WorldWideScience

Sample records for hub diffusion factor

  1. Quadratic Assignment of Hubs in p-Hub Median Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin

    We introduce Generalized p-Hub Median Problem (GpHMP) that seeks to locate p hub nodes and install p distinct hub facilities/operators on the hubs while discount factor resulted by consolidation of flow on the hub links depends on the facilities/operators that are installed/operating on both hub...... nodes end-point. In contrast, in traditional hub location problems it is commonly assumed that all the hub facilities share a similar characteristic and economy of scale resulted by consolidation of flow over hub edges is not directly relevant to the hub facilities being installed at both end...

  2. Identifying overlapping communities as well as hubs and outliers via nonnegative matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiao; Jin, Di; Cao, Yixin; He, Dongxiao

    2013-10-21

    Community detection is important for understanding networks. Previous studies observed that communities are not necessarily disjoint and might overlap. It is also agreed that some outlier vertices participate in no community, and some hubs in a community might take more important roles than others. Each of these facts has been independently addressed in previous work. But there is no algorithm, to our knowledge, that can identify these three structures altogether. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel model where vertices are measured by their centrality in communities, and define the identification of overlapping communities, hubs, and outliers as an optimization problem, calculated by nonnegative matrix factorization. We test this method on various real networks, and compare it with several competing algorithms. The experimental results not only demonstrate its ability of identifying overlapping communities, hubs, and outliers, but also validate its superior performance in terms of clustering quality.

  3. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Agler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe-microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe-microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial "hubs," are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe-microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on "hub" microbes, which, via microbe-microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two "hub" microbes (the

  4. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    "Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new...... challenges and requires new competencies, some of which may conflict with existing best-practices for incremental innovations. ‘Innovation hubs' are a type of organisational structure dedicated to RI projects that have been used by companies to manage these conflicts by maintaining a certain degree...... of separation from the culture and routines of the mainstream organisation. Unfortunately, it would appear that many attempts to set-up innovation hubs have ended in failure within a few years; not before considerable time, effort and resource has been expended. This paper reports on a study of six innovation...

  5. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    "Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new...... challenges and requires new competencies, some of which may conflict with existing best-practices for incremental innovations. ‘Innovation hubs' are a type of organisational structure dedicated to RI projects that have been used by companies to manage these conflicts by maintaining a certain degree...... of separation from the culture and routines of the mainstream organisation. Unfortunately, it would appear that many attempts to set-up innovation hubs have ended in failure within a few years; not before considerable time, effort and resource has been expended. This paper reports on a study of six innovation...

  6. Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyid Hasan Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by

  7. Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyid Hasan Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by

  8. Sexually Dimorphic Differentiation of a C. elegans Hub Neuron Is Cell Autonomously Controlled by a Conserved Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Oren-Suissa, Meital; Bayer, Emily A; Hobert, Oliver

    2017-01-23

    Functional and anatomical sexual dimorphisms in the brain are either the result of cells that are generated only in one sex or a manifestation of sex-specific differentiation of neurons present in both sexes. The PHC neuron pair of the nematode C. elegans differentiates in a strikingly sex-specific manner. In hermaphrodites the PHC neurons display a canonical pattern of synaptic connectivity similar to that of other sensory neurons, but in males PHC differentiates into a densely connected hub sensory neuron/interneuron, integrating a large number of male-specific synaptic inputs and conveying them to both male-specific and sex-shared circuitry. We show that the differentiation into such a hub neuron involves the sex-specific scaling of several components of the synaptic vesicle machinery, including the vesicular glutamate transporter eat-4/VGLUT, induction of neuropeptide expression, changes in axonal projection morphology, and a switch in neuronal function. We demonstrate that these molecular and anatomical remodeling events are controlled cell autonomously by the phylogenetically conserved Doublesex homolog dmd-3, which is both required and sufficient for sex-specific PHC differentiation. Cellular specificity of dmd-3 action is ensured by its collaboration with non-sex-specific terminal selector-type transcription factors, whereas the sex specificity of dmd-3 action is ensured by the hermaphrodite-specific transcriptional master regulator of hermaphroditic cell identity tra-1, which represses the transcription of dmd-3 in hermaphrodite PHC. Taken together, our studies provide mechanistic insights into how neurons are specified in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  9. A DNA-Centric Protein Interaction Map of Ultraconserved Elements Reveals Contribution of Transcription Factor Binding Hubs to Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tar Viturawong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultraconserved elements (UCEs have been the subject of great interest because of their extreme sequence identity and their seemingly cryptic and largely uncharacterized functions. Although in vivo studies of UCE sequences have demonstrated regulatory activity, protein interactors at UCEs have not been systematically identified. Here, we combined high-throughput affinity purification, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and SILAC quantification to map intrinsic protein interactions for 193 UCE sequences. The interactome contains over 400 proteins, including transcription factors with known developmental roles. We demonstrate based on our data that UCEs consist of strongly conserved overlapping binding sites. We also generated a fine-resolution interactome of a UCE, confirming the hub-like nature of the element. The intrinsic interactions mapped here are reflected in open chromatin, as indicated by comparison with existing ChIP data. Our study argues for a strong contribution of protein-DNA interactions to UCE conservation and provides a basis for further functional characterization of UCEs.

  10. The bZIP transcription factor PERIANTHIA: A multifunctional hub for meristem control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eLohmann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to extreme variations in environmental conditions over the course of their lives. Since plants grow and initiate new organs continuously, they have to modulate the underlying developmental program accordingly to cope with this challenge. At the heart of this extraordinary developmental plasticity are pluripotent stem cells, which are maintained during the entire life-cycle of the plant and that are embedded within dynamic stem cell niches. While the complex regulatory principles of plant stem cell control under artificial constant growth conditions begin to emerge, virtually nothing is known about how this circuit adapts to variations in the environment. In addition to the local feedback system constituted by the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS and the CLAVATA signaling cascade in the center of the shoot apical meristem (SAM, the bZIP transcription factor PERIANTHIA (PAN not only has a broader expression domain in SAM and flowers, but also carries out more diverse functions in meristem maintenance: pan mutants show alterations in environmental response, shoot meristem size, floral organ number and exhibit severe defects in termination of floral stem cells in an environment dependent fashion. Genetic and genomic analyses indicate that PAN interacts with a plethora of developmental pathways including light, plant hormone and meristem control systems, suggesting that PAN is as an important regulatory node in the network of plant stem cell control.

  11. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  12. Bidirectional Transcription Arises from Two Distinct Hubs of Transcription Factor Binding and Active Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Benjamin S; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Nechaev, Sergei; Muse, Ginger W; Burkholder, Adam; Fargo, David C; Adelman, Karen

    2015-06-18

    Anti-sense transcription originating upstream of mammalian protein-coding genes is a well-documented phenomenon, but remarkably little is known about the regulation or function of anti-sense promoters and the non-coding RNAs they generate. Here we define at nucleotide resolution the divergent transcription start sites (TSSs) near mouse mRNA genes. We find that coupled sense and anti-sense TSSs precisely define the boundaries of a nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) that is highly enriched in transcription factor (TF) motifs. Notably, as the distance between sense and anti-sense TSSs increases, so does the size of the NDR, the level of signal-dependent TF binding, and gene activation. We further discover a group of anti-sense TSSs in macrophages with an enhancer-like chromatin signature. Interestingly, this signature identifies divergent promoters that are activated during immune challenge. We propose that anti-sense promoters serve as platforms for TF binding and establishment of active chromatin to further regulate or enhance sense-strand mRNA expression.

  13. Virtual Campus Hub technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercoulen, Frank; Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio;

    This deliverable briefly describes which technological components have been delivered for the Virtual Campus Hub and how they can be used. A detailed discussion of the technical details of the components, how they were realized and how they fit the VCH concept can be found in deliverables D5.......4. Virtual Campus Hub Technology Evaluation Report and D6.7 The Virtual Campus Hub Concept....

  14. Topographic hub maps of the human structural neocortical network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil H J Nijhuis

    Full Text Available Hubs within the neocortical structural network determined by graph theoretical analysis play a crucial role in brain function. We mapped neocortical hubs topographically, using a sample population of 63 young adults. Subjects were imaged with high resolution structural and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Multiple network configurations were then constructed per subject, using random parcellations to define the nodes and using fibre tractography to determine the connectivity between the nodes. The networks were analysed with graph theoretical measures. Our results give reference maps of hub distribution measured with betweenness centrality and node degree. The loci of the hubs correspond with key areas from known overlapping cognitive networks. Several hubs were asymmetrically organized across hemispheres. Furthermore, females have hubs with higher betweenness centrality and males have hubs with higher node degree. Female networks have higher small-world indices.

  15. Developmental Changes in Brain Network Hub Connectivity in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Simon T E; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat; Allen, Nicholas B; Whittle, Sarah; Fulcher, Ben D; Zalesky, Andrew; Fornito, Alex

    2015-06-17

    The human brain undergoes substantial development throughout adolescence and into early adulthood. This maturational process is thought to include the refinement of connectivity between putative connectivity hub regions of the brain, which collectively form a dense core that enhances the functional integration of anatomically distributed, and functionally specialized, neural systems. Here, we used longitudinal diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to characterize changes in connectivity between 80 cortical and subcortical anatomical regions over a 2 year period in 31 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Connectome-wide analysis indicated that only a small subset of connections showed evidence of statistically significant developmental change over the study period, with 8% and 6% of connections demonstrating decreased and increased structural connectivity, respectively. Nonetheless, these connections linked 93% and 90% of the 80 regions, respectively, pointing to a selective, yet anatomically distributed pattern of developmental changes that involves most of the brain. Hub regions showed a distinct tendency to be highly connected to each other, indicating robust "rich-club" organization. Moreover, connectivity between hubs was disproportionately influenced by development, such that connectivity between subcortical hubs decreased over time, whereas frontal-subcortical and frontal-parietal hub-hub connectivity increased over time. These findings suggest that late adolescence is characterized by selective, yet significant remodeling of hub-hub connectivity, with the topological organization of hubs shifting emphasis from subcortical hubs in favor of an increasingly prominent role for frontal hub regions.

  16. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Venky; Aravamudan, Murali

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy and mechanisms of therapeutic action are largely described by atomic bonds and interactions local to drug binding sites. Here we introduce global connectivity analysis as a high-throughput computational assay of therapeutic action - inspired by the Google page rank algorithm that unearths most ``globally connected'' websites from the information-dense world wide web (WWW). We execute short timescale (30 ps) molecular dynamics simulations with high sampling frequency (0.01 ps), to identify amino acid residue hubs whose global connectivity dynamics are characteristic of the ligand or mutation associated with the target protein. We find that unexpected allosteric hubs - up to 20Å from the ATP binding site, but within 5Å of the phosphorylation site - encode the Gibbs free energy of inhibition (ΔGinhibition) for select protein kinase-targeted cancer therapeutics. We further find that clinically relevant somatic cancer mutations implicated in both drug resistance and personalized drug sensitivity can be predicted in a high-throughput fashion. Our results establish global connectivity analysis as a potent assay of protein functional modulation. This sets the stage for unearthing disease-causal exome mutations and motivates forecast of clinical drug response on a patient-by-patient basis. We suggest incorporation of structure-guided genetic inference assays into pharmaceutical and healthcare Oncology workflows.

  17. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  18. Structures and short linear motif of disordered transcription factor regions provide clues to the interactome of the cellular hub radical-induced cell death1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Charlotte; Staby, Lasse; Bendsen, Sidsel Krogh

    2017-01-01

    point to larger networks of interactions, such as with proteins that serve as hubs for essential cellular functions. The stress-associated plant protein Radical-Induced Cell Death1 (RCD1) is one such hub, interacting with many transcription factors via their flexible IDRs. To identify the SLiM bound...... by RCD1, we analyzed the IDRs in three protein partners - DREB2A, ANAC013, and ANAC046 - considering parameters such as disorder, context, charges, and pI. Using a combined bioinformatics and experimental approach, we have identified the bipartite RCD1-binding SLiM as [DE]-x(1,2)-[YF]-x(1,4)-[DE......]-L, with essential contributions from conserved aromatic, acidic, and leucine residues. Detailed thermodynamic analysis revealed both favorable and unfavorable contributions from the IDRs surrounding the SLiM to the interactions with RCD1, and the SLiM affinities ranged from low nanomolar to 50 times higher Kd...

  19. Twin Hub Network (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Twin hub network, a European Interreg IVB project, aims at making intermodal rail transport within, to and from North West Europe more competitive, in particular between seaports and inland terminals. Improving rail competitiveness enables to shift freight flows from road to rail, providing a more s

  20. Factors Affecting Diffusion of Ions in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LICHENG-BAO; YANGDING-QING

    1993-01-01

    In this work the diffusion coefficients of Na+,K+,Ca2+,NO3- and Cl- ions were estimated in terms of measuring apparent direct current (DC) conductivities of latosol,red soil and yellow-brown earth containing,respectively,NaNO3,NCl,and CaCl2 of different concentrations (0.005,0.05,0.10,and 0.15 mol/L) in the case of moisture contents ranging from wet to water saturation.The results showed that when bulk density,moisture content,and electrolyte concentration were constant,the diffusion coefficients of cations were in the order Na+>K+>Ca2+ except for Na+ and K+ in latosol,while the order for anions was NO3->Cl-.The diffusion coefficients (Di) of cations and anions were linearly proportional to volumetric moisture content (θ) as electrolyte concentration and bulk density were unchanged.When moisture content and bulk density were constant,the diffusion coefficients of cations decreased,to varying extents,with the increase of electrolyte concentration,and the decrement in different soils followed the order yellow-brown earth> red soil> latosol,but the decrement order of different cations was Na+>K+>Ca2+.

  1. Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design Factor, Fin Factor, Thermal Diffusivity Factor, and Inductance Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of factors which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for factors such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design factor, fin factor, thermal diffusivity factor, and inductance factor. These new device factors allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design factor of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin factor of 1.0.

  2. Multiple Factors-Aware Diffusion in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    imbalance problem is encountered, i.e. skewed class dis- tribution. We use SMOTE[4], which doubles the size of the minority class , and then apply...Multiple Factors-Aware Diffusion in Social Networks Chung-Kuang Chou(B) and Ming-Syan Chen Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan ...University, Taipei, Taiwan ckchou@arbor.ee.ntu.edu.tw, mschen@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw Abstract. Information diffusion is a natural phenomenon that informa- tion

  3. Transport hub flow modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...

  4. GitHub Android

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    代码托管仓库GitHub发布了官方,Android客户端,手机和平板用户可以从GoogleP1ay下载。它的出现,将方便更多用户融入GitHub社区。GitHubAndroid本身也是开源软件,其源代码可以从GitHub浏览。此前,GitHub已经推出了Windows和Mac版客户端。

  5. PORTS WRESTLE FOR HUB STATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Due to the fact that there has been nocontainer transport hub port in NorthernChina,northern ports are striving fordevelopment and trying to secure a positionof being the hub port in Northern Chinaahead of others. According to media reports,EasternChina’s Shandong Province will invest 5billion yuan(US$604 million)in buildinga Qingdao international shipping hub thatisbased on existing ports in theShandong Peninsula.

  6. Diffuse alopecia; nutritional factors and supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş Gür Aksoy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is constantly produced and shed. The hair follicles producing the hair require calories, proteins, trace elements, and vitamins for this intense biosynthetic activity. Thus, hair growth quality and quantity are closely related to an individuals diet. The nutritional factors that are important for hair growth, and thus should be evaluated, and if deficient replaced in alopecias will be discussed in this review.

  7. Indico: A Collaboration Hub

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P; Bossy, C; Gonzalez, J B; Pugh, M; Resco, A; Trzaskoma, J; Wachter, C

    2012-01-01

    Since 2009, the development of Indico has focused on usability, performance and new features, especially the ones related to meeting collaboration. Usability studies have resulted in the biggest change Indico has experienced up to now, a new web layout that makes user experience better. Performance improvements were also a key goal since 2010; the main features of Indico have been optimized remarkably. Along with usability and performance, new features have been added to Indico such as webchat integration, video services bookings, webcast and recording requests, designed to really reinforce Indico position as the main hub for all CERN collaboration services, and many others which aim is to complete the conference lifecycle management. Indico development is also moving towards a broader collaboration where other institutes, hosting their own Indico instance, can contribute to the project in order make it a better and more complete tool.

  8. Evaluation of the Thermodynamic Models for the Thermal Diffusion Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Bagnoli, Mariana G.; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2003-01-01

    Over the years, several thermodynamic models for the thermal diffusion factors for binary mixtures have been proposed. The goal of this paper is to test some of these models in combination with different equations of state. We tested the following models: those proposed by Rutherford and Drickame...

  9. The Virtual Campus Hub Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Monaco, Lucio

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final concept of Virtual Campus Hub. It gives...... an overview of the project achievements and recommends best practices for the use of the Virtual Campus Hub elements: a series of applications for online teaching and collaboration which are connected to a technical platform, the Virtual Campus Hub portal, using the European research infrastructure Géant/eduGAIN....

  10. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  11. Innovation Hub How-To

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Firms around the world are eager to replicate the successes of enterprises that have established innovation labs in California's Silicon Valley. An analysis of four leading US companies that have set up idea incubators in the Valley—Xerox, Apple, Google, and Cisco—point to eight factors for succe...... disruptive over incremental innovation, and being patient. Regardless of where an innovation hub is established, the key to success lies in hiring creative, intrinsically motivated staff and then giving them the freedom to do what they do best.......Firms around the world are eager to replicate the successes of enterprises that have established innovation labs in California's Silicon Valley. An analysis of four leading US companies that have set up idea incubators in the Valley—Xerox, Apple, Google, and Cisco—point to eight factors for success...... in establishing an innovative environment: carefully considering the decision to set up such a center, hiring the right people, designing a framework for effective output, creating a buffer from bureaucratic distractions, securing a leader to champion the effort, focusing on business outcomes, fostering...

  12. [Diffusion factor calculation for TIP4P model of water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlenko, D V

    2012-01-01

    A molecular dynamics study has been undertaken for a model of liquid TIP4P water. Thermal dependencies of water density and radial distribution functions were calculated for model verification. Three methods have been used for calculation of diffusion factor thermal dependencies. Their sensitivity to molecular system size and length of used trajectory has been analyzed. It has been shown that Green-Kubo formula-based approach which associates diffusion factor with speed autocorrelation function integral is preferred in case of short MD simulations. The second approach based on Einstein equation which associates mean square displacement of molecule with time is preferred in case of long simulations. It has been also demonstrated that it is possible to modify the second approach to make it more stable and reliable. This modification is to use a slope of the graph of the mean square displacement on time as the estimation of the diffusion factor instead of the ratio of molecule mean square displacement and time.

  13. Spatial Economic Hubs and State Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Xingzhang; Huang Jing

    2008-01-01

    The paper seeks to analyze the rise of state power in the light of spatial economic shifts and examines the historical context of China's rise and challenges facing it. In world history, only countries that were spatial economic hubs have been able to enjoy prosperity over centuries. China is not yet such a country, despite its persistent efforts. Nor is China likely to become an economic hub in the foreseeable future. China is under mounting pressure from new economic demands posed by shifts in the geo-economic status of the U.S.. The fact that the global economy thrives along coastlines also causes problems for China, a country with a long coastline and a vast hinterland, creating rifts between northern and southern China, central and local governments, and different provinces. All these factors might well hinder China's development in the future.

  14. Idea Hubs as Nexus of Collective Creativity in Digital Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciriello, Raffaele; Richter, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    on instances of idea hubs in two multinational European software companies, where we conducted a case study over a two-year period, and collected data in form of interviews, digital documents, and participant observations. In doing so, we identify a set of social networking practices in which idea hubs serve......Digital innovation radically transforms the nature of corporate innovation practices, implying a growing need for deeper understanding its origins and outcomes. In this paper, we conceptualize the focal points of social networking in digital innovation as idea hubs. We focus our analysis...... as nexus of collective creativity and subject these to a critical dialectical examination. We discuss three influencing factors of idea hub choice, namely material infrastructure, innovation process phase, and personal characteristics. These explain why in a corporate environment, despite a variety...

  15. The hubs of the human connectome are generally implicated in the anatomy of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Nicolas A; Mechelli, Andrea; Scott, Jessica; Carletti, Francesco; Fox, Peter T; McGuire, Philip; Bullmore, Edward T

    2014-08-01

    Brain networks or 'connectomes' include a minority of highly connected hub nodes that are functionally valuable, because their topological centrality supports integrative processing and adaptive behaviours. Recent studies also suggest that hubs have higher metabolic demands and longer-distance connections than other brain regions, and therefore could be considered biologically costly. Assuming that hubs thus normally combine both high topological value and high biological cost, we predicted that pathological brain lesions would be concentrated in hub regions. To test this general hypothesis, we first identified the hubs of brain anatomical networks estimated from diffusion tensor imaging data on healthy volunteers (n = 56), and showed that computational attacks targeted on hubs disproportionally degraded the efficiency of brain networks compared to random attacks. We then prepared grey matter lesion maps, based on meta-analyses of published magnetic resonance imaging data on more than 20 000 subjects and 26 different brain disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging lesions that were common across all brain disorders were more likely to be located in hubs of the normal brain connectome (P brain disorders had lesions that were significantly more likely to be located in hubs (P human brain networks are more likely to be anatomically abnormal than non-hubs in many (if not all) brain disorders. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  16. Estimating the sustainability of hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.; Zuidberg, J.; Veldhuis, J.

    2008-01-01

    Several airports in the world are or will be confronted with capacity problems in the near future. As a result of this congestion, many airports will face a selectivity problem: which traffic segments must be accommodated and which segments are less crucial? At hub airports there is generally one

  17. Beijing: Next International Financial Hub?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Beijing's new financial dream On May 5,the Beijing Municipal Government released a notice regarding its plans to spur the financial industry,vowing to put forth a strong effort to become the national financial decision-making center,financial management center and financial information and services center,and formally announcing its ambitious aspiration to become a financial hub with international influence.

  18. Hopping of a processivity factor on DNA revealed by single-molecule assays of diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komazin-Meredith, Gloria; Mirchev, Rossen; Golan, David E.; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Coen, Donald M.; Richardson, Charles C.

    2008-01-01

    Many DNA-interacting proteins diffuse on DNA to perform their biochemical functions. Processivity factors diffuse on DNA to permit unimpeded elongation by their associated DNA polymerases, but little is known regarding their rates and mechanisms of diffusion. The processivity factor of herpes simple

  19. Research of Impact Factors of High-speed Railways Hub Area Development in China%我国高铁枢纽站区开发的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林辰辉

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 17 high-speed railway (HSR) hubs in China. It reveals that in the Chinese context HSR hub can bring significant development opportunity to the station area. Taking the development scale of the first phase of "Lille Europe" as a reference standard this study observes seven significant cases including Tianjin station using the data of annual total construction squares as the main characterized indicator through observation years. On the basis of obtaining characterized data of station area development this paper argues that HSR hub area development impact factors include the level of urban development urban space the station's own factors station accessibility station area condition and others. Then we expand the correlation analysis. The study indicates that urban economic development level flow of the HSR hub as well as the space and time distance from the city center are main factors of station area development. Meanwhile as the result of classification analysis the study shows that different main factors of station area development are influenced by cities with different urban population sizes.%本文通过对我国17个高铁枢纽的实证研究认为:在我国国情背景下,高铁枢纽能够给站区周边带来显著的开发机遇.在实际观察年份内,以年均开发总建筑面积为主要表征指标,以“欧洲里尔”工程第一阶段开发规模为衡量标准,本研究观察到的我国高铁枢纽给站区周边开发带来显著发展机遇的案例包括天津站等7个.在获得站区开发表征数据的基础上,本文认为影响高铁枢纽站区开发的因素主要包括城市发展水平因素、城市空间因素、车站自身因素、车站可达性因素、站区现状因素和其他六个大类,并由此展开相关性分析.研究认为,所在城市的经济发展水平、高铁枢纽本身较高的客流量以及与城市中心的空间距离和时间距离,是影响站区开发效果的主要

  20. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  1. The once & future repository, HKU's Scholars Hub

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, DT; Castro, P.; Bollini, A; Mennielli, M

    2015-01-01

    The HKU Scholars Hub (the Hub) began service as a traditional institutional repository of The University of Hong Kong (HKU). However this format was not compelling to HKU researchers. Fortunately a subsequent reformation of the HKU statement on university mission and vision infused new life and purpose into the project. Over the next five years, in partnership with the Italian University Consortium, Cineca, the HKU Libraries transformed the Hub from an IR to a Current Research Information ...

  2. On GitHub's Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    GitHub is the most widely used social, distributed version control system. It has around 10 million registered users and hosts over 16 million public repositories. Its user base is also very active as GitHub ranks in the top 100 Alexa most popular websites. In this study, we collect GitHub's state in its entirety. Doing so, allows us to study new aspects of the ecosystem. Although GitHub is the home to millions of users and repositories, the analysis of users' activity time-series reveals tha...

  3. Numerical method for angle-of-incidence correction factors for diffuse radiation incident photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill

    2017-05-01

    A numerical method is provided for solving the integral equation for the angle-of-incidence (AOI) correction factor for diffuse radiation incident photovoltaic (PV) modules. The types of diffuse radiation considered include sky, circumsolar, horizon, and ground-reflected. The method permits PV module AOI characteristics to be addressed when calculating AOI losses associated with diffuse radiation. Pseudo code is provided to aid users in the implementation, and results are shown for PV modules with tilt angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. Diffuse AOI losses are greatest for small PV module tilt angles. Including AOI losses associated with the diffuse irradiance will improve predictions of PV system performance.

  4. Electricity hubs and market centers: A new business tool for electric utilities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallen, M.A.; Sharp, L.S. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    There are many complexities clouding the use of hubs and market centers in the electricity market, but lessons learned in the natural gas industry can save a lot of unnecessary reinvention. The bottom line: Electricity hubs and market centers will allow the markets to work most efficiently. This article will describe how regional trading hubs may function in the competitive electricity market, using the experiences of the natural gas market to illustrate the principles involved. Part I will define the typical characteristics of hubs and market centers and describe the dey success factors needed to develop a new market center. Part II will describe the types of products and services that an electricity hub or marketing center will need to offer to succeed.

  5. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Heat Flow in Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Hub Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasil, Muhammed; Plesner, Daniel; Walther, Jens Honore

    2014-01-01

    in the stator. The hub motor construction restricts the available conductive paths for heat dissipation from the stator to the ambient only through the shaft. In contrast to an internal rotor structure, where the stator winding losses are diffused via conduction, here convection plays a major role in loss...... dissipation. Therefore, a LP thermal model with improved convection modelling has been proposed to calculate the temperature of the components inside the hub motor. The developed model is validated with the FE thermal model and the test data. In addition, CFD tools has been used to accurately model...... the internal and the external flow as well as the convective heat transfer of the hub motor. Finally, an optimization study of the hub motor has been carried out using the CFD model to improve heat transfer from the stator....

  6. Virtual Campus Hub technical evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercoulen, Frank; Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio;

    This report describes and discusses the technical achievements of the Virtual Campus Hub project and formulates a brief agenda for the future.......This report describes and discusses the technical achievements of the Virtual Campus Hub project and formulates a brief agenda for the future....

  7. Logistics hubs: an integration of transport infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Logistics hubs are very well established internationally and many examples exist where these have been successfully built and implemented. This success have lead to the proliferation of such hubs and in South Africa there are many "decision makers...

  8. Hub discovery in partial correlation graphical models

    CERN Document Server

    Hero, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    This paper treats the problem of screening a p-variate sample for strongly and multiply connected vertices in the partial correlation graph associated with the the partial correlation matrix of the sample. This problem, called hub screening, is important in many applications ranging from network security to computational biology to finance to social networks. In the area of network security, a node that becomes a hub of high correlation with neighboring nodes might signal anomalous activity such as a coordinated flooding attack. In the area of computational biology the set of hubs of a gene expression correlation graph can serve as potential targets for drug treatment to block a pathway or modulate host response. In the area of finance a hub might indicate a vulnerable financial instrument or sector whose collapse might have major repercussions on the market. In the area of social networks a hub of observed interactions between criminal suspects could be an influential ringleader. The techniques and theory pr...

  9. Dynamic hubs show competitive and static hubs non-competitive regulation of their interaction partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurv Goel

    Full Text Available Date hub proteins have 1 or 2 interaction interfaces but many interaction partners. This raises the question of whether all partner proteins compete for the interaction interface of the hub or if the cell carefully regulates aspects of this process? Here, we have used real-time rendering of protein interaction networks to analyse the interactions of all the 1 or 2 interface hubs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the cell cycle. By integrating previously determined structural and gene expression data, and visually hiding the nodes (proteins and their edges (interactions during their troughs of expression, we predict when interactions of hubs and their partners are likely to exist. This revealed that 20 out of all 36 one- or two- interface hubs in the yeast interactome fell within two main groups. The first was dynamic hubs with static partners, which can be considered as 'competitive hubs'. Their interaction partners will compete for the interaction interface of the hub and the success of any interaction will be dictated by the kinetics of interaction (abundance and affinity and subcellular localisation. The second was static hubs with dynamic partners, which we term 'non-competitive hubs'. Regulatory mechanisms are finely tuned to lessen the presence and/or effects of competition between the interaction partners of the hub. It is possible that these regulatory processes may also be used by the cell for the regulation of other, non-cell cycle processes.

  10. Factors That Influence the Diffusion Process of Mobile Devices in Higher Education in Botswana and Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asino, Tutaleni I.

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study uses the Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theoretical framework to explore factors that influence diffusion of mobile devices in higher education in Botswana and Namibia. The five attributes (Relative Avantage, Compatability, Complexity, Trialability, and Observability) of the persuasion stage, which have been found in previous…

  11. Correlation factor, velocity autocorrelation function and frequency-dependent tracer diffusion coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Kehr, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The correlation factor, defined as the ratio between the tracer diffusion coefficient in lattice gases and the diffusion coefficient for a corresponding uncorrelated random walk, is known to assume a very simple form under certain conditions. A simple derivation of this is given with the aid of

  12. An integration factor method for stochastic and stiff reaction–diffusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ta, Catherine; Wang, Dongyong; Nie, Qing, E-mail: qnie@uci.edu

    2015-08-15

    Stochastic effects are often present in the biochemical systems involving reactions and diffusions. When the reactions are stiff, existing numerical methods for stochastic reaction diffusion equations require either very small time steps for any explicit schemes or solving large nonlinear systems at each time step for the implicit schemes. Here we present a class of semi-implicit integration factor methods that treat the diffusion term exactly and reaction implicitly for a system of stochastic reaction–diffusion equations. Our linear stability analysis shows the advantage of such methods for both small and large amplitudes of noise. Direct use of the method to solving several linear and nonlinear stochastic reaction–diffusion equations demonstrates good accuracy, efficiency, and stability properties. This new class of methods, which are easy to implement, will have broader applications in solving stochastic reaction–diffusion equations arising from models in biology and physical sciences.

  13. Robust design of a polygonal shaft-hub coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Citarella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Taguchi method is applied for the optimal choice of design parameter values for a polygonal shaft-hub coupling. The objective is to maximize a performance function, minimizing, at the same time, its sensitivity to noises factors (robust design. The Design of Experiments (DoE is adopted to set up a plan of numerical experiments, whose different configurations are simulated using the Boundary Element Method (BEM

  14. Competition and coordination in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets: An industry pre-merger case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper investigates the nature of conduct that existed in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets prior to the recent merger wave of the legacy carriers. We explore the strategic importance of network carrier hubs in form of “spheres of influence” on airline market conduct. We also simultaneously recognize the overgrowing role played by Low Cost Carriers (LCC over the years by estimating two conduct parameters - one in markets where LCCs directly compete head-to-head with legacy carriers and the other for markets which LCCs do not serve but has presence in the hub airports or adjacent airports comprising the market endpoints. Thus our supply side framework also sheds some light on the issue of perfect contestability in airline industry. Design/methodology/approach: We estimate a structural oligopoly model for differentiated products with competitive interactions using DB1B data for first quarter of 2004. Findings: Our results imply that the nature of competition is more aggressive relative to Bertrand behavior in hub-to-hub markets and that these markets are less than perfectly contestable. Originality/value: This paper adds to the empirical literature of airline competition by enabling estimation of the actual conduct parameter assuming firm price setting behavior in presence of product differentiation. Contrary to existing literature on airline competition, a structural model enables us to systematically separate out effects of demand, cost and strategic factors on observed airline prices.

  15. Collaborative Policy of the Supply-Hub for Assemble-to-Order Systems with Delivery Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the collaborative mechanisms of the Supply-Hub in the Assemble-to-Order system (ATO system hereafter with upstream delivery uncertainty. We first propose a collaborative replenishment mechanism in the ATO system, and construct a replenishment model with delivery uncertainty in use of the Supply-Hub. After transforming the original model into a one-dimensional optimization problem, we derive the optimal assembly quantity and reorder point of each component. In order to enable the Supply-Hub to conduct collaborative replenishment with each supplier, the punishment and reward mechanisms are proposed. The numerical analysis illustrates that service level of the Supply-Hub is an increasing function of both punishment and reward factors. Therefore, by adjusting the two factors, suppliers’ incentives of collaborative replenishment can be significantly enhanced, and then the service level of whole ATO system can be improved.

  16. Matrix logistics indicators assessment of distributed transport hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Arefyev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper is devoted to the distributed transport hub substantiation and assessment. The paper  was an example of the technique and form an array of logistical factors as variables that determine this condition. Experience in organizing multimodal transport showed that the "bottleneck" of transport logistics are items of cargo handling ports, terminals, freight stations and warehouses. At the core of the solution of these problems is the problem of estimating the variables determine the Multi-purpose Hubs. The aim is to develop a method of forming the system of logistical multiplying factors determine the role of each of the types in the technologiacal process of distributed Multi-purpose Hubs. Methods: The assessment model for the formation of Distributed Transport Units  can be based on formal methods to predict the behavior of complex systems engineering complexes. Then one of the approaches to the solution of the problem may be the matrix method of technological factors. Results and conclusions: The proposed methodology of the selection and validation of logistic coefficients has the practical importance in the models development for assessing the condition and behavior of Distributed Transport.

  17. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  18. Motor coordination: a local hub for coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-03-31

    A local interneuron of a crayfish central pattern generator serves as a hub that integrates ascending and descending coordinating information and passes it on to a local oscillatory microcircuit to coordinate a series of segmental appendages known as swimmerets.

  19. Thermal diffusion factor for carbon tetrachloride-cyclohexane and benzene-n-heptane mixtures from thermogravitational column separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J.L.; Madariaga, J.A.; Santamaria, C.M.; Saviron, J.M.; Carrion, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the separation of liquid mixtures of n-heptane/benzene and carbon tetrachloride/cyclohexane in a thermogravitational column are reported. The results show that thermal diffusion columns of little mechanical precision can furnish suitable thermal diffusion factors when the diffusion coefficient, viscosity, density, and compressibility factor for the mixture are known. 23 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  20. Additional Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging to Evaluate Prognostic Factors of Breast Cancer: Correlation with the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Cho, Sung Bum; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse prognoses. The main prognostic determinants are lymph node status, tumor size, histological grade, and biological factors, such as hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67 protein levels, and p53 expression. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be used to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) that provides information related to tumor cellularity and the integrity of the cell membranes. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether ADC measurements could provide information on the prognostic factors of breast cancer. A total of 71 women with invasive breast cancer, treated consecutively, who underwent preoperative breast MRIs with DWI at 3.0 Tesla and subsequent surgery, were prospectively included in this study. Each DWI was acquired with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2). The mean ADC values of the lesions were measured, including the entire lesion on the three largest sections. We performed histopathological analyses for the tumor size, lymph node status, histological grade, hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki-67, p53, and molecular subtypes. The associations with the ADC values and prognostic factors of breast cancer were evaluated using the independent-samples t test and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A low ADC value was associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01) and with high Ki-67 protein levels (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the ADC values among the histological grade (P = 0.48), molecular subtype (P = 0.51), tumor size (P = 0.46), and p53 protein level (P = 0.62). The pre-operative use of the 3.0 Tesla DWI could provide information about the lymph node status and tumor proliferation for breast cancer patients, and could help determine the optimal treatment plan.

  1. Enhancement of crop photosynthesis by diffuse light: quantifying the contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Heuvelink, E; Dueck, T A; Janse, J; Gort, G; Marcelis, L F M

    2014-07-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light. However, experimental comparisons between diffuse and direct light have been obscured by co-occurring differences in environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity). This study aims to analyse the factors that contribute to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light and to quantify their relative contribution under different levels of diffuseness at similar light intensities. The hypothesis is that the enhancement of crop photosynthesis in diffuse light results not only from the direct effects of more uniform vertical and horizontal light distribution in the crop canopy, but also from crop physiological and morphological acclimation. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops were grown in three greenhouse compartments that were covered by glass with different degrees of light diffuseness (0, 45 and 71 % of the direct light being converted into diffuse light) while maintaining similar light transmission. Measurements of horizontal and vertical photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) distribution in the crop, leaf photosynthesis light response curves and leaf area index (LAI) were used to quantify each factor's contribution to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. In addition, leaf temperature, photoinhibition, and leaf biochemical and anatomical properties were studied. The highest degree of light diffuseness (71 %) increased the calculated crop photosynthesis by 7·2 %. This effect was mainly attributed to a more uniform horizontal (33 % of the total effect) and vertical PPFD distribution (21 %) in the crop. In addition, plants acclimated to the high level of diffuseness by gaining a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves in the middle of the crop and a higher LAI, which contributed 23 and 13 %, respectively, to the total increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. Moreover, diffuse light resulted in lower leaf temperatures and less photoinhibition at the top of the canopy when

  2. 城市枢纽节点的户外广告意象效果影响因素研究--以合肥高铁南站为例%Factors Influencing Image Effect of Outdoor Advertising in Urban Hub Node:A Case Study of Hefei South High-speed Railw ay Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢震林; 杨柳

    2016-01-01

    Based on the theory of city image , the conceptual model of factors influencing the image effect of outdoor advertising in urban hub node is constructed .An empirical study of factors influen‐cing the image effect of outdoor advertising in urban hub node is conducted .Firstly ,based on the sur‐vey on the outdoor advertising image effect of Hefei South High‐speed Railway Station ,four main fac‐tors affecting the outdoor advertising image effect are extracted by using the exploratory factor analy‐sis(EFA) .Then the correlation between the four factors and outdoor advertising image effect is ana‐lyzed by using the multiple correlation analysis ,thus determining the key factors affecting the image effect of outdoor advertising in urban hub node .%运用城市意象理论,构建了城市枢纽节点户外广告意象效果影响因素概念模型。通过对合肥高铁南站户外广告意象效果的调查,采用探索型因子分析法,提取出影响户外广告意象效果的四个主要因子;再运用多元相关分析法分析这四个因子与户外广告意象效果的相关关系,找出影响节点户外广告意象效果的关键因素,以此作出对城市枢纽节点户外广告的意象效果影响因素的实证研究。

  3. Disrupted nodal and hub organization account for brain network abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Koshimori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree. Hub regions were identified in the healthy control and patient groups. We found nodal and hub changes in patients compared with healthy controls, including the right pre-supplementary motor area, left anterior insula, bilateral mid-insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus. In general, nodal regions within the sensorimotor network (i.e. right pre-supplementary motor area and right mid-insula displayed weakened connectivity, with the former node associated with more severe bradykinesia, and impaired integration with default mode network regions. The left mid-insula also lost its hub properties in patients. Within the executive networks, the left anterior insular cortex lost its hub properties in patients, while a new hub region was identified in the right caudate nucleus, paralleled by an increased level of inter- and intra-connectivity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex possibly representing compensatory mechanisms. These findings highlight the diffuse changes in nodal organization and regional hub disruption accounting for the distributed abnormalities across brain networks and the clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease.

  4. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencko, Heather L.; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat). PMID:27853512

  5. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.

  6. Collaborative Data Analytics with DataHub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anant; Karger, David; Subramanyam, Harihar; Deshpande, Amol; Madden, Sam; Wu, Eugene; Elmore, Aaron; Parameswaran, Aditya; Zhang, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    While there have been many solutions proposed for storing and analyzing large volumes of data, all of these solutions have limited support for collaborative data analytics, especially given the many individuals and teams are simultaneously analyzing, modifying and exchanging datasets, employing a number of heterogeneous tools or languages for data analysis, and writing scripts to clean, preprocess, or query data. We demonstrate DataHub, a unified platform with the ability to load, store, query, collaboratively analyze, interactively visualize, interface with external applications, and share datasets. We will demonstrate the following aspects of the DataHub platform: (a) flexible data storage, sharing, and native versioning capabilities: multiple conference attendees can concurrently update the database and browse the different versions and inspect conflicts; (b) an app ecosystem that hosts apps for various data-processing activities: conference attendees will be able to effortlessly ingest, query, and visualize data using our existing apps; (c) thrift-based data serialization permits data analysis in any combination of 20+ languages, with DataHub as the common data store: conference attendees will be able to analyze datasets in R, Python, and Matlab, while the inputs and the results are still stored in DataHub. In particular, conference attendees will be able to use the DataHub notebook - an IPython-based notebook for analyzing data and storing the results of data analysis.

  7. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew; Reislev, Nina Linde; Garde, Ellen; Nielsen, Mads; Feragen, Aasa

    2016-03-01

    A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied, but can smooth discriminative signals in the population, degrading predictive performance. We present a novel hub-detection optimized for supervised learning that both clusters network nodes based on population level variation in connectivity and also takes the learning problem into account. The found hubs are a low-dimensional representation of the network and are chosen based on predictive performance as features for a linear regression. We apply our method to the problem of finding age-related changes in structural connectivity. We compare our supervised hub-detection (SHD) to an unsupervised hub-detection and a linear regression using the original network connections as features. The results show that the SHD is able to retain regression performance, while still finding hubs that represent the underlying variation in the population. Although here we applied the SHD to brain networks, it can be applied to any network regression problem. Further development of the presented algorithm will be the extension to other predictive models such as classification or non-linear regression.

  8. Hub Status and Indexation of Container Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-An Park

    2015-06-01

    This study develops two sub-indexes of port classification and capacity, and combines cases of these two sub-indexes into various types in order to find a proper port hub index. The paper demonstrates how different types of port hub index are useful measurements for evaluating outputs and inputs of container ports. In a case analysis we show that the indexes of period variables and lagged variables have more explanatory power with regard to changes of port throughputs and high correlation with inputs.

  9. Thermogravitational column as a technique for thermal diffusion factor measurement in liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecenarro, O.; Madariaga, J.A.; Navarro, J.; Santamaria, C.M. (Universidad Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain)); Carrion, J.A.; Saviron, J.M. (Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain))

    Thermogravitational thermal diffusion separations are studied for benzene-n-heptane, benzene-n-hexane, toluene-n-heptane, toluene-n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride-n-hexane, and cyclohexane-n-hexane mixtures at a mean temperature of 37.5{degree}C. The column used was of 90 cm length with a 0.095 cm gap. Despite its length, this column can be used as a standard for the value of {alpha}{sub T} extraction when the separation factor is extrapolated to {Delta}t = 0{degree}C. Thermal diffusion factors are calculated for benzene-n-heptane and benzene-n-hexane mixtures in different concentrations. For the rest of the systems investigated, {alpha}{sub T}D{sub 12} values (D{sub 12} being the ordinary diffusion coefficient) are calculated.

  10. Comparing the demographic factors of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Daliri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves the hair follicle. Clinically, patients with alopecia areata may have patchy or confluent hair loss on the scalp or body so we conduct a study to compare the demographic aspects of patient with limited and diffuse type of alopecia areata.Materials and Method: We conducted a descriptive-analyzing study in which 306 patient were chosen. The patients were divided into two groups of diffuse and limited Alopecia. Demographic factors including age, gender, disease onset were compared in two groups. Results: Out of 306 patients, 58.8 % were male and 41.2 % were female. 247 patients (80.7% suffered from limited type and 59 patients (19.2% suffered from diffuse type. The mean age of the onset of involvement in limited group was 21.9±12 yr and 15.8±12 yr in diffuse group. The mean duration of involvement in limited group was 18.7 months and 71 months in diffuse group. Conclusion: Diffuse type alopecia areata starts at lower age and has longer duration. Our study results were similar to the others. Like other studies, thyroid disorders and atopic dermatitis are positively correlative to the severity of disease

  11. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  12. Hub location problems in transportation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a 4-index formulation for the uncapacitated multiple allocation hub location problem tailored for urban transport and liner shipping network design. This formulation is very tight and most of the tractable instances for MIP solvers are optimally solvable at the root node....... also introduce fixed cost values for Australian Post (AP) dataset....

  13. Optimising steel hub location in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaradhorn Boontaveeyuwat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal location of a steel hub in Thailand was analysed by applying aspecific research methodology designed to evaluate locations near the seaports. The growth of Thailand’s steel industry has become a centre of attention in the last decade, resulting in substantial efforts to form a distribution service centre to minimise the logistic costs associated with handling large steel flows in the future. The main analysis of the steel hublocation focused on areas situated near Laem Cha Bang, Map Ta Phut and Prachuab ports since these top three ports are considered important in terms of their steel throughput in Thailand. The transport costs associated with the shipment and inland transport together with port tariffs were calculated for the proposed scenarios of steel hub establishment andthese were compared with the existing situation without steel hub. The findings showed that a steel hub located near Laem Cha Bang port was the optimal option involving a saving of 9.4% on the total system costs incurred under the existing situation.

  14. A State Cyber Hub Operations Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    level cyber operations from state information technology (IT) and network infrastructure to hospitals , commercial banking, and manufacturing the...tools - TTPs necessary to operate and maintain Authoritative Data Repository for operational related artifacts . - Monitor and report on operations...development of Data Repository structures to enable storage of Cyber Hub related artifacts . - Provides Technical input to Business Case Analyses (BCAs

  15. The catheter hub disinfection cap as esophageal foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Kareem O; Myer, Charles M; Shikary, Tasneem; Goldschneider, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    Disinfection caps are increasingly being used to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections. These devices, designed for continuous passive disinfection of catheter hubs, are typically small and often brightly colored. As such, they have the potential to become pediatric airway and esophageal foreign bodies. We report two patients who developed esophageal foreign body following ingestion of disinfection caps. Given the increasing use of these devices, it is imperative that health care providers be aware of this potential iatrogenic problem. We propose that the use of disinfection caps may not be appropriate in pediatric patients with risk factors for foreign body ingestion.

  16. Constructing Hongqiao Hub and Serving Regional Economy:Planning and Operation of Hongqiao Comprehensive Transportation Hub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Hongqiao Integrated Transportation Hub Project as a case, this paper introduces its origin, orientation, development programming, planning and design, road planning, information system planning, air-rail integrated transportation planning, disaster prevention planning, and so on.

  17. Over-heated Investment in Aluminum Hub Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Aluminum hub is one of typical products with the comparative advantages.China’s aluminum hub industry is very competitive.In recent years,the value of export for the aluminum hub soared,increasing from USD130 millions in 1999 up to nearly USD1 billion in 2004.The main exporter are Wanfeng Auto Holding Group,Shanghai Fervent Alloy Wheel MFG Co.,Ltd.,Nanhai Zhongnan Aluminum Co., Ltd.,Taian Huatai Aluminum Hub Co.,Ltd.

  18. PASSENGER SERVICE QUALITY PARAMETERS ASSESSMENT AT TRANSPORT INTERCHANGE HUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Pavel Igorevich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a quality assessment method for transport decisions made in transport interchange hubs. Analysis of domestic regulatory documentation and international experience on this subject is performed. It is stated that the domestic regulatory documentation lacks such method of assessment. Special attention is paid to study of pedestrian flows in interchange complexes of intermodal transport interchange hubs. The aim of the study is development of the Level of Service comprehensive assessment criterion by analogy with the international practice. The authors propose to use the queueing theory with elements of the theory of graphs, techniques and regularities that underlie the Level of Service (service factor applied in planning and location of TIH in the USA as well as data from field surveys carried out by the pedestrian flows video detection method. During the field surveys it is planned to perform analysis of external and internal factors influencing the formation and composition of a pedestrian flow, to determine quantitative values of the main parameters of pedestrian flow (density, speed, intensity and regularities of their variation depending on the design features of pedestrian traffic environment. Determination of passenger service quality factors in TIH will help to develop an integral criterion based on the Level of Service, taking into account the specifics of TIH functioning in Russia as well as a methodology that allows a reasonable choice of combinations of structural elements and planning parameters of pedestrian traffic objects which will let to reduce construction costs and operating costs for location of interchange complexes.

  19. Southwest Regional Climate Hub and California Subsidiary Hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Elias; Caiti Steele; Kris Havstad; Kerri Steenwerth; Jeanne Chambers; Helena Deswood; Amber Kerr; Albert Rango; Mark Schwartz; Peter Stine; Rachel Steele

    2015-01-01

    This report is a joint effort of the Southwest Regional Climate Hub and the California Subsidiary Hub (Sub Hub). The Southwest Regional Climate Hub covers Arizona, California, Hawai‘i and the U.S. affiliated Pacific Islands, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah and contains vast areas of western rangeland, forests, and high-value specialty crops (Figure 1). The California Sub...

  20. Forecasting Beijing Transportation Hub Areas’s Pedestrian Flow Using Modular Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing proportion of urban public transportation trip, pedestrian flow in transportation hub areas increased. For effectively improving the emergency handling ability of related management apartments and preventing the incident of pedestrian congestion, this paper studied the method of pedestrian flow forecast in Beijing transportation hub areas. Firstly, 34 typical sidewalks in Beijing transportation hub areas were surveyed to obtain 2200 valid data. Secondly, correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between pedestrian flow and its influential factors. 11 significant influential factors were extracted. Thirdly, forecasting model was established with modular neural network. The surveyed pedestrian flow sample was fuzzy clustered according to the regional land use where the transportation hub existed. Then, membership function based on the distance measure was constructed. Through fuzzy discrimination, online selection for the subnetwork of the information can be achieved. Consequently, the self-adaptation of the neural network on information processing was improved. Finally, this paper tested the pedestrian flow sample of a transportation hub in Beijing. It was concluded that the accuracy of pedestrian flow forecasting model using modular neural network was higher than other neural network models. There was also improvement in the adaptability to environment.

  1. A case study of view-factor rectification procedures for diffuse-gray radiation enclosure computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert P.; Luck, Rogelio

    1995-01-01

    The view factors which are used in diffuse-gray radiation enclosure calculations are often computed by approximate numerical integrations. These approximately calculated view factors will usually not satisfy the important physical constraints of reciprocity and closure. In this paper several view-factor rectification algorithms are reviewed and a rectification algorithm based on a least-squares numerical filtering scheme is proposed with both weighted and unweighted classes. A Monte-Carlo investigation is undertaken to study the propagation of view-factor and surface-area uncertainties into the heat transfer results of the diffuse-gray enclosure calculations. It is found that the weighted least-squares algorithm is vastly superior to the other rectification schemes for the reduction of the heat-flux sensitivities to view-factor uncertainties. In a sample problem, which has proven to be very sensitive to uncertainties in view factor, the heat transfer calculations with weighted least-squares rectified view factors are very good with an original view-factor matrix computed to only one-digit accuracy. All of the algorithms had roughly equivalent effects on the reduction in sensitivity to area uncertainty in this case study.

