores in RLS patients, and the mean FCS value in the fusiform gyrus was significantly correlated with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. These findings may provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of RLS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MyGeoHub: A Collaborative Geospatial Research and Education Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanam, R.; Zhao, L.; Biehl, L. L.; Song, C. X.; Merwade, V.; Villoria, N.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific research is increasingly collaborative and globally distributed; research groups now rely on web-based scientific tools and data management systems to simplify their day-to-day collaborative workflows. However, such tools often lack seamless interfaces, requiring researchers to contend with manual data transfers, annotation and sharing. MyGeoHub is a web platform that supports out-of-the-box, seamless workflows involving data ingestion, metadata extraction, analysis, sharing and publication. MyGeoHub is built on the HUBzero cyberinfrastructure platform and adds general-purpose software building blocks (GABBs), for geospatial data management, visualization and analysis. A data management building block iData, processes geospatial files, extracting metadata for keyword and map-based search while enabling quick previews. iData is pervasive, allowing access through a web interface, scientific tools on MyGeoHub or even mobile field devices via a data service API. GABBs includes a Python map library as well as map widgets that in a few lines of code, generate complete geospatial visualization web interfaces for scientific tools. GABBs also includes powerful tools that can be used with no programming effort. The GeoBuilder tool provides an intuitive wizard for importing multi-variable, geo-located time series data (typical of sensor readings, GPS trackers) to build visualizations supporting data filtering and plotting. MyGeoHub has been used in tutorials at scientific conferences and educational activities for K-12 students. MyGeoHub is also constantly evolving; the recent addition of Jupyter and R Shiny notebook environments enable reproducible, richly interactive geospatial analyses and applications ranging from simple pre-processing to published tools. MyGeoHub is not a monolithic geospatial science gateway, instead it supports diverse needs ranging from just a feature-rich data management system, to complex scientific tools and workflows.

  16. Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia: An introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xunpeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the four papers in the special issues on ‘Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia’. The papers examine lessons and experience from European hub development, other commodity, the Japanese history on developing of futures markets and inter-fuel substitution in East Asia. The papers finds that liquid futures market is the key to formulate benchmark prices while a well-developed spot market is the foundation; political will and strong leadership are required to over...

  17. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  18. Imagery and fear influence height perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2009-04-01

    The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n=65) versus low (n=64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony's height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling).

  19. Inhomogeneity in barrier height at graphene/Si (GaAs) Schottky junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tomer, D.; Rajput, S.; Hudy, L. J.; Li, C. H.; Li, L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene interfaced with a semiconductor forms a Schottky junction with rectifying properties, however, fluctuations in the Schottky barrier height are often observed. In this work, Schottky junctions are fabricated by transferring chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto n-type Si and GaAs substrates. Temperature dependence of the barrier height and ideality factor are obtained by current-voltage measurements between 215 and 350 K. An increase in the zero bias barrier height and decr...

  20. Measuring the height-to-height correlation function of corrugation in suspended graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, D.A.; Brunkov, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocorrugation of 2D crystals is an important phenomenon since it affects their electronic and mechanical properties. The corrugation may have various sources; one of them is flexural phonons that, in particular, are responsible for the thermal conductivity of graphene. A study of corrugation of just the suspended graphene can reveal much of valuable information on the physics of this complicated phenomenon. At the same time, the suspended crystal nanorelief can hardly be measured directly because of high flexibility of the 2D crystal. Moreover, the relief portion related to rapid out-of-plane oscillations (flexural phonons) is also inaccessible by such measurements. Here we present a technique for measuring the Fourier components of the height–height correlation function H(q) of suspended graphene which includes the effect of flexural phonons. The technique is based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The H(q) is measured in the range of wavevectors q≈0.4–4.5 nm"−"1. At the upper limit of this range H(q) does follow the T/κq"4 law. So, we measured the value of suspended graphene bending rigidity κ=1.2±0.4 eV at ambient temperature T≈300 K. At intermediate wave vectors, H(q) follows a slightly weaker exponent than theoretically predicted q"−"3"."1"5 but is closer to the results of the molecular dynamics simulation. At low wave vectors, the dependence becomes even weaker, which may be a sign of influence of charge carriers on the dynamics of undulations longer than 10 nm. The technique presented can be used for studying physics of flexural phonons in other 2D materials. - Highlights: • A technique for measuring free-standing 2D crystal corrugation is proposed. • The height-to-height correlation function of the suspended graphene corrugation is measured. • Various parameters of the intrinsic graphene properties are experimentally determined.

  1. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  2. The importance of postural cues for determining eye height in immersive virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrer, Markus; Linkenauger, Sally A; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty J

    2015-01-01

    In human perception, the ability to determine eye height is essential, because eye height is used to scale heights of objects, velocities, affordances and distances, all of which allow for successful environmental interaction. It is well understood that eye height is fundamental to determine many of these percepts. Yet, how eye height itself is provided is still largely unknown. While the information potentially specifying eye height in the real world is naturally coincident in an environment with a regular ground surface, these sources of information can be easily divergent in similar and common virtual reality scenarios. Thus, we conducted virtual reality experiments where we manipulated the virtual eye height in a distance perception task to investigate how eye height might be determined in such a scenario. We found that humans rely more on their postural cues for determining their eye height if there is a conflict between visual and postural information and little opportunity for perceptual-motor calibration is provided. This is demonstrated by the predictable variations in their distance estimates. Our results suggest that the eye height in such circumstances is informed by postural cues when estimating egocentric distances in virtual reality and consequently, does not depend on an internalized value for eye height.

  3. The importance of postural cues for determining eye height in immersive virtual reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Leyrer

    Full Text Available In human perception, the ability to determine eye height is essential, because eye height is used to scale heights of objects, velocities, affordances and distances, all of which allow for successful environmental interaction. It is well understood that eye height is fundamental to determine many of these percepts. Yet, how eye height itself is provided is still largely unknown. While the information potentially specifying eye height in the real world is naturally coincident in an environment with a regular ground surface, these sources of information can be easily divergent in similar and common virtual reality scenarios. Thus, we conducted virtual reality experiments where we manipulated the virtual eye height in a distance perception task to investigate how eye height might be determined in such a scenario. We found that humans rely more on their postural cues for determining their eye height if there is a conflict between visual and postural information and little opportunity for perceptual-motor calibration is provided. This is demonstrated by the predictable variations in their distance estimates. Our results suggest that the eye height in such circumstances is informed by postural cues when estimating egocentric distances in virtual reality and consequently, does not depend on an internalized value for eye height.

  4. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  5. ANALYSIS AND CORRECTION OF SYSTEMATIC HEIGHT MODEL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jacobsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of digital height models (DHM determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC. Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP, but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital surface model (DSM or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS

  6. Branding by Proxy? : How hubs market (or not) higher education systems globally: the example of Qatar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremonini, Leon; Taylor, John; Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2017-01-01

    This chapter proposes a framework to understand if and how hubs contribute to stronger positioning of higher education system in global competition, and uses the case of Qatar to draw conclusions. Increasingly, governments around the world invest in so-called “education hubs”, which host excellent

  7. Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were…

  8. Development of passive-controlled HUB (teetered brake & damper mechanism) of horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yukimaru; Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    For the purpose of the improvement of reliability of the Mega-Watt wind turbine, this paper indicates the development of an original mechanism for the passive-controlled hub, which has the effects of braking and damping on aerodynamic forces. This mechanism is useful for variable speed control of the large wind turbine. The passive-controlled hub is the combination of two mechanisms. One is the passive-teetered and damping mechanism, and the other is the passive-variable-pitch mechanism. These mechanism are carried out by the combination of the teetering and feathering motions. When the wind speed exceeds the rated wind speed, the blade is passively teetered in a downwind direction and, simultaneously, a feathering mechanism, which is linked to the teetering mechanism through a connecting rods, is activated. Testing of the model horizontal axis wind turbine in a wind tunnel showed that the passive-controlled hub mechanism can suppress the over-rotational speed of the rotor. By the application of the passive-controlled hub mechanism, the maximum rotor speed is reduced to about 60%.

  9. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Heat Flow in Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Hub Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasil, Muhammed; Plesner, Daniel; Walther, Jens Honore

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the heat dissipation in the hub motor of an electric two-wheeler using lumped parameter (LP), finite element (FE) and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. The motor uses external rotor permanent magnet brushless DC topology and nearly all of its losses are generated...

  10. Researching Higher Education in "Asia's Global Education Hub": Trends and Issues in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Higher education studies as a field of academic research has become more developed and important in Singapore since the 1980s when the city-state placed more emphasis on reforming and restructuring its higher education sector to achieve the status of "Asia's global education hub". The past few decades witnessed a more significant growth…

  11. Role of governance in creating a commodity hub: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Haris

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The body of work on natural gas hubs has been expanding rapidly in recent years, with most of the current work examining the creation of gas hubs focusing on either the European experience or the North American experience. In this paper, we adopt a different perspective and place the focus on experience of hub building from other international commodities. We analyse three commodities - crude oil, iron ore and coal, and draw experience on the role of governance in development of hub based prices. In particular, we propose that the role of governance is different at different stages of the pricing transition to market based pricing. Governance could play an important role at the initial stage, building the relevant soft and physical infrastructure which facilitates the reaping of first mover advantage. As the market develops, private sector players may prefer less involvement of governance, which may distort markets. With market stabilization, governance should be focused on maintaining stable rules and regulation for private sector development, as well as monitoring for further changes in global trends. To facilitate the building of a benchmark price, the public sector should adopt a long-term and overarching view on industry growth.

  12. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, R.; Almeida, L.; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception

  13. Changed hub and corresponding functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawang Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the most prevalent mental disorders. In the brain, the hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, whether the changed pattern in functional network hubs contributes to the onset of MDD remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory methods, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in MDD. First, we constructed the whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks and calculated a functional connectivity strength (FCS map in each subject in 34 MDD patients and 34 gender-, age-, and education level-matched healthy controls (HC. Next, the two-sample t-test was applied to compare the FCS maps between HC and MDD patients and identified significant decreased FCS in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC in MDD patients. Subsequent functional connectivity analyses of sgACC showed disruptions in functional connectivity with posterior insula, middle and inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum in MDD patients. Furthermore, the changed FCS of sgACC and functional connections to sgACC were significantly correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS scores in MDD patients. The results of the present study revealed the abnormal hub of sgACC and its corresponding disrupted frontal-limbic-visual cognitive-cerebellum functional networks in MDD. These findings may provide a new insight for the diagnosis and treatment of MDD.

  14. Network Competition - the Coexistence of Hub-and-Spoke and Point-to-Point Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderighi, M.; Cento, A.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper identifies conditions under which asymmetric equilibria may exist when carriers compete in designing their network configurations in a game-theoretical framework. Two carriers are assumed here, which are allowed to play three different strategies: Point-to-point (PP), hub-and-spoke (HS) or

  15. Schools as Community Hubs: Policy Contexts, Educational Rationales, and Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Ian; Watkins, Jerry; Meredyth, Denise

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in making more effective use of schools as community hubs, both in Australia and internationally. Investment in shared facilities aims to engage parents and local communities in schooling, encourage civic participation, co-ordinate educational and community services and overcome disadvantages of location or service…

  16. National Geothermal Data System Hub Deployment Timeline (Appendix E-1-d)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudill, Christy [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey)

    2015-12-20

    Excel spreadsheet describing activity, spending, and development for the four data hubs (Arizona Geoloical Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois Geological Survey, and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology) serving data for the National Geothermal Data System under the State Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System Project.

  17. Beyond the Gatekeeper State : African Infrastructure Hubs as Sites of Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönke, Jana

    2018-01-01

    While Africa has often been portrayed as peripheral to major global economic flows, the copper mines in the South of the DRC as much as the port of Dar es Salaam are hubs of extraction and trade at the heart of the global economy. This article departs from the notion of the gatekeeper state that

  18. Continuous integration in a social-coding world : empirical evidence from GitHub

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasilescu, B.N.; van Schuylenburg, S.B.; Wulms, Jules; Serebrenik, A.; Brand, van den M.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous integration is a software engineering practice of frequently merging all developer working copies with a shared main branch, e.g., several times a day. With the advent of GitHub, a platform well known for its "social coding" features that aid collaboration and sharing, and currently the

  19. HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific: a regional tool to support strategic information needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yu Shwe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 global commitments towards controlling HIV made by Asia-Pacific countries require considerable improvement in strategic information and response tracking. The HIV and AIDS Data Hub can serve as an important tool for stakeholders with its regional database of subnational indicators, web site and data synthesis capacity.

  20. Identifying hubs and spokes in global supply chains using redirected trade in value added

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, Arjan; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo; Veenendaal, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The increasing importance of global supply chains has prompted the use of analytical tools based on trade in value added - instead of traditional measures in gross value. We use this analytical framework to develop indicators that identify production hubs and supply spokes in global supply chains.

  1. A note on hierarchical hubbing for a generalization of the VPN problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.K. Olver (Neil)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractRobust network design refers to a class of optimization problems that occur when designing networks to efficiently handle variable demands. The notion of "hierarchical hubbing" was introduced (in the narrow context of a specific robust network design question), by Olver and Shepherd

  2. A note on hierarchical hubbing for a generalization of the VPN problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Robust network design refers to a class of optimization problems that occur when designing networks to efficiently handle variable demands. The notion of "hierarchical hubbing" was introduced (in the narrow context of a specific robust network design question), by Olver and Shepherd [2010].

  3. Fleet deployment, network design and hub location of liner shipping companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem...

  4. PERSEUS-HUB: Interactive and Collective Exploration of Large-Scale Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Jin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphs emerge naturally in many domains, such as social science, neuroscience, transportation engineering, and more. In many cases, such graphs have millions or billions of nodes and edges, and their sizes increase daily at a fast pace. How can researchers from various domains explore large graphs interactively and efficiently to find out what is ‘important’? How can multiple researchers explore a new graph dataset collectively and “help” each other with their findings? In this article, we present Perseus-Hub, a large-scale graph mining tool that computes a set of graph properties in a distributed manner, performs ensemble, multi-view anomaly detection to highlight regions that are worth investigating, and provides users with uncluttered visualization and easy interaction with complex graph statistics. Perseus-Hub uses a Spark cluster to calculate various statistics of large-scale graphs efficiently, and aggregates the results in a summary on the master node to support interactive user exploration. In Perseus-Hub, the visualized distributions of graph statistics provide preliminary analysis to understand a graph. To perform a deeper analysis, users with little prior knowledge can leverage patterns (e.g., spikes in the power-law degree distribution marked by other users or experts. Moreover, Perseus-Hub guides users to regions of interest by highlighting anomalous nodes and helps users establish a more comprehensive understanding about the graph at hand. We demonstrate our system through the case study on real, large-scale networks.

  5. Coffee Shops, Classrooms and Conversations: public engagement and outreach in a large interdisciplinary research Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jennifer A.

    2014-05-01

    Public engagement and outreach activities are increasingly using specialist staff for co-ordination, training and support for researchers, they are also becoming expected for large investments. Here, the experience of public engagement and outreach a large, interdisciplinary Research Hub is described. dot.rural, based at the University of Aberdeen UK, is a £11.8 million Research Councils UK Rural Digital Economy Hub, funded as part of the RCUK Digital Economy Theme (2009-2015). Digital Economy research aims to realise the transformational impact of digital technologies on aspects of the environment, community life, cultural experiences, future society, and the economy. The dot.rural Hub involves 92 researchers from 12 different disciplines, including Geography, Hydrology and Ecology. Public Engagement and Outreach is embedded in the dot.rural Digital Economy Hub via an Outreach Officer. Alongside this position, public engagement and outreach activities are compulsory part of PhD student contracts. Public Engagement and Outreach activities at the dot.rural Hub involve individuals and groups in both formal and informal settings organised by dot.rural and other organisations. Activities in the realms of Education, Public Engagement, Traditional and Social Media are determined by a set of Underlying Principles designed for the Hub by the Outreach Officer. The underlying Engagement and Outreach principles match funding agency requirements and expectations alongside researcher demands and the user-led nature of Digital Economy Research. All activities include researchers alongside the Outreach Officer are research informed and embedded into specific projects that form the Hub. Successful public engagement activities have included participation in Café Scientifique series, workshops in primary and secondary schools, and online activities such as I'm a Scientist Get Me Out of Here. From how to engage 8 year olds with making hydrographs more understandable to members of

  6. Economic Impact of the Dutch Gas Hub Strategy on the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.; Bazelon, C.; Humphreys, B.; Dickson, P.

    2010-09-01

    Since the discovery of the Groningen gas field in 1959, the Netherlands has been a key player in the European gas market. The Netherlands has built up a large onshore and offshore Exploration and Production sector, it has a highly developed gas transmission and distribution network, and is a major exporter of gas to other EU Member States. The Netherlands has considerable expertise in all parts of the gas supply chain, and is a world centre for Research and development in natural gas supply and use. More recently construction has begun on terminals to allow the import of Liquid Natural Gas to the Netherlands. However, Dutch gas reserves are now in decline, and the Netherlands will become a net importer of gas around 2025. The Dutch government wishes to capitalise on the existing industry and skills and sustain the Netherlands' place in the European gas industry beyond the life of the existing gas fields. In November 2009 the Minister of Economic Affairs published a paper describing the strategy of turning the Netherlands into a 'Gas Hub' or 'gas roundabout' for north-west Europe. The Dutch government intends that the gas hub would capitalise on the existing skills and industry, increase competition and security of supply in the Dutch gas market, create employment and make a significant contribution to the Dutch economy. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation has commissioned The Brattle Group to perform an analysis of the economic impact of the gas hub concept. The study has several aims including: To analyse the current contribution of the Dutch gas sector to the economy; To assess the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats associated with the gas hub strategy; To quantify the benefits of the gas hub strategy to the Dutch economy. Note that the aim of the study is to define in more detail what a successful Dutch gas hub strategy would look like, to assess the strengths and weakness of the Dutch gas sector in achieving a

  7. Shaded Relief with Color as Height, St. Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois rivers are shown in this view of the St. Louis area from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The Mississippi flows from the upper left of the image and first meets the Illinois, flowing southward from the top right. It then joins the Missouri, flowing from the west across the center of the picture. The rivers themselves appear black here, and one can clearly see the green-colored floodplains in which they are contained. These floodplains are at particular risk during times of flooding. The Mississippi forms the state boundary between Illinois (to the right) and Missouri (to the left), with the city of St. Louis located on the Mississippi just below the point where it meets the Missouri. This location at the hub of the major American waterways helped establish St. Louis' reputation as the 'Gateway to the West.'Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping

  8. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive,

  9. An Airlift Hub-and-Spoke Location-Routing Model with Time Windows: Case Study of the CONUS-to-Korea Airlift Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, David

    1998-01-01

    .... This study develops an alternative hub-and-spoke combined location-routing integer linear programming prototype model, and uses this model to determine what advantages a hub-and-spoke system offers...

