WorldWideScience

Sample records for hub fairing system

  1. Fair Topologies: Community Structures and Network Hubs Drive Emergence of Fairness Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Mohsen; Heydari, Babak

    2017-06-02

    Fairness has long been argued to govern human behavior in a wide range of social, economic, and organizational activities. The sense of fairness, although universal, varies across different societies. In this study, using a computational model, we test the hypothesis that the topology of social interaction can causally explain some of the cross-societal variations in fairness norms. We show that two network parameters, namely, community structure, as measured by the modularity index, and network hubiness, represented by the skewness of degree distribution, have the most significant impact on emergence of collective fair behavior. These two parameters can explain much of the variations in fairness norms across societies and can also be linked to hypotheses suggested by earlier empirical studies in social and organizational sciences. We devised a multi-layered model that combines local agent interactions with social learning, thus enables both strategic behavior as well as diffusion of successful strategies. By applying multivariate statistics on the results, we obtain the relation between network structural features and the collective fair behavior.

  2. Fairness in Combinatorial Auctioning Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saini, Megha

    2008-01-01

    One of the Multi-Agent Systems that is widely used by various government agencies, buyers and sellers in a market economy, in such a manner so as to attain optimized resource allocation, is the Combinatorial Auctioning System (CAS). We study another important aspect of resource allocations in CAS, namely fairness. We present two important notions of fairness in CAS, extended fairness and basic fairness. We give an algorithm that works by incorporating a metric to ensure fairness in a CAS that uses the Vickrey-Clark-Groves (VCG) mechanism, and uses an algorithm of Sandholm to achieve optimality. Mathematical formulations are given to represent measures of extended fairness and basic fairness.

  3. Fairness in Multicultural Assessment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobart, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about fairness (equity) in large-scale assessment systems within multicultural societies. It makes the key assumptions that fairness is fundamentally a sociocultural, rather than a technical, issue and that fair assessment cannot be considered in isolation from both the curriculum and the educational opportunities of the students.…

  4. GitHub open source project recommendation system

    OpenAIRE

    Matek, Tadej; Zebec, Svit Timej

    2016-01-01

    Hosting platforms for software projects can form collaborative social networks and a prime example of this is GitHub which is arguably the most popular platform of this kind. An open source project recommendation system could be a major feature for a platform like GitHub, enabling its users to find relevant projects in a fast and simple manner. We perform network analysis on a constructed graph based on GitHub data and present a recommendation system that uses link prediction.

  5. Testing Orions Fairing Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Henry; Cloutier, Chris; Lemmon, Heber; Rakes, Daniel; Oldham, Joe; Schlagel, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Traditional fairing systems are designed to fully encapsulate and protect their payload from the harsh ascent environment including acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic forces and heating. The Orion fairing separation system performs this function and more by also sharing approximately half of the vehicle structural load during ascent. This load-share condition through launch and during jettison allows for a substantial increase in mass to orbit. A series of component-level development tests were completed to evaluate and characterize each component within Orion's unique fairing separation system. Two full-scale separation tests were performed to verify system-level functionality and provide verification data. This paper summarizes the fairing spring, Pyramidal Separation Mechanism and forward seal system component-level development tests, system-level separation tests, and lessons learned.

  6. Microfluidic hubs, systems, and methods for interface fluidic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Michael S; Claudnic, Mark R; Kim, Hanyoup; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; Van De Vreugde, James L

    2015-01-27

    Embodiments of microfluidic hubs and systems are described that may be used to connect fluidic modules. A space between surfaces may be set by fixtures described herein. In some examples a fixture may set substrate-to-substrate spacing based on a distance between registration surfaces on which the respective substrates rest. Fluidic interfaces are described, including examples where fluid conduits (e.g. capillaries) extend into the fixture to the space between surfaces. Droplets of fluid may be introduced to and/or removed from microfluidic hubs described herein, and fluid actuators may be used to move droplets within the space between surfaces. Continuous flow modules may be integrated with the hubs in some examples.

  7. Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalafut, Andrew J. [Indiana University; Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi [Indiana University

    2010-01-01

    While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that some ASes have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted and others account for large fractions of blacklisted IPs. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at the AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime.

  8. Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyid Hasan Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by

  9. Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyid Hasan Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by

  10. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...

  11. Fair drug prices and the patent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    This paper uses John Rawls' theory of justice to defend the patent system against charges that it has an unfair effect on access to medications,from the perspective of national and international justice. The paper argues that the patent system is fair in a national context because it respects intellectual property rights and it benefits the least advantaged members of society by providing incentives for inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs. The paper also argues that the patent system is fair in an international context, provided that developed nations take steps to help disease-stricken countries secure internal justice. Fairness in a national or international context also requires that the patent system should include emergency exceptions to deal with short-term inequities.

  12. Collaborative Policy of the Supply-Hub for Assemble-to-Order Systems with Delivery Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the collaborative mechanisms of the Supply-Hub in the Assemble-to-Order system (ATO system hereafter with upstream delivery uncertainty. We first propose a collaborative replenishment mechanism in the ATO system, and construct a replenishment model with delivery uncertainty in use of the Supply-Hub. After transforming the original model into a one-dimensional optimization problem, we derive the optimal assembly quantity and reorder point of each component. In order to enable the Supply-Hub to conduct collaborative replenishment with each supplier, the punishment and reward mechanisms are proposed. The numerical analysis illustrates that service level of the Supply-Hub is an increasing function of both punishment and reward factors. Therefore, by adjusting the two factors, suppliers’ incentives of collaborative replenishment can be significantly enhanced, and then the service level of whole ATO system can be improved.

  13. Progress of the FAIR Cryogenic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, M.; Kollmus, H.; Martinez-Lopez, M.

    2017-02-01

    The planning revision of the cryogenic system for the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany) resulted in the choice of a single universal plant, which should provide a wide range of cryogenic operation modes, as refrigeration capacity at 4.4K, liquefaction or intermediate temperature levels. The adaptation to the FAIR specific requirements will be done later by adding a second plant. One major demand for the plant is the short term adaptation to variations in the load requirements in the system. An exemplary integration into the overall FAIR system will be shown with the experiments in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) cave. The CBM cave will house an already existing magnet, HADES, and a new magnet for the CBM experiment, which is still under design. The scheduling of the different operation modes related to the operation of the main consumers as SIS100 or SuperFRS is shown.

  14. faire ?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    africaine', elle s'intéressait à une histoire qui devait d'abord leur restituer un ..... définition de faire de l'histoire » des courants historiographiques actuels”. ..... nent — la production africaine du monde au plan géographique et humain n et.

  15. Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The 'Presses Polytechniques Universitaires Romandes' is organising a book exhibition. The major topics covered will be science and technology. The fair will take place in the foyer of the main building (building 60), and will be open from 10am - 4pm on 5th July 2005.

  16. National Geothermal Data System Hub Deployment Timeline (Appendix E-1-d)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudill, Christy [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey)

    2015-12-20

    Excel spreadsheet describing activity, spending, and development for the four data hubs (Arizona Geoloical Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois Geological Survey, and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology) serving data for the National Geothermal Data System under the State Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System Project.

  17. Virtual Campus Hub: A single sign-on system for cross-border collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Vercoulen, F.; Monaco, L.

    2013-01-01

    the applications used there. The objective of Virtual Campus Hub is to use state-of-the-art European e-Infrastructures (Géant) in combination with federated authentication to establish a single sign-on system between universities. A pilot environment, which links applications from the four partner universities...... to European e-Infrastructures relies upon the National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) which are not geared towards commercial enterprises at present. A range of applications for online teaching and collaboration has been developed as part of the Virtual Campus Hub project. These include remote...

  18. An Efficient Fair Electronic Cash System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Tao(郭涛); Li Zhitang; Tan Yunmeng; Wu Shizhong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient fair e-cash system is presented. Based on the improved Brands' e-cash scheme, it is expanded by adding two roles, government and judges. The user can keep unconditionally anonymous in normal transactions. Authorized by the judges, the government can remove the identity of an illegal user with the help of the bank. So such misuse as blackmailing or money laundering can be prevented. Therefore, this scheme is more efficient, more suitable for adopting pre-processing and post-processing and more practical. In the paper, the details of the scheme are described, its security is proved, and its efficiency is analyzed.

  19. Metis Hub: The Development of an Intuitive Project Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Rachael M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-26

    The goal is to develop an intuitive, dynamic, and consistent interface for the Metis Planning System by combining user requirements and human engineering concepts. The system is largely based upon existing systems so some tools already have working models that we can follow. However, the web-based interface is completely new.

  20. A Submarine Electric Propulsion System with Large Hub Propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    BMAT [BD mal - ix used in thermal analysis BR spacing betwean end-ring and rotor laminations (Reference 1, p. 336, Fig. 199), in. BRT flux density in...encapsulation system aepends upon the elimination of voids and air inclusions * •within the envelope. In addition, the bulk modulus and ther- Y, mal ...34-" 1l1 " -•" ita " •’::l ,,,!I - " ,, ,,?,., I :0. I 4L, Q t -4 -- .;ItC t t tojU G) in Icmi ~~~II Io.i 0. 1 . I I A IC, 0, l, go C21 ID, go 0 oJo 9D I

  1. Characteristics of steady vibration in a rotating hub-beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Caishan; Ma, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A rotating beam features a puzzling character in which its frequencies and modal shapes may vary with the hub's inertia and its rotating speed. To highlight the essential nature behind the vibration phenomena, we analyze the steady vibration of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam with a quasi-steady-state stretch. Newton's law is used to derive the equations governing the beam's elastic motion and the hub's rotation. A combination of these equations results in a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) that fully reflects the mutual interaction between the two kinds of motion. Via the Fourier series expansion within a finite interval of time, we reduce the PDE into an infinite system of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) in spatial domain. We further nondimensionalize the ODE and discretize it via a difference method. The frequencies and modal shapes of a general rotating beam are then determined numerically. For a low-speed beam where the ignorance of geometric stiffening is feasible, the beam's vibration characteristics are solved analytically. We validate our numerical method and the analytical solutions by comparing with either the past experiments or the past numerical findings reported in existing literature. Finally, systematic simulations are performed to demonstrate how the beam's eigenfrequencies vary with the hub's inertia and rotating speed.

  2. Interactivity vs. fairness in networked linux systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenji; Crawford, Matt; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    In general, the Linux 2.6 scheduler can ensure fairness and provide excellent interactive performance at the same time. However, our experiments and mathematical analysis have shown that the current Linux interactivity mechanism tends to incorrectly categorize non-interactive network applications as interactive, which can lead to serious fairness or starvation issues. In the extreme, a single process can unjustifiably obtain up to 95% of the CPU! The root cause is due to the facts that: (1) network packets arrive at the receiver independently and discretely, and the 'relatively fast' non-interactive network process might frequently sleep to wait for packet arrival. Though each sleep lasts for a very short period of time, the wait-for-packet sleeps occur so frequently that they lead to interactive status for the process. (2) The current Linux interactivity mechanism provides the possibility that a non-interactive network process could receive a high CPU share, and at the same time be incorrectly categorized as 'interactive.' In this paper, we propose and test a possible solution to address the interactivity vs. fairness problems. Experiment results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  3. Study on rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of hub-plate system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feiyun; XIE Yongcheng; ZHANG Ming; HE Yinbiao

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic modeling of a rotating flexible hubplate system is investigated by using Jourdain's variation principle in which the finite element method (FEM) is used as discretization method for a flexible plate. Different from the previous modeling of a plate with a prescribed large overall motion, the coupling between large overall motion of the system and elastic deformation of the flexible plate is taken into account in the proposed coupling model. The quadratic terms are included in the strain-displacement expression,such that the dynamic stiffening terms are included. Simulation of a rotating hub-plate system indicates that the linear model based on linear strain-displacement assumption may lead to erroneous results in the case of high rotation speed. Conservation of energy verifies the validity of the proposed model. Furthermore, frequency analysis of a hub-plate system shows the difference between the frequencies of the system with free and prescribed large overall motion, and parameter analysis of the system reveals the coupling characteristics of the rotational motion and the deformation.

  4. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  5. Cryptanalysis of One Fair E-cash System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-hua; SHEN Hao

    2006-01-01

    The security of Canard-Traore fair e-cash system scheme was believed to depend on the strong-RSA as sumption and the Decision Diffie-Hellman assumption in groups of unknown order. But it is not the case. The ryptanalysis on Canard-Traore fair e-cash system was presented. An algorithm was designed to show that Canard Traore fair e-cash system is insecure: It is forgeability. Further, two drawbacks on Canard-Traore fair e-cash system scheme were pointed out. One is that those integer intervals for si(i= 1,…, 9) are unappropriate. The other is that the datum s3 in signature data is redundant. Moreover, a minute description of the technique to shun the challenge in the scheme was presented. The technique is helpful for designing new group signature schemes in the future.

  6. Fair Micropayment System Based on Hash Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zongkai; LANG Weimin; TAN Yunmeng

    2005-01-01

    Micropayment schemes usually do not provide fairness, which means that either the customer or the merchant, or both, can cheat each other and gain a financial advantage by misusing the protocols. This paper proposes an efficient hash chain-based micropayment scheme, which is an offline, prepaid scheme that supports simpler divisibility of digital coins. In the execution of payment protocol, the customer's disbursement and the merchant's submittal are performed step by step, whoever cannot gain addition profits even if he breaks off the transaction. The hash chain can also be used for transactions with different merchants. Unlike other micropayment schemes, e.g., PayWord, no public-key operation is required,which improves the efficiency. The scheme also provides restricted anonymity.

  7. International Fairs in the Modern Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. Santucci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available International trade fairs are an important marketing tool for the expanding organic market. Although much output is marketed locally and there is a growing demand for the so-called zero miles products, Italian organic raw materials and processed foods are largely exported. For the first time, a direct survey has been conducted on 100 Italian firms attending BioFach 2000, to analyze aspects like activities performed, goals and expectations, forms of private – public partnerships. By using seven relevant variables, the firms are grouped into five categories. The same firms have been contacted after one month, to assess results, level of satisfaction and willingness to participate in a next edition.

  8. Interference Alignment and Fairness Algorithms for MIMO Cognitive Radio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference alignment (IA is an effective technique to eliminate the interference among wireless nodes. In a multiinput multi-output (MIMO cognitive radio system, multiple secondary users can coexist with the primary user without generating any interference by using the IA technology. However, few works have considered the fairness of secondary users. In this paper, not only is the interference eliminated by IA, but also the fairness of secondary users is considered by two kinds of algorithms. Without losing generality, one primary user and K secondary users are considered in the network. Assuming perfect channel knowledge at the primary user, the interference from secondary users to the primary user is aligned into the unused spatial dimension which is obtained by water-filling among primary user. Also, the interference between secondary users can be eliminated by a modified maximum signal-to-interference-plus-noise algorithm using channel reciprocity. In addition, two kinds of fairness algorithms, max-min fairness and proportional fairness, among secondary users are proposed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in terms of suppressed interference and fairness of secondary nodes. What is more, the performances of the two fairness algorithms are compared.

  9. Judging Fairs Fairly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John W.; Silverman, Fredrick L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems associated with winners and losers at science fairs. Presents two alternatives to the traditional prize system: "The Scouting Concept" and "The County Fair Concept." Stresses the values and learnings that are associated with successful fairs. (CW)

  10. A New Dynamic Model for a Flexible Hub-Beam System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhu-yong; HONG Jia-zhen; CAI Guo-ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new dynamic model for the flexible hub-beam system is proposed by using the principle of continuum medium mechanics and the finite element discretization method. In the proposed model, the coupling deformation of any element of the beam is only related with the nodal coordinates of this element. So this model is suitable to the rotating beam in an arbitrary shape. Numerical examples of slender beams in straight and irregular shapes are carried out to demonstrate the validation of the proposed model. Simulation results indicate that the proposed model can be used valid for dynamic description of flexible rotating beam in irregular shape, and for both low and high rotation speeds.

  11. Allocation Fairness for MIMO Precoded UTRA-LTE TDD System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    In future Time Division Duplex (TDD)-based broadband wireless systems, it will be possible to exploit the channel reciprocity to implement Channel State Information (CSI)-based Multi User Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) techniques, which will ensure highly efficient spectrum usage...... allocation, in MU-MIMO precoding scenarios where the common approach of guaranteeing fairness at MAC layer is not feasible. The results presented in this paper show that the proposed algorithm is able to reduce the system outage event to a large extent, thus increases fairness....

  12. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    "Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new...... challenges and requires new competencies, some of which may conflict with existing best-practices for incremental innovations. ‘Innovation hubs' are a type of organisational structure dedicated to RI projects that have been used by companies to manage these conflicts by maintaining a certain degree...... of separation from the culture and routines of the mainstream organisation. Unfortunately, it would appear that many attempts to set-up innovation hubs have ended in failure within a few years; not before considerable time, effort and resource has been expended. This paper reports on a study of six innovation...

  13. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    "Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new...... challenges and requires new competencies, some of which may conflict with existing best-practices for incremental innovations. ‘Innovation hubs' are a type of organisational structure dedicated to RI projects that have been used by companies to manage these conflicts by maintaining a certain degree...... of separation from the culture and routines of the mainstream organisation. Unfortunately, it would appear that many attempts to set-up innovation hubs have ended in failure within a few years; not before considerable time, effort and resource has been expended. This paper reports on a study of six innovation...

  14. The Spleen: A Hub Connecting Nervous and Immune Systems in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders have been identified as major health problems affecting a large portion of the world population. In addition, obesity and insulin resistance are principal risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Altered immune responses are common features of both hypertension and obesity and, moreover, the involvement of the nervous system in the modulation of immune system is gaining even more attention in both pathophysiological contexts. For these reasons, during the last decades, researches focused their efforts on the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms connecting immune system to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that in these pathological conditions, central neural pathways modulate the activity of the peripheral nervous system, which is strongly involved in onset and progression of the disease. It is interesting to notice that neural reflex can also participate in the modulation of immune functions. In this scenario, the spleen becomes the crucial hub allowing the interaction of different systems differently involved in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we summarize the major findings that dissect the role of the immune system in disorders related to metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions, and how this could also be influenced by neural reflexes.

  15. Labeling algorithm and its fairness analysis for autonomous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guodong; Wang Hui; Wu Jiangxing

    2005-01-01

    A kind of packet labeling algorithm for autonomous system is introduced. The fairness of the algorithm for each traffic stream in the integrated-services is analyzed. It is shown that the rate of each stream in the integrated-services would converge to a stable value if the transmitting or forwarding rates converge to that of the receiving exponentially.

  16. THE INNER-SYSTEM LABELING ALGORITHM AND ITS FAIRNESS ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guodong; Li Yinhai; Wu Jiangxing

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of inner-system labeling signaling used in the integrated access system,a kind of inner-system labeling algorithm is introduced in this paper, and the fairness of the algorithm for each traffic stream in the integrated-services is analyzed. The base of this algorithm is Class of Services (CoS), and each packet entering the relative independent area (an autonomous system) would be labeled according to the service type or Quality of Service (QoS) in demand,and be scheduled and managed within the system (the system can be enlarged if conforming to the same protocol). The experimental results show that each of the stream rate in the integratedservices would converge to a stable value if the rates of transmitting converge to that of the receiving exponentially, that is, the effective traffic of each stream would be fair.

  17. Joint Optimization of Star P-hub Median Problem and Seat Inventory Control Decisions Considering a Hybrid Routing Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tikani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of integrated capacitated hub location problem and seat inventory control considering concept and techniques of revenue management. We consider an airline company maximizes its revenue by utilizing the best network topology and providing proper booking limits for all itineraries and fare classes. The transportation system arises in the form of a star/star network and includes both hub-stop and non-stop flights. This problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic integer program with mixed-integer recourse. We solve various instances carried out from the Turkish network data set. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, we propose a hybrid optimization method, consisting of an evolutionary algorithm based on genetic algorithm and exact solution. The quality of the solutions found by the proposed meta-heuristic is compared with the original version of GA and the mathematical programming model. The results obtained by the proposed model imply that integrating hub location and seat inventory control problem would help to increase the total revenue of airline companies. Also, in the case of serving non-stop flights, the model can provide more profit by employing less number of hubs.

  18. Fair subcarrier-power allocation scheme for multiuser multicarrier systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Abd-Elnaby; Germien G Sedhom; Nagy W Messiha; Xu Zhu; Fathi E Abd El-Samie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MU-OFDM) is to maximize the total system capacity in wireless communication systems. Thus, the problem in MU-OFDM system is the adaptive allocation of the resources (subcarriers, bits and power) to different users subject to several restrictions to maximize the total system capacity. In this work, a proposed subcarrier allocation algorithm was presented to assign the subcarriers with highest channel gain to the users. After the subcarrier allocation, subcarrier gain-based power allocation (SGPA) was employed for power and bit loading. The simulation results show that the proposed subcarrier-power allocation scheme can achieve high total system capacity and good fairness in allocating the resources to the users with slightly high computational complexity compared to the existing subcarrier allocation algorithms.

  19. Interactions in multiagent systems fairness, social optimality and individual rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Jianye

    2016-01-01

    This book mainly aims at solving the problems in both cooperative and competitive multi-agent systems (MASs), exploring aspects such as how agents can effectively learn to achieve the shared optimal solution based on their local information and how they can learn to increase their individual utility by exploiting the weakness of their opponents. The book describes fundamental and advanced techniques of how multi-agent systems can be engineered towards the goal of ensuring fairness, social optimality, and individual rationality; a wide range of further relevant topics are also covered both theoretically and experimentally. The book will be beneficial to researchers in the fields of multi-agent systems, game theory and artificial intelligence in general, as well as practitioners developing practical multi-agent systems.

  20. VLSI implementation of a fairness ATM buffer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.V.; Dittmann, Lars; Madsen, Jens Kargaard

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a VLSI implementation of a resource allocation scheme, based on the concept of weighted fair queueing. The design can be used in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks to ensure fairness and robustness. Weighted fair queueing is a scheduling and buffer management scheme...... that can provide a resource allocation policy and enforcement of this policy. It can be used in networks in order to provide defined allocation policies (fairness) and improve network robustness. The presented design illustrates how the theoretical weighted fair queueing model can be approximated...

  1. Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs as Accountability Systems: Scopic Systems, Audit Practices and Educational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobe, Noah W.; Boven, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Late-19th century World's Fairs constitute an important chapter in the history of educational accountability. International expositions allowed for educational systems and practices to be "audited" by lay and expert audiences. In this article we examine how World's Fair exhibitors sought to make visible educational practices and…

  2. Enforcing fairness in a live-streaming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridasan, Maya; Jansch-Porto, Ingrid; van Renesse, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    We describe a practical auditing approach designed to encourage fairness in peer-to-peer streaming. Auditing is employed to ensure that correct nodes are able to receive streams even in the presence of nodes that do not upload enough data (opportunistic nodes), and scales well when compared to previous solutions that rely on tit-for-tat style of data exchange. Auditing involves two roles: local and global. Untrusted local auditors run on all nodes in the system, and are responsible for collecting and maintaining accountable information regarding data sent and received by each node. Meanwhile, one or more trusted global auditors periodically sample the state of participating nodes, estimate whether the streaming quality is satisfactory, and decide whether any actions are required. We demonstrate through simulation that our approach can successfully detect and react to the presence of opportunistic nodes in streaming sessions. Furthermore, it incurs low network and computational overheads, which remain fixed as the system scales.

  3. A Fair-Priority MAC design in Networked Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Media Access Control (MAC protocols in Wireless Networked Control System (WNCS must minimize the radio energy costs in sensor nodes. Latency and throughput are also important design features for MAC protocols in the applications. But most of them cannot guarantee quality for real-time traffic. This paper studies the state of the art of current real-time MAC protocols, and then introduces a medium access control protocol and a improved protocol that provide multiple priority levels and hard real-time transmission. The channel is accessed by sensors according to their priorities. Sensors send frames in a round manner with same priority. The fairness between different priorities is provided. The channel access procedure is divided into two stages: broadcast period and transmission period. Simulation and experiment results indicate that our protocol provides high channel utilization and bounded delays for real-time communication and can be well applied in the many fields especially the dynamic wireless sensor networks.

  4. System design for the FAIR proton LINAC BPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forck, Peter; Almalki, Mohammed; Clemente, Gianluigi; Groening, Lars; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Kowina, Piotr [GSI (Germany); Simon, Claire [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France). IRFU; Ackermann, Wolfgang [TU Darmstadt (Germany). TEMF

    2013-07-01

    The planned Proton LINAC at the FAIR facility will provide a beam current of 70 mA accelerated to 70 MeV by novel CH-type DTLs. Four-fold button Beam Position Monitor (BPM) will be installed at 14 locations along the LINAC. The specification for position measurement is 0.1 mm spatial resolution and for time-of-flight beam velocity determination the accuracy must be 8.5 ps corresponding to 1 degree with respect to the 325 MHz acceleration frequency. Finite element and finite integration technique calculations by CST Particle Studio for non-relativistic velocities were performed to determine the signal characteristic in time- and frequency domain. Most of these BPMs are mounted only about 40 mm upstream of the CH cavities and the BPM signal strength caused by the cavity residual rf-power was estimated. The technical layout of the BPM system is discussed.

  5. How Fair Is Actuarial Fairness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    in exchange for the payment of premi- ums. In the insurance industry, the concept of actuarial fairness serves to establish what could be adequate, fair premiums. Accordingly, premiums paid by policyholders should match as closely as possible their risk exposure (i.e. their expected losses). Such premiums...... are the product of the probabilities of losses and the expected losses. This article presents a discussion of the fairness of actuarial fairness through three steps: (1) defining the concept based on its formulation within the insurance industry; (2) determining in which sense it may be about fairness; and (3......) raising some objections to the actual fairness of actu- arial fairness. The necessity of a normative evaluation of actuarial fairness is justified by the influence of the concept on the current reforms of public insurance systems and the fact that it highlights the question of the repartition of the gains...

  6. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  7. Development of a flexible trigger system for FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penschuck, Manuel; Michel, Jan; Stroth, Joachim [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Traxler, Michael [GSI Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In the scope of experimental set-ups for the upcoming FAIR experiments, a general purpose trigger and read-out board (TRB3) has been developed which is already in use in several detector set-ups. For on- and off-board communication between the DAQ's subsystems, TrbNet, a specialized high-speed, low-latency network protocol developed for the DAQ system of the HADES detector, is used. Communication with any computer infrastructure is provided by Gigabit Ethernet. The TRB3 can be operated as a stand-alone board for small detectors, in combination with other TrbNet-enabled front-ends, or as a subsystem of an existing DAQ infrastructure. In order to support these different scenarios, a flexible and modular central trigger system was developed. Trigger criteria can range from basic trigger strobes, internal pulser signals to complex data streams from other, foreign trigger systems. Additional features include detection of coincidence from several input signals with adjustable time delays and windows. A precise time information of all input signals with 20 ps precision is foreseen in the design. In this contribution the design of the new trigger system and its web-based control and monitoring tools are presented.

  8. How Does Procedural Fairness Affect Performance Evaluation System Satisfaction? (Evidence from a UK Police Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholihin Mahfud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether, and if so, how procedural fairness affects performance evaluation system satisfaction in a UK Police Force. Employing a survey method with samples of detective inspectors and detective chief inspectors with significant managerial responsibilities in a UK Police Force, this study finds that procedural fairness affects performance evaluation system satisfaction. Further analysis reveals that the effect of procedural fairness on performance evaluation system satisfaction is mediated by trust. This study provides empirical evidence on how procedural fairness affects performance evaluation system satisfaction. The results of this study may benefit the designer of performance evaluation systems in police organizations.

  9. Measuring Improvement when Using HUB Formats to Implement Floating-Point Systems under Round-to-Nearest

    OpenAIRE

    Hormigo, Javier; Julio, Villalba

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the benefits of using HUB formats to implement floating-point arithmetic under round-tonearest mode from a quantitative point of view. Using HUB formats to represent numbers allows the removal of the rounding logic of arithmetic units, including sticky-bit computation. This is shown for floating-point adders, multipliers, and converters. Experimental analysis demonstrates that HUB formats and the corresponding arithmetic units maintain the same accurac...

  10. Quadratic Assignment of Hubs in p-Hub Median Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin

    We introduce Generalized p-Hub Median Problem (GpHMP) that seeks to locate p hub nodes and install p distinct hub facilities/operators on the hubs while discount factor resulted by consolidation of flow on the hub links depends on the facilities/operators that are installed/operating on both hub...... nodes end-point. In contrast, in traditional hub location problems it is commonly assumed that all the hub facilities share a similar characteristic and economy of scale resulted by consolidation of flow over hub edges is not directly relevant to the hub facilities being installed at both end...

  11. On GitHub's Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    GitHub is the most widely used social, distributed version control system. It has around 10 million registered users and hosts over 16 million public repositories. Its user base is also very active as GitHub ranks in the top 100 Alexa most popular websites. In this study, we collect GitHub's state in its entirety. Doing so, allows us to study new aspects of the ecosystem. Although GitHub is the home to millions of users and repositories, the analysis of users' activity time-series reveals tha...

  12. Systems biology approach to transplant tolerance: proof of concept experiments using RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down hub genes in Jurkat and HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Wint Wah; Park, Ken; Wauson, Matthew; Gao, Qin; Finn, Patricia W; Perkins, David; Khanna, Ajai

    2012-07-01

    Systems biology is gaining importance in studying complex systems such as the functional interconnections of human genes [1]. To investigate the molecular interactions involved in T cell immune responses, we used databases of physical gene-gene interactions to constructed molecular interaction networks (interconnections) with R language algorithms. This helped to identify highly interconnected "hub" genes AT(1)P5C1, IL6ST, PRKCZ, MYC, FOS, JUN, and MAPK1. We hypothesized that suppression of these hub genes in the gene network would result in significant phenotypic effects on T cells and examined this in vitro. The molecular interaction networks were then analyzed and visualized with Cytoscape. Jurkat and HeLa cells were transfected with siRNA for the selected hub genes. Cell proliferation was measured using ATP luminescence and BrdU labeling, which were measured 36, 72, and 96 h after activation. Following T cell stimulation, we found a significant decrease in ATP production (P cells. However, HeLa cells showed a significant (P cell proliferation when the genes MAPK1, IL6ST, ATP5C1, JUN, and FOS were knocked down. In both Jurkat and HeLa cells, targeted gene knockdown using siRNA showed decreased cell proliferation and ATP production in both Jurkat and HeLa cells. However, Jurkat T cells and HELA cells use different hub genes to regulate activation responses. This experiment provides proof of principle of applying siRNA knockdown of T cell hub genes to evaluate their proliferative capacity and ATP production. This novel concept outlines a systems biology approach to identify hub genes for targeted therapeutics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A model system for perfusion quantification using FAIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I.K.; Sidaros, Karam; Gesmar, H

    2000-01-01

    Flow-sensitive experiments (FAIR) have been performed on a tube-flow phantom in order to validate quantitative perfusion measurements on humans. A straight-forward correspondence between perfusion and bulk-flow is found. It is shown that the flow phantom model only holds when the slice profiles...

  14. Virtual Campus Hub technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercoulen, Frank; Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio;

    This deliverable briefly describes which technological components have been delivered for the Virtual Campus Hub and how they can be used. A detailed discussion of the technical details of the components, how they were realized and how they fit the VCH concept can be found in deliverables D5.......4. Virtual Campus Hub Technology Evaluation Report and D6.7 The Virtual Campus Hub Concept....

  15. Simulation and Development of Improved Acoustic Damping Systems for Broadband Noise Attention in Payload Fairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Nick

    2012-07-01

    RUAG Space specialise in payload fairings which must achieve set requirements for structural, jettisoning, mass and other functions and provide a safe acoustic environment for the satellite during launch. Protecting the satellite from acoustic induced vibration is achieved by a defined Noise Reduction spectrum performance, typically covering the 31 - 2000 Hz octave band frequency range. RUAG recently undertook an R&D program to optimise acoustic performance by i) understanding of the sound transmission mechanisms ii) modelling of fairing noise reduction iii) new acoustic treatments iv) reduction of sound leakage through vents v) combination of these elements in a possible future fairing design to assess the overall effectiveness at fairing system level.

  16. The effect of spherical hub-nose position on pressure drop in an oscillating water column system for wave energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ghazilla, R.A.R.; Yap, H.J.; Ya, T.Y.T.; Passarella, R.; Hasanuddin, I.; Yunus, M. [Malaya Univ. (Malaysia). Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing; Sugiyono [Malaya Univ., (Malaysia). Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing; Gadjah Mada Univ. (Indonesia). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The use of renewable energy sources as an alternative to conventional fuels was discussed with particular reference to ocean wave energy and its potential to contribute to the energy requirements of coastal nations. Ocean wave energy has been harnessed and converted into electricity using processes and technologies that are environmentally sound. The oscillating water column (OWC) system is considered to be among the most promising technology for harnessing wave energy. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the pressure drop in an OWC system and the effect of spherical hub-nose position in an annular duct. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used under steady flow conditions for several hub-nose positions to determine the characteristic of pressure drop. The study showed that the hub-nose position influenced the pressure drop in the OWC system. The highest value of the pressure drop in this study occurred when the hub-nose was at the position of 0.0 m relative to the end of the converging cone. The pressure drop decreased when the hub-nose position moved away from the end of converging cone. The lowest value occurred at the position of -0.5 m. It was concluded that despite the numerically small change in pressure drop, this phenomenon should be considered in the design process of the OWC system because of the operational condition of the system at low-pressure pneumatic power. The pressure drop actually reduces the amount of energy that will be converted by the air turbine. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. The Silicon Tracking System of the CBM Experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Johann M.

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will conduct a systematic research program to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at highest net baryon densities and moderate temperatures. These conditions are to be created in collisions of heavy-ion beams with nuclear targets in the projectile beam energy range of 2 to 45 GeV/nucleon, initially coming from the SIS 100 synchrotron (up to 14 GeV/nucleon) and in a next step from SIS 300 enabling studies at the highest net baryon densities. Collision rates up to 107 per second are required to produce very rare probes with unprecedented statistics in this energy range. Their signatures are complex. These conditions call for detector systems designed to meet the extreme requirements in terms of rate capability, momentum and spatial resolution, and a novel data acquisition and trigger concept which is not limited by latency but by throughput. In the paper we describe the concept and development status of CBM's central detector, the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The detector realizes a large, highly granular and redundant detector system with fast read-out, and lays specific emphasis on low material budget in its physics aperture to achieve for charged particle tracks a momentum resolution of δp/p ≈ 1% at p > 1 GeV/c, at >95% track reconstruction efficiency. The detector employs 1220 highly segmented double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors of 300 µm thickness, mounted into 896 modular structures of various types that are aggregated on 106 low-mass carbon fiber ladders of different sizes that build up the tracking stations. The read-out electronics with its supply and cooling infrastructure is arranged at the periphery of the ladders, and provides a total channel count of 1.8 million. The signal transmission from the silicon sensors to the electronics is realized through ultra-thin multi-line aluminum-polyimide cables of up to half a meter length. The electronics generates a free

  18. Channelization Issues with Fairness Considerations for MU-MIMO Precoding Based UTRA-LTE/TDD Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Wang, Yuanye; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    resource allocation point of view, choice of any technique will require different fairness conditions among users. In this paper, we have studied these different fairness conditions when combined with basic or joint access schemes mentioned above, while applied in a MU-MIMO based UTRA-LTE system. We have...... evaluated the resource allocation fairness issue when two well-known linear MU-MIMO precoding is used on a UTRA-LTE system. User grouping issue is dealt with when SDMA component is considered in the system. The results in this work provides an indicative analysis of the usability of different channelization...

  19. Fairness based resource allocation for multiuser MISO-OFDMA systems with beamforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Kai; WANG Ying; CHEN Zi-xiong; ZHANG Ping

    2009-01-01

    Resource allocation problem in multiuser multiple input single output-orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MISO-OFDMA) systems with downlink beamforming for frequency selective fading channels is studied. The article aims at maximizing system throughput with the constraints of total power and bit error rate (BER) while supporting fairness among users. The downlink proportional fairness (PF) scheduling problem is reformulated as a maximization of the sum of logarithmic user data rate. From necessary conditions on optimality obtained analytically by Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition, an efficient user selection and resource allocation algorithm is proposed. The computer simulations reveal that the proposed algorithm achieves tradeoff between system throughput and fairness among users.

  20. A model system for perfusion quantification using FAIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke; Sidaros, Karam; Gesmar, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Flow-sensitive experiments (FAIR) have been performed on a tube-flow phantom in order to validate quantitative perfusion measurements on humans. A straight-forward correspondence between perfusion and bulk-flow is found. It is shown that the flow phantom model only holds when the slice profiles...... to perfusion values lower than the cortical perfusion in the brain. Thus, the experimental accuracy and the computational methods for quantitative perfusion measurements in vivo can be validated by a tube-flow phantom....

  1. A model system for perfusion quantification using FAIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I.K.; Sidaros, Karam; Gesmar, H

    2000-01-01

    Flow-sensitive experiments (FAIR) have been performed on a tube-flow phantom in order to validate quantitative perfusion measurements on humans. A straight-forward correspondence between perfusion and bulk-flow is found. It is shown that the flow phantom model only holds when the slice profiles...... to perfusion values lower than the cortical perfusion in the brain. Thus, the experimental accuracy and the computational methods for quantitative perfusion measurements in vivo can be validated by a tube-flow phantom...