  2. Factors Associated with Diffusely Increased Splenic F-18 FDG Uptake in Patients with Cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, Seongjang; Kim, Injoo; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Sojung; Ahn, Sang Hyun [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Although diffuse splenic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) uptake exceeding hepatic activity, is considered abnormal, its clinical significance is rarely discussed in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the contributing factors causing diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. From January 2010 to March 2013, 140 patients (84 men, 56 women) were enrolled in this study. All patients had been diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma and underwent F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the pretreatment staging work up. Clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. Various hematological parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, CEA, CA19-9, pancreatic enzymes and liver function tests were conducted within 2 days after the F-18 FDG PET/CT study. Diffuse splenic uptake was observed in 23 patients (16.4%). Of those, 19 patients (82.6%) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreastography (ERCP) 7 days before F-18 FDG PET/CT. The CRP level (p <0.001) and white blood cell count (p =0.023) were significantly higher in the group of patients with diffuse splenic FDG uptake. The hemoglobin (p <0.001) and the hematocrit (p <0.001) were significantly lower in patients with diffuse splenic FDG uptake. Pancreatic enzymes, liver function test results, and tumor markers were not significantly different between the patients who did or did not have diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake. The significant factors for diffuse splenic F-18 FDG uptake exceeding hepatic F-18 FDG uptake on multivariate analysis included: performing ERCP before F-18 FDG PET-CT (odds ratio [OR], 77.510; 95% CI, 7.624-132.105), and the presence of leukocytosis (OR, 12.436; 95% CI, 2.438-63.445) or anemia (OR, 1.211; 95% CI, 1.051-1.871). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that concurrent inflammation could be associated with diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake. We suggest that performing ERCP before F-18 FDG PET

  3. Extension of Goldstein's circulation function for optimal rotors with hub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic interaction or interference between rotor blades and hub body is usually very complicated, but some useful simplifications can be made by considering the hub with an infinite cylinder. Various attempts to find the optimum distribution of circulation by the lifting vortex lines...... method have been previously proposed to describe the blade interaction with the hub modeled by the infinite cylinder. In this case, the ideal distribution of bound circulation on the rotor blades is such that the shed vortex system in the hub-area is a set of helicoidal vortex sheets moving uniformly...... at the nose-area of the semi-infinite hub....

  4. Extension of Goldstein's circulation function for optimal rotors with hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulov, V. L.; Sørensen, J. N.; Shen, W. Z.

    2016-09-01

    The aerodynamic interaction or interference between rotor blades and hub body is usually very complicated, but some useful simplifications can be made by considering the hub with an infinite cylinder. Various attempts to find the optimum distribution of circulation by the lifting vortex lines method have been previously proposed to describe the blade interaction with the hub modeled by the infinite cylinder. In this case, the ideal distribution of bound circulation on the rotor blades is such that the shed vortex system in the hub-area is a set of helicoidal vortex sheets moving uniformly as if rigid, exactly as in the case where there is no influence of the streamtube deformations by the central hub-body. In the present investigation, we consider a more specific problem of the rotor-hub interaction where the initial flow streamtubes and the rotor slipstream submitted strong deformations at the nose-area of the semi-infinite hub.

  5. Ranking hubs and authorities using matrix functions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The notions of subgraph centrality and communicability, based on the exponential of the adjacency matrix of the underlying graph, have been effectively used in the analysis of undirected networks. In this paper we propose an extension of these measures to directed networks, and we apply them to the problem of ranking hubs and authorities. The extension is achieved by bipartization, i.e., the directed network is mapped onto a bipartite undirected network with twice as many nodes in order to ob...

  6. Developing Istanbul into a Regional Business Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    beds). Every year Istanbul hosts people from all around the world for international summits, conferences, film and music festivals and sports...Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia , Thailand, and the Philippines are positioning themselves to be logistics hubs. On the other hand, in Eastern Europe; Czech...close to nearby major markets of the world, are only some of Turkey’s many advantages. 2. Istanbul Throughout history , Istanbul has been a city at the

  7. Diffusion in the presence of a local attracting factor: Theory and interdisciplinary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veermäe, Hardi; Patriarca, Marco

    2017-06-01

    In many complex diffusion processes the drift of random walkers is not caused by an external force, as in the case of Brownian motion, but by local variations of fitness perceived by the random walkers. In this paper, a simple but general framework is presented that describes such a type of random motion and may be of relevance in different problems, such as opinion dynamics, cultural spreading, and animal movement. To this aim, we study the problem of a random walker in d dimensions moving in the presence of a local heterogeneous attracting factor expressed in terms of an assigned position-dependent "attractiveness function." At variance with standard Brownian motion, the attractiveness function introduced here regulates both the advection and diffusion of the random walker, thus providing testable predictions for a specific form of fluctuation-relations. We discuss the relation between the drift-diffusion equation based on the attractiveness function and that describing standard Brownian motion, and we provide some explicit examples illustrating its relevance in different fields, such as animal movement, chemotactic diffusion, and social dynamics.

  8. Factors related to the implementation and diffusion of new technologies: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In order to develop an understanding of how government intervention affects the processes of implementation and diffusion of new technologies, case studies of 14 technologies were carried out: automobiles; broadcast radio; frozen foods; black and white TV; color TV; polio vaccine; supersonic transport; fluoridation of water supplies; computer-aided instruction; basic oxygen process for steel; numerical control in manufacturing; digital computers; lasers; and integrated circuit. The key factors, their motivations for implementing/adopting the technology (or not doing so), the interactions among the key factors, and how these affected implementation/adoption are examined.

  9. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  10. Transfer Scheme Evaluation Model for a Transportation Hub based on Vectorial Angle Cosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ya Yao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the most important node in public transport network, efficiency of a transport hub determines the entire efficiency of the whole transport network. In order to put forward effective transfer schemes, a comprehensive evaluation index system of urban transport hubs’ transfer efficiency was built, evaluation indexes were quantified, and an evaluation model of a multi-objective decision hub transfer scheme was established based on vectorial angle cosine. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on factors affecting transfer efficiency is conducted, which discusses the passenger satisfaction, transfer coordination, transfer efficiency, smoothness, economy, etc. Thus, a new solution to transfer scheme utilization was proposed.

  11. Diffusion and entropy production for multi-networks with fitness factors

    CERN Document Server

    Siudem, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion process at a special class of multi-networks consisting of weakly coupled networks is analytically solved by an appropriate separation of time scales and by reducing the system dynamics to a Markov chain for aggregated variables. A presence of fitness factors describing attractiveness of individual nodes is taken into account. In the case of system of two coupled networks an equation analogous to the First Fick Law with an additional driving force and a corresponding diffusion constant are found. The entropy production is a sum of entropy changes resulting from a network heterogeneity and the entropy of the Markov chain. Our approach can be also used for hierarchical networks where several different time scales are present.

  12. Contrasting Diffusion Patterns for PC and Mobile Videos: A User-Centric View of the Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baixue

    2010-01-01

    As both computer and mobile phone reach nearly ubiquity in the U.S. market, the slow uptake of mobile video, in contrast to the thriving usage of PC-based video, warrants a deeper understanding of user-oriented factors contributing to the two diffusion paths. Unlike the majority of existing diffusion research practices, the dissertation…

  13. The association of osteoarthritis risk factors with localized, regional and diffuse knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L R; Boudreau, R; Newman, A B; Hannon, M J; Chu, C R; Nevitt, M C; Kent Kwoh, C

    2010-10-01

    To identify determinants of different patterns of knee pain with a focus on risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). The Knee Pain Map is an interviewer-administered assessment that asks subjects to characterize their knee pain as localized, regional, or diffuse. A total of 2677 participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were studied. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationship between risk factors for OA and knee pain patterns. We examined the bivariate and multivariate relationships of knee pain pattern with age, body mass index (BMI), sex, race, family history of total joint replacement, knee injury, knee surgery, and hand OA. We compared 2462 knees with pain to 1805 knees without pain. In the bivariate analysis, age, sex, BMI, injury, surgery, and hand OA were associated with at least one pain pattern. In the multivariate model, all of these variables remained significantly associated with at least one pattern. When compared to knees without pain, higher BMI, injury, and surgery were associated with all patterns. BMI had its strongest association with diffuse pain. Older age was less likely to be associated with localized pain while female sex was associated with regional pain. We have shown that specific OA risk factors are associated with different knee pain patterns. Better understanding of the relationship between OA risk factors and knee pain patterns may help to characterize the heterogeneous subsets of knee OA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  15. Comprehensive analysis of the diffuse-to-near-normal-viewing reflectance factor of paint films

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valenzuela, Augusto; Cuppo, Fabio Luiz Sant'anna; Olivares, Jose Alberto; Galván-Miyoshi, Julián M.

    2011-05-01

    We present a comprehensive derivation of the so-called diffuse to near-normal-viewing reflectance factor of an architectural paint coating and its measurement with an integrating sphere. We focus our attention to the surface correction terms and consider the case when the surface is rough. We point out limits of the standard formula with the so-called Saunderson corrections commonly used for paint coatings. We provide and discuss a corrected definition of the roughness-dependent ``gloss factor'' needed to describe specular-component excluded measurements. We show that as the roughness of the surface increases, the specular-excluded reflectance-factor increases, approaching its value with the specular-component included.

  16. Hippocampal expression of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 following diffuse axonal injury under mild hypothermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yang; Limin Zhang; Yunhe Zhang; Xifeng Zou; Qunxi Li; Yun Li; Jun Zhu; Jianmin Li; Aijun Fu; Qingjun Liu; Tong Chen; Zelin Sun; Zhiyong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The influence of mild hypothermia on neural cell apoptosis remains poorly understood. Therefore, the present study established rat models of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) at 33 °C. Morris water maze results demonstrated significantly better learning and memory functions in DAI rats with hypothermia compared with DAI rats with normothermia. Expression of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 in the hippocampal CA1 region was significantly lower in the DAI hypothermia group compared with the DAI normothermia group. Expression of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 positively correlated with latency, but negatively correlated with platform location times and time of swimming in the quadrant area. Results suggested that post-traumatic mild hypothermia in a rat model of DAI could provide cerebral protection by attenuating expression of apoptotic protease activating factor-1.

  17. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied......-detection and a linear regression using the original network connections as features. The results show that the SHD is able to retain regression performance, while still finding hubs that represent the underlying variation in the population. Although here we applied the SHD to brain networks, it can be applied to any...

  18. Application of diffusion maps to identify human factors of self-reported anomalies in aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Mikusinski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    A study investigating what factors are present leading to pilots submitting voluntary anomaly reports regarding their flight performance was conducted. Diffusion Maps (DM) were selected as the method of choice for performing dimensionality reduction on text records for this study. Diffusion Maps have seen successful use in other domains such as image classification and pattern recognition. High-dimensionality data in the form of narrative text reports from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) were clustered and categorized by way of dimensionality reduction. Supervised analyses were performed to create a baseline document clustering system. Dimensionality reduction techniques identified concepts or keywords within records, and allowed the creation of a framework for an unsupervised document classification system. Results from the unsupervised clustering algorithm performed similarly to the supervised methods outlined in the study. The dimensionality reduction was performed on 100 of the most commonly occurring words within 126,000 text records describing commercial aviation incidents. This study demonstrates that unsupervised machine clustering and organization of incident reports is possible based on unbiased inputs. Findings from this study reinforced traditional views on what factors contribute to civil aviation anomalies, however, new associations between previously unrelated factors and conditions were also found.

  19. A NEW ARTIFICIAL DIFFUSION FACTOR IN THE STREAMLINE UPWIND/PETROV GALERKIN FORMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For the incompressible Navier-Stokes equa-tions, a new artificial diffusion factor is put forward in theStreamline Upwind/Petrov Galerkin formulation. The corre-sponding formulae of finite element methods are derived inNewton-Raphson form, in which velocity and pressure are it-erated synchronously. An element with nine nodes satisfyinginf-sup condition is established, which has a parabolic velocityinterpolation and linear pressure distribution. Four numericalexamples are presented, and solutions obtained demonstratethe effectivity of the method proposed.

  20. An Introduction to Version Control Using GitHub Desktop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel van Strien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson you will be introduced to the basics of version control, understand why it is useful and implement basic version control for a plain text document using GitHub Desktop. By the end of this lesson you should understand: * what version control is and why it can be useful * the differences between Git and GitHub * how to implement version control using ‘GitHub Desktop,’ a Graphical User Interface for GitHub * be aware of other resources that will help you implement version control in your academic writing

  1. An Introduction to Version Control Using GitHub Desktop

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel van Strien

    2016-01-01

    In this lesson you will be introduced to the basics of version control, understand why it is useful and implement basic version control for a plain text document using GitHub Desktop. By the end of this lesson you should understand: * what version control is and why it can be useful * the differences between Git and GitHub * how to implement version control using ‘GitHub Desktop,’ a Graphical User Interface for GitHub * be aware of other resources that will help you imple...

  2. The origin of a large apparent tortuosity factor for the Knudsen diffusion inside monoliths of a samaria-alumina aerogel catalyst: a diffusion NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R; Zhang, S; Klink, M; Bäumer, M; Vasenkov, S

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR was applied to measure tortuosity factors for carbon dioxide diffusion in the Knudsen and gas regimes inside monoliths of a samaria-alumina aerogel catalyst, a high porosity material containing micropores in addition to meso- and macropores. The apparent tortuosity factor obtained from PFG NMR measurements for the Knudsen diffusion in the meso- and macropores of the catalyst has an unexpectedly large value of approximately 6 if carbon dioxide adsorption in the micropores and other types of surface adsorption sites of the catalyst is ignored. At the same time, the corresponding apparent tortuosity factor in the gas regime was found to be around 2. Application of a proposed model which describes fast molecular exchange between the surface adsorption sites and the main pore volume of the catalyst yields corrected tortuosity factors which depend only on the pore system geometry. Using this model, the corrected tortuosity factors were found to be around 2 for both diffusion regimes, in agreement with the expectations based on a high porosity of the studied catalyst.

  3. Evidence for a diffusible factor that induces susceptibility in the Colletotrichum-maize disease interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria F; Cuadros, Diego F; Vaillancourt, Lisa J

    2014-01-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola, the causal agent of maize anthracnose, is a hemibiotrophic fungus that initially infects living host cells via primary hyphae surrounded by a membrane. A nonpathogenic mutant disrupted in a gene encoding a component of the signal peptidase complex, and believed to be deficient in protein processing and secretion, regained pathogenicity when it was inoculated onto maize leaf sheaths close to the wild-type fungus. Evidence is presented suggesting that the wild-type produces a diffusible factor(s) that induces the localized susceptibility of host cells at the borders of expanding colonies, causing them to become receptive to biotrophic invasion. The induced susceptibility effect is limited to a distance of approximately eight cells from the edge of the wild-type colony, is dosage dependent and is specific to C. graminicola. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Failure of Recombinant Activated Factor VII in Treatment of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Khoulani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH is a serious complication of the small vessel vasculitis syndromes and carries a high mortality. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa is used to treat bleeding in patients with hemophilia and antibodies to factor VIII or IX. It is increasingly being used in life-threatening hemorrhage in a variety of other settings in which conventional therapy is unsuccessful. Randomized controlled trials of rFVIIa in DAH are lacking. However, several case reports have described a complete or sustained control of DAH using rFVIIa after patients failed to respond to medical treatment. There are no case reports in the literature describing the use or the failure of rFVIIa in DAH associated with cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. We here report the failure of rFVIIa to control DAH in a patient with CD5+ B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.

  5. 旅游枢纽理论与实践研究综述%A systematic literature review of tourism hub theory and practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹统钎; 江璐虹; 郭晓霞

    2016-01-01

    Research on tourism hubs in China and abroad are based on transportation hubs,after which the basic theory about tourism hubs occurred and boosted study on the theoretical and practical development of tourism hubs.Tourism hubs originated from transportation hubs.Based on transportation hubs,tourism hubs provide tourists with tourism-related information,service and infrastructure,as well as well-rounded,seamless and accessible integration of all kind of transports which make tourist transfers and travel more convenient.Tourism hubs bridge tourism markets and destinations,but there are differences between them.The tourism resources are main attractions for tourists while tourism hubs strike to control the local tourism industry through tourist flows.The functions of gathering and scattering are key factors for tourism hubs which help to control tourist flows and the tourism industry.According to different practical functions and various development processes of international tourism hubs,we generalize their practices and divide them into two categories:hub-dominated tourism cities and hub-destination tourism cities.The development of international tourism hubs follows similar laws.Well-constructed hubs,especially the airport hub network will be helpful for tourism hubs to attract tourist flow.Tourism hubs benefit from their hub functions and control of local tourism industries.With the development of the tourism industry,tourist destinations and tourism hubs tend to mix together.%旅游枢纽的国内外研究经历了“交通枢纽-旅游枢纽基础理论-旅游枢纽”的阶段演变.旅游枢纽的发展源于交通枢纽,以交通枢纽为基础,以人的运输为主,提供旅游配套的信息服务,并整合了一般公共交通等多种交通方式,为游客提供便捷服务.旅游枢纽是旅游客源地与目的地之间的中介与桥梁,旅游目的地主要通过拥有的旅游资源形成吸引物,旅游枢纽则通过流经

  6. Liner Shipping Hub Network Design in a Competitive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    A new mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an alliance, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes its market share...

  7. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses the competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an existing dominating operator, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes its...

  8. International Education Hubs: Collaboration for Competitiveness and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of education hubs, a recent phenomenon in international higher education. Three models of hubs are examined in relation to the forces, risks, and opportunities of globalization and how local and international collaborations are essential for both global competitiveness and sustainability.

  9. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  10. Optimal Model and Solution of Railway Hub Shift Working Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Shiwei; Zhu Songnian; Lin Boliang

    1996-01-01

    Aiming at decreasing the hub transportation costs, a railway hub shift working plan in terms of multicommodity network flow model is set up for considering the coordination of freight working, train working and locomotive working plans. The solution and the calculating results are also introduced.

  11. Phased arrays: inline flow line hub inspection using phased arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J.G.P.; Chougrani, K.; Rundberg, H.; Oldenziel, G.; Deleye, X.; Martina, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of the inspection of flow line hubs using the phased array technique was investigated to determine the surface area of the seal area degraded by corrosion. A clean model of the hub was simulated to gain insight into the geometrical echoes and to determine the area covered by the ultr

  12. A versatile framework for cooperative hub network development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for cooperative hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for the transshipment of goods is expensive and, therefore, involves considerable risks for cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at o

  13. Education Hubs: A Fad, a Brand, an Innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen significant changes in all aspects of internationalization but most dramatically in the area of education and research moving across national borders. The most recent developments are education hubs. The term "education hub" is being used by countries who are trying to build a critical mass of local and foreign…

  14. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  15. Climate programs update: USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub update

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM OVERVIEW: The overarching goal of the USDA SW Climate Hub is to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in addressing the effects of climate change including prolonged drought, increased insect outbreaks and severe wildfires. In the first year of operations, the SW Climate Hub (est. Februa...

  16. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for hub-and-spoke network design in a competitive environment. It addresses the competition between a newcomer liner service provider and an existing dominating operator, both operating on hub-and-spoke networks. The newcomer company maximizes i...

  17. International Education Hubs: Collaboration for Competitiveness and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of education hubs, a recent phenomenon in international higher education. Three models of hubs are examined in relation to the forces, risks, and opportunities of globalization and how local and international collaborations are essential for both global competitiveness and sustainability.

  18. Preoperative prognostic factors for severe diffuse secondary peritonitis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Matti; Sallinen, Ville; Mentula, Panu; Leppäniemi, Ari

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse preoperative risk factors for mortality or intensive care unit admission to describe severe peritonitis. This was a single academic centre retrospective study of consecutive adult patients operated for diffuse secondary peritonitis between 2012 and 2013. Patients with appendicitis or cholecystitis were excluded. Independent risk factors were identified using binary and ordinal logistic regression. A total of 223 patients were analysed. Overall 30-day mortality was 14.5 %. Postoperatively, 32.3 % of patients were admitted into the intensive care unit (ICU). Independent risk factors for severe peritonitis were septic shock (odds ratio (OR) 37.94, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 14.52-99.13), chronic kidney insufficiency (OR 5.98 (95 % CI 1.56-22.86), severe sepsis (OR 4.80, 95 % CI 2.10-10.65) and cardiovascular disease (OR 2.58, 95 % CI 1.22-5.47). Patients lacking these factors had no mortality. ICU admission was refused in 24 (10.8 %) patients with 70.8 % mortality. In a subgroup of patients without treatment limitations (n = 190), independent risk factors for weighted outcome of ICU admission or mortality were septic shock (OR 11.89, 95 % CI 4.98-28.40), severe sepsis (OR 5.56, 95 % CI 2.39-12.89), metastatic malignant disease or lymphoma (OR 3.11, 95 % CI 1.34-7.20) and corticosteroid use (OR 2.98, 95 % CI 1.18-7.51). When receiving full level of care, patients with preoperative organ dysfunctions in this subgroup had 8.2 % 30-day mortality. Preoperative organ dysfunctions, chronic kidney insufficiency and cardiovascular disease are the most important risk factors for severe peritonitis. Without these risk factors, patients had no mortality.

  19. The 4 Pi Sky Transient Alerts Hub

    CERN Document Server

    Staley, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the 4 Pi Sky 'hub', a collection of open data-services and underlying software packages built for rapid, fully automated reporting and response to astronomical transient alerts. These packages build on the mature 'VOEvent' standardized message-format, and aim to provide a decentralized and open infrastructure for handling transient alerts. In particular we draw attention to the initial release of voeventdb, an archive and remote-query service that allows astronomers to make historical queries about transient alerts. By employing spatial filters and web-of-citation lookups, voeventdb enables cross-matching of transient alerts to bring together data from multiple sources, as well as providing a point of reference when planning new follow-up campaigns. We also highlight the recent addition of optical-transient feeds from the ASASSN and GAIA projects to our VOEvent distribution stream. Both the source-code and deployment-scripts which implement these services are freely available and permissively lic...

  20. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs...

  1. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  2. Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  3. Spatial diffusion of influenza outbreak-related climate factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapan, Supachai; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Tipdecho, Taravudh; Souris, Marc

    2012-10-24

    Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  4. Cellular Automata-based Chloride Ion Diffusion Simulation of Concrete Bridges under Multi-factor Coupling Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jinsong; HE Likun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In order to accurately simulate the diffusion of chloride ion in the existing concrete bridge and acquire the precise chloride ion concentration at given time,a cellular automata (CA)-based model is proposed.The process of chloride ion diffusion is analyzed by the CA-based method and a nonlinear solution of the Fick's second law is obtained.Considering the impact of various factors such as stress states,temporal and spatial variability of diffusion parameters and water-cement ratio on the process of chloride ion diffusion,the model of chloride ion diffusion under multi-factor coupling actions is presented.A chloride ion penetrating experiment reported in the literature is used to prove the effectiveness and reasonability of the present method,and a T-type beam is taken as an illustrative example to analyze the process of chloride ion diffusion in practical application.The results indicate that CA-based method can simulate the diffusion of chloride ion in the concrete structures with acceptable precision.

  5. Hub exchange operations in intermodal hub-and spoke networks : a performance comparison of rail-rail exchange facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontekoning, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of hub-and-spoke networks in intermodal transport is suggested as one of the potential solutions for helping to increase the intermodal market share. Traditionally, trains are shunted at hubs; this is a time-consuming process. Since the early 1990s a new type of intermodal termina

  6. Cell proliferation as a long-term prognostic factor in diffuse large-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, R; Costa, A; Boracchi, P; Giardini, R; Rilke, F

    1993-05-01

    The relevance of cell proliferation rate--defined as the 3H-thymidine labeling index (3H-dT LI)--in predicting response to treatment (complete remission, CR), freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in 86 patients with diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL). The biologic variable was not associated with most of the established clinical factors, such as gender and age of the patient, performance status, B symptoms, tumor bulk, or extranodal disease, but was directly related to stage. 3H-dT LI significantly predicted short- and long-term clinical outcome. In fact, more patients with slowly proliferating DLCL reached CR and had longer median FFP and OS than patients with rapidly proliferating DLCL. Multiple-regression analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of the different biologic and clinical variables in predicting CR, FFP and OS showed that 3H-dT LI and Ann Arbor stage were the only 2 stable factors, which retained their prognostic significance even in the presence of other conventional factors, and that 3H-dT LI was the most powerful as an indicator of risk of death in DLCL patients.

  7. Flow Merging and Hub Route Optimization in Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerui Weng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal hub routing problem of merged tasks in collaborative transportation. This problem allows all carriers’ transportation tasks to reach the destinations optionally passing through 0, 1, or 2 hubs within limited distance, while a cost discount on arcs in the hub route could be acquired after paying fixed charges. The problem arises in the application of logistics, postal services, airline transportation, and so forth. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer programming model, and provide two heuristic approaches, respectively, based on Lagrangian relaxation and Benders decomposition. Computational experiments show that the algorithms work well.

  8. GitHub open source project recommendation system

    OpenAIRE

    Matek, Tadej; Zebec, Svit Timej

    2016-01-01

    Hosting platforms for software projects can form collaborative social networks and a prime example of this is GitHub which is arguably the most popular platform of this kind. An open source project recommendation system could be a major feature for a platform like GitHub, enabling its users to find relevant projects in a fast and simple manner. We perform network analysis on a constructed graph based on GitHub data and present a recommendation system that uses link prediction.

  9. The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Andreas; Koch, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and threats which arise when turning origin/destination airports into hubs. The analysis focuses on market development trends, competitive structures, especially in the light of airline network strategies and the growing rivalry between airports, and finally the potential financial impacts for the airport, including both investment efforts and the financial results from hub operations. We argue that in most cases a decision against converting a traditional origin/destination airport into a major transfer point is preferable to the transformation into a hub.

  10. [Central nervous system relapse in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: Risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan-Manuel; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2016-01-15

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by lymphoma is a complication associated, almost invariably, with a poor prognosis. The knowledge of the risk factors for CNS relapse is important to determine which patients could benefit from prophylaxis. Thus, patients with very aggressive lymphomas (such as lymphoblastic lymphoma or Burkitt's lymphoma) must systematically receive CNS prophylaxis due to a high CNS relapse rate (25-30%), while in patients with indolent lymphoma (such as follicular lymphoma or marginal lymphoma) prophylaxis is unnecessary. However, the question about CNS prophylaxis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of lymphoma, remains controversial. The information available is extensive, mainly based on retrospective and heterogeneous studies. There seems that immunochemotherapy based on rituximab reduces the CNS relapse rate. On the other hand, patients with increased serum lactate dehydrogenase plus more than one extranodal involvement seem to have a higher risk of CNS relapse, but a prophylaxis strategy based only on the presence of these 2 factors does not prevent all CNS relapses. Patients with involvement of testes or breast have high risk of CNS relapse and prophylaxis is mandatory. Finally, CNS prophylaxis could be considered in patients with DLBCL and renal or epidural space involvement, as well as in those cases with MYC rearrangements, although additional studies are necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Hub network design for sparse travel demand within the African aviation industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ssamula, B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available as well as corruption leading to insufficient funds to manage national airlines. In order to align African Aviation with policies of deregulation and liberalisation already implemented in North America and Western Europe and to prevent the collapse... for each cluster was based on using the following factors: high passenger demand, infrastructure, technology advancement, number of flights operating, number of airlines operating, hub capabilities or function at airline or geographical level, as shown...

  12. A Hedonism Hub in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharopoulos, G.; Lancaster, T. M.; Bracht, T.; Ihssen, N.; Maio, G. R.; Linden, D. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Human values are abstract ideals that motivate behavior. The motivational nature of human values raises the possibility that they might be underpinned by brain structures that are particularly involved in motivated behavior and reward processing. We hypothesized that variation in subcortical hubs of the reward system and their main connecting pathway, the superolateral medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) is associated with individual value orientation. We conducted Pearson's correlation between the scores of 10 human values and the volumes of 14 subcortical structures and microstructural properties of the medial forebrain bundle in a sample of 87 participants, correcting for multiple comparisons (i.e.,190). We found a positive association between the value that people attach to hedonism and the volume of the left globus pallidus (GP).We then tested whether microstructural parameters (i.e., fractional anisotropy and myelin volume fraction) of the slMFB, which connects with the GP, are also associated to hedonism and found a significant, albeit in an uncorrected level, positive association between the myelin volume fraction within the left slMFB and hedonism scores. This is the first study to elucidate the relationship between the importance people attach to the human value of hedonism and structural variation in reward-related subcortical brain regions. PMID:27473322

  13. 14 CFR 398.2 - Number and designation of hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... origin and designation data; (iv) The distance of candidate hubs from the eligible place; and (v) The... may instead require that service from an eligible place be provided to a nearby focal point...

  14. Model of Controlling the Hubs in P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Liu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the hubs in Peer-to-Peer (P2P networks, and present a new method to avoid generating the hubs in the networks by controlling the logical topology structure of P2P networks. We firstly introduce the controlling ideas about hierarchizing the hubs. Then, we disclose and interpret the controlling model, and give out the concrete method to carry it out. Finally, we validate our controlling model via simulations and the simulation results demonstrate that our work is effective to control the hubs in P2P networks. Thus, this model can improve the network competence to defend against coordinated attacks, promote the network robustness, and ensure the network would develop continually and healthily.

  15. A Flexible Logistics Distribution Hub Model considering Cost Weighted Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue Ran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery time of order has become an important fact for customers to evaluate logistics services. Due to the diverse and large quantities of orders in the background of electronic commerce, how to improve the flexibility of distribution hub and reduce the waiting time of customers becomes one of the most challenging questions for logistics companies. With this in mind, this paper proposes a new method of flexibility assessment in distribution hub by introducing cost weighted time (CWT. The advantages of supply hub operation mode in delivery flexibility are verified by the approach: the mode has pooling effects and uniform distribution characteristics; these traits can reduce overlapping delivery time to improve the flexibility in the case of two suppliers. Numerical examples show that the supply hub operation mode is more flexible than decentralized distribution operation mode in multidelivery cycles.

  16. Proof test of hybrid shrink fits with ceramic hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Binz, H.

    2011-10-01

    Advanced ceramic machine components are required in many applications because of their specific material properties like high hardness, resistance to chemicals, corrosion and wear, low specific weight etc. The most suitable shaft-hub connection to ceramics is an interference fit assembly because it is free of geometrical notches and transmission of forces takes place in a large area. Such a shrink fit is rated for endurance strength when the stress intensity factor is below the specific value KI0 where no crack growth occurs. The total component suddenly fails, when the stress intensity factor exceeds the KIC value. The load to the press fit during the joining process, caused by the interference of the assembly, could be regulated by ambient conditions. In case of undetected material defects or microcracks in the ceramic and if the stress intensity is below KIC, the ceramic will not fail but a crack could grow. Thus, the joining process only seems to be a proof test. When the load during operation leads to a stress intensity that remains higher than KI0 the crack grows until the whole ceramic component fails. This effect was verified in tests at the Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design.

  17. Proof test of hybrid shrink fits with ceramic hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M; Binz, H, E-mail: markus.wagner@iktd.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-10-29

    Advanced ceramic machine components are required in many applications because of their specific material properties like high hardness, resistance to chemicals, corrosion and wear, low specific weight etc. The most suitable shaft-hub connection to ceramics is an interference fit assembly because it is free of geometrical notches and transmission of forces takes place in a large area. Such a shrink fit is rated for endurance strength when the stress intensity factor is below the specific value K{sub I0} where no crack growth occurs. The total component suddenly fails, when the stress intensity factor exceeds the K{sub IC} value. The load to the press fit during the joining process, caused by the interference of the assembly, could be regulated by ambient conditions. In case of undetected material defects or microcracks in the ceramic and if the stress intensity is below K{sub IC}, the ceramic will not fail but a crack could grow. Thus, the joining process only seems to be a proof test. When the load during operation leads to a stress intensity that remains higher than K{sub I0} the crack grows until the whole ceramic component fails. This effect was verified in tests at the Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design.

  18. Diffuse nutrient losses and the impact factors determining their regional differences in four catchments from North to South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Zhou, Yujian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Hongbin; Lei, Qiuliang; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xuelei

    2016-12-01

    Diffuse nutrient loss mechanism is complicated and shows remarkably regional differences due to spatial heterogeneities of underlying surface conditions, climate and agricultural practices. Moreover, current available observations are still hard to support the identification of impact factors due to different time or space steps. In this study, an integrated water system model (HEQM) was adopted to obtain the simulated loads of diffuse components (carriers: runoff and sediment; nutrient: total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP)) with synchronous scales. Multivariable statistical analysis approaches (Analysis of Similarity and redundancy analysis) were used to assess the regional differences, and to identify impact factors as well as their contributions. Four catchments were selected as our study areas, i.e., Xiahui and Zhangjiafen Catchments of Miyun Basin in North China, Yuliang and Tunxi Catchments of Xin'anjiang Basin in South China. Results showed that the model performances of monthly processes were very good for runoff and good for sediment, TN and TP. The annual average coefficients of all the diffuse components in Xin'anjiang Basin were much greater than those in Miyun Basin, and showed significantly regional differences. All the selected impact factors interpreted 72.87-82.16% of the regional differences of carriers, and 62.72-71.62% of those of nutrient coefficients, respectively. For individual impact factor categories, the critical category was geography, followed by land-use/cover, carriers, climate, as well as soil and agricultural practices in Miyun Basin, or agricultural practices and soil in Xin'anjiang Basin. For individual factors, the critical factors were locations for the carrier regional differences, and carriers or chemical fertilizer for the nutrient regional differences. This study is expected to promote further applications of integrated water system model and multivariable statistical analysis in the diffuse nutrient studies, and

  19. Establishing a Global Halal Hub: In-Depth Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Borzooei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the requirements needed for a country to establish itself as a global Halal hub. In this regard, this exploratory research paper uses a semi-structured in-depth interview to obtain the perceptions of Halal experts about the requirements for establishing a Halal hub. The results of the study indicate that human capital, media, research and development, events, country’s capability, public and governmental support, marketing strategy, and infrastructure comprise the vital requirements. Furthermore, from the perceptions of the experts, public and governmental support, marketing strategy, and human capital are the three most important requirements. Since this paper is an exploratory study, it provides some insights of the three experts on the establishing of a Halal hub. In addition, a quantitative study is an appropriate approach to implement the findings of this study empirically and to determine the effective components to establish a Halal hub in those countries that desire it. A practical implication of this study is the opening of a new window for any country that aspires to be a Halal hub. In this matter, this paper presents the key considerations in establishing a Halal hub for Halal certification bodies, companies and marketers involved in the Halal business. Moreover, this research attempts to influence the perceptions and attitudes of people of the country on the desirability of becoming a Halal hub, followed by a discussion on the development of a national brand. When the contribution of its people is high, a country stands the best chance of achieving its goal. Finally, this study is one of the first to seek the perceptions of experts about vital requirements that a country should pay more attention to if it wishes to establish a global Halal hub.

  20. A Hub Matrix Theory and Applications to Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung HT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers communications and network systems whose properties are characterized by the gaps of the leading eigenvalues of for a matrix . It is shown that a sufficient and necessary condition for a large eigen-gap is that is a "hub" matrix in the sense that it has dominant columns. Some applications of this hub theory in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO wireless systems are presented.

  1. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step t...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  2. NGC 281: A Bustling Hub of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NGC 281 is a bustling hub of star formation about 10,000 light years away. This composite image of optical and X-ray emission includes regions where new stars are forming and older regions containing stars about 3 million years old. The optical data (seen in red, orange, and yellow) show a small open cluster of stars, large lanes of obscuring gas and dust, and dense knots where stars may still be forming. The X-ray data (purple), based on a Chandra observation lasting more than a day, shows a different view. More than 300 individual X-ray sources are seen, most of them associated with IC 1590, the central cluster. The edge-on aspect of NGC 281 allows scientists to study the effects of powerful X-rays on the gas in the region, the raw material for star formation. A second group of X-ray sources is seen on either side of a dense molecular cloud, known as NGC 281 West, a cool cloud of dust grains and gas, much of which is in the form of molecules. The bulk of the sources around the molecular cloud are coincident with emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a family of organic molecules containing carbon and hydrogen. There also appears to be cool diffuse gas associated with IC 1590 that extends toward NGC 281 West. The X-ray spectrum of this region shows that the gas is a few million degrees and contains significant amounts of magnesium, sulfur and silicon. The presence of these elements suggests that supernova recently went off in that area.

  3. Concerted perturbation observed in a hub network in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Liang

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving the alteration of gene expression at the whole genome level. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of AD has been conducted by many groups on several relevant brain regions. However, identifying the most critical dys-regulated genes has been challenging. In this work, we addressed this issue by deriving critical genes from perturbed subnetworks. Using a recent microarray dataset on six brain regions, we applied a heaviest induced subgraph algorithm with a modular scoring function to reveal the significantly perturbed subnetwork in each brain region. These perturbed subnetworks were found to be significantly overlapped with each other. Furthermore, the hub genes from these perturbed subnetworks formed a connected hub network consisting of 136 genes. Comparison between AD and several related diseases demonstrated that the hub network was robustly and specifically perturbed in AD. In addition, strong correlation between the expression level of these hub genes and indicators of AD severity suggested that this hub network can partially reflect AD progression. More importantly, this hub network reflected the adaptation of neurons to the AD-specific microenvironment through a variety of adjustments, including reduction of neuronal and synaptic activities and alteration of survival signaling. Therefore, it is potentially useful for the development of biomarkers and network medicine for AD.

  4. Diffusion tensor tractography of the brainstem pyramidal tract; A study on the optimal reduction factor in parallel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Park, Jong Bin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu [Dept. of of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Parallel imaging mitigates susceptibility artifacts that can adversely affect diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) of the pons depending on the reduction (R) factor. We aimed to find the optimal R factor for DTT of the pons that would allow us to visualize the largest possible number of pyramidal tract fibers. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed on 10 healthy subjects at 3 Tesla based on single-shot echo-planar imaging using the following parameters: b value, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}; gradient direction, 15; voxel size, 2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3}; and R factors, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. DTT of the right and left pyramidal tracts in the pons was conducted in all subjects. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), image distortion, and the number of fibers in the tracts were compared across R factors. SNR, image distortion, and fiber number were significantly different according to R factor. Maximal SNR was achieved with an R factor of 2. Image distortion was minimal with an R factor of 5. The number of visible fibers was greatest with an R factor of 3. R factor 3 is optimal for DTT of the pontine pyramidal tract. A balanced consideration of SNR and image distortion, which do not have the same dependence on the R factor, is necessary for DTT of the pons.

  5. Reference values for lung function tests: III. Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (transfer factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neder J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO or transfer factor (TLCO is a particularly useful test of the appropriateness of gas exchange across the lung alveolocapillary membrane. With the purpose of establishing predictive equations for DLCO using a non-smoking sample of the adult Brazilian population, we prospectively evaluated 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females aged 20 to 80 years, randomly selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations were developed by multiple regression analysis with single breath (SB absolute and volume-corrected (VA DLCO values as dependent variables. In the prediction equations, age (years and height (cm had opposite effects on DLCOSB (ml min-1 mmHg-1, independent of gender (-0.13 (age + 0.32 (height - 13.07 in males and -0.075 (age + 0.18 (height + 0.20 in females. On the other hand, height had a positive effect on DLCOSB but a negative one on DLCOSB/VA (P<0.01. We found that the predictive values from the most cited studies using predominantly Caucasian samples were significantly different from the actually measured values (P<0.05. Furthermore, oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2max correlated highly to DLCOSB (R = 0.71, P<0.001; this variable, however, did not maintain an independent role to explain the VO2max variability in the multiple regression analysis (P>0.05. Our results therefore provide an original frame of reference for either DLCOSB or DLCOSB/VA in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80 years, obtained from the standardized single-breath technique.

  6. Identification of promising Twin Hub networks: Report of Work Package 1 of the Intermodal rail freight Twin hub Network Northwest Europe - project (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Meijer, S.; Witteveen, C.; Meijers, B.M.; Pekin, E.; Macharis, C.; Kiel, J.; Kawabata, Y.; Vos, W.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first deliverable of the project Intermodal Rail Freight Twin Hub Network Northwest Europe. We call its subject Twin hub network and the organisational entity to carry out the actions the Twin hub project. The project is funded by INTERREG NWE (programme IVb). Its work started in

  7. Unveiling the early-stage anatomy of a protocluster hub with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, J. D.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Longmore, S. N.; Caselli, P.; Pineda, J. E.; Avison, A.; Barnes, A. T.; Tan, J. C.; Fontani, F.

    2017-01-01

    High-mass stars shape the interstellar medium in galaxies, and yet, largely because the initial conditions are poorly constrained, we do not know how they form. One possibility is that high-mass stars and star clusters form at the junction of filamentary networks, referred to as `hubs'. In this Letter we present the complex anatomy of a protocluster hub within an Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC), G035.39-00.33, believed to be in an early phase of its evolution. We use high-angular resolution ({θmaj, θmin} = {1.4 arcsec, 0.8 arcsec} ˜ {0.02 pc, 0.01 pc}) and high-sensitivity (0.2 mJy beam-1; ˜0.2 M⊙) 1.07 mm dust continuum observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to identify a network of narrow, 0.028 ± 0.005 pc wide, filamentary structures. These are a factor of ≳3 narrower than the proposed `quasi-universal' ˜0.1 pc width of interstellar filaments. Additionally, 28 compact objects are reported, spanning a mass range 0.3 M⊙ < Mc < 10.4 M⊙. This indicates that at least some low-mass objects are forming coevally with more massive counterparts. Comparing to the popular `bead-on-a-string' analogy, the protocluster hub is poorly represented by a monolithic clump embedded within a single filament. Instead, it comprises multiple intra-hub filaments, each of which retains its integrity as an independent structure and possesses its own embedded core population.

  8. Why Do Hubs Tend to Be Essential in Protein Networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The protein-protein interaction (PPI network has a small number of highly connected protein nodes (known as hubs and many poorly connected nodes. Genome-wide studies show that deletion of a hub protein is more likely to be lethal than deletion of a non-hub protein, a phenomenon known as the centrality-lethality rule. This rule is widely believed to reflect the special importance of hubs in organizing the network, which in turn suggests the biological significance of network architectures, a key notion of systems biology. Despite the popularity of this explanation, the underlying cause of the centrality-lethality rule has never been critically examined. We here propose the concept of essential PPIs, which are PPIs that are indispensable for the survival or reproduction of an organism. Our network analysis suggests that the centrality-lethality rule is unrelated to the network architecture, but is explained by the simple fact that hubs have large numbers of PPIs, therefore high probabilities of engaging in essential PPIs. We estimate that ~ 3% of PPIs are essential in the yeast, accounting for ~ 43% of essential genes. As expected, essential PPIs are evolutionarily more conserved than nonessential PPIs. Considering the role of essential PPIs in determining gene essentiality, we find the yeast PPI network functionally more robust than random networks, yet far less robust than the potential optimum. These and other findings provide new perspectives on the biological relevance of network structure and robustness.

  9. Why do hubs tend to be essential in protein networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionglei He

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The protein-protein interaction (PPI network has a small number of highly connected protein nodes (known as hubs and many poorly connected nodes. Genome-wide studies show that deletion of a hub protein is more likely to be lethal than deletion of a non-hub protein, a phenomenon known as the centrality-lethality rule. This rule is widely believed to reflect the special importance of hubs in organizing the network, which in turn suggests the biological significance of network architectures, a key notion of systems biology. Despite the popularity of this explanation, the underlying cause of the centrality-lethality rule has never been critically examined. We here propose the concept of essential PPIs, which are PPIs that are indispensable for the survival or reproduction of an organism. Our network analysis suggests that the centrality-lethality rule is unrelated to the network architecture, but is explained by the simple fact that hubs have large numbers of PPIs, therefore high probabilities of engaging in essential PPIs. We estimate that approximately 3% of PPIs are essential in the yeast, accounting for approximately 43% of essential genes. As expected, essential PPIs are evolutionarily more conserved than nonessential PPIs. Considering the role of essential PPIs in determining gene essentiality, we find the yeast PPI network functionally more robust than random networks, yet far less robust than the potential optimum. These and other findings provide new perspectives on the biological relevance of network structure and robustness.

  10. Region of Interest Correction Factors Improve Reliability of Diffusion Imaging Measures Within and Across Scanners and Field Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vijay K; Gonzalez, Christopher E.; Landman, Bennett; Goh, Joshua; Reiter, David A.; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures are commonly used as imaging markers to investigate individual differences in relation to behavioral and health-related characteristics. However, the ability to detect reliable associations in cross-sectional or longitudinal studies is limited by the reliability of the diffusion measures. Several studies have examined reliability of diffusion measures within (i.e. intra-site) and across (i.e. inter-site) scanners with mixed results. Our study compares the test-retest reliability of diffusion measures within and across scanners and field strengths in cognitively normal older adults with a follow-up interval less than 2.25 years. Intra-class correlation (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CoV) of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were evaluated in sixteen white matter and twenty-six gray matter bilateral regions. The ICC for intra-site reliability (0.32 to 0.96 for FA and 0.18 to 0.95 for MD in white matter regions; 0.27 to 0.89 for MD and 0.03 to 0.79 for FA in gray matter regions) and inter-site reliability (0.28 to 0.95 for FA in white matter regions, 0.02 to 0.86 for MD in gray matter regions) with longer follow-up intervals were similar to earlier studies using shorter follow-up intervals. The reliability of across field strengths comparisons was lower than intra- and inter-site reliability. Within and across scanner comparisons showed that diffusion measures were more stable in larger white matter regions (> 1500 mm3). For gray matter regions, the MD measure showed stability in specific regions and was not dependent on region size. Linear correction factor estimated from cross-sectional or longitudinal data improved the reliability across field strengths. Our findings indicate that investigations relating diffusion measures to external variables must consider variable reliability across the distinct regions of interest and that correction factors can be used to improve consistency of measurement across

  11. New approaches to the marine transport hub competitive growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Botnaryuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of marine transport hub competitive growth in the context of new economic conditions are considered in the paper. Analyzing the present tools of the transport hub competitive growth, the author emphasizes their production-logistics orientation. However, when rendering services to cargo and ship owners, members of the MTH establish official (contractual and informal relationship and exchange information on a permanent basis. The research into the nature of such a relationship brought the author to the conclusion that generation and further development of the partnership is a basis for new ways of the transport hub competitive growth. Considering the MTH as an institution, the author suggests that a general marketing information system intended for improvement of the services rendered, which will undeniably enhance competitive advantage.

  12. An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Daniel E; Gerstl, Stephan S A; Chin, Jackson; Hirschi, Blake; Evans, James E

    2017-01-01

    Environmental control during transfer between instruments is required for samples sensitive to air or thermal exposure to prevent morphological or chemical changes prior to analysis. Atom probe tomography is a rapidly expanding technique for three-dimensional structural and chemical analysis, but commercial instruments remain limited to loading specimens under ambient conditions. In this study, we describe a multifunctional environmental transfer hub allowing controlled cryogenic or room-temperature transfer of specimens under atmospheric or vacuum pressure conditions between an atom probe and other instruments or reaction chambers. The utility of the environmental transfer hub is demonstrated through the acquisition of previously unavailable mass spectral analysis of an intact organic molecule made possible via controlled cryogenic transfer into the atom probe using the hub. The ability to prepare and transfer specimens in precise environments promises a means to access new science across many disciplines from untainted samples and allow downstream time-resolved in situ atom probe studies.

  13. Microfluidic hubs, systems, and methods for interface fluidic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Michael S; Claudnic, Mark R; Kim, Hanyoup; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; Van De Vreugde, James L

    2015-01-27

    Embodiments of microfluidic hubs and systems are described that may be used to connect fluidic modules. A space between surfaces may be set by fixtures described herein. In some examples a fixture may set substrate-to-substrate spacing based on a distance between registration surfaces on which the respective substrates rest. Fluidic interfaces are described, including examples where fluid conduits (e.g. capillaries) extend into the fixture to the space between surfaces. Droplets of fluid may be introduced to and/or removed from microfluidic hubs described herein, and fluid actuators may be used to move droplets within the space between surfaces. Continuous flow modules may be integrated with the hubs in some examples.

  14. Mapping multiplex hubs in human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Arenas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly centralones, i.e. hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studieshave shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components ofbrain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However,the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneouslyis still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify eachfrequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploitingthe recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that eachfrequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately modelbrain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in generaldifferent from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signalsas usual, provide a more accurate map of brain’s most important functional regions, allowingto distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventionalnetwork approaches.

  15. A new method for improved hub height mean wind speed estimates using short-term hub height data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Matthew A.; Rogers, Anthony L.; Manwell, James F.; McGowan, Jon G. [Wind Energy Center, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 160 Governors Dr., Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The estimation of the wind resource at the hub height of a wind turbine is one of the primary goals of site assessment. Because the measurement heights of meteorological towers (met towers) are typically significantly lower than turbine hub heights, a shear model is generally needed to extrapolate the measured wind resource at the lower measurement height to the hub height of the turbine. This paper presents methods for improving the estimate of the hub height wind resource from met tower data through the use of ground-based remote sensing devices. The methods leverage the two major advantages of these devices: their portability and their ability to measure at the wind turbine hub height. Specifically, the methods rely on augmenting the one year of met tower measurements with short-term measurements from a ground-based remote sensing device. The results indicate that the methods presented are capable of producing substantial improvements in the accuracy and uncertainty of shear extrapolation predictions. The results suggest that the typical site assessment process can be reevaluated, and alternative strategies that utilize ground-based remote sensing devices can be incorporated to significantly improve the process. (author)

  16. Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    tools in order to deal with uncertainties and to provide reliable operating conditions. On a broader scale, an energy hub includes diverse energy sources for supplying both electrical load and heating/cooling demands with stochastic behaviors. Therefore, this paper utilizes the Information Decision Gap...... Theory (IGDT) to tackle this uncertainty as an efficient robust optimization tool with low complexity to ensure the optimal operation of the system according to the priorities of the decision maker entity. The proposed optimization framework is also implemented on a benchmark energy hub which includes...

  17. Variable volume combustor with center hub fuel staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2016-08-23

    The present application and the resultant patent provide a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles and a fuel injection system for providing a flow of fuel to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles. The fuel injection system may include a center hub for providing the flow of fuel therethrough. The center hub may include a first supply circuit for a first micro-mixer fuel nozzle and a second supply circuit for a second micro-mixer fuel nozzle.

