WorldWideScience

Sample records for hu-based color mapping

  1. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  2. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  3. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas; Bernhard, Matthias; Rautek, Peter; Viola, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user's ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies

  4. Color maps of Arp 146

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A. B.; Spight, L. D.; Colegrove, P. T.; Disanti, M. A.; Fink, U.

    1990-01-01

    Four color maps of Arp 146 are given. The structure and color of the ring galaxy and its companion show evidence of a bridge of material between the companion and the remnant nucleus of the original galaxy now forming the ring. Broad band spatial coverage clearly defines regions of starburst occurrence.

  5. Explorative analysis of 2D color maps

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Martin; Bernard, Jürgen; Thum, Simon; Mittelstädt, Sebastian; Hutter, Marco; Keim, Daniel A.; Kohlhammer, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Color is one of the most important visual variables in information visualization. In many cases, two-dimensional information can be color-coded based on a 2D color map. A variety of color maps as well as a number of quality criteria for the use of color have been presented. The choice of the best color map depends on the analytical task users intend to perform and the design space in choosing an appropriate 2D color map is large. In this paper, we present the ColorMap-Explorer, a visual-inter...

  6. The Psychological Four-Color Mapping Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…

  7. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  8. Polarization-color mapping strategies: catching up with color theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Andrew W.; Alenin, Andrey S.; Vaughn, Israel J.; Tyo, J. Scott

    2017-09-01

    Current visualization techniques for mapping polarization data to a color coordinates defined by the Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) color representation are analyzed in the context of perceptual uniformity. Since HSV is not designed to be perceptually uniform, the extent of non-uniformity should be evaluated by using robust color difference formulae and by comparison to the state-of-the-art uniform color space CAM02-UCS. For mapping just angle of polarization with HSV hue, the results show clear non-uniformity and implications for how this can misrepresent the data. UCS can be used to create alternative mapping techniques that are perceptually uniform. Implementing variation in lightness may increase shape discrimination within the scene. Future work will be dedicated to measuring performance of both current and proposed methods using psychophysical analysis.

  9. Filtering Color Mapped Textures and Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Heitz , Eric; Nowrouzezahrai , Derek; Poulin , Pierre; Neyret , Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Color map textures applied directly to surfaces, to geometric microsurface details, or to procedural functions (such as noise), are commonly used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient color map filt...

  10. Backtracking Method of Coloring Administrative Maps Considering Visual Perception Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Zhiwei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Color design in administrative maps should incorporate and balance area configuration, color harmony, and users' purposes. Based on visual perceptual rules, this paper quantifies color harmony, color contrast and perceptual balance in coloring administrative maps, and a model is suggested to evaluate the coloring quality after color template is selected. Then a backtracking method based on area balance is proposed to compute colored areas. Experiments show that this method can well meet visual perceptual rules while coloring administrative maps, and can be used for later map design.

  11. Color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Hsuan; Yang, Chih-Yuan

    2000-06-01

    By the progress of computer, computer peripherals such as color monitor and printer are often used to generate color image. However, cross media color reproduction by human perception is usually different. Basically, the influence factors are device calibration and characterization, viewing condition, device gamut and human psychology. In this thesis, a color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping is proposed. It consists of four parts; device characterization, color management technique, color appearance model and gamut mapping.

  12. Individualization of 2D color maps for people with color vision deficiencies

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas; Bernhard, Matthias; Rautek, Peter; Viola, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. People with color vision deficiencies, such as red-green blindness, face difficulties when using conventional color maps. We propose a novel method for adapting a color map to an individual person, by having the user sort lines extracted from a given color map.

  13. Individualization of 2D color maps for people with color vision deficiencies

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-12-13

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. People with color vision deficiencies, such as red-green blindness, face difficulties when using conventional color maps. We propose a novel method for adapting a color map to an individual person, by having the user sort lines extracted from a given color map.

  14. Clustering of color map pixels: an interactive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yiu Sang; Luk, Franklin T.; Yuen, K. N.; Yeung, Hoi Wo

    2003-12-01

    The demand for digital maps continues to arise as mobile electronic devices become more popular nowadays. Instead of creating the entire map from void, we may convert a scanned paper map into a digital one. Color clustering is the very first step of the conversion process. Currently, most of the existing clustering algorithms are fully automatic. They are fast and efficient but may not work well in map conversion because of the numerous ambiguous issues associated with printed maps. Here we introduce two interactive approaches for color clustering on the map: color clustering with pre-calculated index colors (PCIC) and color clustering with pre-calculated color ranges (PCCR). We also introduce a memory model that could enhance and integrate different image processing techniques for fine-tuning the clustering results. Problems and examples of the algorithms are discussed in the paper.

  15. Gamut mapping in a high-dynamic-range color space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Jens; Fairchild, Mark D.; Ferwerda, James A.; Urban, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach of tone mapping as gamut mapping in a high-dynamic-range (HDR) color space. High- and low-dynamic-range (LDR) images as well as device gamut boundaries can simultaneously be represented within such a color space. This enables a unified transformation of the HDR image into the gamut of an output device (in this paper called HDR gamut mapping). An additional aim of this paper is to investigate the suitability of a specific HDR color space to serve as a working color space for the proposed HDR gamut mapping. For the HDR gamut mapping, we use a recent approach that iteratively minimizes an image-difference metric subject to in-gamut images. A psychophysical experiment on an HDR display shows that the standard reproduction workflow of two subsequent transformations - tone mapping and then gamut mapping - may be improved by HDR gamut mapping.

  16. Albedo and color maps of the Saturnian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, B.J.; Mosher, J.A.; Johnson, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the production of maps of the albedos and colors of Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea over the full range of their imaged surfaces. Voyager images were used to prepare maps of the normal reflectances and color ratios (0.58/0.41 micron) of these satelites. 67 refs

  17. Fast natural color mapping for night-time imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method to render multi-band night-time imagery (images from sensors whose sensitive range does not necessarily coincide with the visual part of the electromagnetic spectrum, e.g. image intensifiers, thermal camera's) in natural daytime colors. The color mapping is derived from the

  18. Color encryption scheme based on adapted quantum logistic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Alaa; Zhang, Tiejun; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a new color image encryption scheme based on quantum chaotic system. In this scheme, a new encryption scheme is accomplished by generating an intermediate chaotic key stream with the help of quantum chaotic logistic map. Then, each pixel is encrypted by the cipher value of the previous pixel and the adapted quantum logistic map. The results show that the proposed scheme has adequate security for the confidentiality of color images.

  19. Use of ocean color scanner data in water quality mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, S.

    1981-01-01

    Remotely sensed data, in combination with in situ data, are used in assessing water quality parameters within the San Francisco Bay-Delta. The parameters include suspended solids, chlorophyll, and turbidity. Regression models are developed between each of the water quality parameter measurements and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) data. The models are then extended to the entire study area for mapping water quality parameters. The results include a series of color-coded maps, each pertaining to one of the water quality parameters, and the statistical analysis of the OCS data and regression models. It is found that concurrently collected OCS data and surface truth measurements are highly useful in mapping the selected water quality parameters and locating areas having relatively high biological activity. In addition, it is found to be virtually impossible, at least within this test site, to locate such areas on U-2 color and color-infrared photography.

  20. Color maps of X-ray globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, C.D.; Grindlay, J.E.; Cohn, H.; Lugger, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a search for optical counterparts to X-ray sources in six globular clusters, 47 Tuc, NGC 1851, NGC 6441, NGC 6624, NGC 6712, and M15, are reported. Maps of the U-B color of the central regions of the clusters were prepared. A candidate for the optical counterpart of the source in NGC 6712 was found, along with a blue region near the X-ray source in 47 Tuc. Upper limits on the colors and magnitudes of possible optical counterparts are reported for the other three clusters. The use of color maps to determine color gradients in globular clusters is explored. It is found that, while such gradients do exist and vary from cluster to cluster, they can be explained by crowding effects. Crude limits are placed on the excess populations of blue objects such as CVs, which have been postulated to be concentrated in the centers of dense clusters. 32 references

  1. New false color mapping for image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Walraven, J.

    1996-01-01

    A pixel based colour mapping algorithm is presented that produces a fused false colour rendering of two gray level images representing different sensor modalities. The result-ing fused false colour images have a higher information content than each of the original images and retain sensor-specific

  2. Efficient Depth Map Compression Exploiting Segmented Color Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milani, Simone; Zanuttigh, Pietro; Zamarin, Marco

    2011-01-01

    performances is still an open research issue. This paper presents a novel compression scheme that exploits a segmentation of the color data to predict the shape of the different surfaces in the depth map. Then each segment is approximated with a parameterized plane. In case the approximation is sufficiently...

  3. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Marx, Alexander; Schuster, Alexander K; Schad, Lothar R; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions. In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin-3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images. To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images. Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics.

  4. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Nikolas Kather

    Full Text Available Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions.In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin-3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images.To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images.Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics.

  5. An imaging colorimeter for noncontact tissue color mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, C

    1997-06-01

    There has been a considerable effort in several medical fields, for objective color analysis and characterization of biological tissues. Conventional colorimeters have proved inadequate for this purpose, since they do not provide spatial color information and because the measuring procedure randomly affects the color of the tissue. In this paper an imaging colorimeter is presented, where the nonimaging optical photodetector of colorimeters is replaced with the charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor of a color video camera, enabling the independent capturing of the color information for any spatial point within its field-of-view. Combining imaging and colorimetry methods, the acquired image is calibrated and corrected, under several ambient light conditions, providing noncontact reproducible color measurements and mapping, free of the errors and the limitations present in conventional colorimeters. This system was used for monitoring of blood supply changes of psoriatic plaques, that have undergone Psoralens and ultraviolet-A radiation (PUVA) therapy, where reproducible and reliable measurements were demonstrated. These features highlight the potential of the imaging colorimeters as clinical and research tools for the standardization of clinical diagnosis and for the objective evaluation of treatment effectiveness.

  6. Explorations in topology map coloring, surfaces and knots

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, David

    2013-01-01

    Explorations in Topology, Second Edition, provides students a rich experience with low-dimensional topology (map coloring, surfaces, and knots), enhances their geometrical and topological intuition, empowers them with new approaches to solving problems, and provides them with experiences that will help them make sense of future, more formal topology courses. The book's innovative story-line style models the problem-solving process, presents the development of concepts in a natural way, and engages students in meaningful encounters with the material. The updated end-of-chapter investigation

  7. Color image encryption based on Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloom, Sahar; Eftekhari-Moghadam, Amir Masud

    2009-01-01

    Image encryption is somehow different from text encryption due to some inherent features of image such as bulk data capacity and high correlation among pixels, which are generally difficult to handle by conventional methods. The desirable cryptographic properties of the chaotic maps such as sensitivity to initial conditions and random-like behavior have attracted the attention of cryptographers to develop new encryption algorithms. Therefore, recent researches of image encryption algorithms have been increasingly based on chaotic systems, though the drawbacks of small key space and weak security in one-dimensional chaotic cryptosystems are obvious. This paper proposes a Coupled Nonlinear Chaotic Map, called CNCM, and a novel chaos-based image encryption algorithm to encrypt color images by using CNCM. The chaotic cryptography technique which used in this paper is a symmetric key cryptography with a stream cipher structure. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, 240 bit-long secret key is used to generate the initial conditions and parameters of the chaotic map by making some algebraic transformations to the key. These transformations as well as the nonlinearity and coupling structure of the CNCM have enhanced the cryptosystem security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, the current paper employs the image size and color components to cryptosystem, thereby significantly increasing the resistance to known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The results of several experimental, statistical analysis and key sensitivity tests show that the proposed image encryption scheme provides an efficient and secure way for real-time image encryption and transmission.

  8. Slow Mapping: Color Word Learning as a Gradual Inductive Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Katie; Dobkins, Karen; Barner, David

    2013-01-01

    Most current accounts of color word acquisition propose that the delay between children's first production of color words and adult-like understanding is due to problems abstracting color as a domain of meaning. Here we present evidence against this hypothesis, and show that, from the time children produce color words in a labeling task they use…

  9. SRTM Data Release for Eurasia, Index Map and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The colored regions of this map show the extent of digital elevation data recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This release includes data for most of Europe and Asia plus numerous islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. SRTM flew on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000 and used an interferometric radar system to map the topography of Earth's landmass between latitudes 56 degrees south and 60 degrees north.The data were processed into geographic 'tiles,' each of which represents one by one degree of latitude and longitude. A degree of latitude measures 111 kilometers (69 miles) north-south, and a degree of longitude measures 111 kilometers or less east-west, decreasing away from the equator. The data are being released to the public on a continent-by-continent basis. This Eurasia segment includes 5,940 tiles, more than a third of the total data set. Previous releases covered North America and South America. Forthcoming releases will include Africa-Arabia and Australia plus an 'Islands' release for those islands not included in the continental releases. Together these data releases constitute the world's first high-resolution, near-global elevation model. The resolution of the publicly released data is three arcseconds (1/1,200 of a degree of latitude and longitude), which is about 90 meters (295 feet).European coverage in the current data release stretches eastward from the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula in the west, across the Alps and Carpathian Mountains, as well as the Northern European Plain, to the Ural and Caucasus Mountains bordering Asia. The Asian coverage includes a great diversity of landforms, including the Tibetan Plateau, Tarin Basin, Mongolian Plateau, and the mountains surrounding Lake Baikal, the world's deepest lake. Mt. Everest in the Himalayas, at 8,848 meters (29,029 feet) is the world's highest mountain. From India's Deccan Plateau, to Southeast Asia, coastal China, and Korea, various

  10. Cross-media color reproduction using the frequency-based spatial gamut mapping algorithm based on human color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangyuan; Niu, Shijun; Li, Xiaozhou; Hu, Guichun

    2018-04-01

    Due to the increasing globalization of printing industry, remoting proofing will become the inevitable development trend. Cross-media color reproduction will occur in different color gamuts using remote proofing technologies, which usually leads to the problem of incompatible color gamut. In this paper, to achieve equivalent color reproduction between a monitor and a printer, a frequency-based spatial gamut mapping algorithm is proposed for decreasing the loss of visual color information. The design of algorithm is based on the contrast sensitivity functions (CSF), which exploited CSF spatial filter to preserve luminance of the high spatial frequencies and chrominance of the low frequencies. First we show a general framework for how to apply CSF spatial filter in retention of relevant visual information. Then we compare the proposed framework with HPMINDE, CUSP, Bala's algorithm. The psychophysical experimental results indicated the good performance of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Accessible maps for the color vision deficient observers: past and present knowledge and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitle, Anne Kristin

    2018-05-01

    Color is part of the visual variables in map, serving an aesthetic part and as a guide of attention. Impaired color vision affects the ability to distinguish colors, which makes the task of decoding the map colors difficult. Map reading is reported as a challenging task for these observers, especially when the size of stimuli is small. The aim of this study is to review existing methods for map design for color vision deficient users. A systematic review of research literature and case studies of map design for CVD observers has been conducted in order to give an overview of current knowledge and future research challenges. In addition, relevant research on simulations of CVD and color image enhancement for these observers from other fields of industry is included. The study identified two main approaches: pre-processing by using accessible colors and post-processing by using enhancement methods. Some of the methods may be applied for maps, but requires tailoring of test images according to map types.

  12. Choosing colors for map display icons using models of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, Joshua; Francis, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    We show how to choose colors for icons on maps to minimize search time using predictions of a model of visual search. The model analyzes digital images of a search target (an icon on a map) and a search display (the map containing the icon) and predicts search time as a function of target-distractor color distinctiveness and target eccentricity. We parameterized the model using data from a visual search task and performed a series of optimization tasks to test the model's ability to choose colors for icons to minimize search time across icons. Map display designs made by this procedure were tested experimentally. In a follow-up experiment, we examined the model's flexibility to assign colors in novel search situations. The model fits human performance, performs well on the optimization tasks, and can choose colors for icons on maps with novel stimuli to minimize search time without requiring additional model parameter fitting. Models of visual search can suggest color choices that produce search time reductions for display icons. Designers should consider constructing visual search models as a low-cost method of evaluating color assignments.

  13. Color reproduction and processing algorithm based on real-time mapping for endoscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tareq H; Mohammed, Shahed K; Imtiaz, Mohammad S; Wahid, Khan A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a real-time preprocessing algorithm for image enhancement for endoscopic images. A novel dictionary based color mapping algorithm is used for reproducing the color information from a theme image. The theme image is selected from a nearby anatomical location. A database of color endoscopy image for different location is prepared for this purpose. The color map is dynamic as its contents change with the change of the theme image. This method is used on low contrast grayscale white light images and raw narrow band images to highlight the vascular and mucosa structures and to colorize the images. It can also be applied to enhance the tone of color images. The statistic visual representation and universal image quality measures show that the proposed method can highlight the mucosa structure compared to other methods. The color similarity has been verified using Delta E color difference, structure similarity index, mean structure similarity index and structure and hue similarity. The color enhancement was measured using color enhancement factor that shows considerable improvements. The proposed algorithm has low and linear time complexity, which results in higher execution speed than other related works.

  14. Joint depth map and color consistency estimation for stereo images with different illuminations and cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yong Seok; Lee, Kyoung Mu; Lee, Sang Uk

    2013-05-01

    Abstract—In this paper, we propose a method that infers both accurate depth maps and color-consistent stereo images for radiometrically varying stereo images. In general, stereo matching and performing color consistency between stereo images are a chicken-and-egg problem since it is not a trivial task to simultaneously achieve both goals. Hence, we have developed an iterative framework in which these two processes can boost each other. First, we transform the input color images to log-chromaticity color space, from which a linear relationship can be established during constructing a joint pdf of transformed left and right color images. From this joint pdf, we can estimate a linear function that relates the corresponding pixels in stereo images. Based on this linear property, we present a new stereo matching cost by combining Mutual Information (MI), SIFT descriptor, and segment-based plane-fitting to robustly find correspondence for stereo image pairs which undergo radiometric variations. Meanwhile, we devise a Stereo Color Histogram Equalization (SCHE) method to produce color-consistent stereo image pairs, which conversely boost the disparity map estimation. Experimental results show that our method produces both accurate depth maps and color-consistent stereo images, even for stereo images with severe radiometric differences.

  15. A natural-color mapping for single-band night-time image based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilun; Qian, Yunsheng

    2018-01-01

    A natural-color mapping for single-band night-time image method based on FPGA can transmit the color of the reference image to single-band night-time image, which is consistent with human visual habits and can help observers identify the target. This paper introduces the processing of the natural-color mapping algorithm based on FPGA. Firstly, the image can be transformed based on histogram equalization, and the intensity features and standard deviation features of reference image are stored in SRAM. Then, the real-time digital images' intensity features and standard deviation features are calculated by FPGA. At last, FPGA completes the color mapping through matching pixels between images using the features in luminance channel.

  16. Mapping lichen color-groups in western Arctic Alaska using seasonal Landsat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Mapping lichens at a landscape scale has received increased recent interest due to fears that terricolous lichen mats, primary winter caribou forage, may be decreasing across the arctic and boreal zones. However, previous efforts have produced taxonomically coarse, total lichen cover maps or have covered relatively small spatial extents. Here we attempt to map lichens of differing colors as species proxies across northwestern Alaska to produce the finest taxonomic and spatial- grained lichen maps covering the largest spatial extent to date. Lichen community sampling in five western Alaskan National Parks and Preserves from 2007-2012 generated 328 FIA-style 34.7 m radius plots on which species-level macrolichen community structure and abundance was estimated. Species were coded by color and plot lichen cover was aggregated by plot as the sum of the cover of each species in a color group. Ten different lichen color groupings were used for modeling to deduce which colors were most detectable. Reflectance signatures of each plot were extracted from a series of Landsat composites (circa 2000-2010) partitioned into two-week intervals from June 1 to Sept. 15. Median reflectance values for each band in each pixel were selected based on filtering criteria to reduce likelihood of snow cover. Lichen color group cover was regressed against plot reflectance plus additional abiotic predictors in two different data mining algorithms. Brown and grey lichens had the best models explaining approximately 40% of lichen cover in those color groups. Both data mining techniques produced similarly good fitting models. Spatial patterns of lichen color-group cover show distinctly different ecological patterns of these color-group species proxies.

  17. Segmentation of color images by chromaticity features using self-organizing maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid García-Lamont

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the segmentation of color images is performed using cluster-based methods and the RGB space to represent the colors. The drawback with these methods is the a priori knowledge of the number of groups, or colors, in the image; besides, the RGB space issensitive to the intensity of the colors. Humans can identify different sections within a scene by the chromaticity of its colors of, as this is the feature humans employ to tell them apart. In this paper, we propose to emulate the human perception of color by training a self-organizing map (SOM with samples of chromaticity of different colors. The image to process is mapped to the HSV space because in this space the chromaticity is decoupled from the intensity, while in the RGB space this is not possible. Our proposal does not require knowing a priori the number of colors within a scene, and non-uniform illumination does not significantly affect the image segmentation. We present experimental results using some images from the Berkeley segmentation database by employing SOMs with different sizes, which are segmented successfully using only chromaticity features.

  18. Internal preference mapping of milk-fruit beverages: Influence of color and appearance on its acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vázquez, Rocío; Stinco, Carla M; Hernanz Vila, Dolores; Heredia, Francisco J; Chaya, Carolina; Vicario, Isabel M

    2018-01-01

    The individual preferences of 100 consumers between 20 and 30 years old for the color of 16 milk-fruit juice beverages (MFJB) were investigated by preference mapping technique. Consumers were asked to evaluate, just by looking at the samples, how much they liked them (from "Extremely dislike" to "Extremely like"). The color of the samples was analyzed by two different instrumental techniques. Results obtained from the instrumental color measurement showed the wide diversity in hues of the beverages available in the market, and correlations between techniques proved that both of them were appropriate to analyze color. Results showed that participants preferred samples with orangish appearance instead of those with a whiter look. Anyway, punctuations given by the consumers suggest that generally, color of these products is not highly evaluated by consumers, as the best mean punctuation was 6.6.

  19. Color Doppler Ultrasonography-Targeted Perforator Mapping and Angiosome-Based Flap Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Tei, Troels; Thomsen, Jørn Bo

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about perforators and angiosomes has inspired new and innovative flap designs for reconstruction of defects throughout the body. The purpose of this article is to share our experience using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU)-targeted perforator mapping and angiosome-based flap reconstr......Knowledge about perforators and angiosomes has inspired new and innovative flap designs for reconstruction of defects throughout the body. The purpose of this article is to share our experience using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU)-targeted perforator mapping and angiosome-based flap...

  20. Automatic transfer function design for medical visualization using visibility distributions and projective color mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lile; Tay, Wei-Liang; Nguyen, Binh P; Chui, Chee-Kong; Ong, Sim-Heng

    2013-01-01

    Transfer functions play a key role in volume rendering of medical data, but transfer function manipulation is unintuitive and can be time-consuming; achieving an optimal visualization of patient anatomy or pathology is difficult. To overcome this problem, we present a system for automatic transfer function design based on visibility distribution and projective color mapping. Instead of assigning opacity directly based on voxel intensity and gradient magnitude, the opacity transfer function is automatically derived by matching the observed visibility distribution to a target visibility distribution. An automatic color assignment scheme based on projective mapping is proposed to assign colors that allow for the visual discrimination of different structures, while also reflecting the degree of similarity between them. When our method was tested on several medical volumetric datasets, the key structures within the volume were clearly visualized with minimal user intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Applied learning-based color tone mapping for face recognition in video surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Chuu Tian; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present an applied learning-based color tone mapping technique for video surveillance system. This technique can be applied onto both color and grayscale surveillance images. The basic idea is to learn the color or intensity statistics from a training dataset of photorealistic images of the candidates appeared in the surveillance images, and remap the color or intensity of the input image so that the color or intensity statistics match those in the training dataset. It is well known that the difference in commercial surveillance cameras models, and signal processing chipsets used by different manufacturers will cause the color and intensity of the images to differ from one another, thus creating additional challenges for face recognition in video surveillance system. Using Multi-Class Support Vector Machines as the classifier on a publicly available video surveillance camera database, namely SCface database, this approach is validated and compared to the results of using holistic approach on grayscale images. The results show that this technique is suitable to improve the color or intensity quality of video surveillance system for face recognition.

  2. A preliminary analysis of the Mariner 10 color ratio map of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Barry; Hapke, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary geological analysis of the Mariner 10 orange/UV color ratio map of Mercury is given, assuming a basaltic crust. Certain errors in the map are pointed out. The relationship between color and terrain are distinctly non-lunar. Rays and ejecta are bluer than average on Mercury, whereas they are redder on the Moon. This fact, along with the lack of the ferrous band in Mercury's spectral reflectance and smaller albedo contrasts, implies that the crust is low in Fe and Ti. There is no correlation between color boundaries and the smooth plains on Mercury, in contrast with the strong correlation between color and maria-highlands contacts on the Moon. The smooth plains are not Mercurian analogs of lunar maria, and a lunar-type of second wave melting did not occur. Ambiguous correlations between color and topography indicate that older, redder materials underlie younger, bluer rocks in many places on the planet, implying that the last stages of volcanism involved low-Fe lavas covering higher-Fe rocks. There is some evidence of late Fe-rich pyroclastic activity.