  2. Flexible scheduling ensuring inter-ONU-group fairness in 1G/10G EPON coexistence system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; LI Hui; JI Yue-feng

    2009-01-01

    er-ONU and intra-ONU fairness. Most importantly, it can flexibly adapt to the system composition variations and save efforts needed to modify the bandwidth scheduling mechanism during the migration process from GEPON to 10G EPON.

  3. A model system for perfusion quantification using FAIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I.K.; Sidaros, Karam; Gesmar, H

    2000-01-01

    of the involved RF pulses are taken into account. A small flow-independent off-set may be present in the data. The off-set is explained by the model. Based on the correspondence between the phantom and the in vivo models, it is shown that the lowest flow values that could be measured in the phantom correspond...... to perfusion values lower than the cortical perfusion in the brain. Thus, the experimental accuracy and the computational methods for quantitative perfusion measurements in vivo can be validated by a tube-flow phantom......Flow-sensitive experiments (FAIR) have been performed on a tube-flow phantom in order to validate quantitative perfusion measurements on humans. A straight-forward correspondence between perfusion and bulk-flow is found. It is shown that the flow phantom model only holds when the slice profiles...

  4. A model system for perfusion quantification using FAIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke; Sidaros, Karam; Gesmar, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    of the involved RF pulses are taken into account. A small flow-independent off-set may be present in the data. The off-set is explained by the model. Based on the correspondence between the phantom and the in vivo models, it is shown that the lowest flow values that could be measured in the phantom correspond...... to perfusion values lower than the cortical perfusion in the brain. Thus, the experimental accuracy and the computational methods for quantitative perfusion measurements in vivo can be validated by a tube-flow phantom.......Flow-sensitive experiments (FAIR) have been performed on a tube-flow phantom in order to validate quantitative perfusion measurements on humans. A straight-forward correspondence between perfusion and bulk-flow is found. It is shown that the flow phantom model only holds when the slice profiles...

  5. Facilitators and impediments in the adoption and implementation of the HubSpot marketing automation system

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, Miira

    2017-01-01

    Marketing automation is growing popularity among companies but it has not yet received great academic interest. Therefore, neither marketing automation systems have been studied thoroughly. Other preceding systems in marketing and sales, such as customer relationship management (CRM) and sales force automation (SFA) have however been explored comprehensively. The goal of this research is to increase the understanding of successful adoption and implementation of a marketing automation syst...

  6. Analytical Evaluation of the Performance of Proportional Fair Scheduling in OFDMA-Based Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analytical evaluation of the performance of proportional fair (PF scheduling in Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA wireless systems. OFDMA represents a promising multiple access scheme for transmission over wireless channels, as it combines the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM modulation and subcarrier allocation. On the other hand, the PF scheduling is an efficient resource allocation scheme with good fairness characteristics. Consequently, OFDMA with PF scheduling represents an attractive solution to deliver high data rate services to multiple users simultaneously with a high degree of fairness. We investigate a two-dimensional (time slot and frequency subcarrier PF scheduling algorithm for OFDMA systems and evaluate its performance analytically and by simulations. We derive approximate closed-form expressions for the average throughput, throughput fairness index, and packet delay. Computer simulations are used for verification. The analytical results agree well with the results from simulations, which show the good accuracy of the analytical expressions.

  7. Extension of Goldstein's circulation function for optimal rotors with hub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic interaction or interference between rotor blades and hub body is usually very complicated, but some useful simplifications can be made by considering the hub with an infinite cylinder. Various attempts to find the optimum distribution of circulation by the lifting vortex lines...... method have been previously proposed to describe the blade interaction with the hub modeled by the infinite cylinder. In this case, the ideal distribution of bound circulation on the rotor blades is such that the shed vortex system in the hub-area is a set of helicoidal vortex sheets moving uniformly...... at the nose-area of the semi-infinite hub....

  8. Application of a Non-linear Program to the Establishment of a Hub and Spoke System in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    areas of commerce, light manufacturing, and the tourism industry (United States Department of State, 2009). Generally speaking, Kenya maintains a...possess commercial and/or military vehicle and equipment repair facilities that could be used to maintain CF materiel in theatre . The Hub...

  9. Extension of Goldstein's circulation function for optimal rotors with hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulov, V. L.; Sørensen, J. N.; Shen, W. Z.

    2016-09-01

    The aerodynamic interaction or interference between rotor blades and hub body is usually very complicated, but some useful simplifications can be made by considering the hub with an infinite cylinder. Various attempts to find the optimum distribution of circulation by the lifting vortex lines method have been previously proposed to describe the blade interaction with the hub modeled by the infinite cylinder. In this case, the ideal distribution of bound circulation on the rotor blades is such that the shed vortex system in the hub-area is a set of helicoidal vortex sheets moving uniformly as if rigid, exactly as in the case where there is no influence of the streamtube deformations by the central hub-body. In the present investigation, we consider a more specific problem of the rotor-hub interaction where the initial flow streamtubes and the rotor slipstream submitted strong deformations at the nose-area of the semi-infinite hub.

  10. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  11. Developmental Changes in Brain Network Hub Connectivity in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Simon T E; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat; Allen, Nicholas B; Whittle, Sarah; Fulcher, Ben D; Zalesky, Andrew; Fornito, Alex

    2015-06-17

    The human brain undergoes substantial development throughout adolescence and into early adulthood. This maturational process is thought to include the refinement of connectivity between putative connectivity hub regions of the brain, which collectively form a dense core that enhances the functional integration of anatomically distributed, and functionally specialized, neural systems. Here, we used longitudinal diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to characterize changes in connectivity between 80 cortical and subcortical anatomical regions over a 2 year period in 31 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Connectome-wide analysis indicated that only a small subset of connections showed evidence of statistically significant developmental change over the study period, with 8% and 6% of connections demonstrating decreased and increased structural connectivity, respectively. Nonetheless, these connections linked 93% and 90% of the 80 regions, respectively, pointing to a selective, yet anatomically distributed pattern of developmental changes that involves most of the brain. Hub regions showed a distinct tendency to be highly connected to each other, indicating robust "rich-club" organization. Moreover, connectivity between hubs was disproportionately influenced by development, such that connectivity between subcortical hubs decreased over time, whereas frontal-subcortical and frontal-parietal hub-hub connectivity increased over time. These findings suggest that late adolescence is characterized by selective, yet significant remodeling of hub-hub connectivity, with the topological organization of hubs shifting emphasis from subcortical hubs in favor of an increasingly prominent role for frontal hub regions.

  12. Decentralized Fair Scheduling in Two-Hop Relay-Assisted Cognitive OFDMA Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui; Cui, Ying

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-hop relay-assisted cognitive downlink OFDMA system (named as secondary system) dynamically accessing a spectrum licensed to a primary network, thereby improving the efficiency of spectrum usage. A cluster-based relay-assisted architecture is proposed for the secondary system, where relay stations are employed for minimizing the interference to the users in the primary network and achieving fairness for cell-edge users. Based on this architecture, an asymptotically optimal solution is derived for jointly controlling data rates, transmission power, and subchannel allocation to optimize the average weighted sum goodput where the proportional fair scheduling (PFS) is included as a special case. This solution supports decentralized implementation, requires small communication overhead, and is robust against imperfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) and sensing measurement. The proposed solution achieves significant throughput gains and better user-fairness compa...

  13. Deadlock and Fairness in Morphisms of Transition Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate deadlock-free implementations of processes, a formalization is proposed in which processes are elements of transition systems. Morphisms of transition systems are introduced as an approximate formalization of implementation of processes. A morphism f: X → Y shows deadlock if

  14. Proportional fair scheduling with superposition coding in a cellular cooperative relay system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Hayashi, Kazunori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Many works have tackled on the problem of throughput and fairness optimization in cellular cooperative relaying systems. Considering firstly a two-user relay broadcast channel, we design a scheme based on superposition coding (SC) which maximizes the achievable sum-rate under a proportional...... fairness constraint. Unlike most relaying schemes where users are allocated orthogonally, our scheme serves the two users simultaneously on the same time-frequency resource unit by superposing their messages into three SC layers. The optimal power allocation parameters of each SC layer are derived...... by analysis. Next, we consider the general multi-user case in a cellular relay system, for which we design resource allocation algorithms based on proportional fair scheduling exploiting the proposed SC-based scheme. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithms allowing simultaneous user allocation...

  15. A Fair and Efficient Packet Scheduling Scheme for IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Prasun; 10.5121/ijasuc.2010.1308

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a fair and efficient QoS scheduling scheme for IEEE 802.16 BWA systems that satisfies both throughput and delay guarantee to various real and non-real time applications. The proposed QoS scheduling scheme is compared with an existing QoS scheduling scheme proposed in literature in recent past. Simulation results show that the proposed scheduling scheme can provide a tight QoS guarantee in terms of delay, delay violation rate and throughput for all types of traffic as defined in the WiMAX standard, thereby maintaining the fairness and helps to eliminate starvation of lower priority class services. Bandwidth utilization of the system and fairness index of the resources are also encountered to validate the QoS provided by our proposed scheduling scheme.

  16. Differences in perceived fairness and health outcomes in two injury compensation systems: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, Nieke A; Collie, Alex; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Lippel, Katherine; Lockwood, Keri; Cameron, Ian D

    2016-07-29

    Involvement in a compensation process following a motor vehicle collision is consistently associated with worse health status but the reasons underlying this are unclear. Some compensation systems are hypothesised to be more stressful than others. In particular, fault-based compensation systems are considered to be more adversarial than no-fault systems and associated with poorer recovery. This study compares the perceived fairness and recovery of claimants in the fault-based compensation system in New South Wales (NSW) to the no-fault system in Victoria, Australia. One hundred eighty two participants were recruited via claims databases of the compensation system regulators in Victoria and NSW. Participants were > 18 years old and involved in a transport injury compensation process. The crash occurred 12 months (n = 95) or 24 months ago (n = 87). Perceived fairness about the compensation process was measured by items derived from a validated organisational justice questionnaire. Health outcome was measured by the initial question of the Short Form Health Survey. In Victoria, 84 % of the participants considered the claims process fair, compared to 46 % of NSW participants (χ(2) = 28.54; p fairness. Overall perceived fairness was positively associated with health outcome after adjusting for demographic and injury variables (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.4 - 5.7, p = .004). The study shows large differences in perceived fairness between two different compensation systems and an association between fairness and health. These findings are politically important because compensation processes are designed to improve recovery. Lower perceived fairness in NSW may have been caused by potential adversarial aspects of the scheme, such as liability assessment, medical assessments, dealing with a third party for-profit insurance agency, or financial insecurity due to lump sum payments at settlement. This study should encourage an

  17. Are Hukou Point System Fair For Migrant Workers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In early June,Guangdong in south China unveiled a points system for the millions of farmer-turned-workers in the province hoping to settle in cities and towns.A migrant worker will be qualified to apply for urban household registration once his or her points

  18. Are Hukou Point System Fair For Migrant Workers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ In early June, Guangdong in south China unveiled a points system for the millions of farmer-turned-workers in the province hoping to settle in cities and towns. A migrant worker will be qualified to apply for urban household registration once his or her points accumulate to 60, said a document of the provincial government. At the same time, his or her spouse and minor children can also be registered.

  19. Twin Hub Network (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Twin hub network, a European Interreg IVB project, aims at making intermodal rail transport within, to and from North West Europe more competitive, in particular between seaports and inland terminals. Improving rail competitiveness enables to shift freight flows from road to rail, providing a more s

  20. Constructing Hongqiao Hub and Serving Regional Economy:Planning and Operation of Hongqiao Comprehensive Transportation Hub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Hongqiao Integrated Transportation Hub Project as a case, this paper introduces its origin, orientation, development programming, planning and design, road planning, information system planning, air-rail integrated transportation planning, disaster prevention planning, and so on.

  1. Proportional fair scheduling with superposition coding in a cellular cooperative relay system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Hayashi, Kazunori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Many works have tackled on the problem of throughput and fairness optimization in cellular cooperative relaying systems. Considering firstly a two-user relay broadcast channel, we design a scheme based on superposition coding (SC) which maximizes the achievable sum-rate under a proportional fairn...

  2. Using the Reputation Score Management for Constructing Fair P2P File Sharing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Han

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has used the reputation score management for constructing a fair P2P file sharing system, the system design principle is simple and easy to realize, and every node entering into the P2P network obtains a certain reputation score, and obtains the corresponding resources reward according to the score. This paper has described the fair sharing strategies facing node network bandwidth and TTL, and these strategies can be used independently or be combined with other reputation score managements of P2P network. These two strategies have been discussed in the specific reputation score management system of P2P network Eigen Trust, and the test results indicate that: compared with a common P2P network, the fair sharing strategies of this paper have faster file download speed and can decrease the network message communication amount during the process looking for resources. It can also be combined with another reputation management system. it is simple and easy to be realized, its main purposes are to fairly share network bandwidth and to decrease information communication volume, and it can suppress the free riding behavior to some extent.

  3. A Fair Off-Line E-Cash System with Group Signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yun-xue; ZHU Yue-fei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the research results and development of fair off-line e-cash systems so far, and points out that in these systems, the bank can compute the double-spender's account secret key, thus the bank can impersonate the double-spender to withdraw from the double-spender's account.This article utilizes anonymity control and group signature to address this shortcoming.

  4. Joint Throughput Maximization and Fair Uplink Transmission Scheduling in CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chengzhou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the fundamental problem of optimal transmission scheduling in a code-division multiple-access wireless system in order to maximize the uplink system throughput, while satisfying the users quality-of-service (QoS requirements and maintaining fairness among them. The corresponding problem is expressed as a weighted throughput maximization problem, under certain power and QoS constraints, where the weights are the control parameters reflecting the fairness constraints. With the introduction of the power index capacity, it is shown that this optimization problem can be converted into a binary knapsack problem, where all the corresponding constraints are replaced by the power index capacities at some certain system power index. A two-step approach is followed to obtain the optimal solution. First, a simple method is proposed to find the optimal set of users to receive service for a given fixed target system load, and then the optimal solution is obtained as a global search within a certain range. Furthermore, a stochastic approximation method is presented to effectively identify the required control parameters. The performance evaluation reveals the advantages of our proposed policy over other existing ones and confirms that it achieves very high throughput while maintains fairness among the users, under different channel conditions and requirements.

  5. Fair equality of opportunity critically reexamined: the family and the sustainability of health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2012-12-01

    A complex interaction of ideological, financial, social, and moral factors makes the financial sustainability of health care systems a challenge across the world. One difficulty is that some of the moral commitments of some health care systems collide with reality. In particular, commitments to equality in access to health care and to fair equality of opportunity undergird an unachievable promise, namely, to provide all with the best of basic health care. In addition, commitments to fair equality of opportunity are in tension with the existence of families, because families are aimed at advantaging their own members in preference to others. Because the social-democratic state is committed to fair equality of opportunity, it offers a web of publicly funded entitlements that make it easier for persons to exit the family and to have children outside of marriage. In the United States, in 2008, 41% of children were born outside of wedlock, whereas, in 1940, the percentage was only 3.8%, and in 1960, 5%, with the further consequence that the social and financial capital generated through families, which aids in supporting health care in families, is diminished. In order to explore the challenge of creating a sustainable health care system that also supports the traditional family, the claims made for fair equality of opportunity in health care are critically reconsidered. This is done by engaging the expository device of John Rawls's original position, but with a thin theory of the good that is substantively different from that of Rawls, one that supports a health care system built around significant copayments, financial counseling, and compulsory savings, with a special focus on enhancing the financial and social capital of the family. This radical recasting of Rawls, which draws inspiration from Singapore, is undertaken as a heuristic to aid in articulating an approach to health care allocation that can lead past the difficulties of social-democratic policy.

  6. Fairness Consideration of Scheduling for Real-Time Services in 4G Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woei-Hwa Tarn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve higher resource utilization, the call admission control (CAC will allow the number of connections into the system more than the system capacity can offer. However, the fairness problem will occur when these connections are real-time services. To solve this problem, in this paper, we propose a fair scheduling algorithm named contribution-based scheduling algorithm (CSA for real-time polling service (rtPS or guarantee bit rate (GBR in the uplink direction in the forth-generation (4G systems. In CSA, a mobile subscriber (MS gains its contribution credit value at the end of each transmission time interval (TTI, which is based on the contribution of MS to the radio resource scheduling. The base station (BS schedules the bandwidth according to the credit value. Simulation results show that CSA achieves higher fairness in bandwidth allocation while connection drop rate and queuing delay are also guaranteed as compared to the roundrobin (RR and early deadline first (EDF mechanisms.

  7. Transport hub flow modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...

  8. GitHub Android

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    代码托管仓库GitHub发布了官方,Android客户端,手机和平板用户可以从GoogleP1ay下载。它的出现,将方便更多用户融入GitHub社区。GitHubAndroid本身也是开源软件,其源代码可以从GitHub浏览。此前,GitHub已经推出了Windows和Mac版客户端。

  9. PORTS WRESTLE FOR HUB STATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Due to the fact that there has been nocontainer transport hub port in NorthernChina,northern ports are striving fordevelopment and trying to secure a positionof being the hub port in Northern Chinaahead of others. According to media reports,EasternChina’s Shandong Province will invest 5billion yuan(US$604 million)in buildinga Qingdao international shipping hub thatisbased on existing ports in theShandong Peninsula.

  10. A Fair Proposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    Describes problems with school science fairs including poor judging and a lack of understanding by the students of their own projects. Suggests improvements to the system. One suggestion is for science fair projects to be displayed only in classrooms and not district or regional fairs. (PR)

  11. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm with Fairness in 1G/10G Coexistence EPON System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Takemoto, Michiya; Takahashi, Akira; Shimokasa, Kiyoshi

    Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (GE-PON) systems have been deployed widely as a broadband access solution for the optical access network, the so-called FTTx networks. 10 Gigabit EPON (10G-EPON) is about to be standardizing by a task force (802.3av). To provide the next FTTx solution with 10G-EPON systems, one of the key technologies is how to migrate from 1G-based to 10G-based. In this paper, we present Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm which considered a fair policy for 1G/10G coexistence EPON system to achieve a smooth migration.

  12. Exam fairness

    CERN Document Server

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    It is widely agreed that exams must be fair; yet what this exactly means is not made clear. One may mean fairness of treatment, but this merely propagates the fairness or unfairness of pre-existing rules. Fairness of opportunity on the other hand necessarily leads to identical grades for everyone, which clearly makes it inapplicable. Neither view is helpful to make decisions on competing claims: fairness of treatment ignores the problem and fairness of opportunity holds all claims to be equally valid. To escape this deadlock one needs an external criterion to replace fairness viewed as student-student comparison. Keywords: assessment; bias; engineering education; examinations; grading; justice; tests

  13. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  14. Design and Analysis on Vibration Reduction System in Electric Vehicles with Hub Motor%电动车辆轮毂电机减振系统设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚鹏; 吴胜涛; 马英; 秦鹏鹏; 李浩冉; 张汉召

    2015-01-01

    为消除轮毂电机造成电动汽车非簧载质量增加而使车辆平顺性和安全性降低的影响,根据质量转移的方法,在电动轮内安装弹簧阻尼减振系统将轮毂电机质量变成吸振器,建立11自由度电动轮车辆整车动力学模型,并对模型进行仿真分析。结果表明,轮毂电机减振系统在满足轮毂电机垂向跳动要求的基础上,可以消除轮毂电机刚性与车轮连接给车辆带来的垂向负效应问题。%In order to eliminate the reduction effect of vehicle ride comfort and safety of the hub motor electric vehi-cle caused by the under spring mass increased, according to the method of mass transfer, the authors mount the spring damping vibration system in the electric wheels to make the hub motor mass the vibration absorber, establish dynamics model of 11 freedom degree vehicle with hub motor, and simulate the model. The results show that the damping system of the hub motor on the basis of meeting the requirements of hub motor vertical jump can eliminate the negative vertical effect of the vehicle because of the hub motor rigidly connected to the wheel.

  15. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  16. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  17. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  18. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  19. Indico: A Collaboration Hub

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P; Bossy, C; Gonzalez, J B; Pugh, M; Resco, A; Trzaskoma, J; Wachter, C

    2012-01-01

    Since 2009, the development of Indico has focused on usability, performance and new features, especially the ones related to meeting collaboration. Usability studies have resulted in the biggest change Indico has experienced up to now, a new web layout that makes user experience better. Performance improvements were also a key goal since 2010; the main features of Indico have been optimized remarkably. Along with usability and performance, new features have been added to Indico such as webchat integration, video services bookings, webcast and recording requests, designed to really reinforce Indico position as the main hub for all CERN collaboration services, and many others which aim is to complete the conference lifecycle management. Indico development is also moving towards a broader collaboration where other institutes, hosting their own Indico instance, can contribute to the project in order make it a better and more complete tool.

  20. Using web-based group support systems to enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twinomurinzi, H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors are investigating whether Web-based Group Support System (GSS) tools can support and enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa. They report here on work that emanates from a masters dissertation...

  1. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-09-25

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems.

  2. Optimal Resource Allocation under Fair QoS in Multi-tier Server Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hirokazu; Ushio, Toshimitsu; Hayashi, Naoki

    Recent development of network technology realizes multi-tier server systems, where several tiers perform functionally different processing requested by clients. It is an important issue to allocate resources of the systems to clients dynamically based on their current requests. On the other hand, Q-RAM has been proposed for resource allocation in real-time systems. In the server systems, it is important that execution results of all applications requested by clients are the same QoS(quality of service) level. In this paper, we extend Q-RAM to multi-tier server systems and propose a method for optimal resource allocation with fairness of the QoS levels of clients’ requests. We also consider an assignment problem of physical machines to be sleep in each tier sothat the energy consumption is minimized.

  3. Fair skoleledelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Vestergaard, Bo

    2014-01-01

    relationelle strategiske ledelsesprocesser (RSL-processer) mellem ledelse og medarbejdere i organisationers strategiarbejde. I artiklens anden del oversættes den teoretiske del til et praksisorienteret ottefaset strategisk procesdesign: FAIR SKOLELEDELSE. FAIR SKOLELEDELSE er et strategisk tanke- og...

  4. The degraded concept representation system in semantic dementia: damage to pan-modal hub, then visual spoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy W; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2012-12-01

    explanation is consistent with a graded hub-and-spoke model of conceptual knowledge, in which there is a gradual convergence of information along the temporal lobes, with visual attributes represented in the posterior cortex giving way to pan-modal representations in the anterior areas.

  5. Fair Trade

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of fair trade organizations in an oligopolistic setting in which the vertically integrated fair trade firm produces a commodity which is a weak substitute for another commodity. Profit-maximizing oligopolists are vertically disintegrated and produce for both markets and the fair trade firm can charge a premium to consumers due to a "warm glow effect" that depends on the wage paid to fair trade producers. We show that trade integration will unambiguously incr...

  6. Optimising steel hub location in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaradhorn Boontaveeyuwat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal location of a steel hub in Thailand was analysed by applying aspecific research methodology designed to evaluate locations near the seaports. The growth of Thailand’s steel industry has become a centre of attention in the last decade, resulting in substantial efforts to form a distribution service centre to minimise the logistic costs associated with handling large steel flows in the future. The main analysis of the steel hublocation focused on areas situated near Laem Cha Bang, Map Ta Phut and Prachuab ports since these top three ports are considered important in terms of their steel throughput in Thailand. The transport costs associated with the shipment and inland transport together with port tariffs were calculated for the proposed scenarios of steel hub establishment andthese were compared with the existing situation without steel hub. The findings showed that a steel hub located near Laem Cha Bang port was the optimal option involving a saving of 9.4% on the total system costs incurred under the existing situation.

  7. Competitiveness of Small Farms and Innovative Food Supply Chains: The Role of Food Hubs in Creating Sustainable Regional and Local Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaime Berti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the conventional agri-food system has and continues to be contested within both academic and public institutions. For small farms, the unsustainability of the food system is even more serious; farms’ declining share of profit and the cost-price squeeze of commodity production has increased barriers to market access with the inevitable effect of agricultural abandonment. One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri-food systems, aligning with Kramer and Porter’s concept of shared value strategy. Through a critical literature review, this paper presents “regional and local food hubs” as innovative organizational arrangements capable of bridging structural holes in the agri-food markets between small producers and the consumers—individuals and families as well as big buyers. Food hubs respond to a supply chain (or supply network organizational strategy aiming at re-territorialising the agri-food systems through the construction of what in the economic literature are defined as values-based food supply chains.

  8. Acoustic Test Results of Melamine Foam with Application to Payload Fairing Acoustic Attenuation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    A spacecraft at launch is subjected to a harsh acoustic and vibration environment resulting from the passage of acoustic energy, created during the liftoff of a launch vehicle, through the vehicle's payload fairing. In order to ensure the mission success of the spacecraft it is often necessary to reduce the resulting internal acoustic sound pressure levels through the usage of acoustic attenuation systems. Melamine foam, lining the interior walls of the payload fairing, is often utilized as the main component of such a system. In order to better understand the acoustic properties of melamine foam, with the goal of developing improved acoustic attenuation systems, NASA has recently performed panel level testing on numerous configurations of melamine foam acoustic treatments at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratory. Parameters assessed included the foam's thickness and density, as well as the effects of a top outer cover sheet material and mass barriers embedded within the foam. This testing followed the ASTM C423 standard for absorption and the ASTM E90 standard for transmission loss. The acoustic test data obtained and subsequent conclusions are the subjects of this paper.

  9. Enabling Fair Pricing on High Performance Computer Systems with Node Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Breslow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-location, where multiple jobs share compute nodes in large-scale HPC systems, has been shown to increase aggregate throughput and energy efficiency by 10–20%. However, system operators disallow co-location due to fair-pricing concerns, i.e., a pricing mechanism that considers performance interference from co-running jobs. In the current pricing model, application execution time determines the price, which results in unfair prices paid by the minority of users whose jobs suffer from co-location. This paper presents POPPA, a runtime system that enables fair pricing by delivering precise online interference detection and facilitates the adoption of supercomputers with co-locations. POPPA leverages a novel shutter mechanism – a cyclic, fine-grained interference sampling mechanism to accurately deduce the interference between co-runners – to provide unbiased pricing of jobs that share nodes. POPPA is able to quantify inter-application interference within 4% mean absolute error on a variety of co-located benchmark and real scientific workloads.

  10. Measurement of rare probes with the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Johann; Friese, Volker

    2014-11-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at highest net baryon densities and moderate temperatures. The CBM physics program will be started with beams delivered by the SIS 100 synchrotron, providing energies from 2 to 14 GeV/nucleon for heavy nuclei, up to 14 GeV/nucleon for light nuclei, and 29 GeV for protons. The highest net baryon densities will be explored with ion beams up to 45 GeV/nucleon energy delivered by SIS 300 in the next stage of FAIR. Collision rates up to 107 per second are required to produce very rare probes with unprecedented statistics in this energy range. Their signatures are complex. These conditions call for detector systems designed to meet the extreme requirements in terms of rate capability, momentum and spatial resolution, and a novel DAQ and trigger concept which is not limited by latency but by throughput. In this paper we outline the concepts of CBM's central detector, the Silicon Tracking System, and of the First-Level Event Selector, a dedicated computing farm to reduce on-line the raw data volume by up to three orders of magnitude to a recordable rate. Progress with the development of detector and software algorithms are discussed and examples of performance studies on the reconstruction of rare probes at SIS 100 and SIS 300 energies given.

  11. Measurement of rare probes with the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuser, Johann; Friese, Volker

    2014-11-15

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at highest net baryon densities and moderate temperatures. The CBM physics program will be started with beams delivered by the SIS 100 synchrotron, providing energies from 2 to 14 GeV/nucleon for heavy nuclei, up to 14 GeV/nucleon for light nuclei, and 29 GeV for protons. The highest net baryon densities will be explored with ion beams up to 45 GeV/nucleon energy delivered by SIS 300 in the next stage of FAIR. Collision rates up to 10{sup 7} per second are required to produce very rare probes with unprecedented statistics in this energy range. Their signatures are complex. These conditions call for detector systems designed to meet the extreme requirements in terms of rate capability, momentum and spatial resolution, and a novel DAQ and trigger concept which is not limited by latency but by throughput. In this paper we outline the concepts of CBM's central detector, the Silicon Tracking System, and of the First-Level Event Selector, a dedicated computing farm to reduce on-line the raw data volume by up to three orders of magnitude to a recordable rate. Progress with the development of detector and software algorithms are discussed and examples of performance studies on the reconstruction of rare probes at SIS 100 and SIS 300 energies given.

  12. The Virtual Campus Hub Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Monaco, Lucio

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final concept of Virtual Campus Hub. It gives...... an overview of the project achievements and recommends best practices for the use of the Virtual Campus Hub elements: a series of applications for online teaching and collaboration which are connected to a technical platform, the Virtual Campus Hub portal, using the European research infrastructure Géant/eduGAIN....

  13. How Fair are Fair Allocations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Kiilerich, Lone

    investigates the fairness of such allocations. Previous literature has applied numerous ways of measuring allocation fairness as well as numerous strategies for obtaining allocations. The goal of this paper is to study the fairness of allocations obtained by different allocation methods as viewed by different...... fairness measures. We hope that this will help guide future research towards a rational choice of allocation methods and measures....

  14. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  15. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  16. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  17. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  18. Acoustic Test Characterization of Melamine Foam for Usage in NASA's Payload Fairing Acoustic Attenuation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The external acoustic liftoff levels predicted for NASA's future heavy lift launch vehicles are expected to be significantly higher than the environment created by today's commercial launch vehicles. This creates a need to develop an improved acoustic attenuation system for future NASA payload fairings. NASA Glenn Research Center initiated an acoustic test series to characterize the acoustic performance of melamine foam, with and without various acoustic enhancements. This testing was denoted as NEMFAT, which stands for NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test, and is the subject of this paper. Both absorption and transmission loss testing of numerous foam configurations were performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratory in July 2013. The NEMFAT test data provides an initial acoustic characterization and database of melamine foam for NASA. Because of its acoustic performance and lighter mass relative to fiberglass blankets, melamine foam is being strongly considered for use in the acoustic attenuation systems of NASA's future launch vehicles.

  19. A Hub Matrix Theory and Applications to Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung HT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers communications and network systems whose properties are characterized by the gaps of the leading eigenvalues of for a matrix . It is shown that a sufficient and necessary condition for a large eigen-gap is that is a "hub" matrix in the sense that it has dominant columns. Some applications of this hub theory in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO wireless systems are presented.

  20. Ice Storage Cooling System Used at Shenzhen North Railway Station Transportation Hub%冰蓄冷空调在深圳北站枢纽的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾松彬; 李高潮; 邹亚平; 赵昕

    2012-01-01

    Compared with the standard air-conditioning, the ice storage cooling system has the advantage in balancing the pressure between electricity use and power supply, so it can reduce the facilities needed in power plant construction and power transmission. From the macroscopic view, this system consumes less electricity and therefore could improve the efficiency of power network. The ice storage cooling has been used as air-conditioning system for the transportation hub of Shenzhen North Railway Station. The automatic control system adopts intelligent control and automatic monitoring to ensure the best performance of AC equipment, the cool water system also uses variable frequency pumps, accepts the design of large temperature difference and higher efficient power refrigeration machine, to achieve better the energy-saving goal.%与常规空调相比,冰蓄冷空调能起到削峰填谷、平衡电网压力、减缓电厂和输变电设施建设的作用,在宏观上能节约能源,提高电网效率.深圳北站枢纽的空调系统采用冰蓄冷空调,其自动控制系统采用智能控制系统,能自动监视和控制本系统空调设备在最佳状态下运行;其冷水系统采用变频水泵、大温差设计,并采用了较高能效的制冷主机,达到了较好的节能效果.

  1. Multi-cell MIMO Downlink with Fairness Criteria: the Large-System Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Huh, Hoon; Moon, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Inkyu

    2010-01-01

    We consider the downlink of a cellular network with multiple cells and multi-antenna base stations including arbitrary inter-cell cooperation, realistic distance-dependent pathloss and general "fairness" requirements. Beyond Monte Carlo simulation, no efficient computation method to evaluate the ergodic throughput of such systems has been provided so far. We propose a method based on the combination of some large random matrix results with Lagrangian optimization. The proposed method is computationally much more efficient than Monte Carlo simulation and provides a very accurate approximation (almost indistinguishable) for the actual finite-dimensional case, even for of a small number of user terminals and base station antennas. Numerical examples include a planar (two-dimensional) 7-cell layout, with no inter-cell cooperation, sector cooperation and full inter-cell cooperation.

  2. A fair method for centralized optimization of multi-TSO power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phulpin, Yannick; Petit, Marc [SUPELEC, Department of Power and Energy Systems, 3 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Begovic, Miroslav [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ernst, Damien [University of Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2009-10-15

    This paper addresses the problem of centralized optimization of an interconnected power system partitioned into several regions controlled by different transmission system operators (TSOs). It is assumed that those utilities have agreed to transferring some of their competencies to a centralized control center, which is in charge of setting the control variables in the entire system to satisfy every utility's individual objective. This paper proposes an objective method for centralized optimization of such multi-TSO power systems, which relies on the assumption that each TSO has a real-valued optimization function focusing on its control area only. This method is illustrated on the IEEE 118 bus system partitioned into three TSOs. It is applied to the optimal reactive power dispatch problem, where the control variables are the voltage settings for generators and compensators. After showing that the method has some properties of fairness, namely freedom from envy, efficiency, accountability, and altruism, we emphasize its robustness with respect to certain biased behavior of the different TSOs. (author)

  3. Fairness-Aware and Energy Efficiency Resource Allocation in Multiuser OFDM Relaying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fairness-aware resource allocation scheme in a cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple (OFDM network is proposed based on jointly optimizing the subcarrier pairing, power allocation, and channel-user assignment. Compared with traditional OFDM relaying networks, the source is permitted to retransfer the same data transmitted by it in the first time slot, further improving the system capacity performance. The problem which maximizes the energy efficiency (EE of the system with total power constraint and minimal spectral efficiency constraint is formulated into a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem which has an intractable complexity in general. The optimization model is simplified into a typical fractional programming problem which is testified to be quasiconcave. Thus we can adopt Dinkelbach method to deal with MINLP problem proposed to achieve the optimal solution. The simulation results show that the joint resource allocation method proposed can achieve an optimal EE performance under the minimum system service rate requirement with a good global convergence.

  4. Regional differences in system usage charges. Impediment to a fair energy transition?; Regionale Unterschiede der Netznutzungsentgelte. Hindernis fuer eine faire Energiewende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plenz, Maik; Meister, Moritz; Doliwa, Martin; Obbelode, Felix [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany). Forschungsprojekt EnERgioN

    2014-12-15

    The conversion of the German electricity supply system to production from renewable resources under the national energy transition policy is making it necessary to expand and restructure the distribution networks. Based on the expansion goals of the federal government, expectations are that thinly populated regions with low conflict potential will see a continued growth in distributed generation. This will increase the geographic asymmetry that exists between the production of renewable energy in rural, peripheral regions and its consumption predominantly in urban regions, thus enlarging the regional differences in system usage charges seen already today. The geographic disparity between production and consumption may grow larger still with the continuing installation of new and repowering of existing renewable energy plants. Of the possibilities discussed so far for reforming the scheme of charges, some would only have a weak impact, while others would even exacerbate the problem. The solution proposed in the present article takes account of the costs incurred through upstream supply networks in accordance with Article 14 Section 1 Sentence 1 of the Ordinance on System Usage Charges. In effect it leads to an allocation of costs according to the user-pays principle, thus protecting consumers connected to rural distribution networks against an undue cost burden and charging a fair share of the costs to consumers in urban and industrial distribution networks.

  5. Fairness of Financial Contribution in Iranian Health System: Trend Analysis of National Household Income and Expenditure, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Amir Abbas; Seyedin, Hesam; Vosoogh Moghaddam, Abbas; Delavari, Alireza; Salimzadeh, H; Varmazyar, Hasan; Fazaeli, Ali Akbar

    2015-03-18

    Social systems are dealing with the challenge of achieving fairness in the distribution of financial burden and protecting the risk of financial loss. The purpose of this paper is to present a trend analysis for the indicators related to fairness in healthcare's financial burden in rural and urban population of Iran during the eight years period of 2003 to 2010. We used the information gathered by statistical center of Iran through sampling processes for the household income and expenditures. The indicators of fairness in financial contribution of healthcare were calculated based on the WHO recommended methodology. The indices trend analysis of eight-year period for the rural, urban areas and the country level were computed. This study shows that in Iran the fairness of financial contribution index during the eight-year period has been decreased from 0.841 in 2003 to above 0.827 in 2010 and The percentage of people with catastrophic health expenditures has been increased from 2.3% to above 3.1%. The ratio of total treatment costs to the household overall capacity to pay has been increased from 0.055 to 0.068 and from 0.072 to 0.0818 in urban and rural areas respectively. There is a decline in fairness of financial contribution index during the study period. While, a trend stability of the proportion of households who suffered catastrophic health expenditures was found.

  6. Distributed Resource Allocation for Proportional Fairness in Multi-Band Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, I-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A challenging problem in multi-band multi-cell self-organized wireless systems, such as multi-channel Wi-Fi networks, femto/pico cells in 3G/4G cellular networks, and more recent wireless networks over TV white spaces, is of distributed resource allocation. This involves four components: channel selection, client association, channel access, and client scheduling. In this paper, we present a unified framework for jointly addressing the four components with the global system objective of maximizing the clients throughput in a proportionally fair manner. Our formulation allows a natural dissociation of the problem into two sub-parts. We show that the first part, involving channel access and client scheduling, is convex and derive a distributed adaptation procedure for achieving Pareto-optimal solution. For the second part, involving channel selection and client association, we develop a Gibbs-sampler based approach for local adaptation to achieve the global objective, as well as derive fast greedy algorithms fr...