  18. Bus coordination holding control for transit hubs under APTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Jing; ZHAO Ming

    2009-01-01

    To increase the passenger transferring efficiency, the bus coordination holding control for transit hubs,hich is as an important dynamic dispatching method for improving the service level of transit hubs, was studied in the framework of bus coordination dispatching mode. Firstly, the bus coordination holding control flow was studied based on Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) environment. Then a control model was presented to optimize the bus vehicle holding time, and a genetic algorithm was designed as the solving method. In the end, an example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy and the algorithm.

  19. Factors Affecting Adoption and Diffusion of Distance Education among Health Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the past decade, distance education enrollment has become more common in colleges and universities, increasing from 1.6 million students in 1998 to an estimated 6.7 million in 2012. The purpose of this study was to identify which constructs in Rogers' (2003) diffusion of innovation theory are more likely to contribute to adoption…

  20. Portable Desktop Apps with GitHub Electron

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Wouldn't it be nice if you could develop applications that work everywhere, regardless of Operating System or Platform? Even better, what if you could employ the same front-end technologies you use for your web/mobile apps? Meet GitHub Electron.

  1. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how innov

  2. Native Avatars, Online Hubs, and Urban Indian Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Gabriel S.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching American Indian literature with online resources can help diverse urban Indian and multicultural students connect with American Indian cultures, histories, and Nations. This online-enriched pedagogy adopts Susan Lobo's sense of the city as an "urban hub," or activist community center, an urban area linked to reservations in which Native…

  3. Fatigue Analysis of Casted Hubs in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Sørensen, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    The hub of a wind turbine rotor is excited by time-varying forces and moments from the blades caused by extemal dynamic loads such as wind loading and aeroelastic effects. The paper describes how reliability-based fatigue analysis can be made based on SN-curves and how reliability-based inspectio...

  4. Functional Connectivity Hubs and Networks in the Awake Marmoset Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Marie Belcher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In combination with advances in analytical methods, resting-state fMRI is allowing unprecedented access to achieve a better understanding of the network organization of the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that this architecture may incorporate highly functionally connected nodes, or hubs, and we have recently proposed local functional connectivity density (lFCD mapping to identify highly-connected nodes in the human brain. Here we imaged awake nonhuman primates to test whether, like the human brain, the marmoset brain contains functional connectivity hubs. Ten adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus were acclimated to mild, comfortable restraint using individualized helmets. Following restraint training, resting BOLD data were acquired during eight consecutive 10 min scans for each subject. lFCD revealed prominent cortical and subcortical hubs of connectivity across the marmoset brain; specifically, in primary and secondary visual cortices (V1/V2, higher-order visual association areas (A19M/V6[DM], posterior parietal and posterior cingulate areas (PGM and A23b/A31, thalamus, dorsal and ventral striatal areas (caudate, putamen, lateral septal nucleus, and anterior cingulate cortex (A24a. lFCD hubs were highly connected to widespread areas of the brain, and further revealed significant network-network interactions. These data provide a baseline platform for future investigations in a nonhuman primate model of the brain’s network topology.

  5. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how

  6. DAVINC3I: moving towards responsive hub network designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, R.; Keizer, de M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Wenink, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch floricultural sector is generally appreciated for its world leadership; the Netherlands is the flower trading hub for the European market. There are two trends affecting this position. First, virtualisation makes trade flows relatively footloose and flexible. Moreover, it enables the use o

  7. Discovering Authorities and Hubs in Different Topological Web Graph Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghabghab, George

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of citation analysis on the Web considers Web hyperlinks as a source to analyze citations. Topics include basic graph theory applied to Web pages, including matrices, linear algebra, and Web topology; and hubs and authorities, including a search technique called HITS (Hyperlink Induced Topic Search). (Author/LRW)

  8. DAVINC3I: moving towards responsive hub network designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, R.; Keizer, de M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Wenink, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch floricultural sector is generally appreciated for its world leadership; the Netherlands is the flower trading hub for the European market. There are two trends affecting this position. First, virtualisation makes trade flows relatively footloose and flexible. Moreover, it enables the use o

  9. Interaction of railway and marine transport (Murmansk Transport Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of problems of interaction between water (marine and railway transport on the example of the Murmansk Transport Hub has been presented; some prospects for the development of technology for interaction with the logistics of transportation of general cargo in the Murmansk Commercial Seaport, Murmansk Marine Fishing Port, and oil terminals of the Kola Bay have been shown

  10. The Urban Food Hubs Solution: Building Capacity in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Access to affordable fresh food is an ongoing challenge for underserved urban neighborhoods across the United States. Several are designated food deserts with no access to a full-service grocery store within a one-mile radius. The Urban Food Hubs of the College of Agriculture, Urban Sustainability, and Environmental Sciences (CAUSES) of the…

  11. Use of Hub Cutters and the Volume of Sharp Waste and Occurrence of Needle-Stick Injuries during 2011 Mass Immunization Campaigns against Yellow Fever in Ghana: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Agbenu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current WHO best infection control practices for injections do not address the use of hub cutters due to insufficient evidence on safety and efficacy. Objective: To assess the impact of the use of hub cutters on 1 the frequency of needle-stick injuries (NSIs and other blood exposures among workers and 2 the volume of sharps waste in a mass vaccination campaign setting. Methods: During yellow fever vaccination in Ghana, we conducted a cohort study on the use of hub cutters. We compared two groups—one group using hub cutters and a control group—for the occurrences of NSIs and the volume of sharp waste produced. Results: In the control arm, vaccinators used 284 482 syringes in 825 vaccination sessions. In the group using hub cutter, vaccinators used 397 079 syringes in 1599 sessions. Among vaccinators, the rate of NSI was not significantly (p=0.14 different between the hub cutter users (0.15/10 000 syringes and the control group (0.04/10 000. Factors such as workload, lack of organization and pressure seemed to have influence the occurrence of NSIs. With all the limitations of the work, the volume of sharp waste per 10 000 syringes was 0.24 m3 in the hub cutter users and 0.41 m3 in the control group—a reduction of 41.2%. Vaccinators found hub cutters easy to use and safe. Use of hub cutter was not associated with increased duration of work. Conclusion: The use of hub cutters did not increase the risk of NSIs. More training is needed to facilitate its implementation in mass campaign setting.

  12. Innovation diffusion equations on correlated scale-free networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertotti, M.L., E-mail: marialetizia.bertotti@unibz.it [Free University of Bozen–Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bolzano (Italy); Brunner, J., E-mail: johannes.brunner@tis.bz.it [TIS Innovation Park, Bolzano (Italy); Modanese, G., E-mail: giovanni.modanese@unibz.it [Free University of Bozen–Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-07-29

    Highlights: • The Bass diffusion model can be formulated on scale-free networks. • In the trickle-down version, the hubs adopt earlier and act as monitors. • We improve the equations in order to describe trickle-up diffusion. • Innovation is generated at the network periphery, and hubs can act as stiflers. • We compare diffusion times, in dependence on the scale-free exponent. - Abstract: We introduce a heterogeneous network structure into the Bass diffusion model, in order to study the diffusion times of innovation or information in networks with a scale-free structure, typical of regions where diffusion is sensitive to geographic and logistic influences (like for instance Alpine regions). We consider both the diffusion peak times of the total population and of the link classes. In the familiar trickle-down processes the adoption curve of the hubs is found to anticipate the total adoption in a predictable way. In a major departure from the standard model, we model a trickle-up process by introducing heterogeneous publicity coefficients (which can also be negative for the hubs, thus turning them into stiflers) and a stochastic term which represents the erratic generation of innovation at the periphery of the network. The results confirm the robustness of the Bass model and expand considerably its range of applicability.

  13. Multiple Hub Network Choice in the Liberalized European Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berechman, Joseph; deWit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A key question that so far has received relatively little attention in the germane literature is that of the changes at various airports as a result of the EU liberalization policies. That is, presently, most major European airports still benefit from the so-called home-carrier phenomenon where the country's publicly or semi-publicly owned carrier uses the country's main airport as its gateway hub and, consequently, the home-carrier is also the principal user of this airport (in terms of proportion of total aircraft movements, number of passengers transported, connections, slots ownership, etc.). The country's main airport has substantially benefited from these monopoly conditions of airline captivity, strongly determined by the bilateral system of international air transport regulation. Therefore, European major airports were used to operate in essentially different markets, compared to the increasingly competitive markets of their home based carriers. This partly explains relative stability of transport volumes and financial results of European major airports compared to the relatively volatile financial results of most European national airlines. However, the liberalization of European aviation is likely to change this situation. Market access is open now to all community carriers, i.e. carriers with majority ownership and effective control in the hands of EU citizens. Ticket prices are free, governments can only intervene in case of dumping or excessive pricing. A community airline can choose its seat in any of the 15 member states. Licensing procedures are harmonized between member states. In the last few months community carriers have had unrestricted route access within the EU. Most probably this development will be extended to countries inside and outside Europe. Last year the European Commission got the mandate to start negotiations with 10 other European countries. In the meantime the EC has also started negotiations with the USA on so-called soft rights

  14. Transition Process from Diffuser Stall to Stage Stall in a Centrifugal Compressor with a Vaned Diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobumichi Fujisawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process from a diffuser rotating stall to a stage stall in a centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser was investigated by experimental and numerical analyses. From the velocity measurements, it was found that the rotating stall existed on the shroud side of the diffuser passage in the off-design flow condition. The numerical results revealed the typical vortical structure of the diffuser stall. The diffuser stall cell was caused by the systematic vortical structure which consisted of the tornado-type vortex, the longitudinal vortex at the shroud/suction surface corner (i.e., leading edge vortex (LEV, and the vortex in the throat area of the diffuser passages. Furthermore, the stage stall, which rotated within both the impeller and diffuser passages, occurred instead of the diffuser stall as the mass flow rate was decreased. According to the velocity measurements at the diffuser inlet, the diffuser stall which rotated on the shroud side was shifted to the hub side. Then, the diffuser stall moved into the impeller passages and formed the stage stall. Therefore, the stage stall was caused by the development of the diffuser stall, which transferred from the shroud side to the hub side in the vaneless space and expanded to the impeller passages.

  15. Interspecies signalling via the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia diffusible signal factor influences biofilm formation and polymyxin tolerance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, R.P.; Fouhy, Y.; Garcia, B.F.

    2008-01-01

    including the rhizosphere of plants and the cystic fibrosis lung. In mixed species biofilms, S. maltophilia substantially influenced the architecture of P. aeruginosa structures, which developed as extended filaments. This effect depended upon the synthesis of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) by S....... maltophilia and could be mimicked by the addition of synthetic DSF. This response of P. aeruginosa to DSF required PA1396, a sensor kinase with an input domain of related amino acid sequence to the sensory input domain of RpfC, which is responsible for DSF perception in xanthomonads. Mutation of PA1396...

  16. Combinations of concentration and strain gradient hydrogen diffusion factors in palladium alloy membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, F.A. [School of Chemistry, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (Ireland); Bucur, R.V. [Dept. Inorganic Chemistry, University Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Tong, X.Q. [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Southamton, Southampton, (United Kingdom); Sakamoto, Y. [Dept. of Mater. Science, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Kandasamy, K. [Dept. of Physics, University of Jaffna, Jaffna (Sri Lanka)

    1998-07-01

    Utilisations of palladium and palladium alloys as membranes for hydrogen permeation have been subjects of continuing academic and technological interest. From both standpoints, certain membranes of the palladium-platinum alloy series have been particular subjects of several studies in more recent years. Such recent series of studies have illustrated some special advantages of certain Pd-Pt alloys in providing experimental evidence of general needs of appreciation that developments of elastic strain gradients arising from lattice expansions (and contractions) produced by hydrogen entry into (and removal from) interstitial lattice sites - should be considered in combination with reliable knowledge of the pressure-composition (p-c(n)) - temperature relationships of palladium and palladium alloys in considerations of hydrogen diffusion problems. Further, in particular, a body of results, obtained with Pd{sub 81},Pt{sub 19}, and Pd{sub 77}Ag{sub 23} and Pd membranes, has also drawn attention to requirements for very serious considerations also to be given to concurrent time dependent developments of lattice strain gradients in conjunction with the hydrogen concentration gradients, in regard to estimations of hydrogen diffusion coefficients, D{sub H}, including dependencies of D{sub H} on the hydrogen contents of the membranes. 34 refs.

  17. Revisiting date and party hubs: novel approaches to role assignment in protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Agarwal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of "date" and "party" hubs has been influential in the study of protein-protein interaction networks. Date hubs display low co-expression with their partners, whilst party hubs have high co-expression. It was proposed that party hubs are local coordinators whereas date hubs are global connectors. Here, we show that the reported importance of date hubs to network connectivity can in fact be attributed to a tiny subset of them. Crucially, these few, extremely central, hubs do not display particularly low expression correlation, undermining the idea of a link between this quantity and hub function. The date/party distinction was originally motivated by an approximately bimodal distribution of hub co-expression; we show that this feature is not always robust to methodological changes. Additionally, topological properties of hubs do not in general correlate with co-expression. However, we find significant correlations between interaction centrality and the functional similarity of the interacting proteins. We suggest that thinking in terms of a date/party dichotomy for hubs in protein interaction networks is not meaningful, and it might be more useful to conceive of roles for protein-protein interactions rather than for individual proteins.

  18. Location of an intermediate hub for port activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Ş.; Ştefănică, C.; Roşca, E.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.

    2015-11-01

    An intermediate hub might increase the accessibility level of ports but also hinterland and so it can be considered more than a facility with a transhipment role. These hubs might lead to the development of other transport services and enhance their role in gathering and covering economic centres within hinterlands and also getting the part of logistic facility for the ports, with effects on port utilization and its connectivity to global economy. A new location for a hub terminal leads to reduced transport distances within hinterland, with decreased transport costs and external effects, so with gains in people's life quality. Because the production and distribution systems are relatively fixed on short and medium term and the location decisions are strategic and on long term, the logistic chains activities location models have to consider the uncertainties regarding the possible future situations. In most models, production costs are considered equal, the location problem reducing itself to a problem that aims to minimize the total transport costs, meaning the transport problem. The main objective of the paper is to locate a hub terminal that links the producers of cereals that are going to be exported by naval transportation with the Romanian fluvial-maritime ports (Galaţi, Brăila). GIS environment can be used to integrate and analyse a great amount of data and has the ability of using functions as location - allocation models necessary both to private and public sector, being able to determine the optimal location for services like factories, warehouses, logistic platforms and other public services.

  19. An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Gerstl, Stephan S. A.; Chin, Jackson; Hirschi, Blake; Evans, James. E.

    2017-05-02

    Environmental control during transfer between instruments is required for specimens sensitive to air or thermal exposure to prevent morphological or chemical changes. Atom Probe Tomography is an expanding technique but commercial instruments remain limited to loading under ambient conditions. Here we describe a multifunctional environmental transfer hub allowing controlled cryogenic, atmospheric and vacuum transfer between an Atom Probe and other instruments containing separate chambers to allow downstream time-resolved in-situ studies.

  20. The new forging process of a wheel hub drop forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the research was working out a new flashless forming process of wheel hubforging in three-slide forging press (TSFP. It was assumed that the new process would be more effective thanthe forging processes applied in typical forging machines.Design/methodology/approach: The designing of the new process was based on the simulation by finiteelement method with the assumption of 3D state of strain. Calculations were made mainly for the analysis of thematerial flow kinematics and the process loads parameters. Experimental research were also made determiningthe dependency of clamping load in the function of forming load. On the basis of the analysis, the formingprocess of a wheel hub drop forging on the TSFP was worked out.Findings: The results of research confirmed the possibility of flashless forming process of wheel hub forgingin TSFP with axial cavities. The main parameters limiting the forming processes of wheel hub forgings are:permissible upsetting ratio and reciprocal relation of forming and clamping forces.Research limitations/implications: The further research within the range of determining force parameters fordifferent types of material and schemata of forming in TSFP were considered as purposeful. The works dealingwith analysis of forming processes of different types of products in order to classify drop forgings possible toform in this press will be examined.Practical implications: The comparison of the new forming process with the forging process on hammershowed majority of advantages which include: decrease of time and energy, decrease of drop forging weight andmachining, decrease of material consumption.Originality/value: The new process of wheel hub forging forming with axial cavities was worked out. Theparameters important during designing of forming processes in TSFP were provided. The relations betweenforces of forming tools were also determined.

  1. The home hemodialysis hub: physical infrastructure and integrated governance structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark R; Young, Bessie A; Fox, Sally J; Cleland, Calli J; Walker, Robert J; Masakane, Ikuto; Herold, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    An effective home hemodialysis program critically depends on adequate hub facilities and support functions and on transparent and accountable organizational processes. The likelihood of optimal service delivery and patient care will be enhanced by fit-for-purpose facilities and implementation of a well-considered governance structure. In this article, we describe the required accommodation and infrastructure for a home hemodialysis program and a generic organizational structure that will support both patient-facing clinical activities and business processes.

  2. Performance evaluation of interconnected logistics networks confronted to hub disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper investigates performance of interconnected logistics networks confronted to disruptions at hub level. With traditional supply chain network design, companies define and optimize their own logistics networks, resulting in current logistics systems being a set of independent heterogeneous logistics networks. The concept of PI aims to integrate independent logistics networks into a global, open, interconnected system. Prior research has shown that the new organ...

  3. Looking east, looking west: Penang as a knowledge hub

    OpenAIRE

    Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Penang has always been a focal point, absorbing knowledge (and popular culture) from civilizations to the East and West. In modern Penang the pattern of cultural contacts has changed over time. Research institutes and universities in Penang cooperate with foreign partners to produce research papers and reports. Based on an analysis of joint research output, the changing international position of Penang as an emerging research hub will be analysed. The paper will show that international cooper...

  4. A Hub Matrix Theory and Applications to Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Kung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers communications and network systems whose properties are characterized by the gaps of the leading eigenvalues of AHA for a matrix A. It is shown that a sufficient and necessary condition for a large eigen-gap is that A is a “hub” matrix in the sense that it has dominant columns. Some applications of this hub theory in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO wireless systems are presented.

  5. Logistics service sharing in supply hub in industrial park (SHIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Xuan; 邱璇

    2013-01-01

    Industrial parks have played an indispensible role in boosting economic and industrial development. However, further development has been impeded by the shortage of land resources and by duplicate investments on common physical assets and services. This thesis proposes the concept of Supply Hub in Industrial Park (SHIP) as a public provider of warehousing and transportation services shared by manufacturing enterprises located within an industrial park. This research investigates four typic...

  6. Idea Exchange Music Hub Hits the Right Note in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Bester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Libraries and Galleries has made many changes over the last two years, rebranding as Idea Exchange and adding 3D printers, creative spaces and many on-site events. This article focuses on one of the organization’s newest innovations, the addition of a Music Hub, and the challenges of creating a space where members can learn and collaborate musically without disturbing those around them.

  7. Research dedusting efficiency of the inertial hub with adjustable parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharapov Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of construction materials every year production increases, thus increasing emissions pollutants into the atmosphere subjected to cleaning. At the enterprises of building materials production equipment becoming outdated both morally and physically exhausted their useful life. Technological design standards in the operation of purification equipment has undergone a number of changes. There are a large number of works devoted to the theory of cyclone separation. They examined calculation method and to determine the minimum size of particles is separated completely from the air stream in a cyclone. In theory, the high efficiency cyclones are relatively small separation of particles from the air stream. The experiments show that certain fractions of full capture occurs from the cyclones and out relatively large particles. Designed dust device hubs. They capture dust particles with low specific density and smaller than 5–10 microns. Rational use of hubs is achieved in the aspiration systems high performance. They are placed in front of or between the filter and the cyclone filter. Hub much reduces the amount of dust-laden air directed onto a thin cleaning. This reduces energy consumption for manufacturing as a whole, as well as, due to a possible decrease in performance fine filters, reducing their initial cost, metal consumption, maintenance costs and reduce the area occupied by them.

  8. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Spider orientation and hub position in orb webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschokke, Samuel; Nakata, Kensuke

    2010-01-01

    Orb-web building spiders (Araneae: Araneoidea, Uloboridae) can be considered as territorial central place foragers. In territorial central place foragers, the optimal foraging arena is circular, with the forager sitting in its centre. In orb webs, the spider’s orientation (head up or head down) whilst waiting for prey on the hub of its web and the downwards-upwards asymmetry of its running speeds are the probable causes for the observed deviation of the hub from the web’s centre. Here, we present an analytical model and a more refined simulation model to analyse the relationships amongst the spider’s running speeds, its orientation whilst waiting for prey and the vertical asymmetry of orb webs. The results of our models suggest that (a) waiting for prey head down is generally favourable because it allows the spider to reach the prey in its web on average quicker than spiders waiting head up, (b) the downwards-upwards running speed asymmetry, together with the head-down orientation of most spiders, are likely causes for the observed vertical asymmetry of orb webs, (c) waiting head up can be advantageous for spiders whose downwards-upwards running speed asymmetry is small and who experience high prey tumbling rates and (d) spiders waiting head up should place their hub lower than similar spiders waiting head down.

  10. Mapping Multiplex Hubs in Human Functional Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio; Sasai, Shuntaro; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly central ones, i.e., hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studies have shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components of brain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However, the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneously is still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify each frequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploiting the recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that each frequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately model brain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in general different from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signals as usual, provide a more accurate map of brain's most important functional regions, allowing to distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventional network approaches. PMID:27471443

  11. Virtual Hubs for facilitating access to Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel Á.; Ernst, Julia; Brumana, Raffaella; Brauman, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In October 2014 the ENERGIC-OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". In ENERGIC-OD, Virtual Hubs are conceived as information systems supporting the full life cycle of Open Data: publishing, discovery and access. They facilitate the use of Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and data services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus, beyond a certain extent, heterogeneity is irreducible especially in interdisciplinary contexts. ENERGIC-OD Virtual Hubs address heterogeneity adopting a mediation and brokering approach: specific components (brokers) are dedicated to harmonize service interfaces, metadata and data models, enabling seamless discovery and access to heterogeneous infrastructures and datasets. As an innovation project, ENERGIC-OD will integrate several existing technologies to implement Virtual Hubs as single points of access to geospatial datasets provided by new or existing platforms and infrastructures, including INSPIRE-compliant systems and Copernicus services. ENERGIC OD will deploy a

  12. Effects of geographic scale on population factors in acute disease diffusion analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Poh-Chin Lai; Chun Bong Chow; Ho Ting Wong; Kim Hung Kwong; Shao Haei Liu; Wah Kun Tong; Wai Keung Cheung; Wing Leung Wong; Yat Wah Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore socio-demographic data of the population as proxies for risk factors in disease transmission modeling at different geographic scales. Methods: Patient records of confirmed H1N1 influenza were analyzed at three geographic aggregation levels together with population census statistics. Results:The study confirmed that four population factors were related in different degrees to disease incidence, but the results varied according to spatial resolution. The degree of association actually decreased when data of a higher spatial resolution were used. Conclusions:We concluded that variables at suitable spatial resolution may be useful in improving the predictive powers of models for disease outbreaks.

  13. High serum vascular endothelial growth factor level is an adverse prognostic factor for high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with dose-dense chemoimmunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riihijärvi, Sari; Nurmi, Heidi; Holte, Harald;

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether serum vascular endothelial growth factor (s-VEGF) levels and VEGF gene expression in tumor tissue predict survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with chemoimmunotherapy....

  14. Local Discontinuous Galerkin Methods Coupled with Implicit Integration Factor Methods for Solving Reaction-Cross-Diffusion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na An

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new numerical method for solving nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems with cross-diffusion which are often taken as mathematical models for many applications in the biological, physical, and chemical sciences. The two-dimensional system is discretized by the local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG method on unstructured triangular meshes associated with the piecewise linear finite element spaces, which can derive not only numerical solutions but also approximations for fluxes at the same time comparing with most of study work up to now which has derived numerical solutions only. Considering the stability requirement for the explicit scheme with strict time step restriction (Δt=O(hmin2, the implicit integration factor (IIF method is employed for the temporal discretization so that the time step can be relaxed as Δt=O(hmin. Moreover, the method allows us to compute element by element and avoids solving a global system of nonlinear algebraic equations as the standard implicit schemes do, which can reduce the computational cost greatly. Numerical simulations about the system with exact solution and the Brusselator model, which is a theoretical model for a type of autocatalytic chemical reaction, are conducted to confirm the expected accuracy, efficiency, and advantages of the proposed schemes.

  15. Prediction equations for diffusing capacity (transfer factor of lung for North Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Chhabra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prediction equations for diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO, alveolar volume (VA, and DLCO/VA using the current standardization guidelines are not available for Indian population. The present study was carried out to develop equations for these parameters for North Indian adults and examine the ethnic diversity in predictions. Materials and Methods: DLCO was measured by single-breath technique and VA by single-breath helium dilution using standardized methodology in 357 (258 males, 99 females normal nonsmoker adult North Indians and DLCO/VA was computed. The subjects were randomized into training and test datasets for development of prediction equations by multiple linear regressions and for validation, respectively. Results: For males, the following equations were developed: DLCO, −7.813 + 0.318 × ht −0.624 × age + 0.00552 × age 2 ; VA, −8.152 + 0.087 × ht −0.019 × wt; DLCO/VA, 7.315 − 0.037 × age. For females, the equations were: DLCO, −44.15 + 0.449 × ht −0.099 × age; VA, −6.893 + 0.068 × ht. A statistically acceptable prediction equation was not obtained for DLCO/VA in females. It was therefore computed from predicted DLCO and predicted VA. All equations were internally valid. Predictions of DLCO by Indian equations were lower than most Caucasian predictions in both males and females and greater than the Chinese predictions for males. Conclusion: This study has developed validated prediction equations for DLCO, VA, and DLCO/VA in North Indians. Substantial ethnic diversity exists in predictions for DLCO and VA with Caucasian equations generally yielding higher values than the Indian or Chinese equations. However, DLCO/VA predicted by the Indian equations is slightly higher than that by other equations.

  16. White Matter Disruptions in Schizophrenia Are Spatially Widespread and Topologically Converge on Brain Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Paul; Baker, Simon T; Cropley, Vanessa L; Bousman, Chad; Fornito, Alex; Cocchi, Luca; Fullerton, Janice M; Rasser, Paul; Schall, Ulrich; Henskens, Frans; Michie, Patricia T; Loughland, Carmel; Catts, Stanley V; Mowry, Bryan; Weickert, Thomas W; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia; Carr, Vaughan; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Pantelis, Christos; Zalesky, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    White matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have been widely reported, although the consistency of findings across studies is moderate. In this study, neuroimaging was used to investigate white matter pathology and its impact on whole-brain white matter connectivity in one of the largest samples of patients with schizophrenia. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were compared between patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 326) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 197). Between-group differences in FA and MD were assessed using voxel-based analysis and permutation testing. Automated whole-brain white matter fiber tracking and the network-based statistic were used to characterize the impact of white matter pathology on the connectome and its rich club. Significant reductions in FA associated with schizophrenia were widespread, encompassing more than 40% (234ml) of cerebral white matter by volume and involving all cerebral lobes. Significant increases in MD were also widespread and distributed similarly. The corpus callosum, cingulum, and thalamic radiations exhibited the most extensive pathology according to effect size. More than 50% of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical white matter fiber bundles comprising the connectome were disrupted in schizophrenia. Connections between hub regions comprising the rich club were disproportionately affected. Pathology did not differ between patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder and was not mediated by medication. In conclusion, although connectivity between cerebral hubs is most extensively disturbed in schizophrenia, white matter pathology is widespread, affecting all cerebral lobes and the cerebellum, leading to disruptions in the majority of the brain's fiber bundles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. EXPANSION OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION, GRADUATE UNEMPLOYMENT AND THE KNOWLEDGE HUB IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamini Samaranayake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the nexus between the existing university education system and graduate unemployment, and to explore the responses of successive governments to address this issue. It also examines the viability and potential of the knowledge hub as a solution to graduate unemployment. Towards this end, it argues that the solution to graduate employment lies in implementing structural changes that are concurrent to changes that are taking place at the international level in higher education. It illustrates, with the use of relevant sources, the pressing issue of graduate un- and underemployment, and identifies the mismatch between skills and requirements as a major factor contributing to intensify the crisis. It observes that strategies such as training unemployed graduates to enable them to acquire the competencies needed for the modern work place, developing systems to link them to the world of work, re-structuring the university system such that it is more concerned with quality and relevance rather than the width of knowledge imparted, and introducing job-oriented programmes could partially address this issue. It also identifies the proposal to establish a knowledge hub in Sri Lanka as constituting a long term and sustainable strategy not only to mitigate the effects of graduate un- and underemployment, but also to facilitate a lucrative source of revenue for the country.

  18. Unveiling the Early-Stage Anatomy of a Protocluster Hub with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Henshaw, J D; Longmore, S N; Caselli, P; Pineda, J E; Avison, A; Barnes, A T; Tan, J C; Fontani, F

    2016-01-01

    High-mass stars shape the interstellar medium in galaxies, and yet, largely because the initial conditions are poorly constrained, we do not know how they form. One possibility is that high-mass stars and star clusters form at the junction of filamentary networks, referred to as "hubs". In this letter we present the complex anatomy of a protocluster hub within an Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC), G035.39-00.33, believed to be in an early phase of its evolution. We use high-angular resolution ($\\{\\theta_{\\rm maj}, \\theta_{\\rm min}\\}=\\{1.''4, 0.''8\\}\\sim\\{0.02\\,{\\rm pc}, 0.01\\,{\\rm pc}\\}$) and high-sensitivity ($0.2$ mJy beam$^{-1}$; $\\sim0.2$ M$_{\\odot}$) 1.07 mm dust continuum observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to identify a network of narrow, $0.028\\,\\pm\\,0.005$ pc wide, filamentary structures. These are a factor of $\\gtrsim3$ narrower than the proposed "quasi-universal" $\\sim0.1$ pc width of interstellar filaments. Additionally, 28 compact objects are reported, spanning a mass range $0.3\\...

  19. A protein interaction atlas for the nuclear receptors: properties and quality of a hub-based dimerisation network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Graaf David

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors are a large family of eukaryotic transcription factors that constitute major pharmacological targets. They exert their combinatorial control through homotypic heterodimerisation. Elucidation of this dimerisation network is vital in order to understand the complex dynamics and potential cross-talk involved. Results Phylogeny, protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions and gene expression data have been integrated to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the topology and properties of the nuclear receptor interaction network in humans. We discriminate between DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding dimers, and provide a comprehensive interaction map, that identifies potential cross-talk between the various pathways of nuclear receptors. Conclusion We infer that the topology of this network is hub-based, and much more connected than previously thought. The hub-based topology of the network and the wide tissue expression pattern of NRs create a highly competitive environment for the common heterodimerising partners. Furthermore, a significant number of negative feedback loops is present, with the hub protein SHP [NR0B2] playing a major role. We also compare the evolution, topology and properties of the nuclear receptor network with the hub-based dimerisation network of the bHLH transcription factors in order to identify both unique themes and ubiquitous properties in gene regulation. In terms of methodology, we conclude that such a comprehensive picture can only be assembled by semi-automated text-mining, manual curation and integration of data from various sources.

  20. A Study of Influential Factors in the Adoption and Diffusion of B2C E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayed Al Ghamdi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the present standing of ecommerce in Saudi Arabia, as well as the challenges and strengths of Business to Customers (B2C electronic commerce. Many studies have been conducted around the world in order to gain a better understanding of the demands, needs and effectiveness of online commerce. A study was undertaken to review the literature identifying the hactors influencing the adoption and diffusion of B2C e-commerce. It found four distinct categories: businesses, customers, environmental and governmental support, which must all be considered when creating an e-commerce infrastructure. A concept matrix was used to provide a comparison of important factors in different parts of the world. The study found that e-commerce in Saudi Arabia was lacking in Governmental support as well as relevant involvement by both customers and retailers.

  1. Factors predicting long-term survival in low-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael B; Pedersen, Niels T; Christensen, Bjarne E

    2003-01-01

    population-based data from the Danish Lymphoma Group, we analyzed if prognostic clinical pretreatment factors could be identified in patients with low-risk DLBCL. One hundred seventy-seven patients, all with a prognostic profile as favorable as possible according to the IPI and treated with anthracycline-based...... combination chemotherapy (92%) or loco-regional radiotherapy/surgery (8%) with curative intent were included. The median age was 50 years and 170 achieved complete remission. The median follow-up time was 11 years. Twenty-six patients relapsed, with a median time to relapse of 12.1 months. Overall survival...... at 5 years and 10 years was 85% and 75%, respectively. Stage II was associated with poor response to treatment (P=0.044). In a multivariate analysis, Stage II (P=0.001) and age >50 years (P=0.043) were independently associated with poor outcome. Patients without these adverse factors had an excellent...

  2. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT: A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Muetze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly connected nodes (hubs in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.   Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus as a prognostic factor in de novo nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Domingo; Beltran, Brady; De Mendoza, Fernando Hurtado; Riva, Luis; Yabar, Alejandro; Quiñones, Pilar; Butera, James N; Castillo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Although the International Prognostic Index (IPI) score is a valuable prognostic tool in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), other risk-stratifying factors may be of value. The aim of this study was to define the prognostic value of EBV expression in de novo nodal DLBCL. Seventy-four cases were selected between January 2002 and December 2007. Clinical data were reviewed and tissue samples were evaluated for expression of CD20, CD10, bcl-6, MUM1, and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER). Of 74 evaluated cases, 53 cases (72%) were of non-germinal center-like subtype and 11 cases (15%) were positive for EBER. In a univariate analysis of the 57 patients who received chemotherapy, factors associated with survival were EBV status, performance status, LDH level, and IPI score. Using a multivariate analysis, a prognostic model was developed using IPI score and EBV status, which showed statistical significance. Our study supports EBV status as a powerful prognostic factor in de novo nodal DLBCL. Prospective studies should be carried to validate this hypothesis.

  4. An integrated model of transcription factor diffusion shows the importance of intersegmental transfer and quaternary protein structure for target site finding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G Schmidt

    Full Text Available We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a 'hopping' motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure.

  5. Global hypomethylation is an independent prognostic factor in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedge, Eileen; Hansen, Jakob Werner; Garde, Christian

    2017-01-01

    for global methylation, was measured in DNA from 67 tumor biopsies. Additionally, cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) in plasma samples from 74 patients was tested to assess the feasibility of global hypomethylation as a biomarker in liquid biopsies. LINE1 methylation was assessed using a commercially...... available kit, based on pyrosequencing of PCR amplified bisulfite-treated DNA. Global hypomethylation was detected in a subset of cases and was associated with poor overall survival in both tumor biopsies (P = .001) and cfDNA (P = .009). It was the strongest risk factor in multivariate analysis in both...... biopsies (HR: 10.65, CI: 2.03-55.81, P = .005) and cfDNA (HR: 11.87, CI: 2.80-50.20, P = .001), outperforming conventional clinical risk factors. Finally, hierarchical cluster analyses were performed for the cfDNA samples using previously published gene-specific methylation data. This analysis shows...

  6. An Endosymbiotic Evolutionary Algorithm for the Hub Location-Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ung Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a capacitated hub location-routing problem (HLRP which combines the hub location problem and multihub vehicle routing decisions. The HLRP not only determines the locations of the capacitated p-hubs within a set of potential hubs but also deals with the routes of the vehicles to meet the demands of customers. This problem is formulated as a 0-1 mixed integer programming model with the objective of the minimum total cost including routing cost, fixed hub cost, and fixed vehicle cost. As the HLRP has impractically demanding for the large sized problems, we develop a solution method based on the endosymbiotic evolutionary algorithm (EEA which solves hub location and vehicle routing problem simultaneously. The performance of the proposed algorithm is examined through a comparative study. The experimental results show that the proposed EEA can be a viable solution method for the supply chain network planning.

  7. Diffusible Factors Secreted by Glioblastoma and Medulloblastoma Cells Induce Oxidative Stress in Bystander Neural Stem Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Colangelo, Nicholas W; de Toledo, Sonia M; Azzam, Edouard I

    2016-08-01

    Harmful effects that alter the homeostasis of neural stem or progenitor cells (NSPs) can affect regenerative processes in the central nervous system. We investigated the effect of soluble factors secreted by control or (137)Cs-γ-irradiated glioblastoma or medulloblastoma cells on redox-modulated endpoints in recipient human NSPs. Growth medium harvested from the nonirradiated brain tumor cells, following 24 h of growth, induced prominent oxidative stress in recipient NSPs as judged by overall increases in mitochondrial superoxide radical levels (p p21(Waf1) and p27(Kip1), and perturbations in cell cycle progression (p cells to radiation only slightly altered the induced oxidative changes in the bystander NSPs, except for medium from irradiated medulloblastoma cells that was more potent at inducing apoptosis in the NSPs than medium from nonirradiated cells (p cells is often used to support the growth of stem cells.

  8. Wake center position tracking using downstream wind turbine hub loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, S.; Bertelè, M.; Schreiber, J.; Bottasso, C. L.

    2016-09-01

    Having an improved awareness of the flow within a wind farm is useful for power harvesting maximization, load minimization and design of wind farm layout. Local flow information at each wind turbine location can be obtained by using the response of the wind turbines, which are consequently used as distributed sensors. This paper proposes the use of hub loads to track the position of wakes within a wind farm. Simulation experiments conducted within a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic environment demonstrate the performance of the new method.

  9. Collective versus hub activation of epidemic phases on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Silvio C; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2015-01-01

    We consider a general criterion to discern the nature of the threshold in epidemic models on scale-free (SF) networks. Comparing the epidemic lifespan of the nodes with largest degrees with the infection time between them, we propose a general dual scenario, in which the epidemic transition is either ruled by a hub activation process, leading to a null threshold in the thermodynamic limit, or given by a collective activation process, corresponding to a standard phase transition with a finite threshold. We validate the proposed criterion applying it different to epidemic models, with waning immunity or heterogeneous infection rates.

  10. Diffusion limitations and metabolic factors associated with inhibition and recovery of photosynthesis following cold stress in Elymus nutans Griseb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juanjuan; Gates, Roger N; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2016-10-01

    attributed to reduced diffusion limitations and rapid recuperation of metabolic factors.

  11. The cerium magnetic form factor and diffuse polarization in CeRh3B2 as functions of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givord, F.; Boucherle, J.-X.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Lejay, P.

    2004-03-01

    In the compound CeRh3B2, a rather special polarization of the conduction electrons along the c-chains of cerium atoms had been previously reported at low temperatures (Alonso et al 1998 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 177-181 1048). The distribution of the CeRh3B2 magnetization has now been studied as a function of temperature up to 150 K—that is, above the Curie temperature of 115 K. The magnetization density maps have been obtained from polarized neutron diffraction experiments by using the maximum entropy method. The cerium form factor has also been analysed. Calculations of the form factor including several multiplets are developed and it is shown that it is necessary to take into account the influence of the higher multiplet of the Ce3+ ion. This result is coherent with the observation of a peak at high energy in the inelastic neutron spectra, indicating a very large crystal electric field splitting. Both analyses lead to the same conclusion that, on heating, the diffuse negative magnetization observed at low temperature along the cerium chains disappears at the magnetic ordering temperature. The influence of the second multiplet of the Ce3+ ion could be part of the explanation for the low value of the 4f moment and the large Curie temperature in CeRh3B2.

  12. Design of targeted libraries against the human Chk1 kinase using PGVL Hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengwei; Hu, Qiyue

    2011-01-01

    PGVL Hub is a Pfizer internal desktop tool for chemical library and singleton design. In this chapter, we give a short introduction to PGVL Hub, the core workflow it supports, and the rich design capabilities it provides. By re-creating two legacy targeted libraries against the human checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) as a showcase, we illustrate how PGVL Hub could be used to help library designers carry out the steps in library design and realize design objectives such as SAR expansion and improvement in both kinase selectivity and compound aqueous solubility. Finally we share several tips about library design and usage of PGVL Hub.

  13. Structural dysconnectivity of key cognitive and emotional hubs in young people at high genetic risk for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Perry, A; Lord, A; Frankland, A; Leung, V; Holmes-Preston, E; Levy, F; Lenroot, R K; Mitchell, P B; Breakspear, M

    2016-12-20

    Emerging evidence suggests that psychiatric disorders are associated with disturbances in structural brain networks. Little is known, however, about brain networks in those at high risk (HR) of bipolar disorder (BD), with such disturbances carrying substantial predictive and etiological value. Whole-brain tractography was performed on diffusion-weighted images acquired from 84 unaffected HR individuals with at least one first-degree relative with BD, 38 young patients with BD and 96 matched controls (CNs) with no family history of mental illness. We studied structural connectivity differences between these groups, with a focus on highly connected hubs and networks involving emotional centres. HR participants showed lower structural connectivity in two lateralised sub-networks centred on bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left insular cortex, as well as increased connectivity in a right lateralised limbic sub-network compared with CN subjects. BD was associated with weaker connectivity in a small right-sided sub-network involving connections between fronto-temporal and temporal areas. Although these sub-networks preferentially involved structural hubs, the integrity of the highly connected structural backbone was preserved in both groups. Weaker structural brain networks involving key emotional centres occur in young people at genetic risk of BD and those with established BD. In contrast to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, the structural core of the brain remains intact, despite the local involvement of network hubs. These results add to our understanding of the neurobiological correlates of BD and provide predictions for outcomes in young people at high genetic risk for BD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 20 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.216.

  14. Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Needleless connectors (NC) are used on virtually all intravascular devices, providing an easy access point for infusion connection. Colonization of NC is considered the cause of 50% of postinsertion catheter-related infections. Breaks in aseptic technique, from failure to disinfect, result in contamination and subsequent biofilm formation within NC and catheters increasing the potential for infection of central and peripheral catheters. Methods. This systematic review evaluated 140 studies and 34 abstracts on NC disinfection practices, the impact of hub contamination on infection, and measures of education and compliance. Results. The greatest risk for contamination of the catheter after insertion is the NC with 33–45% contaminated, and compliance with disinfection as low as 10%. The optimal technique or disinfection time has not been identified, although scrubbing with 70% alcohol for 5–60 seconds is recommended. Studies have reported statistically significant results in infection reduction when passive alcohol disinfection caps are used (48–86% reduction). Clinical Implications. It is critical for healthcare facilities and clinicians to take responsibility for compliance with basic principles of asepsis compliance, to involve frontline staff in strategies, to facilitate education that promotes understanding of the consequences of failure, and to comply with the standard of care for hub disinfection. PMID:26075093

  15. Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Moureau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Needleless connectors (NC are used on virtually all intravascular devices, providing an easy access point for infusion connection. Colonization of NC is considered the cause of 50% of postinsertion catheter-related infections. Breaks in aseptic technique, from failure to disinfect, result in contamination and subsequent biofilm formation within NC and catheters increasing the potential for infection of central and peripheral catheters. Methods. This systematic review evaluated 140 studies and 34 abstracts on NC disinfection practices, the impact of hub contamination on infection, and measures of education and compliance. Results. The greatest risk for contamination of the catheter after insertion is the NC with 33–45% contaminated, and compliance with disinfection as low as 10%. The optimal technique or disinfection time has not been identified, although scrubbing with 70% alcohol for 5–60 seconds is recommended. Studies have reported statistically significant results in infection reduction when passive alcohol disinfection caps are used (48–86% reduction. Clinical Implications. It is critical for healthcare facilities and clinicians to take responsibility for compliance with basic principles of asepsis compliance, to involve frontline staff in strategies, to facilitate education that promotes understanding of the consequences of failure, and to comply with the standard of care for hub disinfection.

  16. Design and Development of an Integrated Workstation Automation Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andrew; Ghatikar, Girish; Sartor, Dale; Lanzisera, Steven

    2015-03-30

    Miscellaneous Electronic Loads (MELs) account for one third of all electricity consumption in U.S. commercial buildings, and are drivers for a significant energy use in India. Many of the MEL-specific plug-load devices are concentrated at workstations in offices. The use of intelligence, and integrated controls and communications at the workstation for an Office Automation Hub – offers the opportunity to improve both energy efficiency and occupant comfort, along with services for Smart Grid operations. Software and hardware solutions are available from a wide array of vendors for the different components, but an integrated system with interoperable communications is yet to be developed and deployed. In this study, we propose system- and component-level specifications for the Office Automation Hub, their functions, and a prioritized list for the design of a proof-of-concept system. Leveraging the strength of both the U.S. and India technology sectors, this specification serves as a guide for researchers and industry in both countries to support the development, testing, and evaluation of a prototype product. Further evaluation of such integrated technologies for performance and cost is necessary to identify the potential to reduce energy consumptions in MELs and to improve occupant comfort.

  17. Innovative physical therapy practice: a qualitative verification of factors that support diffusion of innovation in outpatient physical therapy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabus C

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carla Sabus,1 Ellen Spake2 1Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 2Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO, USA Background and purpose: New ideas, methods, and technologies spread through cultures through typical patterns described by diffusion of innovation (DOI theory. Professional cultures, including the physical therapy profession, have distinctive features and traditions that determine the adoption of practice innovation. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR proposes a framework of innovation implementation specific to health care services. While the CFIR has been applied to medical and nursing practice, it has not been extended to rehabilitation professions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to verify the CFIR factors in outpatient physical therapy practice.Design: Through a nomination process of area rehabilitation managers and area directors of clinical education, 2 exemplar, outpatient, privately owned physical therapy clinics were identified as innovation practices. A total of 18 physical therapists (PTs, including 3 owners and a manager, participated in the study.Methods: The 2 clinics served as case studies within a qualitative approach of directed content analysis. Data were collected through observation, spontaneous, unstructured questioning, ­workflow analysis, structured focus group sessions, and artifact analysis including clinical documents. Focus group data were transcribed. All the data were analyzed and coded among 4 investigators.Results: Through data analysis and alignment with literature in DOI theory in health care practice, the factors that determine innovation adoption were verified. The phenomena of implementation in PT practice are largely consistent with models of implementation in health care service. Within the outpatient practices studied, patient-centered care and collaborative learning were foundational

  18. Innovation diffusion equations on correlated scale-free networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bertotti, M L; Modanese, G

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a heterogeneous network structure into the Bass diffusion model, in order to study the diffusion times of innovation or information in networks with a scale-free structure, typical of regions where diffusion is sensitive to geographic and logistic influences (like for instance Alpine regions). We consider both the diffusion peak times of the total population and of the link classes. In the familiar trickle-down processes the adoption curve of the hubs is found to anticipate the total adoption in a predictable way. In a major departure from the standard model, we model a trickle-up process by introducing heterogeneous publicity coefficients (which can also be negative for the hubs, thus turning them into stiflers) and a stochastic term which represents the erratic generation of innovation at the periphery of the network. The results confirm the robustness of the Bass model and expand considerably its range of applicability.

  19. Innovation diffusion equations on correlated scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Brunner, J.; Modanese, G.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a heterogeneous network structure into the Bass diffusion model, in order to study the diffusion times of innovation or information in networks with a scale-free structure, typical of regions where diffusion is sensitive to geographic and logistic influences (like for instance Alpine regions). We consider both the diffusion peak times of the total population and of the link classes. In the familiar trickle-down processes the adoption curve of the hubs is found to anticipate the total adoption in a predictable way. In a major departure from the standard model, we model a trickle-up process by introducing heterogeneous publicity coefficients (which can also be negative for the hubs, thus turning them into stiflers) and a stochastic term which represents the erratic generation of innovation at the periphery of the network. The results confirm the robustness of the Bass model and expand considerably its range of applicability.

  20. Calcium influx factor (CIF) as a diffusible messenger for the activation of capacitative calcium entry in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H Y; Hanley, M R

    1999-06-30

    Acid extracts of thapsigargin-treated Xenopus oocytes revealed Ca2(+)-dependent Cl- currents by microinjection into Xenopus oocytes. These currents were detected in highly purified fractions by carrying out a sequence of purification steps including gel filtration chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography. The nature of the membrane currents evoked by the highly purified fractions were carried by chloride ions as blockade by the selective chloride channel blocker 1 mM niflumic acid. Injection of the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) eradicated the current activities, indicating that the current responses are completely Ca2(+)-dependent. Moreover, the currents were sensitive to the removal of extracellular calcium, indicating the dependence on calcium entry through plasma membrane calcium entry channels. These results elucidate that the highly purified fractions aquired by thapsigargin-stimulated oocytes is an authentic calcium influx factor (CIF). Thus, the detection of increased CIF production from thapsigargin treatment in Xenopus oocytes would give strong support for the existence of CIF as a diffusible messenger for the activation of capacitative calcium entry pathways in Xenopus oocytes.

  1. Effect of modeling factors on the dissolution-diffusion-convection process during CO2 geological storage in deep saline formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that during CO2 geological storage,density-driven convective activity can significantly accelerate the dissolution of injected CO2 into water.This action could limit the escape of supercritical CO2 from the storage formation through vertical pathways such as fractures,faults and abandoned wells,consequently increasing permanence and security of storage.First,we investigated the effect of numerical perturbation caused by time and grid resolution and the convergence criteria on the dissolution-diffusion-convection (DDC) process.Then,using the model with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution,some uncertainty parameters investigated in our previous paper such as initial gas saturation and model boundaries,and other factors such as relative liquid permeability and porosity modification were used to examine their effects on the DDC process.Finally,we compared the effect of 2D and 3D models on the simulation of the DDC process.The above modeling results should contribute to clear understanding and accurate simulation of the DDC process,especially the onset of convective activity,and the CO2 dissolution rate during the convection-dominated stage.

  2. Psychological factors in the diffusion of sustainable technology: a study of Norwegian households' adoption of wood pellet heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper aims to understand the determinants of the adoption of wood pellet technology for home heating to identify possible strategies towards the slow diffusion of wood pellet in Norway. A mail survey of 737 Norwegian households was conducted in 2008, involving wood pellet adopters and non wood pellet adopters as respondents. An integrated model combining psychological factors (such as intentions, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, habits and norms), perceived wood pellet heating characteristics, and ecological and basic values is applied to predict the installation of a wood pellet stove retrospectively. Results from a path analysis gain empirical support for the proposed integrated model. Wood pellet heating adoption is mainly predicted by a deliberate decision process starting with the evaluation of heating system characteristics, mediated by attitudes and intentions. Perceived behavioural control and habits pose relevant barriers to the adoption process. The influence of norms and values are indirect and only minor in the given market conditions. The most important heating system characteristics in the analysis were perceived functional reliability and perceived installation and maintenance costs. Possible intervention strategies to speed up wood pellet adoption in Norway are discussed in the last part of the paper. (Author)

  3. A High-Resolution Study of the CO-H2 Conversion Factor in the Diffuse Cloud MBM 40

    CERN Document Server

    Cotten, David L

    2013-01-01

    We made CO(1-0) observations of 103 lines of sight in the core and envelope of the high-latitude cloud MBM 40 to determine how the CO-H_2 conversion factor (X_CO) varies throughout the cloud. Calibrating X_CO with CH data at similar resolution (1' for CO, 1.5' for CH) yields values of X_CO ranging from 0.3 10^20 to 3.6 10^20 cm^-2 [K km s^-1]^-1 with an average of 1.5 +/- 0.3 10^20 cm^-2 [K km s^-1]^-1. Given that the cloud has a peak reddening of 0.24 mag, it should be classed as a diffuse rather than a translucent molecular cloud. The mass obtained from the CO data and our values of X_CO is 9.6 M(solar) for the core, 12 M(solar) for the envelope, and 10 M(solar) for the periphery of the cloud. A third of the molecular mass of the cloud is found in a region with E(B-V) < 0.12 mag. With these mass estimates, we determine that the cloud is not gravitationally bound.