  3. Mapping of colored-snow area on glaciers by using spectral reflectance of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaga, D.; Yasumoto, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Hasegawa, K.; Imai, M.; Bilesan, A.; Takeuchi, N.; Sugiyama, S.; Terashima, M.; Kawamata, H.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    One of the reasons for accelerating recent glacier retreat is reported that algae generated on glaciers gives color to snow; Red snow algae on the Harding icefield in Alaska, and cryoconite, a black colored substance formed by algae tangling with mineral particles. The distribution of algae on the glacier can vary widely from year to year, depending on the season. Remote sensing will play an important role to know the area of colored snow. In previous studies, however, since the satellite images of low gradation were used, the brightness in the specific area was saturated due to the high reflectance of snow. In addition, it is difficult to distinguish the colored snow area from that of water and shadows. We aim to map using Landsat8 data and quantitatively evaluate the distribution of colored snow area on glaciers by newly creating a colored-snow-sensitive index from spectral reflectance of algae. Cryoconite has low (high) reflectance in the range of 450-500nm (850-900nm) corresponding to Band2 (Band5) in Landsat8.On the other hand, the reflectance of glacier ice exhibits the opposite tendency. Focusing on the difference in reflectance between the two wavelength ranges, we can create indices sensitive to cryoconite area. The image, mapped as the cryoconite region with large difference in brightness between band 2 and 5, was different from the water and shadow areas. The cryoconite area is also consistent with the results obtained in the filed survey of qaanaaq Glacier in Greenland. Using the similar analytical method, we will also present the map of red snow observed on the glacier.

  4. Effects of Colored Noise on Periodic Orbits in a One-Dimensional Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Guo; Ai, Bao-Quan

    2011-06-01

    Noise can induce inverse period-doubling transition and chaos. The effects of the colored noise on periodic orbits, of the different periodic sequences in the logistic map, are investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of the orbits, induced by an exponentially correlated colored noise, are different in the mergence of transition, and the effects of the noise intensity on their dynamical behaviors are different from the effects of the correlation time of noise. Remarkably, the noise can induce new periodic orbits, namely, two new orbits emerge in the period-four sequence at the bifurcation parameter value μ = 3.5, four new orbits in the period-eight sequence at μ = 3.55, and three new orbits in the period-six sequence at μ = 3.846, respectively. Moreover, the dynamical behaviors of the new orbits clearly show the resonancelike response to the colored noise.

  5. Effects of Colored Noise on Periodic Orbits in a One-Dimensional Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengguo; Ai Baoquan

    2011-01-01

    Noise can induce inverse period-doubling transition and chaos. The effects of the colored noise on periodic orbits, of the different periodic sequences in the logistic map, are investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of the orbits, induced by an exponentially correlated colored noise, are different in the mergence of transition, and the effects of the noise intensity on their dynamical behaviors are different from the effects of the correlation time of noise. Remarkably, the noise can induce new periodic orbits, namely, two new orbits emerge in the period-four sequence at the bifurcation parameter value μ = 3.5, four new orbits in the period-eight sequence at μ = 3.55, and three new orbits in the period-six sequence at μ = 3.846, respectively. Moreover, the dynamical behaviors of the new orbits clearly show the resonancelike response to the colored noise. (general)

  6. Color Image Encryption Using Three-Dimensional Sine ICMIC Modulation Map and DNA Sequence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao; Sun, Kehui; He, Yi; Yu, Mengyao

    Derived from Sine map and iterative chaotic map with infinite collapse (ICMIC), a three-dimensional hyperchaotic Sine ICMIC modulation map (3D-SIMM) is proposed based on a close-loop modulation coupling (CMC) method. Based on this map, a novel color image encryption algorithm is designed by employing a hybrid model of multidirectional circular permutation and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) masking. In this scheme, the pixel positions of image are scrambled by multidirectional circular permutation, and the pixel values are substituted by DNA sequence operations. The simulation results and security analysis show that the algorithm has good encryption effect and strong key sensitivity, and can resist brute-force, statistical, differential, known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks.

  7. Dust color temperature distribution of two FIR cavities at IRIS and AKARI maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, A. K.; Aryal, B.

    2018-04-01

    By systematically searching the region of far infrared loops, we found a number of huge cavity-like dust structures at 60 μ m and 100 μ m IRIS maps. By checking these with AKARI maps (90 μ m and 140 μ m), two new cavity-like structures (sizes ˜ 2.7 pc × 0.8 pc and ˜ 1.8 pc × 1 pc) located at R.A. (J2000)=14h41m23s and Dec. (J2000)=-64°04^' }17^' }' }} and R.A. (J2000)=05h05m35s and Dec. (J2000)=- 69°35^' } 25^' }' }} were selected for the study. The difference in the average dust color temperatures calculated using IRIS and AKARI maps of the cavity candidates were found to be 3.2± 0.9 K and 4.1± 1.2 K, respectively. Interestingly, the longer wavelength AKARI map gives larger values of dust color temperature than that of the shorter wavelength IRIS maps. Possible explanation of the results will be presented.

  8. Adapting the HSV polarization-color mapping for regions with low irradiance and high polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tyo, J; Ratliff, Bradley M; Alenin, Andrey S

    2016-10-15

    Many mappings from polarization into color have been developed so that polarization information can be displayed. One of the most common of these maps the angle of linear polarization into color hue and degree of linear polarization into color saturation, while preserving the irradiance information from the polarization data. While this strategy enjoys wide popularity, there is a large class of polarization images for which it is not ideal. It is common to have images where the strongest polarization signatures (in terms of degree of polarization) occur in regions of relatively low irradiance: either in shadow in reflective bands or in cold regions in emissive bands. Since the irradiance is low, the chromatic properties of the resulting images are generally not apparent. Here we present an alternate mapping that uses the statistics of the angle of polarization as a measure of confidence in the polarization signature, then amplifies the irradiance in regions of high confidence, and leaves it unchanged in regions of low confidence. Results are shown from an LWIR and a visible spectrum imager.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Seed Coat Color in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Xian, Xiaohua; Xu, Xinfu; Qu, Cunmin; Lu, Kun; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao

    2017-07-05

    Seed coat color is an extremely important breeding characteristic of Brassica napus. To elucidate the factors affecting the genetic architecture of seed coat color, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of seed coat color was conducted with a diversity panel comprising 520 B. napus cultivars and inbred lines. In total, 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed on 7 chromosomes were found to be associated with seed coat color. The most significant SNPs were found in 2014 near Bn-scaff_15763_1-p233999, only 43.42 kb away from BnaC06g17050D, which is orthologous to Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA 12 (TT12), an important gene involved in the transportation of proanthocyanidin precursors into the vacuole. Two of eight repeatedly detected SNPs can be identified and digested by restriction enzymes. Candidate gene mining revealed that the relevant regions of significant SNP loci on the A09 and C08 chromosomes are highly homologous. Moreover, a comparison of the GWAS results to those of previous quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies showed that 11 SNPs were located in the confidence intervals of the QTLs identified in previous studies based on linkage analyses or association mapping. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of seed coat color in B. napus, and the beneficial allele, SNP information, and candidate genes should be useful for selecting yellow seeds in B. napus breeding.

  10. Color Doppler flow mapping of stenotic and regurgitant natural heart valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    Color Doppler echocardiography has found widest application in reliable detection and assessment of severity of both atrio-ventricular and semi-lunar valve incompetence. The authors believe both the sensitivity and specificity of color Doppler for the detection of mitral and aortic regurgitation is very high in patients with adequate acoustic windows. In 82 patients with proven mitral regurgitation studied, the best correlations with angiography were noted when the maximum or average regurgitant jet are obtained by color Doppler from three standard 2-D echo planes (parasternal long and short axis and apical four chamber view) and expressed as a percentage of the left atrial area were considered. The criteria the authors used for assessment of tricuspid and pulmonary valve incompetence are similar to those used for mitral and aortic valve incompetence, but the lack of a good ''gold'' standard has hampered validation. The color Doppler technique also supplements conventional Doppler in the assessment of severity of stenotic lesions by facilitating parallel alignment of the continuous wave Doppler cursor line with the stenotic jet for accurate recording of maximal velocities and pressure gradients. The authors have found this method especially useful in the assessment of aortic stenosis. In conclusion, color Doppler flow mapping combined with conventional echocardiography provides, for the first time, a comprehensive noninvasive assessement of the severity of regurgitant and stenotic lesions

  11. Diagnostic performance of qualitative shear-wave elastography according to different color map opacities for breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hana; Youk, Ji Hyun, E-mail: jhyouk@yuhs.ac; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Eun Ju

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative shear-wave elastography (SWE) according to three different color map opacities for breast masses Materials and methods: 101 patients aged 21–77 years with 113 breast masses underwent B-mode US and SWE under three different color map opacities (50%, 19% and 100%) before biopsy or surgery. Following SWE features were reviewed: visual pattern classification (pattern 1–4), color homogeneity (E{sub homo}) and six-point color score of maximum elasticity (E{sub col}). Combined with B-mode US and SWE, the likelihood of malignancy (LOM) was also scored. The area under the curve (AUC) was obtained by ROC curve analysis to assess the diagnostic performance under each color opacity. Results: A visual color pattern, E{sub homo}, E{sub col} and LOM scoring were significantly different between benign and malignant lesions under all color opacities (P < 0.001). For 50% opacity, AUCs of visual color pattern, E{sub col}, E{sub homo} and LOM scoring were 0.902, 0.951, 0.835 and 0.975. But, for each SWE feature, there was no significant difference in the AUC among three different color opacities. For all color opacities, visual color pattern and E{sub col} showed significantly higher AUC than E{sub homo}. In addition, a combined set of B-mode US and SWE showed significantly higher AUC than SWE alone for color patterns, E{sub homo}, but no significant difference was found in E{sub col}. Conclusion: Qualitative SWE was useful to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesion under all color opacities. The difference in color map opacity did not significantly influence diagnostic performance of SWE.

  12. Diagnostic performance of qualitative shear-wave elastography according to different color map opacities for breast masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hana; Youk, Ji Hyun; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Eun Ju

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative shear-wave elastography (SWE) according to three different color map opacities for breast masses Materials and methods: 101 patients aged 21–77 years with 113 breast masses underwent B-mode US and SWE under three different color map opacities (50%, 19% and 100%) before biopsy or surgery. Following SWE features were reviewed: visual pattern classification (pattern 1–4), color homogeneity (E homo ) and six-point color score of maximum elasticity (E col ). Combined with B-mode US and SWE, the likelihood of malignancy (LOM) was also scored. The area under the curve (AUC) was obtained by ROC curve analysis to assess the diagnostic performance under each color opacity. Results: A visual color pattern, E homo , E col and LOM scoring were significantly different between benign and malignant lesions under all color opacities (P < 0.001). For 50% opacity, AUCs of visual color pattern, E col , E homo and LOM scoring were 0.902, 0.951, 0.835 and 0.975. But, for each SWE feature, there was no significant difference in the AUC among three different color opacities. For all color opacities, visual color pattern and E col showed significantly higher AUC than E homo . In addition, a combined set of B-mode US and SWE showed significantly higher AUC than SWE alone for color patterns, E homo , but no significant difference was found in E col . Conclusion: Qualitative SWE was useful to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesion under all color opacities. The difference in color map opacity did not significantly influence diagnostic performance of SWE

  13. Detailed mapping of surface units on Mars with HRSC color data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, J.-Ph.; Wendt, L.; McCord, T. B.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: Making use of HRSC color data Mapping outcrops of clays, sulfates and ferric oxides are basis information to derive the climatic, tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mars, especially the episodes related to the presence of liquid water. The challenge is to resolve spatially the outcrops and to distinguish these components from the globally-driven deposits like the iron oxide-rich bright red dust and the basaltic dark sands. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard Mars-Express has five color filters in the visible and near infrared that are designed for visual interpretation and mapping various surface units [1]. It provides also information on the topography at scale smaller than a pixel (roughness) thanks to the different geometry of observation for each color channel. The HRSC dataset is the only one that combines global coverage, 200 m/pixel spatial resolution or better and filtering colors of light. The present abstract is a work in progress (to be submitted to Planetary and Space Science) that shows the potential and limitations of HRSC color data as visual support and as multispectral images. Various methods are described from the most simple to more complex ones in order to demonstrate how to make use of the spectra, because of the specific steps of processing they require [2-4]. The objective is to broaden the popularity of HRSC color data, as they could be used more widely by the scientific community. Results prove that imaging spectrometry and HRSC color data complement each other for mapping outcrops types. Example regions of interest HRSC is theoretically sensitive to materials with absorption features in the visible and near-infrared up to 1 μm. Therefore, oxide-rich red dust and basalts (pyroxenes) can be mapped, as well as very bright components like water ice [5, 6]. Possible detection of other materials still has to be demonstrated. We first explore regions where unusual mineralogy appears clearly from spectral data. Hematite

  14. 4 Vesta in Color: High Resolution Mapping from Dawn Framing Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V.; LeCorre, L.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Christensen, U.; Hoffmann, M.; Schroeder, S. E.; Vincent, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.; Denevi, B. W.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Rotational surface variations on asteroid 4 Vesta have been known from ground-based and HST observations, and they have been interpreted as evidence of compositional diversity. NASA s Dawn mission entered orbit around Vesta on July 16, 2011 for a year-long global characterization. The framing cameras (FC) onboard the Dawn spacecraft will image the asteroid in one clear (broad) and seven narrow band filters covering the wavelength range between 0.4-1.0 microns. We present color mapping results from the Dawn FC observations of Vesta obtained during Survey orbit (approx.3000 km) and High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) (approx.950 km). Our aim is to create global color maps of Vesta using multi spectral FC images to identify the spatial extent of compositional units and link them with other available data sets to extract the basic mineralogy. While the VIR spectrometer onboard Dawn has higher spectral resolution (864 channels) allowing precise mineralogical assessment of Vesta s surface, the FC has three times higher spatial resolution in any given orbital phase. In an effort to extract maximum information from FC data we have developed algorithms using laboratory spectra of pyroxenes and HED meteorites to derive parameters associated with the 1-micron absorption band wing. These parameters will help map the global distribution of compositionally related units on Vesta s surface. Interpretation of these units will involve the integration of FC and VIR data.

  15. Attention Filtering in the Design of Electronic Map Displays: A Comparison of Color-Coding, Intensity Coding, and Decluttering Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeh, Michelle; Wickens, Christopher D

    2000-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the use of color-coding, intensity coding, and decluttering were compared order to assess their potential benefits for accessing information from electronic map displays...

  16. Diagnostic performance of qualitative shear-wave elastography according to different color map opacities for breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hana; Youk, Ji Hyun; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Eun Ju

    2013-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative shear-wave elastography (SWE) according to three different color map opacities for breast masses 101 patients aged 21-77 years with 113 breast masses underwent B-mode US and SWE under three different color map opacities (50%, 19% and 100%) before biopsy or surgery. Following SWE features were reviewed: visual pattern classification (pattern 1-4), color homogeneity (Ehomo) and six-point color score of maximum elasticity (Ecol). Combined with B-mode US and SWE, the likelihood of malignancy (LOM) was also scored. The area under the curve (AUC) was obtained by ROC curve analysis to assess the diagnostic performance under each color opacity. A visual color pattern, Ehomo, Ecol and LOM scoring were significantly different between benign and malignant lesions under all color opacities (Pbreast lesion under all color opacities. The difference in color map opacity did not significantly influence diagnostic performance of SWE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Full-Field Calibration of Color Camera Chromatic Aberration using Absolute Phase Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-05-06

    The refractive index of a lens varies for different wavelengths of light, and thus the same incident light with different wavelengths has different outgoing light. This characteristic of lenses causes images captured by a color camera to display chromatic aberration (CA), which seriously reduces image quality. Based on an analysis of the distribution of CA, a full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps is proposed in this paper. Red, green, and blue closed sinusoidal fringe patterns are generated, consecutively displayed on an LCD (liquid crystal display), and captured by a color camera from the front viewpoint. The phase information of each color fringe is obtained using a four-step phase-shifting algorithm and optimum fringe number selection method. CA causes the unwrapped phase of the three channels to differ. These pixel deviations can be computed by comparing the unwrapped phase data of the red, blue, and green channels in polar coordinates. CA calibration is accomplished in Cartesian coordinates. The systematic errors introduced by the LCD are analyzed and corrected. Simulated results show the validity of the proposed method and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps will be useful for practical software-based CA calibration.

  18. An analysis of the Mariner 10 color ratio map of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Barry; Hapke, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Errors that emerged in the Hapke et al. (1980) geological analysis reproduction of the Mariner 10 orange/UV color ratio map of Mercury are presently noted, and it is judged that the relationships that emerge between the color and the terrain are nonlunar in that they lack Mercurian analogs of high Fe-Ti lunar maria basalts. The crust is found to be low in Fe(2+) and Ti(4+) in view of three major considerations: (1) rays and ejecta blankets are exceptionally blue; (2) the Fe(2+) band of the reflectance spectrum of Mercury is weak; and (3) Mercury albedo contrasts are less pronounced than the lunar ones. The extrusive origin of the smooth plains is supported by these observations.

  19. Mapping Rural Areas with Widespread Plastic Covered Vineyards Using True Color Aerial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufemia Tarantino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastic covering is used worldwide to protect crops against damaging growing conditions. This agricultural practice raises some controversial issues. While it significantly impacts on local economic vitality, plasticulture also shows several environmental affects. In the Apulia Region (Italy the wide-spreading of artificial plastic coverings for vineyard protection has showed negative consequences on the hydrogeological balance of soils as well as on the visual quality of rural landscape. In order to monitor and manage this phenomenon, a detailed site mapping has become essential. In this study an efficient object-based classification procedure from Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR true color aerial data was developed on eight test areas located in the Ionian area of the Apulia Region in order to support the updating of the existing land use database aimed at plastic covered vineyard monitoring.

  20. Sentinel lymph node mapping in minimally invasive surgery: Role of imaging with color-segmented fluorescence (CSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Labrousse, Maite I; Frumovitz, Michael; Guadalupe Patrono, M; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node mapping, alone or in combination with pelvic lymphadenectomy, is considered a standard approach in staging of patients with cervical or endometrial cancer [1-3]. The goal of this video is to demonstrate the use of indocyanine green (ICG) and color-segmented fluorescence when performing lymphatic mapping in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Injection of ICG is performed in two cervical sites using 1mL (0.5mL superficial and deep, respectively) at the 3 and 9 o'clock position. Sentinel lymph nodes are identified intraoperatively using the Pinpoint near-infrared imaging system (Novadaq, Ontario, CA). Color-segmented fluorescence is used to image different levels of ICG uptake demonstrating higher levels of perfusion. A color key on the side of the monitor shows the colors that coordinate with different levels of ICG uptake. Color-segmented fluorescence may help surgeons identify true sentinel nodes from fatty tissue that, although absorbing fluorescent dye, does not contain true nodal tissue. It is not intended to differentiate the primary sentinel node from secondary sentinel nodes. The key ranges from low levels of ICG uptake (gray) to the highest rate of ICG uptake (red). Bilateral sentinel lymph nodes are identified along the external iliac vessels using both standard and color-segmented fluorescence. No evidence of disease was noted after ultra-staging was performed in each of the sentinel nodes. Use of ICG in sentinel lymph node mapping allows for high bilateral detection rates. Color-segmented fluorescence may increase accuracy of sentinel lymph node identification over standard fluorescent imaging. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Two-dimensional intraventricular flow mapping by digital processing conventional color-Doppler echocardiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Damien; Del Alamo, Juan C; Tanne, David; Yotti, Raquel; Cortina, Cristina; Bertrand, Eric; Antoranz, José Carlos; Perez-David, Esther; Rieu, Régis; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Bermejo, Javier

    2010-10-01

    Doppler echocardiography remains the most extended clinical modality for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function. Current Doppler ultrasound methods, however, are limited to the representation of a single flow velocity component. We thus developed a novel technique to construct 2D time-resolved (2D+t) LV velocity fields from conventional transthoracic clinical acquisitions. Combining color-Doppler velocities with LV wall positions, the cross-beam blood velocities were calculated using the continuity equation under a planar flow assumption. To validate the algorithm, 2D Doppler flow mapping and laser particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an atrio-ventricular duplicator. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) acquisitions were used to measure in vivo the error due to the 2D flow assumption and to potential scan-plane misalignment. Finally, the applicability of the Doppler technique was tested in the clinical setting. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the new method yields an accurate quantitative description of the main vortex that forms during the cardiac cycle (mean error for vortex radius, position and circulation). MR image analysis evidenced that the error due to the planar flow assumption is close to 15% and does not preclude the characterization of major vortex properties neither in the normal nor in the dilated LV. These results are yet to be confirmed by a head-to-head clinical validation study. Clinical Doppler studies showed that the method is readily applicable and that a single large anterograde vortex develops in the healthy ventricle while supplementary retrograde swirling structures may appear in the diseased heart. The proposed echocardiographic method based on the continuity equation is fast, clinically-compliant and does not require complex training. This technique will potentially enable investigators to study of additional quantitative aspects of intraventricular flow dynamics in the clinical setting by

  2. Use of color on airport moving maps and cockpit displays of traffic information (CDTIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Color can be an effective method for coding visual information, making it easier to find and identify symbols on a display (Christ, 1975). However, careful consideration should be given when applying color because excessive or inappropriate use of co...

  3. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3060 and 2960, Qala-I-Fath (608), Malek-Sayh-Koh (613), and Gozar-E-Sah (614) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  4. Color image encryption using random transforms, phase retrieval, chaotic maps, and diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaby, M. H.; Rushdi, M. A.; Nehary, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    The recent tremendous proliferation of color imaging applications has been accompanied by growing research in data encryption to secure color images against adversary attacks. While recent color image encryption techniques perform reasonably well, they still exhibit vulnerabilities and deficiencies in terms of statistical security measures due to image data redundancy and inherent weaknesses. This paper proposes two encryption algorithms that largely treat these deficiencies and boost the security strength through novel integration of the random fractional Fourier transforms, phase retrieval algorithms, as well as chaotic scrambling and diffusion. We show through detailed experiments and statistical analysis that the proposed enhancements significantly improve security measures and immunity to attacks.

  5. Color-coded MR imaging phase velocity mapping with the Pixar image processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, H.R.; Cranney, G.B.; Pohost, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a graphic interaction technique in which a mouse and cursor are used to assign colors to phase-sensitive MR images of the heart. Two colors are used, one for flow in the positive direction, another for flow in the negative direction. A lookup table is generated interactively by manipulating lines representing ramps superimposed on an intensity histogram. Intensity is made to vary with flow magnitude in each color's direction. Coded series of the ascending and descending aorta, and of two- and four-chamber views of the heart, have been generated. In conjunction with movie display, flow dynamics, especially changes in direction, are readily apparent

  6. A maximal chromatic expansion method of mapping multichannel imagery into color space. [North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, R. D.; Abotteen, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A color film generation method that maximally expands the chromaticity and aligns Kauth brightness with the gray axis was presented. In comparison with the current LACIE film product, the new color film product has more contrast and more colors and appears to be brighter. The field boundaries in the new product were more pronounced than in the current LACIE product. The speckle effect was one problem in the new product. The yellowness speckle can be treated using an equation. This equation can be used to eliminate any speckle introduced by the greenness. This product leads logically toward another that will employ quantitative colorimetry which will account for some of the eye's perception of color stimuli.

  7. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3060 and 2960, Qala-I-Fath (608), Malek-Sayh-Koh (613), and Gozar-E-Sah (614) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  8. Identification, Characterization, and Mapping of a Novel SNP Associated with Body Color Transparency in Juvenile Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawayama, Eitaro; Noguchi, Daiki; Nakayama, Kei; Takagi, Motohiro

    2018-03-23

    We previously reported a body color deformity in juvenile red sea bream, which shows transparency in the juvenile stage because of delayed chromatophore development compared with normal individuals, and this finding suggested a genetic cause based on parentage assessments. To conduct marker-assisted selection to eliminate broodstock inheriting the causative gene, developing DNA markers associated with the phenotype was needed. We first conducted SNP mining based on AFLP analysis using bulked-DNA from normal and transparent individuals. One SNP was identified from a transparent-specific AFLP fragment, which significantly associated with transparent individuals. Two alleles (A/G) were observed in this locus, and the genotype G/G was dominantly observed in the transparent groups (97.1%) collected from several production lots produced from different broodstock populations. A few normal individuals inherited the G/G genotype (5.0%), but the A/A and A/G genotypes were dominantly observed in the normal groups. The homologs region of the SNP was searched using a medaka genome database, and intron 12 of the Nell2a gene (located on chromosome 6 of the medaka genome) was highly matched. We also mapped the red sea bream Nell2a gene on the previously developed linkage maps, and this gene was mapped on a male linkage group, LG4-M. The newly found SNP was useful in eliminating broodstock possessing the causative gene of the body color transparency observed in juvenile stage of red sea bream.

  9. Doppler color flow mapping of peripheral vessels: Comparison of angiodynography with conventional duplex US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, C.R.B.; Bluth, E.I.; Sullivan, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A new Doppler color flow imager was compared to duplex US in the evaluation of carotid and peripheral vessels in 50 patients. A 7.5-MHz transducer permitted simultaneous high-resolution real-time imaging of Doppler flow and tissue. The system was found to have excellent image quality and Doppler sensitivity. Flow characteristics and velocity measurements obtained with this system correlated well with those obtained using the duplex scanner and were obtained more quickly than with the conventional system, allowing more complete assessment of flow characteristics. Color Doppler flow imaging appears to be an extremely promising method for the rapid and effective evaluation of peripheral vascular flow

  10. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded

  11. Three-Dimensional Color Code Thresholds via Statistical-Mechanical Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Aleksander; Beverland, Michael E.; Brandão, Fernando; Preskill, John; Svore, Krysta M.

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) color codes have advantages for fault-tolerant quantum computing, such as protected quantum gates with relatively low overhead and robustness against imperfect measurement of error syndromes. Here we investigate the storage threshold error rates for bit-flip and phase-flip noise in the 3D color code (3DCC) on the body-centered cubic lattice, assuming perfect syndrome measurements. In particular, by exploiting a connection between error correction and statistical mechanics, we estimate the threshold for 1D stringlike and 2D sheetlike logical operators to be p3DCC (1 )≃1.9 % and p3DCC (2 )≃27.6 % . We obtain these results by using parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations to study the disorder-temperature phase diagrams of two new 3D statistical-mechanical models: the four- and six-body random coupling Ising models.