  7. Congestion Control for a Fair Packet Delivery in WSN: From a Complex System Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aguirre-Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose that packets travelling across a wireless sensor network (WSN can be seen as the active agents that make up a complex system, just like a bird flock or a fish school, for instance. From this perspective, the tools and models that have been developed to study this kind of systems have been applied. This is in order to create a distributed congestion control based on a set of simple rules programmed at the nodes of the WSN. Our results show that it is possible to adapt the carried traffic to the network capacity, even under stressing conditions. Also, the network performance shows a smooth degradation when the traffic goes beyond a threshold which is settled by the proposed self-organized control. In contrast, without any control, the network collapses before this threshold. The use of the proposed solution provides an effective strategy to address some of the common problems found in WSN deployment by providing a fair packet delivery. In addition, the network congestion is mitigated using adaptive traffic mechanisms based on a satisfaction parameter assessed by each packet which has impact on the global satisfaction of the traffic carried by the WSN.

  8. Congestion control for a fair packet delivery in WSN: from a complex system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Guerrero, Daniela; Marcelín-Jiménez, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Colina, Enrique; Pascoe-Chalke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose that packets travelling across a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be seen as the active agents that make up a complex system, just like a bird flock or a fish school, for instance. From this perspective, the tools and models that have been developed to study this kind of systems have been applied. This is in order to create a distributed congestion control based on a set of simple rules programmed at the nodes of the WSN. Our results show that it is possible to adapt the carried traffic to the network capacity, even under stressing conditions. Also, the network performance shows a smooth degradation when the traffic goes beyond a threshold which is settled by the proposed self-organized control. In contrast, without any control, the network collapses before this threshold. The use of the proposed solution provides an effective strategy to address some of the common problems found in WSN deployment by providing a fair packet delivery. In addition, the network congestion is mitigated using adaptive traffic mechanisms based on a satisfaction parameter assessed by each packet which has impact on the global satisfaction of the traffic carried by the WSN.

  9. Fair Isle

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An analyses of the name Fair Isle. It is argued that the name is likely to be linked to more than 20 other similar names, mostly Færøy in Norway, and that the etymology is from Old Norse fara and ferd, 'travel, journey'. The motive behind the names is the importance of these islands for travel, and Fair Isle between Orkney and Shetland exceptionally so.

  10. Fair Testing

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the notion of fair testing, a formal testing theory in the style of De Nicola and Hennessy where divergences are disregarded as long as there are visible outgoing transitions. The usual testing theories, such as the standard model of failure pre-order, do not allow such fair interpretations because of the way in which they ensure their compositionality with respect to abstraction from observable actions. This feature is usually present in the form of a hiding-operator (CSP, ACP...

  11. On fairness and randomness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the behavior of non-deterministic systems under fairness constraints, and the behavior of probabilistic systems. To this end, first a framework based on computable stopping strategies is developed that provides a common foundation for describing both fair...... and probabilistic behavior. On the basis of stopping strategies it is then shown that fair behavior corresponds in a precise sense to random behavior in the sense of Martin-Löf's definition of randomness. We view probabilistic systems as concrete implementations of more abstract non-deterministic systems. Under...... this perspective the question is investigated what probabilistic properties are needed in such an implementation to guarantee (with probability one) certain required fairness properties in the behavior of the probabilistic system. Generalizing earlier concepts of ε -bounded transition probabilities, we introduce...

  12. Estimating the sustainability of hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.; Zuidberg, J.; Veldhuis, J.

    2008-01-01

    Several airports in the world are or will be confronted with capacity problems in the near future. As a result of this congestion, many airports will face a selectivity problem: which traffic segments must be accommodated and which segments are less crucial? At hub airports there is generally one

  13. Beijing: Next International Financial Hub?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Beijing's new financial dream On May 5,the Beijing Municipal Government released a notice regarding its plans to spur the financial industry,vowing to put forth a strong effort to become the national financial decision-making center,financial management center and financial information and services center,and formally announcing its ambitious aspiration to become a financial hub with international influence.

  14. On the spectral-energy efficiency and rate fairness tradeoff in relay-aided cooperative OFDMA systems

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Zhengyu; Ni, Qiang; Navaie, Keivan; Hou, S.; Wu, S.

    2016-01-01

    In resource constrained wireless systems, achieving higher spectral efficiency (SE) and energy efficiency (EE), and greater rate fairness are conflicting objectives. Here a general framework is presented to analyze the tradeoff among these three performance metrics in cooperative OFDMA systems with decode-and-forward (DF) relaying, where subcarrier pairing and allocation, relay selection, choice of transmission strategy, and power allocation are jointly considered. In our analytical framework...

  15. Violation of fair sampling for Bell inequalities with high-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dada, Adetunmise C

    2011-01-01

    The fair sampling or detection loophole for Bell inequalities is often understood as mainly relating to the overall efficiency of the detectors used in an experiment. For certain kinds of postselection, the fair sampling condition may however be violated in much more intricate ways. We argue that this is especially relevant for experimental Bell tests in high dimensions, including experimental tests using the orbital angular momentum of light. Here, the fair sampling assumption may be violated even if the measurements have perfect efficiency within the tested subspaces. An experiment will measure count rates rather than probabilities for outcomes to occur, and if the different measurement settings on a subsystem are not correctly chosen, this may lead to apparent violation of Bell inequalities for separable states, and violation of Tsirelson's bound for entangled states.

  16. Usable optimistic fair exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Küpçü, Alptekin; Lysyanskaya, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fairly exchanging digital content is an everyday problem. It has been shown that fair exchange cannot be achieved without a trusted third party (called the Arbiter). Yet, even with a trusted party, it is still non-trivial to come up with an efficient solution, especially one that can be used in a p2p file sharing system with a high volume of data exchanged. We provide an efficient optimistic fair exchange mechanism for bartering digital files, where receiving a payment in return for a file (b...

  17. Fairness for Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access in 5G Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timotheou, Stelios; Krikidis, Ioannis

    2015-10-01

    In non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) downlink, multiple data flows are superimposed in the power domain and user decoding is based on successive interference cancellation. NOMA's performance highly depends on the power split among the data flows and the associated power allocation (PA) problem. In this letter, we study NOMA from a fairness standpoint and we investigate PA techniques that ensure fairness for the downlink users under i) instantaneous channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, and ii) average CSI. Although the formulated problems are non-convex, we have developed low-complexity polynomial algorithms that yield the optimal solution in both cases considered.

  18. Book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss academic publishing house 'Presses Polytechniques Universitaires Romandes'will be presenting its most recent scientific and technical publications at a book fair in the lobby of the Main Building (60) from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday 28 September 2006.

  19. Toward Fairness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN RAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ How can countries ensure a fair business environment in the flee trade area (FTA) between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)? The question triggered wide discussion among partici-pants at a forum on the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) held on January 7-8 in Nanning, capital of southwest China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  20. Subsea gas transition hubs

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Pål Morten

    2014-01-01

    Gassco is the operator of two platforms with gas transport functions. These platforms are getting old and require large modifications to extend the lifetime and maintain their functions. Rapid development in subsea technology the recent years enables functions that earlier where performed by offshore platforms to be converted into subsea systems. Subsea developments offer the potential of reduced CAPEX, OPEX and risk reduction in terms of HSE. This makes subsea developments an attractive alte...

  1. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  2. Variable volume combustor with center hub fuel staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2016-08-23

    The present application and the resultant patent provide a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles and a fuel injection system for providing a flow of fuel to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles. The fuel injection system may include a center hub for providing the flow of fuel therethrough. The center hub may include a first supply circuit for a first micro-mixer fuel nozzle and a second supply circuit for a second micro-mixer fuel nozzle.

  3. A readout system for the micro-vertex-detector demonstrator for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, Christoph

    2011-06-09

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment (CBM) is a fixed target heavy ion experiment currently in preparation at the future FAIR accelerator complex in Darmstadt. The CBM experiment focuses on the measurements of diagnostic probes of the early and dense phase of the fireball at beam energies from 8 up to 45 AGeV. As observables, rare hadronic, leptonic and photonic probes are used, including open charm. Open charm will be identified by reconstructing the secondary decay vertex of the corresponding short lived particles. As the central component for track reconstruction, a detector system based on silicon semiconductor detectors is planned. The first three stations of the Silicon Tracking System (STS) make up the so-called Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) operating in moderate vacuum. Because of the well-balanced compromise between an excellent spatial resolution (few {mu}m), low material budget ({proportional_to}50 {mu}m Si), adequate radiation tolerance and readout speed, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on CMOS technology are more suited than any other technology for the reconstruction of the secondary vertex in CBM. A new detector concept has to be developed. Two MVD-Demonstrator modules have been successfully tested with 120 GeV pions at the CERN-SPS. The main topic of this thesis is the development of a control and readout concept of several MVD-Demonstrator modules with a common data acquisition system. In order to achieve the required results a front-end electronics device has been developed which is capable of reading the analogue signals of two sensors on a ex-print cable. The high data rate of the MAPS sensors (1.2 Gbit per second and sensor by 50 MHz and 12 bit ADC resolution) requires a readout system which processes the data on-line in a pipeline to avoid dead times. In order to implement the pipeline processing an FPGA is used, which is located on an additional hardware platform. In order to integrate the MVD-Demonstrator readout board in the

  4. Why Do Hubs Tend to Be Essential in Protein Networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The protein-protein interaction (PPI network has a small number of highly connected protein nodes (known as hubs and many poorly connected nodes. Genome-wide studies show that deletion of a hub protein is more likely to be lethal than deletion of a non-hub protein, a phenomenon known as the centrality-lethality rule. This rule is widely believed to reflect the special importance of hubs in organizing the network, which in turn suggests the biological significance of network architectures, a key notion of systems biology. Despite the popularity of this explanation, the underlying cause of the centrality-lethality rule has never been critically examined. We here propose the concept of essential PPIs, which are PPIs that are indispensable for the survival or reproduction of an organism. Our network analysis suggests that the centrality-lethality rule is unrelated to the network architecture, but is explained by the simple fact that hubs have large numbers of PPIs, therefore high probabilities of engaging in essential PPIs. We estimate that ~ 3% of PPIs are essential in the yeast, accounting for ~ 43% of essential genes. As expected, essential PPIs are evolutionarily more conserved than nonessential PPIs. Considering the role of essential PPIs in determining gene essentiality, we find the yeast PPI network functionally more robust than random networks, yet far less robust than the potential optimum. These and other findings provide new perspectives on the biological relevance of network structure and robustness.

  5. Why do hubs tend to be essential in protein networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionglei He

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The protein-protein interaction (PPI network has a small number of highly connected protein nodes (known as hubs and many poorly connected nodes. Genome-wide studies show that deletion of a hub protein is more likely to be lethal than deletion of a non-hub protein, a phenomenon known as the centrality-lethality rule. This rule is widely believed to reflect the special importance of hubs in organizing the network, which in turn suggests the biological significance of network architectures, a key notion of systems biology. Despite the popularity of this explanation, the underlying cause of the centrality-lethality rule has never been critically examined. We here propose the concept of essential PPIs, which are PPIs that are indispensable for the survival or reproduction of an organism. Our network analysis suggests that the centrality-lethality rule is unrelated to the network architecture, but is explained by the simple fact that hubs have large numbers of PPIs, therefore high probabilities of engaging in essential PPIs. We estimate that approximately 3% of PPIs are essential in the yeast, accounting for approximately 43% of essential genes. As expected, essential PPIs are evolutionarily more conserved than nonessential PPIs. Considering the role of essential PPIs in determining gene essentiality, we find the yeast PPI network functionally more robust than random networks, yet far less robust than the potential optimum. These and other findings provide new perspectives on the biological relevance of network structure and robustness.

  6. Fair Pi

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we define fair computations in the pi-calculus. We follow Costa and Stirling's approach for CCS-like languages but exploit a more natural labeling method of process actions to filter out unfair process executions. The new labeling allows us to prove all the significant properties of the original one, such as unicity, persistence and disappearance of labels. It also turns out that the labeled pi-calculus is a conservative extension of the standard one. We...

  7. Does capital gains tax add to or detract from the fairness of the South African tax system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Maroun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to add to the existing body of knowledge on the perceived impact of Capital Gains Tax (CGT on the fairness of the South Africa Tax System. Building on the largely qualitative work done by Vivian (2006 and Smith (1776, this research makes use of an extensive literature review followed by a correspondence analysis to complement the existing body of research into this area. The literature review discuss the fairness criteria advanced by Smith (1776 (Smith’s tax canon and identify ‘unfairness characteristics’ of CGT.  The correspondence analysis only tests the theories advanced in the literature review and revealed that there are potential sources of unfairness inherent in the Eighth Schedule to the Income Tax Act No. 58 of 1962 (the Eighth Schedule. These include the possibility that that CGT gives rise to double tax and imposes a high burden on taxpayer’s ability to bear the tax load.

  8. New approaches to the marine transport hub competitive growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Botnaryuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of marine transport hub competitive growth in the context of new economic conditions are considered in the paper. Analyzing the present tools of the transport hub competitive growth, the author emphasizes their production-logistics orientation. However, when rendering services to cargo and ship owners, members of the MTH establish official (contractual and informal relationship and exchange information on a permanent basis. The research into the nature of such a relationship brought the author to the conclusion that generation and further development of the partnership is a basis for new ways of the transport hub competitive growth. Considering the MTH as an institution, the author suggests that a general marketing information system intended for improvement of the services rendered, which will undeniably enhance competitive advantage.

  9. Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    tools in order to deal with uncertainties and to provide reliable operating conditions. On a broader scale, an energy hub includes diverse energy sources for supplying both electrical load and heating/cooling demands with stochastic behaviors. Therefore, this paper utilizes the Information Decision Gap...... Theory (IGDT) to tackle this uncertainty as an efficient robust optimization tool with low complexity to ensure the optimal operation of the system according to the priorities of the decision maker entity. The proposed optimization framework is also implemented on a benchmark energy hub which includes...

  10. Bus coordination holding control for transit hubs under APTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Jing; ZHAO Ming

    2009-01-01

    To increase the passenger transferring efficiency, the bus coordination holding control for transit hubs,hich is as an important dynamic dispatching method for improving the service level of transit hubs, was studied in the framework of bus coordination dispatching mode. Firstly, the bus coordination holding control flow was studied based on Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) environment. Then a control model was presented to optimize the bus vehicle holding time, and a genetic algorithm was designed as the solving method. In the end, an example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy and the algorithm.

  11. Network performance, hub connectivity potential, and competitive position of primary airports in Asia/Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumoto, H.; Veldhuis, J.; de Wit, J.; Burghouwt, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, hub-and-spoke network configurations are more and more developed in the Asia/Pacific region. In this paper, it is argued that the measurement of network performance in hub-and-spoke systems should take into account the quantity and quality of both direct and indirect connections. The NetSc

  12. The once & future repository, HKU's Scholars Hub

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, DT; Castro, P.; Bollini, A; Mennielli, M

    2015-01-01

    The HKU Scholars Hub (the Hub) began service as a traditional institutional repository of The University of Hong Kong (HKU). However this format was not compelling to HKU researchers. Fortunately a subsequent reformation of the HKU statement on university mission and vision infused new life and purpose into the project. Over the next five years, in partnership with the Italian University Consortium, Cineca, the HKU Libraries transformed the Hub from an IR to a Current Research Information ...

  13. 长三角完善现代化枢纽型基础设施体系的思路和对策%Ideas and Policy Recommendations on Improving Infrastructure System in Yangtze River Delta to a Modernized Hub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢京辉

    2009-01-01

    Building a modernized hub - like infrastructure system is an important part of the regional infrastructure building in Yangtze River Delta. This paper analyzes the developmental trend and major problems in building a modernized hub - like infrastructure building in Yangtze River Delta, proposes tasks in the short run and in the long run, and points out major institutional and practical issues to be solved, to serve as references for policy -making in improving the infrastructure system in Yangtze River Delta.%现代化枢纽型基础设施体系建设是长三角区域基础设施建设的重要内容.本文对长三角现代化枢纽型基础设施体系的发展态势、存在的主要问题进行了分析,提出长三角现代化枢纽型基础设施体系建设的长远和近期任务,并提出需要解决的重大体制机制,力争为长三角完善现代化枢纽型基础设施体系提供决策参考.

  14. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs...

  15. Emplee Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Performance Management System and Performance Appraisal Fairness at the National Security Agency / Christinah Mpho Makhubela

    OpenAIRE

    Makhubela, Christinah Mpho

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with the employee perception on the effectiveness of the performance management and performance appraisal system fairness at the National Security Agency, Department of Training. Organisational factors such as (appraisal knowledge), were used as a guide for assessing effectiveness of the system and its fairness. The quantitative approach/method was used to gain and understand employee perceptions on the system based on their personal experiences of the organisatio...

  16. Portable Desktop Apps with GitHub Electron

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Wouldn't it be nice if you could develop applications that work everywhere, regardless of Operating System or Platform? Even better, what if you could employ the same front-end technologies you use for your web/mobile apps? Meet GitHub Electron.

  17. Development of prototype components for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton

    2013-06-26

    The CBM experiment at future accelerator facility FAIR will investigate the properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The experimental programm is different from the heavy-ion experiments at RHIC (BNL) and LHC (CERN) that create nuclear matter at high temperatures. In contrast, the study of the QCD phase diagram in the region of the highest net baryon densities and moderate temperatures that is weakly explored will be performed with high precision. For this, collisions of different heavy-ion beams at the energies of 10-45 GeV/nucleon with nuclear target will be measured. The physics programme of the CBM experiment includes measurement of both rare probes and bulk observables that originate from various phases of a nucleus-nucleus collision. In particular, decay of particles with charm quarks can be registered by reconstructing the decay vertex detached from the primary interaction point by several hundreds of micrometers (e.g., decay length cτ=123 μm for D{sup 0} meson). For this, precise tracking and full event reconstruction with up to 600 charged particle tracks per event within acceptance are required. Other rare probes require operation at interaction rate of up to 10 MHz. The detector system that performs tracking has to provide high position resolution on the order of 10 μm, operate at high rates and have radiation tolerant design with low material budget. The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is being designed for charged-particle tracking in a magnetic field. The system consists of eight tracking station located in the aperture of a dipole magnet with 1 T field. For tracks with momentum above 1 GeV, momentum resolution of such a system is expected to be about 1%. In order to fulfill this task, thorough optimization of the detector design is required. In particular, minimal material budget has to be achieved. Production of a detector module requires research and development activities with respect to the module components and their integration

  18. Development of prototype components for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton

    2013-06-26

    The CBM experiment at future accelerator facility FAIR will investigate the properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The experimental programm is different from the heavy-ion experiments at RHIC (BNL) and LHC (CERN) that create nuclear matter at high temperatures. In contrast, the study of the QCD phase diagram in the region of the highest net baryon densities and moderate temperatures that is weakly explored will be performed with high precision. For this, collisions of different heavy-ion beams at the energies of 10-45 GeV/nucleon with nuclear target will be measured. The physics programme of the CBM experiment includes measurement of both rare probes and bulk observables that originate from various phases of a nucleus-nucleus collision. In particular, decay of particles with charm quarks can be registered by reconstructing the decay vertex detached from the primary interaction point by several hundreds of micrometers (e.g., decay length cτ=123 μm for D{sup 0} meson). For this, precise tracking and full event reconstruction with up to 600 charged particle tracks per event within acceptance are required. Other rare probes require operation at interaction rate of up to 10 MHz. The detector system that performs tracking has to provide high position resolution on the order of 10 μm, operate at high rates and have radiation tolerant design with low material budget. The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is being designed for charged-particle tracking in a magnetic field. The system consists of eight tracking station located in the aperture of a dipole magnet with 1 T field. For tracks with momentum above 1 GeV, momentum resolution of such a system is expected to be about 1%. In order to fulfill this task, thorough optimization of the detector design is required. In particular, minimal material budget has to be achieved. Production of a detector module requires research and development activities with respect to the module components and their integration

  19. A multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm for a capacitated hub covering location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hub location problem appears in a variety of applications, including airline systems, cargo delivery systems and telecommunication network design. Hub location problems deal with finding the location of hub facilities and the allocation of demand nodes to these located hub facilities. In this paper, a new model for the capacitated single allocation hub covering location problem is presented. Instead of using capacity constraints to limit the amount of flow received by the hubs, the second objective function is introduced to minimize service times in the hubs. The service time in the hubs includes the waiting time of received flows in a queue and the time to get services. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, a new weight-based multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm (MOICA is designed to find near-optimal solutions. To validate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the solutions obtained by the MOICA are compared by the exact solutions of the mathematical programming model.

  20. Planning a Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jim

    1976-01-01

    Presented are views, on planning science fairs and science fair projects, of a fair coordinator, a science teacher, and students. Also included are 25 questions which might result in science fair projects. (SL)

  1. ID-Based Fair Off-Line Electronic Cash System with Multiple Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Ji Wang; Yong Tang; Qing Li

    2007-01-01

    ID-based public key cryptography (ID-PKC) has many advantages over certificate-based public key cryptog-raphy (CA-PKC), and has drawn researchers’ extensive attention in recent years. However, the existing electronic cash schemes are constructed under CA-PKC, and there seems no electronic cash scheme under ID-PKC up to now to the best of our knowledge. It is important to study how to construct electronic cash schemes based on ID-PKC from views on both practical perspective and pure research issue. In this paper, we present a simpler and provably secure ID-based restrictive partially blind signature (RPBS), and then propose an ID-based fair off-line electronic cash (ID-FOLC) scheme with multiple banks based on the proposed ID-based RPBS. The proposed ID-FOLC scheme with multiple banks is more efficient than existing electronic cash schemes with multiple banks based on group blind signature.

  2. Virtual Campus Hub technical evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercoulen, Frank; Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio;

    This report describes and discusses the technical achievements of the Virtual Campus Hub project and formulates a brief agenda for the future.......This report describes and discusses the technical achievements of the Virtual Campus Hub project and formulates a brief agenda for the future....

  3. Logistics hubs: an integration of transport infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Logistics hubs are very well established internationally and many examples exist where these have been successfully built and implemented. This success have lead to the proliferation of such hubs and in South Africa there are many "decision makers...

  4. FAIR project at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Oliver; Spiller, Peter; Stoecker, Horst

    FAIR -- the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe -- constructed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt comprises an international centre of heavy ion accelerators that will drive heavy ion and antimatter research (FBTR, 2006). FAIR will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing a large variety of fore-front research in physics and applied science. FAIR will deliver antiproton and ion beams of unprecedented intensities and qualities. The main part of the FAIR facility is a sophisticated and cost efficient accelerator system, which delivers parallel beams to different experiments of the FAIR experimental collaborations -- APPA, NuSTAR, CBM and PANDA. The accelerated primary beams will then be employed to create new, often highly exotic particles in a series of parallel experimental programs. Experiments with exotic particles will explore fundamental processes which are expected to have taken place in the early phases and still happen in the on-going evolution of the Universe. These processes produced the basic constituents of matter and overall structure we observe today...

  5. A Collaborative Scheduling Model for the Supply-Hub with Multiple Suppliers and Multiple Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment.

  6. Hub discovery in partial correlation graphical models

    CERN Document Server

    Hero, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    This paper treats the problem of screening a p-variate sample for strongly and multiply connected vertices in the partial correlation graph associated with the the partial correlation matrix of the sample. This problem, called hub screening, is important in many applications ranging from network security to computational biology to finance to social networks. In the area of network security, a node that becomes a hub of high correlation with neighboring nodes might signal anomalous activity such as a coordinated flooding attack. In the area of computational biology the set of hubs of a gene expression correlation graph can serve as potential targets for drug treatment to block a pathway or modulate host response. In the area of finance a hub might indicate a vulnerable financial instrument or sector whose collapse might have major repercussions on the market. In the area of social networks a hub of observed interactions between criminal suspects could be an influential ringleader. The techniques and theory pr...

  7. Dynamic hubs show competitive and static hubs non-competitive regulation of their interaction partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurv Goel

    Full Text Available Date hub proteins have 1 or 2 interaction interfaces but many interaction partners. This raises the question of whether all partner proteins compete for the interaction interface of the hub or if the cell carefully regulates aspects of this process? Here, we have used real-time rendering of protein interaction networks to analyse the interactions of all the 1 or 2 interface hubs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the cell cycle. By integrating previously determined structural and gene expression data, and visually hiding the nodes (proteins and their edges (interactions during their troughs of expression, we predict when interactions of hubs and their partners are likely to exist. This revealed that 20 out of all 36 one- or two- interface hubs in the yeast interactome fell within two main groups. The first was dynamic hubs with static partners, which can be considered as 'competitive hubs'. Their interaction partners will compete for the interaction interface of the hub and the success of any interaction will be dictated by the kinetics of interaction (abundance and affinity and subcellular localisation. The second was static hubs with dynamic partners, which we term 'non-competitive hubs'. Regulatory mechanisms are finely tuned to lessen the presence and/or effects of competition between the interaction partners of the hub. It is possible that these regulatory processes may also be used by the cell for the regulation of other, non-cell cycle processes.

  8. How to set challenging goals and conduct fair evaluation in regional public health systems. Insights from Valencia and Tuscany Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainieri, Milena; Vola, Federico; Gomez Soriano, Gregorio; Nuti, Sabina

    2016-11-01

    The definition of "the right targets" and the way the evaluation of results is performed affect the willingness to commit to new challenges, which is a factor that influences the relationship between goal setting and performance results. Indeed, some authors claim that the choice of an inappropriate goal-setting procedure is a major cause of failure of management control systems. Goal setting theorists found that assigning a specific and challenging goal leads to higher performance than (a) an easy goal, (b) a general goal or (c) no goal setting. Despite this evidence, yet, few proposals concern the definition of what is "challenging". This paper focuses on two issues: (a) what is to be considered a challenging goal and (b) what is a "fair evaluation" in the health care sector. This work suggests that benchmarking is a valid support to solve the previous dilemmas. Relying on two Regional European advanced experiences - Valencia in Spain and Tuscany in Italy -, this paper aims to provide conceptual methods that can help managers define challenging goals and conduct fair evaluation about their achievement. Although these Regions adopted different governance models, both of them applied very similar techniques, which seem to be associated to an improvement of their performance and a reduction of unwarranted variation.

  9. Multi-Cell MIMO Downlink with Cell Cooperation and Fair Scheduling: a Large-System Limit Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Huh, Hoon; Moon, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tae; Lee, Inkyu

    2010-01-01

    We consider the downlink of a cellular network with multiple cells and multi-antenna base stations, including a realistic distance-dependent pathloss model, clusters of cooperating cells, and general "fairness" requirements. Beyond Monte Carlo simulation, no efficient computation method to evaluate the ergodic throughput of such systems has been presented so far. We propose an analytic solution based on the combination of large random matrix results and convex optimization. The proposed method is computationally much more efficient than Monte Carlo simulation and provides surprisingly accurate approximations for the actual finite-dimensional systems, even for a small number of users and base station antennas. Numerical examples include 2-cell linear and three-sectored 7-cell planar layouts, with no inter-cell cooperation, sector cooperation, or full inter-cell cooperation.

  10. Simulations of a dual TOF detector system for isochronous mass spectrometry in the collector ring at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwisch, Marcel; Kuzminchuk-Feuerstein, Natalia [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Knoebel, Ronja; Plass, Wolfgang; Scheidenberger, Christoph [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Weick, Helmut [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Direct mass measurements of short-lived exotic nuclei yield key information for modern nuclear physics. Experimentally determined mass values of exotic nuclei have a big impact on numerous applications in fundamental and applied science. With the Superconducting-Fragment Separator (Super-FRS) at the new FAIR facility a whole new range of exotic nuclei far away from stability will be accessible. Higher beam intensities and larger phase space volumes impose new challenges for the detection systems. To measure masses of short-lived exotic nuclei one can use the Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) which presently is successfully performed at the FRS-ESR facility. For IMS in the future Collector Ring, (CR) a first version of a new dual Time-Of-Flight (TOF) detector system, which fulfills the requirements of the new beam parameters has been designed. Simulation results for the new TOF detector in the CR will be shown.

  11. Quality assurance of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors for the silicon tracking system in the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionov, Pavel [Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the core tracking detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR. The system's task is to reconstruct the trajectories of the charged particles produced in the beam-target interactions, provide their momentum determination, and enable the detection of decay topologies. The STS will comprise 1220 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors. After production each sensor will go through a number of Quality Assurance procedures to verify their validity for performance in the STS and also to confirm the manufacturer's data. In this talk, results of the quality assurance procedures that are being applied to the latest STS prototype sensors, including detailed tests of the quality of each single strip, long-term stability and preparations for volume tests during series production, are presented.

  12. Performance evaluation of interconnected logistics networks confronted to hub disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper investigates performance of interconnected logistics networks confronted to disruptions at hub level. With traditional supply chain network design, companies define and optimize their own logistics networks, resulting in current logistics systems being a set of independent heterogeneous logistics networks. The concept of PI aims to integrate independent logistics networks into a global, open, interconnected system. Prior research has shown that the new organ...

  13. A Hub Matrix Theory and Applications to Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Kung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers communications and network systems whose properties are characterized by the gaps of the leading eigenvalues of AHA for a matrix A. It is shown that a sufficient and necessary condition for a large eigen-gap is that A is a “hub” matrix in the sense that it has dominant columns. Some applications of this hub theory in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO wireless systems are presented.

  14. Innovation Hub How-To

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Firms around the world are eager to replicate the successes of enterprises that have established innovation labs in California's Silicon Valley. An analysis of four leading US companies that have set up idea incubators in the Valley—Xerox, Apple, Google, and Cisco—point to eight factors for succe...... disruptive over incremental innovation, and being patient. Regardless of where an innovation hub is established, the key to success lies in hiring creative, intrinsically motivated staff and then giving them the freedom to do what they do best.......Firms around the world are eager to replicate the successes of enterprises that have established innovation labs in California's Silicon Valley. An analysis of four leading US companies that have set up idea incubators in the Valley—Xerox, Apple, Google, and Cisco—point to eight factors for success...... in establishing an innovative environment: carefully considering the decision to set up such a center, hiring the right people, designing a framework for effective output, creating a buffer from bureaucratic distractions, securing a leader to champion the effort, focusing on business outcomes, fostering...

  15. Fair Preorder for Partial Fair Kripke Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蔚文; 陆鑫达

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed how to handle the fairness conditions in partial Kripke structures. The partial Krip-ke structures were used for partial state spaces model checking, which is a new technique to solve problems of stateexplosion. This paper extended the partial Kripke structure with fairness conditions by defining a partial fair Krip-ke structure, and a 3-valued fair CTL(Computation-Tree Logic) semantics correspondingly. It defines a fair pre-order between partial Kripke structures that preserves fairness and is akin to fair bisimulation. In addition, a perti-nent theorem is also given, which indicates the relationship between the partial state spaces and the more completeone by illustrating the characterizations of states in the partial fair structure in terms of CTL formulae.

  16. Sports Fair Play and Critical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓峰

    2014-01-01

    Here, this paper suggests that CIFP tamp the ideal of fair play, re-establish the fair play value system, and conduct effective reform of organization and cause correspondingly instead of becoming agent of European centralism and American hegemonism.

  17. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  18. Motor coordination: a local hub for coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-03-31

    A local interneuron of a crayfish central pattern generator serves as a hub that integrates ascending and descending coordinating information and passes it on to a local oscillatory microcircuit to coordinate a series of segmental appendages known as swimmerets.

  19. An Alternative Science Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romjue, Mary Kalen; Clementson, John J.

    1992-01-01

    Proposes the organization of noncompetitive science fairs to create a more positive learning experience for children in the elementary grades. Describes methods of organizing and judging the fair, and provides a list of suggested resources for science fair projects. (MDH)

  20. On the Popularity of GitHub Applications: A Preliminary Note

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Hudson; Valente, Marco Tulio; Hora, Andre; Coelho, Jailton

    2015-01-01

    GitHub is the world's largest collection of open source software. Therefore, it is important both to software developers and users to compare and track the popularity of GitHub repositories. In this paper, we propose a framework to assess the popularity of GitHub software, using their number of stars. We also propose a set of popularity growth patterns, which describe the evolution of the number of stars of a system over time. We show that stars tend to correlate with other measures, like for...

  1. Multiple Hub Network Choice in the Liberalized European Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berechman, Joseph; deWit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A key question that so far has received relatively little attention in the germane literature is that of the changes at various airports as a result of the EU liberalization policies. That is, presently, most major European airports still benefit from the so-called home-carrier phenomenon where the country's publicly or semi-publicly owned carrier uses the country's main airport as its gateway hub and, consequently, the home-carrier is also the principal user of this airport (in terms of proportion of total aircraft movements, number of passengers transported, connections, slots ownership, etc.). The country's main airport has substantially benefited from these monopoly conditions of airline captivity, strongly determined by the bilateral system of international air transport regulation. Therefore, European major airports were used to operate in essentially different markets, compared to the increasingly competitive markets of their home based carriers. This partly explains relative stability of transport volumes and financial results of European major airports compared to the relatively volatile financial results of most European national airlines. However, the liberalization of European aviation is likely to change this situation. Market access is open now to all community carriers, i.e. carriers with majority ownership and effective control in the hands of EU citizens. Ticket prices are free, governments can only intervene in case of dumping or excessive pricing. A community airline can choose its seat in any of the 15 member states. Licensing procedures are harmonized between member states. In the last few months community carriers have had unrestricted route access within the EU. Most probably this development will be extended to countries inside and outside Europe. Last year the European Commission got the mandate to start negotiations with 10 other European countries. In the meantime the EC has also started negotiations with the USA on so-called soft rights

  2. The application of design criteria for locating a hub configured supply chain for a restaurant cluster in the Stellenbosch area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B. Struwig

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Restaurants, in general, utilise numerous suppliers. Normally they deliver on different days in the week and at different times during the day, logistically not an optimum approach. Not only does the current practice cause frequent interruptions, but by segregating the food supply chain unnecessary traffic is generated. This article investigated the need for developing a third party supplier hub, the best positioning of that hub and the most economical routes to the customers. With the aim of providing non-franchised restaurants with the necessary leverage to become market leaders, the hub is planned to only service the restaurants within the vicinity of the Stellenbosch area. In such a hub-configured supply chain, the suppliers would be delivering to the proposed hub, from where once-off deliveries to all the restaurants may be made on days and/or times determined by them. In order to investigate the benefits of providing such a hub structure, a systematic implementation approach was used. The first step was to do market research in order to establish the need for such a hub. That is, the viability of the hub from a restaurant’s perspective was established. The next step entailed the investigation of the design criteria needed in determining a favourable hub location. Four possible hub locations were identified. The Clark and Wright’s savings algorithm was then used to determine the optimal hub location and the feasibility of the results was verified with the aid of a global positioning system (GPS device. The last steps followed involved the determination of an effective hub floor plan that may be utilised, possible products that can be supplied to the restaurants and the necessary assets needed to provide the hub’s service. Finally, by incorporating all these facets, a cost analysis was done to determine the hub’s profitability.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis; Ilie, Marcel; Schallhorn, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft components may be damaged due to airflow produced by Environmental Control Systems (ECS). There are uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow field around a spacecraft from the ECS System. This paper describes an approach to estimate the uncertainty in using CFD to predict the airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft.

  4. Fair and sustainable food systems: from vicious cycles to virtuous circles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimbert, Michel

    2012-06-15

    Modern industrial food, energy and water systems are fundamentally unsustainable. Their linear, and increasingly globalised, structure assumes that the Earth has an endless supply of natural resources at one end, and a limitless capacity to absorb waste and pollution at the other. Our continued reliance on these industrial systems is pushing the world into a vicious cycle of food shortages, climate chaos, famine and disaster. How can we transform our production models for food, energy and water to deliver lower ecological and social footprints? The answer lies in using circular models that mimic natural systems to reduce both external inputs and waste. Case studies from across the world show that circular production systems can and do work for sustainability and equity. But these remain largely isolated examples. Upscaling successful circular systems for food, energy, water and waste management requires policymakers to act on seven fronts.

  5. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  6. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors with a pulsed infrared laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); GSI (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI (Germany); FAIR (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will comprise more than 1200 double-sided silicon microstrip sensors. For the quality assurance of the prototype sensors a laser test system has been built up. The aim of the sensor scans with the pulsed infrared laser system is to determine the charge sharing between strips and to measure the uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The laser system measures the sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infrared laser light (σ∼15 μm, λ=1060 nm). The duration (5 ns) and power (few mW) of the laser pulses are selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24k electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles in these sensors. Results from the characterization of monolithic active pixel sensors, to understand the spot-size of the laser, and laser scans for different sensors are presented.

  7. Quid pro quo: a mechanism for fair collaboration in networked systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Agustín; Fernández Anta, Antonio; López Fernández, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration may be understood as the execution of coordinated tasks (in the most general sense) by groups of users, who cooperate for achieving a common goal. Collaboration is a fundamental assumption and requirement for the correct operation of many communication systems. The main challenge when creating collaborative systems in a decentralized manner is dealing with the fact that users may behave in selfish ways, trying to obtain the benefits of the tasks but without participating in their execution. In this context, Game Theory has been instrumental to model collaborative systems and the task allocation problem, and to design mechanisms for optimal allocation of tasks. In this paper, we revise the classical assumptions of these models and propose a new approach to this problem. First, we establish a system model based on heterogenous nodes (users, players), and propose a basic distributed mechanism so that, when a new task appears, it is assigned to the most suitable node. The classical technique for compensating a node that executes a task is the use of payments (which in most networks are hard or impossible to implement). Instead, we propose a distributed mechanism for the optimal allocation of tasks without payments. We prove this mechanism to be robust evenevent in the presence of independent selfish or rationally limited players. Additionally, our model is based on very weak assumptions, which makes the proposed mechanisms susceptible to be implemented in networked systems (e.g., the Internet).