  10. Dynamic Interaction- and Phospho-Proteomics Reveal Lck as a Major Signaling Hub of CD147 in T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supper, Verena; Hartl, Ingrid; Boulègue, Cyril; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Stockinger, Hannes

    2017-03-15

    Numerous publications have addressed CD147 as a tumor marker and regulator of cytoskeleton, cell growth, stress response, or immune cell function; however, the molecular functionality of CD147 remains incompletely understood. Using affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and phosphopeptide enrichment of isotope-labeled peptides, we examined the dynamic of the CD147 microenvironment and the CD147-dependent phosphoproteome in the Jurkat T cell line upon treatment with T cell stimulating agents. We identified novel dynamic interaction partners of CD147 such as CD45, CD47, GNAI2, Lck, RAP1B, and VAT1 and, furthermore, found 76 CD147-dependent phosphorylation sites on 57 proteins. Using the STRING protein network database, a network between the CD147 microenvironment and the CD147-dependent phosphoproteins was generated and led to the identification of key signaling hubs around the G proteins RAP1B and GNB1, the kinases PKCβ, PAK2, Lck, and CDK1, and the chaperone HSPA5. Gene ontology biological process term analysis revealed that wound healing-, cytoskeleton-, immune system-, stress response-, phosphorylation- and protein modification-, defense response to virus-, and TNF production-associated terms are enriched within the microenvironment and the phosphoproteins of CD147. With the generated signaling network and gene ontology biological process term grouping, we identify potential signaling routes of CD147 affecting T cell growth and function. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. When is hub gene selection better than standard meta-analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, Peter; Mischel, Paul S; Horvath, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when) hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data). Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis) and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility) in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1) Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2) finding methylation markers related to age, and (3) finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1). However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than) a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2). The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques applied to

  12. When Is Hub Gene Selection Better than Standard Meta-Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, Peter; Mischel, Paul S.; Horvath, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when) hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data). Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis) and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility) in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1) Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2) finding methylation markers related to age, and (3) finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1). However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than) a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2). The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques applied to

  13. When is hub gene selection better than standard meta-analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Langfelder

    Full Text Available Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data. Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1 Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2 finding methylation markers related to age, and (3 finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1. However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2. The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques

  14. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height; Physiologisches Muster lumbaler Bandscheibenhoehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggemann, M [Radiologische Klinik des Evangelischen Krankenhauses Bethesda, Duisburg (Germany); Frobin, W; Brinckmann, P [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Biomechanik

    1997-07-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this `physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean` was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the `physiological sequence of lumbar disc height` leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, einen neuen Parameter zur objektiven Messung der Hoehen aller auf einer seitlichen Uebersichtsaufnahme der LWS erkennbaren Bandscheiben vorzustellen und die physiologische kraniokaudale Diskushoehensequenz neu zu dokumentieren. Methode: Bei dem neuen Messverfahren wird die Bandscheibenhoehe ventral gemessen, zur Korrektur ihrer Haltungsabhaengigkeit auf Standardwinkel (mittlere Winkel

  15. SPARK: Sparsity-based analysis of reliable k-hubness and overlapping network structure in brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangjoo; Lina, Jean-Marc; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Functional hubs are defined as the specific brain regions with dense connections to other regions in a functional brain network. Among them, connector hubs are of great interests, as they are assumed to promote global and hierarchical communications between functionally specialized networks. Damage to connector hubs may have a more crucial effect on the system than does damage to other hubs. Hubs in graph theory are often identified from a correlation matrix, and classified as connector hubs when the hubs are more connected to regions in other networks than within the networks to which they belong. However, the identification of hubs from functional data is more complex than that from structural data, notably because of the inherent problem of multicollinearity between temporal dynamics within a functional network. In this context, we developed and validated a method to reliably identify connectors and corresponding overlapping network structure from resting-state fMRI. This new method is actually handling the multicollinearity issue, since it does not rely on counting the number of connections from a thresholded correlation matrix. The novelty of the proposed method is that besides counting the number of networks involved in each voxel, it allows us to identify which networks are actually involved in each voxel, using a data-driven sparse general linear model in order to identify brain regions involved in more than one network. Moreover, we added a bootstrap resampling strategy to assess statistically the reproducibility of our results at the single subject level. The unified framework is called SPARK, i.e. SParsity-based Analysis of Reliable k-hubness, where k-hubness denotes the number of networks overlapping in each voxel. The accuracy and robustness of SPARK were evaluated using two dimensional box simulations and realistic simulations that examined detection of artificial hubs generated on real data. Then, test/retest reliability of the method was assessed

  16. Growth and Final Height Among Children With Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alena G; Gausche, Ruth; Lindenberg, Cornelia; Beger, Christoph; Arelin, Maria; Rohde, Carmen; Mütze, Ulrike; Weigel, Johannes F; Mohnike, Klaus; Baerwald, Christoph; Scholz, Markus; Kiess, Wieland; Pfäffle, Roland; Beblo, Skadi

    2017-11-01

    Growth is an important criterion to evaluate health in childhood and adolescence, especially in patients depending on special dietary treatment. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inherited disease of amino acid metabolism. Patients with PKU depend on a special phenylalanine-restricted diet, low in natural protein. The study aimed to evaluate growth, growth rate, and target height in 224 patients with PKU. Retrospective, longitudinal analysis of standardized, yearly measurements of height, weight, and calculated growth rate (SD score [SDS]) of patients with PKU aged 0 to 18 years were conducted by using the national computerized CrescNet database. Inclusion was restricted to patients carried to term with a confirmed diagnosis of PKU or mild hyperphenylalaninemia determined by newborn screening and early treatment initiation. From birth to adulthood, patients with PKU were significantly shorter than healthy German children (height SDS at 18 years: -0.882 ± 0.108, P < .001). They missed their target height by 3 cm by adulthood (women: P = .02) and 5 cm (men: P = .01). In patients receiving casein hydrolysate during childhood, this was more pronounced compared with patients receiving amino acid mixtures ( P < .001). Growth rate was significantly reduced during their first 2 years of life and in puberty (growth rate SDS: -1.1 to -0.5 m/year, P < .001 and -0.5; P < .02). Early diagnosed, treated, and continuously monitored patients with PKU showed reduced height from birth onward. During the last 2 decades, this phenomenon attenuated, probably because of advances in PKU therapy related to protein supplements and special low-protein foods. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. ARCOS Network: A Sustainable Mountain Development Hub for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Muvunankiko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is endowed with mountains of high productivity, biodiversity, endemism, and cultural diversity. African mountain ecosystems play an important role in economic development, poverty alleviation, and environmental protection. However, climate change and extreme events, as well as human activities, alter the capacity of mountains to provide such services to millions of Africans who depend on them. Since the creation in 1995 of the Albertine Rift Conservation Society (ARCOS, mountains have been at the core of its programs, and collaboration among stakeholders is a key aspect of its search for sustainable solutions to threats affecting African mountains.

  18. Height perception influenced by texture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Junko

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine whether a texture gradient influences perception of relative object height. Previous research implicated texture cues in judgments of object width, but similar influences have not been demonstrated for relative height. In this study, I evaluate a hypothesis that the projective ratio of the number of texture elements covered by the objects combined with the ratio of the retinal object heights determines percepts of relative object height. Density of texture background was varied: four density conditions ranged from no-texture to very dense texture. In experiments 1 and 2, participants judged the height of comparison bar compared to the standard bar positioned on no-texture or textured backgrounds. Results showed relative height judgments differed with texture manipulations, consistent with predictions from a hypothesised combination of the number of texture elements with retinal height (experiment 1), or partially consistent with this hypothesis (experiment 2). In experiment 2, variations in the position of a comparison object showed that comparisons located far from the horizon were judged more poorly than in other positions. In experiment 3 I examined distance perception; relative distance judgments were found to be also affected by textured backgrounds. Results are discussed in terms of Gibson's relational theory and distance calibration theory.

  19. Sharing environmental models: An Approach using GitHub repositories and Web Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Nuest, Daniel; Pross, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    The GLUES (Global Assessment of Land Use Dynamics, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ecosystem Services) project established a spatial data infrastructure for scientific geospatial data and metadata (http://geoportal-glues.ufz.de), where different regional collaborative projects researching the impacts of climate and socio-economic changes on sustainable land management can share their underlying base scenarios and datasets. One goal of the project is to ease the sharing of computational models between institutions and to make them easily executable in Web-based infrastructures. In this work, we present such an approach for sharing computational models relying on GitHub repositories (http://github.com) and Web Processing Services. At first, model providers upload their model implementations to GitHub repositories in order to share them with others. The GitHub platform allows users to submit changes to the model code. The changes can be discussed and reviewed before merging them. However, while GitHub allows sharing and collaborating of model source code, it does not actually allow running these models, which requires efforts to transfer the implementation to a model execution framework. We thus have extended an existing implementation of the OGC Web Processing Service standard (http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps), the 52°North Web Processing Service (http://52north.org/wps) platform to retrieve all model implementations from a git (http://git-scm.com) repository and add them to the collection of published geoprocesses. The current implementation is restricted to models implemented as R scripts using WPS4R annotations (Hinz et al.) and to Java algorithms using the 52°North WPS Java API. The models hence become executable through a standardized Web API by multiple clients such as desktop or browser GIS and modelling frameworks. If the model code is changed on the GitHub platform, the changes are retrieved by the service and the processes will be updated

  20. Gravity drives the evolution of infrared dark hubs: JVLA observations of SDC13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. M.; Peretto, N.; Avison, A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fuller, G. A.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Converging networks of interstellar filaments, that is hubs, have been recently linked to the formation of stellar clusters and massive stars. Understanding the relationship between the evolution of these systems and the formation of cores and stars inside them is at the heart of current star formation research. Aims: The goal is to study the kinematic and density structure of the SDC13 prototypical hub at high angular resolution to determine what drives its evolution and fragmentation. Methods: We have mapped SDC13, a 1000 M⊙ infrared dark hub, in NH3(1,1) and NH3(2,2) emission lines, with both the Jansky Very Large Array and Green Bank Telescope. The high angular resolution achieved in the combined dataset allowed us to probe scales down to 0.07 pc. After fitting the ammonia lines, we computed the integrated intensities, centroid velocities and line widths, along with gas temperatures and H2 column densities. Results: The mass-per-unit-lengths of all four hub filaments are thermally super-critical, consistent with the presence of tens of gravitationally bound cores identified along them. These cores exhibit a regular separation of 0.37 ± 0.16 pc suggesting gravitational instabilities running along these super-critical filaments are responsible for their fragmentation. The observed local increase of the dense gas velocity dispersion towards starless cores is believed to be a consequence of such fragmentation process. Using energy conservation arguments, we estimate that the gravitational to kinetic energy conversion efficiency in the SDC13 cores is 35%. We see velocity gradient peaks towards 63% of cores as expected during the early stages of filament fragmentation. Another clear observational signature is the presence of the most massive cores at the filaments' junction, where the velocity dispersion is largest. We interpret this as the result of the hub morphology generating the largest acceleration gradients near the hub centre. Conclusions: We

  1. Analysis of the nature of injuries in victims of fall from height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena E. Kusior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To assess the types and extent of injuries sustained by victims of fall from height depending on the height of fall. Material and methods: The study included 338 bodies of victims of fatal falls from different heights (from the 1st to 10th floors who were subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, between 1995 and 2014. For each individual, selected data were collected including gender, age, body height, injury types and presence of alcohol or other intoxicants in blood. The analysis comprised injuries to the brain, thoracic and abdominal organs, fractures of the skull, extremities, ribs and spine, and fractures of the scapula, clavicle and sternum (considered together. The study focused on determining the frequency of occurrence of different injuries in relation to one another and depending on the height of fall. Results : The number and extent of injuries was found to increase along with the height of fall. Three injury types, including injuries to the mesentery and both kidneys and fractures of upper extremity small bones, were shown to occur from the threshold heights of the 3rd, 4th and 6th floors. Eleven injuries demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the height of fall. The study also revealed a number of correlations between the frequencies of occurrence of different injuries. Conclusions : Injuries found from the threshold value may suggest the minimal height of fall. The presence of injuries which correlate with increasing height, and the overall number of injuries observed in victims of fall from height, may be useful for inferring the height of the fall.

  2. Googling Service Boundaries for Endovascular Clot Retrieval Hub Hospitals in a Metropolitan Setting: Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thanh G; Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Clissold, Benjamin; Ly, John; Singhal, Shaloo; Ma, Henry; Srikanth, Velandai

    2017-05-01

    There is great interest in how endovascular clot retrieval hubs provide services to a population. We applied a computational method to objectively generate service boundaries for such endovascular clot retrieval hubs, defined by traveling time to hub. Stroke incidence data merged with population census to estimate numbers of stroke in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Traveling time from randomly generated addresses to 4 endovascular clot retrieval-capable hubs (Royal Melbourne Hospital [RMH], Monash Medical Center [MMC], Alfred Hospital [ALF], and Austin Hospital [AUS]) estimated using Google Map application program interface. Boundary maps generated based on traveling time at various times of day for combinations of hubs. In a 2-hub model, catchment was best distributed when RMH was paired with MMC (model 1a, RMH 1765 km 2 and MMC 1164 km 2 ) or with AUS (model 1c, RMH 1244 km 2 and AUS 1685 km 2 ), with no statistical difference between models ( P =0.20). Catchment was poorly distributed when RMH was paired with ALF (model 1b, RMH 2252 km 2 and ALF 676 km 2 ), significantly different from both models 1a and 1c (both P AUS was superior to that of RMH, MMC, and ALF in catchment distribution and travel time. The method was also successfully applied to the city of Adelaide demonstrating wider applicability. We provide proof of concept for a novel computational method to objectively designate service boundaries for endovascular clot retrieval hubs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Stereoscopic, thermal, and true deep cumulus cloud top heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.; Lawrence, S. P.; Remedios, J. J.; Sherwood, S. C.; Chae, J.; Minnis, P.; McGill, M.

    2004-05-01

    We compare cloud-top height estimates from several sensors: thermal tops from GOES-8 and MODIS, stereoscopic tops from MISR, and directly measured heights from the Goddard Cloud Physics Lidar on board the ER-2, all collected during the CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign. Comparisons reveal a persistent 1-2 km underestimation of cloud-top heights by thermal imagery, even when the finite optical extinctions near cloud top and in thin overlying cirrus are taken into account. The most severe underestimates occur for the tallest clouds. The MISR "best-sinds" and lidar estimates disagree in very similar ways with thermally estimated tops, which we take as evidence of excellent performance by MISR. Encouraged by this, we use MISR to examine variations in cloud penetration and thermal top height errors in several locations of tropical deep convection over multiple seasons. The goals of this are, first, to learn how cloud penetration depends on the near-tropopause environment; and second, to gain further insight into the mysterious underestimation of tops by thermal imagery.

  4. Hub Height Ocean Winds over the North Sea Observed by the NORSEWInD Lidar Array: Measuring Techniques, Quality Control and Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Stein, Detlef; Courtney, Michael

    2013-01-01

    performed excellently, two slightly failed the first criterion and one failed both. The lidars were operated offshore from six months to more than two years and observed in total 107 months of 10-min mean wind profile observations. Four lidars were re-evaluated post deployment with excellent results...

  5. KINEMATIC ANALYSES OF THE GOLF SWING HUB PATH AND ITS ROLE IN GOLFER/CLUB KINETIC TRANSFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the fundamental geometric and kinematic characteristics of the swing hub path of the golf shot for four diverse subjects. In addition, the role of the hub path geometry in transferring the kinetic quantities from the golfer to the club were investigated. The hub path was found to have a complex geometry with significantly changing radii, and a constantly moving center-of-curvature during the downswing for all subjects. While the size and shape of the hub path differed considerably among the subjects, a three phase radius-based pattern was revealed that aligned with distinct stages of the downswing. Artificially controlling and optimizing the hub path of the better golfer in the group indicated that a non-circular hub path was superior to a constant radius path in minimizing the kinetic loading while generating the highest possible club head velocity. The shape and purpose of the hub path geometry appears to result from a complex combination of achieving equilibrium between the golfer and the club, and a purposeful configuring of the path to control the outward movement of the club while minimizing the kinetic loading on the golfer yet transferring the maximum kinetic quantities to the club. Describing the downswing relative to the hub path phasing is presented and was found to be informative since the phases align with significant swing, kinetic and kinematic markers. These findings challenge golf swing modeling methodologies which fix the center-of-curvature of the hub path thus constraining it to constant radius motion

  6. Global effects of income and income inequality on adult height and sexual dimorphism in height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Scheffler, Christiane; Hermanussen, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height. Average height data come from the NCD-RisC health risk factor collaboration. Economic indicators are derived from the World Bank data archive and include gross domestic product (GDP), Gross National Income per capita adjusted for personal purchasing power (GNI_PPP), and income equality assessed by the Gini coefficient calculated by the Wagstaff method. Hypothesis 1 is supported. Greater income equality is most predictive of average height for both sexes. GNI_PPP explains a significant, but smaller, amount of the variation. National GDP has no association with height. Hypothesis 2 is rejected. With greater average adult height there is greater sexual dimorphism. Findings support a growing literature on the pernicious effects of inequality on growth in height and, by extension, on health. Gradients in height reflect gradients in social disadvantage. Inequality should be considered a pollutant that disempowers people from the resources needed for their own healthy growth and development and for the health and good growth of their children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2008-09-01

    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  8. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  9. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  10. U.S. Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the GEOID96 model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...

  11. PR/VI Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 26,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  12. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  13. From hub proteins to hub modules: the relationship between essentiality and centrality in the yeast interactome at different scales of organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Song

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested that hub proteins in the S. cerevisiae physical interaction network are more likely to be essential than other proteins. The proposed reasons underlying this observed relationship between topology and functioning have been subject to some controversy, with recent work suggesting that it arises due to the participation of hub proteins in essential complexes and processes. However, do these essential modules themselves have distinct network characteristics, and how do their essential proteins differ in their topological properties from their non-essential proteins? We aimed to advance our understanding of protein essentiality by analyzing proteins, complexes and processes within their broader functional context and by considering physical interactions both within and across complexes and biological processes. In agreement with the view that essentiality is a modular property, we found that the number of intracomplex or intraprocess interactions that a protein has is a better indicator of its essentiality than its overall number of interactions. Moreover, we found that within an essential complex, its essential proteins have on average more interactions, especially intracomplex interactions, than its non-essential proteins. Finally, we built a module-level interaction network and found that essential complexes and processes tend to have higher interaction degrees in this network than non-essential complexes and processes; that is, they exhibit a larger amount of functional cross-talk than their non-essential counterparts.

  14. Kinetic Constrained Optimization of the Golf Swing Hub Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study.

  15. Virtual Campus Hub: A single sign-on system for cross-border collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Vercoulen, F.; Monaco, L.

    2013-01-01

    laboratory exercises, examination tools, courses, collaboration tools, and tools to support the incubation of new small or medium size enterprises (SMEs). All of the applications serve as use cases for the demonstration of how the technology behind Virtual Campus Hub works. They can be accessed via...... in connection with joint educational programs and courses. These experiences are gained through a series of virtual events where users from the partners are invited to test each other’s applications. So far, testing of remote laboratory exercises, examination tools and an online course in wind energy has shown......Four technical universities in Europe work together in the EU-funded project Virtual Campus Hub (FP7 RI-283746, www.virtualcampushub.eu) to lower the technical barriers for cross-border collaboration. Universities have many connections to the outside world (e.g. to other universities, to joint...

  16. Omni directional mobile robot capable of variable foot printing based on hub type drive module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Joong; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Hwi Su; Song, Jae Bok [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In recent years, an increased amount of research has been carried out on mobile robots to improve the performance of service robots. Mobile robots maximize the mobility of service robots, thus allowing them to work in different areas. However, conventional service robots have their center of mass placed high above the ground, which may cause them to fall when moving at high speed. Furthermore, hub type actuators, which are often used for mobile robots, are large and expensive. In this study, we propose a mobile robot with a hub type actuator unit and a variable footprint mechanism. The proposed variable footprint mechanism greatly improves the stability and mobility of the robot, allowing it to move freely in a narrow space and carry out various tasks. The performance of the proposed robot is verified experimentally.

  17. The WaterHub at Emory University: Campus Resiliency through Decentralized Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Daniel; Lohan, Eric; Baldwin, Tim

    2018-02-01

      In the spring of 2015, Emory University in Atlanta, GA, commissioned an innovative campuswide water reclamation and reuse system known as the WaterHub®. Treating up to 400,000 gallons each day, the system can recycle the equivalent of two-thirds of the University's wastewater production and reduce the campus water footprint by up to 40 percent.One of the first district-scale water reuse systems in North America, the WaterHub mines wastewater from the campus sewer system and repurposes it for beneficial reuse on campus. In its first year of operation, the facility has treated more than 80 million gallons of campus wastewater and is expected to save millions of dollars in utility costs for the University over the next 20 years. The system represents a new age in commercial-scale water management in which onsite, urban water reclamation facilities may be a new norm.