  12. Color Mapping on Common Use-Cases in a Web Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hradil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychology of Colors and its application in software is a part of a wider research related to Software Ergonomics. Nowadays, software tends to be faster, clever and even more complex. On the other side, the amount of applications, which people has to manage increases. However, user interface and all the communication between a man and a machine needs simplifying. One way how to do that is to dig into the knowledge and conventions, which users already have. Software needs to be brought near to the users maybe using the associations of the particular use-cases in the application with colors, which users already know and which are common to them. The research tries to find these associations, describe them and define the steps for the future research.

  13. An imaging system for quantitive surface temperature mapping using two-color thermographic phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for obtaining detailed quantitative temperature distributions on test models in hypersonic wind tunnels is presented. This technique is based on the ratio of blue to green (450, 520 nm) emission from an UV (365 nm) excited phosphor coating. Separately filtered images are recorded from a three-tube color camera, utilizing off-the-shelf front-end video optics to discriminate wavelengths. Two demonstration studies in a 31-inch Mach 10 tunnel are discussed. One study presents the windward surface temperature-time history for a transatmospheric vehicle, and the other illustrates nosetip heating on a spherically blunted slender cone.

  14. Wyner-Ziv Coding of Depth Maps Exploiting Color Motion Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding of multi-view data and depth maps is an interesting and challenging research field, whose interest is growing thanks to the recent advances in depth estimation and the development of affordable devices able to acquire depth information. In applications like video surveill...

  15. Satellite Map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti-2010-Natural Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Sloan, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey produced 1:24,000-scale post-earthquake image base maps incorporating high- and medium-resolution remotely sensed imagery following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake near the capital city of Port au Prince, Haiti, on January 12, 2010. Commercial 2.4-meter multispectral QuickBird imagery was acquired by DigitalGlobe on January 15, 2010, following the initial earthquake. Ten-meter multispectral ALOS AVNIR-2 imagery was collected by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) on January 12, 2010. These data were acquired under the Remote Sensing International Charter, a global team of space and satellite agencies that provide timely imagery in support of emergency response efforts worldwide. The images shown on this map were employed to support earthquake response efforts, specifically for use in determining ground deformation, damage assessment, and emergency management decisions. The raw, unprocessed imagery was geo-corrected, mosaicked, and reproduced onto a cartographic 1:24,000-scale base map. These maps are intended to provide a temporally current representation of post-earthquake ground conditions, which may be of use to decision makers and to the general public.

  16. Use of color maps and wavelet coherence to discern seasonal and interannual climate influences on streamflow variability in northern catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean K.; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Buttle, Jim; Laudon, Hjalmar; McDonnell, Jeff; McGuire, Kevin; Seibert, Jan; Soulsby, Chris; Shanley, Jamie

    2013-10-01

    The higher midlatitudes of the northern hemisphere are particularly sensitive to change due to the important role the 0°C isotherm plays in the phase of precipitation and intermediate storage as snow. An international intercatchment comparison program called North-Watch seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to change by examining their hydrological and biogeochemical variability and response. Here eight North-Watch catchments located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook, and HJ Andrews), and Canada (Dorset and Wolf Creek) with 10 continuous years of daily precipitation and runoff data were selected to assess daily to seasonal coupling of precipitation (P) and runoff (Q) using wavelet coherency, and to explore the patterns and scales of variability in streamflow using color maps. Wavelet coherency revealed that P and Q were decoupled in catchments with cold winters, yet were strongly coupled during and immediately following the spring snowmelt freshet. In all catchments, coupling at shorter time scales occurred during wet periods when the catchment was responsive and storage deficits were small. At longer time scales, coupling reflected coherence between seasonal cycles, being enhanced at sites with enhanced seasonality in P. Color maps were applied as an alternative method to identify patterns and scales of flow variability. Seasonal versus transient flow variability was identified along with the persistence of that variability on influencing the flow regime. While exploratory in nature, this intercomparison exercise highlights the importance of climate and the 0°C isotherm on the functioning of northern catchments.

  17. Ensemble based system for whole-slide prostate cancer probability mapping using color texture features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DiFranco, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    We present a tile-based approach for producing clinically relevant probability maps of prostatic carcinoma in histological sections from radical prostatectomy. Our methodology incorporates ensemble learning for feature selection and classification on expert-annotated images. Random forest feature selection performed over varying training sets provides a subset of generalized CIEL*a*b* co-occurrence texture features, while sample selection strategies with minimal constraints reduce training data requirements to achieve reliable results. Ensembles of classifiers are built using expert-annotated tiles from training images, and scores for the probability of cancer presence are calculated from the responses of each classifier in the ensemble. Spatial filtering of tile-based texture features prior to classification results in increased heat-map coherence as well as AUC values of 95% using ensembles of either random forests or support vector machines. Our approach is designed for adaptation to different imaging modalities, image features, and histological decision domains.

  18. A Color-locus Method for Mapping R V Using Ensembles of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert; Green, Gregory M.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Burgett, William; Chambers, Ken; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene; Metcalfe, Nigel; Wainscoat, Richard; Waters, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    We present a simple but effective technique for measuring angular variation in R V across the sky. We divide stars from the Pan-STARRS1 catalog into Healpix pixels and determine the posterior distribution of reddening and R V for each pixel using two independent Monte Carlo methods. We find the two methods to be self-consistent in the limits where they are expected to perform similarly. We also find some agreement with high-precision photometric studies of R V in Perseus and Ophiuchus, as well as with a map of reddening near the Galactic plane based on stellar spectra from APOGEE. While current studies of R V are mostly limited to isolated clouds, we have developed a systematic method for comparing R V values for the majority of observable dust. This is a proof of concept for a more rigorous Galactic reddening map.

  19. Charting Monosynaptic Connectivity Maps by Two-Color Light-Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Niedworok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellular resolution three-dimensional (3D visualization of defined, fluorescently labeled long-range neuronal networks in the uncut adult mouse brain has been elusive. Here, a virus-based strategy is described that allowed fluorescent labeling of centrifugally projecting neuronal populations in the ventral forebrain and their directly, monosynaptically connected bulbar interneurons upon a single stereotaxic injection into select neuronal populations. Implementation of improved tissue clearing combined with light-sheet fluorescence microscopy permitted imaging of the resulting connectivity maps in a single whole-brain scan. Subsequent 3D reconstructions revealed the exact distribution of the diverse neuronal ensembles monosynaptically connected with distinct bulbar interneuron populations. Moreover, rehydratation of brains after light-sheet fluorescence imaging enabled the immunohistochemical identification of synaptically connected neurons. Thus, this study describes a method for identifying monosynaptic connectivity maps from distinct, virally labeled neuronal populations that helps in better understanding of information flow in neural systems.

  20. Determination of the mass function of extra-galactic GMCs via NIR color maps. Testing the method in a disk-like geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, J.; Juvela, M.; Alves, J.

    2007-06-01

    The giant molecular clouds (GMCs) of external galaxies can be mapped with sub-arcsecond resolution using multiband observations in the near-infrared. However, the interpretation of the observed reddening and attenuation of light, and their transformation into physical quantities, is greatly hampered by the effects arising from the unknown geometry and the scattering of light by dust particles. We examine the relation between the observed near-infrared reddening and the column density of the dust clouds. In this paper we particularly assess the feasibility of deriving the mass function of GMCs from near-infrared color excess data. We perform Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations with 3D models of stellar radiation and clumpy dust distributions. We include the scattered light in the models and calculate near-infrared color maps from the simulated data. The color maps are compared with the true line-of-sight density distributions of the models. We extract clumps from the color maps and compare the observed mass function to the true mass function. For the physical configuration chosen in this study, essentially a face-on geometry, the observed mass function is a non-trivial function of the true mass function with a large number of parameters affecting its exact form. The dynamical range of the observed mass function is confined to 103.5dots 105.5 M_⊙ regardless of the dynamical range of the true mass function. The color maps are more sensitive in detecting the high-mass end of the mass function, and on average the masses of clouds are underestimated by a factor of ˜ 10 depending on the parameters describing the dust distribution. A significant fraction of clouds is expected to remain undetected at all masses. The simulations show that the cloud mass function derived from JHK color excess data using simple foreground screening geometry cannot be regarded as a one-to-one tracer of the underlying mass function.

  1. Using Adaptive Tone Mapping to Enhance Edge-Preserving Color Image Automatically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Min-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One common characteristic of most high-contrast images is the coexistence of dark shadows and bright light source in one scene. It is very difficult to present details in both dark and bright areas simultaneously on most display devices. In order to resolve this problem, a new method utilizing bilateral filter combined with adaptive tone-mapping method is proposed to improve image quality. First of all, bilateral filter is used to decompose image into two layers: large-scale layer and detail layer. Then, the large-scale layer image is divided into three regions: bright, mid-tone, and dark region. Finally, an appropriate tone-mapping method is chosen to process each region according to its individual property. Only large-scale layer image is enhanced by using adaptive tone mapping; therefore, the details of the original image can be preserved. The experiment results demonstrate the success of proposed method. Furthermore, the proposed method can also avoid posterization produced by methods using histogram equalization.

  2. Research and development of a color-related global database of sensory values concerning color cognition, color emotions, etc. and the multimedia system to feedback it into products and living environment. FY 1995 data book 3 (1) 'Color cognition of the world's youth' analysis and mapping; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shiryoshu dai 3 kan (1) 'sekai no seinen no shikisai ninchi chosa' bunseki kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the youth of main 20 cities of the world including Japan, aiming at clarifying characteristics of the color sense and at constructing a color-related global database and studying how to use it. This data is the results of the analyses. In the analysis of all items, the following were indicated: color mapping by country, analysis of similarity of countries, relations between 'the survey of the world's youth' and the internet survey, etc. In the analysis of each item, the following were shown: regional difference in color of hair/color of pupil/color taste, analysis of life color, analysis of memory color in the natural world, warm-cold/light-heavy/loud-quiet images and color taste, analysis of color association data by language, regional difference in colors which have been most enjoyed/regional difference in colors peculiar to cities, and analysis of regional difference in evaluation of coloring matching degrees. (NEDO)

  3. The use of color infrared photography for wetlands mapping with special reference to shoreline and waterfowl habitat assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of low altitude oblique photography obtained by hand-held cameras was useful in determining specifications of operational mission requirements for conventional smaller-scaled vertical photography. Remote sensing techniques were used to assess the rapid destruction of marsh areas at Pointe Mouillee. In an estuarian environment where shoreline features change yearly, there is a need for revision in existing area maps. A land cover inventory, mapped from aerial photography, provided essential data necessary for determining adjacent lands suitable for marshland development. To quantitatively assess the wetlands environment, a detailed inventory of vegetative communities (19 categories) was made using color infrared photography and intensive ground truth. A carefully selected and well laid-out transect was found to be a key asset to photointerpretation and to the analysis of vegetative conditions. Transect data provided the interpreter with locally representative areas of various vegetative types. This facilitated development of a photointerpretation key. Additional information on vegetative conditions in the area was also obtained by evaluating the transect data.

  4. A Hybrid Color Mapping Approach to Fusing MODIS and Landsat Images for Forward Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Chiman Kwan; Bence Budavari; Feng Gao; Xiaolin Zhu

    2018-01-01

    We present a new, simple, and efficient approach to fusing MODIS and Landsat images. It is well known that MODIS images have high temporal resolution and low spatial resolution, whereas Landsat images are just the opposite. Similar to earlier approaches, our goal is to fuse MODIS and Landsat images to yield high spatial and high temporal resolution images. Our approach consists of two steps. First, a mapping is established between two MODIS images, where one is at an earlier time, t1, and the...

  5. MAPPING SPATIAL/TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF GREEN MACROALGAE IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL ESTUARY VIA SMALL FORMAT COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small format 35 mm hand-held camera with color infrared slide film was used to map blooms of benthic green macroalgae upon mudflats of Yaquina Bay estuary on the central Oregon coast, U.S.A. Oblique photographs were taken during a series of low tide events, when the intertidal...

  6. Fine Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis of the Leaf-Color Gene ygl-1 in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Guan

    Full Text Available A novel yellow-green leaf mutant yellow-green leaf-1 (ygl-1 was isolated in self-pollinated progenies from the cross of maize inbred lines Ye478 and Yuanwu02. The mutant spontaneously showed yellow-green character throughout the lifespan. Meanwhile, the mutant reduced contents of chlorophyll and Car, arrested chloroplast development and lowered the capacity of photosynthesis compared with the wild-type Lx7226. Genetic analysis revealed that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene. The ygl-1 locus was initially mapped to an interval of about 0.86 Mb in bin 1.01 on the short arm of chromosome 1 using 231 yellow-green leaf individuals of an F2 segregating population from ygl-1/Lx7226. Utilizing four new polymorphic SSR markers, the ygl-1 locus was narrowed down to a region of about 48 kb using 2930 and 2247 individuals of F2 and F3 mapping populations, respectively. Among the three predicted genes annotated within this 48 kb region, GRMZM2G007441, which was predicted to encode a cpSRP43 protein, had a 1-bp nucleotide deletion in the coding region of ygl-1 resulting in a frame shift mutation. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that YGL-1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues and its expression level was not significantly affected in the ygl-1 mutant from early to mature stages, while light intensity regulated its expression both in the ygl-1 mutant and wild type seedlings. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of some genes involved in chloroplast development were affected in the six-week old ygl-1 plants. These findings suggested that YGL-1 plays an important role in chloroplast development of maize.

  7. Research on the Algoritm of Automatic Map Coloring and Its Application%地图自动着色算法研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓年; 张国合; 朱翊; 刘晓东

    2011-01-01

    从四色问题的抽象模型入手,通过对现有的搜索算法——遗传算法、模拟退火算法这两种算法的原理和流程进行了较为细致的分析,总结出它们在地图四色填充实现过程中的优点与不足之处,并进行比较,找出这两种算法的结合点进行算法的改进优化,将模拟退火算法引入遗传算法,使它们结合起来解决地图四色填充问题,从而形成相对优化的算法,以期达到更加优化的效果.%This article firstly introduced the abstract model of four-color problem for map coloring.Then,through the detail analysis on the principle and process of the existing search algorithms that such as genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm,it summarized the advantages and shortcomings of these algorithms when dealing with the four-color problem for map coloring.Based on the comparison,it found the joint point of the two algorithms to improve and optimize them.It introduced the simulated annealing algorithm into the genetic algorithm,and combined the two algorithms to solve the four-color problem for map coloring and achieve more optimized results.

  8. A comparison of ship and Coastal Zone Color Scanner mapped distribution of phytoplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Sambrotto, R. N.; Ray, G. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the southeastern Bering Sea are examined in order to map the near-surface distribution of phytoplankton during 1979 and 1980. The information is compared with the mesoscale (100-1000 km) distribution of phytoplankton inferred from pooled ship sampling obtained during the Processes and Resources of the Bering Shelf (PROBES) intensive field study during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The imagery indicates that open-water phytoplankton blooms occur first in late April in coastal waters, peak in early May over the middle shelf, and decay rapidly afterwards, reaching concentration minima in June in both regions. These patterns show that the earlier ship observations are valid for most of the eastern Bering shelf. A very tight correlation is found between the PROBES surface chlorophyll a concentrations and mean mixed-layer chlorophyll concentrations. The significant discrepancies between CZCS and ship-based chlorophyll estimates may be due to aliasing in time by the CZCS. It is concluded that neither satellite nor ship alone can do an adequate job of characterizing the physics or biological dynamics of the ocean.

  9. Riemann Geometric Color-Weak Compensationfor Individual Observers

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Takanori; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    We extend a method for color weak compensation based on the criterion of preservation of subjective color differences between color normal and color weak observers presented in [2]. We introduce a new algorithm for color weak compensation using local affine maps between color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We show howto estimate the local affine map and how to determine correspondences between the origins of local coordinates in color spaces of color normal and color weak ob...

  10. Research and development of a color-related global database of sensory values concerning color cognition, color emotions, etc. and the multimedia system to feedback it into products and living environment. FY 1995 data book 3 (2) 'Color cognition of the world's youth' analysis and mapping; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shiryoshu dai 3 kan (2) 'sekai no seinen no shikisai ninchi chosa' shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the youth of main 20 cities of the world including Japan, aiming at clarifying characteristics of the color sense and at constructing a color-related global database and studying how to use it. This data is the results of the analyses and mapping. The following were included as data: calculational results of the mapping by country (all items), calculational results of the similarity analysis of countries (regions), regional clusters of color taste and characteristics of each cluster, international comparison of memory color in the natural world, analysis of regional difference in warm-cold/light-heavy/loud-quiet images, analysis of color association data by language, analysis of image maps by factor analysis, regional difference in color association concerning 15 languages, analysis of regional difference in color association data by language, analysis of regional difference in colors which have been most enjoyed/colors peculiar to cities, international comparison of evaluation of 2-color coloring matching degrees, and international comparison of evaluation of coloring matching degrees. (NEDO)

  11. Hepatic fat quantification using the two-point Dixon method and fat color maps based on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Satoshi; Takahashi, Junji; Tsuji, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kawamura, Yusuke; Fujii, Takeshi; Inoue, Masafumi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-04-01

    The two-point Dixon method for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to non-invasively measure fat deposition in the liver. The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of MRI-fat fraction (MRI-FF) using the two-point Dixon method based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. This retrospective study included 106 patients who underwent liver MRI and MR spectroscopy, and 201 patients who underwent liver MRI and histological assessment. The relationship between MRI-FF and MR spectroscopy-fat fraction was used to estimate the corrected MRI-FF for hepatic multi-peaks of fat. Then, a color FF map was generated with the corrected MRI-FF based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. We defined FF variability as the standard deviation of FF in regions of interest. Uniformity of hepatic fat was visually graded on a three-point scale using both gray-scale and color FF maps. Confounding effects of histology (iron, inflammation and fibrosis) on corrected MRI-FF were assessed by multiple linear regression. The linear correlations between MRI-FF and MR spectroscopy-fat fraction, and between corrected MRI-FF and histological steatosis were strong (R 2  = 0.90 and R 2  = 0.88, respectively). Liver fat variability significantly increased with visual fat uniformity grade using both of the maps (ρ = 0.67-0.69, both P Hepatic iron, inflammation and fibrosis had no significant confounding effects on the corrected MRI-FF (all P > 0.05). The two-point Dixon method and the gray-scale or color FF maps based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score were useful for fat quantification in the liver of patients without severe iron deposition. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  12. Nonuniform multiview color texture mapping of image sequence and three-dimensional model for faded cultural relics with sift feature points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Gong, Xingyu; Li, Hongan; Jia, Pengtao

    2018-01-01

    For faded relics, such as Terracotta Army, the 2D-3D registration between an optical camera and point cloud model is an important part for color texture reconstruction and further applications. This paper proposes a nonuniform multiview color texture mapping for the image sequence and the three-dimensional (3D) model of point cloud collected by Handyscan3D. We first introduce nonuniform multiview calibration, including the explanation of its algorithm principle and the analysis of its advantages. We then establish transformation equations based on sift feature points for the multiview image sequence. At the same time, the selection of nonuniform multiview sift feature points is introduced in detail. Finally, the solving process of the collinear equations based on multiview perspective projection is given with three steps and the flowchart. In the experiment, this method is applied to the color reconstruction of the kneeling figurine, Tangsancai lady, and general figurine. These results demonstrate that the proposed method provides an effective support for the color reconstruction of the faded cultural relics and be able to improve the accuracy of 2D-3D registration between the image sequence and the point cloud model.

  13. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  14. A DECADE OF MAPPING SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY: METHODS USED AND LESSONS LEARNED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual color infrared aerial photographs acquired annually between 1997 and 2007 were used to classify distributions of intertidal and shallow subtidal native eelgrass Zostera marina and non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica in lower Yaquina estuary, Oregon. The use of digit...

  15. Research and development of a color-related global database of sensory values concerning color cognition, color emotions, etc. and the multimedia system to feedback it into products and living environment. FY 1995 data book 3 (1) 'Color cognition of the world's youth' analysis and mapping; 1995 nendo shikisai ninchi ya shikisai kanjo nado, shikisai ni taisuru kannochi no kokusaiteki database no kochiku to, sore wo seihin oyobi seikatsu kankyo no shikisai sekkei ni han'eisaseru multimedia system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shiryoshu dai 3 kan (1) 'sekai no seinen no shikisai ninchi chosa' bunseki kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the youth of main 20 cities of the world including Japan, aiming at clarifying characteristics of the color sense and at constructing a color-related global database and studying how to use it. This data is the results of the analyses. In the analysis of all items, the following were indicated: color mapping by country, analysis of similarity of countries, relations between 'the survey of the world's youth' and the internet survey, etc. In the analysis of each item, the following were shown: regional difference in color of hair/color of pupil/color taste, analysis of life color, analysis of memory color in the natural world, warm-cold/light-heavy/loud-quiet images and color taste, analysis of color association data by language, regional difference in colors which have been most enjoyed/regional difference in colors peculiar to cities, and analysis of regional difference in evaluation of coloring matching degrees. (NEDO)

  16. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  17. 2015 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of San Diego, California: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  18. 2015 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of Los Angeles and Long Beach, California: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  19. Application of Digital Survey Mapping Technology in the Investigation of Colored Wood Statue in the Caoxi Temple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-08-01

    The colored wood statues in the CaoXi Temple represent the Sandashi(Manjushri, Samantabhadra , Avalokitesvar) in the Buddhism.These statues with great value were carved in Dali kingdom of the Song dynasty. Because of natural and man-made reasons, disease has become very seriously both in the painted layer on the surface and the structure inside. So it is very important to record the current situation, analyze the structure, craft and material, and detect the cause of disease. This paper takes the colored wood statues as the research object, and kinds of digital survey technology were applied in the process. The Research results will play an important role in the protection, explanation and display.

  20. A preliminary training guide for utilizing high-altitude, color-infrared photography in compiling soil maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. E.; Parkhurst, W. H.; Ward, J. F.; Almond, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Instruction for acquiring and analytically processing small-scale color-infrared photography to perform a soil resources inventory over forests of the southern U.S. is provided. Planning the project; acquiring aerial photography, materials, equipment and supplemental data; and preparing the photography for analysis are discussed. The procedures for preparing ancillary and primary component overlays are discussed. The use of correlation charts and dichotomous keys for mountain landforms, water regime, and vegetation is explained.

  1. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  2. Algal-mediated ecosystem exchanges in the Eel River drainage network: towards photogrammetric mapping of color to function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M. E.; Welter, J.; Furey, P.; Lowe, R.; Finlay, J. C.; Hondzo, M.; Limm, M.; Bode, C.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Seasonal algal proliferations in river networks are typically short-lived (weeks-months) but spatially extensive. They mediate important ecological and biogeochemical exchanges within and between ecosystems. We are investigating correspondence of assemblage color with ecosystem function in the nitrogen-limited Eel River of northern California. During summer base flow following winter floods, Eel algal assemblages are dominated by the green macroalga Cladophora glomerata. New growths are green, but blooms turn yellow as Cladophora filaments are colonized by epiphytic diatoms (Cocconeis spp.). Later, proliferations turn rust colored as epiphytic assemblages became dominated by Epithemia spp., diatoms that contain nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial endosymbionts. Epithemia-encrusted Cladophora occurs at and downstream of reaches draining > 100 km2 (where summer inundated average channel widths > 25 m), coinciding with a threshold increase in concentration of total dissolved nitrogen. Areal nitrogen fixation rates are 14x higher in rusty algal proliferations than in green, and 3-4x higher than in yellow Cladophora mats. Corresponding increases in insect emergence suggest that nitrogen fixed by cyanobacterial endosymbionts is highly edible. Rates of biomass emergence from rusty Cladophora mats are 12-17 times greater than from green mats, and 8-10 times greater from rusty than from yellow Cladophora mats, because larger taxa emerge from rusty mats (Chironominae versus Ceratopogonidae in yellow mats). Photogrammetric detection of spatial coverage and color changes in algal proliferations may help us track nitrogen fluxes they mediate (riverine loading from the atmosphere via fixation, river to the watershed return via insect emergence) that link riverine to aerial, watershed, and potentially nearshore marine ecosystems at reach to basin scales.

  3. Mitral valve coaptation and its relationship to late diastolic flow: A color Doppler and vector flow map echocardiographic study in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrid, Mark V; Kushner, Josef; Yang, Georgiana; Ro, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Three competing theories about the mechanism of mitral coaptation in normal subjects were evaluated by color Doppler and vector flow mapping (VFM): (1) beginning of ventricular (LV) ejection, (2) "breaking of the jet" of diastolic LV inflow, and (3) returning diastolic vortices impacting the leaflets on their LV surfaces. We analyzed 80 color Doppler frames and 320 VFM measurements. In all 20 normal subjects, coaptation occurred before LV ejection, 78±16 ms before onset. On color Doppler frames the larger anterior, and smaller posterior vortices circle back and, in all cases, strike the ventricular surfaces of the leaflets. On the first closing-begins frame, for the first time, vortex velocity normal to the ventricular surface of the anterior leaflet (AML) is greater than that in the mitral orifice, and the angle of attack of LV vortical flow onto the AML is twice as high as the angle of flow onto the valve in orifice. Thus, at the moment coaptation begins, vortical flow strikes the mitral leaflet with higher velocity, and higher angle of attack than orifice flow, and thus with greater force. According to the "breaking of the jet" theory, one would expect to see de novo LV flow perpendicular to the leaflets beginning after transmitral flow terminates. Instead, the returning continuous LV vortical flow that impacts the valve builds continuously after the P-wave. Late diastolic vortices strike the ventricular surfaces of the mitral leaflets and contribute to valve coaptation, permitted by concomitant decline in transmitral flow. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  5. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  6. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  7. QTL mapping and molecular characterization of the classical D locus controlling seed and flower color in Linum usitatissimum (flax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, Gurudatt Pavagada; Kulkarni, Manoj; Akhov, Leonid; Ashe, Paula; Shaterian, Hamid; Cloutier, Sylvie; Rowland, Gordon; Wei, Yangdou; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2017-11-16

    The flowers of flax (linseed) are blue-hued, ephemeral and self-pollinating, and the seeds are typically brown. A century-old interest in natural yellow seed variants and a historical model point to recessive alleles in B1, D and G loci being responsible, but the functional aspects had remained unknown. Here, we characterized the "D" locus by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and identified a FLAVONOID 3'5' HYDROXYLASE (F3'5'H) gene therein. It does not belong to the F3'5'H clade, but resembles biochemically characterized F3'Hs (flavonoid 3' hydroxylase) but without F3'H activity. The genome lacks other F3'H or F3'H-like genes. The apparent neo-functionalization from F3'H is associated with a Thr 498  → Ser 498 substitution in a substrate recognition site (SRS). The yellow seed and white flower phenotypes of the classical d mutation was found to be due to one nucleotide deletion that would truncate the deduced product and remove three of the six potential SRS, negatively impacting delphinidin synthesis. Delphinidin is sporadic in angiosperms, and flax has no known pollination syndrome(s) with functional pollinator group(s) that are attracted to blue flowers, raising questions on the acquisition of F3'5'H. The appearance of d allele is suggestive of the beginning of the loss of F3'5'H in this species.