  4. A high-resolution study of the CO-H2 conversion factor in the diffuse cloud MBM 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, David L.; Magnani, Loris

    2013-12-01

    We made CO(1-0) observations of 103 lines of sight in the core and envelope of the high-latitude cloud MBM 40 to determine how the CO-H2 conversion factor (XCO) varies throughout the cloud. Calibrating XCO with CH data at similar resolution (1 arcmin for CO, 1.5 arcmin for CH) yields values of XCO ranging from 0.6 × 1020 to 3.3 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 with an average of 1.3 × 1020 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1. Given that the cloud has a peak reddening of 0.24 mag, it should be classed as a diffuse rather than a translucent molecular cloud. The mass obtained from the CO data and our values of XCO is 9.6 M⊙ for the core, 12 M⊙ for the envelope and 10 M⊙ for the periphery of the cloud. A third of the molecular mass of the cloud is found in a region with E(B - V) < 0.12 mag. With these mass estimates, we determine that the cloud is not gravitationally bound.

  5. DNA methyltransferase DNMT3b protein overexpression as a prognostic factor in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Khaled; Ziadi, Sonia; Hachana, Mohamed; Soltani, Nabil; Korbi, Sadok; Trimeche, Mounir

    2010-07-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are the most common type of aggressive lymphomas, with considerable heterogeneity in clinical presentation, molecular characteristics, and outcome. Previous studies have showed significant correlations between DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) overexpression and unfavorable prognosis in human cancers. Therefore, we investigated in this study the biological and prognostic significance of DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b protein expression in DLBCL. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 81 DLBCL cases and correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate survival rates, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to evaluate the prognostic impact of DNMT expression. Our results showed that overexpression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b were detected in 48%, 13%, and 45% of investigated cases, respectively. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3b overexpression was significantly correlated with advanced clinical stages (P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). Moreover, concomitant expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was significantly correlated with resistance to treatment (P = 0.015). With regard to survival rates, although data was available only for 40 patients, DNMT3b overexpression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival (P = 0.006) and progression-free survival (P = 0.016). Interestingly, multivariate analysis demonstrated that DNMT3b overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for predicting shortened overall survival (P = 0.004) and progression-free survival (P = 0.024). In conclusion, DNMT3b overexpression was identified as an independent prognostic factor for predicting shortened survival of patients with DLBCL and could be, therefore, useful in identifying patients who would benefit from aggressive therapy.

  6. Knowledge Hub y los recursos educativos abiertos en Contaduría

    OpenAIRE

    Farías Martínez, Gabriela María

    2010-01-01

    Desafíos de la educación superior en México; Formación académica y profesional en contaduría; Knowledge Hub como medio para compartir y construir conocimiento; Iniciativa Knowledge Hub IES Contaduría

  7. 14 CFR 158.30 - PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. 158... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Application and Approval § 158.30 PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. (a) General. This section specifies the procedures a public agency controlling...

  8. The Complexities and Challenges of Regional Education Hubs: Focus on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane; Morshidi, Sirat

    2011-01-01

    The race to establish regional education hubs is a recent development in cross-border higher education. This article briefly examines the rationales and strategies used by three countries in the Middle East and three in South East Asia which are working towards positioning themselves as regional education hubs. The different approaches and…

  9. Knowledge Hub y los recursos educativos abiertos en Contaduría

    OpenAIRE

    Farías Martínez, Gabriela María

    2013-01-01

    Desafíos de la educación superior en México; Formación académica y profesional en contaduría; Knowledge Hub como medio para compartir y construir conocimiento; Iniciativa Knowledge Hub IES Contaduría

  10. A multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm for a capacitated hub covering location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hub location problem appears in a variety of applications, including airline systems, cargo delivery systems and telecommunication network design. Hub location problems deal with finding the location of hub facilities and the allocation of demand nodes to these located hub facilities. In this paper, a new model for the capacitated single allocation hub covering location problem is presented. Instead of using capacity constraints to limit the amount of flow received by the hubs, the second objective function is introduced to minimize service times in the hubs. The service time in the hubs includes the waiting time of received flows in a queue and the time to get services. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, a new weight-based multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm (MOICA is designed to find near-optimal solutions. To validate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the solutions obtained by the MOICA are compared by the exact solutions of the mathematical programming model.

  11. Domestic Output of Aluminium Alloy Hub Surpassing 70 million in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>According to a report from the hub branch of China Association of Automobile Manufactur- ers,China has produced a total of more than 70 million aluminium alloy hubs in 2007,a year- on-year growth over 25%,while consuming over 700,000 tons of primary aluminium the whole year.

  12. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...

  13. Network performance, hub connectivity potential, and competitive position of primary airports in Asia/Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumoto, H.; Veldhuis, J.; de Wit, J.; Burghouwt, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, hub-and-spoke network configurations are more and more developed in the Asia/Pacific region. In this paper, it is argued that the measurement of network performance in hub-and-spoke systems should take into account the quantity and quality of both direct and indirect connections. The NetSc

  14. The Complexities and Challenges of Regional Education Hubs: Focus on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane; Morshidi, Sirat

    2011-01-01

    The race to establish regional education hubs is a recent development in cross-border higher education. This article briefly examines the rationales and strategies used by three countries in the Middle East and three in South East Asia which are working towards positioning themselves as regional education hubs. The different approaches and…

  15. Features analysis for identification of date and party hubs in protein interaction network of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araabi Babak N

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been understood that biological networks have modular organizations which are the sources of their observed complexity. Analysis of networks and motifs has shown that two types of hubs, party hubs and date hubs, are responsible for this complexity. Party hubs are local coordinators because of their high co-expressions with their partners, whereas date hubs display low co-expressions and are assumed as global connectors. However there is no mutual agreement on these concepts in related literature with different studies reporting their results on different data sets. We investigated whether there is a relation between the biological features of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins and their roles as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs, and date hubs. We propose a classifier that separates these four classes. Results We extracted different biological characteristics including amino acid sequences, domain contents, repeated domains, functional categories, biological processes, cellular compartments, disordered regions, and position specific scoring matrix from various sources. Several classifiers are examined and the best feature-sets based on average correct classification rate and correlation coefficients of the results are selected. We show that fusion of five feature-sets including domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, and composition pairs with two and one gaps provide the best discrimination with an average correct classification rate of 77%. Conclusions We study a variety of known biological feature-sets of the proteins and show that there is a relation between domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, composition pairs with two and one gaps of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins, and their roles in the protein interaction network as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs and date hubs. This study also confirms the

  16. Effective spectral dimension of hub in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sungmin; Lee, Deok-Sun; Kahng, Byungnam

    2012-02-01

    Exploring the World Wide Web has become one of the key issues in information science, specifically in context of its application to the PageRank-like algorithms used in search engine. The random walk approach has been employed to study such a problem. The probability of the return to the origin (RTO) of random walks is inversely related to how information can be accessed during random surfing. We find analytically that the RTO probability for a given starting node shows a crossover from a slow to a fast decay behavior with time and the crossover time increases with the degree of the starting node. Furthermore, the RTO probability is almost constant in the early-time regime as the degree exponent approaches two. This result indicates that a random surfer can be effectively trapped at the hub and supports the necessity of the random jump strategy empirically used in the Google's search engine.

  17. Paneth cells: the hub for sensing and regulating intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Zhihua

    2016-05-01

    The complex interplay between symbiotic bacteria and host immunity plays a key role in shaping intestinal homeostasis and maintaining host health. Paneth cells, as one of the major producers of antimicrobial peptides in the intestine under steady-state conditions, play a vital role in regulating intestinal flora. Many studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated genes have put Paneth cells at the center of IBD pathogenesis. In this perspective, we focus on mechanistic studies of different cellular processes in Paneth cells that are regulated by various IBD-associated susceptibility genes, and we discuss the hypothesis that Paneth cells function as the central hub for sensing and regulating intestinal flora in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

  18. A Collaborative Scheduling Model for the Supply-Hub with Multiple Suppliers and Multiple Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment.

  19. Hub Identification of the Metro Manila Road Network Using PageRank

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to identify the different node hubs of a road network using PageRank for preparation for possible random terrorist attacks. The robustness of a road network against such attack is crucial to be studied because it may cripple its connectivity by simply shutting down these hubs. We show the important hubs in a road network based on network structure and propose a model for robustness analysis. By identifying important hubs in a road network, possible preparation schemes may be done earlier to mitigate random terrorist attacks, including defense reinforcement and transportation security. A case study of the Metro Manila road network is also presented. The case study shows that the most important hubs in the Metro Manila road network are near airports, piers, major highways and expressways

  20. A Fractal and Scale-free Model of Complex Networks with Hub Attraction Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang, Li; Li, Deyi; Li, Yuanxiang; Sun, Yu

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that fractality of complex networks origins from hub repulsion behaviors (anticorrelation or disassortativity), which means large degree nodes tend to connect with small degree nodes. This hypothesis was demonstrated by a dynamical growth model, which evolves as the inverse renormalization procedure proposed by Song et al. Now we find that the dynamical growth model is based on the assumption that all the cross-boxes links has the same probability e to link to the most connected nodes inside each box. Therefore, we modify the growth model by adopting the flexible probability e, which makes hubs have higher probability to connect with hubs than non-hubs. With this model, we find some fractal and scale-free networks have hub attraction behaviors (correlation or assortativity). The results are the counter-examples of former beliefs.

  1. MODELS AND METHODS FOR LOGISTICS HUB LOCATION: A REVIEW TOWARDS TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Luisa dos Santos Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Logistics hubs affect the distribution patterns in transportation networks since they are flow-concentrating structures. Indeed, the efficient moving of goods throughout supply chains depends on the design of such networks. This paper presents a literature review on the logistics hub location problem, providing an outline of modeling approaches, solving techniques, and their applicability to such context. Two categories of models were identified. While multi-criteria models may seem best suited to find optimal locations, they do not allow an assessment of the impact of new hubs on goods flow and on the transportation network. On the other hand, single-criterion models, which provide location and flow allocation information, adopt network simplifications that hinder an accurate representation of the relationshipbetween origins, destinations, and hubs. In view of these limitations we propose future research directions for addressing real challenges of logistics hubs location regarding transportation networks design.

  2. USDA Southwest Regional Hub for Adaptation to and Mitigation of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Havstad, K.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA Southwest (SW) Climate Hub was created in February 2014 to develop risk adaptation and mitigation strategies for coping with climate change effects on agricultural productivity. There are seven regional hubs across the country with three subsidiary hubs. The SW Climate Hub Region is made up of six states: New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California and Hawaii (plus the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands). The SW Climate Hub has a subsidiary hub located in Davis, California. The Southwest region has high climatic diversity, with the lowest and highest average annual rainfall in the U.S.(6.0 cm in Death Valley, CA and 1168 cm at Mt. Waialeale, HI). There are major deserts in five of the six states, yet most of the states, with exception of Hawaii, depend upon the melting of mountain snowpacks for their surface water supply. Additionally, many of the agricultural areas of the SW Regional Hub depend upon irrigation water to maintain productivity. Scientific climate information developed by the Hub will be used for climate-smart decision making. To do this, the SW Regional Hub will rely upon existing infrastructure of the Cooperative Extension Service at Land-Grant State Universities. Extension service and USDA-NRCS personnel have existing networks to communicate with stakeholders (farmers, ranchers, and forest landowners) through meetings and workshops which have already started in the six states. Outreach through the development of a weather and climate impact modules designed for seventh grade students and their teachers will foster education of future generations of rural land managers. We will be synthesizing and evaluating existing reports, literature and information on regional climate projections, water resources, and agricultural adaptation strategies related to climate in the Southwest. The results will be organized in a spatial format and provided through the SW Hub website (http://swclimatehub.info) and peer-reviewed articles.

  3. The noise generated by a landing gear wheel with hub and rim cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Angland, David; Zhang, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Wheels are one of the major noise sources of landing gears. Accurate numerical predictions of wheel noise can provide an insight into the physical mechanism of landing gear noise generation and can aid in the design of noise control devices. The major noise sources of a 33% scaled isolated landing gear wheel are investigated by simulating three different wheel configurations using high-order numerical simulations to compute the flow field and the FW-H equation to obtain the far-field acoustic pressures. The baseline configuration is a wheel with a hub cavity and two rim cavities. Two additional simulations are performed; one with the hub cavity covered (NHC) and the other with both the hub cavity and rim cavities covered (NHCRC). These simulations isolate the effects of the hub cavity and rim cavities on the overall wheel noise. The surface flow patterns are visualised by shear stress lines and show that the flow separations and attachments on the side of the wheel, in both the baseline and the configuration with only the hub cavity covered, are significantly reduced by covering both the hub and rim cavities. A frequency-domain FW-H equation is used to identify the noise source regions on the surface of the wheel. The tyre is the main low frequency noise source and shows a lift dipole and side force dipole pattern depending on the frequency. The hub cavity is identified as the dominant middle frequency noise source and radiates in a frequency range centered around the first and second depth modes of the cylindrical hub cavity. The rim cavities are the main high-frequency noise sources. With the hub cavity and rim cavities covered, the largest reduction in Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) is achieved in the hub side direction. In the other directivities, there is also a reduction in the radiated sound.

  4. Up-regulation of intestinal vascular endothelial growth factor by Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Cane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis has been recently described as a novel component of inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been found increased in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis mucosa. To question whether a pro-inflammatory Escherichia coli could regulate the expression of VEGF in human intestinal epithelial cells, we examine the response of cultured human colonic T84 cells to infection by E. coli strain C1845 that belongs to the typical Afa/Dr diffusely adhering E. coli family (Afa/Dr DAEC. METHODOLOGY: VEGF mRNA expression was examined by Northern blotting and q-PCR. VEGF protein levels were assayed by ELISA and its bioactivity was analysed in endothelial cells. The bacterial factor involved in VEGF induction was identified using recombinant E. coli expressing Dr adhesin, purified Dr adhesin and lipopolysaccharide. The signaling pathway activated for the up-regulation of VEGF was identified using a blocking monoclonal anti-DAF antibody, Western blot analysis and specific pharmacological inhibitors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C1845 bacteria induce the production of VEGF protein which is bioactive. VEGF is induced by adhering C1845 in both a time- and bacteria concentration-dependent manner. This phenomenon is not cell line dependent since we reproduced this observation in intestinal LS174, Caco2/TC7 and INT407 cells. Up-regulation of VEGF production requires: (1 the interaction of the bacterial F1845 adhesin with the brush border-associated decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55 acting as a bacterial receptor, and (2 the activation of a Src protein kinase upstream of the activation of the Erk and Akt signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that a Afa/Dr DAEC strain induces an adhesin-dependent activation of DAF signaling that leads to the up-regulation of bioactive VEGF in cultured human intestinal cells. Thus, these results suggest a link between an entero-adherent, pro

  5. Contrast-enhanced CT and diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Performance as a prognostic factor in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukukura, Yoshihiko, E-mail: fukukura@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8544 (Japan); Takumi, Koji [Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8544 (Japan); Higashi, Michiyo [Department of Human Pathology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8544 (Japan); Shinchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8544 (Japan); Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Yoneyama, Tomohide; Tateyama, Akihiro [Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City 890-8544 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: To determine whether contrast enhancement of CT and apparent diffusion coefficient on diffusion-weighted MR imaging are important parameters that can predict outcomes for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: Ninety-two patients with histologically confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent quadriphasic CT (including unenhanced, pancreatic parenchymal, portal venous and delayed phases) and fat-suppressed single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T were retrospectively analyzed to investigate prognostic factors. Overall survival curves were drawn using the Kaplan–Meier method. Effects on survival of variables including age, sex, tumor location, tumor size, TNM stage, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, treatment, tumor contrast enhancement and apparent diffusion coefficient values were analyzed in univariate analysis using the log-rank test. Variables were analyzed in multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: Median survival for the entire patient population was 18.2 months. Higher contrast enhancement during all phases was associated with significantly longer overall survival (P < 0.001 for all phases). The difference in overall survival between groups divided by median apparent diffusion coefficient value was not significant (P = 0.672). TNM stage (P = 0.026) and tumor contrast enhancement on CT (P = 0.027) were significantly related to survival in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Poor enhancement of pancreatic adenocarcinomas on enhanced CT is associated with reduced patient survival.

  6. Factors associated with the diffusion rate of innovations: a pilot study from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Eduardo Schneiders

    Full Text Available Abstract: Budget Impact Analyses require a set of essential information on health technology innovation, including expected rates of adoption. There is an absence of studies investigating trends, magnitude of budgetary effects and determinants of diffusion rates for health technology innovations worldwide during the last decades. The present study proposes a pilot assessment on main determinants influencing diffusion rates of pharmaceutical innovations within the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. Data from the Brazilian Health Informatics Department (DATASUS was gathered to establish the main determinants of diffusion rates of health technology innovations in Brazil, specifically referring to pharmaceutical innovations incorporated in the Brazilian Program for Specialized Pharmaceutical Services (CEAF at SUS. Information was retrieved on DATASUS relating to patients who had used one of the medicines incorporated into CEAF at least three years prior to the beginning of the study (2015 for treatment of each health condition available. Thus, data from patients adopting 10 different medicines were analyzed in the study. Results from the zero-one inflated beta model showed a higher influence on diffusion rates of pharmaceutical innovations due to: number of pharmaceutical competitors for treatment of the same disease available at CEAF (negative; medicine used in combination with other medication (positive; and innovative medicine within the SUS (positive. Further research on diffusion rates of health technology innovations is required, including wider scope of diseases and medications, potential confusion factors and other variables that may influence rates of adoption in different health systems.

  7. Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanic, Hélène; Kraut-Tauzia, Jerôme; Modzelewski, Romain; Clatot, Florian; Mareschal, Sylvain; Picquenot, Jean Michel; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 25-35% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are older than 70 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of depletion of skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) in elderly patients with DLBCL. This retrospective analysis included 82 patients with DLBCL older than 70 years and treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, Oncovin, prednisone) or R-miniCHOP. Sarcopenia was measured by the analysis of stored computed tomography (CT) images at the L3 level at baseline. The surface of the muscular tissues was selected according to the CT Hounsfield unit. This value was normalized for stature in order to calculate the lumbar L3 skeletal muscle index (LSMI, in cm(2)/m(2)). The mean age of the population was 78 years. According to the defined cut-offs for LSMI, 45 patients with DLBCL were considered sarcopenic. Sarcopenic patients displayed a higher revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) compared with patients without sarcopenia, and were older, with a mean age of 80 years and 77 years, respectively (p = 0.006). With a median follow-up of 39 months, the 2-year overall survival in the sarcopenic population was 46% compared with 84% in the non-sarcopenic group (HR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.73-5.98; p = 0.0002). In a multivariate analysis, sarcopenia remained predictive of outcome (p = 0.005). Sarcopenia is a relevant and predictive factor in elderly patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy.

  8. Large-diameter compression arteries as a possible facilitating factor for trigeminal neuralgia: analysis of axial and radial diffusivity

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurovascular compression (NVC) of the trigeminal nerve is associated with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Some arteries that compress the trigeminal nerve are large, while others are small. This study evaluated the influence of diameter of compression arteries (DCA) on NVC with and without TN using axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Methods Fifty TN patients with unilateral NVC, 50 asymptomatic patients with unilateral NVC, and 50 hea...

  9. Connectome hubs at resting state in children and adolescents: Reproducibility and psychopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Sato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain hubs are key integrative regions in brain networks. Recently, brain hubs identified through resting-state fMRI have emerged as interesting targets to increase understanding of the relationships between large-scale functional networks and psychopathology. However, few studies have directly addressed the replicability and consistency of the hub regions identified and their association with symptoms. Here, we used the eigenvector centrality (EVC measure obtained from graph analysis of two large, independent population-based samples of children and adolescents (7–15 years old; total N = 652; 341 subjects for site 1 and 311 for site 2 to evaluate the replicability of hub identification. Subsequently, we tested the association between replicable hub regions and psychiatric symptoms. We identified a set of hubs consisting of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus (IPL/IPS. Moreover, lower EVC values in the right IPS were associated with psychiatric symptoms in both samples. Thus, low centrality of the IPS was a replicable sign of potential vulnerability to mental disorders in children. The identification of critical and replicable hubs in functional cortical networks in children and adolescents can foster understanding of the mechanisms underlying mental disorders.

  10. Connectome hubs at resting state in children and adolescents: Reproducibility and psychopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Crossley, Nicolas; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Junior, Edson Amaro; Mcguire, Philip; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2016-08-01

    Functional brain hubs are key integrative regions in brain networks. Recently, brain hubs identified through resting-state fMRI have emerged as interesting targets to increase understanding of the relationships between large-scale functional networks and psychopathology. However, few studies have directly addressed the replicability and consistency of the hub regions identified and their association with symptoms. Here, we used the eigenvector centrality (EVC) measure obtained from graph analysis of two large, independent population-based samples of children and adolescents (7-15 years old; total N=652; 341 subjects for site 1 and 311 for site 2) to evaluate the replicability of hub identification. Subsequently, we tested the association between replicable hub regions and psychiatric symptoms. We identified a set of hubs consisting of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus (IPL/IPS). Moreover, lower EVC values in the right IPS were associated with psychiatric symptoms in both samples. Thus, low centrality of the IPS was a replicable sign of potential vulnerability to mental disorders in children. The identification of critical and replicable hubs in functional cortical networks in children and adolescents can foster understanding of the mechanisms underlying mental disorders.

  11. Incremental Optimization of Hub and Spoke Network for the Spokes’ Numbers and Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hub and spoke network problem is solved as part of a strategic decision making process which may have a profound effect on the future of enterprises. In view of the existing network structure, as time goes on, the number of spokes and the flow change because of different sources of uncertainty. Hence, the incremental optimization of hub and spoke network problem is considered in this paper, and the policy makers should adopt a series of strategies to cope with the change, such as setting up new hubs, adjusting the capacity level of original hubs, or closing some original hubs. The objective is to minimize the total cost, which includes the setup costs for the new hubs, the closure costs, and the adjustment costs for the original hubs as well as the flow routing costs. Two mixed-integer linear programming formulations are proposed and analyzed for this problem. China Deppon Logistics as an example is performed to present computational analysis, and we analyze the changes in the solutions driven by the number of spokes and the flow. The tests also allow an analysis to consider the effect of variation in parameters on network.

  12. Fatigue based design and analysis of wheel hub for Student formula car by Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, V.; Ranganathan, A. S.; Satish, S.; Alexis, S. John; Siva kumar, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the existing design of Wheel hub used for Student formula cars, the brake discs cannot be removed easily since the disc is mounted in between the knuckle and hub. In case of bend or any other damage to the disc, the replacement of the disc becomes difficult. Further using OEM hub and knuckle that are used for commercial vehicles will result in increase of unsprung mass, which should be avoided in Student formula cars for improving the performance. In this design the above mentioned difficulties have been overcome by redesigning the hub in such a way that the brake disc could be removed easily by just removing the wheel and the caliper and also it will have reduced weight when compared to existing OEM hub. A CAD Model was developed based on the required fatigue life cycles. The forces acting on the hub were calculated and linear static structural analysis was performed on the wheel hub for three different materials using ANSYS Finite Element code V 16.2. The theoretical fatigue strength was compared with the stress obtained from the structural analysis for each material.

  13. A multidomain hub anchors the chromosome segregation and chemotactic machinery to the bacterial pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaichi, Yoshiharu; Bruckner, Raphael; Ringgaard, Simon; Möll, Andrea; Cameron, D Ewen; Briegel, Ariane; Jensen, Grant J; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2012-10-15

    The cell poles constitute key subcellular domains that are often critical for motility, chemotaxis, and chromosome segregation in rod-shaped bacteria. However, in nearly all rods, the processes that underlie the formation, recognition, and perpetuation of the polar domains are largely unknown. Here, in Vibrio cholerae, we identified HubP (hub of the pole), a polar transmembrane protein conserved in all vibrios, that anchors three ParA-like ATPases to the cell poles and, through them, controls polar localization of the chromosome origin, the chemotactic machinery, and the flagellum. In the absence of HubP, oriCI is not targeted to the cell poles, chemotaxis is impaired, and a small but increased fraction of cells produces multiple, rather than single, flagella. Distinct cytoplasmic domains within HubP are required for polar targeting of the three ATPases, while a periplasmic portion of HubP is required for its localization. HubP partially relocalizes from the poles to the mid-cell prior to cell division, thereby enabling perpetuation of the polar domain in future daughter cells. Thus, a single polar hub is instrumental for establishing polar identity and organization.

  14. Hubs and authorities in the world trade network using a weighted HITS algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Katsuhide; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the economic hubs and authorities of the world trade network (WTN) from 1992 to 2012, an era of rapid economic globalization. Using a well-defined weighted hyperlink-induced topic search (HITS) algorithm, we can calculate the values of the weighted HITS hub and authority for each country in a conjugate way. In the context of the WTN, authority values are large for countries with significant imports from large hub countries, and hub values are large for countries with significant exports to high-authority countries. The United States was the largest economic authority in the WTN from 1992 to 2012. The authority value of the United States has declined since 2001, and China has now become the largest hub in the WTN. At the same time, China's authority value has grown as China is transforming itself from the "factory of the world" to the "market of the world." European countries show a tendency to trade mostly within the European Union, which has decreased Europe's hub and authority values. Japan's authority value has increased slowly, while its hub value has declined. These changes are consistent with Japan's transition from being an export-driven economy in its high economic growth era in the latter half of the twentieth century to being a more mature, economically balanced nation.

  15. Hubs and authorities in the world trade network using a weighted HITS algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Deguchi

    Full Text Available We investigate the economic hubs and authorities of the world trade network (WTN from 1992 to 2012, an era of rapid economic globalization. Using a well-defined weighted hyperlink-induced topic search (HITS algorithm, we can calculate the values of the weighted HITS hub and authority for each country in a conjugate way. In the context of the WTN, authority values are large for countries with significant imports from large hub countries, and hub values are large for countries with significant exports to high-authority countries. The United States was the largest economic authority in the WTN from 1992 to 2012. The authority value of the United States has declined since 2001, and China has now become the largest hub in the WTN. At the same time, China's authority value has grown as China is transforming itself from the "factory of the world" to the "market of the world." European countries show a tendency to trade mostly within the European Union, which has decreased Europe's hub and authority values. Japan's authority value has increased slowly, while its hub value has declined. These changes are consistent with Japan's transition from being an export-driven economy in its high economic growth era in the latter half of the twentieth century to being a more mature, economically balanced nation.

  16. Diagnostic Value of Diffusion-weighted Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in the Differentiation of Breast Lesions, Histpathologic Subgroups and Correlatıon with Prognostıc Factors using 3.0 Tesla MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Yasin; Uğurlu, M. Ümit; Kaya, Handan; Arıbal, Erkin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions, histopathologic subtypes of breast tumors, and to find a correlation with prognostic factors using 3T MR. Materials and Methods A total of 165 patients aged between 16 and 78 years with 181 histopathologically-verifed breast lesions were enrolled in this study. A 3T MR system and bilateral phased array breast coil was used. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with spin echo “echo planar” with “b” values: 50, 400, and 800 seconds/mm2. ADC values were calculated for normal fibroglandular tissue and breast lesions. ADC values of independent groups were compared using Student’s t-test. ROC analysis was used to find a threshold ADC value in the differentiation of lesions. Results The mean ADC values were 1.35±0.16 × 10−3 mm2/s for normal fibroglandular tissue, 1.41±0.24 × 10−3 mm2/s for benign breast lesions and 0.83±0.19 × 10−3 mm2/s for malignant breast lesions. The AUC with ROC analysis was 0.945 and the threshold for ADC was 1.08 × 10−3 mm2/s with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 92%, respectively. The threshold value for ADC ratio was 0.9 with 96% sensitivity and 89% specificity. The mean ADC of malignant breast lesions was statistically lower for benign lesions (p<0.01). We found no correlation between the mean ADC values and ER-PR receptor, Her2, and Ki-67 values. Conclusion Diffusion-weighted imaging has high diagnostic value with high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating malignant and benign breast lesions.

  17. The impact of network characteristics on the diffusion of innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Renana

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of network topology on the speed and reach of new product diffusion. While previous research has focused on comparing network types, this paper explores explicitly the relationship between topology and measurements of diffusion effectiveness. We study simultaneously the effect of three network metrics: the average degree, the relative degree of social hubs (i.e., the ratio of the average degree of highly-connected individuals to the average degree of the entire population), and the clustering coefficient. A novel network-generation procedure based on random graphs with a planted partition is used to generate 160 networks with a wide range of values for these topological metrics. Using an agent-based model, we simulate diffusion on these networks and check the dependence of the net present value (NPV) of the number of adopters over time on the network metrics. We find that the average degree and the relative degree of social hubs have a positive influence on diffusion. This result emphasizes the importance of high network connectivity and strong hubs. The clustering coefficient has a negative impact on diffusion, a finding that contributes to the ongoing controversy on the benefits and disadvantages of transitivity. These results hold for both monopolistic and duopolistic markets, and were also tested on a sample of 12 real networks.

  18. 合成气中枢%Syngas Hub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐恒泳; 葛庆杰; 李文钊

    2011-01-01

    回顾了人类使用化石能源所经历的煤(固体)、石油(液体)和天然气(气体)燃料的3个时期.针对近年来环境安全和能源清洁化日益重要,而化石能源仍占世界能源主要消费结构的现状,提出了“合成气中枢”的新概念.重点介绍了从天然气、煤和生物质等多种原料气化生产合成气并进行组成调变;煤基和天然气基合成气制化学品的差别;合成气的转化利用,特别是在发电和热-电-化学品多联产、制取清洁燃料和烯烃以及制取代用天然气等方面的研究进展并进行了评述.认为合成气中枢将成为连接石油炼制、石油化工、天然气化工和煤化工以及电力行业的桥梁,有利于资源和能量的最佳利用以及CO2减排.%The consumption history of fossil energy sources including coal ( solid), petroleum (liquid) and natural gas (gas) was briefly reviewed. Although the seeking for non-fossil energy sources is becoming urgent due to the more and more serious global warming, the fossil energy sources will still occupy more than 50% of the global energy consumption before 2050. Therefore, the concept of syngas hub was brought forward, and the following aspects were emphasized in this review: syngas production and its composition adjustment, the difference of syngas to chemicals from coal and natural gas, and syngas conversion and utilization. It was thought that the syngas hub will become a bridge which connects petroleum refining, petrochemical industry, natural gas chemical industry, coal chemical industry and electric power industry, and is further beneficial to the low CO2 emission and the optimal utilization of resources and energy sources.

  19. On the Popularity of GitHub Applications: A Preliminary Note

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Hudson; Valente, Marco Tulio; Hora, Andre; Coelho, Jailton

    2015-01-01

    GitHub is the world's largest collection of open source software. Therefore, it is important both to software developers and users to compare and track the popularity of GitHub repositories. In this paper, we propose a framework to assess the popularity of GitHub software, using their number of stars. We also propose a set of popularity growth patterns, which describe the evolution of the number of stars of a system over time. We show that stars tend to correlate with other measures, like for...

  20. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative.

  1. Modelagem para localização de hubs no transporte de encomendas expressas Modelling for location hubs in the express cargo transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Antonio Timaná Alamo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Na presente pesquisa se propõe um modelo matemático de programação linear com variáveis binárias 0/1, para projetar a configuração de uma rede de distribuição de encomendas expressas, visando minimizar os custos e garantindo um bom nível de serviço. O modelo, que é uma modificação da formulação proposta por O’Kelly, define as posições dos hubs, a alocação deles às demais instalações físicas e a construção de roteiros com apenas uma parada intermediária, o que confere mais agilidade ao atendimento da demanda de transporte de carga. Considera-se a instalação de um único hub maior (Hub Principal, que serve como ponto de transbordo para os fluxos de carga entre as distintas regiões de um território, e um conjunto de terminais regionais (mini-hubs, servindo como ponto de conexão, unicamente, para os fluxos de carga existentes em um determinado raio de cobertura. Foram propostas extensões que incluem uma restrição da capacidade operacional do Hub Principal, para evitar seu congestionamento, e duas diferentes estratégias de induzir o aumento de fluxo de carga manipulado pelos mini-hubs. O modelo proposto e suas extensões foram aplicados ao estudo de um caso real, obtendo-se resultados consistentes e uma redução significativa no custo total da rede de distribuição da empresa analisada.This study proposes a mathematical model of linear programming with binary variables 0/1 to project the configuration of a distribution network for express cargo which aims to minimize costs and guarantee a high level of service. The model, which is a modification of the formulation proposed by O’Kelly, defines the position of the hubs, their allocation regarding the other physical installations, and the building of itineraries with only one intermediate stop, which increases agility in meeting the demand of cargo transport. It assumes the installation of a single, major hub (Main Hub, which serves as the transfer point for

  2. Diffusion-weighted imaging and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in breast cancer: Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient and maximum standardized uptake values with prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Belgin; Pourbagher, Aysin; Torun, Nese

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the correlations between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the standardized uptake value (SUV) with prognostic factors in breast cancer. Seventy women with invasive breast cancer (56 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, four of mixed ductal and lobular invasive carcinoma, three of lobular invasive carcinoma, two of micropapillary carcinoma, and one each of mixed ductal and mucinous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, and tubular carcinoma) were included in this study. All patients underwent presurgical breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5T and whole-body (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) / computed tomography (CT). For all invasive breast cancers and invasive ductal carcinomas, we assessed the relationships among ADC, SUV, and pathological prognostic factors. Both the median ADC value and maximum SUV (SUVmax) were significantly associated with vascular invasion (P = 0.008 and P = 0.026, respectively). SUVmax was also significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.001), histological grade (P = 0.001), lymph node status (P = 0.0015), estrogen receptor status (P = 0.010), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status (P = 0.020), whereas ADC values were not. The correlation between the ADC and SUVmax was not significant (P = 0.356; R = -0.112). Mucinous carcinoma showed high ADC and relatively low SUVmax. Medullary carcinoma showed low ADC and high SUVmax. When we evaluated the relationships among ADC, SUVmax, and prognostic factors in the 56 invasive ductal carcinomas, our statistical results were not significantly changed, except SUVmax was also significantly associated with progesterone receptor status (P = 0.034), but not lymph node status. SUVmax may be valuable for predicting the prognosis of breast cancer. Both ADC and SUVmax are useful to predict vascular invasion. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016

  3. Hypermethylation of DAPK1 is an independent prognostic factor predicting survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Asmar, Fazila; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Improvements in overall survival have been observed with the introduction of rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP), however, prognostic markers are ...

  4. The hub wall boundary layer development and losses in an axial flow compressor rotor passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, K. N. S.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1987-02-01

    The hub wall boundary layer development in a compressor stage including the rotor passage is experimentally investigated. A miniature five-hole probe was employed to measure the hub wall boundary layer inside the inlet guide vane passage, upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The hub wall boundary layer inside the rotor passage was acquired using a rotating miniature five-hole probe. The boundary layer is well behaved upstream and far downstream of the rotor. The migration of the hub wall boundary layer towards the suction surface corner is observed. The limiting streamline angles and static pressure distribution across the stage were also measured. The mean velocity profiles and the integral properties upstream, inside and downstream of the rotor, and the losses are presented and interpreted.

  5. Puertos, espacio y globalización: el desarrollo de hubs en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Daniel Martner Peyrelongue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los puertos hubs se presentan como el nuevo paradigma de desarrollo del transporte y el comercio marítimo internacional en la globalización. Prácticamente todos los países latinoamericanos anuncian megaproyectos para el desarrollo de puertos hubs en sus litorales, generando grandes expectativas de desarrollo regional, con un débil sustento tanto teórico como empírico. En este sentido, el presente trabajo busca contribuir a la caracterización del modelo de puertos hubs en países periféricos dentro de la economíamundo capitalista, aludiendo, en especial, al caso mexicano. Se trata de aportar elementos de análisis para reconocer, a grandes rasgos, las posibilidades del desarrollo de hubs en los litorales mexicanos, desde la perspectiva de los estudios regionales y la geografía del transporte.

  6. Empirical analysis on the human dynamics of blogging behavior on GitHub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Deng-Cheng; Wei, Zong-Wen; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    GitHub is a social collaborative coding platform on which software developers not only collaborate on codes but also share knowledge through blogs using GitHub Pages. In this article, we analyze the blogging behavior of software developers on GitHub Pages. The results show that both the commit number and the inter-event time of two consecutive blogging actions follow heavy-tailed distribution. We further observe a significant variety of activity among individual developers, and a strongly positive correlation between the activity and the power-law exponent of the inter-event time distribution. We also find a difference between the user behaviors of GitHub Pages and other online systems which is driven by the diversity of users and length of contents. In addition, our result shows an obvious difference between the majority of developers and elite developers in their burstiness property.

  7. Sci-Hub: What Librarians Should Know and Do about Article Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of journal articles has driven many researchers to turn to a new way of getting access: "pirate" article sites. Sci-Hub, the largest and best known of these sites, currently offers instant access to more than 58 million journal articles. Users attracted by the ease of use and breadth of the collection may not realize that these articles are often obtained using stolen credentials and downloading them may be illegal. This article will briefly describe Sci-Hub and how it works, the legal and ethical issues it raises, and the problems it may cause for librarians. Librarians should be aware of Sci-Hub and the ways it may change their patrons' expectations. They should also understand the risks Sci-Hub can pose to their patrons and their institutions.

  8. Gene expression patterns combined with network analysis identify hub genes associated with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dongbin; Ning, Hao; Liu, Shuai; Que, Xinxiang; Ding, Kejia

    2015-06-01

    To explore molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer (BC), network strategy was used to find biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between bladder carcinoma patients and normal subjects were screened using empirical Bayes method of the linear models for microarray data package. Co-expression networks were constructed by differentially co-expressed genes and links. Regulatory impact factors (RIF) metric was used to identify critical transcription factors (TFs). The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and clusters were obtained through molecular complex detection (MCODE) algorithm. Centralities analyses for complex networks were performed based on degree, stress and betweenness. Enrichment analyses were performed based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Co-expression networks and TFs (based on expression data of global DEGs and DEGs in different stages and grades) were identified. Hub genes of complex networks, such as UBE2C, ACTA2, FABP4, CKS2, FN1 and TOP2A, were also obtained according to analysis of degree. In gene enrichment analyses of global DEGs, cell adhesion, proteinaceous extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix structural constituent were top three GO terms. ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and cell cycle were significant pathways. Our results provide some potential underlying biomarkers of BC. However, further validation is required and deep studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of BC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    ARL-RP-0592 ● Mar 2017 US Army Research Laboratory A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison by Robert P... A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison by Robert P Thornburgh, Andrew R Kreshock, and Matthew L...other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a

  10. Examination of factors dominating the sediment-water diffusion flux of DDT-related compounds measured by passive sampling in an urbanized estuarine bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Shi, Lei; Song, Lin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-12-01

    The fate of hydrophobic organic compounds in aquatic environment are largely determined by their exchange at sediment-water interface, which is highly dynamic and subject to rapidly evolving environmental conditions. In turn, environmental conditions may be governed by both physicochemical parameters and anthropogenic events. To examine the importance of various impact factors, passive sampling devices were deployed at the seafloor of Hailing Bay, an urbanized estuarine bay in Guangdong Province of South China to measure the sediment-water diffusion fluxes of several metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDD. The physicochemical properties of water (temperature, pH, salinity and dissolved oxygen) and surface sediment (sediment organic matter, physical composition, pH, water content, colony forming unit and catalase activity) were also measured. The results showed that the diffusion fluxes of o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE at sites A1 and A2 near a fishing boat maintenance facility ranged from 0.42 to 4.73 ng m(-2) d(-1) (from sediment to overlying water), whereas those at offshore sites varied between -0.03 and -3.02 ng m(-2) d(-1) (from overlying water to sediment), implicating A1 and A2 as the sources of the target compounds. The distribution patterns of the diffusion fluxes of the target compounds were different from those of water and sediment parameters (water temperature, salinity, sediment texture, pH, colony forming unit and catalase activity) at six sampling sites. This finding suggested that none of these parameters were critical in dictating the sediment-water diffusion fluxes. Besides, decreases in the contents of kerogen and black carbon by 6.7% and 11% would enhance the diffusion fluxes of the target compounds by 11-14% and 12-23%, respectively, at site A1, indicating that kerogen and black carbon were the key factors in mediating the sediment-water diffusion fluxes of DDT-related compounds in field

  11. A novel virtual hub approach for multisource downstream service integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Mattia; Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    A large development of downstream services is expected to be stimulated starting from earth observations (EO) datasets acquired by Copernicus satellites. An important challenge connected with the availability of downstream services is the possibility for their integration in order to create innovative applications with added values for users of different categories level. At the moment, the world of geo-information (GI) is extremely heterogeneous in terms of standards and formats used, thus preventing a facilitated access and integration of downstream services. Indeed, different users and data providers have also different requirements in terms of communication protocols and technology advancement. In recent years, many important programs and initiatives have tried to address this issue even on trans-regional and international level (e.g. INSPIRE Directive, GEOSS, Eye on Earth and SEIS). However, a lack of interoperability between systems and services still exists. In order to facilitate the interaction between different downstream services, a new architectural approach (developed within the European project ENERGIC OD) is proposed in this paper. The brokering-oriented architecture introduces a new mediation layer (the Virtual Hub) which works as an intermediary to bridge the gaps linked to interoperability issues. This intermediation layer de-couples the server and the client allowing a facilitated access to multiple downstream services and also Open Data provided by national and local SDIs. In particular, in this paper an application is presented integrating four services on the topic of agriculture: (i) the service given by Space4Agri (providing services based on MODIS and Landsat data); (ii) Gicarus Lab (providing sample services based on Landsat datasets) and (iii) FRESHMON (providing sample services for water quality) and services from a several regional SDIs.

  12. Graph theory reveals dysconnected hubs in 22q11DS and altered nodal efficiency in patients with hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine eOttet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is postulated to be the prototypical dysconnection disorder, in which hallucinations are the core symptom. Due to high heterogeneity in methodology across studies and the clinical phenotype, it remains unclear whether the structural brain dysconnection is global or focal and if clinical symptoms result from this dysconnection. In the present work, we attempt to clarify this issue by studying a population considered as a homogeneous genetic sub-type of schizophrenia, namely the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS. Cerebral MRIs were acquired for 46 patients and 48 age and gender matched controls (aged 6 to 26, respectively mean age = 15.20 ± 4.53 and 15.28 ± 4.35 years old. Using the Connectome mapper pipeline (connectomics.org that combines structural and diffusion MRI, we created a whole brain network for each individual. The graph theory was used to quantify the global and local properties in the brain network organization for each participant. A global degree loss of 6% was found in patients’ network along with an increased Characteristic Path Length. After identifying and comparing hubs, a significant loss of degree in patients’ hubs was found in 58% of them. Based on Allen’s brain network model for hallucinations, we explored the association between local efficiency and symptom severity. Negative correlations were found in the Broca’s area (p<0.004, the Wernicke area (p<0.023 and a positive correlation was found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC (p<0.014. In line with the dysconnection findings in schizophrenia, our results provide preliminary evidence for a targeted alteration in the brain network hubs’organisation in individuals with a genetic risk for schizophrenia. The study of specific disorganization in language, speech and thought regulation networks sharing similar network properties may help to understand their role in the hallucination mechanism.

  13. Identification of hub genes of pneumocyte senescence induced by thoracic irradiation using weighted gene co-expression network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    XING, YONGHUA; ZHANG, JUNLING; LU, LU; LI, DEGUAN; WANG, YUEYING; HUANG, SONG; LI, CHENGCHENG; ZHANG, ZHUBO; LI, JIANGUO; MENG, AIMIN

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation commonly causes pneumocyte senescence, which may lead to severe fatal lung injury characterized by pulmonary dysfunction and respiratory failure. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the induction of pneumocyte senescence by irradiation remains to be elucidated. In the present study, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to screen for differentially expressed genes, and to identify the hub genes and gene modules, which may be critical for senescence. A total of 2,916 differentially expressed genes were identified between the senescence and non-senescence groups following thoracic irradiation. In total, 10 gene modules associated with cell senescence were detected, and six hub genes were identified, including B-cell scaffold protein with ankyrin repeats 1, translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 70 homolog A, actin filament-associated protein 1, Cd84, Nuf2 and nuclear factor erythroid 2. These genes were markedly associated with cell proliferation, cell division and cell cycle arrest. The results of the present study demonstrated that WGCNA of microarray data may provide further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying pneumocyte senescence. PMID:26572216

  14. Factors Associated With 8-Year Mortality in Older Patients With Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Cohort (RUN DMC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Holst, Helena M; van Uden, Ingeborg W M; Tuladhar, Anil M; de Laat, Karlijn F; van Norden, Anouk G W; Norris, David G; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2016-04-01

    Gait and cognition have been related to mortality in population-based studies. This association is possibly mediated by cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), which has been associated with mortality as well. It is unknown which factors can predict mortality in individuals with SVD. Identification of high-risk patients may provide insight into factors that reflect their vital health status. To assess mortality in patients with cerebral SVD and identify potential clinical and/or imaging factors associated with mortality. A prospective, single-center cohort study was conducted. The present investigation is embedded in the Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Cohort (RUN DMC) study. Between January 17, 2006, and February 27, 2007, all participants underwent a cognitive and motor assessment and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a diffusion tensor imaging sequence to assess microstructural integrity of the white matter. Participants were followed up until their death or November 24, 2014. Participants included 503 older adults with SVD noted on brain imaging. Data analysis was performed from November 26, 2014, to February 2, 2015. Eight-year all-cause mortality. Of 503 participants (mean [SD] age, 65.7 [8.8] years; range, 50-85 years; 284 [56.5%] were male), 80 individuals (15.9%) died during a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.8 (1.5) years. In the final analysis, 494 (98.2%) were included, of whom 78 (15.8%) died. Gait speed, cognitive index, conventional MRI markers of SVD (white matter hyperintensity volume, brain volume, and lacunes), and diffusion measures of the white matter were associated with an 8-year risk of mortality independent of age, sex, and vascular risk factors. The prediction of mortality was determined using Cox proportional hazards models with backward stepwise selection and including age, sex, vascular risk factors, gait speed, cognitive index, MRI, and diffusion measures. Results are reported as hazard ratios

  15. 旅游地网络口碑再传播影响因素%Factors Influencing Re-diffusion of Destination Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明

    2015-01-01

    Knowing about factors influencing re-diffusion of destination electronic word-of-mouth is essential to the success of products and services viral marketing for tourism destination and its related enterprises.This study used a questionnaire to collect 982 samples.Factor analysis was used to identify the variables influencing re-diffu-sion of destination electronic word-of-mouth and stepwise regression analysis then used to examine the factors of in-fluencing on interpersonal re-diffusion and groups re-diffusion.Results show that the fun of word-of-mouth, site trustworthiness, the strength of the relationship as well as redisseminators’ motivation of help others, and knowl-edge of self-efficacy have a positive impact on interpersonal re-diffusion.On the other hand, the strength of the re-lationship and the motivation of help others, help the website, self-enhancement and knowledge of self-efficacy have a positive impact on groups re-diffusion.Based on the above findings, the article put forward specific suggestions.%关注旅游网络口碑的扩散现象、掌握网络环境下旅游口碑的再传播规律是旅游地及相关企业实现病毒式网络营销的关键。通过对收集到的982份有效问卷进行因子分析以归纳旅游地网络口碑再传播的因子,并通过逐步回归分析法探讨影响旅游地网络口碑人际再传播和群体再传播的具体因素。结果表明:对人际再传播有显著影响的因素是口碑趣味性、网站可信度、关系强度以及再传播者的帮助他人动机和知识自我效能动机;对群体再传播有显著影响的因素是关系强度以及再传播者的帮助他人动机、帮助网站动机、自我提升动机和知识自我效能动机。最后提出针对性的旅游地营销策略。

  16. Identification of regulatory network hubs that control lipid metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Mahmoud; Park, Jeong-Jin; Holguin, F Omar; Kim, Min-Jeong; Wang, Hongxia; Deshpande, Rahul R; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Hicks, Leslie M; Gang, David R

    2015-08-01

    Microalgae-based biofuels are promising sources of alternative energy, but improvements throughout the production process are required to establish them as economically feasible. One of the most influential improvements would be a significant increase in lipid yields, which could be achieved by altering the regulation of lipid biosynthesis and accumulation. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii accumulates oil (triacylglycerols, TAG) in response to nitrogen (N) deprivation. Although a few important regulatory genes have been identified that are involved in controlling this process, a global understanding of the larger regulatory network has not been developed. In order to uncover this network in this species, a combined omics (transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic) analysis was applied to cells grown in a time course experiment after a shift from N-replete to N-depleted conditions. Changes in transcript and protein levels of 414 predicted transcription factors (TFs) and transcriptional regulators (TRs) were monitored relative to other genes. The TF and TR genes were thus classified by two separate measures: up-regulated versus down-regulated and early response versus late response relative to two phases of polar lipid synthesis (before and after TAG biosynthesis initiation). Lipidomic and primary metabolite profiling generated compound accumulation levels that were integrated with the transcript dataset and TF profiling to produce a transcriptional regulatory network. Evaluation of this proposed regulatory network led to the identification of several regulatory hubs that control many aspects of cellular metabolism, from N assimilation and metabolism, to central metabolism, photosynthesis and lipid metabolism.

  17. The Spleen: A Hub Connecting Nervous and Immune Systems in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders have been identified as major health problems affecting a large portion of the world population. In addition, obesity and insulin resistance are principal risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Altered immune responses are common features of both hypertension and obesity and, moreover, the involvement of the nervous system in the modulation of immune system is gaining even more attention in both pathophysiological contexts. For these reasons, during the last decades, researches focused their efforts on the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms connecting immune system to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that in these pathological conditions, central neural pathways modulate the activity of the peripheral nervous system, which is strongly involved in onset and progression of the disease. It is interesting to notice that neural reflex can also participate in the modulation of immune functions. In this scenario, the spleen becomes the crucial hub allowing the interaction of different systems differently involved in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we summarize the major findings that dissect the role of the immune system in disorders related to metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions, and how this could also be influenced by neural reflexes.