  8. Quid pro quo: a mechanism for fair collaboration in networked systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Santos

    Full Text Available Collaboration may be understood as the execution of coordinated tasks (in the most general sense by groups of users, who cooperate for achieving a common goal. Collaboration is a fundamental assumption and requirement for the correct operation of many communication systems. The main challenge when creating collaborative systems in a decentralized manner is dealing with the fact that users may behave in selfish ways, trying to obtain the benefits of the tasks but without participating in their execution. In this context, Game Theory has been instrumental to model collaborative systems and the task allocation problem, and to design mechanisms for optimal allocation of tasks. In this paper, we revise the classical assumptions of these models and propose a new approach to this problem. First, we establish a system model based on heterogenous nodes (users, players, and propose a basic distributed mechanism so that, when a new task appears, it is assigned to the most suitable node. The classical technique for compensating a node that executes a task is the use of payments (which in most networks are hard or impossible to implement. Instead, we propose a distributed mechanism for the optimal allocation of tasks without payments. We prove this mechanism to be robust evenevent in the presence of independent selfish or rationally limited players. Additionally, our model is based on very weak assumptions, which makes the proposed mechanisms susceptible to be implemented in networked systems (e.g., the Internet.

  9. Design and implementation of secure protocols for practical authentication and fair anonymity systems

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Vico, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Departamento de Ingeniería Informática. Fecha de lectura, mayo de 2015 With the huge growth of information and communication systems, as well as the computing power, privacy has become a main concern for Internet users. Certainly, nowadays users tend to prefer privacy respectful systems and, consequently, companies providing software solutions also need to worry about it. Nevertheless,...

  10. Fair Play And Fair Gain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Reform of the income distribution system tops the concerns of legislators and advisors On March 6,Han Zhaoshan and Gao Baoyu,two national lawmakers from northeast China’s Liaoning Province,walked around the neighborhood near their Beijing hotel room at lunch to talk with retired people and collect ideas for the income distribution system reform.

  11. A coordination mechanism with fair cost allocation for divergent multi-echelon inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the coordination of inventory control in divergent multi-echelon inventory systems under periodic review and decentralized control. Under decentralized control the installations decide upon replenishment policies that minimize their individual inventory costs. In general these

  12. A coordination mechanism with fair cost allocation for divergent multi-echelon inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the coordination of inventory control in divergent multi-echelon inventory systems under periodic review and decentralized control. Under decentralized control the installations decide upon replenishment policies that minimize their individual inventory costs. In general these

  13. Dissertation Defense: Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional validation by test only mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions.Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations. This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions

  14. Dissertation Defense Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional "validation by test only" mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions. Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations". This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics

  15. Validity and Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's critique on Xiaoming Xi's article, "How do we go about investigating test fairness?," which lays out a broad framework for studying fairness as comparable validity across groups within the population of interest. Xi proposes to develop a fairness argument that would identify and evaluate potential fairness-based…

  16. Test Fairness: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Xiaoming Xi's paper titled "How do we go about investigating test fairness?" In the paper, Xi offers "a means to fully integrate fairness investigations and practice". Given the current importance accorded to fairness in the language testing community, Xi makes a case for viewing fairness as an aspect…

  17. USDA Midwest and Northern Forests Regional Climate Hub: Assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Midwest Regional Climate Hub covers the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin and represents one of the most extensive and intensive agricultural systems in the world. The Northern Forests Climate Sub Hub shares this footprint and represents people...

  18. A Real-Time Web Services Hub to Improve Situation Awareness during Flash Flood Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, F. R.; Liu, F.; Maidment, D. R.; Hodges, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    The central Texas corridor is one of the most flash flood-prone regions in the United States. Over the years, flash floods have resulted in hundreds of flood fatalities and billions of dollars in property damage. In order to mitigate risk to residents and infrastructure during flood events, both citizens and emergency responders need to exhibit proactive behavior instead of reactive. Real-time and forecasted flood information is fairly limited and hard to come by at varying spatial scales. The University of Texas at Austin has collaborated with IBM Research-Austin and ESRI to build a distributed real-time flood information system through a framework that leverages large scale data management and distribution, Open Geospatial Consortium standardized web services, and smart map applications. Within this paradigm, observed precipitation data encoded in WaterML is ingested into HEC-HMS and then delivered to a high performance hydraulic routing software package developed by IBM that utilizes the latest advancements in VLSI design, numerical linear algebra and numerical integration techniques on contemporary multicore architecture to solve fully dynamic Saint Venant equations at both small and large scales. In this paper we present a real-time flood inundation map application that in conjunction with a web services Hub, seamlessly integrates hydrologic information available through both public and private data services, model services and mapping services. As a case study for this project, we demonstrate how this system has been implemented in the City of Austin, Texas.

  19. Matrix logistics indicators assessment of distributed transport hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Arefyev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper is devoted to the distributed transport hub substantiation and assessment. The paper  was an example of the technique and form an array of logistical factors as variables that determine this condition. Experience in organizing multimodal transport showed that the "bottleneck" of transport logistics are items of cargo handling ports, terminals, freight stations and warehouses. At the core of the solution of these problems is the problem of estimating the variables determine the Multi-purpose Hubs. The aim is to develop a method of forming the system of logistical multiplying factors determine the role of each of the types in the technologiacal process of distributed Multi-purpose Hubs. Methods: The assessment model for the formation of Distributed Transport Units  can be based on formal methods to predict the behavior of complex systems engineering complexes. Then one of the approaches to the solution of the problem may be the matrix method of technological factors. Results and conclusions: The proposed methodology of the selection and validation of logistic coefficients has the practical importance in the models development for assessing the condition and behavior of Distributed Transport.

  20. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. On the Quality of Collective Decisions in Sociotechnical Systems: Transparency, Fairness, and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porello, Daniele

    The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for evaluating the quality of collective decisions in sociotechnical systems (STS). We propose using a foundational ontology for conceptualizing the complex hierarchy of information involved in decisions in STS (e.g., normative, conceptual, factual, perceptual). Moreover, we introduce the concept of transparency of decisions as a necessary condition in order to assess the quality of decision-making in STS. We further view transparency as an entitlement of the agent affected by the decision: i.e., the collective decision should be justified.

  2. A Hedonism Hub in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharopoulos, G.; Lancaster, T. M.; Bracht, T.; Ihssen, N.; Maio, G. R.; Linden, D. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Human values are abstract ideals that motivate behavior. The motivational nature of human values raises the possibility that they might be underpinned by brain structures that are particularly involved in motivated behavior and reward processing. We hypothesized that variation in subcortical hubs of the reward system and their main connecting pathway, the superolateral medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) is associated with individual value orientation. We conducted Pearson's correlation between the scores of 10 human values and the volumes of 14 subcortical structures and microstructural properties of the medial forebrain bundle in a sample of 87 participants, correcting for multiple comparisons (i.e.,190). We found a positive association between the value that people attach to hedonism and the volume of the left globus pallidus (GP).We then tested whether microstructural parameters (i.e., fractional anisotropy and myelin volume fraction) of the slMFB, which connects with the GP, are also associated to hedonism and found a significant, albeit in an uncorrected level, positive association between the myelin volume fraction within the left slMFB and hedonism scores. This is the first study to elucidate the relationship between the importance people attach to the human value of hedonism and structural variation in reward-related subcortical brain regions. PMID:27473322

  3. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencko, Heather L.; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat). PMID:27853512

  4. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.

  5. Collaborative Data Analytics with DataHub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anant; Karger, David; Subramanyam, Harihar; Deshpande, Amol; Madden, Sam; Wu, Eugene; Elmore, Aaron; Parameswaran, Aditya; Zhang, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    While there have been many solutions proposed for storing and analyzing large volumes of data, all of these solutions have limited support for collaborative data analytics, especially given the many individuals and teams are simultaneously analyzing, modifying and exchanging datasets, employing a number of heterogeneous tools or languages for data analysis, and writing scripts to clean, preprocess, or query data. We demonstrate DataHub, a unified platform with the ability to load, store, query, collaboratively analyze, interactively visualize, interface with external applications, and share datasets. We will demonstrate the following aspects of the DataHub platform: (a) flexible data storage, sharing, and native versioning capabilities: multiple conference attendees can concurrently update the database and browse the different versions and inspect conflicts; (b) an app ecosystem that hosts apps for various data-processing activities: conference attendees will be able to effortlessly ingest, query, and visualize data using our existing apps; (c) thrift-based data serialization permits data analysis in any combination of 20+ languages, with DataHub as the common data store: conference attendees will be able to analyze datasets in R, Python, and Matlab, while the inputs and the results are still stored in DataHub. In particular, conference attendees will be able to use the DataHub notebook - an IPython-based notebook for analyzing data and storing the results of data analysis.

  6. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew; Reislev, Nina Linde; Garde, Ellen; Nielsen, Mads; Feragen, Aasa

    2016-03-01

    A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied, but can smooth discriminative signals in the population, degrading predictive performance. We present a novel hub-detection optimized for supervised learning that both clusters network nodes based on population level variation in connectivity and also takes the learning problem into account. The found hubs are a low-dimensional representation of the network and are chosen based on predictive performance as features for a linear regression. We apply our method to the problem of finding age-related changes in structural connectivity. We compare our supervised hub-detection (SHD) to an unsupervised hub-detection and a linear regression using the original network connections as features. The results show that the SHD is able to retain regression performance, while still finding hubs that represent the underlying variation in the population. Although here we applied the SHD to brain networks, it can be applied to any network regression problem. Further development of the presented algorithm will be the extension to other predictive models such as classification or non-linear regression.

  7. A Token-Based Fair Algorithm for Group Mutual Exclusion in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Swaroop

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The group mutual exclusion (GME problem is a generalization of the mutual exclusion problem. In group mutual exclusion, a process requests a session before entering its critical section (CS. Processes requesting the same session are allowed to be in their CS simultaneously, however, processes requesting different sessions must execute their CS in mutually exclusive way. The paper presents a token-based distributed algorithm for the GME problem in asynchronous message passing systems. The algorithm uses the concept of dynamic request sets. The algorithm does not use any message to be exchanged in the best case and uses n+1 messages in the worst case, where n is the number of processes in the system. The maximum concurrency of the algorithm is n and synchronization delay under heavy load (worst case is 2T, where T is the maximum message propagation delay. The algorithm uses first come first serve approach in selecting the next session type and satisfies the concurrent occupancy property. The static performance analysis and correctness proof is also included in the present exposition.

  8. Fair value accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Shamkuts, Volha, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to fair value accounting. Fair value accounting implies that assets and liabilities get measured and reported in firm´s financial statements at their market value. The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the conceptual foundations of fair value accounting. The thesis is organized in the following way. First, origins and development of fair value accounting are discussed. Second, overview of fair value accounting is presented. The overview includes de...

  9. Java Fair Threads

    OpenAIRE

    Boussinot, Frédéric

    2001-01-01

    Fair threads are cooperative threads run by a fair scheduler which gives them equal access to the processor. Fair threads can communicate using broadcast events, and are fully portable as their semantics does not depends on the executing platform. Fine control over fair threads execution is possible allowing the programming of specific user-defined scheduling strategies. This paper presents fair threads in the context of the Java language, and describes the API to use them. Link with reactive...

  10. Empirical analysis on the human dynamics of blogging behavior on GitHub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Deng-Cheng; Wei, Zong-Wen; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    GitHub is a social collaborative coding platform on which software developers not only collaborate on codes but also share knowledge through blogs using GitHub Pages. In this article, we analyze the blogging behavior of software developers on GitHub Pages. The results show that both the commit number and the inter-event time of two consecutive blogging actions follow heavy-tailed distribution. We further observe a significant variety of activity among individual developers, and a strongly positive correlation between the activity and the power-law exponent of the inter-event time distribution. We also find a difference between the user behaviors of GitHub Pages and other online systems which is driven by the diversity of users and length of contents. In addition, our result shows an obvious difference between the majority of developers and elite developers in their burstiness property.

  11. Fairness and accountability for reasonableness. Do the views of priority setting decision makers differ across health systems and levels of decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiriri, Lydia; Norheim, Ole F; Martin, Douglas K

    2009-02-01

    Accountability for reasonableness is an ethical framework for fair priority setting process. This framework has been used to evaluate fairness in several contexts, and a few studies have evaluated its acceptability to decision makers. However, no studies have compared the acceptability of the four conditions of the framework to decision makers across health systems and levels of priority setting. This paper reports the elements of fairness described by 184 decision makers involved in priority setting at the macro-, meso- and micro-levels of priority setting in the Canadian (Ontario), Norwegian and Ugandan health care systems and compares them against the four conditions of 'Accountability for Reasonableness' and across levels of decision making, and health care systems. Our respondents identified 23 elements of fair priority setting. Most of these (17) were well aligned with the four conditions of Accountability for Reasonableness; six were not. Comparisons across health care system and levels of decision making revealed that four elements (transparency, participatory and among the criteria-need based and objective) were common to all and the rest were common to only the health care systems (but not at all levels), or only the levels of decision making (but not to all health are systems). Perceptions varied remarkably across levels of decision making. The overlap between the elements of fairness found in this study and the conditions of Accountability for Reasonableness demonstrates that the four conditions are recognizable and applicable across health care systems and levels of decision making. However, the framework should be used with flexibility to allow for identification of elements and relevant explicit criteria (such as those identified in this study) - that may not directly fit under any of the four conditions.

  12. Location of an intermediate hub for port activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Ş.; Ştefănică, C.; Roşca, E.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.

    2015-11-01

    An intermediate hub might increase the accessibility level of ports but also hinterland and so it can be considered more than a facility with a transhipment role. These hubs might lead to the development of other transport services and enhance their role in gathering and covering economic centres within hinterlands and also getting the part of logistic facility for the ports, with effects on port utilization and its connectivity to global economy. A new location for a hub terminal leads to reduced transport distances within hinterland, with decreased transport costs and external effects, so with gains in people's life quality. Because the production and distribution systems are relatively fixed on short and medium term and the location decisions are strategic and on long term, the logistic chains activities location models have to consider the uncertainties regarding the possible future situations. In most models, production costs are considered equal, the location problem reducing itself to a problem that aims to minimize the total transport costs, meaning the transport problem. The main objective of the paper is to locate a hub terminal that links the producers of cereals that are going to be exported by naval transportation with the Romanian fluvial-maritime ports (Galaţi, Brăila). GIS environment can be used to integrate and analyse a great amount of data and has the ability of using functions as location - allocation models necessary both to private and public sector, being able to determine the optimal location for services like factories, warehouses, logistic platforms and other public services.

  13. Research dedusting efficiency of the inertial hub with adjustable parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharapov Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of construction materials every year production increases, thus increasing emissions pollutants into the atmosphere subjected to cleaning. At the enterprises of building materials production equipment becoming outdated both morally and physically exhausted their useful life. Technological design standards in the operation of purification equipment has undergone a number of changes. There are a large number of works devoted to the theory of cyclone separation. They examined calculation method and to determine the minimum size of particles is separated completely from the air stream in a cyclone. In theory, the high efficiency cyclones are relatively small separation of particles from the air stream. The experiments show that certain fractions of full capture occurs from the cyclones and out relatively large particles. Designed dust device hubs. They capture dust particles with low specific density and smaller than 5–10 microns. Rational use of hubs is achieved in the aspiration systems high performance. They are placed in front of or between the filter and the cyclone filter. Hub much reduces the amount of dust-laden air directed onto a thin cleaning. This reduces energy consumption for manufacturing as a whole, as well as, due to a possible decrease in performance fine filters, reducing their initial cost, metal consumption, maintenance costs and reduce the area occupied by them.

  14. 表达自由基础上合理使用制度的重构%On the Reconstruction of Fair Use System based on Express Freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林冬豫

    2015-01-01

    合理使用制度自产生之时就与表达自由相连。合理使用制度是表达自由和版权协调的产物,但随着版权扩张和新技术的冲击,合理使用制度自身的平衡逐渐倾危。一方面,公众的表达自由不断地逼近、触碰甚至翻越合理使用的边界;另一方面,版权人也借助技术措施等手段企图绕过合理使用制度取得更大的利益。表达自由和合理使用制度需要再次回归衡平,通过巩固和完善合理使用制度、灵活运用其它版权框架下的机制,使得表达自由基础上的合理使用制度得以重构。%The fair use system is deeply related to express freedom since it came into being, which is engendered by the co-ordination of express freedom and copyright. However, since the expansion of copyright and the attack of new technologies, the fair use system is now in crisis. The public overstep the boundary of the fair use system, while the copyright owners use technical mea-sures to profit themselves. To regain the balance between express-freedom and fair use system, we try to fix and strengthen the fair use system itself and neatly utilize other systems under the framework of copyright law.

  15. On a fair verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei G. Ol'kov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective the study of the phenomenon of justice in general and fairness in judicial verdicts in particular. Methods 1 observation 2 deduction 3 use of the laws of formal logic 4 comparative analysis 5 formal legal 6 mathematical modeling. Results the author considers the possibility of creating the scale of good and evil. As a result of rendering of legal laws in the language of mathematics were obtained the following conclusions 1 definition of justice as equality between the objective truth of the real world X and the subjective evaluation of this truth Y Y X assessment is on the line of justice in the Cartesian coordinate system if the deeds axis is correctly scaled ndash quotso it actually is and this is our answerrdquo the fair sentence is an accurate evaluation by the court the value of punishment of the deed the legal relations subject with the exact scaling of deeds and punishments axes y x where y is the assessment x ndash deed 2 general suggestions for scaling coordinate axes of deeds abscissa and penalties ordinates ndash proposal on the need to develop scales of relations for valuation of objects ndash deeds and evaluation as it is ndash the scale of punishments 3 grounds for the idea that not every degree or measure of the consistency of the realworld objects estimation by a wide range of evaluation subjects is fair justice 4 identification of the range of existing problems in the judicial practice in making fair sentences anbspthe absence in the criminal law of the clear scales of deeds and punishments the legislator does not give a clear estimation of the deed but establishes either continuous or multiple evaluation b modern legislator cannot give absolute scale of good and evil but specifies a relative scale in implicit form dependent on time place method of organization of power in the state ideas of the society about good and evil and justice. As a result the relative scale is quotslidingquot in time and space c the

  16. Hub Status and Indexation of Container Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-An Park

    2015-06-01

    This study develops two sub-indexes of port classification and capacity, and combines cases of these two sub-indexes into various types in order to find a proper port hub index. The paper demonstrates how different types of port hub index are useful measurements for evaluating outputs and inputs of container ports. In a case analysis we show that the indexes of period variables and lagged variables have more explanatory power with regard to changes of port throughputs and high correlation with inputs.

  17. Design, construction and cooling system performance of a prototype cryogenic stopping cell for the Super-FRS at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, M. [KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Technology, University of Groningen - Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Dendooven, P., E-mail: p.g.dendooven@rug.nl [KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Technology, University of Groningen - Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Purushothaman, S. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research - Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Dickel, T. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research - Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen - Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Reiter, M.P. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen - Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Ayet, S. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research - Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Haettner, E. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research - Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen - Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Moore, I.D. [University of Jyväskylä - FI-40014, Jyväskylä (Finland); Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N. [KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Technology, University of Groningen - Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2015-01-11

    A cryogenic stopping cell for stopping energetic radioactive ions and extracting them as a low energy beam was developed. This first ever cryogenically operated stopping cell serves as prototype device for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS at FAIR. The cell has a stopping volume that is 1 m long and 25 cm in diameter. Ions are guided by a DC field along the length of the stopping cell and by a combined RF and DC fields provided by an RF carpet at the exit-hole side. The ultra-high purity of the stopping gas required for optimum ion survival is reached by cryogenic operation. The design considerations and construction of the cryogenic stopping cell, as well as some performance characteristics, are described in detail. Special attention is given to the cryogenic aspects in the design and construction of the stopping cell and the cryocooler-based cooling system. The cooling system allows the operation of the stopping cell at any desired temperature between about 70 K and room temperature. The cooling system performance in realistic on-line conditions at the FRS Ion Catcher Facility at GSI is discussed. A temperature of 110 K at which efficient ion survival was observed is obtained after 10 h of cooling. A minimum temperature of the stopping gas of 72 K was reached. The expertise gained from the design, construction and performance of the prototype cryogenic stopping cell has allowed the development of a final version for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS to proceed.

  18. Virtual Hubs for facilitating access to Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel Á.; Ernst, Julia; Brumana, Raffaella; Brauman, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In October 2014 the ENERGIC-OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". In ENERGIC-OD, Virtual Hubs are conceived as information systems supporting the full life cycle of Open Data: publishing, discovery and access. They facilitate the use of Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and data services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus, beyond a certain extent, heterogeneity is irreducible especially in interdisciplinary contexts. ENERGIC-OD Virtual Hubs address heterogeneity adopting a mediation and brokering approach: specific components (brokers) are dedicated to harmonize service interfaces, metadata and data models, enabling seamless discovery and access to heterogeneous infrastructures and datasets. As an innovation project, ENERGIC-OD will integrate several existing technologies to implement Virtual Hubs as single points of access to geospatial datasets provided by new or existing platforms and infrastructures, including INSPIRE-compliant systems and Copernicus services. ENERGIC OD will deploy a

  19. Does the perception of fairness and standard of care in the health system depend on the field of study? Results of an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Kathrin; Prenzler, Anne; Zuchandke, Andy

    2014-04-12

    The main challenge in the context of health care reforms and priority setting is the establishment and/or maintenance of fairness and standard of care. For the political process and interdisciplinary discussion, the subjective perception of the health care system might even be as important as potential objective criteria. Of special interest are the perceptions of academic disciplines, whose representatives act as decision makers in the health care sector. The aim of this study is to explore and compare the subjective perception of fairness and standard of care in the German health care system among students of medicine, law, economics, philosophy, and religion. Between October 2011 and January 2012, we asked freshmen and advanced students of the fields mentioned above to participate in a paper and pencil survey. Prior to this, we formulated hypotheses. The data were analysed by micro econometric regression techniques. Data from 1,088 students were included in the study. Medical students, freshmen, and advanced students perceive the standard of care significantly as being better than non-medical students. Differences in the perception of fairness are not significant between the freshmen of the academic disciplines; however, they increase with the number of study terms. Besides the field of study, further variables such as gender and health status have a significant impact on perceptions. Our results show that there are differences in the perception of fairness and standard of care between academic disciplines, which might influence the interdisciplinary discussion on health care reforms and priority setting.

  20. Fair use versus fair return: copyright legislation and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, I L; Curtis, M E

    1984-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the ramifications of legislative recognition of the concept of fair use in the Copyright Act of 1976. The fair use concept, while of small consequence in its normative origins, has turned out to be the foundation of the most perplexing and divisive issues in the new legislative guidelines governing copyright. Legislative recognition of the concept of fair use, coupled with enormous growth of a new technology--extending from xerography to on-line database systems--creates de facto exemptions to both the intent and content of new copyright guidelines. The issue is not one of limiting use or suppressing information, but of mechanisms for safeguarding the rights of copyright holders, be they authors or publishers, and insuring the free flow of information by providing a proper return on both intellectual creativity and capital expenditures. The authors argue that the elimination, or at least curtailment of fair use doctrine, coupled with an increase in technological approaches to reporting of secondary use of copyrighted material, will benefit all sections of the knowledge industry. Authors will receive proper royalties on use; publishers will be able to sell more books and journals at lower prices; and librarians will be liberated from extensive chores such as monitoring usage or determining fee schedules and transferences. The issue is one of fair return--an issue obscured and ultimately subverted by fair use.

  1. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  2. Hub location problems in transportation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a 4-index formulation for the uncapacitated multiple allocation hub location problem tailored for urban transport and liner shipping network design. This formulation is very tight and most of the tractable instances for MIP solvers are optimally solvable at the root node....... also introduce fixed cost values for Australian Post (AP) dataset....

  3. A State Cyber Hub Operations Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    level cyber operations from state information technology (IT) and network infrastructure to hospitals , commercial banking, and manufacturing the...tools - TTPs necessary to operate and maintain Authoritative Data Repository for operational related artifacts . - Monitor and report on operations...development of Data Repository structures to enable storage of Cyber Hub related artifacts . - Provides Technical input to Business Case Analyses (BCAs

  4. Competitiveness of Small Farms and Innovative Food Supply Chains: The Role of Food Hubs in Creating Sustainable Regional and Local Food Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berti, Giaime; Mulligan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    .... One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri...

  5. Over-heated Investment in Aluminum Hub Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Aluminum hub is one of typical products with the comparative advantages.China’s aluminum hub industry is very competitive.In recent years,the value of export for the aluminum hub soared,increasing from USD130 millions in 1999 up to nearly USD1 billion in 2004.The main exporter are Wanfeng Auto Holding Group,Shanghai Fervent Alloy Wheel MFG Co.,Ltd.,Nanhai Zhongnan Aluminum Co., Ltd.,Taian Huatai Aluminum Hub Co.,Ltd.

  6. Resizing Triathlons for Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Howard; De Veaux, Richard D.

    As currently configured, triathlons are dominated by cyclists and runners. The concept of fairness, as applied to triathlons, suggests that a cyclist, runner, and swimmer, all equally proficient, can each traverse the associated segment of the triathlon in approximately equal times. This definition of fairness is used to derive fair triathlon…

  7. Developing the Philippines as a Global Hub for Disaster Risk Reduction - A Health Research Initiative as Presented at the 10th Philippine National Health Research System Week Celebration

    OpenAIRE

    Banwell, Nicola; Montoya, Jaime; Opeña, Merlita; IJsselmuiden, Carel; Law, Ronald; Balboa, Gloria J.; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Murray, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    The recent Philippine National Health Research System (PNHRS) Week Celebration highlighted the growing commitment to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the Philippines. The event was lead by the Philippine Council for Health Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology and the Department of Health, and saw the participation of national and international experts in DRR, and numerous research consortia from all over the Philippines. With a central focus on the Sendai Frame...

  8. Southwest Regional Climate Hub and California Subsidiary Hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Elias; Caiti Steele; Kris Havstad; Kerri Steenwerth; Jeanne Chambers; Helena Deswood; Amber Kerr; Albert Rango; Mark Schwartz; Peter Stine; Rachel Steele

    2015-01-01

    This report is a joint effort of the Southwest Regional Climate Hub and the California Subsidiary Hub (Sub Hub). The Southwest Regional Climate Hub covers Arizona, California, Hawai‘i and the U.S. affiliated Pacific Islands, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah and contains vast areas of western rangeland, forests, and high-value specialty crops (Figure 1). The California Sub...

  9. 48 CFR 19.807 - Estimating the fair market price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimating the fair market...) Program) 19.807 Estimating the fair market price. (a) The contracting officer shall estimate the fair market price of the work to be performed by the 8(a) contractor. (b) In estimating the fair market...

  10. CERN Book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Central Library and IT Department Bookshop

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Library, in conjunction with the IT Department Bookshop, is organizing a book fair on the 28th and 29th October. Some 15 major publishers will be represented, including 6 who will be here in person, and more than 700 of their latest titles will be on display (for sale or order). The major topics covered will be computing, physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. Those present at this event will include Alpha Science, Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, Institute of Physics, Microsoft Press, O'Reilly, OLF Switzerland, Oxford University Press, McGraw-Hill, Springer, Pearson, Thali Switzerland, Wiley, World Scientific and Ebooks Corporation. The fair will take place on the first floor of the Main Building (bldg.60), Salle des Pas Perdus, and will be open from 10.00 to 17.00 on both days. In addition, EBooks Corporation will describe their electronic book system; insight into this is available at http://www.eblib.com/ We look forward to your support for this initiative. Sh...

  11. Spatial Economic Hubs and State Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Xingzhang; Huang Jing

    2008-01-01

    The paper seeks to analyze the rise of state power in the light of spatial economic shifts and examines the historical context of China's rise and challenges facing it. In world history, only countries that were spatial economic hubs have been able to enjoy prosperity over centuries. China is not yet such a country, despite its persistent efforts. Nor is China likely to become an economic hub in the foreseeable future. China is under mounting pressure from new economic demands posed by shifts in the geo-economic status of the U.S.. The fact that the global economy thrives along coastlines also causes problems for China, a country with a long coastline and a vast hinterland, creating rifts between northern and southern China, central and local governments, and different provinces. All these factors might well hinder China's development in the future.

  12. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Topographic hub maps of the human structural neocortical network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil H J Nijhuis

    Full Text Available Hubs within the neocortical structural network determined by graph theoretical analysis play a crucial role in brain function. We mapped neocortical hubs topographically, using a sample population of 63 young adults. Subjects were imaged with high resolution structural and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Multiple network configurations were then constructed per subject, using random parcellations to define the nodes and using fibre tractography to determine the connectivity between the nodes. The networks were analysed with graph theoretical measures. Our results give reference maps of hub distribution measured with betweenness centrality and node degree. The loci of the hubs correspond with key areas from known overlapping cognitive networks. Several hubs were asymmetrically organized across hemispheres. Furthermore, females have hubs with higher betweenness centrality and males have hubs with higher node degree. Female networks have higher small-world indices.

  14. Ranking hubs and authorities using matrix functions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The notions of subgraph centrality and communicability, based on the exponential of the adjacency matrix of the underlying graph, have been effectively used in the analysis of undirected networks. In this paper we propose an extension of these measures to directed networks, and we apply them to the problem of ranking hubs and authorities. The extension is achieved by bipartization, i.e., the directed network is mapped onto a bipartite undirected network with twice as many nodes in order to ob...

  15. Developing Istanbul into a Regional Business Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    beds). Every year Istanbul hosts people from all around the world for international summits, conferences, film and music festivals and sports...Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia , Thailand, and the Philippines are positioning themselves to be logistics hubs. On the other hand, in Eastern Europe; Czech...close to nearby major markets of the world, are only some of Turkey’s many advantages. 2. Istanbul Throughout history , Istanbul has been a city at the

  16. SPARK: Sparsity-based analysis of reliable k-hubness and overlapping network structure in brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangjoo; Lina, Jean-Marc; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Functional hubs are defined as the specific brain regions with dense connections to other regions in a functional brain network. Among them, connector hubs are of great interests, as they are assumed to promote global and hierarchical communications between functionally specialized networks. Damage to connector hubs may have a more crucial effect on the system than does damage to other hubs. Hubs in graph theory are often identified from a correlation matrix, and classified as connector hubs when the hubs are more connected to regions in other networks than within the networks to which they belong. However, the identification of hubs from functional data is more complex than that from structural data, notably because of the inherent problem of multicollinearity between temporal dynamics within a functional network. In this context, we developed and validated a method to reliably identify connectors and corresponding overlapping network structure from resting-state fMRI. This new method is actually handling the multicollinearity issue, since it does not rely on counting the number of connections from a thresholded correlation matrix. The novelty of the proposed method is that besides counting the number of networks involved in each voxel, it allows us to identify which networks are actually involved in each voxel, using a data-driven sparse general linear model in order to identify brain regions involved in more than one network. Moreover, we added a bootstrap resampling strategy to assess statistically the reproducibility of our results at the single subject level. The unified framework is called SPARK, i.e. SParsity-based Analysis of Reliable k-hubness, where k-hubness denotes the number of networks overlapping in each voxel. The accuracy and robustness of SPARK were evaluated using two dimensional box simulations and realistic simulations that examined detection of artificial hubs generated on real data. Then, test/retest reliability of the method was assessed

  17. Design and Development of an Integrated Workstation Automation Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andrew; Ghatikar, Girish; Sartor, Dale; Lanzisera, Steven

    2015-03-30

    Miscellaneous Electronic Loads (MELs) account for one third of all electricity consumption in U.S. commercial buildings, and are drivers for a significant energy use in India. Many of the MEL-specific plug-load devices are concentrated at workstations in offices. The use of intelligence, and integrated controls and communications at the workstation for an Office Automation Hub – offers the opportunity to improve both energy efficiency and occupant comfort, along with services for Smart Grid operations. Software and hardware solutions are available from a wide array of vendors for the different components, but an integrated system with interoperable communications is yet to be developed and deployed. In this study, we propose system- and component-level specifications for the Office Automation Hub, their functions, and a prioritized list for the design of a proof-of-concept system. Leveraging the strength of both the U.S. and India technology sectors, this specification serves as a guide for researchers and industry in both countries to support the development, testing, and evaluation of a prototype product. Further evaluation of such integrated technologies for performance and cost is necessary to identify the potential to reduce energy consumptions in MELs and to improve occupant comfort.

  18. Does the perception of fairness and standard of care in the health system depend on the field of study? Results of an empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The main challenge in the context of health care reforms and priority setting is the establishment and/or maintenance of fairness and standard of care. For the political process and interdisciplinary discussion, the subjective perception of the health care system might even be as important as potential objective criteria. Of special interest are the perceptions of academic disciplines, whose representatives act as decision makers in the health care sector. The aim of this study is to explore and compare the subjective perception of fairness and standard of care in the German health care system among students of medicine, law, economics, philosophy, and religion. Methods Between October 2011 and January 2012, we asked freshmen and advanced students of the fields mentioned above to participate in a paper and pencil survey. Prior to this, we formulated hypotheses. The data were analysed by micro econometric regression techniques. Results Data from 1,088 students were included in the study. Medical students, freshmen, and advanced students perceive the standard of care significantly as being better than non-medical students. Differences in the perception of fairness are not significant between the freshmen of the academic disciplines; however, they increase with the number of study terms. Besides the field of study, further variables such as gender and health status have a significant impact on perceptions. Conclusions Our results show that there are differences in the perception of fairness and standard of care between academic disciplines, which might influence the interdisciplinary discussion on health care reforms and priority setting. PMID:24725356

  19. Understanding farmers' preferences for artificial insemination services provided through dairy hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, I A; Zander, K K; Bauer, S; Baltenweck, I

    2017-04-01

    Africa has a shortage of animal products but increasing demand because of population growth, urbanisation and changing consumer patterns. Attempts to boost livestock production through the use of breeding technologies such as artificial insemination (AI) have been failing in many countries because costs have escalated and success rates have been relatively low. One example is Kenya, a country with a relatively large number of cows and a dairy industry model relevant to neighbouring countries. There, an innovative dairy marketing approach (farmer-owned collective marketing systems called dairy hubs) has been implemented to enhance access to dairy markets and dairy-related services, including breeding services such as AI. So far, the rate of participation in these dairy hubs has been slow and mixed. In order to understand this phenomenon better and to inform dairy-related development activities by the Kenyan government, we investigated which characteristics of AI services, offered through the dairy hubs, farmers prefer. To do so, we applied a choice experiment (CE), a non-market valuation technique, which allowed us to identify farmers' preferences for desired characteristics should more dairy hubs be installed in the future. This is the first study to use a CE to evaluate breeding services in Kenya and the results can complement findings of studies of breeding objectives and selection criteria. The results of the CE reveal that dairy farmers prefer to have AI services offered rather than having no service. Farmers prefer AI services to be available at dairy hubs rather than provided by private agents not affiliated to the hubs, to have follow-up services for pregnancy detections, and to use sexed semen rather than conventional semen. Farmers would further like some flexibility in payment systems which include input credit, and are willing to share the costs of any AI repeats that may need to occur. These results provide evidence of a positive attitude to AI services

  20. Direct photons at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bleicher, Marcus; Grimm, Andreas [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-07-01

    Photons, as all electromagnetic probes, can give direct access to the hot and dense phase of a heavy-ion reaction. We show calculations of direct photon emission at SiS100- and SiS-300 energies with the UrQMD-hybrid model. UrQMD is a full microscopic+macroscopic transport/fluid-dynamics hybrid model with hadron- and string-driven equilibration phase, a full (3+1)-dimensional fluiddynamic hot and dense phase and a hadronic after-burner. Unequilibrated matter at high rapidity is preserved during the fluid phase. A strong emphasis is set on the impact of viscosity and Equation of State at zero and non-zero baryon density to the spectra and flow patterns of thermal and non-thermal photons in A+A-collisions at the colliding systems relevant for FAIR.

  1. Towards a Fair Global Economic Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio

    This dissertation offers an assessment of Fair Trade’s transformative potential through an empirical examination of the case of Fair Trade wine produced in Argentina and consumed in the United Kingdom. Guided by a dialectical understanding of the research process, the analysis is done at various...... levels of generality, offering both case-specific and universal arguments about the Fair Trade system as a whole. Theoretically, the dissertation develops a regulationist framework based on a critical engagement with the French Regulation Approach and the Amsterdam Project in International Political....... The further exploration of Fair Trade’s political and ideological dimensions sheds light on the reasons behind the system’s current limitations. The analysis shows that Fair Trade offers very limited improvements compared to the conventional economy. Additionally, for the Argentinean wine industry, Fair Trade...

  2. Fair Scheduling in Networks Through Packet Election

    CERN Document Server

    Jagabathula, Srikanth

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing a fair scheduling algorithm for discrete-time constrained queuing networks. Each queue has dedicated exogenous packet arrivals. There are constraints on which queues can be served simultaneously. This model effectively describes important special instances like network switches, interference in wireless networks, bandwidth sharing for congestion control and traffic scheduling in road roundabouts. Fair scheduling is required because it provides isolation to different traffic flows; isolation makes the system more robust and enables providing quality of service. Existing work on fairness for constrained networks concentrates on flow based fairness. As a main result, we describe a notion of packet based fairness by establishing an analogy with the ranked election problem: packets are voters, schedules are candidates and each packet ranks the schedules based on its priorities. We then obtain a scheduling algorithm that achieves the described notion of fairness by drawing upon ...