  8. Gene mapping and functional analysis of the novel leaf color gene SiYGL1 in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Tang, Sha; Zhang, Shuo; Shan, Jianguo; Tang, Chanjuan; Chen, Qiannan; Jia, Guanqing; Han, Yuanhuai; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2016-05-01

    Setaria italica and its wild ancestor Setaria viridis are emerging as model systems for genetics and functional genomics research. However, few systematic gene mapping or functional analyses have been reported in these promising C4 models. We herein isolated the yellow-green leaf mutant (siygl1) in S. italica using forward genetics approaches. Map-based cloning revealed that SiYGL1, which is a recessive nuclear gene encoding a magnesium-chelatase D subunit (CHLD), is responsible for the mutant phenotype. A single Phe to Leu amino acid change occurring near the ATPase-conserved domain resulted in decreased chlorophyll (Chl) accumulation and modified chloroplast ultrastructure. However, the mutation enhanced the light-use efficiency of the siygl1 mutant, suggesting that the mutated CHLD protein does not completely lose its original activity, but instead, gains novel features. A transcriptional analysis of Chl a oxygenase revealed that there is a strong negative feedback control of Chl b biosynthesis in S. italica. The SiYGL1 mRNA was expressed in all examined tissues, with higher expression observed in the leaves. Comparison of gene expression profiles in wild-type and siygl1 mutant plants indicated that SiYGL1 regulates a subset of genes involved in photosynthesis (rbcL and LHCB1), thylakoid development (DEG2) and chloroplast signaling (SRP54CP). These results provide information regarding the mutant phenotype at the transcriptional level. This study demonstrated that the genetic material of a Setaria species could be ideal for gene discovery investigations using forward genetics approaches and may help to explain the molecular mechanisms associated with leaf color variation. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  10. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  11. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  12. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  13. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  14. How to display data by color schemes compatible with red-green color perception deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissbuehler, Matthias; Lasser, Theo

    2013-04-22

    Visualization of data concerns most scientists. The use of color is required in order to display multidimensional information. In addition, color encoding a univariate image can improve the interpretation significantly. However up to 10% of the adult male population are affected by a red-green color perception deficiency which hampers the correct interpretation and appreciation of color encoded information. This work attempts to give guidelines on how to display a given dataset in a balanced manner. Three novel color maps are proposed providing readers with normal color perception a maximum of color contrast while being a good compromise for readers with color perception deficiencies.

  15. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  16. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  17. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  18. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  19. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  20. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  1. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  2. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  3. Color Calibration for Colorized Vision System with Digital Sensor and LED Array Illuminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenmin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Color measurement by the colorized vision system is a superior method to achieve the evaluation of color objectively and continuously. However, the accuracy of color measurement is influenced by the spectral responses of digital sensor and the spectral mismatch of illumination. In this paper, two-color vision system illuminated by digital sensor and LED array, respectively, is presented. The Polynomial-Based Regression method is applied to solve the problem of color calibration in the sRGB and CIE  L⁎a⁎b⁎ color spaces. By mapping the tristimulus values from RGB to sRGB color space, color difference between the estimated values and the reference values is less than 3ΔE. Additionally, the mapping matrix ΦRGB→sRGB has proved a better performance in reducing the color difference, and it is introduced subsequently into the colorized vision system proposed for a better color measurement. Necessarily, the printed matter of clothes and the colored ceramic tile are chosen as the application experiment samples of our colorized vision system. As shown in the experimental data, the average color difference of images is less than 6ΔE. It indicates that a better performance of color measurement is obtained via the colorized vision system proposed.

  4. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  5. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  6. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  7. Detection of myocardial ischemia by automated, motion-corrected, color-encoded perfusion maps compared with visual analysis of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesch, Christina; Papavassiliu, Theano; Michaely, Henrik J; Attenberger, Ulrike I; Glielmi, Christopher; Süselbeck, Tim; Fink, Christian; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare automated, motion-corrected, color-encoded (AMC) perfusion maps with qualitative visual analysis of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for detection of flow-limiting stenoses. Myocardial perfusion measurements applying the standard adenosine stress imaging protocol and a saturation-recovery temporal generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (t-GRAPPA) turbo fast low angle shot (Turbo FLASH) magnetic resonance imaging sequence were performed in 25 patients using a 3.0-T MAGNETOM Skyra (Siemens Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany). Perfusion studies were analyzed using AMC perfusion maps and qualitative visual analysis. Angiographically detected coronary artery (CA) stenoses greater than 75% or 50% or more with a myocardial perfusion reserve index less than 1.5 were considered as hemodynamically relevant. Diagnostic performance and time requirement for both methods were compared. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were also assessed. A total of 29 CA stenoses were included in the analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for detection of ischemia on a per-patient basis were comparable using the AMC perfusion maps compared to visual analysis. On a per-CA territory basis, the attribution of an ischemia to the respective vessel was facilitated using the AMC perfusion maps. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were better for the AMC perfusion maps (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.94 and 0.93, respectively) compared to visual analysis (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.73 and 0.79, respectively). In addition, in comparison to visual analysis, the AMC perfusion maps were able to significantly reduce analysis time from 7.7 (3.1) to 3.2 (1.9) minutes (P < 0.0001). The AMC perfusion maps yielded a diagnostic performance on a per-patient and on a per-CA territory basis comparable with the visual analysis

  8. Colored Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  9. A DECADE OF MAPPING SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY: METHODS USED AND LESSONS LEARNED - 5-14-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual color infrared (CIR) aerial photographs acquired annually between 1997 and 2007 were used to classify distributions of intertidal and shallow subtidal native eelgrass Zostera marina and non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica in lower Yaquina estuary, Oregon. The use of...

  10. Colored leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  11. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  12. Molecular Mapping of D1, D2 and ms5 Revealed Linkage between the Cotyledon Color Locus D2 and the Male-Sterile Locus ms5 in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ott

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In soybean, genic male sterility can be utilized as a tool to develop hybrid seed. Several male-sterile, female-fertile mutants have been identified in soybean. The male-sterile, female-fertile ms5 mutant was selected after fast neutron irradiation. Male-sterility due to ms5 was associated with the “stay-green” cotyledon color mutation. The cotyledon color trait in soybean is controlled by two loci, D1 and D2. Association between cotyledon color and male-sterility can be instrumental in early phenotypic selection of sterility for hybrid seed production. The use of such selection methods saves time, money, and space, as fewer seeds need to be planted and screened for sterility. The objectives of this study were to compare anther development between male-fertile and male-sterile plants, to investigate the possible linkages among the Ms5, D1 and D2 loci, and to determine if any of the d1 or d2 mutations can be applied in hybrid seed production. The cytological analysis during anther development displayed optically clear, disintegrating microspores and enlarged, engorged pollen in the male-sterile, female-fertile ms5ms5 plants, a common characteristic of male-sterile mutants. The D1 locus was mapped to molecular linkage group (MLG D1a and was flanked by Satt408 and BARCSOYSSR_01_1622. The ms5 and D2 loci were mapped to MLG B1 with a genetic distance ~12.8 cM between them. These results suggest that use of the d2 mutant in the selection of male-sterile line may attenuate the cost hybrid seed production in soybean.

  13. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean Low Low Water Color Mosaic of Hood Canal - Port Townsend to Annas Bay, Washington: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  14. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) true color (RGB) orthorectified mosaic image tiles, Lake Charles, Louisiana 2009-2010 (NODC Accession 0075827)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of Lake Charles,...

  15. 2015 NOAA Ortho-rectified Below Mean High Water Color Mosaic of the Port of Palm Beach, Florida: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  16. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) orthorectified mosaic true color (RGB) and infrared (IR) image tiles, Kachemak Bay, Alaska, 2008 (NODC Accession 0074379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a NOAA National Ocean Service National Geodetic Survey (NOS/NGS) Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Product. The images were acquired from a...

  17. 2015 NOAA Ortho-rectified Below Mean High Water Color Mosaic of Ports of Houston, Texas City, and Galveston, Texas: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  18. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) true color (RGB) orthorectified mosaic image tiles, Baton Rouge to LaPlace, Louisiana 2010 (NODC Accession 0074374)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of the Mississippi...

  19. 2013 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean High Water Color Mosaic of Sequim Bay to Foulweather Bluff, Washington: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  20. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean Low Low Water Color Mosaic of Puget Sound - Everett to Spring Beach, Washington: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  1. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Li Meitian; Kim Youshi; Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai; Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo; Li Rongwu

    2011-01-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  2. Mapping the low salinity Changjiang Diluted Water using satellite-retrieved colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the East China Sea during high river flow season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroaki; Siswanto, Eko; Nishiuchi, Kou; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hasegawa, Toru; Ishizaka, Joji

    2008-02-01

    Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) [a g(λ)] were measured and relationship with salinity was derived in the East China Sea (ECS) during summer when amount of the Changjiang River discharge is large. Low salinity Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) was observed widely in the shelf region and was considered to be the main origin of CDOM, resulting in a strong relationship between salinity and a g(λ). Error of satellite a g(λ) estimated by the present ocean color algorithm could be corrected by satellite-retrieved chlorophyll data. Satellite-retrieved salinity could be predicted with about +/-1.0 accuracy from satellite a g(λ) and the relation between salinity and a g(λ). Our study suggests that satellite-derived a g(λ) can be an indicator of the low salinity CDW during summer.

  3. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin, E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.c [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Meitian; Kim Youshi [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, Jiangxi Province 330025 (China); Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Rongwu [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-02-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  4. Minuutit (Colors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  5. Color inference in visual communication: the meaning of colors in recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Lessard, Laurent; Walmsley, Charlotte S; Foley, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    People interpret abstract meanings from colors, which makes color a useful perceptual feature for visual communication. This process is complicated, however, because there is seldom a one-to-one correspondence between colors and meanings. One color can be associated with many different concepts (one-to-many mapping) and many colors can be associated with the same concept (many-to-one mapping). We propose that to interpret color-coding systems, people perform assignment inference to determine how colors map onto concepts. We studied assignment inference in the domain of recycling. Participants saw images of colored but unlabeled bins and were asked to indicate which bins they would use to discard different kinds of recyclables and trash. In Experiment 1, we tested two hypotheses for how people perform assignment inference. The local assignment hypothesis predicts that people simply match objects with their most strongly associated color. The global assignment hypothesis predicts that people also account for the association strengths between all other objects and colors within the scope of the color-coding system. Participants discarded objects in bins that optimized the color-object associations of the entire set, which is consistent with the global assignment hypothesis. This sometimes resulted in discarding objects in bins whose colors were weakly associated with the object, even when there was a stronger associated option available. In Experiment 2, we tested different methods for encoding color-coding systems and found that people were better at assignment inference when color sets simultaneously maximized the association strength between assigned color-object parings while minimizing associations between unassigned pairings. Our study provides an approach for designing intuitive color-coding systems that facilitate communication through visual media such as graphs, maps, signs, and artifacts.

  6. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  7. Mapped clone and functional analysis of leaf-color gene Ygl7 in a rice hybrid (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Hai-qing; Wang, Yue; He, Feng; Liu, Jin-ling; Xiao, Xiao; Shu, Zhi-feng; Li, Wei; Wang, Guo-huai; Wang, Guo-liang

    2014-01-01

    Leaf-color is an effective marker to identify the hybridization of rice. Leaf-color related genes function in chloroplast development and the photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis of higher plants. The ygl7 (yellow-green leaf 7) is a mutant with spontaneous yellow-green leaf phenotype across the whole lifespan but with no change to its yield traits. We cloned gene Ygl7 (Os03g59640) which encodes a magnesium-chelatase ChlD protein. Expression of ygl7 turns green-leaves to yellow, whereas RNAi-mediated silence of Ygl7 causes a lethal phenotype of the transgenic plants. This indicates the importance of the gene for rice plant. On the other hand, it corroborates that ygl7 is a non-null mutants. The content of photosynthetic pigment is lower in Ygl7 than the wild type, but its light efficiency was comparatively high. All these results indicated that the mutational YGL7 protein does not cause a complete loss of original function but instead acts as a new protein performing a new function. This new function partially includes its preceding function and possesses an additional feature to promote photosynthesis. Chl1, Ygl98, and Ygl3 are three alleles of the OsChlD gene that have been documented previously. However, mutational sites of OsChlD mutant gene and their encoded protein products were different in the three mutants. The three mutants have suppressed grain output. In our experiment, plant materials of three mutants (ygl7, chl1, and ygl98) all exhibited mutational leaf-color during the whole growth period. This result was somewhat different from previous studies. We used ygl7 as female crossed with chl1 and ygl98, respectively. Both the F1 and F2 generation display yellow-green leaf phenotype with their chlorophyll and carotenoid content falling between the values of their parents. Moreover, we noted an important phenomenon: ygl7-NIL's leaf-color is yellow, not yellowy-green, and this is also true of all back-crossed offspring with ygl7.

  8. Mapped clone and functional analysis of leaf-color gene Ygl7 in a rice hybrid (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-juan Deng

    Full Text Available Leaf-color is an effective marker to identify the hybridization of rice. Leaf-color related genes function in chloroplast development and the photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis of higher plants. The ygl7 (yellow-green leaf 7 is a mutant with spontaneous yellow-green leaf phenotype across the whole lifespan but with no change to its yield traits. We cloned gene Ygl7 (Os03g59640 which encodes a magnesium-chelatase ChlD protein. Expression of ygl7 turns green-leaves to yellow, whereas RNAi-mediated silence of Ygl7 causes a lethal phenotype of the transgenic plants. This indicates the importance of the gene for rice plant. On the other hand, it corroborates that ygl7 is a non-null mutants. The content of photosynthetic pigment is lower in Ygl7 than the wild type, but its light efficiency was comparatively high. All these results indicated that the mutational YGL7 protein does not cause a complete loss of original function but instead acts as a new protein performing a new function. This new function partially includes its preceding function and possesses an additional feature to promote photosynthesis. Chl1, Ygl98, and Ygl3 are three alleles of the OsChlD gene that have been documented previously. However, mutational sites of OsChlD mutant gene and their encoded protein products were different in the three mutants. The three mutants have suppressed grain output. In our experiment, plant materials of three mutants (ygl7, chl1, and ygl98 all exhibited mutational leaf-color during the whole growth period. This result was somewhat different from previous studies. We used ygl7 as female crossed with chl1 and ygl98, respectively. Both the F1 and F2 generation display yellow-green leaf phenotype with their chlorophyll and carotenoid content falling between the values of their parents. Moreover, we noted an important phenomenon: ygl7-NIL's leaf-color is yellow, not yellowy-green, and this is also true of all back-crossed offspring with ygl7.

  9. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  10. High-throughput flow injection analysis mass spectroscopy with networked delivery of color-rendered results. 2. Three-dimensional spectral mapping of 96-well combinatorial chemistry racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlach, E; Richmond, R; Lewis, I

    1998-08-01

    For the last two years, the mass spectroscopy section of the Novartis Pharma Research Core Technology group has analyzed tens of thousands of multiple parallel synthesis samples from the Novartis Pharma Combinatorial Chemistry program, using an in-house developed automated high-throughput flow injection analysis electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy system. The electrospray spectra of these samples reflect the many structures present after the cleavage step from the solid support. The overall success of the sequential synthesis is mirrored in the purity of the expected end product, but the partial success of individual synthesis steps is evident in the impurities in the mass spectrum. However this latter reaction information, which is of considerable utility to the combinatorial chemist, is effectively hidden from view by the very large number of analyzed samples. This information is now revealed at the workbench of the combinatorial chemist by a novel three-dimensional display of each rack's complete mass spectral ion current using the in-house RackViewer Visual Basic application. Colorization of "forbidden loss" and "forbidden gas-adduct" zones, normalization to expected monoisotopic molecular weight, colorization of ionization intensity, and sorting by row or column were used in combination to highlight systematic patterns in the mass spectroscopy data.

  11. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  12. Modeling Color Difference for Visualization Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafir, Danielle Albers

    2018-01-01

    Color is frequently used to encode values in visualizations. For color encodings to be effective, the mapping between colors and values must preserve important differences in the data. However, most guidelines for effective color choice in visualization are based on either color perceptions measured using large, uniform fields in optimal viewing environments or on qualitative intuitions. These limitations may cause data misinterpretation in visualizations, which frequently use small, elongated marks. Our goal is to develop quantitative metrics to help people use color more effectively in visualizations. We present a series of crowdsourced studies measuring color difference perceptions for three common mark types: points, bars, and lines. Our results indicate that peoples' abilities to perceive color differences varies significantly across mark types. Probabilistic models constructed from the resulting data can provide objective guidance for designers, allowing them to anticipate viewer perceptions in order to inform effective encoding design.

  13. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  14. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  15. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  16. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  17. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  18. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  19. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  20. Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed th...

  1. Cross-cultural color-odor associations

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, C.A.; Ren, J.; Boesveldt, S.; Chan, J.; McKenzie, K.J.; Levin, J.A.; Leong, C.X.; Bosch, van den, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed th...

  2. oRGB: a practical opponent color space for computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkova, Margarita; Boulos, Solomon; Shirley, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Designed for computer graphics, oRGB is a new color model based on opponent color theory. It works well for both HSV-style color selection and computational applications such as color transfer. oRGB also enables new applications such as a quantitative cool-to-warm metric, intuitive color manipulation and variations, and simple gamut mapping.

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  4. Color-weak compensation using local affine isometry based on discrimination threshold matching

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki, Rika; Kojima, Takanori; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    We develop algorithms for color-weak compensation and color-weak simulation based on Riemannian geometry models of color spaces. The objective function introduced measures the match of color discrimination thresholds of average normal observers and a color-weak observer. The developed matching process makes use of local affine maps between color spaces of color-normal and color-weak observers. The method can be used to generate displays of images that provide color-normal and color-weak obser...

  5. High-throughput dual-color precision imaging for brain-wide mapping of the connectome with cytoarchitectonic landmarks at the cellular level (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui; Yuan, Jing; Li, Xiangning; Li, Anan; Xu, Tonghui

    2017-02-01

    Deciphering the fine morphology and precise location of neurons and neural circuits are crucial to enhance our understanding of brain function and diseases. Traditionally, we have to map brain images to coarse axial-sampling planar reference atlases to orient neural structures. However, this means might fail to orient neural projections at single-cell resolution due to position errors resulting from individual differences at the cellular level. Here, we present a high-throughput imaging method that can automatically obtain the fine morphologies and precise locations of both neurons and circuits, employing wide-field large-volume tomography to acquire three-dimensional images of thick tissue and implementing real-time soma counterstaining to obtain cytoarchitectonic landmarks during the imaging process. The reconstruction and orientation of brain-wide neural circuits at single-neuron resolution can be accomplished for the same mouse brain without additional counterstains or image registration. Using our method, mouse brain imaging datasets of multiple type-specific neurons and circuits were successfully acquired, demonstrating the versatility. The results show that the simultaneous acquisition of labeled neural structures and cytoarchitecture reference at single-neuron resolution in the same brain greatly facilitates precise tracing of long-range projections and accurate locating of nuclei. Our method provides a novel and effective tool for application in studies on genetic dissection, brain function and the pathology of the nervous system.

  6. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  7. Automatic color preference correction for color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Masato; Funayama, Chisato; Tajima, Johji

    2000-12-01

    The reproduction of natural objects in color images has attracted a great deal of attention. Reproduction more pleasing colors of natural objects is one of the methods available to improve image quality. We developed an automatic color correction method to maintain preferred color reproduction for three significant categories: facial skin color, green grass and blue sky. In this method, a representative color in an object area to be corrected is automatically extracted from an input image, and a set of color correction parameters is selected depending on the representative color. The improvement in image quality for reproductions of natural image was more than 93 percent in subjective experiments. These results show the usefulness of our automatic color correction method for the reproduction of preferred colors.

  8. Formal genetic maps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... ome/transcriptome/proteome, experimental induced maps that are intentionally designed and con- ... genetic maps imposed their application in nearly all fields of medical genetics including ..... or genes located adjacent to, or near, them. ...... types of markers, e.g., clinical markers (eye color), genomic.

  9. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  10. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  11. Hearing Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Allyson; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Davis, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In astronomy, the relationship between color and temperature is an important concept. This concept can be demonstrated in a laboratory or seen at telescope when observing stars. A blind/visually-impaired (B/VI) person would not be able to engage in the same observational demonstrations that are typically done to explain this concept. We’ve developed a tool for B/VI students to participate in these types of observational activities. Using an arduino compatible micro controller with and RGB light sensor, we are able to convert filtered light into sound. The device will produce different timbres for different wavelengths of light, which can then be used to distinguish the temperature of an object. The device is handheld, easy to program and inexpensive to reproduce (< $50). It is also fitted to mount on a telescope for observing. The design schematic and code will be open source and available for download.

  12. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  13. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  14. Perceptual Color Characterization of Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vazquez-Corral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Color camera characterization, mapping outputs from the camera sensors to an independent color space, such as \\(XYZ\\, is an important step in the camera processing pipeline. Until now, this procedure has been primarily solved by using a \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix obtained via a least-squares optimization. In this paper, we propose to use the spherical sampling method, recently published by Finlayson al., to perform a perceptual color characterization. In particular, we search for the \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix that minimizes three different perceptual errors, one pixel based and two spatially based. For the pixel-based case, we minimize the CIE \\(\\Delta E\\ error, while for the spatial-based case, we minimize both the S-CIELAB error and the CID error measure. Our results demonstrate an improvement of approximately 3for the \\(\\Delta E\\ error, 7& for the S-CIELAB error and 13% for the CID error measures.

  15. Using Playground Maps for Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, A. Vonnie

    2016-01-01

    Many schools now decorate their outside hard surface areas with maps. These maps provide color and excitement to a playground and are a terrific teaching tool for geography. But these maps can easily be integrated into physical education as well to promote both physical activity as well as knowledge of geography. The purpose of this article is to…

  16. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  18. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  19. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  1. What color transparency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.; Ralston, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Color transparency is commonly accepted to be a prediction of perturbative QCD. However it is more a phenomenon probing the interface between the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes, leading to some intricacy in its theoretical description. In this paper we study the consequences of the impulse approximation to the theory in various quantum mechanical bases. We show that the fully interacting hadronic basis, which consists of eigenstates of the exact Hamiltonian in the presence of the nucleus, provides a natural basis to study color transparency. In this basis we can relate the quark wave function at a small transverse separation distance b 2 2 directly to transparency ratios measured in experiment. With the formalism, experiment can be used to map out the quark wave function in this region. We exhibit several loopholes in existing arguments predicting a rise in transparency ratios with energy, and suggest alternatives. Among the results, we argue that the theoretical prediction of a rising transparency ratio with energy may be on better footing for heavy-quark bound states than for relativistic light-quark systems. We also point out that transparency ratios can be constant with energy and not at variance with perturbative QCD

  2. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  3. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  4. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  5. Material and component road map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Industrial Technology Foundation Editorial Department

    2007-09-01

    This book is comprised of two parts. One is divided into five chapters, which deals with summary of environment-friendly coloring technology, industry tendency of environment-friendly coloring technology, industry analysis and vision of environment-friendly coloring technology, analysis on core technology for environment-friendly coloring technology, with eco-friendly water paint and painting skill and eco-friendly surface treatment skill using electrochemical process. The other is divided into five chapters, which handles outline of display printing technology road map market trends of display painting, analysis and vision of display painting deduction of core-technology for display painting and analysis of core-technology for display painting. It has Diagrams for eco-friendly coloring technology road map and core-technology display painting road map.

  6. Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

  7. Cross-cultural color-odor associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel A Levitan

    Full Text Available Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor, statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience, and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language. The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents, using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.

  8. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  9. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  10. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  11. ColorPhylo: A Color Code to Accurately Display Taxonomic Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespinats, Sylvain; Fertil, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Color may be very useful to visualise complex data. As far as taxonomy is concerned, color may help observing various species' characteristics in correlation with classification. However, choosing the number of subclasses to display is often a complex task: on the one hand, assigning a limited number of colors to taxa of interest hides the structure imbedded in the subtrees of the taxonomy; on the other hand, differentiating a high number of taxa by giving them specific colors, without considering the underlying taxonomy, may lead to unreadable results since relationships between displayed taxa would not be supported by the color code. In the present paper, an automatic color coding scheme is proposed to visualise the levels of taxonomic relationships displayed as overlay on any kind of data plot. To achieve this goal, a dimensionality reduction method allows displaying taxonomic "distances" onto a Euclidean two-dimensional space. The resulting map is projected onto a 2D color space (the Hue, Saturation, Brightness colorimetric space with brightness set to 1). Proximity in the taxonomic classification corresponds to proximity on the map and is therefore materialised by color proximity. As a result, each species is related to a color code showing its position in the taxonomic tree. The so called ColorPhylo displays taxonomic relationships intuitively and can be combined with any biological result. A Matlab version of ColorPhylo is available at http://sy.lespi.free.fr/ColorPhylo-homepage.html. Meanwhile, an ad-hoc distance in case of taxonomy with unknown edge lengths is proposed.