  18. Final Report for Project: Impacts of stratification and non-equilibrium winds and waves on hub-height winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Edward G. [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-07-14

    wind plant scale. Overall project conclusions include; In the presence of fast-moving swell (significant wave height Hs = 6.4 m, and phase speed cp = 18 ms-1), the atmospheric boundary layer grows more rapidly when waves propagate opposite to the winds compared to when winds and waves are aligned. Pressure drag increases by nearly a factor of 2 relative to the turbulent stress for the extreme case where waves propagate at 180° compared to the pressure gradient forcing. Net wind speed reduces by nearly 15% at hub-height for the 180°-case compared to the 0°-case, and turbulence intensities increase by nearly a factor of 2. These impacts diminish with decreasing wave age; Stratification increases hub height wind speeds and increases the vertical shear of the mean wind across the rotor plane. Fortuitously, this stability-induced enhanced shear does not influence turbulence intensity at hub height, but does increase (decrease) turbulence intensity below (above) hub height. Increased stability also increases the wave-induced pressure stress by ~ 10%; Off the East Coast of the United States during Coupled Boundary Layers Air-Sea Transfer - Low Wind (CBLAST-Low), cases with short fetch include thin stable boundary layers with depths of only a few tens of meters. In the coastal zone, the relationship between the mean wind and the surface fiction velocity (u*(V )) is significantly related to wind direction for weak winds but is not systematically related to the air sea difference of virtual potential temperature, δθv; since waves generally propagate from the south at the Air-Sea Interaction Tower (ASIT) tower, these results suggest that under weak wind conditions waves likely influence surface stress more than stratification does; and Winds and waves are frequently misaligned in the coastal zone. Stability conditions persist for long duration. Over a four year period, the Forschungsplattformen in Nord- und Ostsee Nr. 1 (FINO1) tower (a site with long fetch

  19. Diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  20. Study on Social Capital Factors in Green Technology Diffusion%绿色技术扩散中的社会资本因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群

    2012-01-01

    As the world shows much more concern about sustainable development, more and more countries focus on the development and use of green technology. However, in practice, it is less efficient to achieve effective diffusion of green technology entirely by the operation of market mechanisms. In most of the time, governments have to undertake the spread of green technology, but the effect is limited. The article explores the social capital factors to the diffusion of green technology and studies the mechanism that the social capital promotes the green technology diffusion. In essence, "diffusion is a social process. "%随着世界各国对可持续发展的逐渐关注,更多的国家注重有关绿色技术的研发和使用.然而,在实践中完全由市场机制进行运作,实现绿色技术的有效扩散,效率较低;因此,在大部分时候,中国社会中往往是以政府出面的方式,来承担实现绿色技术扩散的工作,但是,政府的作用也很有限.在政府和市场以外,探讨了影响绿色技术扩散的社会资本因素,分析了社会资本促进绿色技术扩散的作用机制,从本质上说,“扩散就是一个社会化过程.”

  1. Measuring Improvement when Using HUB Formats to Implement Floating-Point Systems under Round-to-Nearest

    OpenAIRE

    Hormigo, Javier; Julio, Villalba

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the benefits of using HUB formats to implement floating-point arithmetic under round-tonearest mode from a quantitative point of view. Using HUB formats to represent numbers allows the removal of the rounding logic of arithmetic units, including sticky-bit computation. This is shown for floating-point adders, multipliers, and converters. Experimental analysis demonstrates that HUB formats and the corresponding arithmetic units maintain the same accurac...

  2. The application of design criteria for locating a hub configured supply chain for a restaurant cluster in the Stellenbosch area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B. Struwig

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Restaurants, in general, utilise numerous suppliers. Normally they deliver on different days in the week and at different times during the day, logistically not an optimum approach. Not only does the current practice cause frequent interruptions, but by segregating the food supply chain unnecessary traffic is generated. This article investigated the need for developing a third party supplier hub, the best positioning of that hub and the most economical routes to the customers. With the aim of providing non-franchised restaurants with the necessary leverage to become market leaders, the hub is planned to only service the restaurants within the vicinity of the Stellenbosch area. In such a hub-configured supply chain, the suppliers would be delivering to the proposed hub, from where once-off deliveries to all the restaurants may be made on days and/or times determined by them. In order to investigate the benefits of providing such a hub structure, a systematic implementation approach was used. The first step was to do market research in order to establish the need for such a hub. That is, the viability of the hub from a restaurant’s perspective was established. The next step entailed the investigation of the design criteria needed in determining a favourable hub location. Four possible hub locations were identified. The Clark and Wright’s savings algorithm was then used to determine the optimal hub location and the feasibility of the results was verified with the aid of a global positioning system (GPS device. The last steps followed involved the determination of an effective hub floor plan that may be utilised, possible products that can be supplied to the restaurants and the necessary assets needed to provide the hub’s service. Finally, by incorporating all these facets, a cost analysis was done to determine the hub’s profitability.

  3. Understanding farmers' preferences for artificial insemination services provided through dairy hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, I A; Zander, K K; Bauer, S; Baltenweck, I

    2017-04-01

    Africa has a shortage of animal products but increasing demand because of population growth, urbanisation and changing consumer patterns. Attempts to boost livestock production through the use of breeding technologies such as artificial insemination (AI) have been failing in many countries because costs have escalated and success rates have been relatively low. One example is Kenya, a country with a relatively large number of cows and a dairy industry model relevant to neighbouring countries. There, an innovative dairy marketing approach (farmer-owned collective marketing systems called dairy hubs) has been implemented to enhance access to dairy markets and dairy-related services, including breeding services such as AI. So far, the rate of participation in these dairy hubs has been slow and mixed. In order to understand this phenomenon better and to inform dairy-related development activities by the Kenyan government, we investigated which characteristics of AI services, offered through the dairy hubs, farmers prefer. To do so, we applied a choice experiment (CE), a non-market valuation technique, which allowed us to identify farmers' preferences for desired characteristics should more dairy hubs be installed in the future. This is the first study to use a CE to evaluate breeding services in Kenya and the results can complement findings of studies of breeding objectives and selection criteria. The results of the CE reveal that dairy farmers prefer to have AI services offered rather than having no service. Farmers prefer AI services to be available at dairy hubs rather than provided by private agents not affiliated to the hubs, to have follow-up services for pregnancy detections, and to use sexed semen rather than conventional semen. Farmers would further like some flexibility in payment systems which include input credit, and are willing to share the costs of any AI repeats that may need to occur. These results provide evidence of a positive attitude to AI services

  4. TYPE PROJECTS HUB - AN INTERNATIONAL MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Nistor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact Hub is a global network of local spaces and communities designed to facilitate sustainable impact through collaboration. Local Impact Hubs are autonomous companies that offer co-working spaces, programming, events platforms, and communities of individuals and organizations with ideas to build a better world. Hub was established in 2005 in London with the aim of creating a space dedicated to inspire, connect and enable people to achieve a sustainable entrepreneurial idea. The idea was simple: There are a lot of people with good ideas for a "better world". What seem to be missing are places to help these people to move from intent to action and to find like-minded for a greater impact. In Romania about four years ago, first opened in Bucharest office space hubs in Romania (for entrepreneurs in technology and business where teams from different companies could collaborate. The idea to open a hub in Bucharest focused on social innovation and entrepreneurship appeared some time ago in the context in which part of the team now has worked since 2010 at the initiation and growth of a community to support social entrepreneurship. In all this diversity, there is a common mission: “we can create if we put all our innovation capacity in the common goal to create a positive impact through our work?”

  5. nanoHUB.org: Experiences and Challenges in Software Sustainability for a Large Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Zentner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The science gateway nanoHUB.org, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF, serves a large scientific community dedicated to research and education in nanotechnology with community-contributed simulation codes as well as a vast repository of other materials such as recorded presentations, teaching materials, and workshops and courses. Nearly 330,000 users annually access over 4400 items of content on nanoHUB, including 343 simulation tools. Arguably the largest nanotechnology facility in the world, nanoHUB has led the way not only in providing open access to scientific code in the nanotechnology community, but also in lowering barriers to the use of that code, by providing a platform where developers are able to easily and quickly deploy code written in a variety of languages with user-friendly graphical user interfaces and where users can run the latest versions of codes transparently on the grid or other powerful resources without ever having to download or update code. Being a leader in open access code deployment provides nanoHUB with opportunities and challenges as it meets the current and future needs of its community. This paper discusses the experiences of nanoHUB in addressing and adapting to the changing landscape of scientific software in ways that best serve its community and meet the needs of the largest portion of its user base.

  6. The predictability for the prognosis of breast cancer using the apparent diffusion coefficient value of diffusion weighted 3T MRI and the standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography/CT: Assessment of prognostic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seong Joo; Kim, Keum Won; Jang, Hye Young; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Kim, Dae Ho; Sohn, Jang Sihn; Kim, Jin Suk; Lee, Jin Yong [Konyang Univ. College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and peak standardized uptake value (pSUV) with histologic grade and clinical prognostic factors of breast ductal carcinoma. Fifty breast cancers of 49 patients (age range: 37-83 years, mean: 53 years) were studied retrospectively. The breast cancers included 4 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 46 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC). The relationships for both pSUV and ADC values with clinicopathological prognostic factors (age, tumor size, histologic grade, nodal metastasis, hormone receptor and HER-2 neu status) were statistically evaluated. The histologic type of ductal carcinoma include DCIS (n = 4) and IDC (n = 46, grade 1 = 10, grade 2 = 13, and grade 3 = 23). pSUV was associated with histologic grade and tumor size and the ADC value was associated with histologic grade (p < 0.05). As the histologic grade becomes higher, the ADC values decrease, while pSUV and pSUV/ADC increase (p < 0.05). The characterization accuracy of pSUV/ADC (90.2%) was higher than pSUV (86.7%) and ADC values (25.4%) alone for the diagnosis of breast cancer (p < 0.05). pSUV and ADC values correlated with histologic grade, and tumor size. The pSUV/ADC value had a high accuracy for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, pSUV and ADC values provided additional information for predicting histologic grade and prognosis of breast cancer.

  7. The influence of hubs in the structure of a neuronal network during an epileptic seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Abner Cardoso; Cerdeira, Hilda A.; Machado, Birajara Soares

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose changes in the structure of a neuronal network with the intention to provoke strong synchronization to simulate episodes of epileptic seizure. Starting with a network of Izhikevich neurons we slowly increase the number of connections in selected nodes in a controlled way, to produce (or not) hubs. We study how these structures alter the synchronization on the spike firings interval, on individual neurons as well as on mean values, as a function of the concentration of connections for random and non-random (hubs) distribution. We also analyze how the post-ictal signal varies for the different distributions. We conclude that a network with hubs is more appropriate to represent an epileptic state.

  8. Synchronization and long-time memory in neural networks with inhibitory hubs and synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Elena; Burioni, Raffaella; di Volo, Matteo; Vezzani, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical role of inhibitory and highly connected nodes (hub) in synchronization and input processing of leaky-integrate-and-fire neural networks with short term synaptic plasticity. We take advantage of a heterogeneous mean-field approximation to encode the role of network structure and we tune the fraction of inhibitory neurons fI and their connectivity level to investigate the cooperation between hub features and inhibition. We show that, depending on fI, highly connected inhibitory nodes strongly drive the synchronization properties of the overall network through dynamical transitions from synchronous to asynchronous regimes. Furthermore, a metastable regime with long memory of external inputs emerges for a specific fraction of hub inhibitory neurons, underlining the role of inhibition and connectivity also for input processing in neural networks.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Functionally Graded Timoshenko Beam fixed to a Rotating Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, B.; Pohit, G.

    2016-08-01

    The present work accounts centrifugal stiffening effect on the nonlinear vibration response of an FGM Timoshenko beam. Analysis is carried out for a cantilever beam fixed with a rotating hub. Material is assumed to have a gradation relation along the depth of the beam. Centrifugal force and axial displacement raised due to the rotating hub is incorporated in the strain energy equations. Subsequent to this, an iterative technique is employed to obtain amplitude dependent vibration response of a rotating Timoshenko beam while material follows a gradation relation along the beam depth. Main objective of the work is to obtain the effects of rotational speeds, hub radius, and different gradation relations on the linear as well as nonlinear frequencies and mode shapes.

  10. Effect of random and hub gene disruptions on environmental and mutational robustness in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Dominique

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Genome-wide profiling has allowed the regulatory interaction networks of many organisms to be visualised and the pattern of connections between genes to be studied. These networks are non-random, following a power-law distribution with a small number of well-connected 'hubs' and many genes with only one or a few connections. Theoretical work predicts that power-law networks display several unique properties. One of the most biologically interesting of these is an intrinsic robustness to disturbance such that removal of a random gene will have little effect on network function. Conversely, targeted removal of a hub gene is expected to have a large effect. Results We compared the response of Escherichia coli to environmental and mutational stress following disruption of random or hub genes. We found that disruption of random genes had less effect on robustness to environmental stress than did the targeted disruption of hub genes. In contrast, random disruption strains were slightly less robust to the effect of mutational stress than were hub disruption strains. When we compared the effect of each disruption on environmental and mutational stress, we found a negative relationship, such that strains that were more environmentally robust tended to be less robust to mutational stress. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that mutant strains of E. coli respond differently to stress, depending on whether random or hub genes are disrupted. This difference indicates that the power-law distribution of regulatory interactions has biological significance, making random disruptions less deleterious to organisms facing environmental stress. That E. coli can reduce the effect of environmental stress without reducing the phenotypic effect of additional mutations, indicates that robustness and evolvability need not be antagonistic.

  11. Characterization of protein hubs by inferring interacting motifs from protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Aragues

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of protein interactions is essential for understanding biological systems. While genome-scale methods are available for identifying interacting proteins, they do not pinpoint the interacting motifs (e.g., a domain, sequence segments, a binding site, or a set of residues. Here, we develop and apply a method for delineating the interacting motifs of hub proteins (i.e., highly connected proteins. The method relies on the observation that proteins with common interaction partners tend to interact with these partners through a common interacting motif. The sole input for the method are binary protein interactions; neither sequence nor structure information is needed. The approach is evaluated by comparing the inferred interacting motifs with domain families defined for 368 proteins in the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP. The positive predictive value of the method for detecting proteins with common SCOP families is 75% at sensitivity of 10%. Most of the inferred interacting motifs were significantly associated with sequence patterns, which could be responsible for the common interactions. We find that yeast hubs with multiple interacting motifs are more likely to be essential than hubs with one or two interacting motifs, thus rationalizing the previously observed correlation between essentiality and the number of interacting partners of a protein. We also find that yeast hubs with multiple interacting motifs evolve slower than the average protein, contrary to the hubs with one or two interacting motifs. The proposed method will help us discover unknown interacting motifs and provide biological insights about protein hubs and their roles in interaction networks.

  12. Hub vortex instability and wake dynamics in axial flow wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Daniel; Howard, Kevin; Yang, Xiaolei; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-11-01

    The near wake region of an axial flow wind turbine has two distinct shear layers: an outer tip vortex shear layer, which rotates in the same direction as the rotor, and an inner counter-rotating hub vortex shear layer. Recent simulations (Kang et al., J. Fluid Mech. 744, 376 (2014)), corroborated with experiments (Chamorro et al., J. Fluid Mech. 716, 658 (2013)), showed that the hub vortex can undergo spiral vortex breakdown immediately downstream of the turbine. The precessing hub vortex core intercepts and interacts with the tip vortex shear layer causing the large-scale wake meandering motions in the far wake to intensify. These results were obtained for an axial flow hydrokinetic turbine in a turbulent open channel flow. Here we integrate high-resolution LES with experiments to show that a hub vortex instability also occurs in the near wake of a wind turbine in a wind tunnel. We show that the interactions of the hub vortex with the outer flow have significant effects on the wake meandering amplitude and frequency. Our results reinforce the conclusions of Kang et al. (2014) that the hub vortex must be included in wake models to simulate wake interactions at the power plant scale and optimize turbine siting for realistic terrain and wind conditions. This work was supported by DOE (DE-EE0002980, DE-EE0005482 and DE-AC04-94AL85000), the NSF (IIP-1318201), the IREE early career award (UMN) and NSF CAREER: Geophysical Flow Control (CBET-1351303). Computational resources were provided by MSI.

  13. EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly is an aggressive post-germinal center B-cell neoplasm characterized by prominent nuclear factor-kB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Odqvist, Lina; Diaz-Perez, Julio A; Lopez, Ana Batlle; de Villambrosía, Sonia Gonzalez; Mazorra, Francisco; Castillo, Maria E; Lopez, Mar; Pajares, Raquel; García, Juan F; Mollejo, Manuela; Camacho, Francisca I; Ruiz-Marcellán, Carmen; Adrados, Magdalena; Ortiz, Nazario; Franco, Renato; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos; Suarez-Gauthier, Ana; Young, Ken H; Piris, Miguel A

    2012-07-01

    Here, we report a retrospective series of 47 EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with advanced age. Histopathology allowed to the identification of different histological patterns: cases with polymorphic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (29 cases), Hodgkin-like (8 cases) and polymorphic lymphoproliferative disorder-like (9 cases) patterns. One case was purely monomorphic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We show that this lymphoma type is a neoplasm with prominent classical and alternative nuclear factor-kB pathway activation in neoplastic cells (79% of the cases showed nuclear staining for p105/p50, 74% for p100/p52 and 63% for both proteins), with higher frequency than that observed in a control series of EBV-negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (χ(2) positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.

  14. The (un)supervised NMF methods for discovering overlapping communities as well as hubs and outliers in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaochun; Jin, Di; Cao, Yixin; He, Dongxiao

    2016-03-01

    For its crucial importance in the study of large-scale networks, many researchers devote to the detection of communities in various networks. It is now widely agreed that the communities usually overlap with each other. In some communities, there exist members that play a special role as hubs (also known as leaders), whose importance merits special attention. Moreover, it is also observed that some members of the network do not belong to any communities in a convincing way, and hence recognized as outliers. Failure to detect and exclude outliers will distort, sometimes significantly, the outcome of the detected communities. In short, it is preferable for a community detection method to detect all three structures altogether. This becomes even more interesting and also more challenging when we take the unsupervised assumption, that is, we do not assume the prior knowledge of the number K of communities. Our approach here is to define a novel generative model and formalize the detection of overlapping communities as well as hubs and outliers as an optimization problem on it. When K is given, we propose a normalized symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence to learn the parameters of the model. Otherwise, by combining KL divergence and prior model on parameters, we introduce another parameter learning method based on Bayesian symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization to learn the parameters of the model, while determining K. Therefore, we present a community detection method arguably in the most general sense, which detects all three structures altogether without prior knowledge of the number of communities. Finally, we test the proposed method on various real-world networks. The experimental results, in contrast to several state-of-art algorithms, indicate its superior performance over other ones in terms of both clustering accuracy and community quality.

  15. Hub vortex instability within wind turbine wakes: Effects of wind turbulence, loading conditions, and blade aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Ryan; Viola, Francesco; Camarri, Simone; Gallaire, Francois; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio

    2016-11-01

    The near wake of wind turbines is characterized by the presence of the hub vortex, which is a coherent vorticity structure generated from the interaction between the root vortices and the boundary layer evolving over the turbine nacelle. By moving downstream, the hub vortex undergoes an instability with growth rate, azimuthal and axial wavenumbers determined by the characteristics of the incoming wind and turbine aerodynamics. Thus, a large variability of the hub vortex instability is expected for wind energy applications with consequent effects on wake downstream evolution, wake interactions within a wind farm, power production, and fatigue loads on turbines invested by wakes generated upstream. In order to predict characteristics of the hub vortex instability for different operating conditions, linear stability analysis is carried out by considering different statistics of the incoming wind turbulence, thrust coefficient, tip speed ratio, and blade lift distribution of a wind turbine. Axial and azimuthal wake velocity fields are modeled through Carton-McWilliams velocity profiles by mimicking the presence of the hub vortex, helicoidal tip vortices, and matching the wind turbine thrust coefficient predicted through the actuator disk model. The linear stability analysis shows that hub vortex instability is strongly affected by the wind turbine loading conditions, and specifically it is promoted by a larger thrust coefficient. A higher load of the wind turbines produces an enhanced axial velocity deficit and, in turn, higher shear in the radial direction of the streamwise velocity. The axial velocity shear within the turbine wake is also the main physical mechanism promoting the hub vortex instability when varying the lift distribution over the blade span for a specific loading condition. Cases with a larger velocity deficit in proximity of the wake center and less aerodynamic load towards the blade tip result to be more unstable. Moreover, wake swirl promotes hub

  16. Japanese Forwarders’ Local Import Hub in Asia: 3PL Power and Environmental Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio MIYASHITA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate by an econometric method which countries or regions in Asia are superior import hubs for Japan based on two axes, the third party logistics (3PL business power of Japanese local forwarders and the logistical environment catch-up speed of these countries. According to the estimated results, this simple model can explain the structural changes in China's logistics based on its WTO accession and can develop Japanese forwarders’ stable import hub ranking by suggesting total optimization in the East Asian NIES (newly industrial economies and the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Countries districts by Japanese forwarders.

  17. Single wheel hub motor failures and their impact on vehicle and driver behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Daniel; Kreußlein, Maria; Augusto, Bruno; Drugge, Lars; Stensson Trigell, Annika

    2016-10-01

    This research work studies the impact of single wheel hub motor failures on the dynamic behaviour of electric vehicles and the corresponding driver reactions. An experimental study in a moving-base driving simulator is conducted to analyse the influence of single wheel hub motor failures for motorway speeds. Driver reaction times are derived from the measured data and discussed in their experimental context. The failure is rated objectively on the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle and compared to the subjective evaluation. Findings indicate that critical traffic situations impairing traffic safety can occur for motorway speeds. Clear counteractions by the drivers had to be taken.

  18. Virtual Campus Hub: A single sign-on system for cross-border collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Vercoulen, F.; Monaco, L.

    2013-01-01

    the applications used there. The objective of Virtual Campus Hub is to use state-of-the-art European e-Infrastructures (Géant) in combination with federated authentication to establish a single sign-on system between universities. A pilot environment, which links applications from the four partner universities...... to European e-Infrastructures relies upon the National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) which are not geared towards commercial enterprises at present. A range of applications for online teaching and collaboration has been developed as part of the Virtual Campus Hub project. These include remote...

  19. Hub-enhanced noise-sustained synchronization of an externally forced FitzHugh-Nagumo ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alejandro D.; Izús, Gonzalo G.; dell'Erba, Matías G.; Deza, Roberto R.

    2017-02-01

    A ring of FitzHugh-Nagumo units with antiphase coupling between their activator fields and submitted to a adiabatic harmonic subthreshold signal, is in turn globally coupled in electrical mode with the activator field of a hub. Noise sustained synchronization of neural activity with the signal is numerically observed, and theoretically characterized. The different dynamical regimes are elucidated using the concept of nonequilibrium potential, and the hub is found to promote network synchronization. The minimum noise intensities triggering the activation and synchronization processes are estimated in the framework of a three-neuron model.

  20. Final Report for Project: Impacts of stratification and non-equilibrium winds and waves on hub-height winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Edward G. [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-07-14

    wind plant scale. Overall project conclusions include; In the presence of fast-moving swell (significant wave height Hs = 6.4 m, and phase speed cp = 18 ms-1), the atmospheric boundary layer grows more rapidly when waves propagate opposite to the winds compared to when winds and waves are aligned. Pressure drag increases by nearly a factor of 2 relative to the turbulent stress for the extreme case where waves propagate at 180° compared to the pressure gradient forcing. Net wind speed reduces by nearly 15% at hub-height for the 180°-case compared to the 0°-case, and turbulence intensities increase by nearly a factor of 2. These impacts diminish with decreasing wave age; Stratification increases hub height wind speeds and increases the vertical shear of the mean wind across the rotor plane. Fortuitously, this stability-induced enhanced shear does not influence turbulence intensity at hub height, but does increase (decrease) turbulence intensity below (above) hub height. Increased stability also increases the wave-induced pressure stress by ~ 10%; Off the East Coast of the United States during Coupled Boundary Layers Air-Sea Transfer - Low Wind (CBLAST-Low), cases with short fetch include thin stable boundary layers with depths of only a few tens of meters. In the coastal zone, the relationship between the mean wind and the surface fiction velocity (u*(V )) is significantly related to wind direction for weak winds but is not systematically related to the air sea difference of virtual potential temperature, δθv; since waves generally propagate from the south at the Air-Sea Interaction Tower (ASIT) tower, these results suggest that under weak wind conditions waves likely influence surface stress more than stratification does; and Winds and waves are frequently misaligned in the coastal zone. Stability conditions persist for long duration. Over a four year period, the Forschungsplattformen in Nord- und Ostsee Nr. 1 (FINO1) tower (a site with long fetch

  1. The Design Pattern: Hub of Enterprise Application Integration%一个企业应用集成的设计模式:Hub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云卫; 李伟宏; 郝克刚

    2003-01-01

    The Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) is a challenge of modern enterprise. How much effect of information system in enterprise business implement process that depends on the degree of inner function and information integration of formation system. The choice of EAI methods not only affects the investment of constructing information system and protecting /using old system, but also determines the efficiency of new system. This paper presents a design pattern, named Hub method, from the view of application integration, which adopts the idea in heterogeneous circumstance focusing on interface encapsulating about controlling information exchange and workflow handling. It also gives an implement method and a framework of the Hub in this paper, which is applied on business process management. And a good performance is achieved in controlling information exchange and workflow handling among enterprise applications. It not only improves system integration capability, stich as expansibility, flexibility, and opening through the method of the Hub, but also takes a great advance in soft reuse during software designing and implementing.

  2. Network science and the human brain: Using graph theory to understand the brain and one of its hubs, the amygdala, in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, David; Pollard, Harvey B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past 15 years, the emerging field of network science has revealed the key features of brain networks, which include small-world topology, the presence of highly connected hubs, and hierarchical modularity. The value of network studies of the brain is underscored by the range of network alterations that have been identified in neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, depression, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and many others. Here we briefly summarize the concepts of graph theory that are used to quantify network properties and describe common experimental approaches for analysis of brain networks of structural and functional connectivity. These range from tract tracing to functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, electroencephalography, and magnetoencephalography. We then summarize the major findings from the application of graph theory to nervous systems ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to more complex primate brains, including man. Focusing, then, on studies involving the amygdala, a brain region that has attracted intense interest as a center for emotional processing, fear, and motivation, we discuss the features of the amygdala in brain networks for fear conditioning and emotional perception. Finally, to highlight the utility of graph theory for studying dysfunction of the amygdala in mental illness, we review data with regard to changes in the hub properties of the amygdala in brain networks of patients with depression. We suggest that network studies of the human brain may serve to focus attention on regions and connections that act as principal drivers and controllers of brain function in health and disease.

  3. 76 FR 10328 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Vestas Nacelles America, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles, Hubs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... manufacturing and warehousing of wind turbine nacelles, hubs, blades and towers at the Vestas Nacelles America... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Vestas Nacelles America, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles, Hubs, Blades and Towers), Brighton, Denver, Pueblo, and Windsor, CO Pursuant to...

  4. 75 FR 76003 - Tricor Ten Section Hub LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tricor Ten Section Hub LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Ten Section Gas Storage Project November 29, 2010. The staff of the Federal... Ten Section Gas Storage Project, in Kern County, California, proposed by Tricor Ten Section Hub...

  5. USDA Midwest and Northern Forests Regional Climate Hub: Assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Midwest Regional Climate Hub covers the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin and represents one of the most extensive and intensive agricultural systems in the world. The Northern Forests Climate Sub Hub shares this footprint and represents people...

  6. Clinical Assessment of Standard and Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisition Diffusion Imaging: Effects of Reduction Factor and Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, J.B.; Zaharchuk, G.; Fischbein, N.J.; Augustin, M.; Skare, S.; Straka, M.; Rosenberg, J.; Lansberg, M.G.; Kemp, S.; Wijman, C.A.C.; Albers, G.W.; Schwartz, N.E.; Bammer, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE PI improves routine EPI-based DWI by enabling higher spatial resolution and reducing geometric distortion, though it remains unclear which of these is most important. We evaluated the relative contribution of these factors and assessed their ability to increase lesion conspicuity and diagnostic confidence by using a GRAPPA technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four separate DWI scans were obtained at 1.5T in 48 patients with independent variation of in-plane spatial resolution (1.88 mm2 versus 1.25 mm2) and/or reduction factor (R = 1 versus R = 3). A neuroradiologist with access to clinical history and additional imaging sequences provided a reference standard diagnosis for each case. Three blinded neuroradiologists assessed scans for abnormalities and also evaluated multiple imaging-quality metrics by using a 5-point ordinal scale. Logistic regression was used to determine the impact of each factor on subjective image quality and confidence. RESULTS Reference standard diagnoses in the patient cohort were acute ischemic stroke (n = 30), ischemic stroke with hemorrhagic conversion (n = 4), intraparenchymal hemorrhage (n = 9), or no acute lesion (n = 5). While readers preferred both a higher reduction factor and a higher spatial resolution, the largest effect was due to an increased reduction factor (odds ratio, 47 ± 16). Small lesions were more confidently discriminated from artifacts on R = 3 images. The diagnosis changed in 5 of 48 scans, always toward the reference standard reading and exclusively for posterior fossa lesions. CONCLUSIONS PI improves DWI primarily by reducing geometric distortion rather than by increasing spatial resolution. This outcome leads to a more accurate and confident diagnosis of small lesions. PMID:22403781

  7. AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE proteins: hubs in a plethora of networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, A.; Willemsen, V.; Boutilier, K.A.; Heidstra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE (AIL) family of APETALA 2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) domain transcription factors are expressed in all dividing tissues in the plant, where they have central roles in developmental processes such as embryogenesis, stem cell niche specification, meristem

  8. 铁路客运枢纽旅客离站换乘决策方法研究%Study on Decision-making Method of Passenger Transfer in Railway Hub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭群洁; 徐良杰

    2013-01-01

    为了分析铁路客运枢纽旅客换乘选择交通方式出行比例和旅客站内换乘可达性,建立铁路客运枢纽离站系统通道与换乘站点之间的联系,从铁路客运枢纽的布局模式、离站旅客特征分析角度出发,确立影响旅客交通方式决策和换乘可达性影响因子,并以武昌火车站为例分析,建立交通方式换乘选择非集计模型和旅客站内换乘时间可达模型.%To analyze the proportion of traffic mode choice and accessibility of passengers transferring inside the railway hub and establish the connection of exiting corridors and mode-transferring nodes, the paper research on the layout mode and passengers characteristics in the railway passenger hub, and make sure the influencing factors of traffic mode decision-making and transferring accessibility. Taking Wuchang railway station as instance, the traffic mode disaggregate choice model and transferring-time accessibility model are established for passengers in the railway hub, which is useful to analyze the hub's transfer efficiency and layout rationality.

  9. Interferon (IFN)-beta induces apoptotic cell death in DHL-4 diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells through tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehadian, Amaylia; Koide, Naoki; Mu, Mya Mya; Hassan, Ferdaus; Islam, Shamima; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2005-07-08

    The effect of interferon (IFN)-alpha, beta and gamma on the growth of DHL-4 diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells was studied. IFN-beta significantly inhibited the cell growth, and the effect was stronger than that of IFN-alpha. IFN-gamma did not inhibit the cell growth because of lack of IFN-gamma receptors. IFN-beta caused apoptotic cell death which was accompanied by DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 activation and annexin V binding. IFN-beta lead to the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA. Anti-TRAIL antibody significantly prevented IFN-beta-induced apoptosis. It was suggested that IFN-beta might cause apoptosis in DHL-4 cells through TRAIL.

  10. Role of governance in creating a commodity hub: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Haris

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The body of work on natural gas hubs has been expanding rapidly in recent years, with most of the current work examining the creation of gas hubs focusing on either the European experience or the North American experience. In this paper, we adopt a different perspective and place the focus on experience of hub building from other international commodities. We analyse three commodities - crude oil, iron ore and coal, and draw experience on the role of governance in development of hub based prices. In particular, we propose that the role of governance is different at different stages of the pricing transition to market based pricing. Governance could play an important role at the initial stage, building the relevant soft and physical infrastructure which facilitates the reaping of first mover advantage. As the market develops, private sector players may prefer less involvement of governance, which may distort markets. With market stabilization, governance should be focused on maintaining stable rules and regulation for private sector development, as well as monitoring for further changes in global trends. To facilitate the building of a benchmark price, the public sector should adopt a long-term and overarching view on industry growth.

  11. Hub-and-Spoke or else? Free trade agreements in the 'enlarged' European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Santis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to estimate if and how the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA and the Baltic Free Trade Agreement (BFTA exerted a significant impact on intra-European trade, effectively reducing the influence of the European Association Agreements (EAs in shaping the European trade structure as a hub-and-spoke system - with the EU15 being the hub and the CEECs the spoke. This paper analyses bilateral trade flows between eight CEECs and EU-23. We estimate a gravity equation using a system GMM dynamic panel data approach. Results support the assumptions that gravity forces and "persistence effects" matter. With respect to the effect of free trade agreements, evidence is found that Free trade agreements between CEECs matter: There is evidence that the presence of intra-periphery agreements helped expand intra-periphery trade and limited the emergence of a "hub-and-spoke" relationship between CEECs and EU. This results have important policy implications for the trade strategy of "future" EU members of the Southeastern European Countries as well as of the Southern Mediterranean Countries. According to the empirical results, these countries should move towards a regional free-trade area as exemplified by the CEFTA and the BFTA to avoid "hub-and-spoke" effects.

  12. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, R.; Almeida, L.; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception

  13. Towards collaborative, intermodal hub networks. A case study in the fast moving consumer goods market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, B.; Ruijgrok, C.; Tavasszy, L.

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative hub networks can provide an answer to the need to decrease logistics cost and maintain logistics service levels by shifting consolidated flows to modes that are better suited for handling large volumes (rail, barge, coastal shipping), so economies of scale can be obtained. This necessi

  14. Hub and shroud fillets influence on the radial compressor stage efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syka Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes numerical simulations of an air flow in the radial compressor stage in the NUMECA CFD software. During the tasks evaluating the stepped and straight impeller seals and hub and shroud fillets influence on working characteristics and flow field was observed. Also the CFD results comparison with results from the empiric design tool and the measurement is described.

  15. An Optimization of the Hub-and-Spoke Distribution Network in United States European Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    9 Vehicle Routing Problem ......................................................................................... 11...system. These range from direct delivery to a fully developed hub-and-spoke system. These models all include some variation of the vehicle routing problem , facility...assets. Vehicle Routing Problem Vehicle Routing Problems (VRPs) are based on the classic Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). The TSP is

  16. Positioning as Regional Hub of Higher Education: Changing Governance and Regulatory Reforms in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2008-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, the Singapore and Malaysia governments have made attempts to develop their societies into regional hubs of education. Specifically, they have invited foreign universities to set up their campuses to offer academic programs or to establish private institutions…

  17. Positioning as Regional Hub of Higher Education: Changing Governance and Regulatory Reforms in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2008-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, the Singapore and Malaysia governments have made attempts to develop their societies into regional hubs of education. Specifically, they have invited foreign universities to set up their campuses to offer academic programs or to establish private institutions…

  18. Evaluating Hub and Spoke models of practice learning in Scotland, UK: a multiple case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Michelle; Conlon, Margaret; Banks, Debbie

    2012-10-01

    Most of UK students' practice learning experience is based on a rotational placement model which often leads to students lacking confidence and feeling anxious about the complexities of the care environment. To evaluate the impact of Hub and Spoke model(s) of clinical practice placement across geographically diverse locations, with a particular focus on enhancing the student practice learning experience. Multiple case study design. Comprised undergraduate student nurses from Adult, Learning Disability and Mental Health programmes from 3 Scottish Schools of Nursing. A mixed methods approach which included quantitative and qualitative date tools. All three Hub and Spoke models shared two broad findings: 1) In the three Hub and Spoke models detailed in this paper, there is a continuum of student led learning which supports the process with opportunities for individual students to be positively innovative and creative in their learning approaches. Depth of learning was achieved in two ways; a) the method in which Hub placements are organised, managed and structured and, b) the depth of empathy and sensitivity to the individual at the centre of the care. 2) Placement capacity is increased: The classification of placements is reviewed to produce broader categories, Engagement of mentors/enhanced student/mentor relationship. Practice Learning must be seen as an academic endeavour that promotes deep, meaningful, person-centred learning rather than superficial, compartmentalised placement-centred learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic network participation of functional connectivity hubs assessed by resting-state fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Alexander; Margulies, Daniel S.; Lohmann, Gabriele; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Smallwood, Jonathan; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Villringer, Arno

    2014-01-01

    Network studies of large-scale brain connectivity have demonstrated that highly connected areas, or “hubs,” are a key feature of human functional and structural brain organization. We use resting-state functional MRI data and connectivity clustering to identify multi-network hubs and show that while hubs can belong to multiple networks their degree of integration into these different networks varies dynamically over time. The extent of the network variation was related to the connectedness of the hub. In addition, we found that these network dynamics were inversely related to positive self-generated thoughts reported by individuals and were further decreased with older age. Moreover, the left caudate varied its degree of participation between a default mode subnetwork and a limbic network. This variation was predictive of individual differences in the reports of past-related thoughts. These results support an association between ongoing thought processes and network dynamics and offer a new approach to investigate the brain dynamics underlying mental experience. PMID:24860458

  20. Fleet deployment, network design and hub location of liner shipping companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem...

  1. Towards collaborative, intermodal hub networks. A case study in the fast moving consumer goods market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, B.; Ruijgrok, C.; Tavasszy, L.

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative hub networks can provide an answer to the need to decrease logistics cost and maintain logistics service levels by shifting consolidated flows to modes that are better suited for handling large volumes (rail, barge, coastal shipping), so economies of scale can be obtained. This

  2. Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were highlighted as…

  3. A note on hierarchical hubbing for a generalization of the VPN problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Robust network design refers to a class of optimization problems that occur when designing networks to efficiently handle variable demands. The notion of "hierarchical hubbing" was introduced (in the narrow context of a specific robust network design question), by Olver and Shepherd [2010]. Hierarch

  4. National Geothermal Data System Hub Deployment Timeline (Appendix E-1-d)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudill, Christy [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey)

    2015-12-20

    Excel spreadsheet describing activity, spending, and development for the four data hubs (Arizona Geoloical Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois Geological Survey, and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology) serving data for the National Geothermal Data System under the State Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System Project.

  5. Brief Report: The Negev Hospital-University-Based (HUB) Autism Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, Gal; Dinstein, Ilan; Michaelowski, Analya; Flusser, Hagit; Ilan, Michal; Faroy, Michal; Bar-Sinai, Asif; Manelis, Liora; Stolowicz, Dana; Yosef, Lili Lea; Davidovitch, Nadav; Golan, Hava; Arbelle, Shosh; Menashe, Idan

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the heterogeneous etiologies of autism will require investment in comprehensive longitudinal data acquisition from large community based cohorts. With this in mind, we have established a hospital-university-based (HUB) database of autism which incorporates prospective and retrospective data from a large and ethnically diverse…

  6. Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were…

  7. Fleet deployment, network design and hub location of liner shipping companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem...

  8. Dubai, Aiming to Be an Academic Hub, Strikes a Deal with Michigan State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    Dubai has long competed with its wealthy Persian Gulf neighbors to become a regional hub of higher education. Yet its Knowledge Village, a collection of nearly 20 foreign-university campuses and local educational institutes, has been overshadowed by Qatar's Education City, which is home to the branch campuses of a number of high-profile American…

  9. PERSEUS-HUB: Interactive and Collective Exploration of Large-Scale Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Jin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphs emerge naturally in many domains, such as social science, neuroscience, transportation engineering, and more. In many cases, such graphs have millions or billions of nodes and edges, and their sizes increase daily at a fast pace. How can researchers from various domains explore large graphs interactively and efficiently to find out what is ‘important’? How can multiple researchers explore a new graph dataset collectively and “help” each other with their findings? In this article, we present Perseus-Hub, a large-scale graph mining tool that computes a set of graph properties in a distributed manner, performs ensemble, multi-view anomaly detection to highlight regions that are worth investigating, and provides users with uncluttered visualization and easy interaction with complex graph statistics. Perseus-Hub uses a Spark cluster to calculate various statistics of large-scale graphs efficiently, and aggregates the results in a summary on the master node to support interactive user exploration. In Perseus-Hub, the visualized distributions of graph statistics provide preliminary analysis to understand a graph. To perform a deeper analysis, users with little prior knowledge can leverage patterns (e.g., spikes in the power-law degree distribution marked by other users or experts. Moreover, Perseus-Hub guides users to regions of interest by highlighting anomalous nodes and helps users establish a more comprehensive understanding about the graph at hand. We demonstrate our system through the case study on real, large-scale networks.

  10. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, R.; Almeida, L.; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception

  11. Nonlinear dynamics and synchronisation of pendula attached to a rotating hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warminski, J.; Szmit, Z.; Latalski, J.

    2014-04-01

    A model of a nonlinear system composed of a hub with attached two pendula rotating in a horizontal plane is studied in the paper. Each single pendulum, treated as a stiff and massless rod with a lumped mass, is connected to the hub by a flapping hinge. Nonlinear stiffness and viscous damping of the hinge is taken into consideration. The system is excited by an external torque generated by a DC motor which is considered as an ideal system with torque given by a harmonic function. For small oscillations the problem is linearised and then solved analytically. An influence of the structural parameters like mass of the hub and pendula length on natural end excited vibrations is presented. Large oscillations are studied by a continuation technique, directly from the original Ordinary Differential Equations of motion (ODE). The complete synchronisation, phase synchronisation, bifurcations and transition through resonances are analysed considering the influence of the mass of the hub. The existence of chaotic oscillations of the system and paths leading to chaos are demonstrated as well.

  12. Development of passive-controlled HUB (teetered brake & damper mechanism) of horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yukimaru; Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    For the purpose of the improvement of reliability of the Mega-Watt wind turbine, this paper indicates the development of an original mechanism for the passive-controlled hub, which has the effects of braking and damping on aerodynamic forces. This mechanism is useful for variable speed control of the large wind turbine. The passive-controlled hub is the combination of two mechanisms. One is the passive-teetered and damping mechanism, and the other is the passive-variable-pitch mechanism. These mechanism are carried out by the combination of the teetering and feathering motions. When the wind speed exceeds the rated wind speed, the blade is passively teetered in a downwind direction and, simultaneously, a feathering mechanism, which is linked to the teetering mechanism through a connecting rods, is activated. Testing of the model horizontal axis wind turbine in a wind tunnel showed that the passive-controlled hub mechanism can suppress the over-rotational speed of the rotor. By the application of the passive-controlled hub mechanism, the maximum rotor speed is reduced to about 60%.

  13. Strategic analysis on establishing a natural gas trading hub in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Tong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the LNG importing price premium in the Asia–Pacific markets has become increasingly high, generating great effects on the economic development in China. In addition, the natural gas dependence degree is expanding continuously, making it extremely urgent to establish a natural gas trading hub in China, with the aim to ensure national energy security, to gain the pricing power, and to build the regional benchmark prices. Through a comparative analysis of internal strength/weakness and external competitiveness, we concluded that with intensively-issued supporting policies on the natural gas sector, the initiation of spot and futures markets, the rapid growth of gas production and highly-improved infrastructures, as well as Shanghai's advantageous location, China has more advantages in establishing an Asian Natural Gas Trading Hub than other counties like Singapore, Japan and Malaysia. Moreover, based on the SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat and the marketization process analysis, the following strategies were presented: to impel the establishment of a natural gas trading hub depending on the gas supply condition, to follow the policies to complete the gas storage system, to form regional communities by taking comparative advantages, and to reinforce the marketization reform and regulation system establishment with foreign experiences for reference. This study rationalized the necessity and practicality of establishing a natural gas trading hub in China and will help China make a proper decision and find a periodical strategic path in this sector.

  14. Altered connectivity pattern of hubs in default-mode network with Alzheimer's disease: an Granger causality modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Miao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidences from normal subjects suggest that the default-mode network (DMN has posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and inferior parietal cortex (IPC as its hubs; meanwhile, these DMN nodes are often found to be abnormally recruited in Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. The issues on how these hubs interact to each other, with the rest nodes of the DMN and the altered pattern of hubs with respect to AD, are still on going discussion for eventual final clarification. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address these issues, we investigated the causal influences between any pair of nodes within the DMN using Granger causality analysis and graph-theoretic methods on resting-state fMRI data of 12 young subjects, 16 old normal controls and 15 AD patients respectively. We found that: (1 PCC/MPFC/IPC, especially the PCC, showed the widest and distinctive causal effects on the DMN dynamics in young group; (2 the pattern of DMN hubs was abnormal in AD patients compared to old control: MPFC and IPC had obvious causal interaction disruption with other nodes; the PCC showed outstanding performance for it was the only region having causal relation with all other nodes significantly; (3 the altered relation between hubs and other DMN nodes held potential as a noninvasive biomarker of AD. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to support the hub configuration of the DMN from the perspective of causal relationship, and reveal abnormal pattern of the DMN hubs in AD. Findings from young subjects provide additional evidence for the role of PCC/MPFC/IPC acting as hubs in the DMN. Compared to old control, MPFC and IPC lost their roles as hubs owing to the obvious causal interaction disruption, and PCC was preserved as the only hub showing significant causal relations with all other nodes.

  15. An investigation of the factors effecting high-risk individuals' decision-making about prophylactic total gastrectomy and surveillance for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Nina; Badger, Shirlene; Richardson, Sue; Caldas, Carlos; Hardwick, Richard H; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Lawton, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer has an early onset and poor prognosis, therefore, individuals who carry a pathogenic (CDH1) mutation in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) are offered endoscopic surveillance and advised to undergo prophylactic total gastrectomy (PTG) in their early to mid-twenties. Patients not ready or fit to undergo gastrectomy, or in whom the genetic testing result is unknown or ambiguous, are offered surveillance. Little is known about the factors that influence decisions to undergo or decline PTG, making it difficult to provide optimal support for those facing these decisions. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 35 high-risk individuals from the Familial Gastric Cancer Study in the UK. Twenty-seven had previously undergone PTG and eight had been identified as carrying a pathogenic CDH1 mutation but had declined surgery at the time of interview. The interviews explored the experience of decision-making and factors influencing risk-management decisions. The data suggest that decisions to proceed with PTG are influenced by a number of potentially competing factors: objective risk confirmation by genetic testing and/or receiving a positive biopsy; perceived familial cancer burden and associated risk perceptions; perceptions of post-surgical life; an increasing inability to tolerate endoscopic procedures; a concern that surveillance could miss a cancer developing and individual's life stage. These findings have implications for advising this patient group.

  16. Standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient of endometrial cancer evaluated with integrated whole-body PET/MR: Correlation with pathological prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, I-Lun; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Bang-Bin; Wei, Shwu-Yuan; Chang, Wen-Chun; Sheu, Bor-Ching; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Tseng, Yao-Hui; Chen, Xin-Jia; Chen, Chi-Hau; Wei, Lin-Hung; Chiang, Ying-Cheng; Torng, Pao-Ling; Yen, Men-Luh; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the correlation between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax ) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin ) of endometrial cancer derived from an integrated positron emission tomography / magnetic resonance (PET/MR) system and to determine their correlation with pathological prognostic factors. This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the hospital, and informed consent was obtained. Between April and December 2014, 47 consecutive patients with endometrial cancer were enrolled and underwent simultaneous PET/MR examinations before surgery. Thirty-six patients with measurable tumors on PET/MR were included for image analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between SUVmax and ADCmin of the tumors. The Mann-Whitney U-test was utilized to evaluate relationships between these two imaging biomarkers and pathological prognostic factors. The mean SUVmax and ADCmin were 14.7 ± 7.1 and 0.48 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s, respectively. A significant inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and ADCmin (r = -0.53; P = 0.001). SUVmax was significantly higher in tumors with advanced stage, deep myometrial invasion, cervical invasion, lymphovascular space involvement, and lymph node metastasis (P correlated and are associated with pathological prognostic factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient at 3.0t: Correlation with prognostic factors and subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Ga Eun; Kang, Bong Joo; Song, Byung Joo; Kim, Yun Ju; Lee, Dongeon; Ahn, Hyunsoo; Kim, Inah; Son, Yo Han; Grimm, Robert

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters that show correlations with prognostic factors and subtypes of breast cancer. At 3.0T, various ADC histogram parameters were calculated including the entire tumor volume in 173 invasive ductal carcinomas: the minimum, 10th percentile, mean, median, 90th percentile, and maximum. ADC parameters were correlated with prognostic factors and subtype. The mean ADCmedian value was significantly higher in the group with lymph node metastasis, HER2 positivity, and a Ki-67 value correlation between ADCmedian and tumor size, histologic grade, estrogen receptor expression, and progesterone receptor expression (P = 0.272, 0.113, 0.261, and 0.181, respectively). For most ADC parameters except for ADCmin , the mean of variable ADC parameters of HER2-positive, luminal A, luminal B-HER2(+), triple-negative, and luminal B-HER2(-) diseases were arranged in descending order (1.175, 0.936, 0.863, 0.811, and 0.665 × 10(-3) mm(2) /s in ADCmedian , respectively) with statistical significant difference (P coefficient = -0.317). Various ADC parameters were correlated with prognostic factors and subtype, except for ADCmin . HER2 positivity showed high ADC values and high Ki-67 index revealed low ADC values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Patterns of neutropenia and risk factors for febrile neutropenia of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Won; Jeong, Seong Hyun; Ahn, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyun Woo; Kang, Seok Yun; Choi, Jin-Hyuk; Jin, U Ram; Park, Joon Seong

    2014-11-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the major toxicity of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The prediction of neutropenia and FN is mandatory to continue the planned R-CHOP therapy resulting in successful anti-cancer treatment. The clinical features and patterns of neutropenia and FN from 181 DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP were analyzed retrospectively. Sixty percent (60.2%) of patients experienced at least one episode of grade 4 neutropenia. Among them, 42.2% of episodes progressed to FN. Forty-eight percent (48.8%) of patients with FN was experienced their first FN during the first cycle of R-CHOP. All those patients never experienced FN again during the rest cycles of R-CHOP. Female, higher stage, international prognostic index (IPI), age ≥65 yr, comorbidities, bone marrow involvement, and baseline serum albumin ≤3.5 mg/dL were significant risk factors for FN by univariate analysis. Among these variables, comorbidities (P=0.009), bone marrow involvement (P=0.006), and female gender (P=0.024) were independent risk factors for FN based on multivariate analysis. On observing the patterns of neutropenia and FN, primary prophylaxis of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and antibiotics should be considered particularly in female patients, patients with comorbidities, or when there is bone marrow involvement of disease.

  19. Coffee Shops, Classrooms and Conversations: public engagement and outreach in a large interdisciplinary research Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jennifer A.