  18. Nonlinear model of a rotating hub-beams structure: Equations of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warminski, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Dynamics of a rotating structure composed of a rigid hub and flexible beams is presented in the paper. A nonlinear model of a beam takes into account bending, extension and nonlinear curvature. The influence of geometric nonlinearity and nonconstant angular velocity on dynamics of the rotating structure is presented. The exact equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are derived on the basis of the Hamilton's principle. The simplification of the exact nonlinear mathematical model is proposed taking into account the second order approximation. The reduced partial differential equations of motion together with associated boundary conditions can be used to study natural or forced vibrations of a rotating structure considering constant or nonconstant angular speed of a rigid hub and an arbitrary number of flexible blades.

  19. Giant hub Src and Syk tyrosine kinase thermodynamic profiles recapitulate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic scaling theory, previously applied mainly to small proteins, here analyzes quantitative evolution of the titled functional network giant hub enzymes. The broad domain structure identified homologically is confirmed hydropathically using amino acid sequences only. The most surprising results concern the evolution of the tyrosine kinase globular surface roughness from avians to mammals, which is first order, compared to the evolution within mammals from rodents to humans, which is second order. The mystery of the unique amide terminal region of proto oncogene tyrosine protein kinase is resolved by the discovery there of a rare hydroneutral septad targeting cluster, which is paralleled by an equally rare octad catalytic cluster in tyrosine kinase in humans and a few other species (cat and dog). These results, which go far towards explaining why these proteins are among the largest giant hubs in protein interaction networks, use no adjustable parameters.

  20. Kinetic constrained optimization of the golf swing hub path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Steven M; McGinnis, Ryan S

    2014-12-01

    This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power) of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study. Key PointsThe hand path trajectory is an important characteristic of the golf swing and greatly affects club head velocity and golfer/club energy transfer.It is possible to increase the energy transfer from the golfer to the club by modifying the hand path and swing trajectories without increasing the kinetic output demands on the golfer.It is possible to identify relative kinetic output strengths and weakness of a golfer through assessment of the hand path and swing trajectories.Increasing any one of the kinetic outputs of the golfer can potentially increase the club head velocity at impact.The hand path trajectory has important influences over the club swing trajectory.

  1. Continuous Integration for Concurrent MOOSE Framework and Application Development on GitHub

    OpenAIRE

    Slaughter, Andrew E.; Peterson, John W.; Gaston, Derek R.; Permann, Cody J.; Andrš, David; Miller, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    For the past several years, Idaho National Laboratory’s MOOSE framework team has employed modern software engineering techniques (continuous integration, joint application/framework source code repos- itories, automated regression testing, etc.) in developing closed-source multiphysics simulation software (Gaston et al., 'Journal of Open Research Software' vol. 2, article e10, 2014). In March 2014, the MOOSE framework was released under an open source license on GitHub, significantly expandin...

  2. Using hub technology to facilitate information system integration in a health-care enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendler, S M; Friedman, B A; Henricks, W H

    1996-04-01

    The deployment and maintenance of multiple point-to-point interfaces between a clinical information system, such as a laboratory information system, and other systems within a healthcare enterprise is expensive and time consuming. Moreover, the demand for such interfaces is increasing as hospitals consolidate and clinical laboratories participate in the development of regional laboratory networks and create host-to-host links with laboratory outreach clients. An interface engine, also called a hub, is an evolving technology that could replace multiple point-to-point interfaces from a laboratory information system with a single interface to the hub, preferably HL7 based. The hub then routes and translates laboratory information to other systems within the enterprise. Changes in application systems in an enterprise where a centralized interface engine has been implemented then amount to thorough analysis, an update of the enterprise's data dictionary, purchase of a single new vendor-supported interface, and table-based parameter changes on the hub. Two other features of an interface engine, support for structured query language and information store-and-forward, will facilitate the development of clinical data repositories and provide flexibility when interacting with other host systems. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of an interface engine and lists some problems not solved by the technology. Finally, early developmental experience with an interface engine at the University of Michigan Medical Center and the benefits of the project on system integration efforts are described, not the least of which has been the enthusiastic adoption of the HL7 standard for all future interface projects.

  3. A Hypercat-enabled Semantic Internet of Things Data Hub: Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tachmazidis, Ilias; Batsakis, Sotiris; Davies, John; Duke, Alistair; Vallati, Mauro; Antoniou, Grigoris; Clarke, Sandra Stincic

    2017-01-01

    An increasing amount of information is generated from the rapidly increasing number of sensor networks and smart devices. A wide variety of sources generate and publish information in different formats, thus highlighting interoperability as one of the key prerequisites for the success of Internet of Things (IoT). The BT Hypercat Data Hub provides a focal point for the sharing and consumption of available datasets from a wide range of sources. In this work, we propose a semantic enrichment of ...

  4. A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    computed at various pitch angles through changes in actuator length. The linear spring stiffness was estimated by using the internal volume of the...Vehicle Technology Directorate Mechanics Division (ATTN: RDRL-VTM) Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...Finally, the balance loads are not only induced by the rotor hub loads, but also by loads transmitted via the pitch links to the swashplate. Thus

  5. Establishment of a Hub for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Online Monitoring Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeck, Nancy J.; Tawfik, Magdy S.; Pham, Binh T.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of online monitoring and prognostics in existing U.S. nuclear power plants will involve coordinating the efforts of national laboratories, utilities, universities, and private companies. Internet-based collaborative work environments provide necessary communication tools to facilitate interaction between geographically diverse participants. Available technologies were considered, and a collaborative workspace was established at INL as a hub for the light water reactor sustainability online monitoring community.

  6. ABACUS and AQME: Semiconductor Device and Quantum Mechanics Education on nanoHUB.org

    OpenAIRE

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Vasileska, Dragica

    2009-01-01

    The ABACUS and AQME on-line tools and their associated wiki pages form one-stop shops for educators and students of existing university courses. They are geared towards courses like "introduction to Semiconductor Devices" and "Quantum Mechanics for Engineers". The service is free to anyone and no software installation is required on the user's computer. All simulations, including advanced visualization are performed at a remote computer. The tools have been deployed on nanoHUB.org in August 2...

  7. Assessing inspection sensitivity as it relates to damage tolerance in composite rotor hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk

    2001-08-01

    Increasing niche applications, growing international markets, and the emergence of advanced rotorcraft technology are expected to greatly increase the population of helicopters over the next decade. In terms of fuselage fatigue, helicopters show similar trends as fixed-wing aircraft. The highly unsteady loads experienced by rotating wings not only directly affect components in the dynamic systems but are also transferred to the fixed airframe structure. Expanded use of rotorcraft has focused attention on the use of new materials and the optimization of maintenance practices. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center (AANC) at Sandia National Labs has joined with Bell Helicopter andother agencies in the rotorcraft industry to evaluate nondestructive inspection (NDI) capabilities in light of the damage tolerance of assorted rotorcraft structure components. Currently, the program's emphasis is on composite rotor hubs. The rotorcraft industry is constantly evaluating new types of lightweight composite materials that not only enhance the safety and reliability of rotor components but also improve performance and extended operating life as well. Composite rotor hubs have led to the use of bearingless rotor systems that are less complex and require less maintenance than their predecessors. The test facility described in this paper allows the structural stability and damage tolerance of composite hubs to be evaluated using realistic flight load spectrums of centrifugal force and bending loads. NDI was integrated into the life-cycle fatigue tests in order to evaluate flaw detection sensitivity simultaneously wiht residual strength and general rotor hub peformance. This paper will describe the evolving use of damage tolerance analysis (DTA) to direct and improve rotorcraft maintenance along with the related use of nondestructive inspections to manage helicopter safety. OVeralll, the data from this project will provide information to improve the producibility, inspectability

  8. Positioning Mauritius as a Knowledge Hub in the Context of Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Gokulsing

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge is the most valued commodity in the global economy. Since 2005, it has been proposed to develop Mauritius into a knowledge hub and a centre of higher learning, thus meeting the needs of an increasingly competitive, knowledge-based and globalised economy. Therefore, this paper provides an understanding of the higher education system in Mauritius. Secondly, it explores the interconnection between globalisation and higher education in Mauritius. Thirdly, it also focuses the challenges ...

  9. Extraversion modulates functional connectivity hubs of resting-state brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yajing; Cui, Qian; Duan, Xujun; Chen, Heng; Zeng, Ling; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2017-09-01

    Personality dimension extraversion describes individual differences in social behaviour and socio-emotional functioning. The intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the brain are reportedly associated with extraversion. However, whether or not extraversion is associated with functional hubs warrants clarification. Functional hubs are involved in the rapid integration of neural processing, and their dysfunction contributes to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we employed the functional connectivity density (FCD) method for the first time to distinguish the energy-efficient hubs associated with extraversion. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 71 healthy subjects were used in the analysis. Short-range FCD was positively correlated with extraversion in the left cuneus, revealing a link between the local functional activity of this region and extraversion in risk-taking. Long-range FCD was negatively correlated with extraversion in the right superior frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses revealed that a decreased long-range FCD in individuals with high extraversion scores showed a low long-range functional connectivity pattern between the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. This result suggests that decreased RSFC patterns are responsible for self-esteem, self-evaluation, and inhibitory behaviour system that account for the modulation and shaping of extraversion. Overall, our results emphasize specific brain hubs, and reveal long-range functional connections in relation to extraversion, thereby providing a neurobiological basis of extraversion. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  11. Network hubs buffer environmental variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha F Levy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory and developmental systems produce phenotypes that are robust to environmental and genetic variation. A gene product that normally contributes to this robustness is termed a phenotypic capacitor. When a phenotypic capacitor fails, for example when challenged by a harsh environment or mutation, the system becomes less robust and thus produces greater phenotypic variation. A functional phenotypic capacitor provides a mechanism by which hidden polymorphism can accumulate, whereas its failure provides a mechanism by which evolutionary change might be promoted. The primary example to date of a phenotypic capacitor is Hsp90, a molecular chaperone that targets a large set of signal transduction proteins. In both Drosophila and Arabidopsis, compromised Hsp90 function results in pleiotropic phenotypic effects dependent on the underlying genotype. For some traits, Hsp90 also appears to buffer stochastic variation, yet the relationship between environmental and genetic buffering remains an important unresolved question. We previously used simulations of knockout mutations in transcriptional networks to predict that many gene products would act as phenotypic capacitors. To test this prediction, we use high-throughput morphological phenotyping of individual yeast cells from single-gene deletion strains to identify gene products that buffer environmental variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find more than 300 gene products that, when absent, increase morphological variation. Overrepresented among these capacitors are gene products that control chromosome organization and DNA integrity, RNA elongation, protein modification, cell cycle, and response to stimuli such as stress. Capacitors have a high number of synthetic-lethal interactions but knockouts of these genes do not tend to cause severe decreases in growth rate. Each capacitor can be classified based on whether or not it is encoded by a gene with a paralog in the genome. Capacitors with a

  12. Characteristics of steady vibration in a rotating hub-beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Caishan; Ma, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A rotating beam features a puzzling character in which its frequencies and modal shapes may vary with the hub's inertia and its rotating speed. To highlight the essential nature behind the vibration phenomena, we analyze the steady vibration of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam with a quasi-steady-state stretch. Newton's law is used to derive the equations governing the beam's elastic motion and the hub's rotation. A combination of these equations results in a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) that fully reflects the mutual interaction between the two kinds of motion. Via the Fourier series expansion within a finite interval of time, we reduce the PDE into an infinite system of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) in spatial domain. We further nondimensionalize the ODE and discretize it via a difference method. The frequencies and modal shapes of a general rotating beam are then determined numerically. For a low-speed beam where the ignorance of geometric stiffening is feasible, the beam's vibration characteristics are solved analytically. We validate our numerical method and the analytical solutions by comparing with either the past experiments or the past numerical findings reported in existing literature. Finally, systematic simulations are performed to demonstrate how the beam's eigenfrequencies vary with the hub's inertia and rotating speed.

  13. Left Frontal Hub Connectivity during Memory Performance Supports Reserve in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Hartmann, Julia C; Taylor, Alexander N W; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Buerger, Katharina; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Mueller, Claudia; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Stahl, Robert; Dichgans, Martin; Duering, Marco; Ewers, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reserve in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined as maintaining cognition at a relatively high level in the presence of neurodegeneration, an ability often associated with higher education among other life factors. Recent evidence suggests that higher resting-state functional connectivity within the frontoparietal control network, specifically the left frontal cortex (LFC) hub, contributes to higher reserve. Following up these previous resting-state fMRI findings, we probed memory-task related functional connectivity of the LFC hub as a neural substrate of reserve. In elderly controls (CN, n = 37) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 17), we assessed global connectivity of the LFC hub during successful face-name association learning, using generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. Reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance, accounted for gender and proxies of neurodegeneration (age, hippocampus atrophy, and APOE genotype). We found that greater education was associated with higher LFC-connectivity in both CN and MCI during successful memory. Furthermore, higher LFC-connectivity predicted higher residualized memory (i.e., reserve). These results suggest that higher LFC-connectivity contributes to reserve in both healthy and pathological aging.

  14. Development and validation of a new kind of coupling element for wheel-hub motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perekopskiy, Sergey; Kasper, Roland

    2018-05-01

    For the automotive industry, electric powered vehicles are becoming an increasingly relevant factor in the competition against climate change. Application of one special example - a wheel-hub motor, for electric powered vehicle can support this challenge. Patented slotless air gap winding invented at the chair of mechatronics of the Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg has great application potential in constantly growing e-mobility field, especially for wheel-hub motors based on this technology due to its advantages, such as a high gravimetric power density and high efficiency. However, advantages of this technology are decreased by its sensibility to the loads out of driving maneuvers by dimensional variations of air gap consistency. This article describes the development and validation of a coupling element for the designed wheel-hub motor. To find a suitable coupling concept first the assembly structure of the motor was analyzed and developed design of the coupling element was checked. Based on the geometry of the motor and wheel a detailed design of the coupling element was generated. The analytical approach for coupling element describes a potential of the possible loads on the coupling element. The FEM simulation of critical load cases for the coupling element validated results of the analytical approach.

  15. FROM PRE-OIL SETTLEMENT TO POST-OIL HUB: The Urban Transformation of Doha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wiedmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since oil production commenced in the middle of the 20th century Qatar's capital Doha witnessed a rapid urbanisation period. Today, new development strategies, which have been implemented to diversify Qatar's economy, have led to a new urban transformation process with the vision to establish Doha as hub within global networks. Economic transformation processes in Qatar have always caused new structures within its society, which in turn affected urban developments. After decades of urbanisation based on the export of oil, the introduction of a hub vision at the end of the 1990s marked a new process that has been rethinking urbanism in Qatar. Although current developments have attracted worldwide attention, there has been rather little scientific reflection as to how current urbanism in the Gulf should be understood in relation to its past and projected future. Therefore, this paper seeks to investigate the various factors impacting Doha's urban environment during economic transformation processes. Each economc transformation has had a large impact  on the structure of the city’s society as well as its built environment. The curren transformation process can still be considered at its beginning. In order to understand the impact of contemporary economic diversification strategies, the city’s past urbanisation stages and their spatial development factors had to be analysed. All in all four distinct phases of urbanism can be distinguished in the case of Doha: The pre-oil settlement, the modernisation period, the oil city and the globalised hub.

  16. Penentuan Pelabuhan Hub untuk Crude Palm Oil (CPO Ekspor di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Andi Haranto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available CPO (Crude Palm Oil merupakan salah satu komoditi ekspor terbesar di Indonesia. Moda angkut darat dan sungai menjadi pilihan untuk didistribusikan menuju calon pelabuhan hub. Tugas Akhir ini bertujuan untuk merencanakan pola operasi armada pengangkut CPO, dan penentuan pelabuhan hub untuk ekspor CPO. Metode Transportasi digunakan untuk memilih pabrik pengolahan CPO sebagai pemasok utama. Dari hasil analisis didapatkan bahwa penggunaan moda darat menggunakan truk lebih optimal dibandingkan menggunakan tongkang hal ini dikarenakan kondisi sungai di Kalimantan Tengah yang dangkal. Dengan menggunakan metode transportasi didapatkan empat lokasi pabrik pengolahan minyak kelapa sawit. Pelabuhan hub yang terpilih berlokasi di Bagendang dan Bumi Harjo. Kedua titik tersebut dipilih karena sudah memiliki tangki timbun dan dermaga untuk ekspor CPO, selain itu pemilihan berdasarkan hasil analisa didapatkan biaya dari Pabrik PT. ATLANTIS ke Pelabuhan Bagendang dengan truk berukuran 10 ton memerlukan biaya sebesar Rp. 333.016,25/TRIP/TRUK. Pabrik PT. ATLANTIS II ke Pelabuhan Bagendang Rp. 237.868,75/TRIP/TRUK. Pabrik PT. TIGER ke Pelabuhan Bumi Harjo Rp. 475.737,50/TRIP/TRUK. PT. TIGER II merupakan pabrik yang dapat melakukan pengiriman langsung menggunakan tongkang berukuran 1800 DWT melewati sungai Barito, dengan biaya Rp.123.007.828,27,- /voyage.

  17. Continuous Integration for Concurrent MOOSE Framework and Application Development on GitHub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Slaughter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For the past several years, Idaho National Laboratory’s MOOSE framework team has employed modern software engineering techniques (continuous integration, joint application/framework source code repos- itories, automated regression testing, etc. in developing closed-source multiphysics simulation software (Gaston et al., 'Journal of Open Research Software' vol. 2, article e10, 2014. In March 2014, the MOOSE framework was released under an open source license on GitHub, significantly expanding and diversifying the pool of current active and potential future contributors on the project. Despite this recent growth, the same philosophy of concurrent framework and application development continues to guide the project’s development roadmap. Several specific practices, including techniques for managing multiple repositories, conducting automated regression testing, and implementing a cascading build process are discussed in this short paper. Special attention is given to describing the manner in which these practices naturally synergize with the GitHub API and GitHub-specific features such as issue tracking, Pull Requests, and project forks.

  18. Birth order progressively affects childhood height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Tim; Derraik, José G B; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2013-09-01

    There is evidence suggesting that first-born children and adults are anthropometrically different to later-borns. Thus, we aimed to assess whether birth order was associated with changes in growth and metabolism in childhood. We studied 312 healthy prepubertal children: 157 first-borns and 155 later-borns. Children were aged 3-10 years, born 37-41 weeks gestation, and of birth weight appropriate-for-gestational-age. Clinical assessments included measurement of children's height, weight, fasting lipid and hormonal profiles and DEXA-derived body composition. First-borns were taller than later-borns (P < 0·0001), even when adjusted for parents' heights (0·31 vs 0·03 SDS; P = 0·001). There was an incremental height decrease with increasing birth order, so that first-borns were taller than second-borns (P < 0·001), who were in turn taller than third-borns (P = 0·007). Further, among sibling pairs both height SDS (P = 0·009) and adjusted height SDS (P < 0·0001) were lower in second- vs first-born children. Consistent with differences in stature, first- (P = 0·043) and second-borns (P = 0·003) had higher IGF-I concentrations than third-borns. Both first- (P < 0·001) and second-borns (P = 0·004) also had reduced abdominal adiposity (lower android fat to gynoid fat ratio) when compared with third-borns. Other parameters of adiposity and blood lipids were unaffected by birth order. First-borns were taller than later-born children, with an incremental height reduction from first to third birth order. These differences were present after correction for genetic height, and associated to some extent with alterations in plasma IGF-I. Our findings strengthen the evidence that birth order is associated with phenotypic changes in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Brokered virtual hubs for facilitating access and use of geospatial Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel; Kamali, Nargess; Brumana, Raffaella; Braumann, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Open Data is a major trend in current information technology scenario and it is often publicised as one of the pillars of the information society in the near future. In particular, geospatial Open Data have a huge potential also for Earth Sciences, through the enablement of innovative applications and services integrating heterogeneous information. However, open does not mean usable. As it was recognized at the very beginning of the Web revolution, many different degrees of openness exist: from simple sharing in a proprietary format to advanced sharing in standard formats and including semantic information. Therefore, to fully unleash the potential of geospatial Open Data, advanced infrastructures are needed to increase the data openness degree, enhancing their usability. In October 2014, the ENERGIC OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". The ENERGIC OD Virtual Hubs aim to facilitate the use of geospatial Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus

  20. The Determination of Production and Distribution Policy in Push-Pull Production Chain with Supply Hub as the Junction Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, A. T.; Wangsaputra, R.