  3. A social work study on relationship between transactional and laissez-fair leadership style and personality traits: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Jannesari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style plays an essential role on personality trait in educational systems. In this paper, we present a study among 180 school principals in city of Khomeinishahr, located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The study selects a sample of 123 principals and examines ten hypotheses including the effects of personality trait neuroticism, extroversion, resilience, participative, conscientiousness on leadership style. The study examined the effects of two groups of leadership, namely transactional leadership and Laissez-fair leadership styles on five personality traits. The results have shown that there were some meaningful relationship between transactional leadership and personality trait extraversion, resilience, participative and consciousness but there was not meaningful relationship between transactional leadership and personality trait neuroticism. In addition, while there were meaningful and positive relationship between Laissez-fair leadership style and personality trait extraversion as well as being resilience, our survey did not find any meaningful relationship between Laissez-fair leadership style and personality trait neuroticism, extraversion and being consciousness.

  4. An Optimization of the Hub-and-Spoke Distribution Network in United States European Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    9 Vehicle Routing Problem ......................................................................................... 11...system. These range from direct delivery to a fully developed hub-and-spoke system. These models all include some variation of the vehicle routing problem , facility...assets. Vehicle Routing Problem Vehicle Routing Problems (VRPs) are based on the classic Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). The TSP is

  5. Fair Optimization and Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz Ogryczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization models related to designing and operating complex systems are mainly focused on some efficiency metrics such as response time, queue length, throughput, and cost. However, in systems which serve many entities there is also a need for respecting fairness: each system entity ought to be provided with an adequate share of the system’s services. Still, due to system operations-dependant constraints, fair treatment of the entities does not directly imply that each of them is assigned equal amount of the services. That leads to concepts of fair optimization expressed by the equitable models that represent inequality averse optimization rather than strict inequality minimization; a particular widely applied example of that concept is the so-called lexicographic maximin optimization (max-min fairness. The fair optimization methodology delivers a variety of techniques to generate fair and efficient solutions. This paper reviews fair optimization models and methods applied to systems that are based on some kind of network of connections and dependencies, especially, fair optimization methods for the location problems and for the resource allocation problems in communication networks.

  6. It's Not Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Is a "fair test" the only way to carry out science investigations? Many children (and primary teachers) following the National Curriculum in England and Wales would answer "yes" to this question. This is because fair test investigations have historically been promoted in national assessment, published curricula, schemes of work…

  7. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    such as fairness, openness and egalitarianism effectively enhances cosmopolitan outlooks. It identifies the mechanisms through which these same virtues are mobilized to rationalize the failure to actualize cosmopolitanism in everyday practice. We argue that Australianness understood as the popular ‘fair...

  8. It's Not Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Is a "fair test" the only way to carry out science investigations? Many children (and primary teachers) following the National Curriculum in England and Wales would answer "yes" to this question. This is because fair test investigations have historically been promoted in national assessment, published curricula, schemes of work and assessment…

  9. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    such as fairness, openness and egalitarianism effectively enhances cosmopolitan outlooks. It identifies the mechanisms through which these same virtues are mobilized to rationalize the failure to actualize cosmopolitanism in everyday practice. We argue that Australianness understood as the popular ‘fair...

  10. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  11. Rethinking the Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, John; Hogan, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Spring is the season when thousands of creased cardboard pests can be found lodged under the armpits of students and teachers as they observe the educational rite of spring known as the school science fair. A recent visit to a local school's gymnasium to witness one of these events reminded the authors of why they so dislike science fairs. In this…

  12. It's Not Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Is a "fair test" the only way to carry out science investigations? Many children (and primary teachers) following the National Curriculum in England and Wales would answer "yes" to this question. This is because fair test investigations have historically been promoted in national assessment, published curricula, schemes of work…

  13. Computational Fair Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina

    Fair division is a fundamental problem in economic theory and one of the oldest questions faced through the history of human society. The high level scenario is that of several participants having to divide a collection of resources such that everyone is satisfied with their allocation -- e.g. two...... heirs dividing a car, house, and piece of land inherited. The literature on fair division was developed in the 20th century in mathematics and economics, but computational work on fair division is still sparse. This thesis can be seen as an excursion in computational fair division divided in two parts...... study alternative and richer models, such as externalities in cake cutting, simultaneous cake cutting, and envy-free cake cutting. The second part of the thesis tackles the fair allocation of multiple goods, divisible and indivisible. In the realm of divisible goods, we investigate the well known...

  14. Sperner's lemma and fair division

    OpenAIRE

    DAKSKOBLER, LARISA

    2016-01-01

    Fair division is an active research area in Mathematics, Economics, Computer Science, etc. There are many different kinds of fair division problems. These are often named after everyday situations: fair resource allocation, fair cake-cutting, fair chore division, room assignment – rent division, and more. Although many exact and approximative methods for finding fair solutions already exist, the area of fair division still expands and tries to find better solutions for everyday problems. The...

  15. Transfer Scheme Evaluation Model for a Transportation Hub based on Vectorial Angle Cosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ya Yao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the most important node in public transport network, efficiency of a transport hub determines the entire efficiency of the whole transport network. In order to put forward effective transfer schemes, a comprehensive evaluation index system of urban transport hubs’ transfer efficiency was built, evaluation indexes were quantified, and an evaluation model of a multi-objective decision hub transfer scheme was established based on vectorial angle cosine. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on factors affecting transfer efficiency is conducted, which discusses the passenger satisfaction, transfer coordination, transfer efficiency, smoothness, economy, etc. Thus, a new solution to transfer scheme utilization was proposed.

  16. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied......-detection and a linear regression using the original network connections as features. The results show that the SHD is able to retain regression performance, while still finding hubs that represent the underlying variation in the population. Although here we applied the SHD to brain networks, it can be applied to any...

  17. An Introduction to Version Control Using GitHub Desktop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel van Strien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson you will be introduced to the basics of version control, understand why it is useful and implement basic version control for a plain text document using GitHub Desktop. By the end of this lesson you should understand: * what version control is and why it can be useful * the differences between Git and GitHub * how to implement version control using ‘GitHub Desktop,’ a Graphical User Interface for GitHub * be aware of other resources that will help you implement version control in your academic writing

  18. An Introduction to Version Control Using GitHub Desktop

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel van Strien

    2016-01-01

    In this lesson you will be introduced to the basics of version control, understand why it is useful and implement basic version control for a plain text document using GitHub Desktop. By the end of this lesson you should understand: * what version control is and why it can be useful * the differences between Git and GitHub * how to implement version control using ‘GitHub Desktop,’ a Graphical User Interface for GitHub * be aware of other resources that will help you imple...

  19. The air transportation hub-and-spoke design problem: comparison between a continuous and a discrete solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guina Sotomayor Alzamora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hub-and-spoke network design problem, also known as the hub location problem, aims to find the concentration points in a given network flow so that the sum of the distances of the linkages is minimized. In this work, we compare discrete solutions of this problem, given by the branch-and-cut method applied to the p-hub median model, with continuous solutions, given by the hyperbolic smoothing technique applied to a min-sum-min model. Computational experiments for particular instances of the Brazilian air transportation system, with the number of hubs varying from 2 to 8, are conducted with the support of a discretization heuristic and the Voronoi diagram.

  20. Fairness is intuitive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Tungodden, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we provide new evidence showing that fair behavior is intuitive to most people. We find a strong association between a short response time and fair behavior in the dictator game. This association is robust to controls that take account of the fact that response time might be affected...... by the decision-maker’s cognitive ability and swiftness. The experiment was conducted with a large and heterogeneous sample recruited from the general population in Denmark. We find a striking similarity in the association between response time and fair behavior across groups in the society, which suggests...

  1. Fairness is intuitive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Tungodden, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we provide new evidence showing that fair behavior is intuitive to most people. We find a strong association between a short response time and fair behavior in the dictator game. This association is robust to controls that take account of the fact that response time might be affected...... by the decision-maker’s cognitive ability and swiftness. The experiment was conducted with a large and heterogeneous sample recruited from the general population in Denmark. We find a striking similarity in the association between response time and fair behavior across groups in the society, which suggests...

  2. Fairness in society

    CERN Document Server

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2011-01-01

    Models that explain the economical and political realities of nowadays societies should help all the world's citizens. Yet, the last four years showed that the current models are missing. Here we develop a dynamical society-deciders model showing that the long lasting economical stress can be solved when increasing fairness in nations. fairness is computed for each nation using indicators from economy and politics. Rather than austerity versus spending, the dynamical model suggests that solving crises in western societies is possible with regulations that reduce the stability of the deciders, while shifting wealth in the direction of the people. This shall increase the dynamics among socio-economic classes, further increasing fairness.

  3. Physics at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2014-11-15

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is under construction at Darmstadt, Germany. It will deliver high intensity beams of ions and antiprotons for experiments in the fields of atomic physics, plasma physics, nuclear physics, hadron physics, nuclear matter physics, material physics and biophysics. One of the scientific pillars of FAIR is the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is designed for the study of high density nuclear matter as it exists in the core of neutron stars. In this article the scientific program of FAIR will be reviewed with emphasis on the CBM experiment.

  4. Characterization of protein hubs by inferring interacting motifs from protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Aragues

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of protein interactions is essential for understanding biological systems. While genome-scale methods are available for identifying interacting proteins, they do not pinpoint the interacting motifs (e.g., a domain, sequence segments, a binding site, or a set of residues. Here, we develop and apply a method for delineating the interacting motifs of hub proteins (i.e., highly connected proteins. The method relies on the observation that proteins with common interaction partners tend to interact with these partners through a common interacting motif. The sole input for the method are binary protein interactions; neither sequence nor structure information is needed. The approach is evaluated by comparing the inferred interacting motifs with domain families defined for 368 proteins in the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP. The positive predictive value of the method for detecting proteins with common SCOP families is 75% at sensitivity of 10%. Most of the inferred interacting motifs were significantly associated with sequence patterns, which could be responsible for the common interactions. We find that yeast hubs with multiple interacting motifs are more likely to be essential than hubs with one or two interacting motifs, thus rationalizing the previously observed correlation between essentiality and the number of interacting partners of a protein. We also find that yeast hubs with multiple interacting motifs evolve slower than the average protein, contrary to the hubs with one or two interacting motifs. The proposed method will help us discover unknown interacting motifs and provide biological insights about protein hubs and their roles in interaction networks.

  5. Positioning as Regional Hub of Higher Education: Changing Governance and Regulatory Reforms in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2008-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, the Singapore and Malaysia governments have made attempts to develop their societies into regional hubs of education. Specifically, they have invited foreign universities to set up their campuses to offer academic programs or to establish private institutions…

  6. Positioning as Regional Hub of Higher Education: Changing Governance and Regulatory Reforms in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2008-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, the Singapore and Malaysia governments have made attempts to develop their societies into regional hubs of education. Specifically, they have invited foreign universities to set up their campuses to offer academic programs or to establish private institutions…

  7. Nonlinear dynamics and synchronisation of pendula attached to a rotating hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warminski, J.; Szmit, Z.; Latalski, J.

    2014-04-01

    A model of a nonlinear system composed of a hub with attached two pendula rotating in a horizontal plane is studied in the paper. Each single pendulum, treated as a stiff and massless rod with a lumped mass, is connected to the hub by a flapping hinge. Nonlinear stiffness and viscous damping of the hinge is taken into consideration. The system is excited by an external torque generated by a DC motor which is considered as an ideal system with torque given by a harmonic function. For small oscillations the problem is linearised and then solved analytically. An influence of the structural parameters like mass of the hub and pendula length on natural end excited vibrations is presented. Large oscillations are studied by a continuation technique, directly from the original Ordinary Differential Equations of motion (ODE). The complete synchronisation, phase synchronisation, bifurcations and transition through resonances are analysed considering the influence of the mass of the hub. The existence of chaotic oscillations of the system and paths leading to chaos are demonstrated as well.

  8. SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIAL FAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Third Shanghai International Industrial Fair was held in New International Fair Center in Pudong Area in late November. This industrial fair titled "Information and Industrialization" aimed at highlighting China's high technology and industrial achievements in the new century. The sponsors for this session of industrial fair include China State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Foreign Economic and Trade Relations, Ministry of Information Industry, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Government.CNPC and Sinopec participated in the exhibition displaying a number of the latest technologies such as PetroChina's model for state land resources and Sinopec's model for 300,000-ton ethylene project.

  9. Is Equality Fair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question whether people consider decisions that lead to equal outcomes fair. I find that this is not always the case. In an experiment where subjects are given equal opportunities to choose how to divide money between each other in a two-player game, any strategy is perceived to be fair more than half the time, including the profit-maximizing strategy. The equal divisions that lead to equal outcomes are sometimes considered unfair by both players. Moreover, players frequently punished the others, whose decisions led to equal outcomes. I hypothesize that such punishments occur because people have different conceptions of what a fair outcome and fair punishment are

  10. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Agriculture,Fishery,Animal Husbandry2010 China Husbandry and New Technology,New Product, New Equipment Promotion and Trade Fair Date: April 16-April 18, 2010 Frequency: Yearly Venue: Fujian Economic and Trade Exhibition

  11. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Commodity and Trade Fair Urnmqi Foreign Economic Relations and Trade Fair Date:September 1-September 5,2008 Venue:Xinjiang International Exhibition Center Sector:Exhibition of new products,new technology and new project,to negotiate on import & export trade and domestic commodity trade,etc Web:www.urmqifair.com Add:107,Xinhua South Road,Urumchi,China, 830049 Tel:86-991-2850497/2879890 Fax:86-991-2850497/2879890 E-mail:office@urumqifair.com

  12. Theme of Vanity Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝荣玲

    2008-01-01

    1.1The Theme:A Novel without a Hero There is one clear,overarching theme in Vanity Fair:A Novel without a Hero,and Thackeray telegraphs it in his title and subtitle.In the pages of Vanity Fair,all is vanity and all are vain.Some are more vain-more obsessed with self and with the ephemeral treasures of social position and money-than others,

  13. The Design Pattern: Hub of Enterprise Application Integration%一个企业应用集成的设计模式:Hub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云卫; 李伟宏; 郝克刚

    2003-01-01

    The Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) is a challenge of modern enterprise. How much effect of information system in enterprise business implement process that depends on the degree of inner function and information integration of formation system. The choice of EAI methods not only affects the investment of constructing information system and protecting /using old system, but also determines the efficiency of new system. This paper presents a design pattern, named Hub method, from the view of application integration, which adopts the idea in heterogeneous circumstance focusing on interface encapsulating about controlling information exchange and workflow handling. It also gives an implement method and a framework of the Hub in this paper, which is applied on business process management. And a good performance is achieved in controlling information exchange and workflow handling among enterprise applications. It not only improves system integration capability, stich as expansibility, flexibility, and opening through the method of the Hub, but also takes a great advance in soft reuse during software designing and implementing.

  14. The Essence and Applying of the Trademark Fair Use System%商标合理使用制度的本质与适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹤徽

    2015-01-01

    Fair use of trademark is an important category in trademark law, in relation to other manufacturers and to the extent that consumers can use the trademark of rights holders to express ideas and information. So, the trademark fair use system is the“safe-ty valve”limiting the scope of trademark rights and ensuring the free market competition and freedom of expression. In practice, the trademark fair use system might have conflict with the likelihood of confusion standard in applying, which requires the court to see the the level of consumer confusion that defendant’s act objectively lead to, and further analyse the rational of defendant’s act, whether the defendant fulfills its duty of care that they should perform. If the defendant’s act shows that the defendant does not perform its obliga-tions to avoid consumer confusion, then the defendant’s act is lack of rationality, also it does not constitute trademark fair use.%商标合理使用是商标法中的重要范畴,关系到其他厂商、消费者能够在多大程度上利用商标权人的商标来表达观点、传递信息。因此,商标合理使用制度是限定商标权范围、确保市场竞争自由和表达自由的“安全阀”。在实践中,商标合理使用制度可能会与混淆可能性标准的适用发生冲突,这就要求法院要看被告的行为在客观上造成了多大程度的消费者混淆,并进一步分析被告的行为是否具备合理性,被告是否履行了其应当履行的注意义务。如果被告的行为表明被告并没有履行一定的规避消费者混淆的义务,则被告的行为就欠缺合理性,也就不构成商标合理使用。

  15. Liner Shipping Hub Network Design in a Competitive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    A new mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an alliance, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes its market share...

  16. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses the competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an existing dominating operator, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes its...

  17. International Education Hubs: Collaboration for Competitiveness and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of education hubs, a recent phenomenon in international higher education. Three models of hubs are examined in relation to the forces, risks, and opportunities of globalization and how local and international collaborations are essential for both global competitiveness and sustainability.

  18. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  19. Optimal Model and Solution of Railway Hub Shift Working Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Shiwei; Zhu Songnian; Lin Boliang

    1996-01-01

    Aiming at decreasing the hub transportation costs, a railway hub shift working plan in terms of multicommodity network flow model is set up for considering the coordination of freight working, train working and locomotive working plans. The solution and the calculating results are also introduced.

  20. Phased arrays: inline flow line hub inspection using phased arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J.G.P.; Chougrani, K.; Rundberg, H.; Oldenziel, G.; Deleye, X.; Martina, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of the inspection of flow line hubs using the phased array technique was investigated to determine the surface area of the seal area degraded by corrosion. A clean model of the hub was simulated to gain insight into the geometrical echoes and to determine the area covered by the ultr

  1. A versatile framework for cooperative hub network development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for cooperative hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for the transshipment of goods is expensive and, therefore, involves considerable risks for cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at o

  2. Education Hubs: A Fad, a Brand, an Innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen significant changes in all aspects of internationalization but most dramatically in the area of education and research moving across national borders. The most recent developments are education hubs. The term "education hub" is being used by countries who are trying to build a critical mass of local and foreign…

  3. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  4. Climate programs update: USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub update

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM OVERVIEW: The overarching goal of the USDA SW Climate Hub is to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in addressing the effects of climate change including prolonged drought, increased insect outbreaks and severe wildfires. In the first year of operations, the SW Climate Hub (est. Februa...

  5. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses the competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an existing dominating operator, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes i...

  6. International Education Hubs: Collaboration for Competitiveness and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of education hubs, a recent phenomenon in international higher education. Three models of hubs are examined in relation to the forces, risks, and opportunities of globalization and how local and international collaborations are essential for both global competitiveness and sustainability.

  7. The 4 Pi Sky Transient Alerts Hub

    CERN Document Server

    Staley, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the 4 Pi Sky 'hub', a collection of open data-services and underlying software packages built for rapid, fully automated reporting and response to astronomical transient alerts. These packages build on the mature 'VOEvent' standardized message-format, and aim to provide a decentralized and open infrastructure for handling transient alerts. In particular we draw attention to the initial release of voeventdb, an archive and remote-query service that allows astronomers to make historical queries about transient alerts. By employing spatial filters and web-of-citation lookups, voeventdb enables cross-matching of transient alerts to bring together data from multiple sources, as well as providing a point of reference when planning new follow-up campaigns. We also highlight the recent addition of optical-transient feeds from the ASASSN and GAIA projects to our VOEvent distribution stream. Both the source-code and deployment-scripts which implement these services are freely available and permissively lic...

  8. Hub-and-Spoke or else? Free trade agreements in the 'enlarged' European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Santis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to estimate if and how the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA and the Baltic Free Trade Agreement (BFTA exerted a significant impact on intra-European trade, effectively reducing the influence of the European Association Agreements (EAs in shaping the European trade structure as a hub-and-spoke system - with the EU15 being the hub and the CEECs the spoke. This paper analyses bilateral trade flows between eight CEECs and EU-23. We estimate a gravity equation using a system GMM dynamic panel data approach. Results support the assumptions that gravity forces and "persistence effects" matter. With respect to the effect of free trade agreements, evidence is found that Free trade agreements between CEECs matter: There is evidence that the presence of intra-periphery agreements helped expand intra-periphery trade and limited the emergence of a "hub-and-spoke" relationship between CEECs and EU. This results have important policy implications for the trade strategy of "future" EU members of the Southeastern European Countries as well as of the Southern Mediterranean Countries. According to the empirical results, these countries should move towards a regional free-trade area as exemplified by the CEFTA and the BFTA to avoid "hub-and-spoke" effects.

  9. Strategic analysis on establishing a natural gas trading hub in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Tong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the LNG importing price premium in the Asia–Pacific markets has become increasingly high, generating great effects on the economic development in China. In addition, the natural gas dependence degree is expanding continuously, making it extremely urgent to establish a natural gas trading hub in China, with the aim to ensure national energy security, to gain the pricing power, and to build the regional benchmark prices. Through a comparative analysis of internal strength/weakness and external competitiveness, we concluded that with intensively-issued supporting policies on the natural gas sector, the initiation of spot and futures markets, the rapid growth of gas production and highly-improved infrastructures, as well as Shanghai's advantageous location, China has more advantages in establishing an Asian Natural Gas Trading Hub than other counties like Singapore, Japan and Malaysia. Moreover, based on the SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat and the marketization process analysis, the following strategies were presented: to impel the establishment of a natural gas trading hub depending on the gas supply condition, to follow the policies to complete the gas storage system, to form regional communities by taking comparative advantages, and to reinforce the marketization reform and regulation system establishment with foreign experiences for reference. This study rationalized the necessity and practicality of establishing a natural gas trading hub in China and will help China make a proper decision and find a periodical strategic path in this sector.

  10. Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of a Low Power Hub Motor Using Feedforward Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şimşir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power hub motors are widely used in electromechanical systems such as electrical bicycles and solar vehicles due to their robustness and compact structure. Such systems driven by hub motors (in wheel motors encounter previously defined and undefined faults under operation. It may inevitably lead to the interruption of the electromechanical system operation; hence, economic losses take place at certain times. Therefore, in order to maintain system operation sustainability, the motor should be precisely monitored and the faults are diagnosed considering various significant motor parameters. In this study, the artificial feedforward backpropagation neural network approach is proposed to real-time monitor and diagnose the faults of the hub motor by measuring seven main system parameters. So as to construct a necessary model, we trained the model, using a data set consisting of 4160 samples where each has 7 parameters, by the MATLAB environment until the best model is obtained. The results are encouraging and meaningful for the specific motor and the developed model may be applicable to other types of hub motors. The prosperous model of the whole system was embedded into Arduino Due microcontroller card and the mobile real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis system prototype for hub motor was designed and manufactured.

  11. The perceived fairness of performance evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.H. Hartmann (Frank)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen it comes to procedural justice, Management Accounting and Human Resources functions have to get closer to create systems of performance evaluation that are perceived as fair – and that also take uncertainty into consideration.

  12. Hub exchange operations in intermodal hub-and spoke networks : a performance comparison of rail-rail exchange facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontekoning, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of hub-and-spoke networks in intermodal transport is suggested as one of the potential solutions for helping to increase the intermodal market share. Traditionally, trains are shunted at hubs; this is a time-consuming process. Since the early 1990s a new type of intermodal termina

  13. La equidad y la imparcialidad en la reforma del sistema mexicano de salud Equity and fairness in the Mexican health system reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Gómez-Dantés

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto de la reforma de finales de la década de 1990 en la equidad e imparcialidad del sistema mexicano de salud. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para evaluar el impacto de esta reforma se utilizó un sistema de parámetros diseñado por Daniels y colaboradores que se adaptó a la realidad mexicana y al que se adicionaron indicadores específicos. Se hizo, finalmente, una revisión documental de la reforma para calificar su desempeño en cada uno de estos parámetros. RESULTADOS: Excepto por las intervenciones en vivienda y nutricias, la reforma mostró poca preocupación por los determinantes de las condiciones de salud. En relación con la atención a la salud, las principales iniciativas de reforma tuvieron que ver con la ampliación de la cobertura de servicios esenciales y con la descentralización de los servicios de salud. Las actividades relacionadas con la justicia del financiamiento, la fragmentación del sistema, el énfasis en la atención curativa especializada, la rendición de cuentas y la transparencia fueron escasas. CONCLUSIONES: La reforma del sistema mexicano de salud de la segunda mitad de la década de 1990 tuvo cierto impacto sobre el acceso de los pobres a la atención a la salud y la eficiencia administrativa, pero un efecto mínimo sobre la justicia del financiamiento y el gobierno democrático.OBJECTIVE: To assess the equity and fairness of the Mexican health system reform that occurred in the late 1990's. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Mexican reform process was evaluated using the benchmark-system designed by Daniels et al. This benchmark system was adapted to the Mexican setting by adding specific indicators. A documentary review of the Mexican reform process was conducted to score its performance for each benchmark. RESULTS: Except for housing and nutrition components, the reform included few actions related to health determinants. For health care, the main reform initiatives were those related to extending

  14. Dalian International Garment Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 17th Dalian International Garment Fair is a new starting point. In the face of the main development trend of international and domes tic convention and exhibition industry, the fierce competition among the domestic exhibition industry, Dalian International Garment Fair sizes up the situation and the golden opportunity that China will revitalize the Northeast old industrial base and turn Dalian into the international shipping center in Northeast Asia; it takes the new Dalian Convention and Exhibition Center as a turning point. Under the leadership of Dalian Mu-nicipal Party Committee and Dalian municipal government, and under the support and assistance of the sponsors, Dalian International Garment Fair emancipates the mind and plans the future with the viewpoint of scientific development, innovative thinking and practical operation.

  15. PERSEUS-HUB: Interactive and Collective Exploration of Large-Scale Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Jin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphs emerge naturally in many domains, such as social science, neuroscience, transportation engineering, and more. In many cases, such graphs have millions or billions of nodes and edges, and their sizes increase daily at a fast pace. How can researchers from various domains explore large graphs interactively and efficiently to find out what is ‘important’? How can multiple researchers explore a new graph dataset collectively and “help” each other with their findings? In this article, we present Perseus-Hub, a large-scale graph mining tool that computes a set of graph properties in a distributed manner, performs ensemble, multi-view anomaly detection to highlight regions that are worth investigating, and provides users with uncluttered visualization and easy interaction with complex graph statistics. Perseus-Hub uses a Spark cluster to calculate various statistics of large-scale graphs efficiently, and aggregates the results in a summary on the master node to support interactive user exploration. In Perseus-Hub, the visualized distributions of graph statistics provide preliminary analysis to understand a graph. To perform a deeper analysis, users with little prior knowledge can leverage patterns (e.g., spikes in the power-law degree distribution marked by other users or experts. Moreover, Perseus-Hub guides users to regions of interest by highlighting anomalous nodes and helps users establish a more comprehensive understanding about the graph at hand. We demonstrate our system through the case study on real, large-scale networks.

  16. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of taxation is a phenomenon long past barriers fiscal regulations and procedures, as in the contemporary period is a phenomenon with multiple implications of economic, social and political. Tax procedures also were upgraded and complicated that not only specialists but also taxpayers need the jurisdictional knowledge, informatics and especially in the economic field. Dealing over the jurisdictional and procedural measure, it seems that the other side of the relationship between tax authorities and taxpayers, the economic and psycho-behavioral was neglected. Tax authorities as part of the administrative system, whose main objective attracting tax revenues to the Exchequer in terms of data legislation, legislation that reflects the vision of the governments policy in operation. One must ask if the official fiscal policies, take into account the coordinates of the report psychobehavioral tax? The answer to this question and some comments to address this issue, this paper covered together. The tax will not ever paid with pleasure, but it is known that fiscal equity confers a degree of acceptance by payers of the tax burden. Modern fiscal policies are marked by complicated structure of tax systems, more sophisticated procedures and rush image of politicians that do not retain as little detriment to promote populism reality. Another problem is the invasion of of social security, namely the objective is also looking to be promoted on account of fiscal policy without taking into account the fact that the two policies, the fiscal and social security are still their primary objective. The combination of the two types of , the purely fiscal and social, administrative approach is undoubtedly affected, and the effectiveness of the two policies may be affected taxpayers reactions is recognized in the literature are controversial. Taxpayers are vexed not only the size of the tax burden but also its structure, especially the way the official division

  17. U.S. Residential Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices, Q4 2013 Benchmarks: Cash Purchase, Fair Market Value, and Prepaid Lease Transaction Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; James, T. L.; Margolis, R.; Fu, R.; Feldman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. This report provides a Q4 2013 update for residential PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variation in business models, labor rates, and module choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.29/W for modeled standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon residential PV systems installed in the United States. This is a 46% decline from the 2013-dollar-adjusted price reported in the Q4 2010 benchmark report. In addition, this report frames the cash purchase price in the context of key price metrics relevant to the continually evolving landscape of third-party-owned PV systems by benchmarking the minimum sustainable lease price and the fair market value of residential PV systems.

  18. The silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR. Development of microstrip sensors and signal transmission lines for a low-mass, low-noise system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Minni

    2014-01-29

    In this thesis, different physical and electrical aspects of silicon microstrip sensors and low-mass multi-line readout cables have been investigated. These silicon microstrip sensors and readout cables will be used in the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the fixed-target heavy-ion Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is under development at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. The highly segmented low-mass tracking system is a central CBM detector system to resolve the high tracking densities of charged particles originating from beam-target interactions. Considering the low material budget requirement the double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been used in several planar tracking stations. The readout electronics is planned to be installed at the periphery of the tracking stations along with the cooling system. Low-mass multi-line readout cables shall bridge the distance between the microstrip sensors and the readout electronics. The CBM running operational scenario suggests that some parts of the tracking stations are expected to be exposed to a total integrated particle fluence of the order of 1 x 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. After 1 x 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} the damaged modules in the tracking stations will be replaced. Thus radiation hard sensor is an important requirement for the sensors. Moreover, to cope with the high reaction rates, free-streaming (triggerless) readout electronics with online event reconstruction must be used which require high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio (i.e., high signal efficiency, low noise contributions). Therefore, reduction in noise is a major goal of the sensor and cable development. For better insight into the different aspects of the silicon microstrip sensors and multi-line readout cables, the simulation study has been performed using SYNOPSYS TCAD tools. 3D models of the silicon microstrip sensors and the readout cables were implemented which is

  19. Flow Merging and Hub Route Optimization in Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerui Weng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal hub routing problem of merged tasks in collaborative transportation. This problem allows all carriers’ transportation tasks to reach the destinations optionally passing through 0, 1, or 2 hubs within limited distance, while a cost discount on arcs in the hub route could be acquired after paying fixed charges. The problem arises in the application of logistics, postal services, airline transportation, and so forth. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer programming model, and provide two heuristic approaches, respectively, based on Lagrangian relaxation and Benders decomposition. Computational experiments show that the algorithms work well.

  20. The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Andreas; Koch, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and threats which arise when turning origin/destination airports into hubs. The analysis focuses on market development trends, competitive structures, especially in the light of airline network strategies and the growing rivalry between airports, and finally the potential financial impacts for the airport, including both investment efforts and the financial results from hub operations. We argue that in most cases a decision against converting a traditional origin/destination airport into a major transfer point is preferable to the transformation into a hub.

  1. Fair Factory Floors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The number of labor disputes has soared and fairness remains elusive China’s Labor Contract Law, which has been in effect since January 1, 2008, has had significant positive impacts on the labor market, but there are still many difficulties facing workers and employers. In April 2009, Beijing’s Transition Institute conducted labor research in textile

  2. Fair mulighedslighed og sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Når vi skal diskutere de normative spørgsmål, der rejser sig i forbindelse med ulighed i sundhed, er Norman Daniels’ teori om retfærdig sundhed central. Teoriens omdrejningspunkt er en udvidelse af Rawls’ princip om fair mulighedslighed til også at omfatte sundhed, og den er uden tvivl blandt de...

  3. A Fair Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Traditional markets are returning to big cities in China,but with a new twist:They’re organic AFTER participating in Beijing’s"Country Fair"in March,a netizen going by the name"north slope"wrote in his blog,"It’s more like a creative market.

  4. Fair mulighedslighed og sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Når vi skal diskutere de normative spørgsmål, der rejser sig i forbindelse med ulighed i sundhed, er Norman Daniels’ teori om retfærdig sundhed central. Teoriens omdrejningspunkt er en udvidelse af Rawls’ princip om fair mulighedslighed til også at omfatte sundhed, og den er uden tvivl blandt de...

  5. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klijnsma

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is par

  6. Super Science Fair Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritz, Maxine Haren

    This guide to science fair projects is designed for students and provides clear directions on how to complete a successful science project. Real projects are used as examples and information and advice is provided by teachers, judges, and participants and their families about the process. Topics covered in this book include choosing a science fair…

  7. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Food and Additives, Beverage, Drinks, Seasonings, Dairy Products Hong Kong International Tea Fair Date: August 12-August 15, 2011 Venue: Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Center Exhibits: Tea, processing equipment and testing services, tea ware, tea bars/organizations, tea technology, tea service and publications.

  8. The Madam Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    "NADAM" means "entertainment" or "game" in Mongolian. The Nadam Fair, a traditional Mongolian gathering, is held each year in summer or autumn and features horse racing, wrestling, shooting, singing and dancing. In the summer, I, together with my friends, traveled to Dong Ujimqin Banner of Xilin Gol League in Inner Mongolia for

  9. Idea Hubs as Nexus of Collective Creativity in Digital Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciriello, Raffaele; Richter, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    on instances of idea hubs in two multinational European software companies, where we conducted a case study over a two-year period, and collected data in form of interviews, digital documents, and participant observations. In doing so, we identify a set of social networking practices in which idea hubs serve......Digital innovation radically transforms the nature of corporate innovation practices, implying a growing need for deeper understanding its origins and outcomes. In this paper, we conceptualize the focal points of social networking in digital innovation as idea hubs. We focus our analysis...... as nexus of collective creativity and subject these to a critical dialectical examination. We discuss three influencing factors of idea hub choice, namely material infrastructure, innovation process phase, and personal characteristics. These explain why in a corporate environment, despite a variety...

  10. 14 CFR 398.2 - Number and designation of hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... origin and designation data; (iv) The distance of candidate hubs from the eligible place; and (v) The... may instead require that service from an eligible place be provided to a nearby focal point...

  11. Model of Controlling the Hubs in P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Liu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the hubs in Peer-to-Peer (P2P networks, and present a new method to avoid generating the hubs in the networks by controlling the logical topology structure of P2P networks. We firstly introduce the controlling ideas about hierarchizing the hubs. Then, we disclose and interpret the controlling model, and give out the concrete method to carry it out. Finally, we validate our controlling model via simulations and the simulation results demonstrate that our work is effective to control the hubs in P2P networks. Thus, this model can improve the network competence to defend against coordinated attacks, promote the network robustness, and ensure the network would develop continually and healthily.

  12. A Flexible Logistics Distribution Hub Model considering Cost Weighted Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue Ran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery time of order has become an important fact for customers to evaluate logistics services. Due to the diverse and large quantities of orders in the background of electronic commerce, how to improve the flexibility of distribution hub and reduce the waiting time of customers becomes one of the most challenging questions for logistics companies. With this in mind, this paper proposes a new method of flexibility assessment in distribution hub by introducing cost weighted time (CWT. The advantages of supply hub operation mode in delivery flexibility are verified by the approach: the mode has pooling effects and uniform distribution characteristics; these traits can reduce overlapping delivery time to improve the flexibility in the case of two suppliers. Numerical examples show that the supply hub operation mode is more flexible than decentralized distribution operation mode in multidelivery cycles.

  13. Establishing a Global Halal Hub: In-Depth Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Borzooei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the requirements needed for a country to establish itself as a global Halal hub. In this regard, this exploratory research paper uses a semi-structured in-depth interview to obtain the perceptions of Halal experts about the requirements for establishing a Halal hub. The results of the study indicate that human capital, media, research and development, events, country’s capability, public and governmental support, marketing strategy, and infrastructure comprise the vital requirements. Furthermore, from the perceptions of the experts, public and governmental support, marketing strategy, and human capital are the three most important requirements. Since this paper is an exploratory study, it provides some insights of the three experts on the establishing of a Halal hub. In addition, a quantitative study is an appropriate approach to implement the findings of this study empirically and to determine the effective components to establish a Halal hub in those countries that desire it. A practical implication of this study is the opening of a new window for any country that aspires to be a Halal hub. In this matter, this paper presents the key considerations in establishing a Halal hub for Halal certification bodies, companies and marketers involved in the Halal business. Moreover, this research attempts to influence the perceptions and attitudes of people of the country on the desirability of becoming a Halal hub, followed by a discussion on the development of a national brand. When the contribution of its people is high, a country stands the best chance of achieving its goal. Finally, this study is one of the first to seek the perceptions of experts about vital requirements that a country should pay more attention to if it wishes to establish a global Halal hub.

  14. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step t...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  15. RRM strategy based on throughput and fairness in LTE-A relay system%LTE-A中继系统中基于吞吐量和公平性博弈的RRM策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵季红; 杜锦涛; 曲桦

    2014-01-01

    为解决LTE-A系统中继场景下系统吞吐量和用户公平性的均衡问题,提出用户SINR分散度并以此作为公平性的主要参数,改善小区中心用户和边缘用户的公平性。对小区吞吐量和用户公平性进行博弈建模,基于博弈结果提出资源分配的目标均衡算法。仿真结果表明,提出的目标均衡算法将吞吐量、公平性和博弈论结合起来,在保证系统吞吐量的情况下提高了用户公平性,使系统资源利用更加有效。%For the imbalance between the system throughput and the user fairness in the LTE-A system with relay ,the user SINR dispersion degree was proposed as the main parameter of the fairness ,and the fairness of center users and edge users was improved significantly .The game model for the system throughput and the user fairness was established and the balanced aim al-location algorithm for the allocation of resources was proposed based on the game results .Simulation results show that the pro-posed balanced aim allocation algorithm which combines the throughput ,the user fairness and the game theory improves the user fairness on the premise of assuring the system throughput ,making the system resource allocation more efficient .