  12. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  13. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  14. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Boi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1. Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2, and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  15. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  16. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  17. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  18. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  19. The National Map - Orthoimagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, James; Brown, Kim; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Orthorectified digital aerial photographs and satellite images of 1-meter (m) pixel resolution or finer make up the orthoimagery component of The National Map. The process of orthorectification removes feature displacements and scale variations caused by terrain relief and sensor geometry. The result is a combination of the image characteristics of an aerial photograph or satellite image and the geometric qualities of a map. These attributes allow users to: *Measure distance *Calculate areas *Determine shapes of features *Calculate directions *Determine accurate coordinates *Determine land cover and use *Perform change detection *Update maps The standard digital orthoimage is a 1-m or finer resolution, natural color or color infra-red product. Most are now produced as GeoTIFFs and accompanied by a Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)-compliant metadata file. The primary source for 1-m data is the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) leaf-on imagery. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) utilizes NAIP imagery as the image layer on its 'Digital- Map' - a new generation of USGS topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/digital_map). However, many Federal, State, and local governments and organizations require finer resolutions to meet a myriad of needs. Most of these images are leaf-off, natural-color products at resolutions of 1-foot (ft) or finer.

  20. SUPERVISED AUTOMATIC HISTOGRAM CLUSTERING AND WATERSHED SEGMENTATION. APPLICATION TO MICROSCOPIC MEDICAL COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lezoray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach to the segmentation of microscopic color images is addressed, and applied to medical images. The approach combines a clustering method and a region growing method. Each color plane is segmented independently relying on a watershed based clustering of the plane histogram. The marginal segmentation maps intersect in a label concordance map. The latter map is simplified based on the assumption that the color planes are correlated. This produces a simplified label concordance map containing labeled and unlabeled pixels. The formers are used as an image of seeds for a color watershed. This fast and robust segmentation scheme is applied to several types of medical images.

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  7. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color? Normal Human Retina What color is a strawberry? Most of us would say red, but do ... light and shorter wavelength corresponds to blue light. Strawberries and other objects reflect some wavelengths of light ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  9. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003249.htm Fingers that change color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fingers or toes may change color when they are exposed to cold temperatures or ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  11. Inkjet color-printer control interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, R.; Kriegler, F. J.; Marshall, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Special purpose interface permits computer-driven control of inkjet printers. Inkjet printers are answer to problem of high-speed peripheral output devices for computer systems. Control interface was developed to provide high-resolution color-classification maps quickly and economically from multispectral data.

  12. True color only exists in the eye of the observer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Frans W.; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen

    2003-01-01

    The colors we perceive are the outcome of an attempt to meaningfully order the spectral information from the environment. These colors are not the result of a straightforward mapping of a physical property to a sensation, but arise from an interaction between our environment and our visual system.

  13. Color and experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests arare discussed. It is assumed that colored states have not been produced at present energies and only experimental tests which apply below the color threshold, when color is a ''hidden symmetry,'' are discussed. Some of these tests offer the possibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges. (auth)

  14. Color ordering in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.

  15. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  16. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  17. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  18. Computational Cognitive Color Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehension of aesthetical color characteristics based on a computational model of visual perception and color cognition are presented. The computational comprehension is manifested by the machine’s capability of instantly assigning appropriate colors to the objects perceived. They form a scene

  19. ColorTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzheu, Stefanie; Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    2016-01-01

    With the work-in-progress research project ColorTracker we explore color as a formal design tool. This project-based paper describes a novel software application that processes color composition of a place and transcribes the data into three-dimensional geometries for architectural design. The

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  1. A framework for interactive image color editing

    KAUST Repository

    Musialski, Przemyslaw

    2012-11-08

    We propose a new method for interactive image color replacement that creates smooth and naturally looking results with minimal user interaction. Our system expects as input a source image and rawly scribbled target color values and generates high quality results in interactive rates. To achieve this goal we introduce an algorithm that preserves pairwise distances of the signatures in the original image and simultaneously maps the color to the user defined target values. We propose efficient sub-sampling in order to reduce the computational load and adapt semi-supervised locally linear embedding to optimize the constraints in one objective function. We show the application of the algorithm on typical photographs and compare the results to other color replacement methods. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    OpenAIRE

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the ge...

  3. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  4. Color-Kinematics Duality for QCD Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We show that color-kinematics duality is present in tree-level amplitudes of quantum chromodynamics with massive flavored quarks. Starting with the color structure of QCD, we work out a new color decomposition for n-point tree amplitudes in a reduced basis of primitive amplitudes. These primitives, with k quark-antiquark pairs and (n-2k) gluons, are taken in the (n-2)!/k! Melia basis, and are independent under the color-algebra Kleiss-Kuijf relations. This generalizes the color decomposition of Del Duca, Dixon, and Maltoni to an arbitrary number of quarks. The color coefficients in the new decomposition are given by compact expressions valid for arbitrary gauge group and representation. Considering the kinematic structure, we show through explicit calculations that color-kinematics duality holds for amplitudes with general configurations of gluons and massive quarks. The new (massive) amplitude relations that follow from the duality can be mapped to a well-defined subset of the familiar BCJ relations for gluo...

  5. Gray Bananas and a Red Letter A — From Synesthetic Sensation to Memory Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Franziska; Volberg, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    Grapheme–color synesthesia is a condition in which objectively achromatic graphemes induce concurrent color experiences. While it was long thought that the colors emerge during perception, there is growing support for the view that colors are integral to synesthetes’ cognitive representations of graphemes. In this work, we review evidence for two opposing theories positing either a perceptual or cognitive origin of concurrent colors: the cross-activation theory and the conceptual-mediation model. The review covers results on inducer and concurrent color processing as well as findings concerning the brain structure and grapheme–color mappings in synesthetes and trained mappings in nonsynesthetes. The results support different aspects of both theories. Finally, we discuss how research on memory colors could provide a new perspective in the debate about the level of processing at which the synesthetic colors occur. PMID:29899968

  6. Gray Bananas and a Red Letter A - From Synesthetic Sensation to Memory Colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Franziska; Greenlee, Mark W; Volberg, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which objectively achromatic graphemes induce concurrent color experiences. While it was long thought that the colors emerge during perception, there is growing support for the view that colors are integral to synesthetes' cognitive representations of graphemes. In this work, we review evidence for two opposing theories positing either a perceptual or cognitive origin of concurrent colors: the cross-activation theory and the conceptual-mediation model. The review covers results on inducer and concurrent color processing as well as findings concerning the brain structure and grapheme-color mappings in synesthetes and trained mappings in nonsynesthetes. The results support different aspects of both theories. Finally, we discuss how research on memory colors could provide a new perspective in the debate about the level of processing at which the synesthetic colors occur.

  7. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  8. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  10. MAPPING NON-INDIGENOUS EELGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETARIAN HABITATS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2001. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communitie...

  11. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  12. Bodily maps of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  13. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  14. Rotation Invariant Color Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Swapna Borde; Udhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The new technique for image retrieval using the color features extracted from images based on LogHistogram is proposed. The proposed technique is compared with Global color histogram and histogram ofcorners .It has been observed that number of histogram bins used for retrieval comparison of proposedtechnique (Log Histogram)is less as compared to Global Color Histogram and Histogram of corners. Theexperimental results on a database of 792 images with 11 classes indicate that proposed method (L...

  15. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  16. Realtime Color Stereovision Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formwalt, Bryon

    2000-01-01

    .... This research takes a step forward in real time machine vision processing. It investigates techniques for implementing a real time stereovision processing system using two miniature color cameras...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Role of Semantic Mapping Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    mapping as vocabulary teaching/learning technique, but the control group did not receive this treatment ... to investigate the effect of semantic mapping vocabulary teaching technique in cultivating their word ..... Color Press. Margosein, C. M. et ...

  18. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  19. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  20. Millennial Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mary E., Ed.

    2018-01-01

    "Millennial Teachers of Color" explores the opportunities and challenges for creating and sustaining a healthy teaching force in the United States. Millennials are the largest generational cohort in American history, with approximately ninety million members and, of these, roughly 43 percent are people of color. This book, edited by…

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  2. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  3. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  4. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  5. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  6. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  8. Perceptually optimal color reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived

  9. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.; Hu, N.; Lucassen, M.P.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on

  10. ColorMoves: Optimizing Color's Potential for Exploration and Communication of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, F.

    2017-12-01

    Color is the most powerful perceptual channel available for exposing and communicating data. Most visualizations are rendered in one of a handful of common colormaps - the rainbow, cool-warm, heat map and viridis. These maps meet the basic criteria for encoding data - perceptual uniformity and reasonable discriminatory power. However, as the size and complexity of data grows, our need to optimize the potential of color grows. The ability to expose greater detail and differentiate between multiple variables becomes ever more important. To meet this need we have created ColorMoves, an interactive colormap construction tool that enables scientists to quickly and easily align a concentration contrast with the data ranges of interest. Perceptual research tells us that luminance is the strongest contrast and thus provides the highest degree of perceptual discrimination. However, the most commonly used colormaps contain a limited range of luminance contrast. ColorMoves enables interactive constructing colormaps enabling one to distribute the luminance where is it most needed. The interactive interface enables optimal placement of the color scales. The ability to watch the changes on ones data, in real time makes precision adjustment quick and easy. By enabling more precise placement and multiple ranges of luminance one can construct colomaps containing greater discriminatory power. By selecting from the wide range of color scale hues scientists can create colormaps intuitive to their subject. ColorMoves is comprised of four main components: a set of 40 color scales; a histogram of the data distribution; a viewing area showing the colormap on your data; and the controls section. The 40 color scales span the spectrum of hues, saturation levels and value distributions. The histogram of the data distribution enables placement of the color scales in precise locations. The viewing area show is the impact of changes on the data in real time. The controls section enables export

  11. Influence of Surrounding Colors in the Illuminant-Color Mode on Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuho Fukuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On color constancy, we showed that brighter surrounding colors had greater influence than dim colors (Uchikawa, Kitazawa, MacLeod, Fukuda, 2010 APCV. Increasing luminance of a stimulus causes the change in appearance from the surface-color to the illuminant-color mode. However it is unknown whether the visual system considers such color appearance mode of surrounding colors to achieve color constancy. We investigated the influence of surrounding colors that appeared illuminant on color constancy. The stimulus was composed of a central test stimulus and surrounding six colors: bright and dim red, green and blue. The observers adjusted the chromaticity of the test stimulus to be appeared as an achromatic surface. The luminance balance of three bright surrounding colors was equalized with that of the optimal colors in three illuminant conditions, then, the luminance of one of the three bright colors was varied in the range beyond the critical luminance of color appearance mode transition. The results showed that increasing luminance of a bright surrounding color shifted the observers' achromatic setting toward its chromaticity, but this effect diminished for the surrounding color in the illuminant-color mode. These results suggest that the visual system considers color appearance mode of surrounding colors to accomplish color constancy.

  12. Color quarks and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical framework based on octonions is developed for the description of the color quark scheme in which quarks are unobservable, the color SU(3) is exact, and only color singlets correspond to observable hadrons. The fictitious Hilbert space in which quarks operate is taken to be a space of vectors with octonion components. This space admits as a gauge group an exact SU(3) identified with the color SU/sub C/(3). Because of the nonassociativity of the underlying algebra, nonsinglet representations of SU/sub C/(3) are unobservable, while the subspace of color singlets satisfies associativity along with conditions for observability. Octonion quark fields satisfy the commutation relations of parafermions of order 3, leading to the correct SU(6) multiplets for hadrons. (U.S.)

  13. Color evaluation of computer-generated color rainbow holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    A color evaluation approach for computer-generated color rainbow holography (CGCRH) is presented. Firstly, the relationship between color quantities of a computer display and a color computer-generated holography (CCGH) colorimetric system is discussed based on color matching theory. An isochromatic transfer relationship of color quantity and amplitude of object light field is proposed. Secondly, the color reproduction mechanism and factors leading to the color difference between the color object and the holographic image that is reconstructed by CGCRH are analyzed in detail. A quantitative color calculation method for the holographic image reconstructed by CGCRH is given. Finally, general color samples are selected as numerical calculation test targets and the color differences between holographic images and test targets are calculated based on our proposed method. (paper)

  14. Improved Global Ocean Color Using Polymer Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Francois; Ramon, Didier; Deschamps, ierre-Yves; Stum, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    A global ocean color product has been developed based on the use of the POLYMER algorithm to correct atmospheric scattering and sun glint and to process the data to a Level 2 ocean color product. Thanks to the use of this algorithm, the coverage and accuracy of the MERIS ocean color product have been significantly improved when compared to the standard product, therefore increasing its usefulness for global ocean monitor- ing applications like GLOBCOLOUR. We will present the latest developments of the algorithm, its first application to MODIS data and its validation against in-situ data from the MERMAID database. Examples will be shown of global NRT chlorophyll maps produced by CLS with POLYMER for operational applications like fishing or oil and gas industry, as well as its use by Scripps for a NASA study of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas.

  15. Investigating affective color association of media content in language and perception based on online RGB experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2005-03-01

    As an investigation of color categorization in language and perception, this research intends to study the affective associations between certain colors and different media content (i.e., movie genres). Compared to non-entertainment graphics (medical imaging and engineering graphics), entertainment graphics (video games and movies) are designed to deliver emotionally stimulating content to audiences. Based on an online color survey of 19 subjects, this study investigated whether or not subjects had different color preferences on diverse movie genres. Instead of providing predefined limited number of color chips (or pictures) as stimuli, this study was conducted by asking the subjects to visualize their own images of movie genres and to select their preferred colors through an online RGB color palette. By providing a combined application interface of three color slides (red, green, blue) and 216 digital color cells, the subjects were interactively able to select their preferred colors of different movie genres. To compare the distribution of movie genres, the user selected colors were mapped on CIE chromaticity diagram. This study also investigated preferred color naming of different movie genres as well as three primary color names of the subjects" most favorite genre. The results showed that the subjects had different color associations with specific movie genres as well as certain genres showed higher individual differences. Regardless of genre differences, the subjects selected blue, red or green as their three primary color names that represent their favorite movie genres. Also, the results supports Berlin & Kay"s eleven color terms.

  16. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  17. Realizable Triples in Dominator Colorings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, Douglas M

    2007-01-01

    Given a graph G and its vertex set V(G), the chromatic number, Chi(G), represents the minimum number of colors required to color the vertices of G so that no two adjacent vertices have the same color...

  18. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  19. Stork Color Proofing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, C. Frederick

    1989-04-01

    For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

  20. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  1. The color of money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured......, by including conditions with color-contingent negative values. This gave an opportunity to compare high-gain with high-loss conditions. We found clear effects of value on selectivity when comparing high- and low-value conditions. When comparing equally valuable high-loss and high-gain conditions there were...

  2. The colors of the alphabet: naturally-biased associations between shape and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2011-04-01

    Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate children, and adults. We found that pre-literate children associate O with white and X with black and discovered that they also associate I and ameboid nonsense shapes with white; Z and jagged nonsense shapes with black; and C with yellow; but do not make a number of other associations (B blue; Y yellow; A red; G green) seen in literate children and adults. The toddlers' mappings were based on the shape and not the sound of the letter. The results suggest that sensory cortical organization initially binds specific colors to some specific shapes and that learning to read can induce additional associations, likely through the influence of higher order networks as letters take on meaning.

  3. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy ... to its original shape after wearing orthokeratology lenses? Sep 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... after your vision… The Mystery of the Ghostly White Ring MAR 30, 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, ... APR 24, 2018 By Kate Rauch In a first, scientists in China have created artificial photoreceptors to ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ... not just at Halloween. But few know the risks associated with these lenses . "Most people believe that ...

  11. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by ... 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the journals may be interrupted during this time. We are working to resolve the issue quickly ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  5. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  6. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  7. Physics of structural colors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S; Yoshioka, S; Miyazaki, J

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field

  8. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  9. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  10. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  11. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The

  12. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  13. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  14. The Trojan Color Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2018-02-01

    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  15. A relativistic colored spinning particle in an external color field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1984-01-01

    I derive fully covariant equations of motion for a classical colored spinning particle in an external SU(3) color field. Although the total color charge and total spin of the particle are found to be separately constants of motion (here I disagree with a recent paper by Arodz), the dynamics of the orientation of the color and spin vectors are coupled to each other through interaction with the color field, even if the latter is homogeneous. (orig.)

  16. Color Vision in Aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Hagen, Lene A; Landsend, Erlend C S; Gilson, Stuart J; Utheim, Øygunn A; Utheim, Tor P; Neitz, Maureen; Baraas, Rigmor C

    2018-04-01

    To assess color vision and its association with retinal structure in persons with congenital aniridia. We included 36 persons with congenital aniridia (10-66 years), and 52 healthy, normal trichromatic controls (10-74 years) in the study. Color vision was assessed with Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudo-isochromatic plates (4th ed., 2002); Cambridge Color Test and a low-vision version of the Color Assessment and Diagnosis test (CAD-LV). Cone-opsin genes were analyzed to confirm normal versus congenital color vision deficiencies. Visual acuity and ocular media opacities were assessed. The central 30° of both eyes were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 to grade the severity of foveal hypoplasia (FH, normal to complete: 0-4). Five participants with aniridia had cone opsin genes conferring deutan color vision deficiency and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 31 with aniridia and normal opsin genes, 11 made two or more red-green (RG) errors on HRR, four of whom also made yellow-blue (YB) errors; one made YB errors only. A total of 19 participants had higher CAD-LV RG thresholds, of which eight also had higher CAD-LV YB thresholds, than normal controls. In aniridia, the thresholds were higher along the RG than the YB axis, and those with a complete FH had significantly higher RG thresholds than those with mild FH (P = 0.038). Additional increase in YB threshold was associated with secondary ocular pathology. Arrested foveal formation and associated alterations in retinal processing are likely to be the primary reason for impaired red-green color vision in aniridia.

  17. Affective color palettes in visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Abhisekh

    2017-01-01

    The communication of affect, a feeling or emotion, has a central role in creating engaging visual experiences. Prior work on the psychology of color has focused on its effect on emotions, color preferences and reactions to color. Studies have attempted to solve problems related to improving aesthetics and emotions of images by improving color themes and templates. However, we have little understanding of how designers manipulate color properties for effective visual communication in informati...

  18. Making maps a visual guide to map design for GIS

    CERN Document Server

    Krygier, John

    2016-01-01

    Lauded for its accessibility and beautiful design, this text has given thousands of students and professionals the tools to create effective, compelling maps. Using a wealth of illustrations--with 74 in full color--to elucidate each concisely presented point, the revised and updated third edition continues to emphasize how design choices relate to the reasons for making a map and its intended purpose. All components of map making are covered: titles, labels, legends, visual hierarchy, font selection, how to turn phenomena into visual data, data organization, symbolization, and more. Innovative

  19. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  20. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  1. A Watercolor NPR System with Web-Mining 3D Color Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lieu-Hen; Ho, Yi-Hsin; Liu, Ting-Yu; Hsieh, Wen-Chieh

    In this paper, we propose a watercolor image synthesizing system which integrates the user-personalized color charts based on web-mining technologies with the 3D Watercolor NPR system. Through our system, users can personalize their own color palette by using keywords such as the name of the artist or by choosing color sets on an emotional map. The related images are searched from web by adopting web mining technology, and the appropriate colors are extracted to construct the color chart by analyzing these images. Then, the color chart is rendered in a 3D visualization system which allows users to view and manage the distribution of colors interactively. Then, users can use these colors on our watercolor NPR system with a sketch-based GUI which allows users to manipulate watercolor attributes of object intuitively and directly.

  2. A Genome-wide Combinatorial Strategy Dissects Complex Genetic Architecture of Seed Coat Color in Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ranjan, Rajeev; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C L Laxmipathi; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-01-01

    The study identified 9045 high-quality SNPs employing both genome-wide GBS- and candidate gene-based SNP genotyping assays in 172, including 93 cultivated (desi and kabuli) and 79 wild chickpea accessions. The GWAS in a structured population of 93 sequenced accessions detected 15 major genomic loci exhibiting significant association with seed coat color. Five seed color-associated major genomic loci underlying robust QTLs mapped on a high-density intra-specific genetic linkage map were validated by QTL mapping. The integration of association and QTL mapping with gene haplotype-specific LD mapping and transcript profiling identified novel allelic variants (non-synonymous SNPs) and haplotypes in a MATE secondary transporter gene regulating light/yellow brown and beige seed coat color differentiation in chickpea. The down-regulation and decreased transcript expression of beige seed coat color-associated MATE gene haplotype was correlated with reduced proanthocyanidins accumulation in the mature seed coats of beige than light/yellow brown seed colored desi and kabuli accessions for their coloration/pigmentation. This seed color-regulating MATE gene revealed strong purifying selection pressure primarily in LB/YB seed colored desi and wild Cicer reticulatum accessions compared with the BE seed colored kabuli accessions. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to decipher the complex transcriptional regulatory gene function of seed coat coloration and for understanding the selective sweep-based seed color trait evolutionary pattern in cultivated and wild accessions during chickpea domestication. The genome-wide integrated approach employed will expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement for developing cultivars with desirable seed coat color types in chickpea.

  3. Color guided amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.

  4. Crystalline color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena

  5. Future of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  6. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  7. QCD: color or glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reya, E.

    1982-01-01

    The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q 2 )-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)

  8. Relative speed of processing determines color-word contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2017-10-01

    In three experiments, we tested a relative-speed-of-processing account of color-word contingency learning, a phenomenon in which color identification responses to high-contingency stimuli (words that appear most often in particular colors) are faster than those to low-contingency stimuli. Experiment 1 showed equally large contingency-learning effects whether responding was to the colors or to the words, likely due to slow responding to both dimensions because of the unfamiliar mapping required by the key press responses. For Experiment 2, participants switched to vocal responding, in which reading words is considerably faster than naming colors, and we obtained a contingency-learning effect only for color naming, the slower dimension. In Experiment 3, previewing the color information resulted in a reduced contingency-learning effect for color naming, but it enhanced the contingency-learning effect for word reading. These results are all consistent with contingency learning influencing performance only when the nominally irrelevant feature is faster to process than the relevant feature, and therefore are entirely in accord with a relative-speed-of-processing explanation.

  9. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  10. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  11. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  12. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  13. Why Leaves Change Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    For years, scientists have worked to understand the changes that happen to trees and shrubs in the autumn. Although we don't know all the details, we do know enough to explain the basics and help you to enjoy more fully Nature's multicolored autumn farewell. Three factors influence autumn leaf color-leaf pigments, length of night, and weather, but not quite...

  14. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  15. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  17. Sorghum bi-color

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some ... a closed-end die, the temperature and the use of binder.

  18. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an ... the cause: a rare inflammatory condition called Cogan’s syndrome. Google AI May Reveal Health Risks Through Your ...

  20. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  1. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  2. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  3. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  4. Differentiation of mass-forming focal pancreatitis from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: value of characterizing dynamic enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced MR images by adding signal intensity color mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mimi [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hanyang Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Young Kon; Cha, Dong Ik [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyunga [Samsung Medical Center, Biostatics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Research Institute for Future Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the value of dynamic enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced MR images by adding signal intensity colour mapping (SICM) to differentiate mass-forming focal pancreatitis (MFFP) from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Forty-one clinicopathologically proven MFFPs and 144 surgically confirmed PDACs were enrolled. Laboratory and MR imaging parameters were used to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. In particular, enhancement patterns on MR images adding SICM were evaluated. By using classification tree analysis (CTA), we determined the predictors for the differentiation of MFFP from PDAC. In the CTA, with all parameters except enhancement pattern on SICM images, ductal obstruction grade and T1 hypointensity grade of the pancreatic lesion were the first and second splitting predictor for differentiation of MFFP from PDAC, in order. By adding an enhancement pattern on the SICM images to CTA, the enhancement pattern was the only splitting predictor to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. The CTA model including enhancement pattern on SICM images has sensitivity of 78.0 %, specificity of 99.3 %, and accuracy of 94.6 % for differentiating MFFP from PDAC. The characterization of enhancement pattern for pancreatic lesions on contrast-enhanced MR images adding SICM would be helpful to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. (orig.)

  5. Color management with a hammer: the B-spline fitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ian E.; Liu, Bonny H. P.

    2003-01-01

    To paraphrase Abraham Maslow: If the only tool you have is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail. We have a B-spline fitter customized for 3D color data, and many problems in color management can be solved with this tool. Whereas color devices were once modeled with extensive measurement, look-up tables and trilinear interpolation, recent improvements in hardware have made B-spline models an affordable alternative. Such device characterizations require fewer color measurements than piecewise linear models, and have uses beyond simple interpolation. A B-spline fitter, for example, can act as a filter to remove noise from measurements, leaving a model with guaranteed smoothness. Inversion of the device model can then be carried out consistently and efficiently, as the spline model is well behaved and its derivatives easily computed. Spline-based algorithms also exist for gamut mapping, the composition of maps, and the extrapolation of a gamut. Trilinear interpolation---a degree-one spline---can still be used after nonlinear spline smoothing for high-speed evaluation with robust convergence. Using data from several color devices, this paper examines the use of B-splines as a generic tool for modeling devices and mapping one gamut to another, and concludes with applications to high-dimensional and spectral data.