    2014-05-01

    Public engagement and outreach activities are increasingly using specialist staff for co-ordination, training and support for researchers, they are also becoming expected for large investments. Here, the experience of public engagement and outreach a large, interdisciplinary Research Hub is described. dot.rural, based at the University of Aberdeen UK, is a £11.8 million Research Councils UK Rural Digital Economy Hub, funded as part of the RCUK Digital Economy Theme (2009-2015). Digital Economy research aims to realise the transformational impact of digital technologies on aspects of the environment, community life, cultural experiences, future society, and the economy. The dot.rural Hub involves 92 researchers from 12 different disciplines, including Geography, Hydrology and Ecology. Public Engagement and Outreach is embedded in the dot.rural Digital Economy Hub via an Outreach Officer. Alongside this position, public engagement and outreach activities are compulsory part of PhD student contracts. Public Engagement and Outreach activities at the dot.rural Hub involve individuals and groups in both formal and informal settings organised by dot.rural and other organisations. Activities in the realms of Education, Public Engagement, Traditional and Social Media are determined by a set of Underlying Principles designed for the Hub by the Outreach Officer. The underlying Engagement and Outreach principles match funding agency requirements and expectations alongside researcher demands and the user-led nature of Digital Economy Research. All activities include researchers alongside the Outreach Officer are research informed and embedded into specific projects that form the Hub. Successful public engagement activities have included participation in Café Scientifique series, workshops in primary and secondary schools, and online activities such as I'm a Scientist Get Me Out of Here. From how to engage 8 year olds with making hydrographs more understandable to members of

  20. Declining functional connectivity and changing hub locations in Alzheimer's disease: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Marjolein M A; Stam, Cornelis J; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; de Waal, Hanneke; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W

    2015-08-20

    EEG studies have shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have weaker functional connectivity than controls, especially in higher frequency bands. Furthermore, active regions seem more prone to AD pathology. How functional connectivity is affected in AD subgroups of disease severity and how network hubs (highly connected brain areas) change is not known. We compared AD patients with different disease severity and controls in terms of functional connections, hub strength and hub location. We studied routine 21-channel resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) of 318 AD patients (divided into tertiles based on disease severity: mild, moderate and severe AD) and 133 age-matched controls. Functional connectivity between EEG channels was estimated with the Phase Lag Index (PLI). From the PLI-based connectivity matrix, the minimum spanning tree (MST) was derived. For each node (EEG channel) in the MST, the betweenness centrality (BC) was computed, a measure to quantify the relative importance of a node within the network. Then we derived color-coded head plots based on BC values and calculated the center of mass (the exact middle had x and y values of 0). A shifting of the hub locations was defined as a shift of the center of mass on the y-axis across groups. Multivariate general linear models with PLI or BC values as dependent variables and the groups as continuous variables were used in the five conventional frequency bands. We found that functional connectivity decreases with increasing disease severity in the alpha band. All, except for posterior, regions showed increasing BC values with increasing disease severity. The center of mass shifted from posterior to more anterior regions with increasing disease severity in the higher frequency bands, indicating a loss of relative functional importance of the posterior brain regions. In conclusion, we observed decreasing functional connectivity in the posterior regions, together with a shifted hub location from

  1. Vaneless diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  2. Diabetes Mellitus as Hub for Tuberculosis Infection: A Snapshot

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Pal; Ansari, Moiz A.; Saif Hameed; Zeeshan Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the thorn in the flesh of efficient therapeutics affecting one-third of global population annually. There are several factors that enhance the susceptibility to TB infections including malnutrition, smoking, and immunocompromised conditions such as AIDS. In the recent years, growing body of evidence has gained considerable prominence which suggests that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is individual risk factor leading to complicated TB infections. In this article the au...

  3. Looking into Pandora's Box: The Content of Sci-Hub and its Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greshake, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growth of Open Access, potentially illegally circumventing paywalls to access scholarly publications is becoming a more mainstream phenomenon. The web service Sci-Hub is amongst the biggest facilitators of this, offering free access to around 62 million publications. So far it is not well studied how and why its users are accessing publications through Sci-Hub. By utilizing the recently released corpus of Sci-Hub and comparing it to the data of  ~28 million downloads done through the service, this study tries to address some of these questions. The comparative analysis shows that both the usage and complete corpus is largely made up of recently published articles, with users disproportionately favoring newer articles and 35% of downloaded articles being published after 2013. These results hint that embargo periods before publications become Open Access are frequently circumnavigated using Guerilla Open Access approaches like Sci-Hub. On a journal level, the downloads show a bias towards some scholarly disciplines, especially Chemistry, suggesting increased barriers to access for these. Comparing the use and corpus on a publisher level, it becomes clear that only 11% of publishers are highly requested in comparison to the baseline frequency, while 45% of all publishers are significantly less accessed than expected. Despite this, the oligopoly of publishers is even more remarkable on the level of content consumption, with 80% of all downloads being published through only 9 publishers. All of this suggests that Sci-Hub is used by different populations and for a number of different reasons, and that there is still a lack of access to the published scientific record. A further analysis of these openly available data resources will undoubtedly be valuable for the investigation of academic publishing.

  4. When is hub gene selection better than standard meta-analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Langfelder

    Full Text Available Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data. Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1 Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2 finding methylation markers related to age, and (3 finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1. However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2. The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques

  5. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...... resulting from the design were two-day training workshops conceptually anchored to TBP. The design theory was evaluated through execution of eight diffusion workshops involving three different groups in the same company. The findings indicate that the match between the practice and the context materialized...... that the behavior will be effective). These two factors were especially critical if the source context of the best practice is qualitatively different from the target context into which the organization is seeking to diffuse the best practice....

  6. SPARK: Sparsity-based analysis of reliable k-hubness and overlapping network structure in brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangjoo; Lina, Jean-Marc; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Functional hubs are defined as the specific brain regions with dense connections to other regions in a functional brain network. Among them, connector hubs are of great interests, as they are assumed to promote global and hierarchical communications between functionally specialized networks. Damage to connector hubs may have a more crucial effect on the system than does damage to other hubs. Hubs in graph theory are often identified from a correlation matrix, and classified as connector hubs when the hubs are more connected to regions in other networks than within the networks to which they belong. However, the identification of hubs from functional data is more complex than that from structural data, notably because of the inherent problem of multicollinearity between temporal dynamics within a functional network. In this context, we developed and validated a method to reliably identify connectors and corresponding overlapping network structure from resting-state fMRI. This new method is actually handling the multicollinearity issue, since it does not rely on counting the number of connections from a thresholded correlation matrix. The novelty of the proposed method is that besides counting the number of networks involved in each voxel, it allows us to identify which networks are actually involved in each voxel, using a data-driven sparse general linear model in order to identify brain regions involved in more than one network. Moreover, we added a bootstrap resampling strategy to assess statistically the reproducibility of our results at the single subject level. The unified framework is called SPARK, i.e. SParsity-based Analysis of Reliable k-hubness, where k-hubness denotes the number of networks overlapping in each voxel. The accuracy and robustness of SPARK were evaluated using two dimensional box simulations and realistic simulations that examined detection of artificial hubs generated on real data. Then, test/retest reliability of the method was assessed

  7. Helium diffusion in carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, W. H.; Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Hobbs, D.

    2013-12-01

    The abundance and large grain size of carbonate minerals make them a potentially attractive target for 4He thermochronology and 3He cosmogenic dating, although the diffusive properties of helium in carbonates remain poorly understood. This work characterizes helium diffusion in calcite and dolomite to better understand the crystal-chemical factors controlling He transport and retentivity. Slabs of cleaved natural calcite and dolomite, and polished sections of calcite cut parallel or normal to c, were implanted with 3He at 3 MeV with a dose of 5x1015/cm2. Implanted carbonates were heated in 1-atm furnaces, and 3He distributions following diffusion anneals were profiled with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the reaction 3He(d,p)4He. For 3He transport normal to cleavage surfaces in calcite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation over the temperature range 78-300°C: Dcalcite = 9.0x10-9exp(-55 × 6 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1. Diffusion in calcite exhibits marked anisotropy, with diffusion parallel to c about two orders of magnitude slower than diffusion normal to cleavage faces. He diffusivities for transport normal to the c-axis are similar in value to those normal to cleavage surfaces. Our findings are broadly consistent with helium diffusivities from step-heating measurements of calcite by Copeland et al. (2007); these bulk degassing data may reflect varying effects of diffusional anisotropy. Helium diffusion normal to cleavage surfaces in dolomite is significantly slower than diffusion in calcite, and has a much higher activation energy for diffusion. For dolomite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation for He diffusion over the temperature range 150-400°C: Ddolomite = 9.0x10-8exp(-92 × 9 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1. The role of crystallographic structure in influencing these differences among diffusivities was evaluated using the maximum aperture approach of Cherniak and Watson (2011), in which crystallographic structures are sectioned along possible diffusion

  8. On regional innovator networks as hubs for innovative ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Wolf, Tina

    2016-01-01

    At least since Schumpeter published his work ‘The Theory of Economic Development’ (1912), a wide body of literature has focused on the evolutionary process behind firm growth and survival. Recently a growing interest is devoted to the variable ‘location’ as a critical factor, shaping firm...

  9. A Multilevel Analysis of eHub Adoption and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaanse, E.; Rodon, J.

    2005-01-01

    Although there has been a significant amount of research on the adoption of IS standards and consequences, most has tended to focus on traditional EDI standards, paying special attention to factors of individual adopters. However, the current proliferation of new IS standards, based on open

  10. Modeling the key factors that could influence the diffusion of CO2 from a wellbore blowout in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Shi, Hui; Yang, Duoxing; Wei, Xiaochen

    2016-11-26

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) blowout from a wellbore is regarded as a potential environment risk of a CO2 capture and storage (CCS) project. In this paper, an assumed blowout of a wellbore was examined for China's Shenhua CCS demonstration project. The significant factors that influenced the diffusion of CO2 were identified by using a response surface method with the Box-Behnken experiment design. The numerical simulations showed that the mass emission rate of CO2 from the source and the ambient wind speed have significant influence on the area of interest (the area of high CO2 concentration above 30,000 ppm). There is a strong positive correlation between the mass emission rate and the area of interest, but there is a strong negative correlation between the ambient wind speed and the area of interest. Several other variables have very little influence on the area of interest, e.g., the temperature of CO2, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and stability class values. Due to the weather conditions at the Shenhua CCS demonstration site at the time of the modeled CO2 blowout, the largest diffusion distance of CO2 in the downwind direction did not exceed 200 m along the centerline. When the ambient wind speed is in the range of 0.1-2.0 m/s and the mass emission rate is in the range of 60-120 kg/s, the range of the diffusion of CO2 is at the most dangerous level (i.e., almost all Grade Four marks in the risk matrix). Therefore, if the injection of CO2 takes place in a region that has relatively low perennial wind speed, special attention should be paid to the formulation of pre-planned, emergency measures in case there is a leakage accident. The proposed risk matrix that classifies and grades blowout risks can be used as a reference for the development of appropriate regulations. This work may offer some indicators in developing risk profiles and emergency responses for CO2 blowouts.

  11. Expression of CD40 is a positive prognostic factor of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Guoqi Song,1 Huiyun Ni,1 Linqing Zou,2 Shukui Wang,3 Fuliang Tian,4 Hong Liu,1 William C Cho5 1Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 2Department of Human Anatomy, Nantong University, Nantong, 3Central Laboratory of Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 4Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression level of CD40 and its role in the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL who were treated with rituximab-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone.Design and methods: The immunohistochemical expressions of CD40 in 186 well-characterized DLBCL patients were evaluated by tissue microarrays, thereby revealing the relationship of the molecule CD40 with known tumor, patient-related variables, and survival rates.Results: The results showed that CD40 expressions were not statistically different between the germinal center B-cell-like (GCB type and the non-GCB type. We also analyzed the relationships of CD40 expression with overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS in DLBCL patients who were uniformly treated with R-CHOP. A low expression of CD40 compared to high expression is related to poor OS and PFS. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the CD40 level at onset acts as an independent prognostic predictor of DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. Keywords: CD40, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, R-CHOP, prognostic factor

  12. Detection of prognostic factors in children and adolescents with Burkitt and Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma treated with the AIEOP LNH-97 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, Marta; Mussolin, Lara; Carraro, Elisa; Conter, Valentino; Aricò, Maurizio; Vinti, Luciana; Garaventa, Alberto; Piglione, Matilde; Buffardi, Salvatore; Sala, Alessandra; Santoro, Nicola; Lo Nigro, Luca; Mura, Rossella; Tondo, Annalisa; Casale, Fiorina; Farruggia, Piero; Pierani, Paolo; Cesaro, Simone; d'Amore, Emanuele S G; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) account for most cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in childhood. We report the clinical characteristics, outcome and prognostic factors in children with BL or DLBCL treated according to the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) LNH-97 protocol. Patients aged up to 18 years that were newly diagnosed with BL/DLBCL were included in the study. Therapy consisted of pre-phase followed by 2-6 high-dose chemotherapy courses tailored according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) value and disease stage. A total of 442 patients (379 BL, 63 DLBCL) were enrolled between 1997 and 2014, of whom 18 failed to achieve remission, 6 experienced treatment-related death, 2 developed second malignancy and 20 relapsed. At a median follow-up time of 5 years, overall survival was 93% (±1%) and event-free survival was 90% (±1%). LDH value above the median value had an independently negative prognostic value (P < 0·0001). However, in the subgroup of 128 patients in which minimal disseminated disease (MDD) was analysed, MDD-positivity became the only unfavourable prognostic factor for progression-free survival. Tailored chemotherapy could be extremely effective with limited toxicity. Identification of MDD as a hallmark of a higher risk of treatment failure may provide a target population for treatment intensification by anti-CD20. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Homodimerization Controls the Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 Subfamily's Receptor Binding and Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Diffusion in the Extracellular Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinina, J.; Byron, S; Makarenkova, H; Olsen, S; Eliseenkova, A; Larochelle, W; Dhanabal, M; Blais, S; Mohammadi, M; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Uncontrolled fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling can lead to human diseases, necessitating multiple layers of self-regulatory control mechanisms to keep its activity in check. Herein, we demonstrate that FGF9 and FGF20 ligands undergo a reversible homodimerization, occluding their key receptor binding sites. To test the role of dimerization in ligand autoinhibition, we introduced structure-based mutations into the dimer interfaces of FGF9 and FGF20. The mutations weakened the ability of the ligands to dimerize, effectively increasing the concentrations of monomeric ligands capable of binding and activating their cognate FGF receptor in vitro and in living cells. Interestingly, the monomeric ligands exhibit reduced heparin binding, resulting in their increased radii of heparan sulfate-dependent diffusion and biologic action, as evidenced by the wider dilation area of ex vivo lung cultures in response to implanted mutant FGF9-loaded beads. Hence, our data demonstrate that homodimerization autoregulates FGF9 and FGF20's receptor binding and concentration gradients in the extracellular matrix. Our study is the first to implicate ligand dimerization as an autoregulatory mechanism for growth factor bioactivity and sets the stage for engineering modified FGF9 subfamily ligands, with desired activity for use in both basic and translational research.

  14. The cerium magnetic form factor and diffuse polarization in CeRh{sub 3}B{sub 2} as functions of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givord, F [CEA-Grenoble, DSM/DRFMC/SPSMS/MDN, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Boucherle, J-X [CEA-Grenoble, DSM/DRFMC/SPSMS/MDN, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Lelievre-Berna, E [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Lejay, P [CRTBT, CNRS, 166X, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2004-03-03

    In the compound CeRh{sub 3}B{sub 2}, a rather special polarization of the conduction electrons along the c-chains of cerium atoms had been previously reported at low temperatures (Alonso et al 1998 J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 177-181 1048). The distribution of the CeRh{sub 3}B{sub 2} magnetization has now been studied as a function of temperature up to 150 K-that is, above the Curie temperature of 115 K. The magnetization density maps have been obtained from polarized neutron diffraction experiments by using the maximum entropy method. The cerium form factor has also been analysed. Calculations of the form factor including several multiplets are developed and it is shown that it is necessary to take into account the influence of the higher multiplet of the Ce{sup 3+} ion. This result is coherent with the observation of a peak at high energy in the inelastic neutron spectra, indicating a very large crystal electric field splitting. Both analyses lead to the same conclusion that, on heating, the diffuse negative magnetization observed at low temperature along the cerium chains disappears at the magnetic ordering temperature. The influence of the second multiplet of the Ce{sup 3+} ion could be part of the explanation for the low value of the 4f moment and the large Curie temperature in CeRh{sub 3}B{sub 2}.

  15. Sharing environmental models: An Approach using GitHub repositories and Web Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Nuest, Daniel; Pross, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    The GLUES (Global Assessment of Land Use Dynamics, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ecosystem Services) project established a spatial data infrastructure for scientific geospatial data and metadata (http://geoportal-glues.ufz.de), where different regional collaborative projects researching the impacts of climate and socio-economic changes on sustainable land management can share their underlying base scenarios and datasets. One goal of the project is to ease the sharing of computational models between institutions and to make them easily executable in Web-based infrastructures. In this work, we present such an approach for sharing computational models relying on GitHub repositories (http://github.com) and Web Processing Services. At first, model providers upload their model implementations to GitHub repositories in order to share them with others. The GitHub platform allows users to submit changes to the model code. The changes can be discussed and reviewed before merging them. However, while GitHub allows sharing and collaborating of model source code, it does not actually allow running these models, which requires efforts to transfer the implementation to a model execution framework. We thus have extended an existing implementation of the OGC Web Processing Service standard (http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps), the 52°North Web Processing Service (http://52north.org/wps) platform to retrieve all model implementations from a git (http://git-scm.com) repository and add them to the collection of published geoprocesses. The current implementation is restricted to models implemented as R scripts using WPS4R annotations (Hinz et al.) and to Java algorithms using the 52°North WPS Java API. The models hence become executable through a standardized Web API by multiple clients such as desktop or browser GIS and modelling frameworks. If the model code is changed on the GitHub platform, the changes are retrieved by the service and the processes will be updated

  16. Diabetes Mellitus as Hub for Tuberculosis Infection: A Snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB still remains the thorn in the flesh of efficient therapeutics affecting one-third of global population annually. There are several factors that enhance the susceptibility to TB infections including malnutrition, smoking, and immunocompromised conditions such as AIDS. In the recent years, growing body of evidence has gained considerable prominence which suggests that Diabetes Mellitus (DM is individual risk factor leading to complicated TB infections. In this article the authors have attempted to summarize the link of type 2 DM with TB, the mechanistic action of how DM sensitizes for developing the active TB infection from the latent infection, and problems faced during treatment followed by possible preventive measures. We have tried to give account of the alterations that occurred in DM making a person more prone to develop TB.

  17. Diabetes Mellitus as Hub for Tuberculosis Infection: A Snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rahul; Ansari, Moiz A; Hameed, Saif; Fatima, Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the thorn in the flesh of efficient therapeutics affecting one-third of global population annually. There are several factors that enhance the susceptibility to TB infections including malnutrition, smoking, and immunocompromised conditions such as AIDS. In the recent years, growing body of evidence has gained considerable prominence which suggests that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is individual risk factor leading to complicated TB infections. In this article the authors have attempted to summarize the link of type 2 DM with TB, the mechanistic action of how DM sensitizes for developing the active TB infection from the latent infection, and problems faced during treatment followed by possible preventive measures. We have tried to give account of the alterations that occurred in DM making a person more prone to develop TB.

  18. KINEMATIC ANALYSES OF THE GOLF SWING HUB PATH AND ITS ROLE IN GOLFER/CLUB KINETIC TRANSFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the fundamental geometric and kinematic characteristics of the swing hub path of the golf shot for four diverse subjects. In addition, the role of the hub path geometry in transferring the kinetic quantities from the golfer to the club were investigated. The hub path was found to have a complex geometry with significantly changing radii, and a constantly moving center-of-curvature during the downswing for all subjects. While the size and shape of the hub path differed considerably among the subjects, a three phase radius-based pattern was revealed that aligned with distinct stages of the downswing. Artificially controlling and optimizing the hub path of the better golfer in the group indicated that a non-circular hub path was superior to a constant radius path in minimizing the kinetic loading while generating the highest possible club head velocity. The shape and purpose of the hub path geometry appears to result from a complex combination of achieving equilibrium between the golfer and the club, and a purposeful configuring of the path to control the outward movement of the club while minimizing the kinetic loading on the golfer yet transferring the maximum kinetic quantities to the club. Describing the downswing relative to the hub path phasing is presented and was found to be informative since the phases align with significant swing, kinetic and kinematic markers. These findings challenge golf swing modeling methodologies which fix the center-of-curvature of the hub path thus constraining it to constant radius motion

  19. Effects of Diffuser Vane Geometry on Interaction Noise Generated from a Centrifugal Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka OHTA; Naho TAKEHARA; Yasuhiko OKUTSU; Eisuke OUTA

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of interaction tone noise radiated from a centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser are discussed by experiments, including visualization techniques using the oil-film method. Research attention is paid to the leading edge geometries of the diffuser vanes that are deeply related to the generation mechanism of the interaction tone noise. The compressor-radiated noise can be reduced by several decibels by setting some clearances in both the hub and shroud surfaces of the diffuser wall along with some decline in the pressure-rise coefficient. Since the decline turned out to be caused by the flow impingement and also by the secondary flow within the diffuser passages, several new types of diffuser vane geometries which do not detract from both the performance and noise level are developed and utilized for the experiments. The presented diffuser vane geometries will offer a few basic guidelines for the diffuser vane design.

  20. The Bass diffusion model on networks with correlations and inhomogeneous advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, M. L.; Brunner, J.; Modanese, G.

    2016-09-01

    The Bass model, which is an effective forecasting tool for innovation diffusion based on large collections of empirical data, assumes an homogeneous diffusion process. We introduce a network structure into this model and we investigate numerically the dynamics in the case of networks with link density $P(k)=c/k^\\gamma$, where $k=1, \\ldots , N$. The resulting curve of the total adoptions in time is qualitatively similar to the homogeneous Bass curve corresponding to a case with the same average number of connections. The peak of the adoptions, however, tends to occur earlier, particularly when $\\gamma$ and $N$ are large (i.e., when there are few hubs with a large maximum number of connections). Most interestingly, the adoption curve of the hubs anticipates the total adoption curve in a predictable way, with peak times which can be, for instance when $N=100$, between 10% and 60% of the total adoptions peak. This may allow to monitor the hubs for forecasting purposes. We also consider the case of networks with assortative and disassortative correlations and a case of inhomogeneous advertising where the publicity terms are "targeted" on the hubs while maintaining their total cost constant.

  1. From hub proteins to hub modules: the relationship between essentiality and centrality in the yeast interactome at different scales of organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Song

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested that hub proteins in the S. cerevisiae physical interaction network are more likely to be essential than other proteins. The proposed reasons underlying this observed relationship between topology and functioning have been subject to some controversy, with recent work suggesting that it arises due to the participation of hub proteins in essential complexes and processes. However, do these essential modules themselves have distinct network characteristics, and how do their essential proteins differ in their topological properties from their non-essential proteins? We aimed to advance our understanding of protein essentiality by analyzing proteins, complexes and processes within their broader functional context and by considering physical interactions both within and across complexes and biological processes. In agreement with the view that essentiality is a modular property, we found that the number of intracomplex or intraprocess interactions that a protein has is a better indicator of its essentiality than its overall number of interactions. Moreover, we found that within an essential complex, its essential proteins have on average more interactions, especially intracomplex interactions, than its non-essential proteins. Finally, we built a module-level interaction network and found that essential complexes and processes tend to have higher interaction degrees in this network than non-essential complexes and processes; that is, they exhibit a larger amount of functional cross-talk than their non-essential counterparts.

  2. 基于资源优化的枢纽机场中转仿真%Simulation on Hub-Airport Transfer Based on Resources Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓光; 朱金福; 陶婧婧

    2012-01-01

    机场资源的有限性是限制枢纽机场发展的最重要因素之一,如何能够提高中转资源的利用率已经成为改善枢纽机场中转运行效率的关键性问题.采用离散事件仿真技术根据中转航班旅客到达人数的变化实时分配中转资源,并使用SIMIO仿真软件实现了上海浦东国际机场的中转运行情况,以基于资源优化的思想,为每个航班动态指派中转资源.优化结果表明,实时分配的机场资源提高了中转资源的利用率.%An airport's resources are limited, which becomes one of the most important factors to limit the development of hub-airports. How to improve the resource utilization has become the key issue to improve the transfer efficiency of a hub airport. This paper used the method of discrete-event simulation to dynamic allocate the transfer resources according to the real-time change of the quantity of passengers arrival on the transfer flights, and simulated the transfer operation of Shanghai Pudong International Airport by using the simulation software SIMIO. This simulation dynamically assigned the transfer resources to each flight based on resources optimization. The optimization results show that the dynamic allocation of airport resources can improve the utilization of transfer resources, thus of the important reference for daily management of hub-airport.

  3. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  4. Omni directional mobile robot capable of variable foot printing based on hub type drive module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Joong; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Hwi Su; Song, Jae Bok [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In recent years, an increased amount of research has been carried out on mobile robots to improve the performance of service robots. Mobile robots maximize the mobility of service robots, thus allowing them to work in different areas. However, conventional service robots have their center of mass placed high above the ground, which may cause them to fall when moving at high speed. Furthermore, hub type actuators, which are often used for mobile robots, are large and expensive. In this study, we propose a mobile robot with a hub type actuator unit and a variable footprint mechanism. The proposed variable footprint mechanism greatly improves the stability and mobility of the robot, allowing it to move freely in a narrow space and carry out various tasks. The performance of the proposed robot is verified experimentally.

  5. Replenishment policy and inventory optimization for supply-hub with liability period consideration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李果; 黄焜; 姚琦; 马士华

    2013-01-01

    A replenishment decision-making model for supply-hub is firstly established from the angle of supplier, and optimal replenishment decision of the supplier is analyzed. Then, inventory optimization model for supply-hub is formulated from the angle of the manufacturer, and the optimization algorithm for obtaining optimal inventory levels is given. The result shows that liability period decides the share of the inventory cost between two sides in supply chain. With the increase of liability period, the service level has been quickly reduced even though the manufacturer’s cost has been cut down by transferring the inventory cost to the supplier. As to the safety inventory, if the lower bound of components safety inventory increases, the supplier’s cost will rise up more slowly than the liability period does, while the service levels increases as the safety inventory’s lower bound is raised.

  6. Dynamic network participation of functional connectivity hubs assessed by resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eSchaefer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Network studies of large-scale brain connectivity have demonstrated that highly connected areas, or ‘hubs’, are a key feature of human functional and structural brain organization. We use resting-state functional MRI data and connectivity clustering to identify multi network hubs and show that while hubs can belong to multiple networks their degree of integration into these different networks varies dynamically over time. In addition, we found that these network dynamics were inversely related to positive self-generated thoughts reported by individuals and were further decreased with older age. Moreover, the left caudate varied its degree of participation between a default mode subnetwork and a limbic network. This variation was predictive of individual differences in the reports of past-related thoughts. These results support an association between ongoing thought processes and network dynamics and offer a new approach to investigate the brain dynamics underlying mental experience.

  7. Fast reversible learning based on neurons functioning as anisotropic multiplex hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Roni; Goldental, Amir; Sheinin, Anton; Sardi, Shira; Kanter, Ido

    2017-05-01

    Neural networks are composed of neurons and synapses, which are responsible for learning in a slow adaptive dynamical process. Here we experimentally show that neurons act like independent anisotropic multiplex hubs, which relay and mute incoming signals following their input directions. Theoretically, the observed information routing enriches the computational capabilities of neurons by allowing, for instance, equalization among different information routes in the network, as well as high-frequency transmission of complex time-dependent signals constructed via several parallel routes. In addition, this kind of hubs adaptively eliminate very noisy neurons from the dynamics of the network, preventing masking of information transmission. The timescales for these features are several seconds at most, as opposed to the imprint of information by the synaptic plasticity, a process which exceeds minutes. Results open the horizon to the understanding of fast and adaptive learning realities in higher cognitive brain's functionalities.

  8. Clinical bioethics integration, sustainability, and accountability: the Hub and Spokes Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, S; Chidwick, P; Berry, S; Secker, B; Hébert, P; Shaul, R Zlotnik; Faith, K; Singer, P A

    2005-05-01

    The "lone" clinical bioethicist working in a large, multisite hospital faces considerable challenges. While attempting to build ethics capacity and sustain a demanding range of responsibilities, he or she must also achieve an acceptable level of integration, sustainability, and accountability within a complex organisational structure. In an effort to address such inherent demands and to create a platform towards better evaluation and effectiveness, the Clinical Ethics Group at the Joint Centre for Bioethics at the University of Toronto is implementing the Hub and Spokes Strategy at seven hospitals. The goal of the Hub and Spokes Strategy is to foster an ethical climate and strengthen ethics capacity broadly throughout healthcare settings as well as create models in clinical bioethics that are excellent and effective.

  9. Giant hub Src and Syk tyrosine kinase thermodynamic profiles recapitulate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic scaling theory, previously applied mainly to small proteins, here analyzes quantitative evolution of the titled functional network giant hub enzymes. The broad domain structure identified homologically is confirmed hydropathically using amino acid sequences only. The most surprising results concern the evolution of the tyrosine kinase globular surface roughness from avians to mammals, which is first order, compared to the evolution within mammals from rodents to humans, which is second order. The mystery of the unique amide terminal region of proto oncogene tyrosine protein kinase is resolved by the discovery there of a rare hydroneutral septad targeting cluster, which is paralleled by an equally rare octad catalytic cluster in tyrosine kinase in humans and a few other species (cat and dog). These results, which go far towards explaining why these proteins are among the largest giant hubs in protein interaction networks, use no adjustable parameters.

  10. Hub and spoke model: making rural healthcare in India affordable, available and accessible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Srichand

    2016-01-01

    Quality health care should be within everyone's reach, especially in a developing country. While India has the largest private health sector in the world, only one-fifth of healthcare expenditure is publically financed; it is mostly an out-of-pocket expense. About 70% of Indians live in rural areas making about $3 per day, and a major portion of that goes towards food and shelter and, thus, not towards health care. Transportation facilities in rural India are poor, making access to medical facilities difficult, and infrastructure facilities are minimal, making the available medical care insufficient. The challenge presented to India was to provide health care that was accessible, available and affordable to people in rural areas and the low-income bracket. The intent of this article is to determine whether the hub and spoke model (HSM), when implemented in the healthcare industry, can expand the market reach and increase profits while reducing costs of operations for organizations and, thereby, cost to customers. This article also discusses the importance of information and communications technologies (ICT) in the HSM approach, which the handful of published articles in this topic have failed to discuss. This article opts for an exploratory study, including review of published literature, web articles, viewpoints of industry experts, published journals, and in-depth interviews. This article will discuss how and why the HSM works in India's healthcare industry while isolating its strengths and weaknesses, and analyzing the impact of India's success. India's HSM implementation has become a paramount example of an acceptable model that, while exceeding the needs and expectations of its patients, is cost-effective and has obtained operational and health-driven results. Despite being an emerging nation, India takes the top spot in terms of affordability of ICT as well as for having the highest number of computer-literate graduates and healthcare workers in the world

  11. Sensor Networks Hierarchical Optimization Model for Security Monitoring in High-Speed Railway Transport Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the sensor networks hierarchical optimization problem in high-speed railway transport hub (HRTH. The sensor networks are optimized from three hierarchies which are key area sensors optimization, passenger line sensors optimization, and whole area sensors optimization. Case study on a specific HRTH in China showed that the hierarchical optimization method is effective to optimize the sensor networks for security monitoring in HRTH.

  12. Wheels, hubs and spokes: incorporating a scorecard into a business continuity programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stourac, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    A scorecard can provide much more than periodic measurements; it can actually serve as the 'hub' of a programme. By taking a strategic look at what one is trying to accomplish, using consistent messaging, following a flexible but defined process and creating an actionable report for the senior leadership, a programme can be built that not only gets attention but is also efficient and effective. The scorecard establishes accountability and consistency while creating a brand for a business continuity programme.

  13. Free vibrations of a flexible tapered arm attached to a compliant hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, W. Lionel, Jr.; Carrasco, Armando H.

    1991-05-01

    A single link flexible robot arm can be modeled as a Bernoulli Euler beam to describe its dynamic behavior. The first six natural frequencies for a flexible uniform beam attached to a compliant hub undergoing free vibration have previously been presented. This article extends the work to that of a linearly tapered robot arm. The equations of motion are presented and the characteristic determinant is derived. The determinant is then solved for the first five natural frequencies of the system.

  14. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoping; Guo, Linghong; Dai, Xi-Jian; Wang, Qinglai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Miao, Xinjun; Gong, Honghan

    2017-01-01

    To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features. Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years) and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years) were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ) were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs. Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6), right hippocampus (BA 35, 36), and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11) and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18), and left precuneus (BA 7, 19). SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R(2)=0.296, P=0.006). The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear to be disrupted by alcohol intoxication, which implicates at least three principal neural systems: including cerebellar, executive control, and visual cortex, which may further affect the normal motor behavior such as an explicit type of impaired driving behavior. These findings expand our understanding of the functional characteristics of alcohol dependence and may provide a new insight into the understanding of the dysfunction and pathophysiology of alcohol dependence.

  15. Growing with Global Production Sharing: The Tale of Penang Export Hub

    OpenAIRE

    Prema-chandra Athukorala

    2011-01-01

    Global production sharing—the division of production processes into geographically separated stages—is a central feature of economic globalization. This study seeks to broaden our understanding of global production sharing, and to explore policy options for developing countries to engage effectively in production networks through a case study of the export production hub in the State of Penang, Malaysia. The findings uphold Penang as a unique example of marrying national development strat...

  16. Building a static website with Jekyll and GitHub Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Visconti

    2016-01-01

    This lesson is for you if you’d like an entirely free, easy-to-maintain, preservation-friendly, secure website over which you have full control, such as a scholarly blog, project website, or online portfolio. At the end of this lesson, you’ll have learned to use technology including Jekyll static site generation and GitHub Pages hosting to create a basic live website where you can publish content that other people can visit.

  17. Establishment of a Hub for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Online Monitoring Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Magdy S. Tawfik; Binh T. Pham

    2011-08-01

    Implementation of online monitoring and prognostics in existing U.S. nuclear power plants will involve coordinating the efforts of national laboratories, utilities, universities, and private companies. Internet-based collaborative work environments provide necessary communication tools to facilitate interaction between geographically diverse participants. Available technologies were considered, and a collaborative workspace was established at INL as a hub for the light water reactor sustainability online monitoring community.

  18. Using the diffusion of innovations theory to assess socio-technical factors in planning the implementation of an electronic health record alert across multiple primary care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Pin; Guirguis-Blake, Janelle; Keppel, Gina A; Dobie, Sharon; Osborn, Justin; Cole, Allison M; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2016-04-15

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a leading cause of death in the United States. Patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at particular risk because many medications are cleared by the kidneys. Alerts in the electronic health record (EHR) about drug appropriateness and dosing at the time of prescription have been shown to reduce ADEs for patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD in inpatient settings, but more research is needed about the implementation and effectiveness of such alerts in outpatient settings.  To explore factors that might inform the implementation of an electronic drug-disease alert for patients with CKD in primary care clinics, using Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory as an analytic framework. Interviews were conducted with key informants in four diverse clinics using various EHR systems. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. results Although all clinics had a current method for calculating glomerular filtration rate (GFR), clinics were heterogeneous with regard to current electronic decision support practices, quality improvement resources, and organizational culture and structure. Understanding variation in organizational culture and infrastructure across primary care clinics is important in planning implementation of an intervention to reduce ADEs among patients with CKD.

  19. Diffusible signal factor (DSF) quorum sensing signal and structurally related molecules enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of antibiotics against some bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive use of antibiotics has fostered the emergence of superbugs that are resistant to multidrugs, which becomes a great healthcare and public concern. Previous studies showed that quorum sensing signal DSF (diffusible signal factor) not only modulates bacterial antibiotic resistance through intraspecies signaling, but also affects bacterial antibiotic tolerance through interspecies communication. These findings motivate us to exploit the possibility of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as adjuvants to influence antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. Results In this study, we have demonstrated that DSF signal and its structurally related molecules could be used to induce bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Exogenous addition of DSF signal (cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid) and its structural analogues could significantly increase the antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus, possibly through reducing drug-resistant activity, biofilm formation and bacterial fitness. The synergistic effect of DSF and its structurally related molecules with antibiotics on B. cereus is dosage-dependent. Combination of DSF with gentamicin showed an obviously synergistic effect on B. cereus pathogenicity in an in vitro model. We also found that DSF could increase the antibiotic susceptibility of other bacterial species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Neisseria subflava and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion The results indicate a promising potential of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as novel adjuvants to conventional antibiotics for treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. PMID:24575808

  20. Smoking restrictions in large-hub airports --- United States, 2002 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes death and disease in both nonsmoking adults and children, including cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. SHS exposure causes an estimated 46,000 heart disease deaths and 3,400 lung cancer deaths among U.S. nonsmoking adults annually. Adopting policies that completely eliminate smoking in all indoor areas is the only effective way to eliminate involuntary SHS exposure. In 2009, an estimated 696 million aircraft passenger boardings occurred in the United States. A 2002 survey of airport smoking policies found that 42% of 31 large-hub U.S. airports had policies requiring all indoor areas to be smoke-free. To update that finding, CDC analyzed the smoking policies of airports categorized as large-hub in 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, although 22 (76%) of the 29 large-hub airports surveyed were smoke-free indoors, seven airports permitted smoking in certain indoor locations, including three of the five busiest airports. Although a majority of airports reported having specifically designated smoking areas outdoors in 2010 (79%) and/or prohibiting smoking within a minimum distance of entryways (69%), no airport completely prohibited smoking on all airport property. Smoke-free policies at the state, local, or airport authority level are needed for all airports to protect air travelers and workers at airports from SHS.

  1. Penentuan Pelabuhan Hub untuk Crude Palm Oil (CPO Ekspor di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Andi Haranto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available CPO (Crude Palm Oil merupakan salah satu komoditi ekspor terbesar di Indonesia. Moda angkut darat dan sungai menjadi pilihan untuk didistribusikan menuju calon pelabuhan hub. Tugas Akhir ini bertujuan untuk merencanakan pola operasi armada pengangkut CPO, dan penentuan pelabuhan hub untuk ekspor CPO. Metode Transportasi digunakan untuk memilih pabrik pengolahan CPO sebagai pemasok utama. Dari hasil analisis didapatkan bahwa penggunaan moda darat menggunakan truk lebih optimal dibandingkan menggunakan tongkang hal ini dikarenakan kondisi sungai di Kalimantan Tengah yang dangkal. Dengan menggunakan metode transportasi didapatkan empat lokasi pabrik pengolahan minyak kelapa sawit. Pelabuhan hub yang terpilih berlokasi di Bagendang dan Bumi Harjo. Kedua titik tersebut dipilih karena sudah memiliki tangki timbun dan dermaga untuk ekspor CPO, selain itu pemilihan berdasarkan hasil analisa didapatkan biaya dari Pabrik PT. ATLANTIS ke Pelabuhan Bagendang dengan truk berukuran 10 ton memerlukan biaya sebesar Rp. 333.016,25/TRIP/TRUK. Pabrik PT. ATLANTIS II ke Pelabuhan Bagendang Rp. 237.868,75/TRIP/TRUK. Pabrik PT. TIGER ke Pelabuhan Bumi Harjo Rp. 475.737,50/TRIP/TRUK. PT. TIGER II merupakan pabrik yang dapat melakukan pengiriman langsung menggunakan tongkang berukuran 1800 DWT melewati sungai Barito, dengan biaya Rp.123.007.828,27,- /voyage.

  2. HIGH CYCLE FATIGUE RELIABILITY ANALYSIS ON ROTOR HUB BASED ON APPROXIMATION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜年朝; 周光明; 张逊; 戴勇; 倪俊; 张志清

    2013-01-01

    A high cycle fatigue reliability analysis approach to helicopter rotor hub is proposed under working load spectrum .Automatic calculation for the approach is implemented through writing the calculating programs .In the system ,the modification of geometric model of rotor hub is controlled by several parameters ,and finite element method and S-N curve method are then employed to solve the fatigue life by automatically assigned parameters .A database between assigned parameters and fatigue life is obtained via Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) on toler-ance zone of rotor hub .Different data-fitting technologies are used and compared to determine a highest-precision approximation for this database .The parameters are assumed to be independent of each other and follow normal distributions .Fatigue reliability is then computed by the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the mean-value first order second moment (M FOSM ) method .Results show that the approach has high efficiency and precision ,and is suit-able for engineering application .

  3. A fractal growth model: Exploring the connection pattern of hubs in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongyan; Wang, Xingyuan; Huang, Penghe

    2017-04-01

    Fractal is ubiquitous in many real-world networks. Previous researches showed that the strong disassortativity between the hub-nodes on all length scales was the key principle that gave rise to the fractal architecture of networks. Although fractal property emerged in some models, there were few researches about the fractal growth model and quantitative analyses about the strength of the disassortativity for fractal model. In this paper, we proposed a novel inverse renormalization method, named Box-based Preferential Attachment (BPA), to build the fractal growth models in which the Preferential Attachment was performed at box level. The proposed models provided a new framework that demonstrated small-world-fractal transition. Also, we firstly demonstrated the statistical characteristic of connection patterns of the hubs in fractal networks. The experimental results showed that, given proper growing scale and added edges, the proposed models could clearly show pure small-world or pure fractal or both of them. It also showed that the hub connection ratio showed normal distribution in many real-world networks. At last, the comparisons of connection pattern between the proposed models and the biological and technical networks were performed. The results gave useful reference for exploring the growth principle and for modeling the connection patterns for real-world networks.

  4. Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec reduced neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Louise; Ohlin, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec could reduce the incidence of neonatal sepsis in a level-three neonatal intensive care unit. We studied the incidence of neonatal sepsis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) for 16.5 months before the initiative was launched on May 15, 2012 and then for a further 8.5 months after it was introduced. The hub routine was applied to all intravenous catheters. During the control period before the initiative was launched, there were nine cases of CoNS sepsis compared with no cases after it was introduced, resulting in a decrease in sepsis incidence from 1.5% to 0% with a risk reduction of 1.5% (0.53-2.58%) (p = 0.06). In the preterm infant population, the incidence of sepsis decreased from 3.6% to 0% (1.1-6.0%) (p = 0.11). Scrubbing the hub of intravenous catheters with an alcohol wipe for 15 sec seemed to be an efficient way of preventing sepsis caused by CoNS in newborn infants. However, the evidence for the benefits will remain weak until a large randomised trial has been completed. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Simulation study on three casting processes for a marine propeller hub body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tongmin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The mold filling and solidification process of a marine propeller hub were simulated using ProCAST? Three casting processes ?gravity casting, centrifugal casting and low pressure casting ?were compared in order to get the best process. The heat transfer coefficient of the casting/mold interface was determined using a reverse method. The simulated results of velocity, temperature and shrinkage porosity distribution were discussed in detail for the three casting processes. A smooth filling was found in all three casting processes, especially the low pressure casting exhibiting a better filling performance than the other two, but the solidification processes were different. The casting did not experience the sequential solidification, and the feeding paths were blocked, leading to shrinkage porosity defects in the riser and the bottom of the casting in gravity casting and in the upper zone of the casting in low pressure casting. While, the sequential solidification was well controlled in the solidification process of centrifugal casting, and majority of the shrinkage porosity defects can only be observed in the riser. It could be concluded that the centrifugal casting process is the most suitable casting process for the production of propeller hub body. The casting experiments verified the simulation results, and a defect-free propeller hub was obtained by centrifugal casting with a rotational speed of 150 r.in-1.

  6. Multi-task connectivity reveals flexible hubs for adaptive task control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Reynolds, Jeremy R.; Power, Jonathan D.; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan; Braver, Todd S.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence suggests the human ability to adaptively implement a wide variety of tasks is preferentially due to the operation of a fronto-parietal brain network. We hypothesized that this network’s adaptability is made possible by ‘flexible hubs’ – brain regions that rapidly update their pattern of global functional connectivity according to task demands. We utilized recent advances in characterizing brain network organization and dynamics to identify mechanisms consistent with the flexible hub theory. We found that the fronto-parietal network’s brain-wide functional connectivity pattern shifted more than other networks’ across a variety of task states, and that these connectivity patterns could be used to identify the current task. Further, these patterns were consistent across practiced and novel tasks, suggesting reuse of flexible hub connectivity patterns facilitates adaptive (novel) task performance. Together, these findings support a central role for fronto-parietal flexible hubs in cognitive control and adaptive implementation of task demands generally. PMID:23892552

  7. Unsteady Velocity Measurements Taken Behind a Model Helicopter Rotor Hub in Forward Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Drag caused by separated flow behind the hub of a helicopter has an adverse effect on aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. To determine the effect of separated flow on a configuration used extensively for helicopter aerodynamic investigations, an experiment was conducted using a laser velocimeter to measure velocities in the wake of a model helicopter hub operating at Mach-scaled conditions in forward flight. Velocity measurements were taken using a laser velocimeter with components in the vertical and downstream directions. Measurements were taken at 13 stations downstream from the rotor hub. At each station, measurements were taken in both a horizontal and vertical row of locations. These measurements were analyzed for harmonic content based on the rotor period of revolution. After accounting for these periodic velocities, the remaining unsteady velocities were treated as turbulence. Turbulence intensity distributions are presented. Average turbulent intensities ranged from approximately 2 percent of free stream to over 15 percent of free stream at specific locations and azimuths. The maximum average value of turbulence was located near the rear-facing region of the fuselage.

  8. Characteristics of steady vibration in a rotating hub-beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Caishan; Ma, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A rotating beam features a puzzling character in which its frequencies and modal shapes may vary with the hub's inertia and its rotating speed. To highlight the essential nature behind the vibration phenomena, we analyze the steady vibration of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam with a quasi-steady-state stretch. Newton's law is used to derive the equations governing the beam's elastic motion and the hub's rotation. A combination of these equations results in a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) that fully reflects the mutual interaction between the two kinds of motion. Via the Fourier series expansion within a finite interval of time, we reduce the PDE into an infinite system of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) in spatial domain. We further nondimensionalize the ODE and discretize it via a difference method. The frequencies and modal shapes of a general rotating beam are then determined numerically. For a low-speed beam where the ignorance of geometric stiffening is feasible, the beam's vibration characteristics are solved analytically. We validate our numerical method and the analytical solutions by comparing with either the past experiments or the past numerical findings reported in existing literature. Finally, systematic simulations are performed to demonstrate how the beam's eigenfrequencies vary with the hub's inertia and rotating speed.

  9. Continuous Integration for Concurrent MOOSE Framework and Application Development on GitHub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Slaughter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For the past several years, Idaho National Laboratory’s MOOSE framework team has employed modern software engineering techniques (continuous integration, joint application/framework source code repos- itories, automated regression testing, etc. in developing closed-source multiphysics simulation software (Gaston et al., 'Journal of Open Research Software' vol. 2, article e10, 2014. In March 2014, the MOOSE framework was released under an open source license on GitHub, significantly expanding and diversifying the pool of current active and potential future contributors on the project. Despite this recent growth, the same philosophy of concurrent framework and application development continues to guide the project’s development roadmap. Several specific practices, including techniques for managing multiple repositories, conducting automated regression testing, and implementing a cascading build process are discussed in this short paper. Special attention is given to describing the manner in which these practices naturally synergize with the GitHub API and GitHub-specific features such as issue tracking, Pull Requests, and project forks.

  10. Toxické látky vyšších hub

    OpenAIRE

    Ascherová, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Tato práce je věnovaná problematice toxických látek vyšších hub. Tematicky je rozčleněna do tří oddílů. V první části se zabývá chemickým složením hub, kde klade hlavní důraz na obsah těžkých kovů a léčivých látek. Následující oddíl je zaměřen na houby jedovaté, jejich nejvýznamnější zástupce a mechanismus působení jedů. Část třetí objasňuje problematiku hub jedlých a otravy, které mohou způsobit. Především se jedná o biogenní aminy, práce popisuje jejich chemické složení, vznik, strukturu a ...

  11. The air transportation hub-and-spoke design problem: comparison between a continuous and a discrete solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guina Sotomayor Alzamora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hub-and-spoke network design problem, also known as the hub location problem, aims to find the concentration points in a given network flow so that the sum of the distances of the linkages is minimized. In this work, we compare discrete solutions of this problem, given by the branch-and-cut method applied to the p-hub median model, with continuous solutions, given by the hyperbolic smoothing technique applied to a min-sum-min model. Computational experiments for particular instances of the Brazilian air transportation system, with the number of hubs varying from 2 to 8, are conducted with the support of a discretization heuristic and the Voronoi diagram.

  12. HuB localizes to polysomes and alters C/EBP-beta expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Kira R; Jain, Renu G; Dudek, Ronald W; Pekala, Phillip H

    2004-01-16

    The RNA binding protein HuB was ectopically expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and localized primarily to the nucleus, as the cells differentiated HuB redistributed to the cytosol and on analysis localized to the dense polysomes. Electron micrographs confirm association of HuB with the ribosomes in the adipocytes consistent with a proposed role in control of translation and mRNA stability. Examination of the expression of C/EBP-beta in the cells expressing HuB relative to the parental 3T3-L1 adipocytes demonstrated an alteration in the LAP to LIP ratio. The data support a role for endogenous Hu proteins in the differentiation process, potentially affecting the rate of differentiation by controlling the concentration of the dominant negative transcription inhibitor, LIP.

  13. Relativistic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  14. Evaluating and modeling the effects of surface sampling factors on the recovery of organic chemical attribution signatures using the accelerated diffusion sampler and solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Kai-For; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an experimental design matrix was created and executed in order to test the effects of various real-world factors on the ability of the (1) accelerated diffusion sampler with solid phase micro-extraction (ADS-SPME) and (2) solvent extraction to capture organic chemical attribution signatures (CAS) from dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) spiked onto painted wall board (PWB) surfaces. The DMMP CAS organic impurities sampled by ADS-SPME and solvent extraction were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The number of detected DMMP CAS impurities and their respective GC/MS peak areas were determined as a function of DMMP stock, DMMP spiked volume, exposure time, SPME sampling time, and ADS headspace pressure. Based on the statistical analysis of experimental results, several general conclusions are made: (1) ADS-SPME with vacuum (i.e., reduced pressure) increased the amount of detected CAS impurity, as measured by GC/MS peak area, by a factor of 1.7 to 1.9 for PWB under certain experimental conditions, (2) the amount of detected CAS impurity was most influenced by spiked volume, stock, and ADS headspace pressure, (3) the ADS had no measurable effect on the number of detected DMMP impurities, that is, the ADS (with and without reduced pressure) had no practical effect on the DMMP impurity profile collected from spiked PWB, and (4) solvent extraction out performed ADS-SPME in terms of consistently capturing all or most of the targeted DMMP impurities from spiked PWB.