    2018-03-01

    The development of technology causes the needs of products and services become increasingly complex, diverse, and fluctuating. This causes the level of inter-company dependencies within a production chains increased. To be able to compete, efficiency improvements need to be done collaboratively in the production chain network. One of the efforts to increase efficiency is to harmonize production and distribution activities in the production chain network. This paper describes the harmonization of production and distribution activities by applying the use of push-pull system and supply hub in the production chain between two companies. The research methodology begins with conducting empirical and literature studies, formulating research questions, developing mathematical models, conducting trials and analyses, and taking conclusions. The relationship between the two companies is described in the MINLP mathematical model with the total cost of production chain as the objective function. Decisions generated by the mathematical models are the size of production lot, size of delivery lot, number of kanban, frequency of delivery, and the number of understock and overstock lot.

  1. Experiences of ZAMG on mixing height determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piringer, M. [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Temperature inversions in the boundary layer occur quite often, esp. in mountainous terrain by which Austria is covered to a large extent, and can lead to enhanced pollution at the surface because the air volume available for dilution is then vertically limited. The Department of Environmental Meteorology of ZAMG therefore set up several field programs in the past to study such conditions at a variety of sites in Austria, using tethersondes and Sodars. Early investigations aimed at comparing Sodar echo profiles to the tethersonde temperature profiles to derive mixing heights from the Sodar echo structure. More recently, evolving from KONGEX, the `convective boundary layer experiment`, mixing heights calculated for Vienna by the OML model were compared to those derived from radiosonde and tethersonde potential temperature profiles. Results of these investigations will be presented, focussing on the problems when using the different methods. New efforts to derive mixing heights from data were also undertaken and are discussed separately. (au)

  2. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  3. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    "Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new chal...

  5. Spatial inhomogeneous barrier heights at graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Dushyant

    Graphene, a semimetal with linear energy dispersion, forms Schottky junction when interfaced with a semiconductor. This dissertation presents temperature dependent current-voltage and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements performed on graphene Schottky junctions formed with both three and two dimensional semiconductors. To fabricate Schottky junctions, we transfer chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto Si- and C-face SiC, Si, GaAs and MoS2 semiconducting substrates using polymer assisted chemical method. We observe three main type of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneities, graphene ripples, ridges and semiconductor steps in STM imaging that can exist at graphene/semiconductor junctions. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal fluctuations in graphene Dirac point position, which is directly related to the Schottky barrier height. We find a direct correlation of Dirac point variation with the topographic undulations of graphene ripples at the graphene/SiC junction. However, no such correlation is established at graphene/Si and Graphene/GaAs junctions and Dirac point variations are attributed to surface states and trapped charges at the interface. In addition to graphene ripples and ridges, we also observe atomic scale moire patterns at graphene/MoS2 junction due to van der Waals interaction at the interface. Periodic topographic modulations due to moire pattern do not lead to local variation in graphene Dirac point, indicating that moire pattern does not contribute to fluctuations in electronic properties of the heterojunction. We perform temperature dependent current-voltage measurements to investigate the impact of topographic inhomogeneities on electrical properties of the Schottky junctions. We observe temperature dependence in junction parameters, such as Schottky barrier height and ideality factor, for all types of Schottky junctions in forward bias measurements. Standard thermionic emission theory which assumes a perfect

  6. Calculations of shape and stability of menisci in Czochralski growth with tables to determine meniscus heights, maximum heights and capillary constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uelhoff, W.; Mika, K.

    1975-05-01

    The shape and stability of menisci occurring during Czochralski growth have been studied by means of numerical methods for the case of the free surface. The existence of minimal joining angles is shown, beyond which the growing crystal will separate from the melt. The dependence of the interface height on the joining angle for different crystal diameters was calculated. The maximum stable heights and the corresponding joining angles were determined as a function of crystal diameter. A method for measuring the capillary constant of the melt during Czochralski growth is proposed. The results are compared with known analytical approximations. Limitations of the applications caused by a finite crucible radius or low g values are pointed out. For practical use the following functions have been tabulated: 1) meniscus height in dependence on joining angle and crystal radius, 2) the radius-height-ratio in dependence on radius and angle for the calculation of the capillary constant, 3) the maximum stable height and the corresponding growth angle as a function of crystal radius. (orig.) [de

  7. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  8. Falls from height: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Kasim; Sarihan, Mehmet Ediz; Colak, Cemil; Güven, Taner; Gür, Ali; Gürbüz, Sükrü

    2018-01-01

    Emergency services manage trauma patients frequently and falls from height comprise the main cause of emergency service admissions. In this study, we aimed to analyse the demographic characteristics of falls from height and their relationship to the mortality. A total of 460 patients, who admitted to the Emergency Department of Inonu University between November 2011 and November 2014 with a history of fall from height, were examined retrospectively. Demographic parameters, fall characteristics and their effect to mortality were evaluated statistically. The study comprised of 292 (63.5%) men and 168 (36.5%) women patients. The mean age of all patients was 27±24.99 years. Twenty-six (5.6%) patients died and the majority of them were in ≥62 years old group. The highest percentage of falls was at 0-5 years age group (28.3%). People fell mainly from 1.1-4 metres(m) level (46.1%). The causes of falls were ordered as unintentional (92.2%), workplace (8.1%) and suicidal (1.7%). Skin and soft tissue injuries (37.4%) were the main traumatic lesions. Age, fall height, fall place, lineer skull fracture, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, cervical fracture, thoracic vertebra fracture and trauma scores had statistically significant effect on mortality. The casualties died because of subarachnoid hemorrhage mostly.

  9. Optimizing height presentation for aircraft cockpit displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Chris S.; Croft, D.; Selcon, Stephen J.; Markin, H.; Jackson, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an experiment conducted to investigate the type of display symbology that most effectively conveys height information to users of head-down plan-view radar displays. The experiment also investigated the use of multiple information sources (redundancy) in the design of such displays. Subjects were presented with eight different height display formats. These formats were constructed from a control, and/or one, two, or three sources of redundant information. The three formats were letter coding, analogue scaling, and toggling (spatially switching the position of the height information from above to below the aircraft symbol). Subjects were required to indicate altitude awareness via a four-key, forced-choice keyboard response. Error scores and response times were taken as performance measures. There were three main findings. First, there was a significant performance advantage when the altitude information was presented above and below the symbol to aid the representation of height information. Second, the analogue scale, a line whose length indicated altitude, proved significantly detrimental to performance. Finally, no relationship was found between the number of redundant information sources employed and performance. The implications for future aircraft and displays are discussed in relation to current aircraft tactical displays and in the context of perceptual psychological theory.

  10. Pulse height model for deuterated scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model of light pulse height distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse height distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse height distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse height distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.

  11. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  12. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. McQuillan (Ruth); N. Eklund (Niina); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Kuningas (Maris); B.P. McEvoy (Brian); T. Esko (Tõnu); T. Corre (Tanguy); G. Davies (Gail); M. Kaakinen (Marika); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K. Kristiansson (Kati); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); M. Gögele (Martin); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Tenesa (Albert); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); C. Hayward (Caroline); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Boban (Mladen); S. Ulivi (Shelia); A. Robino (Antonietta); V. Boraska (Vesna); W. Igl (Wilmar); S.H. Wild (Sarah); L. Zgaga (Lina); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Girotto; L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Sala (Cinzia); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); I. Prokopenko (Inga); M. Kals (Mart); J. Viikari (Jorma); J. Yang (Joanna); A. Pouta (Anneli); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Hofman (Albert); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Kähönen (Mika); L. Milani (Lili); M. Heliovaara (Markku); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); K. Räikkönen (Katri); C. Masciullo (Corrado); J.M. Starr (John); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L. Esposito (Laura); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.M. Farrington (Susan); B.A. Oostra (Ben); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); H. Campbell (Harry); M. Kirin (Mirna); M. Pehlic (Marina); F. Faletra (Flavio); D.J. Porteous (David J.); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Widen (Elisabeth); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Koskinen (Seppo); K. Fischer (Krista); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A.C. Heath (Andrew); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.L. Hartikainen; P.A.F. Madden (Pamela); P. d' Adamo (Pio); N. Hastie (Nick); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); I. Rudan (Igor); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I.J. Deary (Ian); D. Toniolo (Daniela); K. Hagen (Knut); A. Jula (Antti); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Perola (Markus); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has

  13. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  14. Characterization of model errors in the calculation of tangent heights for atmospheric infrared limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ridolfi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the main factors driving the calculation of the tangent height of spaceborne limb measurements: the ray-tracing method, the refractive index model and the assumed atmosphere. We find that commonly used ray tracing and refraction models are very accurate, at least in the mid-infrared. The factor with largest effect in the tangent height calculation is the assumed atmosphere. Using a climatological model in place of the real atmosphere may cause tangent height errors up to ± 200 m. Depending on the adopted retrieval scheme, these errors may have a significant impact on the derived profiles.

  15. Opportunity's Sol 446 Position, with Relative Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Coding for Information About Relative Elevations This mosaic of navigation-camera frames from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, presented in a vertical projection, shows the rover's position after it dug itself to wheel-hub depth in a small dune during its 446th martian day, or sol (April 26, 2005). In figure 1, the colors are coding for information about relative elevations in the surrounding area. Red areas are the highest in the image, green areas the lowest. The difference between red and green is about 70 centimeters (28 inches). The elongated dune, or ripple, is about one-third of a meter (one foot) tall and 2.5 meters (8 feet) wide. Opportunity had completed nearly 40 meters (131 feet) of a planned 90-meter (295-foot) drive that sol when its wheels began slipping. The rover was driving backwards at the time. The rover team frequently alternates between backwards and forwards driving to keep wheel lubrication well distributed. The wheels kept rotating enough times to have covered the rest of the distance if they hadn't been slipping, but the rover eventually barely inched forward. After a turn at the end of the planned drive, Opportunity sensed that it had not turned properly and stopped moving. The rover team spent more than a week designing and conducting tests under simulated Mars conditions on Earth before choosing the best way for Opportunity to drive out of the dune.

  16. The FUTUREVOLC Supersite's e-Infrastructure - A multidisciplinary data hub and data service for Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sverrisson, Sverrir Th.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur F.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Arnarsson, Ólafur S.; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna Ýr; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi Th.; Hjartansson, Kristján R.

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC volanological supersite will establish a data hub and dataservice, where researchers, hazard managers and other stake holders can freely obtain access to multidisciplinary data and products on activity, unrest and eruptions at Icelandic volcanoes. The supersite is firmly founded on close interaction between the main Icelandic volcanological research and monitoring institutions, in coordination with expertise from European researchers participating in FUTUREVOLC. The hub is located at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), an institution responsible for monitoring and archiving data on all natural hazards in Iceland and, which also has a mandate as the state volcano observatory. This association will ensure a long-term sustainable data service. The data accessible at the hub include in-situ and space-based observations, products and models from all the relevant disciplines contributing to volcanological research and local as well as cross-border hazard management, i.e. Earth sciences, atmospheric science, hydrology, remote sensing and space science. Access to the data will be in compliance with the access policy of the GEO (Group on Earth Observations), providing registered users with easy and timely access to data and products of documented quality. This commitment has already led to the acceptance of FUTUREVOLC as a permanent geohazard supersite by CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), which will ensure access to additional satellite data and products on Icelandic volcanoes. To facilitate services to seismological data at the supersite hub, the IMO is reconstructing its existing data base and utilizing the SeisComp3 software to manage waveform and parameter data. The accompanying ArcLink component will be used to provide access to event data and waveforms. Access to GPS data will be provided by the GSAC web service which has been installed at the IMO through collaboration with UNAVCO. If appropriate, the format and data base

  17. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  18. The hub-and-spoke organization design revisited: a lifeline for rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, James K; Fortenberry, John L

    2017-12-13

    Characterized by declining populations, high poverty, reduced employment opportunities, and high numbers of uninsured residents, rural communities pose significant challenges for healthcare providers desirous of addressing these medically underserved areas. Such difficult environments, in fact, have forced the closure of many rural hospitals across America, with scores facing the same threat, compelling intensive efforts to identify pathways which will yield an improved future. Collaborations with stronger urban or suburban healthcare institutions offer a prudent avenue for rural hospitals to continue serving their patients. Such relationships can be structured in many different ways, but Willis-Knighton Health System found that its use of the hub-and-spoke organization design set the stage for the institution to cast a vital lifeline to neighboring rural hospitals, affording the relatively seamless integration and assimilation of partner facilities into its network, ensuring continuity of services in remote regions. This article supplies an overview of the hub-and-spoke network and discusses Willis-Knighton Health System's use of it to facilitate the establishment of productive partnerships with rural hospitals. The delivery of healthcare services in rural environments is essential, but with small community hospitals increasingly being under threat, the outlook is not particularly attractive. Partnerships with better positioned healthcare entities offer significant hope, but care must be taken to structure these arrangements optimally. Willis-Knighton Health System found utility and value in its hub-and-spoke organization design, with the insights presented in this account potentially offering a pathway for others to follow as they go about addressing the healthcare needs of rural populations.

  19. Interpatch foraging in honeybees-rational decision making at secondary hubs based upon time and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najera, Daniel A; McCullough, Erin L; Jander, Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    For honeybees, Apis mellifera, the hive has been well known to function as a primary decision-making hub, a place from which foragers decide among various directions, distances, and times of day to forage efficiently. Whether foraging honeybees can make similarly complex navigational decisions from locations away from the hive is unknown. To examine whether or not such secondary decision-making hubs exist, we trained bees to forage at four different locations. Specifically, we trained honeybees to first forage to a distal site "CT" 100 m away from the hive; if food was present, they fed and then chose to go home. If food was not present, the honeybees were trained to forage to three auxiliary sites, each at a different time of the day: A in the morning, B at noon, and C in the afternoon. The foragers learned to check site CT for food first and then efficiently depart to the correct location based upon the time of day if there was no food at site CT. Thus, the honeybees were able to cognitively map motivation, time, and five different locations (Hive, CT, A, B, and C) in two spatial dimensions; these are the contents of the cognitive map used by the honeybees here. While at site CT, we verified that the honeybees could choose between 4 different directions (to A, B, C, and the Hive) and thus label it as a secondary decision-making hub. The observed decision making uncovered here is inferred to constitute genuine logical operations, involving a branched structure, based upon the premises of motivational state, and spatiotemporal knowledge.

  20. Guiding Principles for Data Architecture to Support the Pathways Community HUB Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Bernard P; Redding, Sarah; Leath, Brenda A; Carter, Ernest L; Russell, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The Pathways Community HUB Model provides a unique strategy to effectively supplement health care services with social services needed to overcome barriers for those most at risk of poor health outcomes. Pathways are standardized measurement tools used to define and track health and social issues from identification through to a measurable completion point. The HUB use Pathways to coordinate agencies and service providers in the community to eliminate the inefficiencies and duplication that exist among them. Experience with the Model has brought out the need for better information technology solutions to support implementation of the Pathways themselves through decision-support tools for care coordinators and other users to track activities and outcomes, and to facilitate reporting. Here we provide a basis for discussing recommendations for such a data infrastructure by developing a conceptual model that formalizes the Pathway concept underlying current implementations. The main contribution is a set of core recommendations as a framework for developing and implementing a data architecture to support implementation of the Pathways Community HUB Model. The objective is to present a tool for communities interested in adopting the Model to learn from and to adapt in their own development and implementation efforts. Experience with the Community Health Access Project (CHAP) data base system (the core implementation of the Model) has identified several issues and remedies that have been developed to address these issues. Based on analysis of issues and remedies, we present several key features for a data architecture meeting the just mentioned recommendations. Presentation of features is followed by a practical guide to their implementation allowing an organization to consider either tailoring off-the-shelf generic systems to meet the requirements or offerings that are specialized for community-based care coordination. Looking to future extensions, we discuss the

  1. ABACUS and AQME: Semiconducor Device and Quantum Mechanics Education on nanoHUB.org

    OpenAIRE

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Vasileska, Dragica

    2009-01-01

    The ABACUS and AQME on-line tools and their associated wiki pages form one-stop shops for educators and students of existing university courses. They are geared towards courses like “introduction to Semiconductor Devices” and “Quantum Mechanics for Engineers”. The service is free to anyone and no software installation is required on the user’s computer. All simulations, including advanced visualization are performed at a remote computer. The tools have been deployed on nanoHUB.org in August 2...

  2. A review of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) as a competitive South-East Asia hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardai, A. M.; Er, A. Z.; Johari, M. K.; Noor, A. A. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL) against its competitors in Southeast Asia countries. Due to the geographical and market relevance issues, several airport hubs around KUL are chosen for comparison: Changi International Airport (SIN), Suvarnabhumi International Airport (BKK) and Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is used to evaluate the comparative situation between the airports in relation to changing industry and market environment. The study discovers some competitive edges for KUL. Nonetheless, the airport still has to be improved to face future challenges and it is under imminent threat of new aircraft technology.

  3. Single Allocation Hub-and-spoke Networks Design Based on Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Pingle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitated single allocation hub-and-spoke networks can be abstracted as a mixed integer linear programming model equation with three variables. Introducing an improved ant colony algorithm, which has six local search operators. Meanwhile, introducing the "Solution Pair" concept to decompose and optimize the composition of the problem, the problem can become more specific and effectively meet the premise and advantages of using ant colony algorithm. Finally, location simulation experiment is made according to Australia Post data to demonstrate this algorithm has good efficiency and stability for solving this problem.

  4. A Study on the Relationships among Surface Variables to Adjust the Height of Surface Temperature for Data Assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. H.; Song, H. J.; Han, H. J.; Ha, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The observation processing system, KPOP (KIAPS - Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems - Package for Observation Processing) have developed to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Integrated Model (KIM). Currently, the KPOP has capable of processing almost all of observations for the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) operational global data assimilation system. The height adjustment of SURFACE observations are essential for the quality control due to the difference in height between observation station and model topography. For the SURFACE observation, it is usual to adjust the height using lapse rate or hypsometric equation, which decides values mainly depending on the difference of height. We have a question of whether the height can be properly adjusted following to the linear or exponential relationship solely with regard to the difference of height, with disregard the atmospheric conditions. In this study, firstly we analyse the change of surface variables such as temperature (T2m), pressure (Psfc), humidity (RH2m and Q2m), and wind components (U and V) according to the height difference. Additionally, we look further into the relationships among surface variables . The difference of pressure shows a strong linear relationship with difference of height. But the difference of temperature according to the height shows a significant correlation with difference of relative humidity than with the height difference. A development of reliable model for the height-adjustment of surface temperature is being undertaken based on the preliminary results.

  5. Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of a Low Power Hub Motor Using Feedforward Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şimşir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power hub motors are widely used in electromechanical systems such as electrical bicycles and solar vehicles due to their robustness and compact structure. Such systems driven by hub motors (in wheel motors encounter previously defined and undefined faults under operation. It may inevitably lead to the interruption of the electromechanical system operation; hence, economic losses take place at certain times. Therefore, in order to maintain system operation sustainability, the motor should be precisely monitored and the faults are diagnosed considering various significant motor parameters. In this study, the artificial feedforward backpropagation neural network approach is proposed to real-time monitor and diagnose the faults of the hub motor by measuring seven main system parameters. So as to construct a necessary model, we trained the model, using a data set consisting of 4160 samples where each has 7 parameters, by the MATLAB environment until the best model is obtained. The results are encouraging and meaningful for the specific motor and the developed model may be applicable to other types of hub motors. The prosperous model of the whole system was embedded into Arduino Due microcontroller card and the mobile real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis system prototype for hub motor was designed and manufactured.