  6. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  7. Colorization-Based RGB-White Color Interpolation using Color Filter Array with Randomly Sampled Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Paul; Lee, Sukho; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-06-28

    Recently, several RGB-White (RGBW) color filter arrays (CFAs) have been proposed, which have extra white (W) pixels in the filter array that are highly sensitive. Due to the high sensitivity, the W pixels have better SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) characteristics than other color pixels in the filter array, especially, in low light conditions. However, most of the RGBW CFAs are designed so that the acquired RGBW pattern image can be converted into the conventional Bayer pattern image, which is then again converted into the final color image by using conventional demosaicing methods, i.e., color interpolation techniques. In this paper, we propose a new RGBW color filter array based on a totally different color interpolation technique, the colorization algorithm. The colorization algorithm was initially proposed for colorizing a gray image into a color image using a small number of color seeds. Here, we adopt this algorithm as a color interpolation technique, so that the RGBW color filter array can be designed with a very large number of W pixels to make the most of the highly sensitive characteristics of the W channel. The resulting RGBW color filter array has a pattern with a large proportion of W pixels, while the small-numbered RGB pixels are randomly distributed over the array. The colorization algorithm makes it possible to reconstruct the colors from such a small number of RGB values. Due to the large proportion of W pixels, the reconstructed color image has a high SNR value, especially higher than those of conventional CFAs in low light condition. Experimental results show that many important information which are not perceived in color images reconstructed with conventional CFAs are perceived in the images reconstructed with the proposed method.

  8. Quantifying the effect of colorization enhancement on mammogram images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnicki, Paul J.; Uyeda, Elizabeth; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2002-04-01

    Current methods of radiological displays provide only grayscale images of mammograms. The limitation of the image space to grayscale provides only luminance differences and textures as cues for object recognition within the image. However, color can be an important and significant cue in the detection of shapes and objects. Increasing detection ability allows the radiologist to interpret the images in more detail, improving object recognition and diagnostic accuracy. Color detection experiments using our stimulus system, have demonstrated that an observer can only detect an average of 140 levels of grayscale. An optimally colorized image can allow a user to distinguish 250 - 1000 different levels, hence increasing potential image feature detection by 2-7 times. By implementing a colorization map, which follows the luminance map of the original grayscale images, the luminance profile is preserved and color is isolated as the enhancement mechanism. The effect of this enhancement mechanism on the shape, frequency composition and statistical characteristics of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) are analyzed and presented. Thus, the effectiveness of the image colorization is measured quantitatively using the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP).

  9. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  10. COLORS AND COLOR GRADIENTS IN BULGES OF GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BALCELLS, M; PELETIER, RF

    We have obtained surface photometry in U, B, R, and I for a complete optically selected sample of 45 early-type spiral galaxies, to investigate the colors and color gradients of spiral bulges. Color profiles in U-R, B-R, U-B, and R-I have been determined in wedges opening on the semiminor axes.

  11. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  12. Public response to bridge colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    To determine people's reactions to bridges painted in colors as white, yellow, green, blue, red, brown, black, and aluminum, two test bridges were selected in Charlottesville, Virginia. One was painted a different color each month and the other was k...

  13. COLOR PERCEPTION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSAVAŞ, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is mentioned about color that is a keyfactor of interior architecture profession. Firstly, space perception, colorand space interaction, effects of space, color and user relationship is explainedexcept color theories and definitions. Within this scope these are scrutinizingboth perception of color in the space and material and lighting issues thathave a big role in perception. Recent searches, practice methods and evaluationwith examples play a part in this article. It is ai...

  14. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Typography, Color, and Information Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on how typography and color complement and differ from each other in signaling an underlying content structure; the synergism between typography, color, and page layout (use of white space) that aids audience understanding and use; and the characteristics of typography and of color that are most important in these contexts. (SR)

  16. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  17. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  18. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in the light output of white LEDs is a common problem in LED lighting. We aim to design LED spotlights with a uniform color output while keeping the cost of the system low and the energy efficiency high. Therefore we design a special optic to eliminate the color variation of the LED.

  19. Color gradients in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of the color gradients within ellipticals and the color differences between them are studied. It is found that the local color appears to be strongly related to the escape velocity. This suggests that the local escape velocity is the primary factor that determines the metallicity of the stellar population. Models with and without dark halos give comparable results. 27 refs

  20. NextStation Color

    CERN Multimedia

    Steve Jobs created a NeXT generation operating system. The NeXTstation provides functionality that other computers are just providing today.The NS Color I/O cable attaches to the back of the computer on one end and on the other end the cable is split to connect to the display and the Sound Box. The Sound Box also has a keyboard signal port. Like a MAC or SUN of the same vintage, the mouse connects to the keyboard. These boxes run NEXTSTEP, which a full object-oriented OS. It has UNIX as a base and provides a gorgeous graphical interface. NEXTSTEP was also available for other platforms. They tend to run a little slow. But they have great digital sound and full color displays.

  1. Color digital halftoning taking colorimetric color reproduction into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneishi, Hideaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Shimoyama, Nobukatsu; Miyake, Yoichi

    1996-01-01

    Taking colorimetric color reproduction into account, the conventional error diffusion method is modified for color digital half-toning. Assuming that the input to a bilevel color printer is given in CIE-XYZ tristimulus values or CIE-LAB values instead of the more conventional RGB or YMC values, two modified versions based on vector operation in (1) the XYZ color space and (2) the LAB color space were tested. Experimental results show that the modified methods, especially the method using the LAB color space, resulted in better color reproduction performance than the conventional methods. Spatial artifacts that appear in the modified methods are presented and analyzed. It is also shown that the modified method (2) with a thresholding technique achieves a good spatial image quality.

  2. Railroad signal color and orientation : effects of color blindness and criteria for color vision field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report concerns two issues: 1) whether color vision is necessary for locomotive crews who work on railroads where the signal system is either completely redundant with regard to signal color and signal orientation or the signal system only uses ...

  3. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  4. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)

  5. Clustering document fragments using background color and texture information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sukalpa; Franke, Katrin; Pal, Umapada

    2012-01-01

    Forensic analysis of questioned documents sometimes can be extensively data intensive. A forensic expert might need to analyze a heap of document fragments and in such cases to ensure reliability he/she should focus only on relevant evidences hidden in those document fragments. Relevant document retrieval needs finding of similar document fragments. One notion of obtaining such similar documents could be by using document fragment's physical characteristics like color, texture, etc. In this article we propose an automatic scheme to retrieve similar document fragments based on visual appearance of document paper and texture. Multispectral color characteristics using biologically inspired color differentiation techniques are implemented here. This is done by projecting document color characteristics to Lab color space. Gabor filter-based texture analysis is used to identify document texture. It is desired that document fragments from same source will have similar color and texture. For clustering similar document fragments of our test dataset we use a Self Organizing Map (SOM) of dimension 5×5, where the document color and texture information are used as features. We obtained an encouraging accuracy of 97.17% from 1063 test images.

  6. Color imaging fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Erik; Oguz Akyuz, Ahmet; Johnson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an understanding of what color is, where color comes from, and how color can be used correctly in many different applications. The authors first treat the physics of light and its interaction with matter at the atomic level, so that the origins of color can be appreciated. The intimate relationship between energy levels, orbital states, and electromagnetic waves helps to explain why diamonds shimmer, rubies are red, and the feathers of the Blue Jay are blue. Then, color theory is explained from its origin to the current state of the art, including image captu

  7. Precision of synesthetic color matching resembles that for recollected colors rather than physical colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H; Wegener, Signy V; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-10-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the precision with which synesthetes are able to match their color experiences triggered by visible graphemes, with the precision of their matches for recalled colors based on the same graphemes spoken aloud. In six synesthetes, color matching for printed graphemes was equally variable relative to recalled experiences. In a control experiment, synesthetes and age-matched controls either matched the color of a circular patch while it was visible on a screen, or they judged its color from memory after it had disappeared. Both synesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and the variance of synesthetes' recalled color judgments matched that associated with their synesthetic judgments for visible graphemes in the first experiment. Results suggest that synesthetic experiences of color triggered by achromatic graphemes are analogous to recollections of color.

  8. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  9. Color metasurfaces in industrial perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Kristensen, Anders

    This doctoral thesis describes the utilization of color metasurfaces in an industrial perspective, where nano-scale textures and contingent post processing replace inks, dyes and pigments in plastic production. The concept of colors by structure arguably reduces the number of raw materials......, exemplified in silicon. However, only corresponding faint colors appear in polymeric materials. The concept of all-polymer pigment-free coloration seems somewhat restricted in relation to widespread industrial employment. Finally, a novel plasmon color technology for structural coloration in plastics......, and it is shown that the dependence on polarization can be controlled. In collaboration with industry, polymer-based colored metasurfaces of square-centimeter size are demonstrated by embossing, injection molding, roll-to-roll printing, and film insert molding with full compatibility. Furthermore, post production...

  10. The biological basis of a universal constraint on color naming: cone contrasts and the two-way categorization of colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Youping; Kavanau, Christopher; Bertin, Lauren; Kaplan, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have provided evidence for the existence of universal constraints on color categorization or naming in various languages, but the biological basis of these constraints is unknown. A recent study of the pattern of color categorization across numerous languages has suggested that these patterns tend to avoid straddling a region in color space at or near the border between the English composite categories of "warm" and "cool". This fault line in color space represents a fundamental constraint on color naming. Here we report that the two-way categorization along the fault line is correlated with the sign of the L- versus M-cone contrast of a stimulus color. Moreover, we found that the sign of the L-M cone contrast also accounted for the two-way clustering of the spatially distributed neural responses in small regions of the macaque primary visual cortex, visualized with optical imaging. These small regions correspond to the hue maps, where our previous study found a spatially organized representation of stimulus hue. Altogether, these results establish a direct link between a universal constraint on color naming and the cone-specific information that is represented in the primate early visual system.

  11. Multi-color and artistic dithering

    OpenAIRE

    Ostromoukhov, Victor; Hersch, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-color dithering algorithm is proposed, which converts a barycentric combination of color intensities into a multi-color non-overlapping surface coverage. Multi-color dithering is a generalization of standard bi-level dithering. Combined with tetrahedral color separation, multi-color dithering makes it possible to print images made of a set of non-standard inks. In contrast to most previous color halftoning methods, multi-color dithering ensures by construction that the different selec...

  12. A field guide to digital color

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition color blindness color vision defects defective color vision vision defect, color ... Perception KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: color blindness MalaCards: color vision deficiency Orphanet: Blue cone monochromatism Orphanet: NON ...

  14. Domain learning naming game for color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Doujie; Fan, Zhongyan; Tang, Wallace K S

    2017-01-01

    Naming game simulates the evolution of vocabulary in a population of agents. Through pairwise interactions in the games, agents acquire a set of vocabulary in their memory for object naming. The existing model confines to a one-to-one mapping between a name and an object. Focus is usually put onto name consensus in the population rather than knowledge learning in agents, and hence simple learning model is usually adopted. However, the cognition system of human being is much more complex and knowledge is usually presented in a complicated form. Therefore, in this work, we extend the agent learning model and design a new game to incorporate domain learning, which is essential for more complicated form of knowledge. In particular, we demonstrate the evolution of color categorization and naming in a population of agents. We incorporate the human perceptive model into the agents and introduce two new concepts, namely subjective perception and subliminal stimulation, in domain learning. Simulation results show that, even without any supervision or pre-requisition, a consensus of a color naming system can be reached in a population solely via the interactions. Our work confirms the importance of society interactions in color categorization, which is a long debate topic in human cognition. Moreover, our work also demonstrates the possibility of cognitive system development in autonomous intelligent agents.

  15. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  16. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  17. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground-Background Color Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined.

  18. Conjunction of color and form without attention: evidence from an orientation-contingent color aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M R; Hoffman, J E

    1986-05-01

    According to feature-integration theory (Treisman & Gelade, 1980), separable features such as color and shape exist in separate maps in preattentive vision and can be integrated only through the use of spatial attention. Many perceptual aftereffects, however, which are also assumed to reflect the features available in preattentive vision, are sensitive to conjunctions of features. One possible resolution of these views holds that adaptation to conjunctions depends on spatial attention. We tested this proposition by presenting observers with gratings varying in color and orientation. The resulting McCollough aftereffects were independent of whether the adaptation stimuli were presented inside or outside of the focus of spatial attention. Therefore, color and shape appear to be conjoined preattentively, when perceptual aftereffects are used as the measure. These same stimuli, however, appeared to be separable in two additional experiments that required observers to search for gratings of a specified color and orientation. These results show that different experimental procedures may be tapping into different stages of preattentive vision.

  19. Color Appearance of the Neon Color Spreading Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Vusić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As a part of this paper, the influence of various parameters within the target process of graphic reproduction on the color appearance of the neon color spreading effect was investigated. The shift in a color appearance qualitatively is determined through the calculation of changes in perceptual attributes of color, i.e. differences in lightness, chroma and hue. The influence of different media (printed images, and LCD display in the “cross-media” system was examined, as well as the role of the inserted segment color choice and background of the primary stimulus as an element of design solutions. These parameters were evaluated in a variety of ambient conditions and under the observation of three CIE standard light sources and illuminants. It was found that it was mostly the changes of the chroma and lightness. The change in the color hue is the lowest.

  20. Correlation between grain orientation and the shade of color etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Peter J.; Kardos, I.

    2010-01-01

    Color etching is an extremely effective metallographic technique not only for making grains well visible, but also for making them distinguishable for automated image analyzers. During color etching, a thin film is formed on the surface of the specimen. The thickness of this layer is in the order of magnitude of the visible light and since both the metal-film boundary and the film surface reflect light, an interference occurs. A wavelength-component of the white line is eliminated and its complementary color will be seen on the surface. As the thickness changes, the colors also change grain by grain. The thickness of the film is dependent on several factors, mostly on the type of the phase. However, different color shades can be observed on the surfaces of single phase materials, which phenomenon is caused by the different crystallographic orientations of the grains. This paper shows a combined color etching electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) investigation of cast iron. An area of the surface of a gray cast iron specimen was etched. Colors were characterized by their luminescence and their red, green and blue intensity. An EBSD orientation map was taken from the same area and the orientations of the individual grains were determined. Results showed that a strong correlation was found between the luminescence and the R, G, B intensity of the color and the angle between the specimen normal and the direction, while such correlation was not observed between the color parameters and the and directions, respectively. This indicates that film thickness is sensitive to the direction of the crystal.

  1. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  2. Cliques, coloring, and satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of a DIMACS Challenge is to encourage and coordinate research in the experimental analysis of algorithms. The First DIMACS Challenge encouraged experimental work in the area of network flow and matchings. The Second DIMACS Challenge, on which this volume is based, took place in conjunction with the DIMACS Special Year on Combinatorial Optimization. Addressed here are three difficult combinatorial optimization problems: finding cliques in a graph, coloring the vertices of a graph, and solving instances of the satisfiability problem. These problems were chosen both for their practical interest and because of their theoretical intractability.

  3. Consumer preferences for beef color and packaging did not affect eating satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C E; Cornforth, D P; Whittier, D

    2001-04-01

    We investigated whether consumer preferences for beef colors (red, purple, and brown) or for beef packaging systems (modified atmosphere, MAP; vacuum skin pack, VSP; or overwrap with polyvinyl chloride, PVC) influenced taste scores of beef steaks and patties. To test beef color effects, boneless beef top loin steaks (choice) and ground beef patties (20% fat) were packaged in different atmospheres to promote development of red, purple, and brown color. To test effects of package type, steaks and patties were pre-treated with carbon monoxide in MAP to promote development of red color, and some meat was repackaged using VSP or PVC overwrap. The differently colored and packaged meats were separately displayed for members of four consumer panels who evaluated appearance and indicated their likelihood to purchase similar meat. Next, the panelists tasted meat samples from what they had been told were the packaging treatments just observed. However, the meat samples actually served were from a single untreated steak or patty. Thus, any difference in taste scores should reflect expectations established during the visual evaluation. The same ballot and sample coding were used for both the visual and taste evaluations. Color and packaging influenced (Ppurple >brown and PVC >VSP>MAP. Appearance scores and likelihood to purchase were correlated (r=0.9). However, color or packaging did not affect (P>0.5) taste scores. Thus, consumer preferences for beef color and packaging influenced likelihood to purchase, but did not bias eating satisfaction.

  4. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Zheng

    Full Text Available Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience.

  5. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-04-29

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  6. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  7. Human Preferences for Colorful Birds: Vivid Colors or Pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Lišková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern, and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  8. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five–color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated look-up tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sensor....... The color sensor monitors the chromaticity of the mixed light providing the correction factor for the current driver by using the generated look-up table. The long term stability and accuracy of the system will be experimentally investigated with target tolerance within a circle radius 0.0011 in the uniform...

  9. INFRARED COLOR-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present infrared color-color diagrams of AGB stars from the observations at near and mid infrared bands. We compile the observations for hundreds of OH/IR stars and carbon stars using the data from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX, the two micron sky survey (2MASS, and the IRAS point source catalog (PSC. We compare the observations with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of AGB stars. From the new observational data base and the theoretical evolution tracks, we discuss the meaning of the infrared color-color diagrams at different wavelengths.

  10. Potential mechanisms of carbon monoxide and high oxygen packaging in maintaining color stability of different bovine muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yimin; Yang, Xiaoyin; Liang, Rongrong; Mao, Yanwei; Hou, Xu; Lu, Xiao; Luo, Xin

    2014-06-01

    The objectives were to compare the effects of packaging methods on color stability, metmyoglobin-reducing-activity (MRA), total-reducing-activity and NADH concentration of different bovine muscles and to explore potential mechanisms in the enhanced color stability by carbon monoxide modified atmosphere packaging (CO-MAP, 0.4% CO/30% CO2/69.6% N2). Steaks from longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM) and longissimus thoracis (LT) packaged in CO-MAP, high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (HiOx-MAP, 80% O2/20% CO2) or vacuum packaging were stored for 0day, 4days, 9days, and 14days or stored for 9days then displayed in air for 0day, 1day, or 3days. The CO-MAP significantly increased red color stability of all muscles, and especially for PM. The PM and LT were more red than LL in CO-MAP, whereas PM had lowest redness in HiOx-MAP. The content of MetMb in CO-MAP was lower than in HiOx-MAP. Steaks in CO-MAP maintained a higher MRA compared with those in HiOx-MAP during storage. After opening packages, the red color of steaks in CO-MAP deteriorated more slowly compared with that of steaks in HiOx-MAP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  12. Crystallography of color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2002-01-01

    We develop the Ginzburg-Landau approach to comparing different possible crystal structures for the crystalline color superconducting phase of QCD, the QCD incarnation of the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase. In this phase, quarks of different flavor with differing Fermi momenta form Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum, yielding a condensate that varies in space like a sum of plane waves. We work at zero temperature, as is relevant for compact star physics. The Ginzburg-Landau approach predicts a strong first-order phase transition (as a function of the chemical potential difference between quarks) and for this reason is not under quantitative control. Nevertheless, by organizing the comparison between different possible arrangements of plane waves (i.e., different crystal structures) it provides considerable qualitative insight into what makes a crystal structure favorable. Together, the qualitative insights and the quantitative, but not controlled, calculations make a compelling case that the favored pairing pattern yields a condensate which is a sum of eight plane waves forming a face-centered cubic structure. They also predict that the phase is quite robust, with gaps comparable in magnitude to the BCS gap that would form if the Fermi momenta were degenerate. These predictions may be tested in ultracold gases made of fermionic atoms. In a QCD context, our results lay the foundation for a calculation of vortex pinning in a crystalline color superconductor, and thus for the analysis of pulsar glitches that may originate within the core of a compact star

  13. Contact Lenses for Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdel-Rahman; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Elsherif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Zubair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-06-01

    Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. One such method is the use of color filtering glasses which are based on Bragg filters. While these glasses are effective, they are high cost, bulky, and incompatible with other vision correction eyeglasses. In this work, a rhodamine derivative is incorporated in commercial contact lenses to filter out the specific wavelength bands (≈545-575 nm) to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and human corneal epithelial cells shows no toxicity and cell viability remains at 99% after 72 h. This study demonstrates the potential of the dyed contact lenses in wavelength filtering and color vision deficiency management. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effects of extended aging and modified atmospheric packaging on beef top loin steak color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, A R; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Ramanathan, R

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of extended aging and modified atmospheric packaging on beef LM color. Using a randomized complete block design, each beef longissimus lumborum muscle ( = 10; USDA Choice, 3 d postmortem) was equally divided into 3 sections and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 aging periods (21, 42, or 62 d at 2°C). After respective aging, each loin section was cut into four 2.5-cm-thick steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 packaging types (PVC, HiOx-MAP [80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide], or CO-MAP [0.4% carbon monoxide, 69.6% nitrogen, and 30% carbon dioxide]). The steaks were displayed under continuous fluorescent lighting for 6 d, and surface color was determined daily using a HunterLab Miniscan XE Plus spectrophotometer and a visual panel. The fourth steak was used to characterize oxygen consumption (OC), lipid oxidation, and metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) on 21, 42, and 62 d (before display). On d 6 display, MRA, OC, and lipid oxidation also were measured. An increase in aging time decreased ( packaging × display time interaction ( packaging types on d 6. At all aging periods, steaks packaged in CO-MAP had greater ( packaged in HiOx-MAP had the least MRA ( packaged in CO-MAP and displayed for 6 d. However, steaks packaged in HiOx-MAP and displayed 6 d had greater ( packaged in HiOx-MAP had a lower ( packaged in PVC and HiOx-MAP when aged for 21 d and displayed 6 d. The results indicate that extended aging is detrimental to color stability when packaged in PVC and HiOx-MAP. However, steaks in CO-MAP had stable red color during display. Decreased color stability in PVC and HiOx-MAP could be associated, in part, with decreased MRA and OC.

  15. A novel quantum steganography scheme for color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panchi; Liu, Xiande

    In quantum image steganography, embedding capacity and security are two important issues. This paper presents a novel quantum steganography scheme using color images as cover images. First, the secret information is divided into 3-bit segments, and then each 3-bit segment is embedded into the LSB of one color pixel in the cover image according to its own value and using Gray code mapping rules. Extraction is the inverse of embedding. We designed the quantum circuits that implement the embedding and extracting process. The simulation results on a classical computer show that the proposed scheme outperforms several other existing schemes in terms of embedding capacity and security.

  16. A Color Image Watermarking Scheme Resistant against Geometrical Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The geometrical attacks are still a problem for many digital watermarking algorithms at present. In this paper, we propose a watermarking algorithm for color images resistant to geometrical distortions (rotation and scaling. The singular value decomposition is used for watermark embedding and extraction. The log-polar map- ping (LPM and phase correlation method are used to register the position of geometrical distortion suffered by the watermarked image. Experiments with different kinds of color images and watermarks demonstrate that the watermarking algorithm is robust to common image processing attacks, especially geometrical attacks.

  17. Spectrophotometer-Based Color Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    equipment. There are several American Society for Testing and Materials ( ASTM ) chapters covering the use of spectrometers for color measurements (refs. 3...Perkin Elmer software and procedures described in ASTM chapter E308 (ref. 3). All spectral data was stored on the computer. A summary of the color...similarity, or lack thereof, between two colors (ref. 5). In this report, the Euclidean distance metric, E, is used and recommended in ASTM D2244

  18. Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xuanhua; Luo, Xuan; Liang, Junling; Zhao, Peng; Di, Sheng; He, Bingsheng; Jin, Hai

    2018-01-01

    GPUs have been increasingly used to accelerate graph processing for complicated computational problems regarding graph theory. Many parallel graph algorithms adopt the asynchronous computing model to accelerate the iterative convergence. Unfortunately, the consistent asynchronous computing requires locking or atomic operations, leading to significant penalties/overheads when implemented on GPUs. As such, coloring algorithm is adopted to separate the vertices with potential updating conflicts, guaranteeing the consistency/correctness of the parallel processing. Common coloring algorithms, however, may suffer from low parallelism because of a large number of colors generally required for processing a large-scale graph with billions of vertices. We propose a light-weight asynchronous processing framework called Frog with a preprocessing/hybrid coloring model. The fundamental idea is based on Pareto principle (or 80-20 rule) about coloring algorithms as we observed through masses of realworld graph coloring cases. We find that a majority of vertices (about 80%) are colored with only a few colors, such that they can be read and updated in a very high degree of parallelism without violating the sequential consistency. Accordingly, our solution separates the processing of the vertices based on the distribution of colors. In this work, we mainly answer three questions: (1) how to partition the vertices in a sparse graph with maximized parallelism, (2) how to process large-scale graphs that cannot fit into GPU memory, and (3) how to reduce the overhead of data transfers on PCIe while processing each partition. We conduct experiments on real-world data (Amazon, DBLP, YouTube, RoadNet-CA, WikiTalk and Twitter) to evaluate our approach and make comparisons with well-known non-preprocessed (such as Totem, Medusa, MapGraph and Gunrock) and preprocessed (Cusha) approaches, by testing four classical algorithms (BFS, PageRank, SSSP and CC). On all the tested applications and

  19. A Study of Color Transformation on Website Images for the Color Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Siew-Li Ching; Maziani Sabudin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study on color transformation method on website images for the color blind. The most common category of color blindness is red-green color blindness which is viewed as beige color. By transforming the colors of the images, the color blind can improve their color visibility. They can have a better view when browsing through the websites. To transform colors on the website images, we study on two algorithms which are the conversion techniques from RGB colo...

  20. COLOR CONCEPTS IN WARDROBE PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mrs Kirti Tewari

    2017-01-01

    Fashion trends point out colors to wear but individuality should never be overlooked An impression of fine colors in dress will be gained if they are becoming to the person who is to wear them, if they are right for the occasion and if they are selected and arranged so as to make a pleasing ensemble.The larger the area the duller a color should be specially for business wear, but foe an evening or sports wear, it should be modified. The colors should be bright then, provided the wearer is not...