  15. C-MYC aberrations as prognostic factors in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kuangguo; Xu, Danmei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Jue; Yang, Yunfan; Huang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have investigated the prognostic value of C-MYC aberrations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the role of C-MYC as an independent prognostic factor in clinical practice remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to clarify the clinical significance of C-MYC aberrations in DLBCL patients. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were calculated as the main effect size estimates. The procedure was conducted according to the Cochrane handbook and PRISMA guidelines, including the use of a heterogeneity test, publication bias assessment, and meta-regression, as well as subgroup analyses. Twenty-four eligible studies enrolling 4662 patients were included in this meta-analysis. According to the nature of C-MYC aberrations (gene, protein, and mRNA), studies were divided into several subgroups. For DLBCL patients with C-MYC gene abnormalities, the combined HR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.89 to 2.61) for OS and 2.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.81 to 2.90) for EFS, compared to patients without C-MYC gene abnormalities. For DLBCL patients with overexpression of C-MYC protein and C-MYC mRNA, pooled HRs for OS were 2.13 and 1.62, respectively. C-MYC aberrations appeared to play an independent role among other well-known prognostic factors in DLBCL. Addition of rituximab could not overcome the inferior prognosis conferred by C-MYC. The present systematic review and meta-analysis confirm the prognostic value of C-MYC aberrations. Screening of C-MYC should have definite prognostic meaning for DLBCL stratification, thus guaranteeing a more tailored therapy.

  16. Evaluating and modeling the effects of surface sampling factors on the recovery of organic chemical attribution signatures using the accelerated diffusion sampler and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Kai-For; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Fraga, Carlos G

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an experimental design matrix was created and executed to test the effects of various real-world factors on the ability of (1) the accelerated diffusion sampler with solid phase micro-extraction (ADS-SPME) and (2) solvent extraction to capture organic chemical attribution signatures (CAS) from dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) spiked onto painted wall board (PWB) surfaces. The DMMP CAS organic impurities sampled by ADS-SPME and solvent extraction were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The number of detected DMMP CAS impurities and their respective GC/MS peak areas were determined as a function of DMMP stock, DMMP spiked volume, exposure time, SPME sampling time, and ADS headspace pressure. Based on the statistical analysis of experimental results, several general conclusions are made: (1) the amount of CAS impurity detected using ADS-SPME and GC/MS was most influenced by spiked volume, stock, and ADS headspace pressure, (2) reduced ADS headspace pressure increased the amount of detected CAS impurity, as measured by GC/MS peak area, by up to a factor of 1.7-1.9 compared to ADS at ambient headspace pressure, (3) the ADS had no measurable effect on the number of detected DMMP impurities, that is, ADS (with and without reduced pressure) had no practical effect on the DMMP impurity profile collected from spiked PWB, and (4) solvent extraction out performed ADS-SPME in terms of consistently capturing all or most of the targeted DMMP impurities from spiked PWB.

  17. Using diffusion of innovation theory to understand the factors impacting patient acceptance and use of consumer e-health innovations: a case study in a primary care clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Ping; Yan, Jun; Ton A M Spil, Ir

    2015-02-21

    Consumer e-Health is a potential solution to the problems of accessibility, quality and costs of delivering public healthcare services to patients. Although consumer e-Health has proliferated in recent years, it remains unclear if patients are willing and able to accept and use this new and rapidly developing technology. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the factors influencing patients' acceptance and usage of consumer e-health innovations. A simple but typical consumer e-health innovation--an e-appointment scheduling service--was developed and implemented in a primary health care clinic in a regional town in Australia. A longitudinal case study was undertaken for 29 months after system implementation. The major factors influencing patients' acceptance and use of the e-appointment service were examined through the theoretical lens of Rogers' innovation diffusion theory. Data were collected from the computer log records of 25,616 patients who visited the medical centre in the entire study period, and from in-depth interviews with 125 patients. The study results show that the overall adoption rate of the e-appointment service increased slowly from 1.5% at 3 months after implementation, to 4% at 29 months, which means only the 'innovators' had used this new service. The majority of patients did not adopt this innovation. The factors contributing to the low the adoption rate were: (1) insufficient communication about the e-appointment service to the patients, (2) lack of value of the e-appointment service for the majority of patients who could easily make phone call-based appointment, and limitation of the functionality of the e-appointment service, (3) incompatibility of the new service with the patients' preference for oral communication with receptionists, and (4) the limitation of the characteristics of the patients, including their low level of Internet literacy, lack of access to a computer or the Internet at home, and a lack of experience with

  18. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    1 Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor Carlos Malpica...radiation. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of BVI noise radiation to changes in the hub pitch moment trim state...calculations the aerodynamic loads on the blades were evaluated at azimuth intervals of 15 deg. The relatively large time (azimuth) step is

  19. Dynamically Allocated Hub in Task-Evoked Network Predicts the Vulnerable Prefrontal Locus for Contextual Memory Retrieval in Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Osada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging and neurophysiology have revealed that multiple areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC are activated in a specific memory task, but severity of impairment after PFC lesions is largely different depending on which activated area is damaged. The critical relationship between lesion sites and impairments has not yet been given a clear mechanistic explanation. Although recent works proposed that a whole-brain network contains hubs that play integrative roles in cortical information processing, this framework relying on an anatomy-based structural network cannot account for the vulnerable locus for a specific task, lesioning of which would bring impairment. Here, we hypothesized that (i activated PFC areas dynamically form an ordered network centered at a task-specific "functional hub" and (ii the lesion-effective site corresponds to the "functional hub," but not to a task-invariant "structural hub." To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments in macaques performing a temporal contextual memory task. We found that the activated areas formed a hierarchical hub-centric network based on task-evoked directed connectivity, differently from the anatomical network reflecting axonal projection patterns. Using a novel simulated-lesion method based on support vector machine, we estimated severity of impairment after lesioning of each area, which accorded well with a known dissociation in contextual memory impairment in macaques (impairment after lesioning in area 9/46d, but not in area 8Ad. The predicted severity of impairment was proportional to the network "hubness" of the virtually lesioned area in the task-evoked directed connectivity network, rather than in the anatomical network known from tracer studies. Our results suggest that PFC areas dynamically and cooperatively shape a functional hub-centric network to reallocate the lesion-effective site depending on the cognitive processes, apart from

  20. Dynamically Allocated Hub in Task-Evoked Network Predicts the Vulnerable Prefrontal Locus for Contextual Memory Retrieval in Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takahiro; Adachi, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Jimura, Koji; Setsuie, Rieko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2015-06-01

    Neuroimaging and neurophysiology have revealed that multiple areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are activated in a specific memory task, but severity of impairment after PFC lesions is largely different depending on which activated area is damaged. The critical relationship between lesion sites and impairments has not yet been given a clear mechanistic explanation. Although recent works proposed that a whole-brain network contains hubs that play integrative roles in cortical information processing, this framework relying on an anatomy-based structural network cannot account for the vulnerable locus for a specific task, lesioning of which would bring impairment. Here, we hypothesized that (i) activated PFC areas dynamically form an ordered network centered at a task-specific "functional hub" and (ii) the lesion-effective site corresponds to the "functional hub," but not to a task-invariant "structural hub." To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments in macaques performing a temporal contextual memory task. We found that the activated areas formed a hierarchical hub-centric network based on task-evoked directed connectivity, differently from the anatomical network reflecting axonal projection patterns. Using a novel simulated-lesion method based on support vector machine, we estimated severity of impairment after lesioning of each area, which accorded well with a known dissociation in contextual memory impairment in macaques (impairment after lesioning in area 9/46d, but not in area 8Ad). The predicted severity of impairment was proportional to the network "hubness" of the virtually lesioned area in the task-evoked directed connectivity network, rather than in the anatomical network known from tracer studies. Our results suggest that PFC areas dynamically and cooperatively shape a functional hub-centric network to reallocate the lesion-effective site depending on the cognitive processes, apart from static anatomical

  1. Diffusion in natural ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Iona; O'Neill, Hugh; Lister, Gordon

    2010-05-01

    Diffusion rates in natural ilmenite of composition Fe0.842+ Fe0.163+Mn0.07Mg0.01Ti 0.92O3 from the Vishnevye Mountains (Urals, Russia) have been measured at 1000° C. Experiments were carried out in a one atmosphere furnace with oxygen fugacity controlled by flow of a CO-CO2 gas mixture, over a period of four hours. The diffusant source was a synthetic ilmenite (FeTiO3) powder doped with trace amounts of Mg, Co, Ni, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Al, Cr, Ga and Y. Since, the natural ilmenite crystal contained Mn it was also possible to study diffusion of Mn from the ilmenite crystal. The experiments were analysed using the electron microprobe and scanning laser ablation ICP-MS. Diffusion profiles were measured for Al, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, and Y. Diffusion of Cr, Hf, Zr, V, Nb and Ta was too slow to allow diffusion profiles to be accurately measured for the times and temperatures studied so far. The preliminary results show that diffusion in ilmenite is fast, with the diffusivity determined in this study on the order of 10-13 to 10-16 m2s-1. For comparison, Chakraborty (1997) found interdiffusion of Fe and Mg in olivine at 1000° C on the order of 10-17 to 10-18m2s-1 and Dieckmann (1998) found diffusivity of Fe, Mg, Co in magnetite at 1200° C to be on the order of 10-13 to 10-14 m2s-1. The order in which the diffusivity of the elements decreases is Mn > Co > Mg ≥ Ni > Al ≥ Y ≥ Ga, that is to say that Mn diffuses the fastest and Ga the slowest. Overall, this study intends to determine diffusion parameters such as frequency factor, activation energy and activation volume as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity. This research is taking place in the context of a larger study focusing on the use of the garnet-ilmenite system as a geospeedometer. Examination of the consequences of simultaneous diffusion of multiple elements is a necessity if we are to develop an understanding of the crystal-chemical controls on diffusion (cf Spandler & O'Neill, in press). Chakraborty

  2. Brokered virtual hubs for facilitating access and use of geospatial Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel; Kamali, Nargess; Brumana, Raffaella; Braumann, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Open Data is a major trend in current information technology scenario and it is often publicised as one of the pillars of the information society in the near future. In particular, geospatial Open Data have a huge potential also for Earth Sciences, through the enablement of innovative applications and services integrating heterogeneous information. However, open does not mean usable. As it was recognized at the very beginning of the Web revolution, many different degrees of openness exist: from simple sharing in a proprietary format to advanced sharing in standard formats and including semantic information. Therefore, to fully unleash the potential of geospatial Open Data, advanced infrastructures are needed to increase the data openness degree, enhancing their usability. In October 2014, the ENERGIC OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". The ENERGIC OD Virtual Hubs aim to facilitate the use of geospatial Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus

  3. Static pressure recovery analysis in the vane island diffuser of a centrifugal pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Qiaorui [National Research Center of Pumps, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Dupont, Patrick; Bayeul-Laine, Annie-Claude; Dazin, Antoine; Roussette, Olivier; Bois, Gerard [LML, UMR CNRS 8107 Ecole Centrale de Lille, Lille (France)

    2016-02-15

    The overall performance of a vane-island type diffuser of a centrifugal pump model was obtained by means of directional probe traverses. These measurements were performed in an air model of a real hydraulic pump for five volume flow rates. Directional probe traverses are performed with a classical three-hole probe to cover most of the complete inlet section of the diffuser from hub to shroud and from pressure to suction side. Existing Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement results are also used to compare probe measurement results between the inlet and outlet throats of vane island diffuser at mid-span. Some assistance from already existing unsteady calculation, including leakage effects, is used to evaluate the numerical approach capability and to correctly define the mean initial conditions at impeller's outlet section. Pressure recovery and the measured total pressure loss levels inside this particular vane diffuser geometry are then calculated. Detailed analysis of the flow structure at the inlet section of the vane island diffuser is presented to focus on pressure evolution inside the entire diffuser section for different flow rates. The combined effects of incidence angle and blockage distributions along hub to shroud direction are found to play an important role on loss distribution in such a diffuser.

  4. Diffuse slow washout pattern (DSWO) on exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial SPECT; Correlative study with coronary arteriography and the related clinical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian; Nakanishi, Fumiko; Sone, Shusuke (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1994-07-01

    Diffuse slow washout pattern (DSWO) was shown on bull's eye images of 98 of 1234 patients suspected of having coronary artery disease and examined with thallium-201 myocardial SPECT imaging. Fifty-eight of these 98 patients underwent coronary arteriography, and comparison studies were performed between the bull's eye SPECT images, the results of coronary arteriography and the laboratory data. DSWO was found in 11 of 58 cases (19.0%) of single vessel disease (1VD), 18 of 58 cases (31.0%) of double vessel disease (2VD) and 21 of 58 cases (36.2%) of triple vessel disease (3VD). Three of 58 cases (5.2%) of stenosis of a coronary artery less than 75% of its normal diameter (N group) also showed DSWO. DSWO was closely related with multiple vessel disease, as has been indicated by previous reports, but we also found another patient group that showed minor coronary arterial change (IVD and N group) and manifested DSWO. Based on the study of laboratory data, we clarified that this group of patients tended to show accompanying hypertension and hyperlipidemia as factors influencing the appearance of DSWO. DSWO was accompanied by hypertension and hyperlipidemia in 54.5% and 45.5% in 1VD. These values were higher than those in the 2VD and 3VD cases, which were 33.3% and 38.9% in 2VD, and 19.0% and 28.6% in 3VD, respectively. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia appeared to play an important role in causing DSWO by interferring with coronary circulation. (author).

  5. Virulence and in planta movement of Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii are affected by the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent quorum sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Victoria; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Sharabani, Galit; Reuven, Michal; Dror, Orit; Burdman, Saul; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2015-09-01

    Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii (Xhp), the causal agent of bacterial blight in pelargonium, is the most threatening bacterial disease of this ornamental worldwide. To gain an insight into the regulation of virulence in Xhp, we have disrupted the quorum sensing (QS) genes, which mediate the biosynthesis and sensing of the diffusible signal factor (DSF). Mutations in rpfF (encoding the DSF synthase) and rpfC (encoding the histidine sensor kinase of the two-component system RfpC/RpfG) and overexpression of rpfF showed a significant reduction in incidence and severity of the disease on pelargonium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of inoculated plants with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled wild-type strain showed that the pathogen is homogeneously dispersed in the lumen of xylem vessels, reaching the apex and invading the intercellular spaces of the leaf mesophyll tissue within 21 days. In contrast, the rpfF and rpfC knockout mutants, as well as the rpfF-overexpressing strain, remained confined to the vicinity of the inoculation site. The rpfF and rpfC mutants formed large incoherent aggregates in the xylem vessels that might interfere with upward movement of the bacterium within the plant. Both mutants also formed extended aggregates under in vitro conditions, whereas the wild-type strain formed microcolonies. Expression levels of putative virulence genes in planta were substantially reduced within 48 h after inoculation with the QS mutants when compared with the wild-type. The results presented indicate that an optimal DSF concentration is crucial for successful colonization and virulence of Xhp in pelargonium.

  6. The FUTUREVOLC Supersite's e-Infrastructure - A multidisciplinary data hub and data service for Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sverrisson, Sverrir Th.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur F.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Arnarsson, Ólafur S.; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna Ýr; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi Th.; Hjartansson, Kristján R.

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC volanological supersite will establish a data hub and dataservice, where researchers, hazard managers and other stake holders can freely obtain access to multidisciplinary data and products on activity, unrest and eruptions at Icelandic volcanoes. The supersite is firmly founded on close interaction between the main Icelandic volcanological research and monitoring institutions, in coordination with expertise from European researchers participating in FUTUREVOLC. The hub is located at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), an institution responsible for monitoring and archiving data on all natural hazards in Iceland and, which also has a mandate as the state volcano observatory. This association will ensure a long-term sustainable data service. The data accessible at the hub include in-situ and space-based observations, products and models from all the relevant disciplines contributing to volcanological research and local as well as cross-border hazard management, i.e. Earth sciences, atmospheric science, hydrology, remote sensing and space science. Access to the data will be in compliance with the access policy of the GEO (Group on Earth Observations), providing registered users with easy and timely access to data and products of documented quality. This commitment has already led to the acceptance of FUTUREVOLC as a permanent geohazard supersite by CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), which will ensure access to additional satellite data and products on Icelandic volcanoes. To facilitate services to seismological data at the supersite hub, the IMO is reconstructing its existing data base and utilizing the SeisComp3 software to manage waveform and parameter data. The accompanying ArcLink component will be used to provide access to event data and waveforms. Access to GPS data will be provided by the GSAC web service which has been installed at the IMO through collaboration with UNAVCO. If appropriate, the format and data base

  7. Lazy Updating of hubs can enable more realistic models by speeding up stochastic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, Kurt; Loewe, Laurence, E-mail: loewe@wisc.edu [Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53715 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    To respect the nature of discrete parts in a system, stochastic simulation algorithms (SSAs) must update for each action (i) all part counts and (ii) each action's probability of occurring next and its timing. This makes it expensive to simulate biological networks with well-connected “hubs” such as ATP that affect many actions. Temperature and volume also affect many actions and may be changed significantly in small steps by the network itself during fever and cell growth, respectively. Such trends matter for evolutionary questions, as cell volume determines doubling times and fever may affect survival, both key traits for biological evolution. Yet simulations often ignore such trends and assume constant environments to avoid many costly probability updates. Such computational convenience precludes analyses of important aspects of evolution. Here we present “Lazy Updating,” an add-on for SSAs designed to reduce the cost of simulating hubs. When a hub changes, Lazy Updating postpones all probability updates for reactions depending on this hub, until a threshold is crossed. Speedup is substantial if most computing time is spent on such updates. We implemented Lazy Updating for the Sorting Direct Method and it is easily integrated into other SSAs such as Gillespie's Direct Method or the Next Reaction Method. Testing on several toy models and a cellular metabolism model showed >10× faster simulations for its use-cases—with a small loss of accuracy. Thus we see Lazy Updating as a valuable tool for some special but important simulation problems that are difficult to address efficiently otherwise.

  8. Neuronal dysfunction and disconnection of cortical hubs in non-demented subjects with elevated amyloid burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzezga, Alexander; Van Dijk, Koene R. A.; Sreenivasan, Aishwarya; Talukdar, Tanveer; Sullivan, Caroline; Schultz, Aaron P.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Putcha, Deepti; Greve, Doug; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of functional connectivity between brain regions may represent an early functional consequence of β-amyloid pathology prior to clinical Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to investigate if non-demented older individuals with increased amyloid burden demonstrate disruptions of functional whole-brain connectivity in cortical hubs (brain regions typically highly connected to multiple other brain areas) and if these disruptions are associated with neuronal dysfunction as measured with fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. In healthy subjects without cognitive symptoms and patients with mild cognitive impairment, we used positron emission tomography to assess amyloid burden and cerebral glucose metabolism, structural magnetic resonance imaging to quantify atrophy and novel resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging processing methods to calculate whole-brain connectivity. Significant disruptions of whole-brain connectivity were found in amyloid-positive patients with mild cognitive impairment in typical cortical hubs (posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus), strongly overlapping with regional hypometabolism. Subtle connectivity disruptions and hypometabolism were already present in amyloid-positive asymptomatic subjects. Voxel-based morphometry measures indicate that these findings were not solely a consequence of regional atrophy. Whole-brain connectivity values and metabolism showed a positive correlation with each other and a negative correlation with amyloid burden. These results indicate that disruption of functional connectivity and hypometabolism may represent early functional consequences of emerging molecular Alzheimer's disease pathology, evolving prior to clinical onset of dementia. The spatial overlap between hypometabolism and disruption of connectivity in cortical hubs points to a particular susceptibility of these regions to early Alzheimer's-type neurodegeneration and may reflect a link between synaptic dysfunction and functional

  9. Interpatch foraging in honeybees-rational decision making at secondary hubs based upon time and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najera, Daniel A; McCullough, Erin L; Jander, Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    For honeybees, Apis mellifera, the hive has been well known to function as a primary decision-making hub, a place from which foragers decide among various directions, distances, and times of day to forage efficiently. Whether foraging honeybees can make similarly complex navigational decisions from locations away from the hive is unknown. To examine whether or not such secondary decision-making hubs exist, we trained bees to forage at four different locations. Specifically, we trained honeybees to first forage to a distal site "CT" 100 m away from the hive; if food was present, they fed and then chose to go home. If food was not present, the honeybees were trained to forage to three auxiliary sites, each at a different time of the day: A in the morning, B at noon, and C in the afternoon. The foragers learned to check site CT for food first and then efficiently depart to the correct location based upon the time of day if there was no food at site CT. Thus, the honeybees were able to cognitively map motivation, time, and five different locations (Hive, CT, A, B, and C) in two spatial dimensions; these are the contents of the cognitive map used by the honeybees here. While at site CT, we verified that the honeybees could choose between 4 different directions (to A, B, C, and the Hive) and thus label it as a secondary decision-making hub. The observed decision making uncovered here is inferred to constitute genuine logical operations, involving a branched structure, based upon the premises of motivational state, and spatiotemporal knowledge.

  10. Local pulmonary administration of factor VIIa (rFVIIa in diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH – a review of a new treatment paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen JD

    2012-03-01

    without thromboembolic complication when FVIIa was administered locally via the air side, because the FVIIa does not penetrate the alveolo-capillary membrane to the blood-side. The incidence of DAH (in the US and Europe is 100,000–150,000, and 50,000 patients annually are at risk of developing DAH following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT and autoimmune diseases. Finally 50,000–100,000 patients may be falsely categorized as having acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung injury (ARDS/ALI because DAH and ARDS cannot be separated clinically. A new treatment paradigm of DAH is proposed as no other intervention has been able to ensure pulmonary hemostasis in DAH. The diagnosis of DAH is simple, a series of broncho-alveolar washes which become increasingly bloody. This test should be performed in all patients with pulmonary opacities in order to separate ARDS/ALI from DAH. FVIIa administrated via pulmonary route is "drug of choice", because it stops bleeding in the life-threatening syndrome DAH. Hemostasis is obtained after only one to two small doses of FVIIa (50 µg/kg body weight per dose and after hemostasis the oxygen transport quickly improves.Conclusion: Intrapulmonary administration of rFVIIa is recommended as the treatment of choice for DAH and blast lung injury (BLI because the treatment has been shown to be successful and uncomplicated in spite of the fact that only a small series of DAH has been documented.Keywords: coagulation factor FVIIa, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, hemosiderosis, blast lung injury, local pulmonary treatment, biologics, bronchoalveolar lavage, diagnosis, algorithm, new treatment recommendation

  11. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  12. Hubs and Authorities of the English Premier League for 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Leznik, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this work author applies well known web search algorithm Hyperlink - Induced Topic Search (HITS) to problem of ranking football teams in English Premier League (EPL). The algorithm allows the ranking of the teams using the notions of hubs and authorities well known for ranking pages in the World Wide Web. Results of the games introduced as a graph where losing team 'gives a link' to a winning team and, if draw registered both team give links to each other. In case of a win link is weighted...

  13. Home health monitoring – EyKos HealthHub (product design concept)

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Mark; Dulake, Nick; Willox, Matt; Gwilt, Ian; Craig, Claire; Auton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on creating a product design concept for a home health monitoring system, known as EyKos HealthHub, which is intended to be a ‘crossover product’ in the emerging medical/consumer product space. Working collaboratively with Aseptika Ltd, the team carried out product concept design and interaction design for the EyKos system, and undertook further design and prototyping work to create an object for use in research. Aseptika is carrying out technical development of this project...

  14. A New Approach for Offshore Wind Farm Energy Yields Calculation with Mixed Hub Height Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for calculating the energy yields of offshore wind farm with mixed types of wind turbines is proposed. The Jensen model is selected as the base and developed to a three dimension wake model to estimate the energy yields. Since the wind turbines are with different...... hub heights, the wind shear effect is also taken into consideration. The results show that the proposed wake model is effective in calculating the wind speed deficit. The calculation framework is applicable for energy yields calculation in offshore wind farms....

  15. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, R.; L. Almeida; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception handling code that may lead to a decrease in application robustness. Overall 6,005 exception stack traces were extracted, and subjected to source code and bytecode analysis. The outcomes of this s...

  16. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Luo,1,2 Linghong Guo,1 Xi-Jian Dai,3 Qinglai Wang,2 Wenzhong Zhu,2 Xinjun Miao,2 Honghan Gong1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs.Results: Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, right hippocampus (BA 35, 36, and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11 and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18, and left precuneus (BA 7, 19. SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R2=0.296, P=0.006.Conclusion: The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear

  17. Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of a Low Power Hub Motor Using Feedforward Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şimşir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power hub motors are widely used in electromechanical systems such as electrical bicycles and solar vehicles due to their robustness and compact structure. Such systems driven by hub motors (in wheel motors encounter previously defined and undefined faults under operation. It may inevitably lead to the interruption of the electromechanical system operation; hence, economic losses take place at certain times. Therefore, in order to maintain system operation sustainability, the motor should be precisely monitored and the faults are diagnosed considering various significant motor parameters. In this study, the artificial feedforward backpropagation neural network approach is proposed to real-time monitor and diagnose the faults of the hub motor by measuring seven main system parameters. So as to construct a necessary model, we trained the model, using a data set consisting of 4160 samples where each has 7 parameters, by the MATLAB environment until the best model is obtained. The results are encouraging and meaningful for the specific motor and the developed model may be applicable to other types of hub motors. The prosperous model of the whole system was embedded into Arduino Due microcontroller card and the mobile real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis system prototype for hub motor was designed and manufactured.

  18. Design and Analysis of a Novel Speed-Changing Wheel Hub with an Integrated Electric Motor for Electric Bicycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an innovative electromechanical device which integrates a brushless DC (BLDC hub motor with a speed-changing wheel hub stored on the rear wheel of an electric bicycle. It combines a power source and a speed-changing mechanism to simultaneously provide functions of power generation and transmission for electric bicycles. As part of the proposed integrated device, the wheel hub consists of a basic planetary gear train providing three forward speeds including a low-speed gear, a direct drive, and a high-speed gear. Each gear is manually controlled by the shift control sleeve to selectively engage or disengage four pawl-and-ratchet clutches based on its clutching sequence table. The number of gear teeth of each gear element of the wheel hub is synthesized. The BLDC hub motor is an exterior-rotor-type permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Two-dimensional finite-element analysis (FEA software is employed to facilitate the motor design and performance analysis. An analysis of the power transmission path at each gear is provided to verify the validity of the proposed design. The results of this work are beneficial to the embodiment, design, and development of novel electromechanical devices for the power and transmission systems of electric bicycles.

  19. What is controlling the fragmentation process in the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506? Differet level of fragmentation in twin hubs

    CERN Document Server

    Busquet, G; Palau, A; Liu, H B; Zhang, Q; Girart, J M; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Pillai, T; Anglada, G; Ho, P T P

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission toward hub-N and hub-S of the infrared dark cloud G14.225-0.506 carried out with the Submillimeter Array, together with observations of the dust emission at 870 and 350 microns obtained with APEX and CSO telescopes. The large scale dust emission of both hubs consists of a single peaked clump elongated in the direction of the associated filament. At small scales, the SMA images reveal that both hubs fragment into several dust condensations. The fragmentation level was assessed under the same conditions and we found that hub-N presents 4 fragments while hub-S is more fragmented, with 13 fragments identified. We studied the density structure by means of a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profile at 870 and 350 microns and the spectral energy distribution adopting a Plummer-like function to describe the density structure. The parameters inferred from the model are remarkably similar in both hubs, suggesting that density structure could not be respon...

  20. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  1. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  2. Controllable uncertain opinion diffusion under confidence bound and unpredicted diffusion probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fuhan; Li, Zhaofeng; Jiang, Yichuan

    2016-05-01

    The issues of modeling and analyzing diffusion in social networks have been extensively studied in the last few decades. Recently, many studies focus on uncertain diffusion process. The uncertainty of diffusion process means that the diffusion probability is unpredicted because of some complex factors. For instance, the variety of individuals' opinions is an important factor that can cause uncertainty of diffusion probability. In detail, the difference between opinions can influence the diffusion probability, and then the evolution of opinions will cause the uncertainty of diffusion probability. It is known that controlling the diffusion process is important in the context of viral marketing and political propaganda. However, previous methods are hardly feasible to control the uncertain diffusion process of individual opinion. In this paper, we present suitable strategy to control this diffusion process based on the approximate estimation of the uncertain factors. We formulate a model in which the diffusion probability is influenced by the distance between opinions, and briefly discuss the properties of the diffusion model. Then, we present an optimization problem at the background of voting to show how to control this uncertain diffusion process. In detail, it is assumed that each individual can choose one of the two candidates or abstention based on his/her opinion. Then, we present strategy to set suitable initiators and their opinions so that the advantage of one candidate will be maximized at the end of diffusion. The results show that traditional influence maximization algorithms are not applicable to this problem, and our algorithm can achieve expected performance.

  3. Reviewing the Justice and Security Hub Modality as Piloted in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Keane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘The Republic of Bangui’ or ‘the Republic of Monrovia’ are phrases we sometimes hear from practitioners to describe post conflict countries where very few services exist outside the capital city. This is especially the case for security – the critical public good in post conflict countries. In response to the need to bring security services closer to the citizens who often need them most, the Government of Liberia and the United Nations are piloting a new approach financed by the UN Peacebuilding Fund (PBF – the so-called ‘Justice and Security Hubs’. The donor community and the United Nations are watching closely. If this works, there is indication from UN officials that the model could potentially be replicated in other settings such as the East of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, Haiti and the northern states of South Sudan. If the hub concept is capable of being adapted and successful elsewhere, the United Nations will not only have added a new instrument to its peacekeeping toolkit but will also firmly demonstrate how the UN Peacebuilding Fund can in essence be catalytic in fostering long-term and comprehensive approaches to peacebuilding. This practice note outlines the process of developing and constructing the first hub in Liberia, which is due to be partly operational by the end of 2012, and provides a prognosis on its chances for success.

  4. Of Hubs and Hinterlands: Cyprus as an Insular Space of Overlapping Diasporas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell King

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the metaphor of diasporic hubs and hinterlands to document and analyse the various diasporic formations that overlap and encounter each other on the divided island of Cyprus. After a review of the various ways that islands interface with migration processes and some essential historical and statistical background on Cyprus and its population, the paper considers a number of migrations/diasporas that are based on or affect the island. They include the emigration from the diasporic hub of Cyprus during the 1950s-1970s; return migration, both of the original emigrants and their descendants; the British military/colonial settlement of Cyprus; retirees and ‘lifestyle migrants’; and various categories of recent immigrants, for whom Cyprus is a diasporic hinterland. We draw both similarities and differences between migratory dynamics in the northern, Turkish Cypriot part of the island and the southern, Greek Cypriot part. In the final part of the paper we describe recent fieldwork on various spaces of inter-diasporic encounter in Cyprus.

  5. Clique of functional hubs orchestrates population bursts in developmentally regulated neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcini, Alessandro; Luccioli, Stefano; Bonifazi, Paolo; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Barzilai, Ari

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been discovered that single neuron stimulation can impact network dynamics in immature and adult neuronal circuits. Here we report a novel mechanism which can explain in developing neuronal circuits, typically composed of only excitatory cells, the peculiar role played by a few specific neurons in promoting/arresting the population activity. For this purpose, we consider a standard neuronal network model, with short-term synaptic plasticity, whose population activity is characterized by bursting behavior. The addition of developmentally regulated constraints on single neuron excitability and connectivity leads to the emergence of functional hub neurons, whose stimulation/deletion is critical for the network activity. Functional hubs form a clique, where a precise sequential activation of the neurons is essential to ignite collective events without any need for a specific topological architecture. Unsupervised time-lagged firings of supra-threshold cells, in connection with coordinated entrainments of near-threshold neurons, are the key ingredients to orchestrate population activity. This work is part of the activity of the Joint Italian-Israeli Laboratory on Integrative Network Neuroscience supported by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  6. Bottlenecks and hubs in inferred networks are important for virulence in Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Jason E; Taylor, Ronald C; Yoon, Hyunjin; Heffron, Fred

    2009-02-01

    Recent advances in experimental methods have provided sufficient data to consider systems as large networks of interconnected components. High-throughput determination of protein-protein interaction networks has led to the observation that topological bottlenecks, proteins defined by high centrality in the network, are enriched in proteins with systems-level phenotypes such as essentiality. Global transcriptional profiling by microarray analysis has been used extensively to characterize systems, for example, examining cellular response to environmental conditions and effects of genetic mutations. These transcriptomic datasets have been used to infer regulatory and functional relationship networks based on co-regulation. We use the context likelihood of relatedness (CLR) method to infer networks from two datasets gathered from the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium: one under a range of environmental culture conditions and the other from deletions of 15 regulators found to be essential in virulence. Bottleneck and hub genes were identified from these inferred networks, and we show for the first time that these genes are significantly more likely to be essential for virulence than their non-bottleneck or non-hub counterparts. Networks generated using simple similarity metrics (correlation and mutual information) did not display this behavior. Overall, this study demonstrates that topology of networks inferred from global transcriptional profiles provides information about the systems-level roles of bottleneck genes. Analysis of the differences between the two CLR-derived networks suggests that the bottleneck nodes are either mediators of transitions between system states or sentinels that reflect the dynamics of these transitions.

  7. Clique of functional hubs orchestrates population bursts in developmentally regulated neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Luccioli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been discovered that single neuron stimulation can impact network dynamics in immature and adult neuronal circuits. Here we report a novel mechanism which can explain in neuronal circuits, at an early stage of development, the peculiar role played by a few specific neurons in promoting/arresting the population activity. For this purpose, we consider a standard neuronal network model, with short-term synaptic plasticity, whose population activity is characterized by bursting behavior. The addition of developmentally inspired constraints and correlations in the distribution of the neuronal connectivities and excitabilities leads to the emergence of functional hub neurons, whose stimulation/deletion is critical for the network activity. Functional hubs form a clique, where a precise sequential activation of the neurons is essential to ignite collective events without any need for a specific topological architecture. Unsupervised time-lagged firings of supra-threshold cells, in connection with coordinated entrainments of near-threshold neurons, are the key ingredients to orchestrate population activity.

  8. Passivity-based control with collision avoidance for a hub-beam spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Chen, Ti; Jin, Dongping; Hu, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    For the application of robotically assembling large space structures, a feedback control law is synthesized for transitional and rotational maneuvers of a 'tug' spacecraft in order to transport a flexible element to a desired position without colliding with other space bodies. The flexible element is treated as a long beam clamped to the 'tug' spacecraft modelled as a rigid hub. First, the physical property of passivity of Euler-Lagrange system is exploited to design the position and attitude controllers by taking a simpler obstacle-free control problem into account. To reduce sensing and actuating requirements, the vibration modes of the beam appendage are supposed to be not directly measured and actuated on. Besides, the requirements of measuring velocities are removed with the aid of a dynamic extension technique. Second, the bounding boxes in the form of super-quadric surfaces are exploited to enclose the maximal extents of the obstacles and the hub-beam spacecraft. The collision avoidance between bounding boxes is achieved by applying additional repulsive force and torque to the spacecraft based on the method of artificial potential field. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed control scheme is numerically demonstrated via case studies.

  9. Partial synchronization in networks of non-linearly coupled oscillators: The Deserter Hubs Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Celso, E-mail: cbnfreitas@gmail.com; Macau, Elbert, E-mail: elbert.macau@inpe.br [Associate Laboratory for Computing and Applied Mathematics - LAC, Brazilian National Institute for Space Research - INPE (Brazil); Pikovsky, Arkady, E-mail: pikovsky@uni-potsdam.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Germany and Department of Control Theory, Nizhni Novgorod State University, Gagarin Av. 23, 606950, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    We study the Deserter Hubs Model: a Kuramoto-like model of coupled identical phase oscillators on a network, where attractive and repulsive couplings are balanced dynamically due to nonlinearity of interactions. Under weak force, an oscillator tends to follow the phase of its neighbors, but if an oscillator is compelled to follow its peers by a sufficient large number of cohesive neighbors, then it actually starts to act in the opposite manner, i.e., in anti-phase with the majority. Analytic results yield that if the repulsion parameter is small enough in comparison with the degree of the maximum hub, then the full synchronization state is locally stable. Numerical experiments are performed to explore the model beyond this threshold, where the overall cohesion is lost. We report in detail partially synchronous dynamical regimes, like stationary phase-locking, multistability, periodic and chaotic states. Via statistical analysis of different network organizations like tree, scale-free, and random ones, we found a measure allowing one to predict relative abundance of partially synchronous stationary states in comparison to time-dependent ones.

  10. Current Status of Mammals and Reptiles at Hub Dam Area, Sindh / Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeda Begum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the present study in 2012, a total of twenty four mammalian species were recorded belonging to 5 orders and 10 families; out of these, 8 species are less common, 2 species are rare, while 14 species are common in Hub Dam area. Twenty five reptilian species belonging to 3 orders and 12 families were also recorded from the area. Three species of mammalian Urial (Ovis vignei, Chinkara/Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii and Jungle Cat (Felis chaus, one reptilian species Common Krait (Bungarus caeruleus were recorded as rare from the study area during 2012. During the present study, nine mammalian species Wild Goat/Sindh Ibex (Capra aegagrus, Urial (Ovis vignei, Chinkara/Indian Gazelle (Gazella bennettii, Indian Hedgehog (Paraechinus micropus, Cape Hare (Lepus capensis, Little Indian Field Mouse (Mus booduga, House Shrew (Sorex thibetanus, Balochistan Gerbil (Gerbillus nanus and Indian Gerbil (Tatera indica and two reptilian Warty Rock Gecko (Cyrtodactylus kachhensis kachhensis and Banded Dwarf Gecko (Tropiocolotes helenae were recorded from the area. As regards threats to mammals and reptiles, these are affected by disturbance. Efforts are being made to conserve the important mammals and reptiles particularly in the protected area especially at Hub Dam.

  11. Study on rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of hub-plate system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feiyun; XIE Yongcheng; ZHANG Ming; HE Yinbiao

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic modeling of a rotating flexible hubplate system is investigated by using Jourdain's variation principle in which the finite element method (FEM) is used as discretization method for a flexible plate. Different from the previous modeling of a plate with a prescribed large overall motion, the coupling between large overall motion of the system and elastic deformation of the flexible plate is taken into account in the proposed coupling model. The quadratic terms are included in the strain-displacement expression,such that the dynamic stiffening terms are included. Simulation of a rotating hub-plate system indicates that the linear model based on linear strain-displacement assumption may lead to erroneous results in the case of high rotation speed. Conservation of energy verifies the validity of the proposed model. Furthermore, frequency analysis of a hub-plate system shows the difference between the frequencies of the system with free and prescribed large overall motion, and parameter analysis of the system reveals the coupling characteristics of the rotational motion and the deformation.

  12. Hexcrete Tower for Harvesting Wind Energy at Taller Hub Heights - Budget Period 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sritharan, Sri [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Interest in designing taller towers for wind energy production in the United States (U.S.) has been steadily growing. In May 2015, it was revealed that taller towers will make wind energy production a reality in all 50 states, including some states that have nearly zero renewables in their energy portfolio. Facilitating wind energy production feasibility in all 50 states will no doubt contribute to increasing the electricity produced by wind from 4.5% in 2013 to a targeted scenario of 35% by 2050 in the Wind Vision report. This project focuses on the Hexcrete tower concept developed for tall towers using High Strength Concrete (HSC) and/or Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC). Among other benefits, the Hexcrete concept overcomes transportation and logistical challenges, thus facilitating construction of towers with hub heights of 100-m (328-ft) and higher. The goal of this project is to facilitate widespread deployment of Hexcrete towers for harvesting wind energy at 120 to 140-m (394 to 459-ft) hub heights and reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of wind energy production in the U.S. The technical scope of the project includes detailed design and optimization of at least three wind turbine towers using the Hexcrete concept together with experimental validation and LCOE analyses and development of a commercialization plan.

  13. Aspects of transport transit hubs construction management in coordination with object lifecycle projecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilina Nina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article involves the results of the research in the field of the initial phase in the project of the object lifecycle for urban public transportation transit hubs (TTH. The main purpose is to provide definition and justification of area parameters for spatial solution of a hub with consideration of its construction viability and sustainability of urban development. In the article there are presented the results of analytical studies of the data available in the approved Planning documentation for TTH objects listed in the short-term program of TTH construction in Moscow. The point of interest was to obtain correlations between the total area of TTH area, areas of commercial and technological use and passenger traffic value in order to define territory balance providing request from city authorities and private investors for construction project management. Also, there is presented the theoretical model as an evaluation guide that allows evaluating not only the demand of a city and its population in the development of TTH territory but also and especially the requirements for placing commercial areas inside TTH.

  14. A hub-and-spoke circuit drives pheromone attraction and social behaviour in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macosko, Evan Z; Pokala, Navin; Feinberg, Evan H; Chalasani, Sreekanth H; Butcher, Rebecca A; Clardy, Jon; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2009-04-30

    Innate social behaviours emerge from neuronal circuits that interpret sensory information on the basis of an individual's own genotype, sex and experience. The regulated aggregation behaviour of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a simple animal with only 302 neurons, is an attractive system to analyse these circuits. Wild social strains of C. elegans aggregate in the presence of specific sensory cues, but solitary strains do not. Here we identify the RMG inter/motor neuron as the hub of a regulated circuit that controls aggregation and related behaviours. RMG is the central site of action of the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1, which distinguishes solitary strains (high npr-1 activity) from wild social strains (low npr-1 activity); high RMG activity is essential for all aspects of social behaviour. Anatomical gap junctions connect RMG to several classes of sensory neurons known to promote aggregation, and to ASK sensory neurons, which are implicated in male attraction to hermaphrodite pheromones. We find that ASK neurons respond directly to pheromones, and that high RMG activity enhances ASK responses in social strains, causing hermaphrodite attraction to pheromones at concentrations that repel solitary hermaphrodites. The coordination of social behaviours by RMG suggests an anatomical hub-and-spoke model for sensory integration in aggregation, and points to functions for related circuit motifs in the C. elegans wiring diagram.

  15. Characteristics and concepts of dynamic hub proteins in DNA processing machinery from studies of RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Norie; Chazin, Walter J

    2015-03-01

    DNA replication, damage response and repair require the coordinated action of multi-domain proteins operating within dynamic multi-protein machines that act upon the DNA substrate. These modular proteins contain flexible linkers of various lengths, which enable changes in the spatial distribution of the globular domains (architecture) that harbor their essential biochemical functions. This mobile architecture is uniquely suited to follow the evolving substrate landscape present over the course of the specific process performed by the multi-protein machinery. A fundamental advance in understanding of protein machinery is the realization of the pervasive role of dynamics. Not only is the machine undergoing dynamic transformations, but the proteins themselves are flexible and constantly adapting to the progression through the steps of the overall process. Within this dynamic context the activity of the constituent proteins must be coordinated, a role typically played by hub proteins. A number of important characteristics of modular proteins and concepts about the operation of dynamic machinery have been discerned. These provide the underlying basis for the action of the machinery that reads DNA, and responds to and repairs DNA damage. Here, we introduce a number of key characteristics and concepts, including the modularity of the proteins, linkage of weak binding sites, direct competition between sites, and allostery, using the well recognized hub protein replication protein A (RPA).

  16. DIGITAL VIDEO BROADCAST RETURN CHANNEL VIA SATELLITE (DVB-RCS HUB FOR SATELLITE BASED E-LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G.Vasantha Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses in-house designed and developed scale-down DVB-RCS hub along with the performance of the realized hub. This development is intended to support the Satellite Based e-Learning initiative in India. The scale-down DVB-RCS HUB is implemented around a single PC with other subsystems making it very cost effective and unique of its kind. This realization will drastically reduce the total cost of Satellite based Education Networks as very low cost commercially available Satellite Interactive Terminals (SITs complying to open standard could be used at remote locations. The system is successfully tested to work with a commercial SIT using a GEO satellite EDUSAT which is especially dedicated for satellite based e-Learning. The internal detail of the DVB-RCS Forward and Return Link Organization and how it manages the Satellite Interactive Terminals access to the satellite channel using MF-TDMA approach has been described.

  17. Topology and Non-Deterministic Polynomial Time Computation : Avoidance of The Misbehaviour of Hub-Free Diagrams and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Gasperin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To study groups with small Dehn's function, Olshanskii and Sapir developed a new invariant of bipartite chords diagrams and applied it to hub-free realization of S-machines. In this paper we consider this new invariant together with groups constructed from S-machines containing the hub relation. The idea is to study the links between the topology of the asymptotic cones and polynomial time computations. Indeed it is known that the topology of such metric space depends on diagrams without hubs that do not correspond to the computations of the considered S-machine. This work gives sufficient conditions that avoid this misbehaviour, but as we shall see the method has a significant drawback.

  18. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerhan, James R; Kricker, Anne; Paltiel, Ora; Flowers, Christopher R; Wang, Sophia S; Monnereau, Alain; Blair, Aaron; Dal Maso, Luigino; Kane, Eleanor V; Nieters, Alexandra; Foran, James M; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Bernstein, Leslie; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L; Sampson, Joshua N; Morton, Lindsay M; Skibola, Christine F

    2014-08-01

    Although risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been suggested, their independent effects, modification by sex, and association with anatomical sites are largely unknown. In a pooled analysis of 4667 cases and 22639 controls from 19 studies, we used stepwise logistic regression to identify the most parsimonious multivariate models for DLBCL overall, by sex, and for selected anatomical sites. DLBCL was associated with B-cell activating autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.80 to 3.09), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.76), family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.47), higher young adult body mass index (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.23, for 35+ vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m(2)), higher recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.89), any atopic disorder (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89), and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94). Additional risk factors for women were occupation as field crop/vegetable farm worker (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.60), hairdresser (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.41), and seamstress/embroider (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.97), low adult body mass index (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.74, for therapy started age at least 50 years (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.88), and oral contraceptive use before 1970 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.00); and for men were occupation as material handling equipment operator (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.44), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.75, for >400 kg vs nondrinker), and previous blood transfusion (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.83). Autoimmune disease, atopy, and family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed similar associations across selected anatomical sites, whereas smoking was associated with central nervous system, testicular and cutaneous DLBCLs; inflammatory bowel disease was associated with gastrointestinal DLBCL; and

  19. Local pulmonary administration of factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) - a review of a new treatment paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heslet, Lars; Nielsen, Jørn Dalsgaard; Nepper-Christensen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a clinical syndrome with typical symptoms dyspnea and hemoptysis. DAH is a complication of specific diseases, in some cases with acute catastrophic hemoptysis, while other patients present low grade alveolar bleeding with a need of chronic transfusion as in pu...

  20. Diffusion Indexes with Sparse Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    to the problem by using the LASSO as a variable selection method to choose between the possible variables and thus obtain sparse loadings from which factors or diffusion indexes can be formed. This allows us to build a more parsimonious factor model which is better suited for forecasting compared...

  1. WHAT IS CONTROLLING THE FRAGMENTATION IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225–0.506?: DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FRAGMENTATION IN TWIN HUBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, Gemma; Girart, Josep Miquel [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Palau, Aina [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pillai, Thushara [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Anglada, Guillem, E-mail: busquet@ice.cat [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission toward hub-N and hub-S of the infrared dark cloud G14.225–0.506 carried out with the Submillimeter Array, together with observations of the dust emission at 870 and 350 μm obtained with APEX and CSO telescopes. The large-scale dust emission of both hubs consists of a single peaked clump elongated in the direction of the associated filament. At small scales, the SMA images reveal that both hubs fragment into several dust condensations. The fragmentation level was assessed under the same conditions and we found that hub-N presents 4 fragments while hub-S is more fragmented, with 13 fragments identified. We studied the density structure by means of a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profile at 870 and 350 μm and the spectral energy distribution adopting a Plummer-like function to describe the density structure. The parameters inferred from the model are remarkably similar in both hubs, suggesting that density structure could not be responsible for determining the fragmentation level. We estimated several physical parameters, such as the level of turbulence and the magnetic field strength, and we found no significant differences between these hubs. The Jeans analysis indicates that the observed fragmentation is more consistent with thermal Jeans fragmentation compared with a scenario in which turbulent support is included. The lower fragmentation level observed in hub-N could be explained in terms of stronger UV radiation effects from a nearby H ii region, evolutionary effects, and/or stronger magnetic fields at small scales, a scenario that should be further investigated.

  2. Research of Innovation Diffusion on Industrial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtai Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The real value of innovation consists in its diffusion on industrial network. The factors which affect the diffusion of innovation on industrial network are the topology of industrial network and rules of diffusion. Industrial network is a complex network which has scale-free and small-world characters; its structure has some affection on threshold, length of path, enterprise’s status, and information share of innovation diffusion. Based on the cost and attitude to risk of technical innovation, we present the “avalanche” diffusing model of technical innovation on industrial network.