  6. Analysis of 2D Torus and Hub Topologies of 100Mb/s Ethernet for the Whitney Commodity Computing Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Kevin T.; Fineberg, Samuel A.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A variety of different network technologies and topologies are currently being evaluated as part of the Whitney Project. This paper reports on the implementation and performance of a Fast Ethernet network configured in a 4x4 2D torus topology in a testbed cluster of 'commodity' Pentium Pro PCs. Several benchmarks were used for performance evaluation: an MPI point to point message passing benchmark, an MPI collective communication benchmark, and the NAS Parallel Benchmarks version 2.2 (NPB2). Our results show that for point to point communication on an unloaded network, the hub and 1 hop routes on the torus have about the same bandwidth and latency. However, the bandwidth decreases and the latency increases on the torus for each additional route hop. Collective communication benchmarks show that the torus provides roughly four times more aggregate bandwidth and eight times faster MPI barrier synchronizations than a hub based network for 16 processor systems. Finally, the SOAPBOX benchmarks, which simulate real-world CFD applications, generally demonstrated substantially better performance on the torus than on the hub. In the few cases the hub was faster, the difference was negligible. In total, our experimental results lead to the conclusion that for Fast Ethernet networks, the torus topology has better performance and scales better than a hub based network.

  7. Design and Analysis of a Novel Speed-Changing Wheel Hub with an Integrated Electric Motor for Electric Bicycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an innovative electromechanical device which integrates a brushless DC (BLDC hub motor with a speed-changing wheel hub stored on the rear wheel of an electric bicycle. It combines a power source and a speed-changing mechanism to simultaneously provide functions of power generation and transmission for electric bicycles. As part of the proposed integrated device, the wheel hub consists of a basic planetary gear train providing three forward speeds including a low-speed gear, a direct drive, and a high-speed gear. Each gear is manually controlled by the shift control sleeve to selectively engage or disengage four pawl-and-ratchet clutches based on its clutching sequence table. The number of gear teeth of each gear element of the wheel hub is synthesized. The BLDC hub motor is an exterior-rotor-type permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Two-dimensional finite-element analysis (FEA software is employed to facilitate the motor design and performance analysis. An analysis of the power transmission path at each gear is provided to verify the validity of the proposed design. The results of this work are beneficial to the embodiment, design, and development of novel electromechanical devices for the power and transmission systems of electric bicycles.

  8. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  9. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  10. Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn

    Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a

  11. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  12. Weight and height prediction of immobilized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rabito,Estela Iraci; Vannucchi,Gabriela Bergamini; Suen,Vivian Marques Miguel; Castilho Neto,Laércio Lopes; Marchini,Júlio Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm the adequacy of the formula suggested in the literature and/or to develop appropriate equations for the Brazilian population of immobilized patients based on simple anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Hospitalized patients were submitted to anthropometry and methods to estimate weight and height of bedridden patients were developed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty eight persons were evaluated at two hospital centers and five weight-predicting...

  13. Reviewing the Justice and Security Hub Modality as Piloted in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Keane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘The Republic of Bangui’ or ‘the Republic of Monrovia’ are phrases we sometimes hear from practitioners to describe post conflict countries where very few services exist outside the capital city. This is especially the case for security – the critical public good in post conflict countries. In response to the need to bring security services closer to the citizens who often need them most, the Government of Liberia and the United Nations are piloting a new approach financed by the UN Peacebuilding Fund (PBF – the so-called ‘Justice and Security Hubs’. The donor community and the United Nations are watching closely. If this works, there is indication from UN officials that the model could potentially be replicated in other settings such as the East of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, Haiti and the northern states of South Sudan. If the hub concept is capable of being adapted and successful elsewhere, the United Nations will not only have added a new instrument to its peacekeeping toolkit but will also firmly demonstrate how the UN Peacebuilding Fund can in essence be catalytic in fostering long-term and comprehensive approaches to peacebuilding. This practice note outlines the process of developing and constructing the first hub in Liberia, which is due to be partly operational by the end of 2012, and provides a prognosis on its chances for success.

  14. Reducing Time to Science: Unidata and JupyterHub Technology Using the Jetstream Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastang, J.; Signell, R. P.; Fischer, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud computing can accelerate scientific workflows, discovery, and collaborations by reducing research and data friction. We describe the deployment of Unidata and JupyterHub technologies on the NSF-funded XSEDE Jetstream cloud. With the aid of virtual machines and Docker technology, we deploy a Unidata JupyterHub server co-located with a Local Data Manager (LDM), THREDDS data server (TDS), and RAMADDA geoscience content management system. We provide Jupyter Notebooks and the pre-built Python environments needed to run them. The notebooks can be used for instruction and as templates for scientific experimentation and discovery. We also supply a large quantity of NCEP forecast model results to allow data-proximate analysis and visualization. In addition, users can transfer data using Globus command line tools, and perform their own data-proximate analysis and visualization with Notebook technology. These data can be shared with others via a dedicated TDS server for scientific distribution and collaboration. There are many benefits of this approach. Not only is the cloud computing environment fast, reliable and scalable, but scientists can analyze, visualize, and share data using only their web browser. No local specialized desktop software or a fast internet connection is required. This environment will enable scientists to spend less time managing their software and more time doing science.

  15. Determining Domestic Container Shipping as an Enforcement of Indonesian International Hub Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, H. I.; Lazuardi, S. D.; Hadi, F.; Hapis, M.

    2018-03-01

    According to Presidential Regulation Number 26 year of 2012 about the National Logistics System Development Blueprint, the Indonesian government proposed to build two international hub ports, which were in Port of Kuala Tanjung for the western region and Port of Bitung for eastern region. Therefore, the optimum routes and fleet size are required to support the enforcement of Indonesian International Hub Port. The optimization model is used to obtain the optimum route and fleet by minimizing the total shipping costs, while considering the container demand. The result of analysis obtained that the optimum route and fleet size for the western region of Indonesia were: (1) Kuala Tanjung-Belawan required 15 ships of 1,000 TEU; (2) Kuala Tanjung-Tanjung Priok required 73 ships of 2,500 TEU; (3) Kuala Tanjung- Tanjung Perak required 44 ships of 2,500 TEU. Meanwhile, the optimum route and fleet size for the eastern region of Indonesia consisted of: (1) Bitung-Sorong required 1 ship of 500 TEU; (2) Bitung-Banjarmasin required 3 ships of 500 TEU; and (3) Bitung-Makassar required 1 ship of 1,500 TEU.

  16. Helminth-infected patients with malaria: a low profile transmission hub?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacher Mathieu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eclipsed by the debates about malaria incidence and severity in individual patients, malaria transmission in helminth-infected persons has so far received very little attention. Studies in humans have shown increased malaria incidence and prevalence, and a trend for a reduction of symptoms in patients with malaria. This suggests that such patients could possibly be less likely to seek treatment thus carrying malaria parasites and their gametocytes for longer durations, therefore, being a greater potential source of transmission. In addition, in humans, a study showed increased gametocyte carriage, and in an animal model of helminth-malaria co-infection, there was increased malaria transmission. These elements converge towards the hypothesis that patients co-infected with worms and malaria may represent a hub of malaria transmission. The test of this hypothesis requires verifying, in different epidemiological settings, that helminth-infected patients have more gametocytes, that they have less symptomatic malaria and longer-lasting infections, and that they are more attractive for the vectors. The negative outcome in one setting of one of the above aspects does not necessarily mean that the other two aspects may suffice to increase transmission. If it is verified that patients co-infected by worms and malaria could be a transmission hub, this would be an interesting piece of strategic information in the context of the spread of anti-malarial resistance and the malaria eradication attempts.

  17. Helminth-infected patients with malaria: a low profile transmission hub?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Mathieu

    2012-11-15

    Eclipsed by the debates about malaria incidence and severity in individual patients, malaria transmission in helminth-infected persons has so far received very little attention. Studies in humans have shown increased malaria incidence and prevalence, and a trend for a reduction of symptoms in patients with malaria. This suggests that such patients could possibly be less likely to seek treatment thus carrying malaria parasites and their gametocytes for longer durations, therefore, being a greater potential source of transmission. In addition, in humans, a study showed increased gametocyte carriage, and in an animal model of helminth-malaria co-infection, there was increased malaria transmission. These elements converge towards the hypothesis that patients co-infected with worms and malaria may represent a hub of malaria transmission. The test of this hypothesis requires verifying, in different epidemiological settings, that helminth-infected patients have more gametocytes, that they have less symptomatic malaria and longer-lasting infections, and that they are more attractive for the vectors. The negative outcome in one setting of one of the above aspects does not necessarily mean that the other two aspects may suffice to increase transmission. If it is verified that patients co-infected by worms and malaria could be a transmission hub, this would be an interesting piece of strategic information in the context of the spread of anti-malarial resistance and the malaria eradication attempts.

  18. Communication and logging hub for rapid prototyping of environmental sensors: presenting the Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.

    2017-12-01

    When desiging prototype sensors for environmental variables a critical step is a comparison campaign where the new sensor is compared to current state of the art sensors. In this step one of the headaches for researchers can be connecting their sensor to a logging or communication device. I present a simple solution: to use smartphone that scans for Bluetooth Low Energy transmissions and uploads any measurement to a data server. In this way the prototype sensor only has to transmit its measurement values over BLE, which can be done using off-the-shelf components. The sensors don't have to be physically connected to the phone, allowing for very rapid deployment of sensors in locations that have a communication hub (ie. phone) installed. The communication and logging hub consists of nothing more than a low cost Android smartphone running a dedicated app. The phone is encased in a waterproof box with a large powerbank and a solar panel. I will demonstrate this live at the Fall Meeting. By installing these phones along permanent WMO certified station locations, comparisons campaigns can use the "golden standard" from the WMO without much problems.

  19. EXPANSION OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION, GRADUATE UNEMPLOYMENT AND THE KNOWLEDGE HUB IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamini Samaranayake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the nexus between the existing university education system and graduate unemployment, and to explore the responses of successive governments to address this issue. It also examines the viability and potential of the knowledge hub as a solution to graduate unemployment. Towards this end, it argues that the solution to graduate employment lies in implementing structural changes that are concurrent to changes that are taking place at the international level in higher education. It illustrates, with the use of relevant sources, the pressing issue of graduate un- and underemployment, and identifies the mismatch between skills and requirements as a major factor contributing to intensify the crisis. It observes that strategies such as training unemployed graduates to enable them to acquire the competencies needed for the modern work place, developing systems to link them to the world of work, re-structuring the university system such that it is more concerned with quality and relevance rather than the width of knowledge imparted, and introducing job-oriented programmes could partially address this issue. It also identifies the proposal to establish a knowledge hub in Sri Lanka as constituting a long term and sustainable strategy not only to mitigate the effects of graduate un- and underemployment, but also to facilitate a lucrative source of revenue for the country.

  20. Finding p-Hub Median Locations: An Empirical Study on Problems and Solution Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hub location problems have been studied by many researchers for almost 30 years, and, accordingly, various solution methods have been proposed. In this paper, we implement and evaluate several widely used methods for solving five standard hub location problems. To assess the scalability and solution qualities of these methods, three well-known datasets are used as case studies: Turkish Postal System, Australia Post, and Civil Aeronautics Board. Classical problems in small networks can be solved efficiently using CPLEX because of their low complexity. Genetic algorithms perform well for solving three types of single allocation problems, since the problem formulations can be neatly encoded with chromosomes of reasonable size. Lagrangian relaxation is the only technique that solves reliable multiple allocation problems in large networks. We believe that our work helps other researchers to get an overview on the best solution techniques for the problems investigated in our study and also stipulates further interest on cross-comparing solution techniques for more expressive problem formulations.

  1. Of Hubs and Hinterlands: Cyprus as an Insular Space of Overlapping Diasporas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell King

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the metaphor of diasporic hubs and hinterlands to document and analyse the various diasporic formations that overlap and encounter each other on the divided island of Cyprus. After a review of the various ways that islands interface with migration processes and some essential historical and statistical background on Cyprus and its population, the paper considers a number of migrations/diasporas that are based on or affect the island. They include the emigration from the diasporic hub of Cyprus during the 1950s-1970s; return migration, both of the original emigrants and their descendants; the British military/colonial settlement of Cyprus; retirees and ‘lifestyle migrants’; and various categories of recent immigrants, for whom Cyprus is a diasporic hinterland. We draw both similarities and differences between migratory dynamics in the northern, Turkish Cypriot part of the island and the southern, Greek Cypriot part. In the final part of the paper we describe recent fieldwork on various spaces of inter-diasporic encounter in Cyprus.

  2. Multiperiod Hierarchical Location Problem of Transit Hub in Urban Agglomeration Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid urbanization in developing countries, urban agglomeration area (UAA forms. Also, transportation demand in UAA grows rapidly and presents hierarchical feature. Therefore, it is imperative to develop models for transit hubs to guide the development of UAA and better meet the time-varying and hierarchical transportation demand. In this paper, the multiperiod hierarchical location problem of transit hub in urban agglomeration area (THUAA is studied. A hierarchical service network of THUAA with a multiflow, nested, and noncoherent structure is described. Then a multiperiod hierarchical mathematical programming model is proposed, aiming at minimizing the total demand weighted travel time. Moreover, an improved adaptive clonal selection algorithm is presented to solve the model. Both the model and algorithm are verified by the application to a real-life problem of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China. The results of different scenarios in the case show that urban population migration has a great impact on the THUAA location scheme. Sustained and appropriate urban population migration helps to reduce travel time for urban residents.

  3. Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.

  4. A global boundary-layer height climatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)

  5. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Frode [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: frode.kolstad@medisin.ntnu.no; Myhr, Gunnar [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Kvistad, Kjell Arne [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Nygaard, Oystein P. [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Leivseth, Gunnar [Department of Neuromedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-09-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration.

  6. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Frode; Myhr, Gunnar; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Nygaard, Oystein P.; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration

  7. Características do óleo essencial de capim-citronela em função de espaçamento, altura e época de corte Essential oil characteristics from citronella grass depending on planting space, cutting height and harvesting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia A Marco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A importância do capim-citronela (Cymbopogon winterianum Jowitt. tem crescido nos últimos anos no mercado de produtos naturais, devido à grande procura pelo seu óleo essencial. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência do espaçamento (50 x 50; 50 x 80 e 80 x 80 cm, altura (15 e 30 cm do solo e época de corte (quatro, seis e oito meses após o plantio na produção e qualidade do óleo essencial de capim-citronela. Desenvolveu-se um ensaio na Fazenda Experimental Vale do Curu (FEVC, pertencente ao Centro de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Federal do Ceará, em Pentecoste - CE, no período de setembro de 2002 a setembro de 2003. Os tratamentos foram arranjados como fatorial 3 x 3 x 2, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Plantas colhidas quatro meses após o plantio apresentaram significativamente maior produção de óleo essencial se cortadas a 30 cm de altura. Já plantas colhidas seis meses após o plantio apresentaram maior produção de óleo essencial se cortadas a 15 cm de altura. Para plantas colhidas oito meses após o plantio, a altura de corte não interferiu na produção de óleo essencial. Para espaçamentos mais largos (80 x 80 cm, a produção de óleo essencial foi significativamente mais alta para plantas cortadas a 15 cm, acontecendo o inverso no espaçamento menor (50 x 50 cm. Quando foram avaliados os constituintes citronelol + citronelal observou-se que seus teores foram significativamente mais elevados em plantas cultivadas no espaçamento intermediário, colhidas após os seis meses e a 30 cm de altura. Já o teor de geraniol foi superior em plantas colhidas quatro meses após o plantio, porém não houve influência do espaçamento e altura de corte sobre o seu teor.Citronella grass (Cymbopogon winterianum Jowitt. has grown in importance due to an increasing demand of the essential oil. The influence of spacing (50 x 50; 50 x 80 e 80 x 80 cm, cutting height (15 and 30 cm above

  8. Optimization of digital image processing to determine quantum dots' height and density from atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J E; Paciornik, S; Pinto, L D; Ptak, F; Pires, M P; Souza, P L

    2018-01-01

    An optimized method of digital image processing to interpret quantum dots' height measurements obtained by atomic force microscopy is presented. The method was developed by combining well-known digital image processing techniques and particle recognition algorithms. The properties of quantum dot structures strongly depend on dots' height, among other features. Determination of their height is sensitive to small variations in their digital image processing parameters, which can generate misleading results. Comparing the results obtained with two image processing techniques - a conventional method and the new method proposed herein - with the data obtained by determining the height of quantum dots one by one within a fixed area, showed that the optimized method leads to more accurate results. Moreover, the log-normal distribution, which is often used to represent natural processes, shows a better fit to the quantum dots' height histogram obtained with the proposed method. Finally, the quantum dots' height obtained were used to calculate the predicted photoluminescence peak energies which were compared with the experimental data. Again, a better match was observed when using the proposed method to evaluate the quantum dots' height. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal integrated sizing and planning of hubs with midsize/large CHP units considering reliability of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Saeed; Ghaffarpour, Reza; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Mozaffari, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New hub planning formulation is proposed to exploit assets of midsize/large CHPs. • Linearization approaches are proposed for two-variable nonlinear CHP fuel function. • Efficient operation of addressed CHPs & hub devices at contingencies are considered. • Reliability-embedded integrated planning & sizing is formulated as one single MILP. • Noticeable results for costs & reliability-embedded planning due to mid/large CHPs. - Abstract: Use of multi-carrier energy systems and the energy hub concept has recently been a widespread trend worldwide. However, most of the related researches specialize in CHP systems with constant electricity/heat ratios and linear operating characteristics. In this paper, integrated energy hub planning and sizing is developed for the energy systems with mid-scale and large-scale CHP units, by taking their wide operating range into consideration. The proposed formulation is aimed at taking the best use of the beneficial degrees of freedom associated with these units for decreasing total costs and increasing reliability. High-accuracy piecewise linearization techniques with approximation errors of about 1% are introduced for the nonlinear two-dimensional CHP input-output function, making it possible to successfully integrate the CHP sizing. Efficient operation of CHP and the hub at contingencies is extracted via a new formulation, which is developed to be incorporated to the planning and sizing problem. Optimal operation, planning, sizing and contingency operation of hub components are integrated and formulated as a single comprehensive MILP problem. Results on a case study with midsize CHPs reveal a 33% reduction in total costs, and it is demonstrated that the proposed formulation ceases the need for additional components/capacities for increasing reliability of supply.

  10. A framework for creating an ICT knowledge hub in Zimbabwe: A holistic approach in fostering economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mahlangu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ICT knowledge hubs are important resources for a country to grow towards an innovative economy. Their growth has been viewed as a node point for techno-prenuership development and economic sustainability by many countries. The purpose of this study was to establish how Zimbabwe as a developing country should move towards the creation of an ICT knowledge hub that will promote economic growth in line with the Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZimAsset economic blueprint crafted in 2013. A qualitative research design was used whereby literature was conducted to establish models for ICT Knowledge hub creation while two focus group discussions were held with academia, research agents and software developers to achieve face validity and in-depth interviews were held with officials from The Ministry of ICT Postal and Courier services. The consensus was reached on the need for creating a focal point which will act as a cyber-port where ICT driven solutions can be obtained based on the industry needs. The focus group discussions settled for four components in creating an ICT knowledge hub. These are planning function, development function, management function and co-ordinating function. The research also established that the Ministry of ICT and Courier services in Zimbabwe has set up an innovation fund to encourage and reward innovation and craftsmanship in Zimbabwe mainly targeted at the youths. The government acquired the high-performance computing facility which is stationed at the University of Zimbabwe. The ICT hub should be used to facilitate access and use of this resource. Every country should therefore strive to create its own centre of innovation which enables it to gain maximum utility from its indigenous people in order to fully utilise ICTs for industry development and spearhead economic growth. The study recommends that there is need for establishing an ICT Knowledge hub in the country.