  16. Fairness Through Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Dwork, Cynthia; Pitassi, Toniann; Reingold, Omer; Zemel, Rich

    2011-01-01

    "What can be learned about from the sole fact that I have been shown this on-line advertisement?" By definition, the answer to this question is non-trivial whenever advertisements are not served indiscriminately. Advertisers, hoping to have targeted precisely and appropriately, use information from multiple sources to give different on-line experiences to different people. Thus the message of "giving you the ads that interest you" does not tell the whole story of behavioral targeting, and the resulting differentiation in user experience may, or may not, work to the advantage of the user. When it results in differential pricing it arguably does not benefit some users; when it results in steering minorities away from certain neighborhoods or toward less advantageous credit card offerings, it is illegal. This raises the question of fairness in advertising, and, more generally, of fairness in classification. This rather broad topic is not restricted to the digital world, and encompasses classification in such div...

  17. Bargaining and fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binmore, Kenneth

    2014-07-22

    The idea that human morality might be the product of evolution is not popular. The reason is partly that the moral principles that actually govern our day-to-day behavior have been idealized in a way that makes a natural origin seem impossible. This paper puts the case for a more down-to-earth assessment of human morality by arguing that the evolution of our sense of fairness can be traced to the practicalities of food-sharing. When animals share food, they can be seen as enjoying the fruits of an implicit bargain to ensure each other against hunger. The implications of this observation are explored using the tools of game theory. The arguments lead to a structure for fair bargains that closely resembles the structure proposed by John Rawls, the leading moral philosopher of the last century.

  18. Concerted perturbation observed in a hub network in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Liang

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving the alteration of gene expression at the whole genome level. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of AD has been conducted by many groups on several relevant brain regions. However, identifying the most critical dys-regulated genes has been challenging. In this work, we addressed this issue by deriving critical genes from perturbed subnetworks. Using a recent microarray dataset on six brain regions, we applied a heaviest induced subgraph algorithm with a modular scoring function to reveal the significantly perturbed subnetwork in each brain region. These perturbed subnetworks were found to be significantly overlapped with each other. Furthermore, the hub genes from these perturbed subnetworks formed a connected hub network consisting of 136 genes. Comparison between AD and several related diseases demonstrated that the hub network was robustly and specifically perturbed in AD. In addition, strong correlation between the expression level of these hub genes and indicators of AD severity suggested that this hub network can partially reflect AD progression. More importantly, this hub network reflected the adaptation of neurons to the AD-specific microenvironment through a variety of adjustments, including reduction of neuronal and synaptic activities and alteration of survival signaling. Therefore, it is potentially useful for the development of biomarkers and network medicine for AD.

  19. On a fair verdict

    OpenAIRE

    Sergei G. Ol'kov

    2014-01-01

    Objective the study of the phenomenon of justice in general and fairness in judicial verdicts in particular. Methods 1 observation 2 deduction 3 use of the laws of formal logic 4 comparative analysis 5 formal legal 6 mathematical modeling. Results the author considers the possibility of creating the scale of good and evil. As a result of rendering of legal laws in the language of mathematics were obtained the following conclusions 1 definition of justice as equality between the object...

  20. Science Fair Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Sciences fair season is a time when seasoned non-science teachers typically give up all hope of cramming any more knowledge into the heads of their students. It's just too much. However, non-science types might be missing out on a pretty good deal. The science department has got these kids in a pretty tight grip as far as the process and the…

  1. Justice, fairness, and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    2006-12-01

    This article begins by considering four traditional definitions of enhancement, then proposes a fifth, the Welfarist definition. It then considers fairness-based objections to enhancement, using the example of performance enhancement in sport. In so doing it defines sport and the values proper to it, surveys alternative theories of justice, considers the natural distribution of capabilities and disabilities, and draws a distinction between social, psychological, and biological enhancement. The article advances a new argument that justice requires enhancement.

  2. Hyperons at CBM-FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans Rudolf

    2016-08-01

    The CBM experiment is one of the four scientific pillars of the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. Its discovery potential - complementary to heavy-ion experiments at colliders - is based on high-luminosity ion beams. This enables access to extremely rare probes such as charmed particles, vector mesons or multi-strange hyperons with high statistics. However, 3rd generations readout systems and detectors are required to handle the large interaction rates (up to 10 MHz for Au+Au) with sufficient precision and bandwidth. In this contribution we will outline the unique CBM physics program focusing onto hyperons.

  3. FAIR-share

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-seven engineers involved in the FAIR project in Germany recently spent three days at CERN. The purpose of their visit: tour ALICE and meet with CERN engineers. This marks the start of a close cooperation. The FAIR project engineers and their CERN counterparts.If you want to build a new particle accelerator and wish to benefit from existing expertise, who do you go to see? Well… why not go straight to CERN? That’s what this group of 27 engineers did. They are working on a new accelerator project, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), to be built at the heavy-ion research centre GSI located near Darmstadt, Germany. Representing a variety of disciplines, from manufacturing to architecture, they will be responsible for making the project a reality. The visit was organised from 14-16 October, making it possible to include a tour of the ALICE experiment prior to the re-start of the LHC. However, the main goal was ...

  4. Modeling event building architecture for the triggerless data acquisition system for PANDA experiment at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A novel architecture is being proposed for the data acquisition and trigger system for PANDA experiment at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI. The experiment will run without the hardware trigger signal and use timestamps to correlate detector data from a given time window. The broad physics program in combination with high rate of 2 10^7 interactions require very selective filtering algorithms which access information from almost all detectors. Therefore the effective filtering will happen later than it used to in today's systems ie after the event building. To assess that, the complete architecture will be built of two stages: the data concentrator stage providing event building and the rate reduction stage. For the former stage, which allows to switch 100 GB/s of event fragments to perform event building, we propose two layers of ATCA crates filled with compute nodes - modules designed at University of Giessen for trigger and data acquisition systems. Each board is equipped with 5 Virtex4 FX60 FPG...

  5. Sharing environmental models: An Approach using GitHub repositories and Web Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Nuest, Daniel; Pross, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    accordingly. The admin tool of the 52°North WPS was extended to support automated retrieval and deployment of computational models from GitHub repositories. Once the R code is available in the GitHub repo, the contained process can be easily deployed and executed by simply defining the GitHub repository URL in the WPS admin tool. We illustrate the usage of the approach by sharing and running a model for land use system archetypes developed by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ, see Vaclavik et al.). The original R code was extended and published in the 52°North WPS using both, public and non-public datasets (Nüst et al., see also https://github.com/52North/glues-wps). Hosting the analysis in a Git repository now allows WPS administrators, client developers, and modelers to easily work together on new versions or completely new web processes using the powerful GitHub collaboration platform. References: Hinz, M. et. al. (2013): Spatial Statistics on the Geospatial Web. In: The 16th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science, Short Papers. http://www.agile-online.org/Conference_Paper/CDs/agile_2013/Short_Papers/SP_S3.1_Hinz.pdf Nüst, D. et. al.: (2015): Open and reproducible global land use classification. In: EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts . Vol. 17. European Geophysical Union, 2015, p. 9125, http://meetingorganizer.copernicus. org/EGU2015/EGU2015- 9125.pdf Vaclavik, T., et. al. (2013): Mapping global land system archetypes. Global Environmental Change 23(6): 1637-1647. Online available: October 9, 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.09.004

  6. RFID-based smart logistics management system for supply hub in industrial park (SHIP)%基于RFID的工业园区SHIP智能物流管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁晓菊; 陈艳; 朱伟军; 屈挺; 黄国全

    2014-01-01

    对园区企业的生产物料进行统一存储是工业园区公共仓库(SHIP,Supply Hub in Industrial Park)的基本功能;而采用Milk-run公共物流模式为多企业提供循环式JIT集中物料配送,则是SHIP服务的高级阶段。这种由分布式产线实时需求驱动的协同式精益化物流运作对物流资源的有效性、配送路径的经济性、交接数据的精确性等提出了较高的实时性管理要求。本文综合运用RFID等物联网技术及先进的智能终端、地理信息及优化统计技术,开发一套以SHIP为核心的工业园区公共物流智能化管理服务系统,辅助园区多制造企业进行集成化、协同化和智能化的动态仓储管理和实时物流管理。

  7. Process Fairness and Dynamic Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T. Trautmann (Stefan); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: When process fairness deviates from outcome fairness, dynamic inconsistencies can arise as in nonexpected utility. Resolute choice (Machina) can restore dynamic consistency under nonexpected utility without using Strotz's precommitment. It can similarly justify dynamically

  8. Quality assurance of double-sided silicon strip sensors for silicon tracking system in the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionov, Pavel; Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the central tracking detector of Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment that aims to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net baryonic densities and moderate temperatures. STS consists of 8 tracking layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors with self-triggered read-out system. The challenge is to cope with high hit rates up to 10 MHz/cm{sup 2}, high tracking density, high radiation load up to 1 x 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and high momentum resolution for the physics case. Hence, the Quality Assurance (QA) procedures become important in the process of building up modules and stations of these sensors. This presentation describes the various QA tests and procedures that need to be performed to identify the viability, performance and efficiency of these sensors for tracking system in CBM experiment.In particular QA in CBM-STS includes visual inspection, bulk and interstrip parameters measurements, sensor efficiency and total signal to noise ratio tests, measurements of irradiated sensors, bonding, low temperature performance and current stability tests. Results of various QA tests of sensor prototypes are shown.

  9. Design and Analysis of a Novel Speed-Changing Wheel Hub with an Integrated Electric Motor for Electric Bicycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an innovative electromechanical device which integrates a brushless DC (BLDC hub motor with a speed-changing wheel hub stored on the rear wheel of an electric bicycle. It combines a power source and a speed-changing mechanism to simultaneously provide functions of power generation and transmission for electric bicycles. As part of the proposed integrated device, the wheel hub consists of a basic planetary gear train providing three forward speeds including a low-speed gear, a direct drive, and a high-speed gear. Each gear is manually controlled by the shift control sleeve to selectively engage or disengage four pawl-and-ratchet clutches based on its clutching sequence table. The number of gear teeth of each gear element of the wheel hub is synthesized. The BLDC hub motor is an exterior-rotor-type permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Two-dimensional finite-element analysis (FEA software is employed to facilitate the motor design and performance analysis. An analysis of the power transmission path at each gear is provided to verify the validity of the proposed design. The results of this work are beneficial to the embodiment, design, and development of novel electromechanical devices for the power and transmission systems of electric bicycles.

  10. Free vibrations of a flexible tapered arm attached to a compliant hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, W. Lionel, Jr.; Carrasco, Armando H.

    1991-05-01

    A single link flexible robot arm can be modeled as a Bernoulli Euler beam to describe its dynamic behavior. The first six natural frequencies for a flexible uniform beam attached to a compliant hub undergoing free vibration have previously been presented. This article extends the work to that of a linearly tapered robot arm. The equations of motion are presented and the characteristic determinant is derived. The determinant is then solved for the first five natural frequencies of the system.

  11. Dynamical Systems Theory in Quantitative Psychology and Cognitive Science: A Fair Discrimination between Deterministic and Statistical Counterparts is Required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Adam; Ausloos, Marcel; Casey, Tahlia

    2017-04-01

    This article addresses a set of observations framed in both deterministic as well as statistical formal guidelines. It operates within the framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NDS). It is argued that statistical approaches can manifest themselves ambiguously, creating practical discrepancies in psychological and cognitive data analyses both quantitatively and qualitatively. This is sometimes termed in literature as 'questionable research practices.' This communication points to the demand for a deeper awareness of the data 'initial conditions, allowing to focus on pertinent evolution constraints in such systems.' It also considers whether the exponential (Malthus-type) or the algebraic (Pareto-type) statistical distribution ought to be effectively considered in practical interpretations. The role of repetitive specific behaviors by patients seeking treatment is examined within the NDS frame. The significance of these behaviors, involving a certain memory effect seems crucial in determining a patient's progression or regression. With this perspective, it is discussed how a sensitively applied hazardous or triggering factor can be helpful for well-controlled psychological strategic treatments; those attributable to obsessive-compulsive disorders or self-injurious behaviors are recalled in particular. There are both inherent criticality- and complexity-exploiting (reduced-variance based) relations between a therapist and a patient that can be intrinsically included in NDS theory.

  12. NCLEX fairness and sensitivity review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Anne; Kenny, Lorraine; Riley, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The National Council Licensing Examination is an examination that is used for the purpose of licensing registered nurses and practical/vocational nurses. To help ensure that the examination questions (items) are fair and unbiased, all items undergo a fairness and sensitivity review as part of the item development process. This article focuses on the fairness and sensitivity review.

  13. Fractions: How to Fair Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

    2011-01-01

    Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

  14. Perceived controllability and fairness in performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schiehll

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of environmental uncertainty, decentralization of decisions rights, and the use of subjective performance measures on managers’ perceptions of outcome controllability and performance evaluation fairness. Based on a survey of 339 middle- and upper- level managers, our results suggest that environmental uncertainty adversely affects perceptions of outcome controllability and that this effect is not moderated by the decentralization of decision rights. Our results also show a positive association between perceived controllability and performance evaluation fairness. Although we found no direct effect of the use of subjective performance measures on perceived performance evaluation fairness, it appears to moderate the positive effect of perceived controllability on fairness. We also show that the positive effect of the use of subjective measures may depend on contextual and job-related factors. The overall results underscore the need to consider the organizational context (environmental uncertainty and decentralization of decision rights to investigate how performance measures affect perceived controllability and fairness. Because perceived controllability and fairness affect individual attitudes and behaviors within an organization, our results have important implications for the design and use of performance evaluation systems.

  15. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradeep [Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eschke, Juergen [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research, GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations comprising of 1292 double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors. A Laser Test System (LTS) has been developed for the quality assurance of prototype sensors. The aim is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. Several prototype sensors with strip pitch of 50 and 58 μm have been tested, as well as a prototype module with realistic mechanical arrangement of sensor and read-out cables. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure across the sensor with focused laser beam (spot-size ∼ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (∼ 10 ns) and power (∼ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Results from laser scans of prototype sensors and detector module are reported.

  16. DIGITAL VIDEO BROADCAST RETURN CHANNEL VIA SATELLITE (DVB-RCS HUB FOR SATELLITE BASED E-LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G.Vasantha Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses in-house designed and developed scale-down DVB-RCS hub along with the performance of the realized hub. This development is intended to support the Satellite Based e-Learning initiative in India. The scale-down DVB-RCS HUB is implemented around a single PC with other subsystems making it very cost effective and unique of its kind. This realization will drastically reduce the total cost of Satellite based Education Networks as very low cost commercially available Satellite Interactive Terminals (SITs complying to open standard could be used at remote locations. The system is successfully tested to work with a commercial SIT using a GEO satellite EDUSAT which is especially dedicated for satellite based e-Learning. The internal detail of the DVB-RCS Forward and Return Link Organization and how it manages the Satellite Interactive Terminals access to the satellite channel using MF-TDMA approach has been described.

  17. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Agler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe-microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe-microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial "hubs," are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe-microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on "hub" microbes, which, via microbe-microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two "hub" microbes (the

  18. Identification of promising Twin Hub networks: Report of Work Package 1 of the Intermodal rail freight Twin hub Network Northwest Europe - project (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Meijer, S.; Witteveen, C.; Meijers, B.M.; Pekin, E.; Macharis, C.; Kiel, J.; Kawabata, Y.; Vos, W.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first deliverable of the project Intermodal Rail Freight Twin Hub Network Northwest Europe. We call its subject Twin hub network and the organisational entity to carry out the actions the Twin hub project. The project is funded by INTERREG NWE (programme IVb). Its work started in

  19. Fairness in scientific publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philippa C.

    2017-01-01

    Major changes are afoot in the world of academic publishing, exemplified by innovations in publishing platforms, new approaches to metrics, improvements in our approach to peer review, and a focus on developing and encouraging open access to scientific literature and data. The FAIR acronym recommends that authors and publishers should aim to make their output Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. In this opinion article, I explore the parallel view that we should take a collective stance on making the dissemination of scientific data fair in the conventional sense, by being mindful of equity and justice for patients, clinicians, academics, publishers, funders and academic institutions. The views I represent are founded on oral and written dialogue with clinicians, academics and the publishing industry. Further progress is needed to improve collaboration and dialogue between these groups, to reduce misinterpretation of metrics, to minimise inequity that arises as a consequence of geographic setting, to improve economic sustainability, and to broaden the spectrum, scope, and diversity of scientific publication.

  20. THE (UN? FAIRNESS OF FAIR VALUE: SFAS 157, IRVING FISHER AND GECON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Lustosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the level of adherence of explicit and implicit measurement concepts present in SFAS 157 – Fair Value Measurements to traditional economic-accounting concepts. Background: The expansion of situations in which fair value measurement is required makes more difficult to ensure that the computed measure of value is actually fair. Out of the objectivity of current sales prices in an active market, all other measures of value are expectations about the future, inherently uncertain and inaccurate. Thus, the desired justice of the computed figures lies not in its accuracy, but in the using of the correct concepts for measuring accounting transactions and events. Method: To reach the objective, the characteristics of this standard are confronted with the secular concept of capital and income set by the laureate American neoclassical economist Irving Fisher, which were incorporated into Information System for Economic Management (Gecon. Results: The results indicate that SFAS 157 fair value concept and measurement structure are incorrect or incomplete, suggesting that the maintenance of the fair value expression in accounting seems inadequate. Contributions: This paper contributes to the literature on accounting measurement showing that as a measurement concept in accounting fair value seems inadequate. In abnormal situations or absence of a market, the measure found is always inexact and subjective, and therefore is not correct to call fair the quantity resulting from this arbitrary calculation.

  1. Improved proportional fair algorithm for LTE-Advanced system with carrier aggregation%LTE-A系统载波聚合情况下改进的PF算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文鹏; 徐昌彪; 鲜永菊

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the cell edge users throughput and fairness between all users, this paper proposed a cell edge user prior proportional fair algorithm. The subject of this algorithm was to allocate the RBs( resource blocks) of some component carriers to the cell edge users and cell center users with probability a and 1 - a respectively. After the allocation, it scheduled RBs by originally proportional fair algorithm. While the RBs of the other component carriers were scheduled by originally proportional fair algorithm directly. Simulation results indicate that this algorithm can fairly improve the cell edge users throughput and fairness between all users. In addition, it can adjust the cell edge users throughput and fairness between all users through controlling the size of a.%为提高边缘用户的吞吐量和用户间的公平性,提出了边缘用户优先比例公平算法.算法思想是让某些成分载波上的RBs以概率a分配给边缘用户,以概率1-a分配给中心用户,分配后再使用传统的比例公平算法进行调度;而其他成分载波上的RBs直接使用传统的比例公平算法进行调度.仿真表明,该算法可以较好地提高边缘用户的吞吐量和用户间的公平性,并且可以通过控制a的大小来调节边缘用户吞吐量和用户间的公平性.

  2. On the Fair Play Spirit%论Fair Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维; 林琳

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料法,历史分析了"Fair Play"精神的起源,并结合Fair Play精神面临的时代压力,探讨现代体育生命力延续的议题,提出"人"才是体育及其"Fair Play"精神继续生存或走向毁灭的主宰者.

  3. An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Daniel E; Gerstl, Stephan S A; Chin, Jackson; Hirschi, Blake; Evans, James E

    2017-01-01

    Environmental control during transfer between instruments is required for samples sensitive to air or thermal exposure to prevent morphological or chemical changes prior to analysis. Atom probe tomography is a rapidly expanding technique for three-dimensional structural and chemical analysis, but commercial instruments remain limited to loading specimens under ambient conditions. In this study, we describe a multifunctional environmental transfer hub allowing controlled cryogenic or room-temperature transfer of specimens under atmospheric or vacuum pressure conditions between an atom probe and other instruments or reaction chambers. The utility of the environmental transfer hub is demonstrated through the acquisition of previously unavailable mass spectral analysis of an intact organic molecule made possible via controlled cryogenic transfer into the atom probe using the hub. The ability to prepare and transfer specimens in precise environments promises a means to access new science across many disciplines from untainted samples and allow downstream time-resolved in situ atom probe studies.

  4. Mapping multiplex hubs in human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Arenas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly centralones, i.e. hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studieshave shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components ofbrain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However,the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneouslyis still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify eachfrequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploitingthe recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that eachfrequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately modelbrain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in generaldifferent from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signalsas usual, provide a more accurate map of brain’s most important functional regions, allowingto distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventionalnetwork approaches.

  5. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoping; Guo, Linghong; Dai, Xi-Jian; Wang, Qinglai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Miao, Xinjun; Gong, Honghan

    2017-01-01

    To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features. Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years) and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years) were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ) were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs. Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6), right hippocampus (BA 35, 36), and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11) and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18), and left precuneus (BA 7, 19). SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R(2)=0.296, P=0.006). The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear to be disrupted by alcohol intoxication, which implicates at least three principal neural systems: including cerebellar, executive control, and visual cortex, which may further affect the normal motor behavior such as an explicit type of impaired driving behavior. These findings expand our understanding of the functional characteristics of alcohol dependence and may provide a new insight into the understanding of the dysfunction and pathophysiology of alcohol dependence.

  6. The Quest for Regional Hub of Education: Growing Heterarchies, Organizational Hybridization, and New Governance in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2011-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their higher education systems, the governments of Singapore and Malaysia have made attempts to develop their societies into regional hubs of education; hence transnational education has become increasingly popular in these societies. In order to attract more students from overseas to…

  7. HIGH CYCLE FATIGUE RELIABILITY ANALYSIS ON ROTOR HUB BASED ON APPROXIMATION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜年朝; 周光明; 张逊; 戴勇; 倪俊; 张志清

    2013-01-01

    A high cycle fatigue reliability analysis approach to helicopter rotor hub is proposed under working load spectrum .Automatic calculation for the approach is implemented through writing the calculating programs .In the system ,the modification of geometric model of rotor hub is controlled by several parameters ,and finite element method and S-N curve method are then employed to solve the fatigue life by automatically assigned parameters .A database between assigned parameters and fatigue life is obtained via Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) on toler-ance zone of rotor hub .Different data-fitting technologies are used and compared to determine a highest-precision approximation for this database .The parameters are assumed to be independent of each other and follow normal distributions .Fatigue reliability is then computed by the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the mean-value first order second moment (M FOSM ) method .Results show that the approach has high efficiency and precision ,and is suit-able for engineering application .

  8. A new method for improved hub height mean wind speed estimates using short-term hub height data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Matthew A.; Rogers, Anthony L.; Manwell, James F.; McGowan, Jon G. [Wind Energy Center, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 160 Governors Dr., Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The estimation of the wind resource at the hub height of a wind turbine is one of the primary goals of site assessment. Because the measurement heights of meteorological towers (met towers) are typically significantly lower than turbine hub heights, a shear model is generally needed to extrapolate the measured wind resource at the lower measurement height to the hub height of the turbine. This paper presents methods for improving the estimate of the hub height wind resource from met tower data through the use of ground-based remote sensing devices. The methods leverage the two major advantages of these devices: their portability and their ability to measure at the wind turbine hub height. Specifically, the methods rely on augmenting the one year of met tower measurements with short-term measurements from a ground-based remote sensing device. The results indicate that the methods presented are capable of producing substantial improvements in the accuracy and uncertainty of shear extrapolation predictions. The results suggest that the typical site assessment process can be reevaluated, and alternative strategies that utilize ground-based remote sensing devices can be incorporated to significantly improve the process. (author)

  9. Parallel job scheduling policies to improve fairness : a case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Sabin, Gerald (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH)

    2008-02-01

    Balancing fairness, user performance, and system performance is a critical concern when developing and installing parallel schedulers. Sandia uses a customized scheduler to manage many of their parallel machines. A primary function of the scheduler is to ensure that the machines have good utilization and that users are treated in a 'fair' manner. A separate compute process allocator (CPA) ensures that the jobs on the machines are not too fragmented in order to maximize throughput. Until recently, there has been no established technique to measure the fairness of parallel job schedulers. This paper introduces a 'hybrid' fairness metric that is similar to recently proposed metrics. The metric uses the Sandia version of a 'fairshare' queuing priority as the basis for fairness. The hybrid fairness metric is used to evaluate a Sandia workload. Using these results, multiple scheduling strategies are introduced to improve performance while satisfying user and system performance constraints.

  10. Obesity, paternalism and fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniess, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Many liberal theories are committed to the promotion of population health, and the principle of non-interference in individual life plans. Public health interventions often bring out a tension between these two values. In this paper, I examine this tension by assessing the justifiability of liberty-restricting policies in the field of obesity prevention. As I want to show, a 'soft' form of paternalism, which interferes with people's choices to safeguard their true interests, goes some way in justifying such policies, but it leaves unaddressed the problem of limiting the liberty of those whose true interest is in pursuing an unhealthy lifestyle. I argue that in this latter case, the key to reconcile the promotion of population health with the respect for individual liberty is distributive justice: when we cannot help those who care about their health without doing the same for those who do not, fairness will often require us to do so.

  11. Fairness ja tak - men hvordan?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Lise

    2008-01-01

    Journalistik skal være fair - vi hører og læser det igen og igen i skåltaler og debatindlæg. Men hvad betyder det lille ord fair egentlig, når vi snakker journalistik? Er det en floskel at hævde, at journalistik skal være fair? Eller ligger der gemt i ordet nole journalistiske dyder, som vi skal...

  12. Nuclear isoscaling and fair sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jorge

    2008-10-01

    The isoscaling phenomenon was first observed in nuclear multifragmentation experiments and has become a hot topic as it could provide a probe of the nuclear equation of state to understand nuclear matter at extreme condition of isospin such as in neutron stars. The present work studies isoscaling using 1) classical molecular dynamics simulations, 2) percolation and 3) probabilistic arguments, and determines that isoscaling is a general phenomenon that can exist independent of the nuclear reaction, and it is expected to occur in disassemblying systems with no more than fair sampling. In collaboration with Alan Davila, University of Texas at Austin; Claudio Dorso, Universidad de Buenos Aires; Carlos Hernandez, Universidad de Colima; Christian Escudero, University of Texas at El Paso; and Jorge Muñoz, CalTech.

  13. Humanbecoming and practice: fairness-unfairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Margaret J

    2012-04-01

    In this column a synthetic definition of fairness-unfairness is followed by a situation study involving an exchange between two undergraduate nursing students and their professor. A series of situations unfolds in which the students encounter a refugee and her family as they enter the American healthcare system. Students share their impressions of fairness-unfairness in this family's experiences. The professor interacts with the students to demonstrate the humanbecoming way of being with persons while bearing witness to the choices made in living out their values.

  14. Towards a Fair Global Economic Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio

    levels of generality, offering both case-specific and universal arguments about the Fair Trade system as a whole. Theoretically, the dissertation develops a regulationist framework based on a critical engagement with the French Regulation Approach and the Amsterdam Project in International Political...

  15. The proportional fairness scheduling algorithm on multi-classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江勇; 吴建平

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study resource management models and algorithms that satisfy multiple performance objects simultaneously. We realize the proportional fairness principle based QoS model, which defines both delay and loss rate requirements of a class, to include fairness, which is important for the integration of multiple service classes. The resulting Proportional Fairness Scheduling model formalizes the goals of the network performance, user's QoS requirement and system fairness and exposes the fundamental tradeoffs between these goals. In particular, it is difficult to simultaneously provide these objects. We propose a novel scheduling algorithm called Proportional Fairness Scheduling (PFS) that approximates the model closely and efficiently. We have implemented the PFS scheduling in Linux. By performing simulation and measurement experiments, we evaluate the delay and loss rate proportional fairness of PFS, and determine the computation overhead.

  16. The role of FlhF and HubP as polar landmark proteins in Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Florian; Brenzinger, Susanne; Knauer, Carina; Dörrich, Anja K; Bubendorfer, Sebastian; Ruppert, Ulrike; Bange, Gert; Thormann, Kai M

    2015-11-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of cell polarity plays a role in many fundamental processes in bacteria and often relies on 'landmark' proteins which recruit the corresponding clients to their designated position. Here, we explored the localization of two multi-protein complexes, the polar flagellar motor and the chemotaxis array, in Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32. We demonstrate that polar positioning of the flagellar system, but not of the chemotaxis system, depends on the GTPase FlhF. In contrast, the chemotaxis array is recruited by a transmembrane protein which we identified as the functional ortholog of Vibrio cholerae HubP. Mediated by its periplasmic N-terminal LysM domain, SpHubP exhibits an FlhF-independent localization pattern during cell cycle similar to its Vibrio counterpart and also has a role in proper chromosome segregation. In addition, while not affecting flagellar positioning, SpHubP is crucial for normal flagellar function and is involved in type IV pili-mediated twitching motility. We hypothesize that a group of HubP/FimV homologs, characterized by a rather conserved N-terminal periplasmic section required for polar targeting and a highly variable acidic cytoplasmic part, primarily mediating recruitment of client proteins, serves as polar markers in various bacterial species with respect to different cellular functions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how innov

  18. Native Avatars, Online Hubs, and Urban Indian Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Gabriel S.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching American Indian literature with online resources can help diverse urban Indian and multicultural students connect with American Indian cultures, histories, and Nations. This online-enriched pedagogy adopts Susan Lobo's sense of the city as an "urban hub," or activist community center, an urban area linked to reservations in which Native…

  19. Fatigue Analysis of Casted Hubs in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Sørensen, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    The hub of a wind turbine rotor is excited by time-varying forces and moments from the blades caused by extemal dynamic loads such as wind loading and aeroelastic effects. The paper describes how reliability-based fatigue analysis can be made based on SN-curves and how reliability-based inspectio...

  20. Functional Connectivity Hubs and Networks in the Awake Marmoset Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Marie Belcher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In combination with advances in analytical methods, resting-state fMRI is allowing unprecedented access to achieve a better understanding of the network organization of the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that this architecture may incorporate highly functionally connected nodes, or hubs, and we have recently proposed local functional connectivity density (lFCD mapping to identify highly-connected nodes in the human brain. Here we imaged awake nonhuman primates to test whether, like the human brain, the marmoset brain contains functional connectivity hubs. Ten adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus were acclimated to mild, comfortable restraint using individualized helmets. Following restraint training, resting BOLD data were acquired during eight consecutive 10 min scans for each subject. lFCD revealed prominent cortical and subcortical hubs of connectivity across the marmoset brain; specifically, in primary and secondary visual cortices (V1/V2, higher-order visual association areas (A19M/V6[DM], posterior parietal and posterior cingulate areas (PGM and A23b/A31, thalamus, dorsal and ventral striatal areas (caudate, putamen, lateral septal nucleus, and anterior cingulate cortex (A24a. lFCD hubs were highly connected to widespread areas of the brain, and further revealed significant network-network interactions. These data provide a baseline platform for future investigations in a nonhuman primate model of the brain’s network topology.

  1. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how

  2. DAVINC3I: moving towards responsive hub network designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, R.; Keizer, de M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Wenink, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch floricultural sector is generally appreciated for its world leadership; the Netherlands is the flower trading hub for the European market. There are two trends affecting this position. First, virtualisation makes trade flows relatively footloose and flexible. Moreover, it enables the use o

  3. Discovering Authorities and Hubs in Different Topological Web Graph Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghabghab, George

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of citation analysis on the Web considers Web hyperlinks as a source to analyze citations. Topics include basic graph theory applied to Web pages, including matrices, linear algebra, and Web topology; and hubs and authorities, including a search technique called HITS (Hyperlink Induced Topic Search). (Author/LRW)

  4. DAVINC3I: moving towards responsive hub network designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, R.; Keizer, de M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Wenink, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch floricultural sector is generally appreciated for its world leadership; the Netherlands is the flower trading hub for the European market. There are two trends affecting this position. First, virtualisation makes trade flows relatively footloose and flexible. Moreover, it enables the use o

  5. Interaction of railway and marine transport (Murmansk Transport Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of problems of interaction between water (marine and railway transport on the example of the Murmansk Transport Hub has been presented; some prospects for the development of technology for interaction with the logistics of transportation of general cargo in the Murmansk Commercial Seaport, Murmansk Marine Fishing Port, and oil terminals of the Kola Bay have been shown

  6. The Urban Food Hubs Solution: Building Capacity in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Access to affordable fresh food is an ongoing challenge for underserved urban neighborhoods across the United States. Several are designated food deserts with no access to a full-service grocery store within a one-mile radius. The Urban Food Hubs of the College of Agriculture, Urban Sustainability, and Environmental Sciences (CAUSES) of the…

  7. Modified Proportional Fair Scheduling Algorithm in LTE-Advanced System%LTE-A系统中比例公平调度算法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵琪萍; 葛万成

    2014-01-01

    In the noncontiguous carrier aggregation(HF+LF) scene with different fading characteristics, CA has different coverage ranges, and the number of carriers the users can dispatch is also various. Thus the resource allocation fairness couldn ’ t be achieved via applying the traditional PF ( proportional fair ) scheduling algorithm. In light of this, a GWPF ( Grouping Weigh Proportional Fair) scheduling algorithm is proposed in this paper. According to the number of carriers the users can schedule,the users and carri-ers are divided into groups, meanwhile, the weighting factor is introduced into the original PF scheduling algorithm, thus to improve the user fairness. Simulation result shows that compared with PF algorithm, GWPF enjoys the priorities of better fairness among the users and the throughput of edge cells.%在非连续载波聚合(高频+低频)场景下,载波衰减特性不同,聚合的载波有不同的覆盖范围,使得不同用户可调度的载波数量不同,若使用传统比例公平( PF)算法会导致小区不同位置用户资源配置的不公平性。本文提出了一种分组权重PF调度算法( GWPF ),根据用户可调度的载波数量,将用户和载波分组,并引入加权因子对原比例公平算法进行加权处理,从而提高用户公平性。仿真结果表明GWPF较PF算法有着更好的用户公平性和边缘小区吞吐量。

  8. Canton Fair: Decline, but Optimistic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Canton Fair, long regarded as an important weather vane for China's foreign trade, this year faced bitter, cold winds. Trade volume of main "export products such as machines and light industrial products all saw a decline, although the degree of decline differed in different sectors. The total trade volume in this Canton Fair dropped 16.9% below the previous one.

  9. Affect and fairness in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    A strained relationship exists between mainstream economics and ethics. Over the last decade, behavioral economists have strongly argued for the importance of fairness in motivating behavior, based on substantial experimental evidence. Two main approaches to the modeling of fairness have been

  10. The New Faces of Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Nancy S.; Zieky, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes additional ways for people in the measurement profession to think about the fairness of assessments and about the fairness of the uses of assessments. Suggests that measurement professionals must pay more attention to reducing group differences at the design stage of test development, to providing all examinees an opportunity to…

  11. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  12. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  13. Home health monitoring – EyKos HealthHub (product design concept)

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Mark; Dulake, Nick; Willox, Matt; Gwilt, Ian; Craig, Claire; Auton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on creating a product design concept for a home health monitoring system, known as EyKos HealthHub, which is intended to be a ‘crossover product’ in the emerging medical/consumer product space. Working collaboratively with Aseptika Ltd, the team carried out product concept design and interaction design for the EyKos system, and undertook further design and prototyping work to create an object for use in research. Aseptika is carrying out technical development of this project...

  14. A novel virtual hub approach for multisource downstream service integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Mattia; Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    A large development of downstream services is expected to be stimulated starting from earth observations (EO) datasets acquired by Copernicus satellites. An important challenge connected with the availability of downstream services is the possibility for their integration in order to create innovative applications with added values for users of different categories level. At the moment, the world of geo-information (GI) is extremely heterogeneous in terms of standards and formats used, thus preventing a facilitated access and integration of downstream services. Indeed, different users and data providers have also different requirements in terms of communication protocols and technology advancement. In recent years, many important programs and initiatives have tried to address this issue even on trans-regional and international level (e.g. INSPIRE Directive, GEOSS, Eye on Earth and SEIS). However, a lack of interoperability between systems and services still exists. In order to facilitate the interaction between different downstream services, a new architectural approach (developed within the European project ENERGIC OD) is proposed in this paper. The brokering-oriented architecture introduces a new mediation layer (the Virtual Hub) which works as an intermediary to bridge the gaps linked to interoperability issues. This intermediation layer de-couples the server and the client allowing a facilitated access to multiple downstream services and also Open Data provided by national and local SDIs. In particular, in this paper an application is presented integrating four services on the topic of agriculture: (i) the service given by Space4Agri (providing services based on MODIS and Landsat data); (ii) Gicarus Lab (providing sample services based on Landsat datasets) and (iii) FRESHMON (providing sample services for water quality) and services from a several regional SDIs.

  15. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how trade fairs act as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. This way, trade fairs make markets possible. Based on ongoing participant observation at book...... fairs in Frankfurt, Tokyo and London, the paper discusses central features of fairs in the light of theoretical categories like networks, institutions and cognitions that are commonly employed in economic sociology. In this context, it highlights that participants negotiate the technical....../material, social, situational, content/appreciative, and the use value of goods, values which are then equated with a commodity exchange value in the form of price. Trade fairs frame order, but they are also events where the respective field might be reconfigurated. The contingency of personal interaction...