  1. Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Ekaterina; Hansson, Christer; Janzen, Daniel H; Kjærandsen, Jostein

    2011-01-11

    Color patterns play central roles in the behavior of insects, and are important traits for taxonomic studies. Here we report striking and stable structural color patterns--wing interference patterns (WIPs)--in the transparent wings of small Hymenoptera and Diptera, patterns that have been largely overlooked by biologists. These extremely thin wings reflect vivid color patterns caused by thin film interference. The visibility of these patterns is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. The specific color sequence displayed lacks pure red and matches the color vision of most insects, strongly suggesting that the biological significance of WIPs lies in visual signaling. Taxon-specific color patterns are formed by uneven membrane thickness, pigmentation, venation, and hair placement. The optically refracted pattern is also stabilized by microstructures of the wing such as membrane corrugations and spherical cell structures that reinforce the pattern and make it essentially noniridescent over a large range of light incidences. WIPs can be applied to map the micromorphology of wings through direct observation and are useful in several fields of biology. We demonstrate their usefulness as identification patterns to solve cases of cryptic species complexes in tiny parasitic wasps, and indicate their potentials for research on the genetic control of wing development through direct links between the transregulatory wing landscape and interference patterns we observe in Drosophila model species. Some species display sexually dimorphic WIPs, suggesting sexual selection as one of the driving forces for their evolution.

  2. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  3. The colors of icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Ordinary icebergs of meteoric glacier ice appear bluish-white, i.e. intermediate in color between the white of snow and the blue of pure ice, depending on the bubble content. However, clear dark bubble-free icebergs are occasionally seen in the Antarctic Ocean; they originate from freezing of seawater to the base of ice shelves. On parts of the Amery Ice Shelf, frozen seawater contributes up to one-third of the ice-shelf thickness. Many of the icebergs produced by the Amery are therefore composite icebergs; the upper part consists of meteoric glacier ice from snowfall, but the lower part is frozen seawater ("marine ice"). When these icebergs capsize, the marine ice is exposed to view; it can be accessed for study in springtime when the icebergs are embedded in shorefast sea ice. The marine ice varies in color from blue to green depending on the content of dissolved organic matter. The color is therefore an indicator of biological productivity in the seawater from which the ice froze. To infer processes at the ice-shelf base, these icebergs may be examined and cored for spectral reflectance, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, organic matter, particles, and distribution of cracks and stripes. Seasonal and interannual variations may be quantified from samples collected along the marine ice-growth trajectory at the meteoric/marine-ice interface. The scale of small turbulent eddies at the ice-shelf base, which govern the transfer of heat between ocean and ice, can be inferred from the size of scallops in the iceberg surface (typically a few centimeters). Dark stripes within meteoric ice result from tension-cracks at the grounding line, forming basal crevasses that fill suddenly with seawater; their width, spacing, and salinity can give clues to processes at the grounding line. Results will be shown from icebergs sampled on Australian expeditions near Davis and Mawson stations. Marine ice is more readily accessed by sampling an iceberg than by drilling through an ice shelf

  4. Modeling a color-rendering operator for high dynamic range images using a cone-response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ho-Hyoung; Kim, Gi-Seok; Yun, Byoung-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Tone-mapping operators are the typical algorithms designed to produce visibility and the overall impression of brightness, contrast, and color of high dynamic range (HDR) images on low dynamic range (LDR) display devices. Although several new tone-mapping operators have been proposed in recent years, the results of these operators have not matched those of the psychophysical experiments based on the human visual system. A color-rendering model that is a combination of tone-mapping and cone-response functions using an XYZ tristimulus color space is presented. In the proposed method, the tone-mapping operator produces visibility and the overall impression of brightness, contrast, and color in HDR images when mapped onto relatively LDR devices. The tone-mapping resultant image is obtained using chromatic and achromatic colors to avoid well-known color distortions shown in the conventional methods. The resulting image is then processed with a cone-response function wherein emphasis is placed on human visual perception (HVP). The proposed method covers the mismatch between the actual scene and the rendered image based on HVP. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields an improved color-rendering performance compared to conventional methods.

  5. Human V4 Activity Patterns Predict Behavioral Performance in Imagery of Object Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannert, Michael M; Bartels, Andreas

    2018-04-11

    Color is special among basic visual features in that it can form a defining part of objects that are engrained in our memory. Whereas most neuroimaging research on human color vision has focused on responses related to external stimulation, the present study investigated how sensory-driven color vision is linked to subjective color perception induced by object imagery. We recorded fMRI activity in male and female volunteers during viewing of abstract color stimuli that were red, green, or yellow in half of the runs. In the other half we asked them to produce mental images of colored, meaningful objects (such as tomato, grapes, banana) corresponding to the same three color categories. Although physically presented color could be decoded from all retinotopically mapped visual areas, only hV4 allowed predicting colors of imagined objects when classifiers were trained on responses to physical colors. Importantly, only neural signal in hV4 was predictive of behavioral performance in the color judgment task on a trial-by-trial basis. The commonality between neural representations of sensory-driven and imagined object color and the behavioral link to neural representations in hV4 identifies area hV4 as a perceptual hub linking externally triggered color vision with color in self-generated object imagery. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans experience color not only when visually exploring the outside world, but also in the absence of visual input, for example when remembering, dreaming, and during imagery. It is not known where neural codes for sensory-driven and internally generated hue converge. In the current study we evoked matching subjective color percepts, one driven by physically presented color stimuli, the other by internally generated color imagery. This allowed us to identify area hV4 as the only site where neural codes of corresponding subjective color perception converged regardless of its origin. Color codes in hV4 also predicted behavioral performance in an

  6. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing,

  7. COLORING PROPERTIES OF WOOL FABRIC COLORED BY NEW DYESTUFFS - AZOMETHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJEVIC Dragan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin. Synthesizing of dyestuffs can often have one to six chromogen, which can be defined as the photoactive components that contain colored or uncolored absorbent components. In addition of monoazo, diazo, poly-azo, anthraquinone, xanthan and similar systems, the azomethines or imines, also includes to the chromogen groups. Azomethines, such as, isatin-3-hydrazone, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone and isatin-3-phenylhydrazone, were synthesized and their coloring performance on wool fabric assessed. The synthesized azomethines showed very good substantively for wool fibers with good coloring performance according to CIEL*a*b* system which characterized quantitative and qualitative coloring property. Dyestuff 3 or isatin-3-phenylhydrazone bound to woolen textiles to a greater extent and greater intensity (minimum value of L. Dyestuff 2 or isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone linked to the minimum amount for textiles (the largest value of L. Although it must be noted that it is a lighter shade (yellow color as opposed to the dyestuff 3 (red color.

  8. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  9. A Color-Opponency Based Biological Model for Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Color constancy is the ability of the human visual system to adaptively correct color-biased scenes under different illuminants. Most of the existing color constancy models are nonphysiologically plausible. Among the limited biological models, the great majority is Retinex and its variations, and only two or three models directly simulate the feature of color-opponency, but only of the very earliest stages of visual pathway, i.e., the single-opponent mechanisms involved at the levels of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons. Considering the extensive physiological evidences supporting that both the single-opponent cells in retina and LGN and the double-opponent neurons in primary visual cortex (V1 are the building blocks for color constancy, in this study we construct a color-opponency based color constancy model by simulating the opponent fashions of both the single-opponent and double-opponent cells in a forward manner. As for the spatial structure of the receptive fields (RF, both the classical RF (CRF center and the nonclassical RF (nCRF surround are taken into account for all the cells. The proposed model was tested on several typical image databases commonly used for performance evaluation of color constancy methods, and exciting results were achieved.

  10. Preliminary assessments of portable color spectrophotometer measurements of cotton color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color with the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd (diffuse reflectance) and +b (yellowness). It has been reported that some cotton bales, especially those transported overseas, appear to have changed significantly in color from their in...

  11. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2010-01-01

    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used:

  12. Children's Book Color Preferences as Related to Their Favorite Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill L.

    Because young children disregard writing on the spine of a book, researchers chose to run a test on color preferences in books. In a library situation young children see most books from a spine-out angle; thus when allowed to select a book by themselves, the first characteristics noticed are size and color. This study is based on the hypothesis…

  13. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Jonathan P.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Pauly, Gregory B.

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes. PMID:28792983

  14. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna J Putman

    Full Text Available Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis, and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  15. New Map Symbol System for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Silvia T.

    2018-05-01

    In the last 10 years Bulgaria was frequently affected by natural and man-made disasters that caused considerable losses. According to the Bulgarian Disaster Management Act (2006) disaster management should be planned at local, regional and national level. Disaster protection is based on plans that include maps such as hazard maps, maps for protection, maps for evacuation planning, etc. Decision-making and cooperation between two or more neighboring municipalities or regions in crisis situation are still rendered difficult because the maps included in the plans differ in scale, colors, map symbols and cartographic design. To improve decision-making process in case of emergency and to reduce the number of human loss and property damages disaster management plans at local and regional level should be supported by detailed thematic maps created in accordance with uniform contents, map symbol system and design. The paper proposes a new symbol system for disaster management that includes a four level hierarchical classification of objects and phenomena according to their type and origin. All objects and phenomena of this classification are divided into five categories: disasters; infrastructure; protection services and infrastructure for protection; affected people and affected infrastructure; operational sites and activities. The symbols of these categories are shown with different background colors and shapes so that they are identifiable. All the symbols have simple but associative design. The new symbol system is used in the design of a series of maps for disaster management at local and regional level.

  16. Star Maps History, Artistry, and Cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Kanas, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Star Maps captures the beauty and awe of the heavens through celestial prints and star atlases. It traces the history of celestial cartography and relates this history to the changing ideas of humanity's place in the universe. The text of this Second Edition is enriched with 263 photographs, 91 in color, showing images from actual antiquarian celestial books and atlases, each one with an explanation of its astronomical and cartographic features. This new edition of Star Maps: History, Artistry, and Cartography includes: - over 50 new pages of text and 44 new images (16 in color) - completely new sections on celestial frontispieces, deep-sky objects, playing card maps, additional cartographers, and modern computerized star maps - updated figures and text about celestial globes, volvelles, telescopes, and planets and asteroids - revised and updated text and illustrations throughout. The book focuses on the development of celestial cartography from ancient to modern times and describes the relationships between ...

  17. Development of softcopy environment for primary color banding visibility assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungseok; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Allebach, Jan P.

    2008-01-01

    , we perform haploscopic matching experiments that allow each eye to independently adapt to different viewing conditions; and we find an appearance mapping function in the adapted XYZ space. Finally, to validate the accuracy of the softcopy environment, we conduct a banding matching experiment at three different banding levels by the memory matching method, and confirm that our softcopy environment produces the same banding perception as the hardcopy. In addition, we perform two more separate psychophysical experiments to measure the differential threshold of the intrinsic banding in both the hardcopy and softcopy environments, and confirm that the two thresholds are statistically identical. The results show that with our target printer, human subjects can see a just noticeable difference with a 9% reduction in the banding magnitude for the cyan colorant.

  18. Novel Color Depth Mapping Imaging Sensor System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic systems require information about their surroundings in order to navigate properly. A video camera machine vision system can...

  19. Novel Color Depth Mapping Imaging Sensor System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic systems require information about their surroundings in order to navigate properly. A video camera machine vision system can...

  20. Light Vision Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  1. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  2. Role of color memory in successive color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2008-06-01

    We investigate color constancy for real 2D paper samples using a successive matching paradigm in which the observer memorizes a reference surface color under neutral illumination and after a temporal interval selects a matching test surface under the same or different illumination. We find significant effects of the illumination, reference surface, and their interaction on the matching error. We characterize the matching error in the absence of illumination change as the "pure color memory shift" and introduce a new index for successive color constancy that compares this shift against the matching error under changing illumination. The index also incorporates the vector direction of the matching errors in chromaticity space, unlike the traditional constancy index. With this index, we find that color constancy is nearly perfect.

  3. Soil color - a window for public and educators to understands soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libohova, Zamir; Beaudette, Dylan; Wills, Skye; Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David

    2017-04-01

    Soil color is one of the most visually striking properties recorded by soil scientists around the world. Soil color is an important characteristic related to soil properties such organic matter, parent materials, drainage. It is a simplified way for the public and educators alike to understand soils and their functions. Soil color is a quick measurement that can be recorded by people using color charts or digital cameras, offering an opportunity for the citizen science projects to contribute to soil science. The US Soil Survey has recorded soil colors using Munsell color system for over 20,000 soil types representing a wide range of conditions throughout the Unites States. The objective of this research was to generate a US soil color map based on color descriptions from the Official Series Descriptions (OSDs). A color calculator developed in R and ArcMap were used to spatially display the soil colors. Soil colors showed vertical trends related to soil depth and horizontal trends related to parent material and climate. Soil colors represent development processes depending upon environment and time that have influenced their appearance and geographic distribution. Dark colors represent soils that are rich in organic matter, such as the soils of the Midwest USA, which are some of the most fertile soils in the world. These soils are relatively "young" in that they developed over the last 20,000 years in materials left behind after continental Glaciers retreated and reflect long- term prairie vegetation that dominated this area prior to European settlements. Dark soils of the Pacific Northwest reflect the influence of forests (and volcanic activity) but are shallower and less fertile than the deep dark Midwest soils. Soils of the eastern and southern Coastal Plains are older and are enriched with iron oxides ('rust') which gives them their red coloring. Soils of flood plains, like the broad Mississippi Valley, have multi-colored soils that reflect the process of

  4. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  5. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Leer en Español: Pruebas para Detectar Daltonismo en ... study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  6. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Color additives give the red tint to your fruit punch ... in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices Color Additives: FDA's Regulatory Process and Historical Perspectives ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition ...

  7. On dominator colorings in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    colors required for a dominator coloring of G is called the dominator .... Theorem 1.3 shows that the complete graph Kn is the only connected graph of order n ... Conversely, if a graph G satisfies condition (i) or (ii), it is easy to see that χd(G) =.

  8. Animal coloration: sexy spider scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2007-08-07

    Many male jumping spiders display vibrant colors that are used in visual communication. A recent microscopic study on a jumping spider from Singapore shows that three-layered 'scale sandwiches' of chitin and air are responsible for producing their brilliant iridescent body coloration.

  9. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  10. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized

  11. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  12. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, southern Mexico and parts of Cuba and Jamaica are all seen in this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The dominant feature of the northern part of Central America is the Sierra Madre Range, spreading east from Mexico between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of the Yucatan Peninsula. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatun and the Isthmus of Panama. A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.High-quality satellite imagery of Central America has, until now, been difficult to obtain due to persistent cloud cover in this region of the world. The ability of SRTM to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements has allowed the generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. This map was used to generate the image.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.For an annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 9 mB jpeg)Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect

  13. High resolution color imagery for orthomaps and remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricker, Peter [Leica Geosystems GIS and Mapping, LLC (Switzerland); Gallo, M. Guillermo [Leica Geosystems GIS and Mapping, LLC (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The ADS40 Airborne Digital Pushbroom Sensor is currently the only commercial sensor capable of acquiring color and false color strip images in the low decimeter range at the same high resolution as the black and white stereo images. This high resolution of 12,000 pixels across the entire swath and 100% forward overlap in the image strips result in high quality DSM's, True Ortho's and at the same time allow unbiased remote sensing applications due to color strip images unchanged by pan-sharpening. The paper gives details on how the pushbroom sensor achieves these seemingly difficult technical challenges. It describes how a variety of mapping applications benefit from this sensor, a sensor which acts as a satellite pushbroom sensor within the airborne environment. (author)

  14. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  15. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  16. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  17. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, the authors discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  18. Spectral edge: gradient-preserving spectral mapping for image fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connah, David; Drew, Mark S; Finlayson, Graham D

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to image fusion for color display. Our goal is to generate an output image whose gradient matches that of the input as closely as possible. We achieve this using a constrained contrast mapping paradigm in the gradient domain, where the structure tensor of a high-dimensional gradient representation is mapped exactly to that of a low-dimensional gradient field which is then reintegrated to form an output. Constraints on output colors are provided by an initial RGB rendering. Initially, we motivate our solution with a simple "ansatz" (educated guess) for projecting higher-D contrast onto color gradients, which we expand to a more rigorous theorem to incorporate color constraints. The solution to these constrained optimizations is closed-form, allowing for simple and hence fast and efficient algorithms. The approach can map any N-D image data to any M-D output and can be used in a variety of applications using the same basic algorithm. In this paper, we focus on the problem of mapping N-D inputs to 3D color outputs. We present results in five applications: hyperspectral remote sensing, fusion of color and near-infrared or clear-filter images, multilighting imaging, dark flash, and color visualization of magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-tensor imaging.

  19. Of gluons and gravitons. Exploring color-kinematics duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isermann, Reinke Sven

    2013-06-01

    In this thesis color-kinematics duality will be investigated. This duality is a statement about the kinematical dependence of a scattering amplitude in Yang-Mills gauge theories obeying group theoretical relations similar to that of the color gauge group. The major consequence of this duality is that gravity amplitudes can be related to a certain double copy of gauge theory amplitudes. The main focus of this thesis is on exploring the foundations of color-kinematics duality and its consequences. It is shown how color-kinematics duality can be made manifest at the one-loop level for rational amplitudes. A Lagrangian-based argument will be given for the validity of the double copy construction for these amplitudes including explicit examples at four points. Secondly, it is studied how color-kinematics duality can be used to improve powercounting in gravity theories. To this end the duality is reformulated in terms of linear maps. It is shown as an example how this can be used to derive the large BCFW shift behavior of a gravity integrand constructed through the duality to any loop order up to subtleties inherent to the duality that is addressed. As it becomes clear the duality implies massive cancellations with respect to the usual powercounting of Feynman graphs indicating that gravity theories are much better behaved than naively expected. As another example the linear map approach will be used to investigate the question of UV-finiteness of N=8 supergravity, and it is seen that the amount of cancellations depends on the exact implementation of the duality at loop level. Lastly, color-kinematics duality is considered from a Feynman-graph perspective reproducing some of the results of the earlier chapters thus giving non-trivial evidence for the duality at the loop level from a different perspective.

  20. Of gluons and gravitons. Exploring color-kinematics duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, Reinke Sven

    2013-06-15

    In this thesis color-kinematics duality will be investigated. This duality is a statement about the kinematical dependence of a scattering amplitude in Yang-Mills gauge theories obeying group theoretical relations similar to that of the color gauge group. The major consequence of this duality is that gravity amplitudes can be related to a certain double copy of gauge theory amplitudes. The main focus of this thesis is on exploring the foundations of color-kinematics duality and its consequences. It is shown how color-kinematics duality can be made manifest at the one-loop level for rational amplitudes. A Lagrangian-based argument will be given for the validity of the double copy construction for these amplitudes including explicit examples at four points. Secondly, it is studied how color-kinematics duality can be used to improve powercounting in gravity theories. To this end the duality is reformulated in terms of linear maps. It is shown as an example how this can be used to derive the large BCFW shift behavior of a gravity integrand constructed through the duality to any loop order up to subtleties inherent to the duality that is addressed. As it becomes clear the duality implies massive cancellations with respect to the usual powercounting of Feynman graphs indicating that gravity theories are much better behaved than naively expected. As another example the linear map approach will be used to investigate the question of UV-finiteness of N=8 supergravity, and it is seen that the amount of cancellations depends on the exact implementation of the duality at loop level. Lastly, color-kinematics duality is considered from a Feynman-graph perspective reproducing some of the results of the earlier chapters thus giving non-trivial evidence for the duality at the loop level from a different perspective.

  1. Spectral Sharpening of Color Sensors: Diagonal Color Constancy and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use/nof spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is/nstill used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal/nof diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of/nunique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what/nis known today in color constancy, describes the d...

  2. Of colored numbers and numbered colors: interactive processes in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebuis, Titia; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van der Smagt, Maarten J

    2009-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes experience a specific color when they see a grapheme but they do not report to perceive a grapheme when a color is presented. In this study, we investigate whether color can still evoke number-processes even when a vivid number experience is absent. We used color-number and number-color priming, both revealing faster responses in congruent compared to incongruent conditions. Interestingly, the congruency effect was of similar magnitude for both conditions, and a numerical distance effect was present only in the color-number priming task. In addition, a priming task in which synesthetes had to judge the parity of a colored number revealed faster responses in parity congruent than in parity incongruent trials. These combined results demonstrate that synesthesia is indeed bi-directional and of similar strength in both directions. Furthermore, they illustrate the precise nature of these interactions and show that the direction of these interactions is determined by task demands, not by the more vividly experienced aspect of the stimulus.

  3. Mapping racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  4. Functional mapping in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachron, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Two Views of Functional Mapping and Autoradiography; Quantitative Analysis of Autoradiographs; Hardware and Software Design Considerations in Engineering an Image Processing Workstation: Autoradiographic Analysis with DUMAS and the BRAIN Autoradiograph Analysis Software Package (with 1 color plate); and Quantitative Autoradiography and in vitro Radioligand Binding

  5. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  6. Colored Quantum Algebra and Its Bethe State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin-Zheng; Jia Xiao-Yu; Wang Shi-Kun

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the colored Yang—Baxter equation. Based on a trigonometric solution of colored Yang—Baxter equation, we construct a colored quantum algebra. Moreover we discuss its algebraic Bethe ansatz state and highest wight representation. (general)

  7. Color and Visual Factors in ATC Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Jing

    2006-01-01

    .... While the advantages of color may be apparent, many display designs suggest that ATC technology developers have not used basic human factors and color principles to optimize the advantages of color...

  8. 'Clovis' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This approximate true-color image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. This image was taken by the 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters of the rover's panoramic camera on sol 217 (August 13, 2004). Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  9. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary, and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside from their literal meanings, the metaphorically used color words are collected and classified into two categories, i.e. achromatic and chromatic colors. Then, their universalities are determined by comparing them with English color metaphors. Finally the existence of specific Indonesian color metaphors are identified by correlating them with extra linguistic factors, such as environment, history, religion, politic and other socio cultural activities. A careful analysis on the data shows that there is nearly no significant difference in metaphorical uses of achromatic colors in English and Indonesian. However, despite universal nuances of chromatic color metaphors, some specific ones emerge due to various external factors, such as environment, education, history, politic, law, religion, literature, and other socio cultural facts that are specifically found and practiced in Indonesia.

  10. Color contrasting in radioscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopaev, V.P.; Pavlov, S.V.; Nazarenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    Transformation principles for achromatic radioscopy control systems to color ones have been considered. Described is the developed ''Gamma 1'' roentgen-TV facility with color contrasting, which is based on the principle of analog conversion of brightness signal to a hue. By means of color channels amplifiers realized are the special amplitude characteristics, permitting in comparison with the common method of analogous transformation to obtain the greater number of hues within the identical range of brightnesses of image under investigation due to introducing purple colors. The investigation of amplitude resolution capability of color contrasting device has shown, that in the case of color contrasting of image the amplitude resolution is 1.7-1.8 time higher than in the case of achromatic one. Defectoscopic sensitivity during the testing of 5-20 mm thick steel products in the process of experimental-production tests turned out to be 1.1-1.3 time higher when using color contrasting of radioscopic image. Realization simplicity, high resolution, noise stability and wide functional possibilities of the facility show the prospects for its using during the quality control of welded joints in products of power engineering

  11. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  13. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  14. Colored cool colorants based on rare earth metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Aby, Cheruvathoor Poulose; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India)

    2008-11-15

    Colored pigments with high near infrared reflectance and not based on toxic metal ions like cadmium, lead and cobalt are being sought as cool colorants. Through appropriate doping two pigments Ce-Pr-Mo and Ce-Pr-Fe have been developed to offer a reddish brown and reddish orange color, respectively. These pigments have been characterized and found to be highly crystalline with an average size of 300 nm. A shift in band gap energy from 2.21 to 2.18 eV has been observed when Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was used as a mineralizer. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDAX) measurement indicate a uniform grind shape and distribution of metal ion, with over 65% reflectance in the NIR region, these pigments can well serve as cool colorants. (author)

  15. Operational Assessment of Color Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    YN0Ve_jXBUC&pg=PR11&source=gbs_selected_page s&cad=2#v=onepage&q&f=false. 5. Jeffries BJ. Color - blindness : its dangers and its detection. Boston (MA...Brussels, Belgium. Neuilly-sur-Seine (France): NATO; 1972. AGARD-CP-99. 11. Monlux DJ, Finne HA, Stephens MB. Color blindness and military fitness...unlimited. STINFO COPY AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2016-0008 Operational Assessment of Color Vision Steve Wright, O.D.; James Gaska, Ph.D

  16. Color and chemistry on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The surface of Triton is very bright but shows subtle yellow to peach hues which probably arise from the production of colored organic compounds from CH4 + N2 and other simple species. In order to investigate possible relationships between chemical processes and the observed surface distribution of chromophores, the surface units are classified according to color/albedo properties, the rates of production of organic chromophores by the action of ultraviolet light and high-energy charged particles is estimated, and rates, spectral properties, and expected seasonal redistribution processes are compared to suggest possible origins of the colors seen on Triton's surface.