  11. Analysis of Food Hub Commerce and Participation Using Agent-Based Modeling: Integrating Financial and Social Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Caroline C; Stone, Richard T; Dorneich, Michael C; Gilbert, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Factors influencing long-term viability of an intermediated regional food supply network (food hub) were modeled using agent-based modeling techniques informed by interview data gathered from food hub participants. Previous analyses of food hub dynamics focused primarily on financial drivers rather than social factors and have not used mathematical models. Based on qualitative and quantitative data gathered from 22 customers and 11 vendors at a midwestern food hub, an agent-based model (ABM) was created with distinct consumer personas characterizing the range of consumer priorities. A comparison study determined if the ABM behaved differently than a model based on traditional economic assumptions. Further simulation studies assessed the effect of changes in parameters, such as producer reliability and the consumer profiles, on long-term food hub sustainability. The persona-based ABM model produced different and more resilient results than the more traditional way of modeling consumers. Reduced producer reliability significantly reduced trade; in some instances, a modest reduction in reliability threatened the sustainability of the system. Finally, a modest increase in price-driven consumers at the outset of the simulation quickly resulted in those consumers becoming a majority of the overall customer base. Results suggest that social factors, such as desire to support the community, can be more important than financial factors. An ABM of food hub dynamics, based on human factors data gathered from the field, can be a useful tool for policy decisions. Similar approaches can be used for modeling customer dynamics with other sustainable organizations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. Virtual Replication of IoT Hubs in the Cloud: A Flexible Approach to Smart Object Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cirani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In future years, the Internet of Things is expected to interconnect billions of highly heterogeneous devices, denoted as “smart objects”, enabling the development of innovative distributed applications. Smart objects are constrained sensor/actuator-equipped devices, in terms of computational power and available memory. In order to cope with the diverse physical connectivity technologies of smart objects, the Internet Protocol is foreseen as the common “language” for full interoperability and as a unifying factor for integration with the Internet. Large-scale platforms for interconnected devices are required to effectively manage resources provided by smart objects. In this work, we present a novel architecture for the management of large numbers of resources in a scalable, seamless, and secure way. The proposed architecture is based on a network element, denoted as IoT Hub, placed at the border of the constrained network, which implements the following functions: service discovery; border router; HTTP/Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP and CoAP/CoAP proxy; cache; and resource directory. In order to protect smart objects (which cannot, because of their constrained nature, serve a large number of concurrent requests and the IoT Hub (which serves as a gateway to the constrained network, we introduce the concept of virtual IoT Hub replica: a Cloud-based “entity” replicating all the functions of a physical IoT Hub, which external clients will query to access resources. IoT Hub replicas are constantly synchronized with the physical IoT Hub through a low-overhead protocol based on Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT. An experimental evaluation, proving the feasibility and advantages of the proposed architecture, is presented.

  13. Electrical hubs: An effective way to integrate non-dispatchable renewable energy sources with minimum impact to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, A.T.D.; Nik, Vahid M.; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method introduced to optimize Electrical Hubs. • Novel dispatch based on fuzzy control and finite state machines. • Evaluating sensitivity of three performance indices for system autonomy. • Multi objective optimization considering system autonomy-cost. • Electrical Hubs can cover above 60% of the demand using wind and Solar PV. - Abstract: A paradigm change in energy system design tools, energy market, and energy policy is required to attain the target levels in renewable energy integration and in minimizing pollutant emissions in power generation. Integrating non-dispatchable renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy is vital in this context. Distributed generation has been identified as a promising method to integrate Solar PV (SPV) and wind energy into grid in recent literature. Distributed generation using grid-tied electrical hubs, which consist of Internal Combustion Generator (ICG), non-dispatchable energy sources (i.e., wind turbines and SPV panels) and energy storage for providing the electricity demand in Sri Lanka is considered in this study. A novel dispatch strategy is introduced to address the limitations in the existing methods in optimizing grid-integrated electrical hubs considering real time pricing of the electricity grid and curtailments in grid integration. Multi-objective optimization is conducted for the system design considering grid integration level and Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) as objective functions to evaluate the potential of electrical hubs to integrate SPV and wind energy. The sensitivity of grid curtailments, energy market, price of wind turbines and SPV panels on Pareto front is evaluated subsequently. Results from the Pareto analysis demonstrate the potential of electrical hubs to cover more than 60% of the annual electricity demand from SPV and wind energy considering stringent grid curtailments. Such a share from SPV and wind energy is quite significant when compared to direct grid

  14. Quantification of the lift height for magnetic force microscopy using 3D surface parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadovic, M.; Strbac, S.; Rakocevic, Z.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the quantitative conditions for the lift height for imaging of the magnetic field using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were optimized. A thin cobalt film deposited on a monocrystalline silicon (1 0 0) substrate with a thickness of 55 nm and a thin nickel film deposited on a glass with a thickness of 600 nm were used as samples. The topography of the surface was acquired by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), while MFM imaging was performed in the lift mode for various lift heights. It was determined that the sensitivity of the measurements was about 10% higher for images obtained at a scan angle of 90 o compared to a scan angle of 0 deg. Therefore, the three-dimensional surface texture parameters, i.e., average roughness, skewness, kurtosis and the bearing ratio, were determined in dependence on the lift height for a scan angle of 90 deg. The results of the analyses of the surface parameters showed that the influence of the substrate and its texture on the magnetic force image could be neglected for lift heights above 40 nm and that the upper lift height limit is 100 nm. It was determined that the optimal values of the lift heights were in the range from 60 to 80 nm, depending on the nature of the sample and on the type of the tip used.

  15. Regulatory network analysis of Epstein-Barr virus identifies functional modules and hub genes involved in infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorebrahim, Mansour; Salarian, Ali; Najafi, Saeideh; Abazari, Mohammad Foad; Aleagha, Maryam Nouri; Dadras, Mohammad Nasr; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Ataei, Atousa; Poortahmasebi, Vahdat

    2017-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and establishes lifetime infection associated with a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to develop an integrative gene regulatory network (GRN) approach and overlying gene expression data to identify the representative subnetworks for IM and EBV latent infection (LI). After identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in both IM and LI gene expression profiles, functional annotations were applied using gene ontology (GO) and BiNGO tools, and construction of GRNs, topological analysis and identification of modules were carried out using several plugins of Cytoscape. In parallel, a human-EBV GRN was generated using the Hu-Vir database for further analyses. Our analysis revealed that the majority of DEGs in both IM and LI were involved in cell-cycle and DNA repair processes. However, these genes showed a significant negative correlation in the IM and LI states. Furthermore, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) - a hub gene with the highest centrality score - appeared to be the key player in cell cycle regulation in IM disease. The most significant functional modules in the IM and LI states were involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis, respectively. Human-EBV network analysis revealed several direct targets of EBV proteins during IM disease. Our study provides an important first report on the response to IM/LI EBV infection in humans. An important aspect of our data was the upregulation of genes associated with cell cycle progression and proliferation.

  16. The role of the Hes1 crosstalk hub in Notch-Wnt interactions of the intestinal crypt

    KAUST Repository

    Kay, Sophie K.; Harrington, Heather A.; Shepherd, Sarah; Brennan, Keith; Dale, Trevor; Osborne, James M.; Gavaghan, David J.; Byrne, Helen M.

    2017-01-01

    The Notch pathway plays a vital role in determining whether cells in the intestinal epithelium adopt a secretory or an absorptive phenotype. Cell fate specification is coordinated via Notch’s interaction with the canonical Wnt pathway. Here, we propose a new mathematical model of the Notch and Wnt pathways, in which the Hes1 promoter acts as a hub for pathway crosstalk. Computational simulations of the model can assist in understanding how healthy intestinal tissue is maintained, and predict the likely consequences of biochemical knockouts upon cell fate selection processes. Chemical reaction network theory (CRNT) is a powerful, generalised framework which assesses the capacity of our model for monostability or multistability, by analysing properties of the underlying network structure without recourse to specific parameter values or functional forms for reaction rates. CRNT highlights the role of β-catenin in stabilising the Notch pathway and damping oscillations, demonstrating that Wnt-mediated actions on the Hes1 promoter can induce dynamic transitions in the Notch system, from multistability to monostability. Time-dependent model simulations of cell pairs reveal the stabilising influence of Wnt upon the Notch pathway, in which β-catenin- and Dsh-mediated action on the Hes1 promoter are key in shaping the subcellular dynamics. Where Notch-mediated transcription of Hes1 dominates, there is Notch oscillation and maintenance of fate flexibility; Wnt-mediated transcription of Hes1 favours bistability akin to cell fate selection. Cells could therefore regulate the proportion of Wnt- and Notch-mediated control of the Hes1 promoter to coordinate the timing of cell fate selection as they migrate through the intestinal epithelium and are subject to reduced Wnt stimuli. Furthermore, mutant cells characterised by hyperstimulation of the Wnt pathway may, through coupling with Notch, invert cell fate in neighbouring healthy cells, enabling an aberrant cell to maintain

  17. The role of the Hes1 crosstalk hub in Notch-Wnt interactions of the intestinal crypt

    KAUST Repository

    Kay, Sophie K.

    2017-03-01

    The Notch pathway plays a vital role in determining whether cells in the intestinal epithelium adopt a secretory or an absorptive phenotype. Cell fate specification is coordinated via Notch’s interaction with the canonical Wnt pathway. Here, we propose a new mathematical model of the Notch and Wnt pathways, in which the Hes1 promoter acts as a hub for pathway crosstalk. Computational simulations of the model can assist in understanding how healthy intestinal tissue is maintained, and predict the likely consequences of biochemical knockouts upon cell fate selection processes. Chemical reaction network theory (CRNT) is a powerful, generalised framework which assesses the capacity of our model for monostability or multistability, by analysing properties of the underlying network structure without recourse to specific parameter values or functional forms for reaction rates. CRNT highlights the role of β-catenin in stabilising the Notch pathway and damping oscillations, demonstrating that Wnt-mediated actions on the Hes1 promoter can induce dynamic transitions in the Notch system, from multistability to monostability. Time-dependent model simulations of cell pairs reveal the stabilising influence of Wnt upon the Notch pathway, in which β-catenin- and Dsh-mediated action on the Hes1 promoter are key in shaping the subcellular dynamics. Where Notch-mediated transcription of Hes1 dominates, there is Notch oscillation and maintenance of fate flexibility; Wnt-mediated transcription of Hes1 favours bistability akin to cell fate selection. Cells could therefore regulate the proportion of Wnt- and Notch-mediated control of the Hes1 promoter to coordinate the timing of cell fate selection as they migrate through the intestinal epithelium and are subject to reduced Wnt stimuli. Furthermore, mutant cells characterised by hyperstimulation of the Wnt pathway may, through coupling with Notch, invert cell fate in neighbouring healthy cells, enabling an aberrant cell to maintain

  18. The role of the Hes1 crosstalk hub in Notch-Wnt interactions of the intestinal crypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie K Kay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway plays a vital role in determining whether cells in the intestinal epithelium adopt a secretory or an absorptive phenotype. Cell fate specification is coordinated via Notch's interaction with the canonical Wnt pathway. Here, we propose a new mathematical model of the Notch and Wnt pathways, in which the Hes1 promoter acts as a hub for pathway crosstalk. Computational simulations of the model can assist in understanding how healthy intestinal tissue is maintained, and predict the likely consequences of biochemical knockouts upon cell fate selection processes. Chemical reaction network theory (CRNT is a powerful, generalised framework which assesses the capacity of our model for monostability or multistability, by analysing properties of the underlying network structure without recourse to specific parameter values or functional forms for reaction rates. CRNT highlights the role of β-catenin in stabilising the Notch pathway and damping oscillations, demonstrating that Wnt-mediated actions on the Hes1 promoter can induce dynamic transitions in the Notch system, from multistability to monostability. Time-dependent model simulations of cell pairs reveal the stabilising influence of Wnt upon the Notch pathway, in which β-catenin- and Dsh-mediated action on the Hes1 promoter are key in shaping the subcellular dynamics. Where Notch-mediated transcription of Hes1 dominates, there is Notch oscillation and maintenance of fate flexibility; Wnt-mediated transcription of Hes1 favours bistability akin to cell fate selection. Cells could therefore regulate the proportion of Wnt- and Notch-mediated control of the Hes1 promoter to coordinate the timing of cell fate selection as they migrate through the intestinal epithelium and are subject to reduced Wnt stimuli. Furthermore, mutant cells characterised by hyperstimulation of the Wnt pathway may, through coupling with Notch, invert cell fate in neighbouring healthy cells, enabling an aberrant

  19. Pulse-height defect in single-crystal CVD diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliuskina, O.; Imai, N. [The University of Tokyo, Center for Nuclear Study, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Strekalovsky, A.O.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Aleksandrova, I.A.; Ilich, S.; Kamanin, D.V.; Knyazheva, G.N.; Kuznetsova, E.A.; Mishinsky, G.V.; Pyatkov, Yu.V.; Strekalovsky, O.V.; Zhuchko, V.E. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Devaraja, H.M. [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Heinz, C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Heinz, S. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofmann, S.; Kis, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maurer, J.; Traeger, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Pomorski, M. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensor Laboratory, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-02-15

    The pulse-height versus deposited energy response of a single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (scCVD) diamond detector was measured for ions of Ti, Cu, Nb, Ag, Xe, Au, and of fission fragments of {sup 252} Cf at different energies. For the fission fragments, data were also measured at different electric field strengths of the detector. Heavy ions have a significant pulse-height defect in CVD diamond material, which increases with increasing energy of the ions. It also depends on the electrical field strength applied at the detector. The measured pulse-height defects were explained in the framework of recombination models. Calibration methods known from silicon detectors were modified and applied. A comparison with data for the pulse-height defect in silicon detectors was performed. (orig.)

  20. The parametrization of Coulomb barrier heights and positions using the double folding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, W.W.; Zhang, G.L.; Le, X.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Coulomb barrier heights and positions are systematically shown with mass numbers and charge radii of the interacting nuclei. The nuclear potential is calculated by using the double folding model with the density-dependence nucleon-nucleon interaction (CDM3Y6). The pocket formulas are obtained for the Coulomb barrier heights and positions by analyzing several hundreds of heavy-ion systems with mass numbers from light nuclei to heavy nuclei. The parameterized formulas can reproduce the calculated barrier heights and positions by using the double folding model within the accuracy of ±1%. Moreover, the results are agreeable with the experimental data. The relation between the barrier height and the barrier position is also studied.

  1. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  2. WHAT IS CONTROLLING THE FRAGMENTATION IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225–0.506?: DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FRAGMENTATION IN TWIN HUBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, Gemma; Girart, Josep Miquel [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Palau, Aina [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pillai, Thushara [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Anglada, Guillem, E-mail: busquet@ice.cat [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission toward hub-N and hub-S of the infrared dark cloud G14.225–0.506 carried out with the Submillimeter Array, together with observations of the dust emission at 870 and 350 μm obtained with APEX and CSO telescopes. The large-scale dust emission of both hubs consists of a single peaked clump elongated in the direction of the associated filament. At small scales, the SMA images reveal that both hubs fragment into several dust condensations. The fragmentation level was assessed under the same conditions and we found that hub-N presents 4 fragments while hub-S is more fragmented, with 13 fragments identified. We studied the density structure by means of a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profile at 870 and 350 μm and the spectral energy distribution adopting a Plummer-like function to describe the density structure. The parameters inferred from the model are remarkably similar in both hubs, suggesting that density structure could not be responsible for determining the fragmentation level. We estimated several physical parameters, such as the level of turbulence and the magnetic field strength, and we found no significant differences between these hubs. The Jeans analysis indicates that the observed fragmentation is more consistent with thermal Jeans fragmentation compared with a scenario in which turbulent support is included. The lower fragmentation level observed in hub-N could be explained in terms of stronger UV radiation effects from a nearby H ii region, evolutionary effects, and/or stronger magnetic fields at small scales, a scenario that should be further investigated.

  3. WHAT IS CONTROLLING THE FRAGMENTATION IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225–0.506?: DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FRAGMENTATION IN TWIN HUBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, Gemma; Girart, Josep Miquel; Estalella, Robert; Palau, Aina; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Pillai, Thushara; Anglada, Guillem

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission toward hub-N and hub-S of the infrared dark cloud G14.225–0.506 carried out with the Submillimeter Array, together with observations of the dust emission at 870 and 350 μm obtained with APEX and CSO telescopes. The large-scale dust emission of both hubs consists of a single peaked clump elongated in the direction of the associated filament. At small scales, the SMA images reveal that both hubs fragment into several dust condensations. The fragmentation level was assessed under the same conditions and we found that hub-N presents 4 fragments while hub-S is more fragmented, with 13 fragments identified. We studied the density structure by means of a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profile at 870 and 350 μm and the spectral energy distribution adopting a Plummer-like function to describe the density structure. The parameters inferred from the model are remarkably similar in both hubs, suggesting that density structure could not be responsible for determining the fragmentation level. We estimated several physical parameters, such as the level of turbulence and the magnetic field strength, and we found no significant differences between these hubs. The Jeans analysis indicates that the observed fragmentation is more consistent with thermal Jeans fragmentation compared with a scenario in which turbulent support is included. The lower fragmentation level observed in hub-N could be explained in terms of stronger UV radiation effects from a nearby H ii region, evolutionary effects, and/or stronger magnetic fields at small scales, a scenario that should be further investigated

  4. Strength Determinants of Jump Height in the Jump Throw Movement in Women Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, David; Østerås, Sindre; Ettema, Gertjan; Paulsen, Gøran; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2018-06-08

    McGhie, D, Østerås, S, Ettema, G, Paulsen, G, and Sandbakk, Ø. Strength determinants of jump height in the jump throw movement in women handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the study was to improve the understanding of the strength demands of a handball-specific jump through examining the associations between jump height in a jump throw jump (JTJ) and measures of lower-body maximum strength and impulse in handball players. For comparison, whether the associations between jump height and strength differed between the JTJ and the customarily used countermovement jump (CMJ) was also examined. Twenty women handball players from a Norwegian top division club participated in the study. Jump height was measured in the JTJ and in unilateral and bilateral CMJ. Lower-body strength (maximum isometric force, one-repetition maximum [1RM], impulse at ∼60% and ∼35% 1RM) was measured in seated leg press. The associations between jump height and strength were assessed with correlation analyses and t-tests of dependent r's were performed to determine if correlations differed between jump tests. Only impulse at ∼35% 1RM correlated significantly with JTJ height (p jump height and strength were significantly weaker in the JTJ than in both CMJ tests for all strength measures (p = 0.001-0.044) except one. Maximum strength and impulse at ∼60% 1RM did not seem to sufficiently capture the capabilities associated with JTJ height, highlighting the importance of employing tests targeting performance-relevant neuromuscular characteristics when assessing jump-related strength in handball players. Further, CMJ height seemed to represent a wider range of strength capabilities and care should be taken when using it as a proxy for handball-specific movements.