  16. On the Fairness of the Higher Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    With the establishment of the socialist market economic system in China, the issue of social fairness has been paid more and more attentions. The fairness issue of higher education, which is responsible for training high-quality talents for the national economy construction, has become the focus of attention. We discuss and research on the…

  17. Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.; Sciarra, David G.; Farrie, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Building a more accurate, reliable and consistent method of analyzing how states fund public education starts with a critical question: What is fair school funding? In this report, "fair" school funding is defined as a state finance system that ensures equal educational opportunity by providing a sufficient level of funding distributed…

  18. Differential evolution algorithm for multi-commodity and multi-level of service hub covering location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Setak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hub location problem involves a network of origins and destinations over which transportation takes place. There are many studies associated with finding the location of hub nodes and the allocation of demand nodes to these located hub nodes to transfer the only one kind of commodity under one level of service. However, in this study, carrying different commodity types from origin to destination under various levels of services (e.g. price, punctuality, reliability or transit time is studied. Quality of services experienced by users such as speed, convenience, comfort and security of transportation facilities and services is considered as the level of service. In each system, different kinds of commodities with various levels of services can be transmitted. The appropriate level of service that a commodity can be transmitted through is chosen by customer preferences and the specification of the commodity. So, a mixed integer programming formulation for single allocation hub covering location problem, which is based on the idea of transferring multi commodity flows under multi levels of service is presented. These two are applied concepts, multi-commodity and multi-level of service, which make the model's assumptions closer to the real world problems. In addition, a differential evolution algorithm is designed to find near-optimal solutions. The obtained solutions using differential evolution (DE algorithm (upper bound, where its parameters are tuned by response surface methodology, are compared with exact solutions and computed lower bounds by linear relaxation technique to prove the efficiency of proposed DE algorithm.

  19. Brokered virtual hubs for facilitating access and use of geospatial Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel; Kamali, Nargess; Brumana, Raffaella; Braumann, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    , beyond a certain extent, heterogeneity is irreducible especially in interdisciplinary contexts. ENERGIC OD Virtual Hubs address heterogeneity adopting a mediation and brokering approach: specific components (brokers) are dedicated to harmonize service interfaces, metadata and data models, enabling seamless discovery and access to heterogeneous infrastructures and datasets. As an innovation project, ENERGIC OD integrates several existing technologies to implement Virtual Hubs as single points of access to geospatial datasets provided by new or existing platforms and infrastructures, including INSPIRE-compliant systems and Copernicus services. A first version of the ENERGIC OD brokers has been implemented based on the GI-Suite Brokering Framework developed by CNR-IIA, and complemented with other tools under integration and development. It already enables mediated discovery and harmonized access to different geospatial Open Data sources. It is accessible by users as Software-as-a-Service through a browser. Moreover, open APIs and a Javascript library are available for application developers. Six ENERGIC OD Virtual Hubs have been currently deployed: one at regional level (Berlin metropolitan area) and five at national-level (in France, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain). Each Virtual Hub manager decided the deployment strategy (local infrastructure or commercial Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud), and the list of connected Open Data sources. The ENERGIC OD Virtual Hubs are under test and validation through the development of ten different mobile and Web applications.

  20. THE CITY ISOMORPHISM FOR COMPREHENSIVE TRANSPORT HUB%综合交通枢纽的城市同构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏崴

    2014-01-01

    The urban comprehensive transport hub comprises of multi-function transport facilities with great traffic characteristics like airport, harbor, country railways, metro-subway, public transportation, and crossover road. Both the deficiency of urban construction land and the limitation of severe environmental condition reflect the comprehensive urban problems. We need to integrate the present urban conditions and summarize the system of large-scale comprehensive transport hub, in order to intergrate the traffic system with the urban environment in the hub areas and to promote the interactive relationship between the service of traffic hub and the sustainable urban development. These are the core problems that the urban comprehensive transport hub faces nowadays. The article attempts to focus on the integration of transport hub space for railway station and the urban construction, to make a study on the design strategy of the coordinated development of the comprehensive transport hub and the urban construction, in order to broaden our perspective and make a wider horizon for the future healthy development of our city.%城市大型综合交通枢纽涵盖空港、海港、国铁、城市轨道交通、公交,以及立交道路等市政设施多元功能为一体,具有极强的交通特征。而城市建设用地紧张,环境制约因素繁多,反映了综合的城市问题。整合现有城市条件,梳理大型综合交通枢纽系统,实现枢纽地区交通组织和城市环境的融合,促进交通枢纽服务于城市可持续发展的互动关系,是城市综合交通枢纽建设面临的核心问题。本文尝试围绕铁路客站区域交通枢纽空间与城市建设一体化发展,研究综合交通枢纽与城市建设协同发展的设计策略,为探索城市未来的良性发展开拓思路,开启更为广阔的前景。

  1. What Is Fair in the Fair Transport Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte

    It starts in a simple question and purpose of what is fair in the transport chain concept, and develops to an abductive reasoning based on critical business ethics research and polyphonic narratives for an understanding of the mess that involves people, ethics in supply chains, interest organizat......It starts in a simple question and purpose of what is fair in the transport chain concept, and develops to an abductive reasoning based on critical business ethics research and polyphonic narratives for an understanding of the mess that involves people, ethics in supply chains, interest......-existence. Fairness in fair transport is suggested to be of a dynamic nature and derived from knowledgeable reasoning and found in lived ethico-political relationships....

  2. Science Fairs: The Whys and Hows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Phyllis

    1988-01-01

    There has been some evidence that students who develop projects for science fairs continue their interest in science through high school and beyond. Local and regional fairs generally are slated as a prelude to state science fairs and the International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). Organizing a district science fair requires informed…

  3. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how trade fairs act as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. This way, trade fairs make markets possible. Based on ongoing participant observation at book....../material, social, situational, content/appreciative, and the use value of goods, values which are then equated with a commodity exchange value in the form of price. Trade fairs frame order, but they are also events where the respective field might be reconfigurated. The contingency of personal interaction...

  4. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  5. Bottlenecks and hubs in inferred networks are important for virulence in Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Jason E; Taylor, Ronald C; Yoon, Hyunjin; Heffron, Fred

    2009-02-01

    Recent advances in experimental methods have provided sufficient data to consider systems as large networks of interconnected components. High-throughput determination of protein-protein interaction networks has led to the observation that topological bottlenecks, proteins defined by high centrality in the network, are enriched in proteins with systems-level phenotypes such as essentiality. Global transcriptional profiling by microarray analysis has been used extensively to characterize systems, for example, examining cellular response to environmental conditions and effects of genetic mutations. These transcriptomic datasets have been used to infer regulatory and functional relationship networks based on co-regulation. We use the context likelihood of relatedness (CLR) method to infer networks from two datasets gathered from the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium: one under a range of environmental culture conditions and the other from deletions of 15 regulators found to be essential in virulence. Bottleneck and hub genes were identified from these inferred networks, and we show for the first time that these genes are significantly more likely to be essential for virulence than their non-bottleneck or non-hub counterparts. Networks generated using simple similarity metrics (correlation and mutual information) did not display this behavior. Overall, this study demonstrates that topology of networks inferred from global transcriptional profiles provides information about the systems-level roles of bottleneck genes. Analysis of the differences between the two CLR-derived networks suggests that the bottleneck nodes are either mediators of transitions between system states or sentinels that reflect the dynamics of these transitions.

  6. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Sarkar

    Full Text Available A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs, often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs. These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI

  7. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debasree; Patra, Piya; Ghosh, Abhirupa; Saha, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs), often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME) were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins—MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs). These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI modulators. PMID

  8. To what extent Fair Value is Fair, an Analysis of Reliability and Relevance of the Fair Value Accounting Paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugarte, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    To what extent Fair Value is Fair, an Analysis of Reliability and Relevance of the Fair Value Accounting Paradigm. Rafael Dugarte Escalante September, 2006 Fair value accounting is fair and important for financial reporting in providing relevant, reliable, comparable and understandable information to the users depending on what kind of information is expected from it, and the way in which fair value is actually found. This study complemen...

  9. Process fairness, outcome fairness, and dynamic consistency : Experimental evidence for risk and ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2016-01-01

    Literature on fairness preferences distinguishes between outcome fairness, concerning the final allocation of payoffs, and process fairness, concerning the expected allocation of payoffs. It is not obvious, however, whether process fairness can consistently be implemented. Once uncertainty is

  10. Revisiting date and party hubs: novel approaches to role assignment in protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Agarwal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of "date" and "party" hubs has been influential in the study of protein-protein interaction networks. Date hubs display low co-expression with their partners, whilst party hubs have high co-expression. It was proposed that party hubs are local coordinators whereas date hubs are global connectors. Here, we show that the reported importance of date hubs to network connectivity can in fact be attributed to a tiny subset of them. Crucially, these few, extremely central, hubs do not display particularly low expression correlation, undermining the idea of a link between this quantity and hub function. The date/party distinction was originally motivated by an approximately bimodal distribution of hub co-expression; we show that this feature is not always robust to methodological changes. Additionally, topological properties of hubs do not in general correlate with co-expression. However, we find significant correlations between interaction centrality and the functional similarity of the interacting proteins. We suggest that thinking in terms of a date/party dichotomy for hubs in protein interaction networks is not meaningful, and it might be more useful to conceive of roles for protein-protein interactions rather than for individual proteins.

  11. 虹桥交通枢纽T2航站楼空调冷水系统研究%Chilled water system of Hongqiao Transport Hub Terminal 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆燕

    2011-01-01

    Based on the design of chilled water system of the terminal, analyses and researches the system modes, initial cost, energy saving and commissioning of chilled water system for airport buildings and demonstrates the importance of hydraulic simulation in the water system design.%结合该航站楼空调冷水系统案例,对空港建筑空调冷水系统在系统形式、初投资、节能性和运行调试等方面进行了分析与研究,并说明了水力模拟的重要性.

  12. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND FAIR TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jelovac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present different theoretical views and positions on social entrepreneurship, fair trade, buying consumer behaviour and ethical consumerism. The Fair Trade, which is well recognized throughout the world, is an example of good practice of social entrepreneurship. Similarly, globalization processes, the pressure of large corporations, the rapid transmission of information, more and more developed ethical consumer behaviour is clearly contributed to both, the successful development of fair trade and social entrepreneurships. In the empirical part we reviewed and confirmed three of three sets of hypotheses through the quantitative research in Slovenia on sample of 253 respondents. Through the results of our study we also recognized the existence of opportunities for the development of social entrepreneurships in Slovenia. In the discussion and conclusion of the article listed are recommendations for further exploration of ethical consumerism, the development of social entrepreneurship and rising the profile of Fair Trade in Slovenia.

  13. 45 BEACON: 2007 SCIENCE FAIRS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles R Holliday

    2007-01-01

      CHARLES R. HOLLIDAY 2007 SCIENCE FAIRS The AMS awards Certificates of Outstanding Achievement to student exhibitors for creative scientific endeavor in the areas of atmospheric and related oceanic...

  14. The Economics of Fair Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Karl; Fehr, Ernst; Nowak, Martin A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the field of experimental economics and speculates about why we value fairness and cooperation over the seemingly more rational selfishness. Illustrates a typical decision making situation using the Ultimatum game. (DDR)

  15. Canton Fair:In Summary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 104th session of China Import and Export Fair was concluded,this session of the fair is being held under the severe conditions that global financial market is experiencing drastic turbulence,financial crisis is spreading to real economy,growth rate of world economy is obviously slowing down with increased uncertainties in international economic environment. Confronted with complicated external environment,in accordance with the arrangement of the leading party group of the Ministry of Commerce,the Canton Fair thoroughly implements the Scientific Outlook on Development by carrying out the significant reform of splitting the fair into three phases. It also achieves positive results and improves organizing capability by serving the transformation of development mode of foreign trade,optimizing the structure for export goods,maintaining the reputation of products made in China,forging Chinese brand,and promoting balanced development of import and export.

  16. Fair Value or Market Value?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi; Lavinia Denisia Cuc; Robert Almaşi

    2014-01-01

    .... The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  17. The 102nd Canton Fair Ends Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 102nd China Import and Export Fair (Canton Fair), one of the major import and export fairs in China offering business people an opportunity to purchase colorful commodities worldwide, concluded successfully on October 30.

  18. Fair Value or Market Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi; Lavinia Denisia Cuc; Robert Almaşi

    2014-01-01

    When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies reg...

  19. An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Gerstl, Stephan S. A.; Chin, Jackson; Hirschi, Blake; Evans, James. E.

    2017-05-02

    Environmental control during transfer between instruments is required for specimens sensitive to air or thermal exposure to prevent morphological or chemical changes. Atom Probe Tomography is an expanding technique but commercial instruments remain limited to loading under ambient conditions. Here we describe a multifunctional environmental transfer hub allowing controlled cryogenic, atmospheric and vacuum transfer between an Atom Probe and other instruments containing separate chambers to allow downstream time-resolved in-situ studies.

  20. The new forging process of a wheel hub drop forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the research was working out a new flashless forming process of wheel hubforging in three-slide forging press (TSFP. It was assumed that the new process would be more effective thanthe forging processes applied in typical forging machines.Design/methodology/approach: The designing of the new process was based on the simulation by finiteelement method with the assumption of 3D state of strain. Calculations were made mainly for the analysis of thematerial flow kinematics and the process loads parameters. Experimental research were also made determiningthe dependency of clamping load in the function of forming load. On the basis of the analysis, the formingprocess of a wheel hub drop forging on the TSFP was worked out.Findings: The results of research confirmed the possibility of flashless forming process of wheel hub forgingin TSFP with axial cavities. The main parameters limiting the forming processes of wheel hub forgings are:permissible upsetting ratio and reciprocal relation of forming and clamping forces.Research limitations/implications: The further research within the range of determining force parameters fordifferent types of material and schemata of forming in TSFP were considered as purposeful. The works dealingwith analysis of forming processes of different types of products in order to classify drop forgings possible toform in this press will be examined.Practical implications: The comparison of the new forming process with the forging process on hammershowed majority of advantages which include: decrease of time and energy, decrease of drop forging weight andmachining, decrease of material consumption.Originality/value: The new process of wheel hub forging forming with axial cavities was worked out. Theparameters important during designing of forming processes in TSFP were provided. The relations betweenforces of forming tools were also determined.

  1. The home hemodialysis hub: physical infrastructure and integrated governance structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark R; Young, Bessie A; Fox, Sally J; Cleland, Calli J; Walker, Robert J; Masakane, Ikuto; Herold, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    An effective home hemodialysis program critically depends on adequate hub facilities and support functions and on transparent and accountable organizational processes. The likelihood of optimal service delivery and patient care will be enhanced by fit-for-purpose facilities and implementation of a well-considered governance structure. In this article, we describe the required accommodation and infrastructure for a home hemodialysis program and a generic organizational structure that will support both patient-facing clinical activities and business processes.

  2. Robust design of a polygonal shaft-hub coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Citarella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Taguchi method is applied for the optimal choice of design parameter values for a polygonal shaft-hub coupling. The objective is to maximize a performance function, minimizing, at the same time, its sensitivity to noises factors (robust design. The Design of Experiments (DoE is adopted to set up a plan of numerical experiments, whose different configurations are simulated using the Boundary Element Method (BEM

  3. Looking east, looking west: Penang as a knowledge hub

    OpenAIRE

    Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Penang has always been a focal point, absorbing knowledge (and popular culture) from civilizations to the East and West. In modern Penang the pattern of cultural contacts has changed over time. Research institutes and universities in Penang cooperate with foreign partners to produce research papers and reports. Based on an analysis of joint research output, the changing international position of Penang as an emerging research hub will be analysed. The paper will show that international cooper...

  4. Logistics service sharing in supply hub in industrial park (SHIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Xuan; 邱璇

    2013-01-01

    Industrial parks have played an indispensible role in boosting economic and industrial development. However, further development has been impeded by the shortage of land resources and by duplicate investments on common physical assets and services. This thesis proposes the concept of Supply Hub in Industrial Park (SHIP) as a public provider of warehousing and transportation services shared by manufacturing enterprises located within an industrial park. This research investigates four typic...

  5. Idea Exchange Music Hub Hits the Right Note in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Bester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Libraries and Galleries has made many changes over the last two years, rebranding as Idea Exchange and adding 3D printers, creative spaces and many on-site events. This article focuses on one of the organization’s newest innovations, the addition of a Music Hub, and the challenges of creating a space where members can learn and collaborate musically without disturbing those around them.

  6. Spider orientation and hub position in orb webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschokke, Samuel; Nakata, Kensuke

    2010-01-01

    Orb-web building spiders (Araneae: Araneoidea, Uloboridae) can be considered as territorial central place foragers. In territorial central place foragers, the optimal foraging arena is circular, with the forager sitting in its centre. In orb webs, the spider’s orientation (head up or head down) whilst waiting for prey on the hub of its web and the downwards-upwards asymmetry of its running speeds are the probable causes for the observed deviation of the hub from the web’s centre. Here, we present an analytical model and a more refined simulation model to analyse the relationships amongst the spider’s running speeds, its orientation whilst waiting for prey and the vertical asymmetry of orb webs. The results of our models suggest that (a) waiting for prey head down is generally favourable because it allows the spider to reach the prey in its web on average quicker than spiders waiting head up, (b) the downwards-upwards running speed asymmetry, together with the head-down orientation of most spiders, are likely causes for the observed vertical asymmetry of orb webs, (c) waiting head up can be advantageous for spiders whose downwards-upwards running speed asymmetry is small and who experience high prey tumbling rates and (d) spiders waiting head up should place their hub lower than similar spiders waiting head down.

  7. Mapping Multiplex Hubs in Human Functional Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio; Sasai, Shuntaro; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly central ones, i.e., hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studies have shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components of brain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However, the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneously is still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify each frequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploiting the recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that each frequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately model brain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in general different from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signals as usual, provide a more accurate map of brain's most important functional regions, allowing to distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventional network approaches. PMID:27471443

  8. Rynek produktów sprawiedliwego handlu (fair trade) w Polsce

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberg, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Fair trade constitutes a new concept in Poland. Not many consumers are aware of it a not many retailers offer fair trade products. However, one may expect that the development fair trade market in Poland will resemble a similar process in Western Europe. In this context, the article presents fair trade with a particular focus on the distribution systems of fair trade products in Western Europe and on the potential development of fair trade market in Poland. The case study of Poland includes a...

  9. A fair assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Erin

    2014-10-21

    The NMC wants to link the proposed system of revalidation to employers' systems of appraisals. As well as considering job performance with their manager or supervisor, nurses and midwives will be required to reflect on how they have adhered to the code and have their fitness to practise confirmed. Every nurse and midwife should have regular and meaningful appraisals.

  10. EXPANSION OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION, GRADUATE UNEMPLOYMENT AND THE KNOWLEDGE HUB IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamini Samaranayake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the nexus between the existing university education system and graduate unemployment, and to explore the responses of successive governments to address this issue. It also examines the viability and potential of the knowledge hub as a solution to graduate unemployment. Towards this end, it argues that the solution to graduate employment lies in implementing structural changes that are concurrent to changes that are taking place at the international level in higher education. It illustrates, with the use of relevant sources, the pressing issue of graduate un- and underemployment, and identifies the mismatch between skills and requirements as a major factor contributing to intensify the crisis. It observes that strategies such as training unemployed graduates to enable them to acquire the competencies needed for the modern work place, developing systems to link them to the world of work, re-structuring the university system such that it is more concerned with quality and relevance rather than the width of knowledge imparted, and introducing job-oriented programmes could partially address this issue. It also identifies the proposal to establish a knowledge hub in Sri Lanka as constituting a long term and sustainable strategy not only to mitigate the effects of graduate un- and underemployment, but also to facilitate a lucrative source of revenue for the country.

  11. Lazy Updating of hubs can enable more realistic models by speeding up stochastic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, Kurt; Loewe, Laurence, E-mail: loewe@wisc.edu [Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53715 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    To respect the nature of discrete parts in a system, stochastic simulation algorithms (SSAs) must update for each action (i) all part counts and (ii) each action's probability of occurring next and its timing. This makes it expensive to simulate biological networks with well-connected “hubs” such as ATP that affect many actions. Temperature and volume also affect many actions and may be changed significantly in small steps by the network itself during fever and cell growth, respectively. Such trends matter for evolutionary questions, as cell volume determines doubling times and fever may affect survival, both key traits for biological evolution. Yet simulations often ignore such trends and assume constant environments to avoid many costly probability updates. Such computational convenience precludes analyses of important aspects of evolution. Here we present “Lazy Updating,” an add-on for SSAs designed to reduce the cost of simulating hubs. When a hub changes, Lazy Updating postpones all probability updates for reactions depending on this hub, until a threshold is crossed. Speedup is substantial if most computing time is spent on such updates. We implemented Lazy Updating for the Sorting Direct Method and it is easily integrated into other SSAs such as Gillespie's Direct Method or the Next Reaction Method. Testing on several toy models and a cellular metabolism model showed >10× faster simulations for its use-cases—with a small loss of accuracy. Thus we see Lazy Updating as a valuable tool for some special but important simulation problems that are difficult to address efficiently otherwise.

  12. The FUTUREVOLC Supersite's e-Infrastructure - A multidisciplinary data hub and data service for Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sverrisson, Sverrir Th.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur F.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Arnarsson, Ólafur S.; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna Ýr; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi Th.; Hjartansson, Kristján R.

    2014-05-01

    structure of SeisComp will be used to store other time series data or point observations and either ArcLink or GSAC may be used to service the access to these data. However, the software development required for the overall construction of the FUTUREVOLC data hub and web service will be performed by two Icelandic software companies participating in the project. Once established, the goal is for the FUTUREVOLC data service to become a volcanological data node in EPOS (the European Plate Observing System), providing access to data and services on Icelandic volcanoes. Collaboration between FUTUREVOLC and the e-Infrastructure working group of EPOS (WG7) has already been initiated and the supersite hub will implement a CERIF metadata base (Common European Research Information Format), which has been chosen by EPOS to facilitate discovery and joint analysis of different datasets. Future developments in Nordic collaboration in meteorology may also lead to possible association of High Performance Computing with the data node.

  13. ON THE CONCEPTUAL UNDERPINNINGS OF FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jatinder P Singh

    2017-01-01

    .... In attempts to gear up for the challenge of financial reporting in this upstaged environment, standard setters have substantively restructured reporting systems, with 'fair value' being the bedrock thereof...

  14. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Luo,1,2 Linghong Guo,1 Xi-Jian Dai,3 Qinglai Wang,2 Wenzhong Zhu,2 Xinjun Miao,2 Honghan Gong1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs.Results: Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, right hippocampus (BA 35, 36, and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11 and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18, and left precuneus (BA 7, 19. SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R2=0.296, P=0.006.Conclusion: The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear

  15. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  16. 基于公平性和 QoS 保障的 OFDMA-WLAN 系统资源分配%Resource allocation based on fairness and QoS provisioning for OFDMA-WLAN system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍楠; 夏玮玮; 沈连丰

    2014-01-01

    为了满足 OFDMA-WLAN 系统下行通信中多用户的不同业务需求,提出一种基于公平性和 QoS 服务保障的资源分配算法。不同的 QoS 要求被转换成不同的速率要求来计算 QoS 满意等级;优化目标被修改为公平性驱动的优化函数以提供公平性保障;复杂的资源分配问题被划分为信道分配和功率分配问题,并通过二分图匹配和注水法得到分配结果。与其他算法相比,所提出的算法牺牲了较少的数据速率换取更高的公平性和 QoS 满意度。仿真结果表明所提算法具有保障 QoS 和公平性的能力,且在 QoS、公平性和速率之间权衡折中时表现更好。%To satisfy different service requirements of multiple users in the orthogo nal frequency division multiple access wireless local area network OFDMA-WLAN system downlink transmission a resource allocation algorithm based on fairness and quality of service QoS provisioning is proposed. Different QoS requirements are converted into different rate requirements to calculate the QoSs atisfaction level.The optimization object is revised as a fairness-driven resource optimization function to provide fairness. The complex resource allocation problem is divided into channel allocation and power assignment sub-problems. The sub-problems are solved by the bipartite graph matching and water-filling based method.Compared with other algorithms the proposed algorithm sacrifices less data rate for higher fairnes and QoS satisfaction.The sim ulation results show that the proposed algorithm is capableo fp rovi ding QoS and fairness and performs better in a tradeoff among QoS fairness and data rate.

  17. Risk management practices in Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan - the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulchmanov, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The study explores the risk management and reporting practices in selected Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan, the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia. The Government of Kazakhstan has planned to transform the economy to a Shari’ah complaint economic system. As risk management is one of the important challenges for banks, this study explores the preparedness of the banking industry in Kazakhstan facing the risk management challenges. Design/methodology/approach – T...

  18. Risk management practices in Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan - the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulchmanov, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The study explores the risk management and reporting practices in selected Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan, the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia. The Government of Kazakhstan has planned to transform the economy to a Shari’ah complaint economic system. As risk management is one of the important challenges for banks, this study explores the preparedness of the banking industry in Kazakhstan facing the risk management challenges. Design/methodology/approach – T...

  19. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT: A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Muetze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly connected nodes (hubs in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.   Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat.

  20. 印度私营医疗卫生服务体系的公平与效率%The Fairness and Efficiency of India's Private Medical and Health Service System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴卫东

    2012-01-01

    India's health care system is composed of public sectors and private sectors. The fairness of universal free public medical institutions attracts much worldwide attention. This paper analyzes the size of the private health sectors, the main health status in India, stressing the level of funding, service delivery, cost, and supervision and management aspects of the operation of private medical and health institutions and non-profit private medical insurance scheme, and studies the fairness and efficiency of private medical and health sectors. Furthermore, the paper draws a conclusion that the fairness and the efficiency can run parallel in this kind of the healthcare system. It provides valuable reference to China's health care system reform currently.%印度的全民免费公共医疗服务体系的公平性备受世界关注。本文分析了处于印度医疗卫生主体地位的私营医疗卫生服务体系的规模,着重从筹资水平、服务提供、费用支出以及监督管理等方面探讨了私营医疗卫生服务体系的运营和非营利私营医疗保险计划,重点研究了私营医疗卫生服务体系的公平与效率所在。旨在得出私营医疗卫生服务体系的公平与效率可以并行不悖的结论,为中国目前医疗卫生体制的改革提供有价值的借鉴。

  1. Perfecting the system of income distribution, promote the fair distribution of income%完善收入分配制度,促进收入分配公平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹茹; 范永旭

    2013-01-01

    完善收入分配制度,促进收入分配公平是当前我国面临的重大问题,公平的收入分配制度不但体现社会主义的优越性,更加有利于社会的和谐稳定。本文将从我国收入分配制度的变迁出发,结合马克思主义收入分配公平观,提出符合我国具体国情的收入分配制度。%To improve the income distribution system, promote the fair distribution of income is the major issue which the current our country faces, equitable income distribution system not only demonstrate the superiority of socialism, more for the stabilization of the society. This paper from the perspective of the changes of China's income distribution system, combines with the fair view of Marx's income distribution, to promote the income distribution system in accordance with the actual conditions of China.

  2. 金融资源公平配置与金融监管法律制度的完善%Fair Allocation of Financial Resources and Perfect in the Legal System of Financial Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田春雷

    2012-01-01

    The concept of financial resources provides a new perspective for legal research. Currently the allocation of financial resources between urban and rural areas, and the allocation between different forms o.f ownership economy are seriously unfair, which has affected the social equity. Deviation of the financial regulation system de- sign under the catching up strategy is the reason for the unfair allocation of financial resources. In order to realize the fair allocation, inclusive financial supervision system is needed. It includes an inclusive financial market access system and an fair financial market withdrawal system.%金融资源观的提出为法学研究提供了新视角。目前我国城市与农村之间、不同所有制经济体之间金融资源配置严重不均衡,已经影响了社会公平。赶超战略下的金融监管制度设计偏差是金融资源配置失衡的重要原因。为实现金融资源配置的公平,需要构建包容性的金融监管法律制度,具体包括包容的金融市场准入制度和公平的金融市场退出制度。

  3. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2013

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2013 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Key publishers will present a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look at the books on sale. The fair will take place in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) on the ground floor near Restaurant 1 on Monday 9 and Tuesday 10 September. Participating or represented publishers include: Oxford University Press, Princeton University Press, Springer, Wiley, and World Scientific-Imperial College Press. Fair opening times:  - Monday 9 September 9:00 - 18:00  - Tuesday 10 September 9:00 - 18:00

  4. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This working paper takes as its starting point the work of the German economic sociologist, Jens Beckert, and his call for empirical investigations into how intentionally rational actors reach decisions under conditions when they do not know what is best to do. It describes how trade fairs act...... as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. Fairs frame the contacts people make and sustain as networks; the institutional rules and social norms guiding their behaviour there; and the values...... and cognitive frames that they bring to bear and negotiate with other participants. They make actors aware of a ‘mutual correspondence’ in their interpretation of the goods in which they deal and of the social situations in which engage for the sake of such trade. Trade fairs both configure fields and make...

  5. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This working paper takes as its starting point the work of the German economic sociologist, Jens Beckert, and his call for empirical investigations into how intentionally rational actors reach decisions under conditions when they do not know what is best to do. It describes how trade fairs act...... as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. Fairs frame the contacts people make and sustain as networks; the institutional rules and social norms guiding their behaviour there; and the values...... and cognitive frames that they bring to bear and negotiate with other participants. They make actors aware of a ‘mutual correspondence’ in their interpretation of the goods in which they deal and of the social situations in which engage for the sake of such trade. Trade fairs both configure fields and make...

  6. CERN scientific book fair 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2010 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Some twelve companies will be present and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look to the books on offer. The Fair will take place in the Main Building (bldg. 500) on the ground floor near the Restaurant 1 on Tuesday 7th and Wednesday 8th September. Participating or represented publishers include: Cambridge University Press, EPFL Press – PPUR, Oxford University Press, Imperial College Press, McGraw-Hill, Oxford University Press, Pearson Education, Princeton University Press, Springer, Taylor and Francis, Wiley, World Scientific. Fair opening times: Tuesday 7 September 9:00 &ndash...

  7. 47 CFR 73.1910 - Fairness Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fairness Doctrine. 73.1910 Section 73.1910... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1910 Fairness Doctrine. The Fairness Doctrine is... issues of public importance. See FCC public notice “Fairness Doctrine and the Public Interest Standards...

  8. What's New for the Canton Fair?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Canton Fair,one of the top trade fairs in China,has a long history that goes back over 50years.New concerns lie ahead,however,as the senior management of the Canton Fair and the general public look for ways to innovate and improve the fair atmosphere.

  9. Multi-functional annular fairing for coupling launch abort motor to space vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Buning, Pieter G. (Inventor); Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Engelund, Walter C. (Inventor); Schuster, David M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An annular fairing having aerodynamic, thermal, structural and acoustic attributes couples a launch abort motor to a space vehicle having a payload of concern mounted on top of a rocket propulsion system. A first end of the annular fairing is fixedly attached to the launch abort motor while a second end of the annular fairing is attached in a releasable fashion to an aft region of the payload. The annular fairing increases in diameter between its first and second ends.

  10. The Lund–York–Cologne Calorimeter (LYCCA): Concept, design and prototype developments for a FAIR-NUSTAR detector system to discriminate relativistic heavy-ion reaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, P., E-mail: Pavel.Golubev@nuclear.lu.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Wendt, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Scruton, L. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Taprogge, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Rudolph, D. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Reiter, P. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Bentley, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Avdeichikov, V. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Boutachkov, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Fox, S.P. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gerl, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Görgen, Ch. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); and others

    2013-09-21

    The concept, design and prototype developments for the Lund–York–Cologne CAlorimeter (LYCCA) is presented. LYCCA is a modular device for the NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions (NUSTAR) science pillar of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. LYCCA is designed to discriminate heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions induced by relativistic radioactive ion beams. Measurements of energy loss, total energy, and time-of-flight allow the derivation of proton number, Z, and mass number, A, of the reaction products. LYCCA-inherent tracking of the flight paths of the reaction products enables coincident HIgh-resolution in-beam γ-ray SPECtroscopy (HISPEC) of atomic nuclei far from the line of β-stability.

  11. The Science Fair Experience: Profile of Science Fair Winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellipanni, Lawrence J.

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a significant relationship existed between the criterion variable of receiving or not receiving awards at the 1993 International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) and the predictor variables of resources and facilities, resource personnel, personal costs, time, and personal characteristics.…

  12. Environmental Science: 49 Science Fair Projects. Science Fair Projects Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel

    This book contains 49 science fair projects designed for 6th to 9th grade students. Projects are organized by the topics of soil, ecology (projects in habitat and life cycles), pests and controls (projects in weeds and insects), recycling (projects in resources and conservation), waste products (projects in decomposition), microscopic organisms,…

  13. Children develop a veil of fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Alex; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children develop an increasing concern with fairness over the course of development. Research with adults suggests that the concern with fairness has at least 2 distinct components: a desire to be fair and a desire to signal to others that they are fair. We explore...... whether children's developing concern with behaving fairly toward others may in part reflect a developing concern with appearing fair to others. In Experiments 1 and 2, most 6- to 8-year-old children behaved fairly toward others when an experimenter was aware of their choices; fewer children opted...... to behave fairly, however, when they could be unfair to others yet appear fair to the experimenter. In Experiment 3, we explored the development of this concern with appearing fair by using a wider age range (6- to 11-year-olds) and a different method. In this experiment, children chose how to assign a good...

  14. Passivity-based control with collision avoidance for a hub-beam spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Chen, Ti; Jin, Dongping; Hu, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    For the application of robotically assembling large space structures, a feedback control law is synthesized for transitional and rotational maneuvers of a 'tug' spacecraft in order to transport a flexible element to a desired position without colliding with other space bodies. The flexible element is treated as a long beam clamped to the 'tug' spacecraft modelled as a rigid hub. First, the physical property of passivity of Euler-Lagrange system is exploited to design the position and attitude controllers by taking a simpler obstacle-free control problem into account. To reduce sensing and actuating requirements, the vibration modes of the beam appendage are supposed to be not directly measured and actuated on. Besides, the requirements of measuring velocities are removed with the aid of a dynamic extension technique. Second, the bounding boxes in the form of super-quadric surfaces are exploited to enclose the maximal extents of the obstacles and the hub-beam spacecraft. The collision avoidance between bounding boxes is achieved by applying additional repulsive force and torque to the spacecraft based on the method of artificial potential field. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed control scheme is numerically demonstrated via case studies.

  15. A hub-and-spoke circuit drives pheromone attraction and social behaviour in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macosko, Evan Z; Pokala, Navin; Feinberg, Evan H; Chalasani, Sreekanth H; Butcher, Rebecca A; Clardy, Jon; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2009-04-30

    Innate social behaviours emerge from neuronal circuits that interpret sensory information on the basis of an individual's own genotype, sex and experience. The regulated aggregation behaviour of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a simple animal with only 302 neurons, is an attractive system to analyse these circuits. Wild social strains of C. elegans aggregate in the presence of specific sensory cues, but solitary strains do not. Here we identify the RMG inter/motor neuron as the hub of a regulated circuit that controls aggregation and related behaviours. RMG is the central site of action of the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1, which distinguishes solitary strains (high npr-1 activity) from wild social strains (low npr-1 activity); high RMG activity is essential for all aspects of social behaviour. Anatomical gap junctions connect RMG to several classes of sensory neurons known to promote aggregation, and to ASK sensory neurons, which are implicated in male attraction to hermaphrodite pheromones. We find that ASK neurons respond directly to pheromones, and that high RMG activity enhances ASK responses in social strains, causing hermaphrodite attraction to pheromones at concentrations that repel solitary hermaphrodites. The coordination of social behaviours by RMG suggests an anatomical hub-and-spoke model for sensory integration in aggregation, and points to functions for related circuit motifs in the C. elegans wiring diagram.

  16. Implementation of preform-LCM process chain for the manufacturing of rotor hub shaft combination[Liquid Composite Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Concept of a waste-free preform-liquid composite molding (LCM) process chain for the production of composite parts is developed and implemented for an integral lightweight construction with improvement in their ecological and economical properties. This also enables new applications for the composite materials. A prototype of rotor hub and shaft combination (HSC) of a horizontal axis wind turbine was designed and manufactured using integral components and composite materials. The aim of this study was to reduce the costs and weight in comparison with individual parts of standard metallic hub and shaft. This approach in the later stage facilitates to reduce the system costs of wind turbines. In this paper, the basic concept of the HSC component and the preform-LCM process chain used for its manufacturing is presented. Major advantageous features of preform and LCM technology for the large structures are described in detail. (au)

  17. Stall Inception Process and Prospects for Active Hub-Flap Control in Three-Stage Axial Flow Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoya OKADA; Atsushi KAWAJIRI; Yutaka OHTA; Eisuke OUTA

    2008-01-01

    The possibility to apply the active hub-flap control method, which is a proven rotating stall control method for a single-stage compressor, to a 3-stage axial compressor is experimentally discussed, where complex rotating stall inception processes ate observed. The research compressor is a 3-stage one and could change the stagger angle settings for rotor blades and stator vanes. Sixteen rotor blade/stator vane configuration patterns were tested by changing stagger angle for the stator vanes. By measurement of surface-pressure fluctuation, stall inception proc-esses are investigated and the measured pressure fluctuation data is used as a predictive signal for rotating stall. The experimental results show that the stall detection system applied to active hub-flap control in a single-stage compressor could be usefully applied to that in a 3-stage compressor with a more complex stall inception process.