  3. Why primary care practices should become digital health information hubs for their patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Aaron; Nowak, Samantha

    2014-11-25

    Two interesting health care trends are currently occurring: 1) patient-facing technologies, such as personal health records, patient portals, and mobile health apps, are being adopted at rapid rates, and 2) primary care, which includes family practice, is being promoted as essential to reducing health care costs and improving health care outcomes. While these trends are notable and commendable, both remain subject to significant fragmentation and incentive misalignments, which has resulted in significant data coordination and value generation challenges. In particular, patient-facing technologies designed to increase care coordination, often fall prey to the very digital fragmentation issues they are supposed to overcome. Additionally, primary care providers are treating patients that may have considerable health information histories, but generating a single view of such multi-source data is nearly impossible. We contribute to this debate by proposing that primary care practices become digital health information hubs for their patients. Such hubs would offer health data coordination in a medically professional setting with the benefits of expert, trustworthy advice coupled with active patient engagement. We acknowledge challenges including: costs, information quality and provenance, willingness-to-share information and records, willingness-to-use (by both providers and patients), primary care scope creep, and determinations of technical and process effectiveness. Even with such potential challenges, we strongly believe that more debate is needed on this topic prior to full implementation of various health information technology incentives and reform programs currently being designed and enacted throughout the world. Ultimately, if we do not provide a meaningful way for the full spectrum of health information to be used by both providers and patients, especially early in the health care continuum, effectively improving health outcomes may remain elusive. We view

  4. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Habitat-Specific Genes and Regulatory Hubs within the Genus Novosphingobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshan; Verma, Helianthous; Haider, Shazia; Bajaj, Abhay; Sood, Utkarsh; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Nagar, Shekhar; Shakarad, Mallikarjun N.; Negi, Ram Krishan; Singh, Yogendra; Khurana, J. P.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Species belonging to the genus Novosphingobium are found in many different habitats and have been identified as metabolically versatile. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified habitat-specific genes and regulatory hubs that could determine habitat selection for Novosphingobium spp. Genomes from 27 Novosphingobium strains isolated from diverse habitats such as rhizosphere soil, plant surfaces, heavily contaminated soils, and marine and freshwater environments were analyzed. Genome size and coding potential were widely variable, differing significantly between habitats. Phylogenetic relationships between strains were less likely to describe functional genotype similarity than the habitat from which they were isolated. In this study, strains (19 out of 27) with a recorded habitat of isolation, and at least 3 representative strains per habitat, comprised four ecological groups—rhizosphere, contaminated soil, marine, and freshwater. Sulfur acquisition and metabolism were the only core genomic traits to differ significantly in proportion between these ecological groups; for example, alkane sulfonate (ssuABCD) assimilation was found exclusively in all of the rhizospheric isolates. When we examined osmolytic regulation in Novosphingobium spp. through ectoine biosynthesis, which was assumed to be marine habitat specific, we found that it was also present in isolates from contaminated soil, suggesting its relevance beyond the marine system. Novosphingobium strains were also found to harbor a wide variety of mono- and dioxygenases, responsible for the metabolism of several aromatic compounds, suggesting their potential to act as degraders of a variety of xenobiotic compounds. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed β-barrel outer membrane proteins as habitat-specific hubs in each of the four habitats—freshwater (Saro_1868), marine water (PP1Y_AT17644), rhizosphere (PMI02_00367), and soil (V474_17210). These outer membrane proteins could play a

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Habitat-Specific Genes and Regulatory Hubs within the Genus Novosphingobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshan; Verma, Helianthous; Haider, Shazia; Bajaj, Abhay; Sood, Utkarsh; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Nagar, Shekhar; Shakarad, Mallikarjun N; Negi, Ram Krishan; Singh, Yogendra; Khurana, J P; Gilbert, Jack A; Lal, Rup

    2017-01-01

    Species belonging to the genus Novosphingobium are found in many different habitats and have been identified as metabolically versatile. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified habitat-specific genes and regulatory hubs that could determine habitat selection for Novosphingobium spp. Genomes from 27 Novosphingobium strains isolated from diverse habitats such as rhizosphere soil, plant surfaces, heavily contaminated soils, and marine and freshwater environments were analyzed. Genome size and coding potential were widely variable, differing significantly between habitats. Phylogenetic relationships between strains were less likely to describe functional genotype similarity than the habitat from which they were isolated. In this study, strains (19 out of 27) with a recorded habitat of isolation, and at least 3 representative strains per habitat, comprised four ecological groups-rhizosphere, contaminated soil, marine, and freshwater. Sulfur acquisition and metabolism were the only core genomic traits to differ significantly in proportion between these ecological groups; for example, alkane sulfonate (ssuABCD) assimilation was found exclusively in all of the rhizospheric isolates. When we examined osmolytic regulation in Novosphingobium spp. through ectoine biosynthesis, which was assumed to be marine habitat specific, we found that it was also present in isolates from contaminated soil, suggesting its relevance beyond the marine system. Novosphingobium strains were also found to harbor a wide variety of mono- and dioxygenases, responsible for the metabolism of several aromatic compounds, suggesting their potential to act as degraders of a variety of xenobiotic compounds. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed β-barrel outer membrane proteins as habitat-specific hubs in each of the four habitats-freshwater (Saro_1868), marine water (PP1Y_AT17644), rhizosphere (PMI02_00367), and soil (V474_17210). These outer membrane proteins could play a key role in

  6. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  7. A Futile Search for Values and Pedagogy? A Discursive Analysis of the Marketing Messages of Branch-Campuses in Higher Education Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karram, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Higher education has become a key strategy for the economic development of certain city-states that are positioning themselves as higher education hubs, recruiting both students and foreign providers. This article presents the findings of a research study that examined the online messages of foreign branch-campuses in education hubs (Dubai, Hong…

  8. Global trade & the Dutch hub: understanding variegated forms of embeddedness of international trade in the Netherlands: clothing, flowers, and high-tech products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, M.

    2010-01-01

    As global trade increases, some regions have become specialized in international trade and logistics, forming hubs to larger market areas. Although a lot is known about international trade in quantitative terms, much less is known about actual trade activities taking place in trade hubs and the ways

  9. Global trade & the Dutch hub: understanding variegated forms of embeddedness of international trade in the Netherlands: clothing, flowers, and high-tech products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, M.

    2010-01-01

    As global trade increases, some regions have become specialized in international trade and logistics, forming hubs to larger market areas. Although a lot is known about international trade in quantitative terms, much less is known about actual trade activities taking place in trade hubs and the ways

  10. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  11. The Bass diffusion model on networks with correlations and inhomogeneous advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Bertotti, M L; Modanese, G

    2016-01-01

    The Bass model, which is an effective forecasting tool for innovation diffusion based on large collections of empirical data, assumes an homogeneous diffusion process. We introduce a network structure into this model and we investigate numerically the dynamics in the case of networks with link density $P(k)=c/k^\\gamma$, where $k=1, \\ldots , N$. The resulting curve of the total adoptions in time is qualitatively similar to the homogeneous Bass curve corresponding to a case with the same average number of connections. The peak of the adoptions, however, tends to occur earlier, particularly when $\\gamma$ and $N$ are large (i.e., when there are few hubs with a large maximum number of connections). Most interestingly, the adoption curve of the hubs anticipates the total adoption curve in a predictable way, with peak times which can be, for instance when $N=100$, between 10% and 60% of the total adoptions peak. This may allow to monitor the hubs for forecasting purposes. We also consider the case of networks with a...

  12. Creating a global rare disease patient registry linked to a rare diseases biorepository database: Rare Disease-HUB (RD-HUB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Yaffa R; Groft, Stephen C; Bartek, Ronald; Brown, Kyle; Christensen, Ronald A; Collier, Elaine; Farber, Amy; Farmer, Jennifer; Ferguson, John H; Forrest, Christopher B; Lockhart, Nicole C; McCurdy, Kate R; Moore, Helen; Pollen, Geraldine B; Richesson, Rachel; Miller, Vanessa Rangel; Hull, Sara; Vaught, Jim

    2010-09-01

    A movement to create a global patient registry for as many as 7,000 rare diseases was launched at a workshop, "Advancing Rare Disease Research: The Intersection of Patient Registries, Biospecimen Repositories, and Clinical Data." http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/PATIENT_REGISTRIES_WORKSHOP/. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of Rare Diseases Research (ORDR). The focus was the building of an infrastructure for an internet-based global registry linking to biorepositories. Such a registry would serve the patients, investigators, and drug companies. To aid researchers the participants suggested the creation of a centralized database of biorepositories for rare biospecimens (RD-HUB)http://biospecimens.ordr.info.nih.gov/ that could be linked to the registry. Over two days of presentations and breakout sessions, several hundred attendees discussed government rules and regulations concerning privacy and patients' rights and the nature and scope of data to be entered into a central registry as well as concerns about how to validate patient and clinician-entered data to ensure data accuracy. Mechanisms for aggregating data from existing registries were also discussed. The attendees identified registry best practices, model coding systems, international systems for recruiting patients into clinical trials and novel ways of using the internet directly to invite participation in research. They also speculated about who would bear ultimate responsibility for the informatics in the registry and who would have access to the information. Hurdles associated with biospecimen collection and how to overcome them were detailed. The development of the recommendations was, in itself, an indication of the commitment of the rare disease community as never before.

  13. A New Dynamic Model for a Flexible Hub-Beam System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhu-yong; HONG Jia-zhen; CAI Guo-ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new dynamic model for the flexible hub-beam system is proposed by using the principle of continuum medium mechanics and the finite element discretization method. In the proposed model, the coupling deformation of any element of the beam is only related with the nodal coordinates of this element. So this model is suitable to the rotating beam in an arbitrary shape. Numerical examples of slender beams in straight and irregular shapes are carried out to demonstrate the validation of the proposed model. Simulation results indicate that the proposed model can be used valid for dynamic description of flexible rotating beam in irregular shape, and for both low and high rotation speeds.

  14. The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongs, K.; Boyer, V.; Cruise, M. A.; Freise, A.; Holynski, M.; Hughes, J.; Kaushik, A.; Lien, Y.-H.; Niggebaum, A.; Perea-Ortiz, M.; Petrov, P.; Plant, S.; Singh, Y.; Stabrawa, A.; Paul, D. J.; Sorel, M.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Marsh, J. H.; Bowtell, R. W.; Bason, M. G.; Beardsley, R. P.; Campion, R. P.; Brookes, M. J.; Fernholz, T.; Fromhold, T. M.; Hackermuller, L.; Krüger, P.; Li, X.; Maclean, J. O.; Mellor, C. J.; Novikov, S. V.; Orucevic, F.; Rushforth, A. W.; Welch, N.; Benson, T. M.; Wildman, R. D.; Freegarde, T.; Himsworth, M.; Ruostekoski, J.; Smith, P.; Tropper, A.; Griffin, P. F.; Arnold, A. S.; Riis, E.; Hastie, J. E.; Paboeuf, D.; Parrotta, D. C.; Garraway, B. M.; Pasquazi, A.; Peccianti, M.; Hensinger, W.; Potter, E.; Nizamani, A. H.; Bostock, H.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Sinuco-Leon, G.; Hill, I. R.; Williams, R. A.; Gill, P.; Hempler, N.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Cross, T.; Kock, B. O.; Maddox, S.; John, P.

    2016-04-01

    The UK National Quantum Technology Hub in Sensors and Metrology is one of four flagship initiatives in the UK National of Quantum Technology Program. As part of a 20-year vision it translates laboratory demonstrations to deployable practical devices, with game-changing miniaturized components and prototypes that transform the state-of-the-art for quantum sensors and metrology. It brings together experts from the Universities of Birmingham, Glasgow, Nottingham, Southampton, Strathclyde and Sussex, NPL and currently links to over 15 leading international academic institutions and over 70 companies to build the supply chains and routes to market needed to bring 10-1000x improvements in sensing applications. It seeks, and is open to, additional partners for new application development and creates a point of easy open access to the facilities and supply chains that it stimulates or nurtures.

  15. Plasma membrane domains enriched in cortical endoplasmic reticulum function as membrane protein trafficking hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Philip D; Haberkorn, Christopher J; Weigel, Aubrey V; Higgins, Jenny L; Akin, Elizabeth J; Kennedy, Matthew J; Krapf, Diego; Tamkun, Michael M

    2013-09-01

    In mammalian cells, the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) is a network of tubules and cisterns that lie in close apposition to the plasma membrane (PM). We provide evidence that PM domains enriched in underlying cER function as trafficking hubs for insertion and removal of PM proteins in HEK 293 cells. By simultaneously visualizing cER and various transmembrane protein cargoes with total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that the majority of exocytotic delivery events for a recycled membrane protein or for a membrane protein being delivered to the PM for the first time occur at regions enriched in cER. Likewise, we observed recurring clathrin clusters and functional endocytosis of PM proteins preferentially at the cER-enriched regions. Thus the cER network serves to organize the molecular machinery for both insertion and removal of cell surface proteins, highlighting a novel role for these unique cellular microdomains in membrane trafficking.

  16. Southern African Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutondo, Moola S.; Simpemba, Prospery

    2016-10-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realizing the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU (International Astronomical Union) capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilization of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia (some supported by funds from IAU Annual Call for proposals).

  17. The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandu, Evaristus M.; Rhoades, Dawna L.

    2006-01-01

    Air transportation plays an important role in the social and economic development of the global system and the countries that seek to participate in it. As Africa seeks to take its place in the global economy, it is increasingly looking to aviation as the primary means of connecting its people and goods with the world. It has been suggested that Africa as a continent needs to move toward a system of hubs to optimize its scarce resources. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya, is one of the airports in the eastern region of Africa that is seeking to fill this role. This paper discusses the prospects for success and the challenges that it will need to overcome, including projections through 2020 for the growth in passenger and cargo traffic.

  18. Membrane contact sites, ancient and central hubs of cellular lipid logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amrita; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2017-09-01

    Membrane contact sites (MCSs) are regions where two organelles are closely apposed to facilitate molecular communication and promote a functional integration of compartmentalized cellular processes. There is growing evidence that MCSs play key roles in controlling intracellular lipid flows and distributions. Strikingly, even organelles connected by vesicular trafficking exchange lipids en bulk via lipid transfer proteins that operate at MCSs. Herein, we describe how MCSs developed into central hubs of lipid logistics during the evolution of eukaryotic cells. We then focus on how modern eukaryotes exploit MCSs to help solve a major logistical problem, namely to preserve the unique lipid mixtures of their early and late secretory organelles in the face of extensive vesicular trafficking. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Contact Sites edited by Christian Ungermann and Benoit Kornmann. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. MNCS' PERCEPTION ON THE FEASIBILITY OF SOUTH KOREA AS A BUSINESS HUB OF NORTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Il Lee

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the financial crisis of 1997, the South Korean government has moved towards a new market-driven paradigm of economic growth based on foreign direct investment (FDI replacing the decades old state-driven economic growth model. One of the attempts made by the government is its ambition to transform the nation into a business and economic hub of Northeast Asia. However, despite the growing concern on the topic among government agencies, media, research centers and academia, the absence of a cohesive and realistic approach to the issue is a relative void in the literature. This paper, which is based on findings from interviews with foreign companies operating in Korea during 2002, offers a cultural and institutional insight into the critical and often invisible issues to be considered for a successful realization of the vision.

  20. On the interconnection of stable protein complexes: inter-complex hubs and their conservation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Concettina

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes are key molecular entities that perform a variety of essential cellular functions. The connectivity of proteins within a complex has been widely investigated with both experimental and computational techniques. We developed a computational approach to identify and characterise proteins that play a role in interconnecting complexes. We computed a measure of inter-complex centrality, the crossroad index, based on disjoint paths connecting proteins in distinct complexes and identified inter-complex hubs as proteins with a high value of the crossroad index. We applied the approach to a set of stable complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Homo sapiens. Just as done for hubs, we evaluated the topological and biological properties of inter-complex hubs addressing the following questions. Do inter-complex hubs tend to be evolutionary conserved? What is the relation between crossroad index and essentiality? We found a good correlation between inter-complex hubs and both evolutionary conservation and essentiality.

  1. A unique four-hub protein cluster associates to glioblastoma progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Simeone

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most frequent brain tumors. Among them, glioblastomas are malignant and largely resistant to available treatments. Histopathology is the gold standard for classification and grading of brain tumors. However, brain tumor heterogeneity is remarkable and histopathology procedures for glioma classification remain unsatisfactory for predicting disease course as well as response to treatment. Proteins that tightly associate with cancer differentiation and progression, can bear important prognostic information. Here, we describe the identification of protein clusters differentially expressed in high-grade versus low-grade gliomas. Tissue samples from 25 high-grade tumors, 10 low-grade tumors and 5 normal brain cortices were analyzed by 2D-PAGE and proteomic profiling by mass spectrometry. This led to identify 48 differentially expressed protein markers between tumors and normal samples. Protein clustering by multivariate analyses (PCA and PLS-DA provided discrimination between pathological samples to an unprecedented extent, and revealed a unique network of deranged proteins. We discovered a novel glioblastoma control module centered on four major network hubs: Huntingtin, HNF4α, c-Myc and 14-3-3ζ. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and unbiased proteome-wide meta-analysis revealed altered expression of this glioblastoma control module in human glioma samples as compared with normal controls. Moreover, the four-hub network was found to cross-talk with both p53 and EGFR pathways. In summary, the findings of this study indicate the existence of a unifying signaling module controlling glioblastoma pathogenesis and malignant progression, and suggest novel targets for development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  2. Southern Africa Regional Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siseho Mutondo, Moola

    2015-08-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi® technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realising the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilisation of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. This resource also forms the foundation for closer collaboration between SAROAD member countries. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia. A further two projects involve the collaboration of Zambia and other regional member countries in order to foster engagement with important regional astronomy facilities (e.g. SKA). SAROAD has identified the IAU’s International Year of Light and a starting point for offering regional support for IAU-endorsed global activities. SAROAD has set up a hub dedicated to regional events and activities about the International Year of Light. SAROAD has a database of regional authorities to enable contact with the region's decision makers and experts. SAROAD will hold an annual event which brings forum for astronomy for development. The creation of the database and the SAROAD Road show is a first step towards this goal. The SAROAD website has helped to advertise upcoming events for astronomy development and education; it is used to provide advice, guidance and information for astronomers in all countries in the Southern Africa. Fundraising is the primary goal for SAROAD in 2015 towards financial self-sufficiency by 2020. We report on the methods that work best

  3. CFTR: a hub for kinases and crosstalk of cAMP and Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzelmann, Karl; Mehta, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The resulting disease is pleiotropic consistent with the idea that CFTR acts as a node within a network of signalling proteins. CFTR is not only a regulator of multiple transport proteins and controlled by numerous kinases but also participates in many signalling pathways that are disrupted after expression of its commonest mutant (F508del-CFTR). It operates in membrane compartments creating a scaffold for cytoskeletal elements, surface receptors, kinases and phosphodiesterases. CFTR is exposed to membrane-local second messengers such that a CFTR-interacting, low cellular energy sensor kinase (AMP- and ADP-activated kinase, AMPK) signals through a high energy phosphohistidine protein kinase (nucleoside diphosphate kinase, NDPK). CFTR also translocates a Ca(2+)-dependent adenylate cyclase to its proximity so that a rigid separation between cAMP-dependent and Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of Cl(-) transport becomes obsolete. In the presence of wild-type CFTR, parallel activation of CFTR and outwardly rectifying anoctamin 6 Cl(-) channels is observed, while the Ca(2+)-activated anoctamin 1 Cl(-) channel is inhibited. In contrast, in CF cells, CFTR is missing/mislocalized and the outwardly rectifying chloride channel is attenuated while Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion (anoctamin 1) appears upregulated. Additionally, we consider the idea that F508del-CFTR when trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum augments IP3-mediated Ca(2+) release by providing a shunt pathway for Cl(-). CFTR and the IP3 receptor share the characteristic that they both assemble their partner proteins to increase the plasticity of their hub responses. In CF, the CFTR hub fails to form at the plasma membrane, with widespread detrimental consequences for cell signalling.

  4. Hubs of Anticorrelation in High-Resolution Resting-State Functional Connectivity Network Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Cabanban, Romeo; Crosson, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    A major focus of brain research recently has been to map the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) network architecture of the normal brain and pathology through functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the phenomenon of anticorrelations in resting-state signals between different brain regions has not been adequately examined. The preponderance of studies on resting-state fMRI (rsFMRI) have either ignored anticorrelations in rsFC networks or adopted methods in data analysis, which have rendered anticorrelations in rsFC networks uninterpretable. The few studies that have examined anticorrelations in rsFC networks using conventional methods have found anticorrelations to be weak in strength and not very reproducible across subjects. Anticorrelations in rsFC network architecture could reflect mechanisms that subserve a number of important brain processes. In this preliminary study, we examined the properties of anticorrelated rsFC networks by systematically focusing on negative cross-correlation coefficients (CCs) among rsFMRI voxel time series across the brain with graph theory-based network analysis. A number of methods were implemented to enhance the neuronal specificity of resting-state functional connections that yield negative CCs, although at the cost of decreased sensitivity. Hubs of anticorrelation were seen in a number of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Examination of the anticorrelation maps of these hubs indicated that negative CCs in rsFC network architecture highlight a number of regulatory interactions between brain networks and regions, including reciprocal modulations, suppression, inhibition, and neurofeedback.

  5. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest in the succes...... that the behavior will be effective). These two factors were especially critical if the source context of the best practice is qualitatively different from the target context into which the organization is seeking to diffuse the best practice.......Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest...... approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...

  6. 城市交通枢纽节能设计研究%RESEARCH ON ENERGY- SAVING MEASURE FOR URBAN TRANSPORT HUB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺楠; 韩丹

    2014-01-01

    According to the present situation of high energy consumption for urban comprehensive transport hub, the project team makes a research on the comprehensive transport hub established in the small and medium-sized cities. This article makes a discussion on the main factors of high energy consumption and proposes the energy saving measures on the aspects of intensive space design, building mass design, shading design of maintenance structure, lighting design of the roof, use of solar panels and so on. Based on BIM technology, the design schemes can be analyzed, compared and optimized by using the Vasari and GBS building energy simulation software.%针对目前交通枢纽能耗大的现状,笔者课题组对京沪、京广沿线已建成的中小型城市交通枢纽进行实地调研。本文从空间集约化设计、建筑形体设计、围护结构遮阳设计、屋顶采光设计、室内吊顶空间以及新材料利用等方面分析城市交通枢纽能耗大的原因,并提出了节能措施,并基于BIM技术,采用GBS建筑能耗模拟软件,对设计方案进行分析、对比和优化。

  7. Differential evolution algorithm for multi-commodity and multi-level of service hub covering location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Setak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hub location problem involves a network of origins and destinations over which transportation takes place. There are many studies associated with finding the location of hub nodes and the allocation of demand nodes to these located hub nodes to transfer the only one kind of commodity under one level of service. However, in this study, carrying different commodity types from origin to destination under various levels of services (e.g. price, punctuality, reliability or transit time is studied. Quality of services experienced by users such as speed, convenience, comfort and security of transportation facilities and services is considered as the level of service. In each system, different kinds of commodities with various levels of services can be transmitted. The appropriate level of service that a commodity can be transmitted through is chosen by customer preferences and the specification of the commodity. So, a mixed integer programming formulation for single allocation hub covering location problem, which is based on the idea of transferring multi commodity flows under multi levels of service is presented. These two are applied concepts, multi-commodity and multi-level of service, which make the model's assumptions closer to the real world problems. In addition, a differential evolution algorithm is designed to find near-optimal solutions. The obtained solutions using differential evolution (DE algorithm (upper bound, where its parameters are tuned by response surface methodology, are compared with exact solutions and computed lower bounds by linear relaxation technique to prove the efficiency of proposed DE algorithm.

  8. Air network performance and hub competitive position: evaluation of primary airports in East and South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; J. de Wit; J. Veldhuis; H. Matsumoto

    2009-01-01

    The growth of hub-and-spoke operations has changed the structure of competition among airlines and airports, meaning that airlines now compete both directly (air services from A to B) as well as indirectly (services from A to B via H). Traditional measures of airport performance, such as passenger e

  9. Joint Optimization of Star P-hub Median Problem and Seat Inventory Control Decisions Considering a Hybrid Routing Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tikani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of integrated capacitated hub location problem and seat inventory control considering concept and techniques of revenue management. We consider an airline company maximizes its revenue by utilizing the best network topology and providing proper booking limits for all itineraries and fare classes. The transportation system arises in the form of a star/star network and includes both hub-stop and non-stop flights. This problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic integer program with mixed-integer recourse. We solve various instances carried out from the Turkish network data set. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, we propose a hybrid optimization method, consisting of an evolutionary algorithm based on genetic algorithm and exact solution. The quality of the solutions found by the proposed meta-heuristic is compared with the original version of GA and the mathematical programming model. The results obtained by the proposed model imply that integrating hub location and seat inventory control problem would help to increase the total revenue of airline companies. Also, in the case of serving non-stop flights, the model can provide more profit by employing less number of hubs.

  10. Optimization of Hybrid Hub-and-Spoke Network Operation for Less-Than-Truckload Freight Transportation considering Incremental Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mixed integer linear programming model (MILP for optimizing the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation for a less-than-truckload transportation service. The model aims to minimize the total operation costs (transportation cost and transfer cost, given the determined demand matrix, truck load capacity, and uncapacitated road transportation. The model also incorporates an incremental quantity discount function to solve the reversal of the total cost and the total demand. The model is applied to a real case of a Chinese transportation company engaged in nationwide freight transportation. The numerical example shows that, with uncapacitated road transportation, the total costs and the total vehicle trips of the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation are, respectively, 8.0% and 15.3% less than those of the pure hub-and-spoke network operation, and the assumed capacity constraints in an extension model result in more target costs on the hybrid hub-and-spoke network. The two models can be used to support the decision making in network operations by transportation and logistics companies.

  11. The role of FlhF and HubP as polar landmark proteins in Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Florian; Brenzinger, Susanne; Knauer, Carina; Dörrich, Anja K; Bubendorfer, Sebastian; Ruppert, Ulrike; Bange, Gert; Thormann, Kai M

    2015-11-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of cell polarity plays a role in many fundamental processes in bacteria and often relies on 'landmark' proteins which recruit the corresponding clients to their designated position. Here, we explored the localization of two multi-protein complexes, the polar flagellar motor and the chemotaxis array, in Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32. We demonstrate that polar positioning of the flagellar system, but not of the chemotaxis system, depends on the GTPase FlhF. In contrast, the chemotaxis array is recruited by a transmembrane protein which we identified as the functional ortholog of Vibrio cholerae HubP. Mediated by its periplasmic N-terminal LysM domain, SpHubP exhibits an FlhF-independent localization pattern during cell cycle similar to its Vibrio counterpart and also has a role in proper chromosome segregation. In addition, while not affecting flagellar positioning, SpHubP is crucial for normal flagellar function and is involved in type IV pili-mediated twitching motility. We hypothesize that a group of HubP/FimV homologs, characterized by a rather conserved N-terminal periplasmic section required for polar targeting and a highly variable acidic cytoplasmic part, primarily mediating recruitment of client proteins, serves as polar markers in various bacterial species with respect to different cellular functions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dynamic Migration Intentions and the Impact of Socio-Institutional Environments: A Transit Migration Hub in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, M.J.; Düvell, F.; van Eerdewijk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transit migration is generally defined by migrants having the intention to move onwards to a third country. Based on an empirical investigation in Izmir, a transit migration hub in Turkey, this paper critically discusses intentionality as a valid dimension in conceptualisations of transit migration.

  13. Application of a Non-linear Program to the Establishment of a Hub and Spoke System in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    areas of commerce, light manufacturing, and the tourism industry (United States Department of State, 2009). Generally speaking, Kenya maintains a...possess commercial and/or military vehicle and equipment repair facilities that could be used to maintain CF materiel in theatre . The Hub...

  14. Dynamic Migration Intentions and the Impact of Socio-Institutional Environments: A Transit Migration Hub in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, M.J.; Düvell, F.; van Eerdewijk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transit migration is generally defined by migrants having the intention to move onwards to a third country. Based on an empirical investigation in Izmir, a transit migration hub in Turkey, this paper critically discusses intentionality as a valid dimension in conceptualisations of transit migration.

  15. The Quest for Regional Hub of Education: Growing Heterarchies, Organizational Hybridization, and New Governance in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2011-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their higher education systems, the governments of Singapore and Malaysia have made attempts to develop their societies into regional hubs of education; hence transnational education has become increasingly popular in these societies. In order to attract more students from overseas to…

  16. Hub vortex helical instability as the origin of wake meandering in the lee of a model wind-turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Francesco; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Camarri, Simone; Porte-Agel, Fernando; Gallaire, Francois

    2012-11-01

    Wind tunnel measurements were performed for the wake produced by a three-bladed wind turbine immersed in uniform flow. These tests show the presence of a vorticity structure in the near wake region mainly oriented along the streamwise direction, which is denoted as hub vortex. The hub vortex is characterized by oscillations with frequencies lower than the one connected to the rotational velocity of the rotor, which are ascribed to wake meandering by previous works. This phenomenon consists in transversal oscillations of the wind turbine wake, which are excited by the shedding of vorticity structures from the rotor disc acting as a bluff body. In this work temporal and spatial linear stability analyses of a wind turbine wake are performed on a base flow obtained through time-averaged wind tunnel velocity measurements. This study shows that the low frequency spectral component detected experimentally is the result of a convective instability of the hub vortex, which is characterized by a counter-winding single-helix structure. Simultaneous hot-wire measurements confirm the presence of a helicoidal unstable mode of the hub vortex with a streamwise wavenumber roughly equal to the one predicted from the linear instability analysis.

  17. Developing and Launching an Online Hub to Facilitate the Exchange of Research Knowledge in Education: The Case of the OERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuters, Stephanie; Read, Robyn; Harris, Shasta Carr; Anwar, Arif; Levin, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the process by which the Ontario Education Research Exchange (OERE), part of the Knowledge Network of Applied Education Research, developed and launched an online hub of education research summaries to facilitate greater use of research by stakeholders in the field of education. The project is an effort in knowledge…

  18. Debate over a Proposed FedEx Distribution Hub: Examining the Role of Consensus, Power and Norms of Communication Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathleen B.

    This paper examines an ongoing community debate over a proposed FedEx distribution hub to be constructed at the local airport. The essay looks to theorists, including Patsy Healey, Richard Johannesen, Daniel Kemmis, James Klumpp, and Martha Nussbaum. These theorists provide a way to view the role of consensus, power, and norms of communication…

  19. THE CITY ISOMORPHISM FOR COMPREHENSIVE TRANSPORT HUB%综合交通枢纽的城市同构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏崴

    2014-01-01

    The urban comprehensive transport hub comprises of multi-function transport facilities with great traffic characteristics like airport, harbor, country railways, metro-subway, public transportation, and crossover road. Both the deficiency of urban construction land and the limitation of severe environmental condition reflect the comprehensive urban problems. We need to integrate the present urban conditions and summarize the system of large-scale comprehensive transport hub, in order to intergrate the traffic system with the urban environment in the hub areas and to promote the interactive relationship between the service of traffic hub and the sustainable urban development. These are the core problems that the urban comprehensive transport hub faces nowadays. The article attempts to focus on the integration of transport hub space for railway station and the urban construction, to make a study on the design strategy of the coordinated development of the comprehensive transport hub and the urban construction, in order to broaden our perspective and make a wider horizon for the future healthy development of our city.%城市大型综合交通枢纽涵盖空港、海港、国铁、城市轨道交通、公交,以及立交道路等市政设施多元功能为一体,具有极强的交通特征。而城市建设用地紧张,环境制约因素繁多,反映了综合的城市问题。整合现有城市条件,梳理大型综合交通枢纽系统,实现枢纽地区交通组织和城市环境的融合,促进交通枢纽服务于城市可持续发展的互动关系,是城市综合交通枢纽建设面临的核心问题。本文尝试围绕铁路客站区域交通枢纽空间与城市建设一体化发展,研究综合交通枢纽与城市建设协同发展的设计策略,为探索城市未来的良性发展开拓思路,开启更为广阔的前景。

  20. Diffusion in isotopically controlled semiconductor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracht, H.

    1999-12-01

    Isotopically controlled heterostructures of 28Si/natSi and Al71GaAs/Al69GaAs/71GaAs have been used to study the self-diffusion process in this elemental and compound semiconductor material. The directly measured Si self-diffusion coefficient is compared with the self-interstitial and vacancy contribution to self-diffusion which were deduced from metal diffusion experiments. The remarkable agreement between the Si self-diffusion coefficients and the individual contributions to self-diffusion shows that both self-interstitials and vacancies mediate Si self-diffusion. The Ga self-diffusion in undoped AlGaAs was found to decrease with increasing Al concentration. The activation enthalpy of Ga and Al diffusion in GaAs and of Ga diffusion in AlGaAs all lie in the range of (3.6±0.1) eV, but with different pre-exponential factors. The doping dependence of Ga self-diffusion reveals a retardation (enhancement) of Ga diffusion under p-type (n-type) doping compared to intrinsic conditions. All experimental results on the group-III atom diffusion are accurately described if vacancies on the group-III sublattice are assumed to mediate the Ga self- and Al-Ga interdiffusion in undoped AlGaAs and the Ga self-diffusion in Be- and Si-doped GaAs with an active dopant concentration of 3×1018 cm-3. The doping dependence of Ga self-diffusion in GaAs provides strong evidence that neutral, singly and doubly charged Ga vacancies govern the self-diffusion process.

  1. 社交网站中知识扩散机制及影响因素研究%On the Mechanism of Knowledge Diffusion in Social Network and Its Influencing Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯锐; 李亚娇

    2014-01-01

    Social network is a new type of social media that helps users establish social relations. At present, it has become an important part of internet on knowledge diffusion because of its media properties including actualized social contact, valued relation, circled activity, fast transmission of virus and personalized space. Based on reviewing the concept of knowledge diffusion and studies on its mechanism, the paper analyses the mechanism of knowledge diffusion in social network on the basis of the related theories about social network and complicated network. From three dimensions of network structure, interpersonal relationship and individual cognition, the paper concludes and demonstrates seven influencing factors of knowledge diffusion in social network, that is, network connection, network form, reliability, cooperation, reciprocity, professional ability and values, which provides enlightenment for knowl-edge diffusion and knowledge innovation based on social network, and lays a foundation for further quantitative research on knowledge diffusion in social network.%社交网站是帮助用户建立社交关系的一种新型社交媒体,由于具有社交真实化、关系价值化、活动圈子化、传播病毒化、空间个性化等媒体特性,它目前成为了互联网上一个重要的知识扩散互联网。本文在对知识扩散概念理解,以及对知识扩散机制研究进行综述的基础上,基于社交网络和复杂网络的相关理论对社交网站中知识扩散的机制进行了分析,并从网络结构、人际关系、个体认知三个维度归纳和论证了影响社交网站中知识扩散的七个因素,分别是网络连结、网络形态、信任、合作、互惠、专业能力、价值观念,这对于基于社交网站媒介的知识传播和知识创新应用具有很好的指导,也为通过进一步量化研究社交网站的知识扩散打下了基础。

  2. Diffusion-weighted imaging of normal fibroglandular breast tissue : influence of microperfusion and fat suppression technique on the apparent diffusion coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, Paul; Dorrius, Monique D.; Kappert, Peter; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Sijens, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of microperfusion and fat suppression technique on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) of normal fibroglandular breast tissue was investigated. Seven volunteers (14 breasts) were scanned using diffusion weighting factors (b val

  3. A simplified approach for solving coagulation-diffusion equation to estimate atmospheric background particle number loading factors contributed by emissions from localized sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S.; Mayya, Y. S.

    2011-08-01

    Coagulation and condensation/evaporation combined with atmospheric dispersion are the main processes responsible for the evolution of aerosol particle size distributions and number concentrations emitted from localized sources. A crucial question is: what fraction of freshly emitted particles survive intra-coagulation effect to persist in the atmosphere and become available for further interaction with background aerosols?. The difficulty in estimating this quantity, designated as the number survival fraction, arises due chiefly to the joint action of atmospheric diffusion with nonlinear coagulation effects which are computationally intensive to handle. We provide a simplified approach to evaluate this quantity in the context of instantaneous (puff) and continuous (plume) releases based on a reduction of the respective coagulation-diffusion equations under the assumption of a constant coagulation kernel ( K). The condensation/evaporation processes, being number conserving, are not included in the study. The approach consists of constructing moment equations for the evolution of number concentration and variance of the spatial extension of puff or plume in terms of either time or downstream distance. The puff model, applicable to instantaneous releases is solved within a 3-D, spherically symmetric framework, under an additional assumption of a constant diffusion coefficient ( D) which renders itself amenable to a closed form solution that provides a benchmark for developing the solution to the plume model. The latter case, corresponding to continuous releases, is discussed within a 2-D framework under the assumptions of constant advection velocity ( U) and space dependent diffusion coefficient expressed in terms of turbulent energy dissipation rate ( ɛ). The study brings out the special effect of the coagulation-induced flattening of the spatial concentration profiles because of which particle sizes will be larger at the centre of a Gaussian puff. For a puff of

  4. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Sarkar

    Full Text Available A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs, often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs. These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI

  5. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debasree; Patra, Piya; Ghosh, Abhirupa; Saha, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs), often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME) were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins—MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs). These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI modulators. PMID

  6. The degraded concept representation system in semantic dementia: damage to pan-modal hub, then visual spoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy W; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2012-12-01

    The core clinical feature of semantic dementia is a progressive yet selective degradation of conceptual knowledge. Understanding the cognitive and neuroanatomical basis for this deficit is a key challenge for both clinical and basic science. Some researchers attribute the deficit to damage to pan-modal conceptual representations that are independent of any particular sensory-motor modality and are represented in the ventrolateral anterior temporal lobes. Others claim that damage to modality-specific visual feature representations in the occipitotemporal 'ventral stream' is responsible. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that concept degradation in semantic dementia involves a combination of these pan-modal and modality-specific elements. We investigated factors influencing knowledge of object concepts by analysing 43 sets of picture-naming data from patients with semantic dementia. We found a strong influence of two pan-modal factors: highly familiar and typical items were named more accurately than less familiar/atypical items at all stages of the disorder. Items associated with rich sensory-motor information were also named more successfully at all stages, and this effect was present for sound/motion knowledge and tactile/action knowledge when these modalities were studied separately. However, there was no advantage for items rich in visual colour/form characteristics; instead, this factor had an increasingly negative impact in the later stages of the disorder. We propose that these results are best explained by a combination of (i) degradation of modality-independent conceptual representations, which is present throughout the disorder and is a consequence of atrophy focused on the ventrolateral anterior temporal lobes; and (ii) a later additional deficit for concepts that depend heavily on visual colour/form information, caused by the spreading of atrophy to posterior ventral temporal regions specialized for representing this information. This

  7. Mass transport coefficients from liquid thermal diffusion columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecenarro, O.; Madariaga, J.A.; Navarro, J.L.; Santamaria, C.M. (Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada 2); Carrion, J.A.; Saviron, J.M. (Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Facultad da Ciencias)

    1990-03-01

    Experimental data on ordinary diffusion coefficient and thermal diffusion for binary liquid systems containing hexane, heptane, benzene, toluene and carbon tetrachloride are obtained from steady and non-steady separation measurements in a thermal diffusion column. The data extraction uses a time evolution theory previously developed by the authors that accounts for density effects (the 'forgotten effect'). The comparison of the diffusion data with those of the literature provides a powerful test of the derived thermal diffusion factors. (orig.).

  8. Transport of pollutants and sediment in the area of the Wave Hub (Celtic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Huntley, David

    2010-05-01

    Ocean waves are a sustainable source of alternative energy that, if properly developed, will provide a quarter of current electricity demand and contribute to lowering the UK's reliance on fossil fuels. The UK government has given planning approval for a pilot power plant called the Wave Hub located in the eastern Celtic Sea off the Cornish north coast. The impact of a small number of devices on the physical environment is expected to be subtle outside the exclusion zone. However, such pilot projects are considered as the launching pad in the UK's ambitious programme to create a new wave energy industry. Large scale off-shore industrial activity can interact with the physical environment of the shelf sea in a two-fold manner: (i) the wave farm is affected by the waves, currents, variation in temperature and movements of sediment, and (ii) it can impact on the marine environment via a number of ways including release of dissolved and suspended matter during construction, operational and decommission stages of the project. These changes in the physical environment can then be translated into changes of the ecosystem and corresponding human activities. The Celtic Sea has a highly variable and complex thermal structure. In the spring and summer the water column becomes stratified due to solar heating of the surface layer, particularly in the areas of greater depth and/or low currents, where the turbulence is insufficient to mix the entire water column. Fronts form at the junctions of stratified and mixed water columns and these fronts generate currents which flow along the fronts. These frontal currents are subject to baroclinic instability and generate a whole set of mesoscale (i.e. comparable with the baroclinic Rossby radius) features such as eddies, filaments and mushroom currents, which are clearly seen on satellite images. Ecosystems are particularly concentrated in the vicinity of fronts so changes in frontal strength or location can have significant biological

  9. An Empirical Study:Diffusion Factors of the Using of Chinese Mobile Internet%关于我国移动互联网使用扩散因素的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道志

    2013-01-01

    By reviewing the recent information technology and internet application to diffusion theory, established a research model of mobile internet using diffusion factors. The model contains Relative Advantage, Complexity, Compatibility, Observability, Use context and Perceived enjoyment. Through a questionnaire survey to collect data, an empirical evaluation, research model, shows that the different stage using diffusion in the mobile internet users, there is a significant difference in their use of understanding. The decisive factor of all, on the use of pleasant understanding is the most important predictor of mobile internet use. The mobile internet is easy to use, is compatible with all kinds of user's way of life, also will promote the application of the technology.%文章通过梳理近年来信息技术以及互联网应用的扩散理论,建立了移动互联网使用扩散因素的研究模型,该模型包含相对优势、复杂性、兼容性、可观察性、使用环境和愉悦理解。文章通过问卷调查,收集数据,实证评估研究模型等程序表明在移动互联网使用扩散的不同阶段,用户对其使用的理解有显著差异。在决定性因子中,使用愉悦性是移动互联网使用的最重要的预示指标,使移动互联网容易使用,兼顾各类用户的生活方式,也将促进该技术的应用。

  10. 氯气扩散影响因素的数值模拟%Numerical simulation of factors influencing chlorine diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳士凯; 杨以湖; 王华

    2011-01-01

    A model for the leakage and diffusian of chlorine was establisbed based on the species transport model of FLUENT.Numerical simulations were carried out in order to investigate the effects of the release rate. wind velocity and the obstacle category on the leakage and diffusion of chlorine. ThP results showed thai larger release rate can increase the heavy gas effect and create bigger concentration area in thc downwind : ihc wind velocity can increase the rate of diffusion in the downwind. and decrease the rate across the wind direction. and shorten the time of gas remain around the obstacle: the surface condition had major influence on the dispersion of the dense gas.%基于FLUENT的物质传输模型建立氯气泄漏扩散模型,针对不同泄漏速率、外界风速、障碍物类型等对氯气泄漏扩散进行数值模拟.结果表明,泄漏速率较大时,重气效应明显增大,下风向形成的高浓度区增大;风速较大时,重气云在下风向的扩散速率增大,在水平侧风向的扩散速率减小,在泄漏源和障碍物附近的停留时间减少;不同的地表条件是影响重气扩散的重要因素.

  11. Identifying the Functional Requirements for an Arizona Astronomy Data Hub (AADH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, G.; Heidorn, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Astronomy data represent a curation challenge for information managers, as well as for astronomers. Extracting knowledge from these heterogeneous and complex datasets is particularly complicated and requires both interdisciplinary and domain expertise to accomplish true curation, with an overall goal of facilitating reproducible science through discoverability and persistence. A group of researchers and professional staff at the University of Arizona held several meetings during the spring of 2015 about astronomy data and the role of the university in curation of that data. The group decided that it was critical to obtain a broader consensus on the needs of the community. With assistance from a Start for Success grant provided by the University of Arizona Office of Research and Discovery and funding from the American Astronomical Society (AAS), a workshop was held in early July 2015, with 28 participants plus 4 organizers in attendance. Representing University researchers as well as astronomical facilities and a scholarly society, the group verified that indeed there is a problem with the long-term curation of some astronomical data not associated with major facilities, and that a repository or "data hub" with the correct functionality could facilitate research and the preservation and use of astronomy data. The workshop members also identified a set of next steps, including the identification of possible data and metadata to be included in the Hub. The participants further helped to identify additional information that must be gathered before construction of the AADH could begin, including identifying significant datasets that do not currently have sufficient preservation and dissemination infrastructure, as well as some data associated with journal publications and the broader context of the data beyond that directly published in the journals. Workshop participants recommended that a set of grant proposal should be developed that ensures community buy-in and

  12. Effects of Comprehensive High-speed Transportation Hubs on Spatial Structure of Urban Development: A Case Study on Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper, by studying the mechanism of the spatial restructuring of urban development and the effects of comprehensive high-speed transportation hubs on it, analyzes the development trends of comprehensive high-speed transportation in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Area and the impacts of the growing urban area centered on comprehensive high-speed transportation hubs, like airport and high-speed railway station, on the urban development of this area. It also proposes some strategies for the spatial restructuring of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Area in view of the development of the comprehensive high-speed transportation hubs, like Huanghua Airport and Wuhan-Guangzhou High-speed Railway Station.

  13. Discussion on Development Mode of Large Railway Hubs in High-speed Rail Era:From Transportation Complex to Urban Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At present, most of China’s railway hubs are developed to be transportation complexes, with some problems like unsmooth traffic circulation, mixed but disordered functions, separated spaces, etc. In high-speed rail era, high-speed railway hubs should be regarded as the catalyst to promoted urban development. The mode of urban complex should be developed, to closely connect the railway hub and the surrounding area within walking distance, so as people could get to their destinations in the most convenient way. Furthermore, it would strengthen people’s aggregation, thus to bring about larger scale urban development by the successful development of urban complex.

  14. Diffusion Behavior of Np in Simulated Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The diffusion rate of radionuclide in groundwater is one of the most important factors to beconsidered for risk assessment of disposal of high -level radioactive waste in deep geological repository.However the reported data are very scarce. In the present work, the diffusion behavior of Np in simulated

  15. GSTP1 is a hub gene for gene-air pollution interactions on childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, M W; Tsai, C H; Tung, K Y; Hwang, B F; Liang, P H; Chiang, B L; Yang, Y H; Lee, Y L

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that multiple genes and air pollutants are associated with asthma. By identifying the effect of air pollution on the general population, the effects of air pollution on childhood asthma can be better understood. We conducted the Taiwan Children Health Study (TCHS) to investigate the influence of gene-air pollution interactions on childhood asthma. Complete monitoring data for the ambient air pollutants were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency air monitoring stations. Our results show a significant two-way gene-air pollution interaction between glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP1) and PM10 on the risk of childhood asthma. Interactions between GSTP1 and different types of air pollutants have a higher information gain than other gene-air pollutant combinations. Our study suggests that interaction between GSTP1 and PM10 is the most influential gene-air pollution interaction model on childhood asthma. The different types of air pollution combined with the GSTP1 gene may alter the susceptibility to childhood asthma. It implies that GSTP1 is an important hub gene in the anti-oxidative pathway that buffers the harmful effects of air pollution. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Distortion and residual stresses in laser beam weld shaft-hub joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschenhenke, F.; Hofmann, M.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    In laser beam welding, a serious challenge is to control the distortion during the process. Understanding the whole process chain in view of different distortion potentials applied in each processing step provides the ability to control the distortion of the welded components. Every manufacturing step induces residual stresses in the component which can be released by the heat of the welding process, while further residual stresses are introduced into the welded parts upon cooling. The laser beam sources of the new generation permit a high power welding process and high beam quality at the same time. These laser beams are capable of producing deep and narrow seams. Thus the thermal strains of the joined parts are expected to be minimized. Especially axial welded shaft-hub joints show an irregular distribution of bending deformation, which is caused by the self-influencing welding gap. This work deals with the investigation of different laser beam sources and their effect on the welding distortion in axial welded shafthub joints made of steel (20MnCr5). The aim of the work done was to achieve minimal distortion after the welding process. To characterize the influences on the distortion behaviour of the welded parts, residual stresses have been determined by neutron diffraction.

  17. One hub-one process: a tool based view on regulatory network topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneppen Kim

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between the regulatory design and the functionality of molecular networks is a key issue in biology. Modules and motifs have been associated to various cellular processes, thereby providing anecdotal evidence for performance based localization on molecular networks. Results To quantify structure-function relationship we investigate similarities of proteins which are close in the regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. We find that the topology of the regulatory network only show weak remnants of its history of network reorganizations, but strong features of co-regulated proteins associated to similar tasks. These functional correlations decreases strongly when one consider proteins separated by more than two steps in the regulatory network. The network topology primarily reflects the processes that is orchestrated by each individual hub, whereas there is nearly no remnants of the history of protein duplications. Conclusion Our results suggests that local topological features of regulatory networks, including broad degree distributions, emerge as an implicit result of matching a number of needed processes to a finite toolbox of proteins.

  18. The G Protein-Coupled Receptor Heterodimer Network (GPCR-HetNet and Its Hub Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasiel O. Borroto-Escuela

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs oligomerization has emerged as a vital characteristic of receptor structure. Substantial experimental evidence supports the existence of GPCR-GPCR interactions in a coordinated and cooperative manner. However, despite the current development of experimental techniques for large-scale detection of GPCR heteromers, in order to understand their connectivity it is necessary to develop novel tools to study the global heteroreceptor networks. To provide insight into the overall topology of the GPCR heteromers and identify key players, a collective interaction network was constructed. Experimental interaction data for each of the individual human GPCR protomers was obtained manually from the STRING and SCOPUS databases. The interaction data were used to build and analyze the network using Cytoscape software. The network was treated as undirected throughout the study. It is comprised of 156 nodes, 260 edges and has a scale-free topology. Connectivity analysis reveals a significant dominance of intrafamily versus interfamily connections. Most of the receptors within the network are linked to each other by a small number of edges. DRD2, OPRM, ADRB2, AA2AR, AA1R, OPRK, OPRD and GHSR are identified as hubs. In a network representation 10 modules/clusters also appear as a highly interconnected group of nodes. Information on this GPCR network can improve our understanding of molecular integration. GPCR-HetNet has been implemented in Java and is freely available at http://www.iiia.csic.es/~ismel/GPCR-Nets/index.html.

  19. The G protein-coupled receptor heterodimer network (GPCR-HetNet) and its hub components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Brito, Ismel; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Di Palma, Michael; Oflijan, Julia; Skieterska, Kamila; Duchou, Jolien; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Rivera, Alicia; Guidolin, Diego; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-05-14

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) oligomerization has emerged as a vital characteristic of receptor structure. Substantial experimental evidence supports the existence of GPCR-GPCR interactions in a coordinated and cooperative manner. However, despite the current development of experimental techniques for large-scale detection of GPCR heteromers, in order to understand their connectivity it is necessary to develop novel tools to study the global heteroreceptor networks. To provide insight into the overall topology of the GPCR heteromers and identify key players, a collective interaction network was constructed. Experimental interaction data for each of the individual human GPCR protomers was obtained manually from the STRING and SCOPUS databases. The interaction data were used to build and analyze the network using Cytoscape software. The network was treated as undirected throughout the study. It is comprised of 156 nodes, 260 edges and has a scale-free topology. Connectivity analysis reveals a significant dominance of intrafamily versus interfamily connections. Most of the receptors within the network are linked to each other by a small number of edges. DRD2, OPRM, ADRB2, AA2AR, AA1R, OPRK, OPRD and GHSR are identified as hubs. In a network representation 10 modules/clusters also appear as a highly interconnected group of nodes. Information on this GPCR network can improve our understanding of molecular integration. GPCR-HetNet has been implemented in Java and is freely available at http://www.iiia.csic.es/~ismel/GPCR-Nets/index.html.

  20. A Real-Time Web Services Hub to Improve Situation Awareness during Flash Flood Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, F. R.; Liu, F.; Maidment, D. R.; Hodges, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    The central Texas corridor is one of the most flash flood-prone regions in the United States. Over the years, flash floods have resulted in hundreds of flood fatalities and billions of dollars in property damage. In order to mitigate risk to residents and infrastructure during flood events, both citizens and emergency responders need to exhibit proactive behavior instead of reactive. Real-time and forecasted flood information is fairly limited and hard to come by at varying spatial scales. The University of Texas at Austin has collaborated with IBM Research-Austin and ESRI to build a distributed real-time flood information system through a framework that leverages large scale data management and distribution, Open Geospatial Consortium standardized web services, and smart map applications. Within this paradigm, observed precipitation data encoded in WaterML is ingested into HEC-HMS and then delivered to a high performance hydraulic routing software package developed by IBM that utilizes the latest advancements in VLSI design, numerical linear algebra and numerical integration techniques on contemporary multicore architecture to solve fully dynamic Saint Venant equations at both small and large scales. In this paper we present a real-time flood inundation map application that in conjunction with a web services Hub, seamlessly integrates hydrologic information available through both public and private data services, model services and mapping services. As a case study for this project, we demonstrate how this system has been implemented in the City of Austin, Texas.