  5. Why primary care practices should become digital health information hubs for their patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Aaron; Nowak, Samantha

    2014-11-25

    Two interesting health care trends are currently occurring: 1) patient-facing technologies, such as personal health records, patient portals, and mobile health apps, are being adopted at rapid rates, and 2) primary care, which includes family practice, is being promoted as essential to reducing health care costs and improving health care outcomes. While these trends are notable and commendable, both remain subject to significant fragmentation and incentive misalignments, which has resulted in significant data coordination and value generation challenges. In particular, patient-facing technologies designed to increase care coordination, often fall prey to the very digital fragmentation issues they are supposed to overcome. Additionally, primary care providers are treating patients that may have considerable health information histories, but generating a single view of such multi-source data is nearly impossible. We contribute to this debate by proposing that primary care practices become digital health information hubs for their patients. Such hubs would offer health data coordination in a medically professional setting with the benefits of expert, trustworthy advice coupled with active patient engagement. We acknowledge challenges including: costs, information quality and provenance, willingness-to-share information and records, willingness-to-use (by both providers and patients), primary care scope creep, and determinations of technical and process effectiveness. Even with such potential challenges, we strongly believe that more debate is needed on this topic prior to full implementation of various health information technology incentives and reform programs currently being designed and enacted throughout the world. Ultimately, if we do not provide a meaningful way for the full spectrum of health information to be used by both providers and patients, especially early in the health care continuum, effectively improving health outcomes may remain elusive. We view

  6. Beta cell 5'-shifted isomiRs are candidate regulatory hubs in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Baran-Gale

    Full Text Available Next-generation deep sequencing of small RNAs has unveiled the complexity of the microRNA (miRNA transcriptome, which is in large part due to the diversity of miRNA sequence variants ("isomiRs". Changes to a miRNA's seed sequence (nucleotides 2-8, including shifted start positions, can redirect targeting to a dramatically different set of RNAs and alter biological function. We performed deep sequencing of small RNA from mouse insulinoma (MIN6 cells (widely used as a surrogate for the study of pancreatic beta cells and developed a bioinformatic analysis pipeline to profile isomiR diversity. Additionally, we applied the pipeline to recently published small RNA-seq data from primary human beta cells and whole islets and compared the miRNA profiles with that of MIN6. We found that: (1 the miRNA expression profile in MIN6 cells is highly correlated with those of primary human beta cells and whole islets; (2 miRNA loci can generate multiple highly expressed isomiRs with different 5'-start positions (5'-isomiRs; (3 isomiRs with shifted start positions (5'-shifted isomiRs are highly expressed, and can be as abundant as their unshifted counterparts (5'-reference miRNAs. Finally, we identified 10 beta cell miRNA families as candidate regulatory hubs in a type 2 diabetes (T2D gene network. The most significant candidate hub was miR-29, which we demonstrated regulates the mRNA levels of several genes critical to beta cell function and implicated in T2D. Three of the candidate miRNA hubs were novel 5'-shifted isomiRs: miR-375+1, miR-375-1 and miR-183-5p+1. We showed by in silico target prediction and in vitro transfection studies that both miR-375+1 and miR-375-1 are likely to target an overlapping, but distinct suite of beta cell genes compared to canonical miR-375. In summary, this study characterizes the isomiR profile in beta cells for the first time, and also highlights the potential functional relevance of 5'-shifted isomiRs to T2D.

  7. Phase height measurements on the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Phase height measurements have been taken on 2.5 MHz E-region reflection over two paths during the day. The two paths have equivalent vertical frequencies of 2.4 MHz and 1.8 MHz. Vertical pulse measurements on 2.4 MHz have also been recorded. Results and discussion on comparisons between these measurements are presented. Phase and amplitude measurements using 4.5 MHz O and E rays have also been taken at night, F-region reflection. In particular, spectral analysis of these results is discussed. (author)

  8. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  9. Patella height changes post high tibial osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ghim Gooi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well-described treatment in early medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. However, two undesirable sequelae may follow –patella baja and changes in the posterior tibial slope (TS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who underwent HTO in our center between September 2009 and February 2017. Preoperative and 6-week postoperative long-leg weight bearing films and lateral knee radiographs were assessed. Pre- and postoperative radiological measurements include the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD, and the posterior TS. Independant t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: A total of 106 knees were recruited. The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. 66 (62.3% and 40 (37.7% knees were from males and females, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative measurements was (−9.70° ± 3.67° to 0.08° ± 2.80° (−varus; +valgus for the MAD, (7.14° ± 1.78° to 8.72° ± 3.11° for posterior TS, and (0.93° ± 0.084° to 0.82° ± 0.13° for CDI (P ≤ 0.001 for all. The association between patella height change and the level of osteotomy (supra-tubercle vs. infra-tubercle was statistically significant (P < 0.001. A supra-tubercle osteotomy cut significantly lowering patella height (P = 0.011. There was otherwise no statistically significant correlations between patella height changes and the correction angle (P = 0.187 or posterior TS change (P = 0.744. Conclusions: A medial opening wedge HTO above the tibial tubercle was significantly associated with lowering patella height or reducing CDI postoperatively. Based on our results, we would recommend the use of an infra-tubercle osteotomy during the corrective surgery to prevent the complication of patella baja.

  10. Size matters: Perceived depth magnitude varies with stimulus height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Both the upper and lower disparity limits for stereopsis vary with the size of the targets. Recently, Tsirlin, Wilcox, and Allison (2012) suggested that perceived depth magnitude from stereopsis might also depend on the vertical extent of a stimulus. To test this hypothesis we compared apparent depth in small discs to depth in long bars with equivalent width and disparity. We used three estimation techniques: a virtual ruler, a touch-sensor (for haptic estimates) and a disparity probe. We found that depth estimates were significantly larger for the bar stimuli than for the disc stimuli for all methods of estimation and different configurations. In a second experiment, we measured perceived depth as a function of the height of the bar and the radius of the disc. Perceived depth increased with increasing bar height and disc radius suggesting that disparity is integrated along the vertical edges. We discuss size-disparity correlation and inter-neural excitatory connections as potential mechanisms that could account for these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Futile Search for Values and Pedagogy? A Discursive Analysis of the Marketing Messages of Branch-Campuses in Higher Education Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karram, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Higher education has become a key strategy for the economic development of certain city-states that are positioning themselves as higher education hubs, recruiting both students and foreign providers. This article presents the findings of a research study that examined the online messages of foreign branch-campuses in education hubs (Dubai, Hong…

  12. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 2: Project planning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Project planning data for a rotor and control system procurement and testing program for modifications to the XV-15 tilt-rotor research demonstrator aircraft is presented. The design, fabrication, and installation of advanced composite blades compatible with the existing hub, an advanced composite hub, and a nonmechanical control system are required.

  13. Development of a pulse height analizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a Pulse Height Analizer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consist of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable to memorize pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consist of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. As application, this device was used to adquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this Department. The apparatus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse Height Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results. (Author) [pt

  14. Advancing nanoelectronic device modeling through peta-scale computing and deployment on nanoHUB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, Benjamin P; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard; Lee, Sunhee; Ryu, Hoon; Bae, Hansang; Saied, Faisal; Clark, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Recent improvements to existing HPC codes NEMO 3-D and OMEN, combined with access to peta-scale computing resources, have enabled realistic device engineering simulations that were previously infeasible. NEMO 3-D can now simulate 1 billion atom systems, and, using 3D spatial decomposition, scale to 32768 cores. Simulation time for the band structure of an experimental P doped Si quantum computing device fell from 40 minutes to 1 minute. OMEN can perform fully quantum mechanical transport calculations for real-word UTB FETs on 147,456 cores in roughly 5 minutes. Both of these tools power simulation engines on the nanoHUB, giving the community access to previously unavailable research capabilities.

  15. MNCS' PERCEPTION ON THE FEASIBILITY OF SOUTH KOREA AS A BUSINESS HUB OF NORTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Il Lee

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the financial crisis of 1997, the South Korean government has moved towards a new market-driven paradigm of economic growth based on foreign direct investment (FDI replacing the decades old state-driven economic growth model. One of the attempts made by the government is its ambition to transform the nation into a business and economic hub of Northeast Asia. However, despite the growing concern on the topic among government agencies, media, research centers and academia, the absence of a cohesive and realistic approach to the issue is a relative void in the literature. This paper, which is based on findings from interviews with foreign companies operating in Korea during 2002, offers a cultural and institutional insight into the critical and often invisible issues to be considered for a successful realization of the vision.

  16. The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongs, K.; Boyer, V.; Cruise, M. A.; Freise, A.; Holynski, M.; Hughes, J.; Kaushik, A.; Lien, Y.-H.; Niggebaum, A.; Perea-Ortiz, M.; Petrov, P.; Plant, S.; Singh, Y.; Stabrawa, A.; Paul, D. J.; Sorel, M.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Marsh, J. H.; Bowtell, R. W.; Bason, M. G.; Beardsley, R. P.; Campion, R. P.; Brookes, M. J.; Fernholz, T.; Fromhold, T. M.; Hackermuller, L.; Krüger, P.; Li, X.; Maclean, J. O.; Mellor, C. J.; Novikov, S. V.; Orucevic, F.; Rushforth, A. W.; Welch, N.; Benson, T. M.; Wildman, R. D.; Freegarde, T.; Himsworth, M.; Ruostekoski, J.; Smith, P.; Tropper, A.; Griffin, P. F.; Arnold, A. S.; Riis, E.; Hastie, J. E.; Paboeuf, D.; Parrotta, D. C.; Garraway, B. M.; Pasquazi, A.; Peccianti, M.; Hensinger, W.; Potter, E.; Nizamani, A. H.; Bostock, H.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Sinuco-Leon, G.; Hill, I. R.; Williams, R. A.; Gill, P.; Hempler, N.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Cross, T.; Kock, B. O.; Maddox, S.; John, P.

    2016-04-01

    The UK National Quantum Technology Hub in Sensors and Metrology is one of four flagship initiatives in the UK National of Quantum Technology Program. As part of a 20-year vision it translates laboratory demonstrations to deployable practical devices, with game-changing miniaturized components and prototypes that transform the state-of-the-art for quantum sensors and metrology. It brings together experts from the Universities of Birmingham, Glasgow, Nottingham, Southampton, Strathclyde and Sussex, NPL and currently links to over 15 leading international academic institutions and over 70 companies to build the supply chains and routes to market needed to bring 10-1000x improvements in sensing applications. It seeks, and is open to, additional partners for new application development and creates a point of easy open access to the facilities and supply chains that it stimulates or nurtures.

  17. Development of a MicroTCA Carrier Hub for CMS at HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriyev, M; Hazen, E; Wu, S X; Rohlf, J

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a Micro TCA Carrier Hub card which provides timing, control and data acquisition functions in a Micro TCA crate for HL-LHC readout electronics. This module may be mounted in the primary or redundant MCH slot in a Micro TCA crate, and distributes low-jitter LHC RF clock and encoded fast timing signals to up to 12 AMC modules. In addition, it receives buffer status signals and DAQ data at up to 600 MBytes/sec from each AMC. The prototype module is built on a commercial MCH base board with a custom mezzanine board stack. The latest Xilinx(R) Virtex(R)-6 FPGA are used to provide a clear upgrade path. Prototype modules have been developed for a CMS HCAL test beam in summer 2010. We describe the specifications of the module, its application in a Micro TCA system beyond CMS HCAL, and our experience in commissioning the module for the test beam.

  18. Development of a MicroTCA Carrier Hub for CMS at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitriyev, M; Wu, S X; Rohlf, J; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12042

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a Micro TCA Carrier Hub card which provides timing, control and data acquisition functions in a Micro TCA crate for HL-LHC readout electronics. This module may be mounted in the primary or redundant MCH slot in a Micro TCA crate, and distributes low-jitter LHC RF clock and encoded fast timing signals to up to 12 AMC modules. In addition, it receives buffer status signals and DAQ data at up to 600 MBytes/sec from each AMC. The prototype module is built on a commercial MCH base board with a custom mezzanine board stack. The latest Xilinx® Virtex®-6 FPGA are used to provide a clear upgrade path. Prototype modules have been developed for a CMS HCAL test beam in summer 2010. We describe the specifications of the module, its application in a Micro TCA system beyond CMS HCAL, and our experience in commissioning the module for the test beam

  19. Participation of an Energy Hub in Electricity and Heat Distribution Markets: An MPEC Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Wu, Qiuwei; Wei, Wei

    2018-01-01

    and thorough mathematical tool for studying the integrated energy system from a deregulated market perspective. A mathematic program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC) model is proposed to study the strategic behaviors of a profit-driven energy hub in the electricity market and heating market under...... the background of energy system integration. In the upper level, the EH submits bids of prices and quantities to a distribution power market and a heating market; in the lower level, the two markets are cleared and energy contracts between the EH and two energy markets are determined. Network constraints...... of physical systems are explicitly represented by an optimal power flow problem and an optimal thermal flow problem. The proposed MPEC formulation is approximated by a mixed-integer linear program via performing integer disjunctions on the complementarity and slackness conditions and binary expansion...

  20. Environment as a home to architecture. The Cremona City Hub project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Faroldi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban regeneration pro- ject of the former Marketplace area promoted by the Local Administration in Cremona through a two-step international contest which ended in May 2012, relies on the willingness to guarantee new and high standards of welcoming and liveability within a logic of “smart city” to be meant as an healthy, dynamic and economically sustainable city. The promotion of energy policies, the close connection between the urban and the architectural project, a new dimension of welcoming and residentiality, the environmental quality, and the fruition of culture, represent questions to which new project development capabilities intend to ensure adequate answers. The experimental research of the Cremona City Hub project targets these very values.

  1. The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandu, Evaristus M.; Rhoades, Dawna L.

    2006-01-01

    Air transportation plays an important role in the social and economic development of the global system and the countries that seek to participate in it. As Africa seeks to take its place in the global economy, it is increasingly looking to aviation as the primary means of connecting its people and goods with the world. It has been suggested that Africa as a continent needs to move toward a system of hubs to optimize its scarce resources. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya, is one of the airports in the eastern region of Africa that is seeking to fill this role. This paper discusses the prospects for success and the challenges that it will need to overcome, including projections through 2020 for the growth in passenger and cargo traffic.

  2. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor, Lucas Heights, NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-12

    all radioactive waste from Lucas Heights for disposal or storage at a National Repository must be a high priority and is dependent on the timely provision of the Repository and Store. The Committee also recommends that provision of the reactor, at an estimated cost of $286.4 million (at 1997 prices) should not be at the expense of other Government science funding. It is also stressed out that there is an urgent need for an agreement on the Community Right to Know Charter. Steps toward its development identified in the Environment Assessment Report should be undertaken as soon as possible to enable the public to be better informed about the further development of the project.

  3. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor, Lucas Heights, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    all radioactive waste from Lucas Heights for disposal or storage at a National Repository must be a high priority and is dependent on the timely provision of the Repository and Store. The Committee also recommends that provision of the reactor, at an estimated cost of $286.4 million (at 1997 prices) should not be at the expense of other Government science funding. It is also stressed out that there is an urgent need for an agreement on the Community Right to Know Charter. Steps toward its development identified in the Environment Assessment Report should be undertaken as soon as possible to enable the public to be better informed about the further development of the project

  4. Trade-off between multiple constraints enables simultaneous formation of modules and hubs in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Chen

    Full Text Available The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter α, and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of α, resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of α values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real

  5. Southern Africa Regional Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siseho Mutondo, Moola

    2015-08-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi® technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realising the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilisation of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. This resource also forms the foundation for closer collaboration between SAROAD member countries. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia. A further two projects involve the collaboration of Zambia and other regional member countries in order to foster engagement with important regional astronomy facilities (e.g. SKA). SAROAD has identified the IAU’s International Year of Light and a starting point for offering regional support for IAU-endorsed global activities. SAROAD has set up a hub dedicated to regional events and activities about the International Year of Light. SAROAD has a database of regional authorities to enable contact with the region's decision makers and experts. SAROAD will hold an annual event which brings forum for astronomy for development. The creation of the database and the SAROAD Road show is a first step towards this goal. The SAROAD website has helped to advertise upcoming events for astronomy development and education; it is used to provide advice, guidance and information for astronomers in all countries in the Southern Africa. Fundraising is the primary goal for SAROAD in 2015 towards financial self-sufficiency by 2020. We report on the methods that work best

  6. Hubs of Anticorrelation in High-Resolution Resting-State Functional Connectivity Network Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Cabanban, Romeo; Crosson, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    A major focus of brain research recently has been to map the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) network architecture of the normal brain and pathology through functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the phenomenon of anticorrelations in resting-state signals between different brain regions has not been adequately examined. The preponderance of studies on resting-state fMRI (rsFMRI) have either ignored anticorrelations in rsFC networks or adopted methods in data analysis, which have rendered anticorrelations in rsFC networks uninterpretable. The few studies that have examined anticorrelations in rsFC networks using conventional methods have found anticorrelations to be weak in strength and not very reproducible across subjects. Anticorrelations in rsFC network architecture could reflect mechanisms that subserve a number of important brain processes. In this preliminary study, we examined the properties of anticorrelated rsFC networks by systematically focusing on negative cross-correlation coefficients (CCs) among rsFMRI voxel time series across the brain with graph theory-based network analysis. A number of methods were implemented to enhance the neuronal specificity of resting-state functional connections that yield negative CCs, although at the cost of decreased sensitivity. Hubs of anticorrelation were seen in a number of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Examination of the anticorrelation maps of these hubs indicated that negative CCs in rsFC network architecture highlight a number of regulatory interactions between brain networks and regions, including reciprocal modulations, suppression, inhibition, and neurofeedback.

  7. On the interconnection of stable protein complexes: inter-complex hubs and their conservation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Concettina

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes are key molecular entities that perform a variety of essential cellular functions. The connectivity of proteins within a complex has been widely investigated with both experimental and computational techniques. We developed a computational approach to identify and characterise proteins that play a role in interconnecting complexes. We computed a measure of inter-complex centrality, the crossroad index, based on disjoint paths connecting proteins in distinct complexes and identified inter-complex hubs as proteins with a high value of the crossroad index. We applied the approach to a set of stable complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Homo sapiens. Just as done for hubs, we evaluated the topological and biological properties of inter-complex hubs addressing the following questions. Do inter-complex hubs tend to be evolutionary conserved? What is the relation between crossroad index and essentiality? We found a good correlation between inter-complex hubs and both evolutionary conservation and essentiality.

  8. Spatial inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier height at graphene/MoS2 Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, D.; Rajput, S.; Li, L.

    2017-04-01

    Transport properties of graphene semiconductor Schottky junctions strongly depend on interfacial inhomogeneities due to the inherent formation of ripples and ridges. Here, chemical vapor deposited graphene is transferred onto multilayer MoS2 to fabricate Schottky junctions. These junctions exhibit rectifying current-voltage behavior with the zero bias Schottky barrier height increases and ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature between 210 and 300 K. Such behavior is attributed to the inhomogeneous interface that arises from graphene ripples and ridges, as revealed by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy imaging. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier height, a mean value of 0.96  ±  0.14 eV is obtained. These findings indicate a direct correlation between temperature dependent Schottky barrier height and spatial inhomogeneity in graphene/2D semiconductor Schottky junctions.

  9. Spatial inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier height at graphene/MoS2 Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomer, D; Rajput, S; Li, L

    2017-01-01

    Transport properties of graphene semiconductor Schottky junctions strongly depend on interfacial inhomogeneities due to the inherent formation of ripples and ridges. Here, chemical vapor deposited graphene is transferred onto multilayer MoS 2 to fabricate Schottky junctions. These junctions exhibit rectifying current–voltage behavior with the zero bias Schottky barrier height increases and ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature between 210 and 300 K. Such behavior is attributed to the inhomogeneous interface that arises from graphene ripples and ridges, as revealed by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy imaging. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier height, a mean value of 0.96  ±  0.14 eV is obtained. These findings indicate a direct correlation between temperature dependent Schottky barrier height and spatial inhomogeneity in graphene/2D semiconductor Schottky junctions. (paper)

  10. TravisTorrent : Synthesizing Travis CI and GitHub for Full-Stack Research on Continuous Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beller, M.M.; Gousios, Giorgos; Zaidman, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Integration (CI) has become a best practice of modern software development. Thanks in part to its tight integration with GitHub, Travis CI has emerged as arguably the most widely used CI platform for Open-Source Software (OSS) development. However, despite its prominent role in Software

  11. Modelling energy demand for a fleet of hydrogen-electric vehicles interacting with a clean energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, F.; Fowler, M.; Wan, D.; Maniyali, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the development of an energy demand model for a hydrogen-electric vehicle fleet and the modelling of the fleet interactions with a clean energy hub. The approach taken is to model the architecture and daily operation of every individual vehicle in the fleet. A generic architecture was developed based on understanding gained from existing detailed models used in vehicle powertrain design, with daily operation divided into two periods: charging and travelling. During the charging period, the vehicle charges its Electricity Storage System (ESS) and refills its Hydrogen Storage System (HSS), and during the travelling period, the vehicle depletes the ESS and HSS based on distance travelled. Daily travel distance is generated by a stochastic model and is considered an input to the fleet model. The modelling of a clean energy hub is also presented. The clean energy hub functions as an interface between electricity supply and the energy demand (i.e. hydrogen and electricity) of the vehicle fleet. Finally, a sample case is presented to demonstrate the use of the fleet model and its implications on clean energy hub sizing. (author)

  12. A Genome-Wide Association Study and Complex Network Identify Four Core Hub Genes in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengyan Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a common and severe mental illness with unsolved pathophysiology. A genome-wide association study (GWAS has been used to find a number of risk genes, but it is difficult for a GWAS to find genes indirectly associated with a disease. To find core hub genes, we introduce a network analysis after the GWAS was conducted. Six thousand four hundred fifty eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with p < 0.01 were sifted out from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC dataset and mapped to 2045 genes, which are then compared with the protein–protein network. One hundred twelve genes with a degree >17 were chosen as hub genes from which five significant modules and four core hub genes (FBXL13, WDFY2, bFGF, and MTHFD1L were found. These core hub genes have not been reported to be directly associated with BD but may function by interacting with genes directly related to BD. Our method engenders new thoughts on finding genes indirectly associated with, but important for, complex diseases.