  18. An Endosymbiotic Evolutionary Algorithm for the Hub Location-Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ung Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a capacitated hub location-routing problem (HLRP which combines the hub location problem and multihub vehicle routing decisions. The HLRP not only determines the locations of the capacitated p-hubs within a set of potential hubs but also deals with the routes of the vehicles to meet the demands of customers. This problem is formulated as a 0-1 mixed integer programming model with the objective of the minimum total cost including routing cost, fixed hub cost, and fixed vehicle cost. As the HLRP has impractically demanding for the large sized problems, we develop a solution method based on the endosymbiotic evolutionary algorithm (EEA which solves hub location and vehicle routing problem simultaneously. The performance of the proposed algorithm is examined through a comparative study. The experimental results show that the proposed EEA can be a viable solution method for the supply chain network planning.

  19. The catheter hub disinfection cap as esophageal foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Kareem O; Myer, Charles M; Shikary, Tasneem; Goldschneider, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    Disinfection caps are increasingly being used to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections. These devices, designed for continuous passive disinfection of catheter hubs, are typically small and often brightly colored. As such, they have the potential to become pediatric airway and esophageal foreign bodies. We report two patients who developed esophageal foreign body following ingestion of disinfection caps. Given the increasing use of these devices, it is imperative that health care providers be aware of this potential iatrogenic problem. We propose that the use of disinfection caps may not be appropriate in pediatric patients with risk factors for foreign body ingestion.

  20. Wake center position tracking using downstream wind turbine hub loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, S.; Bertelè, M.; Schreiber, J.; Bottasso, C. L.

    2016-09-01

    Having an improved awareness of the flow within a wind farm is useful for power harvesting maximization, load minimization and design of wind farm layout. Local flow information at each wind turbine location can be obtained by using the response of the wind turbines, which are consequently used as distributed sensors. This paper proposes the use of hub loads to track the position of wakes within a wind farm. Simulation experiments conducted within a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic environment demonstrate the performance of the new method.

  1. Collective versus hub activation of epidemic phases on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Silvio C; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2015-01-01

    We consider a general criterion to discern the nature of the threshold in epidemic models on scale-free (SF) networks. Comparing the epidemic lifespan of the nodes with largest degrees with the infection time between them, we propose a general dual scenario, in which the epidemic transition is either ruled by a hub activation process, leading to a null threshold in the thermodynamic limit, or given by a collective activation process, corresponding to a standard phase transition with a finite threshold. We validate the proposed criterion applying it different to epidemic models, with waning immunity or heterogeneous infection rates.

  2. Wellness as fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilleltensky, Isaac

    2012-03-01

    I argue that distinct conditions of justice lead to diverse wellness outcomes through a series of psychosocial processes. Optimal conditions of justice, suboptimal conditions of justice, vulnerable conditions of injustice, and persisting conditions of injustice lead to thriving, coping, confronting, and suffering, respectively. The processes that mediate between optimal conditions of justice and thriving include the promotion of responsive conditions, the prevention of threats, individual pursuit, and avoidance of comparisons. The mechanisms that mediate between suboptimal conditions of justice and coping include resilience, adaptation, compensation, and downward comparisons. Critical experiences, critical consciousness, critical action, and righteous comparisons mediate between vulnerable conditions of injustice and confrontation with the system. Oppression, internalization, helplessness, and upward comparisons mediate between persisting conditions of injustice and suffering. These psychosocial processes operate within and across personal, interpersonal, organizational and community contexts. Different types of justice are hypothesized to influence well-being within each context. Intrapersonal injustice operates at the personal level, whereas distributive, procedural, relational, and developmental justice impact interpersonal well-being. At the organizational level, distributive, procedural, relational and informational justice influence well-being. Finally, at the community level, distributive, procedural, retributive, and cultural justice support community wellness. Data from a variety of sources support the suggested connections between justice and well-being.

  3. Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulu, Joseph M.; Michelo, Charles; Msoni, Carol

    2014-01-01

    to enhance legitimate and fair PS was introduced by researchers and decision makers within the health sector in the EU funded research project entitled 'Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT). The project aimed to strengthen fairness and accountability in the PS...... processes of health systems at district level in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. This paper focuses on local perceptions and practices of fair PS (baseline study) as well as at the evolution of such perceptions and practices in PS following an AFR based intervention (evaluation study), carried out at district...... administration, in non-governmental organizations (NGO) and in health facilities. RESULTS: During the baseline study, concepts of legitimacy and fairness in PS processes were found to be grounded in local values of equity and impartiality. Government and other organizational strategies strongly supported...

  4. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  5. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of group fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fernando P; Santos, Francisco C; Paiva, Ana; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2015-08-07

    The emergence and impact of fairness is commonly studied in the context of 2-person games, notably the Ultimatum Game. Often, however, humans face problems of collective action involving more than two individuals where fairness is known to play a very important role, and whose dynamics cannot be inferred from what is known from 2-person games. Here, we propose a generalization of the Ultimatum Game for an arbitrary number of players--the Multiplayer Ultimatum Game. Proposals are made to a group of responders who must individually reject or accept the proposal. If the total number of individual acceptances stands below a given threshold, the offer will be rejected; otherwise, the offer will be accepted, and equally shared by all responders. We investigate the evolution of fairness in populations of individuals by means of evolutionary game theory, providing both analytical insights and results from numerical simulations. We show how imposing stringent consensuses significantly increases the value of the proposals, leading to fairer outcomes and more tolerant players. Furthermore, we show how stochastic effects--such as imitation errors and/or errors when assessing the fitness of others--may further enhance the overall success in reaching fair collective action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ongoing Issues in Test Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the attempt to identify or prevent unfair tests, both quantitative analyses and logical evaluation are often used. For the most part, fairness evaluation is a pragmatic attempt at determining whether procedural or substantive due process has been accorded to either a group of test takers or an individual. In both the individual and comparative…

  8. Science Fair Projects: The Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Bob; Keen, Dan

    This book approaches the development of science fair projects from the point of view that science should be enjoyable, interesting, and thought-provoking. The scientific concepts introduced here will later help young students to understand more advanced scientific principles. These projects develop skills such as classification, making measured…

  9. A Kinder-Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Angelica; Vitti, Debbye

    2007-01-01

    A science fair might be the last thing you think of when planning a kindergarten science curriculum, but the authors found it to be the perfect avenue for teaching their students science-process skills. Here they share their steps in teaching science-process skills and assembling student projects in a kindergarten classroom throughout the year.…

  10. Fair Finance: gaat dat samen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    Op 13 februari jl. organiseerden studievereniging HSE Faktor, het Instituut FEM en Oikocredit (een bedrijf dat microkredieten verstrekt aan arme mensen in ontwikkelingslanden) het Fair Finance Symposium. Margreet Boersma gaf een lezing over haar kijk op een betere (financiële) wereld, mede gericht o

  11. Atoms at the Science Fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCompte, Robert G. [AEC Division of Technical Information; Wood, Burrell L. [AEC Division of Special Projects

    1968-01-01

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission has prepared this booklet to help young science fair exhibitors, their science teachers, project counselors, and parents. The booklet suggests some of the numerous nuclear topics on which students can base meaningful science projects. It offers all exhibitors advice on how to plan, design, and construct successful exhibits.

  12. Children's Concepts of Fair Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsman, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    The Damon hierarchy of development of children's sense of positive justice is examined for its usefulness in predicting fairness in behavior and reliability in age patterning of its stated levels of reasoning. The hierarchy's value as a developmental schedule for teacher guidance may be questionable. (Author)

  13. The hubs of the human connectome are generally implicated in the anatomy of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Nicolas A; Mechelli, Andrea; Scott, Jessica; Carletti, Francesco; Fox, Peter T; McGuire, Philip; Bullmore, Edward T

    2014-08-01

    Brain networks or 'connectomes' include a minority of highly connected hub nodes that are functionally valuable, because their topological centrality supports integrative processing and adaptive behaviours. Recent studies also suggest that hubs have higher metabolic demands and longer-distance connections than other brain regions, and therefore could be considered biologically costly. Assuming that hubs thus normally combine both high topological value and high biological cost, we predicted that pathological brain lesions would be concentrated in hub regions. To test this general hypothesis, we first identified the hubs of brain anatomical networks estimated from diffusion tensor imaging data on healthy volunteers (n = 56), and showed that computational attacks targeted on hubs disproportionally degraded the efficiency of brain networks compared to random attacks. We then prepared grey matter lesion maps, based on meta-analyses of published magnetic resonance imaging data on more than 20 000 subjects and 26 different brain disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging lesions that were common across all brain disorders were more likely to be located in hubs of the normal brain connectome (P brain disorders had lesions that were significantly more likely to be located in hubs (P human brain networks are more likely to be anatomically abnormal than non-hubs in many (if not all) brain disorders. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  14. Design of targeted libraries against the human Chk1 kinase using PGVL Hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengwei; Hu, Qiyue

    2011-01-01

    PGVL Hub is a Pfizer internal desktop tool for chemical library and singleton design. In this chapter, we give a short introduction to PGVL Hub, the core workflow it supports, and the rich design capabilities it provides. By re-creating two legacy targeted libraries against the human checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) as a showcase, we illustrate how PGVL Hub could be used to help library designers carry out the steps in library design and realize design objectives such as SAR expansion and improvement in both kinase selectivity and compound aqueous solubility. Finally we share several tips about library design and usage of PGVL Hub.

  15. 从公平角度看我国个人所得税税收征管制度的完善%Improvement of China’s Individual Income Tax Collection and Management System from the Perspective of Fairness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍

    2014-01-01

    符合现实国情并能有效实施,是一个良好税制必须满足的硬标准。税制设计和税收征管是决定个人所得税成败的关键因素。本文以公平与效率的基本理论和二者之间的逻辑关系探讨为视角,分析我国个人所得税征管的实施现状,提出应以追求公平价值优先为我国个人所得税的征管制度的指导思想以及完善个人所得税征管方式的理论建议。%Realistic national conditions and effective implementation are a hard standard for a good tax sys-tem. Tax design and tax collection and management are the key to the success of individual income tax. Based on the basic theory of fairness and efficiency and their logical relationship, the paper explores the implementation status of China’ s individual income tax collection and proposes some guiding thoughts of individual income tax collection system and theoretic suggestion for the improvement of individual income tax collection and management measures in pursuit of fair value priority.

  16. Reasoning about Strategies under Partial Observability and Fairness Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Busard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of extensions exist for Alternating-time Temporal Logic; some of these mix strategies and partial observability but, to the best of our knowledge, no work provides a unified framework for strategies, partial observability and fairness constraints. In this paper we propose ATLK^F_po, a logic mixing strategies under partial observability and epistemic properties of agents in a system with fairness constraints on states, and we provide a model checking algorithm for it.

  17. PASSENGER SERVICE QUALITY PARAMETERS ASSESSMENT AT TRANSPORT INTERCHANGE HUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Pavel Igorevich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a quality assessment method for transport decisions made in transport interchange hubs. Analysis of domestic regulatory documentation and international experience on this subject is performed. It is stated that the domestic regulatory documentation lacks such method of assessment. Special attention is paid to study of pedestrian flows in interchange complexes of intermodal transport interchange hubs. The aim of the study is development of the Level of Service comprehensive assessment criterion by analogy with the international practice. The authors propose to use the queueing theory with elements of the theory of graphs, techniques and regularities that underlie the Level of Service (service factor applied in planning and location of TIH in the USA as well as data from field surveys carried out by the pedestrian flows video detection method. During the field surveys it is planned to perform analysis of external and internal factors influencing the formation and composition of a pedestrian flow, to determine quantitative values of the main parameters of pedestrian flow (density, speed, intensity and regularities of their variation depending on the design features of pedestrian traffic environment. Determination of passenger service quality factors in TIH will help to develop an integral criterion based on the Level of Service, taking into account the specifics of TIH functioning in Russia as well as a methodology that allows a reasonable choice of combinations of structural elements and planning parameters of pedestrian traffic objects which will let to reduce construction costs and operating costs for location of interchange complexes.

  18. Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Needleless connectors (NC) are used on virtually all intravascular devices, providing an easy access point for infusion connection. Colonization of NC is considered the cause of 50% of postinsertion catheter-related infections. Breaks in aseptic technique, from failure to disinfect, result in contamination and subsequent biofilm formation within NC and catheters increasing the potential for infection of central and peripheral catheters. Methods. This systematic review evaluated 140 studies and 34 abstracts on NC disinfection practices, the impact of hub contamination on infection, and measures of education and compliance. Results. The greatest risk for contamination of the catheter after insertion is the NC with 33–45% contaminated, and compliance with disinfection as low as 10%. The optimal technique or disinfection time has not been identified, although scrubbing with 70% alcohol for 5–60 seconds is recommended. Studies have reported statistically significant results in infection reduction when passive alcohol disinfection caps are used (48–86% reduction). Clinical Implications. It is critical for healthcare facilities and clinicians to take responsibility for compliance with basic principles of asepsis compliance, to involve frontline staff in strategies, to facilitate education that promotes understanding of the consequences of failure, and to comply with the standard of care for hub disinfection. PMID:26075093

  19. Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Moureau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Needleless connectors (NC are used on virtually all intravascular devices, providing an easy access point for infusion connection. Colonization of NC is considered the cause of 50% of postinsertion catheter-related infections. Breaks in aseptic technique, from failure to disinfect, result in contamination and subsequent biofilm formation within NC and catheters increasing the potential for infection of central and peripheral catheters. Methods. This systematic review evaluated 140 studies and 34 abstracts on NC disinfection practices, the impact of hub contamination on infection, and measures of education and compliance. Results. The greatest risk for contamination of the catheter after insertion is the NC with 33–45% contaminated, and compliance with disinfection as low as 10%. The optimal technique or disinfection time has not been identified, although scrubbing with 70% alcohol for 5–60 seconds is recommended. Studies have reported statistically significant results in infection reduction when passive alcohol disinfection caps are used (48–86% reduction. Clinical Implications. It is critical for healthcare facilities and clinicians to take responsibility for compliance with basic principles of asepsis compliance, to involve frontline staff in strategies, to facilitate education that promotes understanding of the consequences of failure, and to comply with the standard of care for hub disinfection.

  20. Scenario-based modeling for multiple allocation hub location problem under disruption risk: multiple cuts Benders decomposition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaei, Mohsen; Bashiri, Mahdi

    2017-03-01

    The hub location problem arises in a variety of domains such as transportation and telecommunication systems. In many real-world situations, hub facilities are subject to disruption. This paper deals with the multiple allocation hub location problem in the presence of facilities failure. To model the problem, a two-stage stochastic formulation is developed. In the proposed model, the number of scenarios grows exponentially with the number of facilities. To alleviate this issue, two approaches are applied simultaneously. The first approach is to apply sample average approximation to approximate the two stochastic problem via sampling. Then, by applying the multiple cuts Benders decomposition approach, computational performance is enhanced. Numerical studies show the effective performance of the SAA in terms of optimality gap for small problem instances with numerous scenarios. Moreover, performance of multi-cut Benders decomposition is assessed through comparison with the classic version and the computational results reveal the superiority of the multi-cut approach regarding the computational time and number of iterations.

  1. The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandu, Evaristus M.; Rhoades, Dawna L.

    2006-01-01

    Air transportation plays an important role in the social and economic development of the global system and the countries that seek to participate in it. As Africa seeks to take its place in the global economy, it is increasingly looking to aviation as the primary means of connecting its people and goods with the world. It has been suggested that Africa as a continent needs to move toward a system of hubs to optimize its scarce resources. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya, is one of the airports in the eastern region of Africa that is seeking to fill this role. This paper discusses the prospects for success and the challenges that it will need to overcome, including projections through 2020 for the growth in passenger and cargo traffic.

  2. THE (UN?) FAIRNESS OF FAIR VALUE: SFAS 157, IRVING FISHER AND GECON

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Lustosa

    2017-01-01

    ... – Fair Value Measurements to traditional economic-accounting concepts. Background: The expansion of situations in which fair value measurement is required makes more difficult to ensure that the computed measure of value is actually fair...

  3. FAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    HI,大腕儿!12月15日晚,一个由上千光点组成的巨大奥迪Logo悬挂在北京国贸中心展厅外墙,展厅内“百年奥迪”中国庆典也已成为回顾百年奥迪辉煌历史、展示品牌领先科技的舞台。

  4. Fairness: the hidden challenge for competency-based postgraduate medical education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Colleen Y; French, Judith C; Herring, Mary Elizabeth; Dannefer, Elaine F

    2017-05-17

    Competency-based medical education systems allow institutions to individualize teaching practices to meet the needs of diverse learners. Yet, the focus on continuous improvement and individualization of curricula does not exempt programs from treating learners in a fair manner. When learners fail to meet key competencies and are placed on probation or dismissed from training programs, issues of fairness may form the basis of their legal claims. In a literature search, we found no in-depth examination of fairness. In this paper, we utilize a systems lens to examine fairness within postgraduate medical education contexts, focusing on educational opportunities, assessment practices, decision-making processes, fairness from a legal standpoint, and fairness in the context of the learning environment. While we provide examples of fairness issues within US training programs, concerns regarding fairness are relevant in any medical education system which utilizes a competency-based education framework.Assessment oversight committees and annual programmatic evaluations, while recommended, will not guarantee fairness within postgraduate medical education programs, but they can provide a window into 'hidden' threats to fairness, as everything from training experiences to assessment practices may be examined by these committees. One of the first steps programs can take is to recognize that threats to fairness may exist in any educational program, including their own, and begin conversations about how to address these issues.

  5. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2008

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2008 CERN Book Fair 2008, a three-day scientific book festival offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and electronic book suppliers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts. Some ten companies will be participating and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. There will also be a number of tie-in events intended to give you an insight into the writing and publishing process from authors within our own community. Come along and meet the authors, discuss your book ideas with the publishers’ representatives or simply browse the books on offer. The Fair will take place in Building 500 in the area near the Main Auditorium, and special presentations (as detailed below) will be held in rooms nearby or in the Library. Participating publishers and book traders include: Cambridge ...

  6. The NUSTAR program at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlert Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The NUSTAR Collaboration brings together several hundred scientists to form one of the four scientific pillars of the future FAIR facility. NUSTAR aims at the exploitation of intense radioactive beams with energies up to 1.5 GeV/u in order to explore nuclei with large neutron or proton excess. The project has evolved over the last years and now reached a state where a large fraction of the core program is financed, partly built, and even ready for operation. With the signing of the FAIR convention in 2010 and the start of construction, the sub-projects in NUSTAR gain momentum and look forward to commissioning and first beams in this decade. The present status of the project will be presented, focusing on the instrumentation to be applied in the various experimental areas behind the Super-FRS fragment separator, which is the central instrument of NUSTAR.

  7. Attack and improvements of fair quantum blind signature schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangfu; Qiu, Daowen

    2013-06-01

    Blind signature schemes allow users to obtain the signature of a message while the signer learns neither the message nor the resulting signature. Therefore, blind signatures have been used to realize cryptographic protocols providing the anonymity of some participants, such as: secure electronic payment systems and electronic voting systems. A fair blind signature is a form of blind signature which the anonymity could be removed with the help of a trusted entity, when this is required for legal reasons. Recently, a fair quantum blind signature scheme was proposed and thought to be safe. In this paper, we first point out that there exists a new attack on fair quantum blind signature schemes. The attack shows that, if any sender has intercepted any valid signature, he (she) can counterfeit a valid signature for any message and can not be traced by the counterfeited blind signature. Then, we construct a fair quantum blind signature scheme by improved the existed one. The proposed fair quantum blind signature scheme can resist the preceding attack. Furthermore, we demonstrate the security of the proposed fair quantum blind signature scheme and compare it with the other one.

  8. 公平和效率视野下高校助学体系反思与改良%Introspection and Betterment on Economic Aid System in Colleges and Universities from Angles of Fairness and Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军箭; 成彬镔; 张鹤扬

    2015-01-01

    China's economic aiding system in colleges and universities has been trying to adapt to the needs of the national economic construction and the development of high education, but there are some deviations in the current aiding system, including the following aspects: identification of funding targets and poor families, affirmation of students'subsidies, implementation of policies and recognition to concepts of poor students, which directly influences the fairness and efficiency of aiding system and arouses our introspection. Based on Japan's aiding system, this essay gives suggestions on rebuilding China's funding targets and equation of rights and obligation to realize an organic unity of fairness and efficiency of aiding work.%我国高校助学体系从设立之初始就努力适应国家经济建设和高等教育发展的需要,但现行资助体系中资助目标、家庭情况认定及奖助学金评定、各资助措施实施、对贫困生概念的认识四个方面或多或少存在着偏差,直接影响了高校资助工作的公平与效率,有必要反思。应借鉴日本学生支援机构贷学金模式,重新制定我国资助目标,实行资助的权利与义务对等,实现我国助学工作公平和效率的有机统一。

  9. HOW APPRAISERS DEVELOP FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ŠKODA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management is responsible for its own financial decisions. If we take into account, that fair value concept was shown in financial crisis as something that does not work anymore in this way; there is a big need to develop it for the future. Non-professional readers of financial statements believe, however, that company financials are the work of the public accounting firm that had signed the audit certificate. The main reason for bringing this point up is that when companies disclose Fair Value (FV information in their financial statements, they are taking responsibility for the values disclosed. Management may often be encouraged to utilize the services of an outside professional, but at the end of the day, the outside appraiser is a hired gun. Although the appraiser has to take responsibility for his own work, hiring the appraiser does not absolve management of its ultimate responsibility. The obverse of this is also true. Management does not have to hire the appraiser to develop any fair value disclosures made in the financial statements. Developing FV information is not recommended as a do-it yourself undertaking, there is nothing in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP or Securities Exchange Commission (SEC regulations, however, that requires an outside appraiser.

  10. Knowledge Hub y los recursos educativos abiertos en Contaduría

    OpenAIRE

    Farías Martínez, Gabriela María

    2010-01-01

    Desafíos de la educación superior en México; Formación académica y profesional en contaduría; Knowledge Hub como medio para compartir y construir conocimiento; Iniciativa Knowledge Hub IES Contaduría

  11. 14 CFR 158.30 - PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. 158... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Application and Approval § 158.30 PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. (a) General. This section specifies the procedures a public agency controlling...

  12. The Complexities and Challenges of Regional Education Hubs: Focus on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane; Morshidi, Sirat

    2011-01-01

    The race to establish regional education hubs is a recent development in cross-border higher education. This article briefly examines the rationales and strategies used by three countries in the Middle East and three in South East Asia which are working towards positioning themselves as regional education hubs. The different approaches and…

  13. Knowledge Hub y los recursos educativos abiertos en Contaduría

    OpenAIRE

    Farías Martínez, Gabriela María

    2013-01-01

    Desafíos de la educación superior en México; Formación académica y profesional en contaduría; Knowledge Hub como medio para compartir y construir conocimiento; Iniciativa Knowledge Hub IES Contaduría

  14. Domestic Output of Aluminium Alloy Hub Surpassing 70 million in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>According to a report from the hub branch of China Association of Automobile Manufactur- ers,China has produced a total of more than 70 million aluminium alloy hubs in 2007,a year- on-year growth over 25%,while consuming over 700,000 tons of primary aluminium the whole year.

  15. The Complexities and Challenges of Regional Education Hubs: Focus on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane; Morshidi, Sirat

    2011-01-01

    The race to establish regional education hubs is a recent development in cross-border higher education. This article briefly examines the rationales and strategies used by three countries in the Middle East and three in South East Asia which are working towards positioning themselves as regional education hubs. The different approaches and…

  16. Competition and coordination in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets: An industry pre-merger case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper investigates the nature of conduct that existed in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets prior to the recent merger wave of the legacy carriers. We explore the strategic importance of network carrier hubs in form of “spheres of influence” on airline market conduct. We also simultaneously recognize the overgrowing role played by Low Cost Carriers (LCC over the years by estimating two conduct parameters - one in markets where LCCs directly compete head-to-head with legacy carriers and the other for markets which LCCs do not serve but has presence in the hub airports or adjacent airports comprising the market endpoints. Thus our supply side framework also sheds some light on the issue of perfect contestability in airline industry. Design/methodology/approach: We estimate a structural oligopoly model for differentiated products with competitive interactions using DB1B data for first quarter of 2004. Findings: Our results imply that the nature of competition is more aggressive relative to Bertrand behavior in hub-to-hub markets and that these markets are less than perfectly contestable. Originality/value: This paper adds to the empirical literature of airline competition by enabling estimation of the actual conduct parameter assuming firm price setting behavior in presence of product differentiation. Contrary to existing literature on airline competition, a structural model enables us to systematically separate out effects of demand, cost and strategic factors on observed airline prices.

  17. Constructing invariant fairness measures for surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes a rational method to derive fairness measures for surfaces. It works in cases where isophotes, reflection lines, planar intersection curves, or other curves are used to judge the fairness of the surface. The surface fairness measure is derived by demanding that all the given...... curves should be fair with respect to an appropriate curve fairness measure. The method is applied to the field of ship hull design where the curves are plane intersections. The method is extended to the case where one considers, not the fairness of one curve, but the fairness of a one parameter family...... of curves. Six basic third order invariants by which the fairing measures can be expressed are defined. Furthermore, the geometry of a plane intersection curve is studied, and the variation of the total, the normal, and the geodesic curvature and the geodesic torsion is determined....

  18. Features analysis for identification of date and party hubs in protein interaction network of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araabi Babak N

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been understood that biological networks have modular organizations which are the sources of their observed complexity. Analysis of networks and motifs has shown that two types of hubs, party hubs and date hubs, are responsible for this complexity. Party hubs are local coordinators because of their high co-expressions with their partners, whereas date hubs display low co-expressions and are assumed as global connectors. However there is no mutual agreement on these concepts in related literature with different studies reporting their results on different data sets. We investigated whether there is a relation between the biological features of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins and their roles as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs, and date hubs. We propose a classifier that separates these four classes. Results We extracted different biological characteristics including amino acid sequences, domain contents, repeated domains, functional categories, biological processes, cellular compartments, disordered regions, and position specific scoring matrix from various sources. Several classifiers are examined and the best feature-sets based on average correct classification rate and correlation coefficients of the results are selected. We show that fusion of five feature-sets including domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, and composition pairs with two and one gaps provide the best discrimination with an average correct classification rate of 77%. Conclusions We study a variety of known biological feature-sets of the proteins and show that there is a relation between domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, composition pairs with two and one gaps of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins, and their roles in the protein interaction network as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs and date hubs. This study also confirms the

  19. Effective spectral dimension of hub in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sungmin; Lee, Deok-Sun; Kahng, Byungnam

    2012-02-01

    Exploring the World Wide Web has become one of the key issues in information science, specifically in context of its application to the PageRank-like algorithms used in search engine. The random walk approach has been employed to study such a problem. The probability of the return to the origin (RTO) of random walks is inversely related to how information can be accessed during random surfing. We find analytically that the RTO probability for a given starting node shows a crossover from a slow to a fast decay behavior with time and the crossover time increases with the degree of the starting node. Furthermore, the RTO probability is almost constant in the early-time regime as the degree exponent approaches two. This result indicates that a random surfer can be effectively trapped at the hub and supports the necessity of the random jump strategy empirically used in the Google's search engine.

  20. Paneth cells: the hub for sensing and regulating intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Zhihua

    2016-05-01

    The complex interplay between symbiotic bacteria and host immunity plays a key role in shaping intestinal homeostasis and maintaining host health. Paneth cells, as one of the major producers of antimicrobial peptides in the intestine under steady-state conditions, play a vital role in regulating intestinal flora. Many studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated genes have put Paneth cells at the center of IBD pathogenesis. In this perspective, we focus on mechanistic studies of different cellular processes in Paneth cells that are regulated by various IBD-associated susceptibility genes, and we discuss the hypothesis that Paneth cells function as the central hub for sensing and regulating intestinal flora in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  1. Hub Identification of the Metro Manila Road Network Using PageRank

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to identify the different node hubs of a road network using PageRank for preparation for possible random terrorist attacks. The robustness of a road network against such attack is crucial to be studied because it may cripple its connectivity by simply shutting down these hubs. We show the important hubs in a road network based on network structure and propose a model for robustness analysis. By identifying important hubs in a road network, possible preparation schemes may be done earlier to mitigate random terrorist attacks, including defense reinforcement and transportation security. A case study of the Metro Manila road network is also presented. The case study shows that the most important hubs in the Metro Manila road network are near airports, piers, major highways and expressways

  2. A Fractal and Scale-free Model of Complex Networks with Hub Attraction Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang, Li; Li, Deyi; Li, Yuanxiang; Sun, Yu

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that fractality of complex networks origins from hub repulsion behaviors (anticorrelation or disassortativity), which means large degree nodes tend to connect with small degree nodes. This hypothesis was demonstrated by a dynamical growth model, which evolves as the inverse renormalization procedure proposed by Song et al. Now we find that the dynamical growth model is based on the assumption that all the cross-boxes links has the same probability e to link to the most connected nodes inside each box. Therefore, we modify the growth model by adopting the flexible probability e, which makes hubs have higher probability to connect with hubs than non-hubs. With this model, we find some fractal and scale-free networks have hub attraction behaviors (correlation or assortativity). The results are the counter-examples of former beliefs.

  3. MODELS AND METHODS FOR LOGISTICS HUB LOCATION: A REVIEW TOWARDS TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Luisa dos Santos Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Logistics hubs affect the distribution patterns in transportation networks since they are flow-concentrating structures. Indeed, the efficient moving of goods throughout supply chains depends on the design of such networks. This paper presents a literature review on the logistics hub location problem, providing an outline of modeling approaches, solving techniques, and their applicability to such context. Two categories of models were identified. While multi-criteria models may seem best suited to find optimal locations, they do not allow an assessment of the impact of new hubs on goods flow and on the transportation network. On the other hand, single-criterion models, which provide location and flow allocation information, adopt network simplifications that hinder an accurate representation of the relationshipbetween origins, destinations, and hubs. In view of these limitations we propose future research directions for addressing real challenges of logistics hubs location regarding transportation networks design.

  4. Electricity hubs and market centers: A new business tool for electric utilities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallen, M.A.; Sharp, L.S. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    There are many complexities clouding the use of hubs and market centers in the electricity market, but lessons learned in the natural gas industry can save a lot of unnecessary reinvention. The bottom line: Electricity hubs and market centers will allow the markets to work most efficiently. This article will describe how regional trading hubs may function in the competitive electricity market, using the experiences of the natural gas market to illustrate the principles involved. Part I will define the typical characteristics of hubs and market centers and describe the dey success factors needed to develop a new market center. Part II will describe the types of products and services that an electricity hub or marketing center will need to offer to succeed.

  5. VALUATION TECHNIQUES USED IN FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-01-01

    Valuation of assets and liabilities involves significant judgements and estimates, especially when fair value measurement is required. Currently, IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement offers a single and more comprehensive source of guidance that is applied to almost all fair value estimates. When measuring fair value of fixed assets, intangible assets, specified financial assets or liabilities, different valuation techniques may be used: the market approach, the cost approach and the income appr...

  6. Job Fair for Foreigners,Beijing,2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Job Fair for Foreigners, to be held in Beijing on April 21, is in its planning stage. Last year’s job fair was held in the Swissotel Beijing and plans are underway to reserve the hotel again for this year’s fair.Chinajob.com, as the host of the previous four job fairs, will continue to sponsor the fifth event especially for foreign teachers

  7. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Habitat-Specific Genes and Regulatory Hubs within the Genus Novosphingobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshan; Verma, Helianthous; Haider, Shazia; Bajaj, Abhay; Sood, Utkarsh; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Nagar, Shekhar; Shakarad, Mallikarjun N.; Negi, Ram Krishan; Singh, Yogendra; Khurana, J. P.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Species belonging to the genus Novosphingobium are found in many different habitats and have been identified as metabolically versatile. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified habitat-specific genes and regulatory hubs that could determine habitat selection for Novosphingobium spp. Genomes from 27 Novosphingobium strains isolated from diverse habitats such as rhizosphere soil, plant surfaces, heavily contaminated soils, and marine and freshwater environments were analyzed. Genome size and coding potential were widely variable, differing significantly between habitats. Phylogenetic relationships between strains were less likely to describe functional genotype similarity than the habitat from which they were isolated. In this study, strains (19 out of 27) with a recorded habitat of isolation, and at least 3 representative strains per habitat, comprised four ecological groups—rhizosphere, contaminated soil, marine, and freshwater. Sulfur acquisition and metabolism were the only core genomic traits to differ significantly in proportion between these ecological groups; for example, alkane sulfonate (ssuABCD) assimilation was found exclusively in all of the rhizospheric isolates. When we examined osmolytic regulation in Novosphingobium spp. through ectoine biosynthesis, which was assumed to be marine habitat specific, we found that it was also present in isolates from contaminated soil, suggesting its relevance beyond the marine system. Novosphingobium strains were also found to harbor a wide variety of mono- and dioxygenases, responsible for the metabolism of several aromatic compounds, suggesting their potential to act as degraders of a variety of xenobiotic compounds. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed β-barrel outer membrane proteins as habitat-specific hubs in each of the four habitats—freshwater (Saro_1868), marine water (PP1Y_AT17644), rhizosphere (PMI02_00367), and soil (V474_17210). These outer membrane proteins could play a

  8. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Habitat-Specific Genes and Regulatory Hubs within the Genus Novosphingobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshan; Verma, Helianthous; Haider, Shazia; Bajaj, Abhay; Sood, Utkarsh; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Nagar, Shekhar; Shakarad, Mallikarjun N; Negi, Ram Krishan; Singh, Yogendra; Khurana, J P; Gilbert, Jack A; Lal, Rup

    2017-01-01

    Species belonging to the genus Novosphingobium are found in many different habitats and have been identified as metabolically versatile. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified habitat-specific genes and regulatory hubs that could determine habitat selection for Novosphingobium spp. Genomes from 27 Novosphingobium strains isolated from diverse habitats such as rhizosphere soil, plant surfaces, heavily contaminated soils, and marine and freshwater environments were analyzed. Genome size and coding potential were widely variable, differing significantly between habitats. Phylogenetic relationships between strains were less likely to describe functional genotype similarity than the habitat from which they were isolated. In this study, strains (19 out of 27) with a recorded habitat of isolation, and at least 3 representative strains per habitat, comprised four ecological groups-rhizosphere, contaminated soil, marine, and freshwater. Sulfur acquisition and metabolism were the only core genomic traits to differ significantly in proportion between these ecological groups; for example, alkane sulfonate (ssuABCD) assimilation was found exclusively in all of the rhizospheric isolates. When we examined osmolytic regulation in Novosphingobium spp. through ectoine biosynthesis, which was assumed to be marine habitat specific, we found that it was also present in isolates from contaminated soil, suggesting its relevance beyond the marine system. Novosphingobium strains were also found to harbor a wide variety of mono- and dioxygenases, responsible for the metabolism of several aromatic compounds, suggesting their potential to act as degraders of a variety of xenobiotic compounds. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed β-barrel outer membrane proteins as habitat-specific hubs in each of the four habitats-freshwater (Saro_1868), marine water (PP1Y_AT17644), rhizosphere (PMI02_00367), and soil (V474_17210). These outer membrane proteins could play a key role in

  9. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  12. 17th Dalian International Garment Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Basic Information of 17th Dalian International Garment Fair The 17th Dalian International Garment Fair will be held from September 10 to 13, 2005at Xinghai Convention and Exhibition Center (old hall) and newly-built World Expo Square(new hall) simultaneously. The fair area is about 50,000 m2, 2.5 times than the last one.

  13. Fairness and Using Reflective Journals in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkeburn, Henriikka; Kettula, Kirsi

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at the fairness of assessing learning journals both as the fairness in creating a valid and robust marking process as well as how different student groups may have unfair disadvantages in performing well in reflective assessment tasks. The fairness of a marking process is discussed through reflecting on the practical process and…

  14. Test Fairness and Toulmin's Argument Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnan, Antony John

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to Xiaoming Xi's article titled "How do we go about investigating test fairness?" In this response, the author focuses on test fairness and Toulmin's model of argument structure, Xi's proposal, and the challenges the proposal brings. Xi proposes an approach to investigating test fairness to guide…

  15. A Science Fair Companion. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest comments on various aspects of school science fairs. General expectations for science fair projects and participants are discussed, and tips for choosing a topic and completing a project are given. Organizational strategies for teachers charged with conducting science fairs are presented. Guidelines for parents in helping children with…

  16. Sex Fair Grading in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Helga

    1984-01-01

    Sex fair performance evaluation has been a primary concern in physical education. A discussion of physiological differences between males and females shows how problems in developing fair evaluation plans arise. Suggestions for developing a sex fair grading plan and an example program adaptable to other settings are offered. (DF)

  17. Shanghai Performing Arts Fair Gaining Global Popularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianZui; ZuZhongren

    2003-01-01

    China Shanghai International Arts Festival Performing Arts Fair is gaining popularity. In two months after the dates of the fair were announced, all the 120 booths were booked out, and for the first time in the event's four-year history, participants had to scramble to get in. When the trade fair opened, about 40 organizations were shut out.

  18. 15th Beijing International Book Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 15th Beijing Intemational Book Fair(BIBF)is to be held in Tianjin on September 1-4.It is the first time that the fair is held outside of Beijing. The change of venue is because the book fair coincides with the closing of the Beijing Olympic Games and the open-

  19. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However, posi

  20. Playing Fair: An Essential Element in Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Playing fair has a value with which people are all familiar. From the sandboxes of childhood and the competitive sports of youth to the business transactions of adulthood, people have been told how important it is to play fair. Playing fair in contracting is not only essential, it's the legal and ethical thing to do. In this article, the author…