  13. Air network performance and hub competitive position: evaluation of primary airports in East and South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.; Veldhuis, J.; Matsumoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of hub-and-spoke operations has changed the structure of competition among airlines and airports, meaning that airlines now compete both directly (air services from A to B) as well as indirectly (services from A to B via H). Traditional measures of airport performance, such as passenger

  14. Dynamic Migration Intentions and the Impact of Socio-Institutional Environments: A Transit Migration Hub in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, M.J.; Düvell, F.; van Eerdewijk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transit migration is generally defined by migrants having the intention to move onwards to a third country. Based on an empirical investigation in Izmir, a transit migration hub in Turkey, this paper critically discusses intentionality as a valid dimension in conceptualisations of transit migration.

  15. 75 FR 76003 - Tricor Ten Section Hub LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP09-432-000] Tricor Ten Section Hub LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Ten Section Gas... Commission) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Ten Section Gas Storage Project, in Kern...

  16. Public Transportation Hub Location with Stochastic Demand: An Improved Approach Based on Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban public transportation hubs are the key nodes of the public transportation system. The location of such hubs is a combinatorial problem. Many factors can affect the decision-making of location, including both quantitative and qualitative factors; however, most current research focuses solely on either the quantitative or the qualitative factors. Little has been done to combine these two approaches. To fulfill this gap in the research, this paper proposes a novel approach to the public transportation hub location problem, which takes both quantitative and qualitative factors into account. In this paper, an improved multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM method based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution and deviation is proposed to convert the qualitative factors of each hub into quantitative evaluation values. A location model with stochastic passenger flows is then established based on the above evaluation values. Finally, stochastic programming theory is applied to solve the model and to determine the location result. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  17. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Symphytum sylvaticum Boiss. subsp. sepulcrale. (Boiss.& Bal.) Greuter & Burdetvar. sepulcrale and Symphytum aintabicum Hub.- Mor. & Wickens

    OpenAIRE

    KURUCU, Semra; KARTAL, Murat

    2002-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Echimidine-N-oxide) was isolated from Symphytum sylvaticum Boiss. subsp. sepulcrale (Boiss. & Bal.) Greuter & Burdet var. sepulcrale and pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Echimidine) was isolated from Symphytum aintabicum Hub. - Mor. & Wickens. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on IR, EIMS, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis and also on 2D NMR (COSY, HMBC, HMQC) experiments.

  18. Improving Healthcare in Pediatric Oncology: Development and Testing of Multiple Indicators to Evaluate a Hub-And-Spoke Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Angelastro, Angela; Gianino, Paola; Bona, Gianni; Barbara, Affif; Besenzon, Luigi; Brach Del Prever, Adalberto; Pesce, Fernando; Nangeroni, Marco; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-06-01

    Purpose The hub-and-spoke is a new innovation model in healthcare that has been adopted in some countries to manage rare pathologies. We developed a set of indicators to assess current quality practices of the hub-and-spoke model adopted in the Interregional Pediatric Oncology Network in Northwest Italy and to promote patient, family, and professional healthcare empowerment. Methods Literature and evidence-based clinical guidelines were reviewed and multiprofessional team workshops were carried out to highlight some important issues on healthcare in pediatric oncology and to translate them into a set of multiple indicators. For each indicator, specific questions were formulated and tested through a series of questionnaires completed by 80 healthcare professionals and 50 pediatric patients and their parents. Results The results highlighted a positive perception of healthcare delivered by the hub-and-spoke model (M HP = 156, M Pat = 93, M Par = 104). Based on the participants' suggestions, some quality improvements have been implemented. Conclusions This study represents the first attempt to examine this new model of pediatric oncology care through the active involvement of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Suggestions for adopting a hub-and-spoke model in pediatric oncology in other regions and countries are also highlighted.

  19. Joint Optimization of Star P-hub Median Problem and Seat Inventory Control Decisions Considering a Hybrid Routing Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tikani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of integrated capacitated hub location problem and seat inventory control considering concept and techniques of revenue management. We consider an airline company maximizes its revenue by utilizing the best network topology and providing proper booking limits for all itineraries and fare classes. The transportation system arises in the form of a star/star network and includes both hub-stop and non-stop flights. This problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic integer program with mixed-integer recourse. We solve various instances carried out from the Turkish network data set. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, we propose a hybrid optimization method, consisting of an evolutionary algorithm based on genetic algorithm and exact solution. The quality of the solutions found by the proposed meta-heuristic is compared with the original version of GA and the mathematical programming model. The results obtained by the proposed model imply that integrating hub location and seat inventory control problem would help to increase the total revenue of airline companies. Also, in the case of serving non-stop flights, the model can provide more profit by employing less number of hubs.

  20. The physics and chemistry of the Schottky barrier height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Raymond T.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) is a complex problem because of the dependence of the SBH on the atomic structure of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface. Existing models of the SBH are too simple to realistically treat the chemistry exhibited at MS interfaces. This article points out, through examination of available experimental and theoretical results, that a comprehensive, quantum-mechanics-based picture of SBH formation can already be constructed, although no simple equations can emerge, which are applicable for all MS interfaces. Important concepts and principles in physics and chemistry that govern the formation of the SBH are described in detail, from which the experimental and theoretical results for individual MS interfaces can be understood. Strategies used and results obtained from recent investigations to systematically modify the SBH are also examined from the perspective of the physical and chemical principles of the MS interface

  1. Spine surgeon's kinematics during discectomy, part II: operating table height and visualization methods, including microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2014-05-01

    Surgeon spine angle during surgery was studied ergonomically and the kinematics of the surgeon's spine was related with musculoskeletal fatigue and pain. Spine angles varied depending on operation table height and visualization method, and in a previous paper we showed that the use of a loupe and a table height at the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum are optimal for reducing musculoskeletal loading. However, no studies have previously included a microscope as a possible visualization method. The objective of this study is to assess differences in surgeon spine angles depending on operating table height and visualization method, including microscope. We enrolled 18 experienced spine surgeons for this study, who each performed a discectomy using a spine surgery simulator. Three different methods were used to visualize the surgical field (naked eye, loupe, microscope) and three different operating table heights (anterior superior iliac spine, umbilicus, the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum) were studied. Whole spine angles were compared for three different views during the discectomy simulation: midline, ipsilateral, and contralateral. A 16-camera optoelectronic motion analysis system was used, and 16 markers were placed from the head to the pelvis. Lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis, and occipital angle were compared between the different operating table heights and visualization methods as well as a natural standing position. Whole spine angles differed significantly depending on visualization method. All parameters were closer to natural standing values when discectomy was performed with a microscope, and there were no differences between the naked eye and the loupe. Whole spine angles were also found to differ from the natural standing position depending on operating table height, and became closer to natural standing position values as the operating table height increased, independent of the visualization method

  2. Precise plant height monitoring and biomass estimation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning in paddy rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing crop management is a major topic in the field of precision agriculture as the growing world population puts pressure on the efficiency of field production. Accordingly, methods to measure plant parameters with the needed precision and within-field resolution are required. Studies show that Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a suitable method to capture small objects like crop plants. In this contribution, the results of multi-temporal surveys on paddy rice fields with the TLS system Riegl LMS-Z420i are presented. Three campaigns were carried out during the key vegetative stage of rice plants in the growing period 2012 to monitor the plant height. The TLS-derived point clouds are interpolated to visualize plant height above ground as crop surface models (CSMs with a high resolution of 0.01 m. Spatio-temporal differences within the data of one campaign and between consecutive campaigns can be detected. The results were validated against manually measured plant heights with a high correlation (R2 = 0.71. Furthermore, the dependence of actual biomass from plant height was evaluated. To the present, no method for the non-destructive determination of biomass is found yet. Thus, plant parameters, like the height, have to be used for biomass estimations. The good correlation (R2 = 0.66 leads to the assumption that biomass can be estimated from plant height measurements. The results show that TLS can be considered as a very promising tool for precision agriculture.

  3. Big and tall: Does a height premium dwarf an obesity penalty in the labor market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that both height and weight are associated with wages. However, some gaps in our understanding of the relationship between body size and wages remain. For example, given a height premium and an obesity penalty, due to forces working in opposite directions, the current literature is unable to provide clear answers to questions such as whether a tall obese woman or a short healthy weight woman would earn a higher wage premium. Using Australian data and iso-contour wage curves derived from a semi-parametric wage regression model, this paper illustrates the complex nature of the relationship between height, weight and wages and how the nature of these differences depends on gender and age. As adult height is fixed, a key focus of the paper is illustrating for various height ranges whether there are any wage benefits in the labor market to increasing or decreasing one's weight. For individuals aged 25-54 as a whole, I find that there are strong effects of weight reduction at lower ends of the height distribution for females (between 1.50-1.70m) but not for males (men (>1.85m), a wage premium is found for being overweight. For relatively taller women (>1.72m), no penalty for being overweight is discernible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the Flame Height Definition for Upward Flame Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Consalvi, Jean L; Pizzo, Yannick; Porterie, Bernard; Torero, Jose L

    2007-01-01

    Flame height is defined by the experimentalists as the average position of the luminous flame and, consequently is not directly linked with a quantitative value of a physical parameter. To determine flame heights from both numerical and theoretical results, a more quantifiable criterion is needed to define flame heights and must be in agreement with the experiments to allow comparisons. For wall flames, steady wall flame experiments revealed that flame height may be define...

  5. CER Hub: An informatics platform for conducting comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional, heterogeneous, electronic clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Brian L; Kurtz, Stephen E; Masica, Andrew; Stevens, Victor J; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Puro, Jon E; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Au, David H; Brannon, Elissa D; Sittig, Dean F

    2015-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) requires the capture and analysis of data from disparate sources, often from a variety of institutions with diverse electronic health record (EHR) implementations. In this paper we describe the CER Hub, a web-based informatics platform for developing and conducting research studies that combine comprehensive electronic clinical data from multiple health care organizations. The CER Hub platform implements a data processing pipeline that employs informatics standards for data representation and web-based tools for developing study-specific data processing applications, providing standardized access to the patient-centric electronic health record (EHR) across organizations. The CER Hub is being used to conduct two CER studies utilizing data from six geographically distributed and demographically diverse health systems. These foundational studies address the effectiveness of medications for controlling asthma and the effectiveness of smoking cessation services delivered in primary care. The CER Hub includes four key capabilities: the ability to process and analyze both free-text and coded clinical data in the EHR; a data processing environment supported by distributed data and study governance processes; a clinical data-interchange format for facilitating standardized extraction of clinical data from EHRs; and a library of shareable clinical data processing applications. CER requires coordinated and scalable methods for extracting, aggregating, and analyzing complex, multi-institutional clinical data. By offering a range of informatics tools integrated into a framework for conducting studies using EHR data, the CER Hub provides a solution to the challenges of multi-institutional research using electronic medical record data. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Evaluating a European knowledge hub on climate change in agriculture: Are we building a better connected community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetnan, Eli Rudinow; Kipling, Richard Philip

    In order to maintain food security and sustainability of production under climate change, interdisciplinary and international collaboration in research is essential. In the EU, knowledge hubs are important funding instruments for the development of an interconnected European Research Area. Here, network analysis was used to assess whether the pilot knowledge hub MACSUR has affected interdisciplinary collaboration, using co-authorship of peer reviewed articles as a measure of collaboration. The broad community of all authors identified as active in the field of agriculture and climate change was increasingly well connected over the period studied. Between knowledge hub members, changes in network parameters suggest an increase in collaborative interaction beyond that expected due to network growth, and greater than that found in the broader community. Given that interdisciplinary networks often take several years to have an impact on research outputs, these changes within the relatively new MACSUR community provide evidence that the knowledge hub structure has been effective in stimulating collaboration. However, analysis showed that knowledge hub partners were initially well-connected, suggesting that the initiative may have gathered together researchers with particular resources or inclinations towards collaborative working. Long term, consistent funding and ongoing reflection to improve networking structures may be necessary to sustain the early positive signs from MACSUR, to extend its success to a wider community of researchers, or to repeat it in less connected fields of science. Tackling complex challenges such as climate change will require research structures that can effectively support and utilise the diversity of talents beyond the already well-connected core of scientists at major research institutes. But network research shows that this core, well-connected group are vital brokers in achieving wider integration.

  7. Dominant height-based height-diameter equations for trees in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A., Jr. Kershaw; Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert; James B. McCarter

    2008-01-01

    Height-diameter equations are developed based on dominant tree data collected in 1986 in 8- to 17-year-old clearcuts and the phase 2 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots on the Hoosier National Forest in south central Indiana. Two equation forms are explored: the basic, three-parameter Chapman-Richards function, and a modification of the three-parameter equation...

  8. Distributions of freak wave heights measured in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansell, P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of some of the largest waves occurring during 793 h of surface elevation measurements collected during 14 severe storms in the North Sea. This data contains 104 freak waves. It is found that the probability of occurrence of freak waves is only weekly dependent on the significant wave height, significant wave steepness and spectral bandwidth. The probability does show a slightly stronger dependency on the skew and kurtosis of the surface elevation data, but on removing the contribution to these measures from the presence of the freakwaves themselves, this dependency largely disappears. Distributions of extreme waves are modelled by fitting Generalised Pareto distributions, and extreme value distributions and return periods are given for freak waves in terms of the empirical fitted parameters. It is shown by comparison with these fits that both the Rayleigh distribution and the fit of Nerzic and Prevosto severely under-predict the probability of occurrence of extreme waves. For the most extreme freak wave in our data, the Rayleigh distribution over-predicts the return period by about 300 times when compared to the fitted model. (author)

  9. Agreement between estimated and measured heights and weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    index (BMI = kg/m2) and require accurate recording of a patient's height and weight.1. In reality, however, patients often cannot stand up straight for accurate height measurement, or are unable to step on a scale. In such cases, height and weight values are often obtained from the patient or their relatives, who either do not ...

  10. Anterior Face Height Values in a Nigerian Population | Folaranmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Anterior Upper Face Height 47.7 (4) mm, Anterior Total Face Height (ATFH) 108.5 (5) mm, ratio of ALFH to ATFH ALFH: ATFH 56 (4)%. Conclusion: This study provides anterior face height measurements, which will be of great significance in evaluating facial proportions andesthetics in orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, ...

  11. Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...

  12. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  13. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  14. Practical application of the geometric geoid for heighting over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because a geoid model is required to convert ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights that are used in practice. A local geometric geoid ... The geoid height is expressed as a function of the local plane coordinates through a biquadratic surface polynomial, using 14 GPS/levelling points. Five points have been used ...

  15. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable power failure condition in paragraph (b) of this section, a limiting height-speed envelope must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be established...

  17. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category A engine isolation requirements, the height-velocity envelope for complete power failure must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a...

  18. Relationship Between Vertical Jump Height and Swimming Start Performance Before and After an Altitude Training Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; de la Fuente, Blanca; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Feriche, Belén

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed (a) to analyze the development in the squat jump height and swimming start performance after an altitude training camp, (b) to correlate the jump height and swimming start performance before and after the altitude training period, and (c) to correlate the percent change in the squat jump height with the percent change in swimming start performance. Fifteen elite male swimmers from the Spanish Junior National Team (17.1 ± 0.8 years) were tested before and after a 17-day training camp at moderate altitude. The height reached in the squat jump exercise with additional loads of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of swimmers' pretest body weight and swimming start performance (time to 5, 10, and 15 m) were the dependent variables analyzed. Significant increases in the jump height (p ≤ 0.05; effect size [ES]: 0.35-0.48) and swimming start performance (p jump height before training (r = -0.56 to -0.77) and after training (r = -0.50 to -0.71). The change in the squat jump height was inversely correlated with the change in the start time at 5 m (r = -0.47), 10 m (r = -0.73), and 15 m (r = -0.62). These results suggest that altitude training can be suitable to enhance explosive performance. The correlations obtained between the squat jump height and start time in the raw and change scores confirm the relevance of having high levels of lower-body muscular power to optimize swimming start performance.

  19. Barrier height inhomogeneity in electrical transport characteristics of InGaN/GaN heterostructure interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roul, Basanta [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore 560013 (India); Mukundan, Shruti; Chandan, Greeshma; Mohan, Lokesh; Krupanidhi, S. B., E-mail: sbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-03-15

    We have grown InGaN/GaN heterostructures using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and studied the temperature dependent electrical transport characteristics. The barrier height (φ{sub b}) and the ideally factor (η) estimated using thermionic emission model were found to be temperature dependent. The conventional Richardson plot of ln(J{sub s}/T{sup 2}) versus 1/kT showed two temperature regions (region-I: 400–500 K and region-II: 200–350 K) and it provides Richardson constants (A{sup ∗}) which are much lower than the theoretical value of GaN. The observed variation in the barrier height and the presence of two temperature regions were attributed to spatial barrier inhomogeneities at the heterojunction interface and was explained by assuming a double Gaussian distribution of barrier heights with mean barrier height values 1.61 and 1.21 eV with standard deviation (σ{sub s}{sup 2}) of 0.044 and 0.022 V, respectively. The modified Richardson plot of ln(J{sub s}/T{sup 2}) − (q{sup 2}σ{sub s}{sup 2}/2k{sup 2}T{sup 2}) versus 1/kT for two temperature regions gave mean barrier height values as 1.61 eV and 1.22 eV with Richardson constants (A{sup ∗}) values 25.5 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2} and 43.9 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2}, respectively, which are very close to the theoretical value. The observed barrier height inhomogeneities were interpreted on the basis of the existence of a double Gaussian distribution of barrier heights at the interface.

  20. On Displacement Height, from Classical to Practical Formulation: Stress, Turbulent Transport and Vorticity Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Displacement height ( d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how previous stress-based formulations for displacement height can be seen as simplified cases of a more general definition including turbulent transport. Further, we also give a simplified and practical form for d that is in agreement with the general approach, exploiting the concept of vortex thickness scale from mixing-layer theory. We assess the new and previous displacement height formulations by using flow statistics derived from the atmospheric boundary-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model SCADIS as well as from wind-tunnel observations, for different vegetation types and flow regimes in neutral conditions. The new formulations tend to produce smaller d than stress-based forms, falling closer to the classic logarithmically-defined displacement height. The new, more generally defined, displacement height appears to be more compatible with profiles of components of the turbulent kinetic energy budget, accounting for the combined effects of turbulent transport and shear production. The Coriolis force also plays a role, introducing wind-speed dependence into the behaviour of the roughness sublayer; this affects the turbulent transport, shear production, stress, and wind speed, as well as the displacement height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (`mixing-layer') form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as