  17. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F.; Nield, Kathryn M.; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600 nm and emitted above 700 nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  18. Finding text in color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  19. Unlocking color and flavor in superconducting strange quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Berges, Juergen; Rajagopal, Krishna

    1999-01-01

    We explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter with massless u and d quarks as a function of the strange quark mass m s and the chemical potential μ for baryon number. Neglecting electromagnetism, we describe the different baryonic and quark matter phases at zero temperature. For quark matter, we support our model-independent arguments with a quantitative analysis of a model which uses a four-fermion interaction abstracted from single-gluon exchange. For any finite m s , at sufficiently large μ we find quark matter in a color-flavor-locked state which leaves a global vector-like SU(2) color+L+R symmetry unbroken. As a consequence, chiral symmetry is always broken in sufficiently dense quark matter. As the density is reduced, for sufficiently large m s we observe a first-order transition from the color-flavor-locked phase to color superconducting phase analogous to that in two-flavor QCD. At this unlocking transition chiral symmetry is restored. For realistic values of m s our analysis indicates that chiral symmetry breaking may be present for all densities down to those characteristic of baryonic matter. This supports the idea that quark matter and baryonic matter may be continuously connected in nature. We map the gaps at the quark Fermi surfaces in the high density color-flavor-locked phase onto gaps at the baryon Fermi surfaces at low densities

  20. Il colore delle cose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Vitiello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tema di questo saggio è l’operare della riflessione. Vitiello, dopo essersi soffermato sulla «frattura» tra la riflessione (il «vedersi» e il suo operare in Valéry, si concentra sul processo, descritto da Hegel nella Fenomenologia dello spirito, dell’esperienza della coscienza che s’eleva a coscienza dell’esperienza. La conclusione è fortemente critica: Hegel fallisce la mèta nel punto stesso in cui la raggiunge. Infatti nel sapere assoluto, nella visione compiuta, perfetta di sé, della luce che vede luce, viene meno proprio l’esperienza della coscienza, il suo divenire, la sua «imperfezione». La critica a Hegel, passando attraverso Nietzsche, si amplia a critica del linguaggio, in particolare del linguaggio dell’«essere» e  dell’«è», e delle tautologie heideggeriane quali «das Ereignis ereignet», «das Ding dingt», «die Welt weltet». Un importante passaggio del testo è quello sul linguaggio teatrale in cui la parola sembra riacquistare il legame originale tra la voce e il gesto, che tuttavia restano divisi, perché proprio il medio che li lega, il «colore» della parola, è «fuori» della parola e del gesto. Resta la parola dell’agire, dei pragmata, in cui il fare si espone nella sua modalità più propria: nell’immediatezza del patire: il grido di dolore; o nella mediatezza riflessiva dell’imperativo morale: Handle! I due opposti «colori» delle cose.

  1. Land use inventory of Salt Lake County, Utah from color infrared aerial photography 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K. P.; Willie, R. D.; Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation of land use maps of Salt Lake County, Utah from high altitude color infrared photography is described. The primary purpose of the maps is to aid in the assessment of the effects of urban development on the agricultural land base and water resources. The first stage of map production was to determine the categories of land use/land cover and the mapping unit detail. The highest level of interpretive detail was given to the land use categories found in the agricultural or urbanized portions of the county; these areas are of primary interest with regard to the consumptive use of water from surface streams and wells. A slightly lower level of mapping detail was given to wetland environments; areas to which water is not purposely diverted by man but which have a high consumptive rate of water use. Photos were interpreted on the basis of color, tone, texture, and pattern, together with features of the topographic, hydrologic, and ecological context.

  2. School Colors Enhance Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The dramatic use of bold colors in the interior design of the Greenhill Middle School in Dallas, Texas, is an example of how a learning environment can stimulate student interest and enthusiasm. (Author/MLF)

  3. Semantics of color in chromatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of >: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for >, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  4. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  5. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  6. Photoresponsive Smart Coloration Electrochromic Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Gwang; Kim, Donghyuk; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Minkyu; Hyun, Seungmin; Han, Seung Min

    2017-08-01

    Electrochromic devices have been widely adopted in energy saving applications by taking advantage of the electrode coloration, but it is critical to develop a new electrochromic device that can undergo smart coloration and can have a wide spectrum in transmittance in response to input light intensity while also functioning as a rechargeable energy storage system. In this study, a photoresponsive electrochromic supercapacitor based on cellulose-nanofiber/Ag-nanowire/reduced-graphene-oxide/WO 3 -composite electrode that is capable of undergoing "smart" reversible coloration while simultaneously functioning as a reliable energy-storage device is developed. The fabricated device exhibits a high coloration efficiency of 64.8 cm 2 C -1 and electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 406.0 F g -1 , energy/power densities of 40.6-47.8 Wh kg -1 and 6.8-16.9 kW kg -1 . The electrochromic supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycle reliability, where 75.0% and 94.1% of its coloration efficiency and electrochemical performance is retained, respectively, beyond 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. Cyclic fatigue tests show that the developed device is mechanically durable and suitable for wearable electronics applications. The smart electrochromic supercapacitor system is then integrated with a solar sensor to enable photoresponsive coloration where the transmittance changes in response to varying light intensity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Multi-Frequency Encoding for Rapid Color Flow and Quadroplex Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonic color flow maps are made by estimating the velocities line by line over the region of interest. For each velocity estimate, multiple repetitions are needed. This sets a limit on the frame rate, which becomes increasingly severe when imaging deeper lying structures or when simultaneously...... acquiring spectrogram data for triplex imaging. This paper proposes a method for decreasing the data acquisition time by simultaneously sampling multiple lines at different spatial positions for the color flow map using narrow band signals with disjoint spectral support. The signals are separated...... in the receiver by filters matched to the emitted waveforms and the autocorrelation estimator is applied. Alternatively, one spectral band can be used for creating a color flow map, while data for a number of spectrograms are acquired simultaneously. Using three disjoint spectral bands, this will result...

  8. Multi-Frequency Encoding for Fast Color Flow or Quadroplex Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic color flow maps are made by estimating the velocities line by line over the region of interest. For each velocity estimate, multiple repetitions are needed. This sets a limit on the frame rate, which becomes increasingly severe when imaging deeper lying structures or when simultaneously...... acquiring spectrogram data for triplex imaging. This paper proposes a method for decreasing the data acquisition time by simultaneously sampling multiple lines for color flow maps, using narrow band signals with approximately disjoint spectral support. The signals are separated in the receiver by filters....... A mean standard deviation across the flow profile of 3.1, 2.5, and 2.1% of the peak velocity was found for bands at 5 MHz, 7 MHz, and 9 MHz, respectively. Alternatively, the method can be used for simultaneously sampling data for a color flow map and for multiple spectrograms using different spectral...

  9. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    -foot)-long mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: 1,113 by 638 kilometers (692 by 396 miles) Location: 55 degrees North latitude, 160 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  10. Color Mixing Correction for Post-printed Patterns on Colored Background Using Modified Particle Density Model

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa , Misako; Fujimoto , Katsuhito

    2006-01-01

    http://www.suvisoft.com; Color mixing occurs between background and foreground colors when a pattern is post-printed on a colored area because ink is not completely opaque. This paper proposes a new method for the correction of color mixing in line pattern such as characters and stamps, by using a modified particle density model. Parameters of the color correction can be calculated from two sets of foreground and background colors. By employing this method, the colors of foreground patterns o...

  11. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    by the practical testing environment. As a result of the changes, a reasonable assumption would be to question the consequences caused by the variations in method procedures. Here, the aim is to highlight the proven or hypothetic consequences of variations of Projective Mapping. Presented variations will include...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent......Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometimes...

  12. Parallel, multi-stage processing of colors, faces and shapes in macaque inferior temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Visual-object processing culminates in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. To assess the organization of IT, we measured fMRI responses in alert monkey to achromatic images (faces, fruit, bodies, places) and colored gratings. IT contained multiple color-biased regions, which were typically ventral to face patches and, remarkably, yoked to them, spaced regularly at four locations predicted by known anatomy. Color and face selectivity increased for more anterior regions, indicative of a broad hierarchical arrangement. Responses to non-face shapes were found across IT, but were stronger outside color-biased regions and face patches, consistent with multiple parallel streams. IT also contained multiple coarse eccentricity maps: face patches overlapped central representations; color-biased regions spanned mid-peripheral representations; and place-biased regions overlapped peripheral representations. These results suggest that IT comprises parallel, multi-stage processing networks subject to one organizing principle. PMID:24141314

  13. Single underwater image enhancement based on color cast removal and visibility restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongyi; Guo, Jichang; Wang, Bo; Cong, Runmin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Images taken under underwater condition usually have color cast and serious loss of contrast and visibility. Degraded underwater images are inconvenient for observation and analysis. In order to address these problems, an underwater image-enhancement method is proposed. A simple yet effective underwater image color cast removal algorithm is first presented based on the optimization theory. Then, based on the minimum information loss principle and inherent relationship of medium transmission maps of three color channels in an underwater image, an effective visibility restoration algorithm is proposed to recover visibility, contrast, and natural appearance of degraded underwater images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, qualitative comparison, quantitative comparison, and color accuracy test are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively remove color cast, improve contrast and visibility, and recover natural appearance of degraded underwater images. Additionally, the proposed method is comparable to and even better than several state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Development and usage of a false color display technique for presenting Seasat-A scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A computer generated false color program which creates digital multicolor graphics to display geophysical surface parameters measured by the Seasat-A satellite scatterometer (SASS) is described. The data is incrementally scaled over the range of acceptable values and each increment and its data points are assigned a color. The advantage of the false color display is that it visually infers cool or weak data versus hot or intense data by using the rainbow of colors. For example, with wind speeds, levels of yellow and red could be used to imply high winds while green and blue could imply calmer air. The SASS data is sorted into geographic regions and the final false color images are projected onto various world maps with superimposed land/water boundaries.

  15. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  16. Color palette: Plotting guide for use with GSMAP and GSDRAW digital cartographic software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, S.P.; Thompson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Guidelines for plotting a variety of colors and patterns using GSMAP and GSDRAW digital cartographic programs have been developed. These color and pattern variations can be used to fill polygons (areas) on maps, charts, or diagrams. Batch processing file for plotting a sample color/pattern palette on a Hewlett Packard 7585B 8-pen plotter using GSDRAW software are provided on the disk. The detailed instructions, batch processing files, and variables used to construct the palette will provide the user ready access to 99 fill patterns, and aid in designing other useful combinations. 2 refs., 2 figs

  17. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  18. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in these...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2283 - Off color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off color. 51.2283 Section 51.2283 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2283 Off color. The term “off color” is not a color classification, but shall be applied to any lot which fails to meet the...

  2. 7 CFR 58.329 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.329 Section 58.329 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....329 Color. Coloring, when used shall be Annatto or any color which is approved by the U.S. Food and...

  3. 7 CFR 58.435 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.435 Section 58.435 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....435 Color. Coloring when used, shall be Annatto or any cheese or butter color which meet the...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1006 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.1006 Section 52.1006 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Dates Factors of Quality § 52.1006 Color. (a) (A) classification. Whole or pitted dates that possess a good color may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Good color...

  5. 7 CFR 52.3760 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.3760 Section 52.3760 Agriculture Regulations... § 52.3760 Color. (a) General. The evaluation of color shall be determined within five minutes after the olives are removed from the container and is based upon the uniformity of the exterior color or general...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... illustrating the color classification requirements, as set forth in this section. This visual aid may be...

  7. Color correction optimization with hue regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Huaping; Quan, Shuxue

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that observers are capable of judging the quality of an image without any knowledge of the original scene. When no reference is available, observers can extract the apparent objects in an image and compare them with the typical colors of similar objects recalled from their memories. Some generally agreed upon research results indicate that although perfect colorimetric rendering is not conspicuous and color errors can be well tolerated, the appropriate rendition of certain memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky is an important factor in the overall perceived image quality. These colors are appreciated in a fairly consistent manner and are memorized with slightly different hues and higher color saturation. The aim of color correction for a digital color pipeline is to transform the image data from a device dependent color space to a target color space, usually through a color correction matrix which in its most basic form is optimized through linear regressions between the two sets of data in two color spaces in the sense of minimized Euclidean color error. Unfortunately, this method could result in objectionable distortions if the color error biased certain colors undesirably. In this paper, we propose a color correction optimization method with preferred color reproduction in mind through hue regularization and present some experimental results.

  8. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type...

  9. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  10. A universal color image quality metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated color space. The resulting color image quality index quantifies the distortion of a processed color image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new color image quality

  11. 7 CFR 29.3025 - General color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... General color. The color of tobacco considered in relation to the type as a whole. General color is distinguished from the restricted use of the term “color” within a group. It is basically related to body and... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General color. 29.3025 Section 29.3025 Agriculture...

  12. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.

  13. The Yin and Yang of Colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    independent, device dependent, additive and subtractive color systems. In each color system, it is attempted to calculate the Complementary Color to an orange Brand Color (Pantone 151 C). The results are compared to the results from an online Adobe Creative Cloud Service, Adobe Kuler which was chosen because...

  14. Semantic networks for odors and colors in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Jill; Chan, Agnes; Nordin, Steven; Murphy, Claire

    2010-05-01

    Impairment in odor-naming ability and in verbal and visual semantic networks raised the hypothesis of a breakdown in the semantic network for odors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study addressed this hypothesis. Twenty-four individuals, half patients with probable AD and half control participants, performed triadic-similarity judgments for odors and colors, separately, which, utilizing the multidimensional scaling (MDS) technique of individual difference scaling analysis (INDSCAL), generated two-dimensional configurations of similarity. The abilities to match odors and colors with written name labels were assessed to investigate disease-related differences in ability to identify and conceptualize the stimuli. In addition, responses on attribute-sorting tasks, requiring the odor and color perceptions to be categorized as one polarity of a certain dimension, were obtained to allow for objective interpretation of the MDS spatial maps. Whereas comparison subjects generated spatial maps based predominantly on relatively abstract characteristics, patients with AD classified odors on perceptual characteristics. The maps for patients with AD also showed disorganized groupings and loose associations between odors. Their normal configurations for colors imply that the patients were able to comprehend the task per se. The data for label matching and for attribute sorting provide further evidence for a disturbance in semantic odor memory in AD. The patients performed poorer than controls on both these odor tasks, implying that the ability to identify and/or conceptualize odors is impaired in AD. The results provide clear evidence for deterioration of the structure of semantic knowledge for odors in AD.

  15. Design and optimization of color lookup tables on a simplex topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Vishal; Bala, Raja; Mo, Xuan

    2012-04-01

    An important computational problem in color imaging is the design of color transforms that map color between devices or from a device-dependent space (e.g., RGB/CMYK) to a device-independent space (e.g., CIELAB) and vice versa. Real-time processing constraints entail that such nonlinear color transforms be implemented using multidimensional lookup tables (LUTs). Furthermore, relatively sparse LUTs (with efficient interpolation) are employed in practice because of storage and memory constraints. This paper presents a principled design methodology rooted in constrained convex optimization to design color LUTs on a simplex topology. The use of n simplexes, i.e., simplexes in n dimensions, as opposed to traditional lattices, recently has been of great interest in color LUT design for simplex topologies that allow both more analytically tractable formulations and greater efficiency in the LUT. In this framework of n-simplex interpolation, our central contribution is to develop an elegant iterative algorithm that jointly optimizes the placement of nodes of the color LUT and the output values at those nodes to minimize interpolation error in an expected sense. This is in contrast to existing work, which exclusively designs either node locations or the output values. We also develop new analytical results for the problem of node location optimization, which reduces to constrained optimization of a large but sparse interpolation matrix in our framework. We evaluate our n -simplex color LUTs against the state-of-the-art lattice (e.g., International Color Consortium profiles) and simplex-based techniques for approximating two representative multidimensional color transforms that characterize a CMYK xerographic printer and an RGB scanner, respectively. The results show that color LUTs designed on simplexes offer very significant benefits over traditional lattice-based alternatives in improving color transform accuracy even with a much smaller number of nodes.

  16. Adaptive typography for dynamic mapping environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardon, Didier

    1991-08-01

    When typography moves across a map, it passes over areas of different colors, densities, and textures. In such a dynamic environment, the aspect of typography must be constantly adapted to provide disernibility for every new background. Adaptive typography undergoes two adaptive operations: background control and contrast control. The background control prevents the features of the map (edges, lines, abrupt changes of densities) from destroying the integrity of the letterform. This is achieved by smoothing the features of the map in the area where a text label is displayed. The modified area is limited to the space covered by the characters of the label. Dispositions are taken to insure that the smoothing operation does not introduce any new visual noise. The contrast control assures that there are sufficient lightness differences between the typography and its ever-changing background. For every new situation, background color and foreground color are compared and the foreground color lightness is adjusted according to a chosen contrast value. Criteria and methods of choosing the appropriate contrast value are presented as well as the experiments that led to them.

  17. The Standard, Power, and Color Model of Instrument Combination in Romantic-Era Symphonic Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolph Johnson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Standard, Power, and Color (SPC model describes the nexus between musical instrument combination patterns and expressive goals in music. Instruments within each SPC group tend to attract each other and work as a functional unit to create orchestral gestures. Standard instruments establish a timbral groundwork; Power instruments create contrast through loud dynamic climaxes; and Color instruments catch listeners’ attention by means of their sparing use. Examples within these three groups include violin (Standard, piccolo (Power, and harp (Color. The SPC theory emerges from analyses of nineteenth-century symphonic works. Multidimensional scaling analysis of instrument combination frequencies maps instrument relationships; hierarchical clustering analysis indicates three SPC groups within the map. The SPC characterization is found to be moderately robust through the results of hypothesis testing: (1 Color instruments are included less often in symphonic works; (2 when Color instruments are included, they perform less often than the average instrument; and (3 Color and non-Color instruments have equal numbers of solo occurrences. Additionally, (4 Power instruments are positively associated with louder dynamic levels; and (5 when Power instruments are present in the musical texture, the pitch range spanned by the entire orchestra does not become more extreme.

  18. Obtention of tumor volumes in PET images stacks using techniques of colored image segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Jose W.; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J.; Vieira, Igor F.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrated step by step how to segment color images of the chest of an adult in order to separate the tumor volume without significantly changing the values of the components R (Red), G (Green) and B (blue) of the colors of the pixels. For having information which allow to build color map you need to segment and classify the colors present at appropriate intervals in images. The used segmentation technique is to select a small rectangle with color samples in a given region and then erase with a specific color called 'rubber' the other regions of image. The tumor region was segmented into one of the images available and the procedure is displayed in tutorial format. All necessary computational tools have been implemented in DIP (Digital Image Processing), software developed by the authors. The results obtained, in addition to permitting the construction the colorful map of the distribution of the concentration of activity in PET images will also be useful in future work to enter tumors in voxel phantoms in order to perform dosimetric assessments

  19. Plasmonic Structural Colors for Plastic Consumer Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Today colorants, such as pigments or dyes, are used to color plastic-based consumer products, either as base for solid colored bulk polymer or in inks for surface decoration. After usage, the products must be mechanically sorted by color before recycling, limiting any large-scale efficient...... can be avoided in the recycling state. Plasmon color technology based on aluminum has recently been firmly established as a route towards structural coloring of polymeric materials. We report on the fabrication of colors by localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) using roll-to-roll printing...

  20. Colored Range Searching in Linear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Vind, Søren Juhl

    2014-01-01

    In colored range searching, we are given a set of n colored points in d ≥ 2 dimensions to store, and want to support orthogonal range queries taking colors into account. In the colored range counting problem, a query must report the number of distinct colors found in the query range, while...... an answer to the colored range reporting problem must report the distinct colors in the query range. We give the first linear space data structure for both problems in two dimensions (d = 2) with o(n) worst case query time. We also give the first data structure obtaining almost-linear space usage and o...

  1. Color diffusion in QCD transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selikhov, A.V.; Gyulassy, M.

    1993-01-01

    Color diffusion is shown to be an important dissipative property of quark-gluon plasmas with the characteristic color relaxation time scale, t c ∼ (3α s T log (m E /m M )) -1 , showing its sensitivity to the ratio of the static color electric and magnetic screening masses. Fokker-Planck equations are derived for QCD Wigner distributions taking into account quantum color dynamics. These equations show that the anomalously small color relaxation time leads to a small color conductivity and to strong damping of collective color modes

  2. A first generation integrated physical and genetic map of the rainbow trout genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rainbow trout physical map was previously constructed from DNA fingerprinting of 192,096 BAC clones using the 4-color high-information content fingerprinting (HICF) method. The clones were assembled into physical map contigs using the finger-printing contig (FPC) program. The map is composed of ...

  3. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  4. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  5. Necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data associated with geographic regions is nowadays globally available in large amounts and hence automated methods to visually display these data are in high demand. There are several well-established thematic map types for quantitative data on the ratio-scale associated with regions:

  6. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  7. Color image cryptosystem using Fresnel diffraction and phase modulation in an expanded fractional Fourier transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hang; Liu, Zhengjun; Chen, Qi; Blondel, Walter; Varis, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    In this letter, what we believe is a new technique for optical color image encryption by using Fresnel diffraction and a phase modulation in an extended fractional Fourier transform domain is proposed. Different from the RGB component separation based method, the color image is converted into one component by improved Chirikov mapping. The encryption system is addressed with Fresnel diffraction and phase modulation. A pair of lenses is placed into the fractional Fourier transform system for the modulation of beam propagation. The structure parameters of the optical system and parameters in Chirikov mapping serve as extra keys. Some numerical simulations are given to test the validity of the proposed cryptosystem.

  8. Schopenhauer on vision and the colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, R A

    1997-01-01

    Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) published his book, On Vision and the Colors in 1816. He started from Aristotle's linear color system and Goethe's three pairs of contrast colors. His work preceded Hering's theory of opponent colors but his path to insight was blocked by his anti-Newtonianism and his neo-Hellenistic attitude toward science. Because of his theory of the subjectivity of colors he was a forerunner of the psycho-physiological variant of neo-Kantianism.

  9. Cropping management using color and color infrared aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. Solving this equation yields the long-term average annual soil loss that can be expected from rill and inter-rill erosion. In this study, manual interpretation of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at the scale of 1:60,000 is used to determine the cropping management factor in the USLE. Accurate information was collected about plowing practices and crop residue cover (unharvested vegetation) for the winter season on agricultural land in Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  10. Color-Blind Racism, Color-Blind Theology, and Church Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Color-blind racism develops when persons ignore color in people and see them simply as individuals. As persons of color in racialized societies such as the United States are unequally treated on account of their color, the issue becomes a matter of faith and religious experience as religious leaders and educators, who disregard color, overlook…

  11. Color Degree Sum Conditions for Rainbow Triangles in Edge-Colored Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ruonan; Ning, Bo; Zhang, Shenggui

    Let G be an edge-colored graph and v a vertex of G. The color degree of v is the number of colors appearing on the edges incident to v. A rainbow triangle in G is one in which all edges have distinct colors. In this paper, we first prove that an edge-colored graph on n vertices contains a rainbow

  12. False Color Image of Volcano Sapas Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This false-color image shows the volcano Sapas Mons, which is located in the broad equatorial rise called Atla Regio (8 degrees north latitude and 188 degrees east longitude). The area shown is approximately 650 kilometers (404 miles) on a side. Sapas Mons measures about 400 kilometers (248 miles) across and 1.5 kilometers (0.9 mile) high. Its flanks show numerous overlapping lava flows. The dark flows on the lower right are thought to be smoother than the brighter ones near the central part of the volcano. Many of the flows appear to have been erupted along the flanks of the volcano rather than from the summit. This type of flank eruption is common on large volcanoes on Earth, such as the Hawaiian volcanoes. The summit area has two flat-topped mesas, whose smooth tops give a relatively dark appearance in the radar image. Also seen near the summit are groups of pits, some as large as one kilometer (0.6 mile) across. These are thought to have formed when underground chambers of magma were drained through other subsurface tubes and lead to a collapse at the surface. A 20 kilometer-diameter (12-mile diameter) impact crater northeast of the volcano is partially buried by the lava flows. Little was known about Atla Regio prior to Magellan. The new data, acquired in February 1991, show the region to be composed of at least five large volcanoes such as Sapas Mons, which are commonly linked by complex systems of fractures or rift zones. If comparable to similar features on Earth, Atla Regio probably formed when large volumes of molten rock upwelled from areas within the interior of Venus known as'hot spots.' Magellan is a NASA spacecraft mission to map the surface of Venus with imaging radar. The basic scientific instrument is a synthetic aperture radar, or SAR, which can look through the thick clouds perpetually shielding the surface of Venus. Magellan is in orbit around Venus which completes one turn around its axis in 243 Earth days. That period of time, one Venus day

  13. Lithological discrimination of accretionary complex (Sivas, northern Turkey) using novel hybrid color composites and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Mutlu; Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Özyavaş, Aziz

    2018-02-01

    One of the most appropriate approaches to better understand and interpret geologic evolution of an accretionary complex is to make a detailed geologic map. The fact that ophiolite sequences consist of various rock types may require a unique image processing method to map each ophiolite body. The accretionary complex in the study area is composed mainly of ophiolitic and metamorphic rocks along with epi-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks. This paper attempts to map the Late Cretaceous accretionary complex in detail in northern Sivas (within İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone in Turkey) by the analysis of all of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) bands and field study. The new two hybrid color composite images yield satisfactory results in delineating peridotite, gabbro, basalt, and epi-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks of the accretionary complex in the study area. While the first hybrid color composite image consists of one principle component (PC) and two band ratios (PC1, 3/4, 4/6 in the RGB), the PC5, the original ASTER band 4 and the 3/4 band ratio images were assigned to the RGB colors to generate the second hybrid color composite image. In addition to that, the spectral indices derived from the ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) bands discriminate clearly ultramafic, siliceous, and carbonate rocks from adjacent lithologies at a regional scale. Peridotites with varying degrees of serpentinization illustrated as a single color were best identified in the spectral indices map. Furthermore, the boundaries of ophiolitic rocks based on fieldwork were outlined in detail in some parts of the study area by superimposing the resultant maps of ASTER maps on Google Earth images of finer spatial resolution. Eventually, the encouraging geologic map generated by the image analysis of ASTER data strongly correlates with lithological boundaries from a field survey.

  14. Motor Oil Classification using Color Histograms and Pattern Recognition Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Shiva; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Habibi, Biuck

    2018-04-20

    Motor oil classification is important for quality control and the identification of oil adulteration. In thiswork, we propose a simple, rapid, inexpensive and nondestructive approach based on image analysis and pattern recognition techniques for the classification of nine different types of motor oils according to their corresponding color histograms. For this, we applied color histogram in different color spaces such as red green blue (RGB), grayscale, and hue saturation intensity (HSI) in order to extract features that can help with the classification procedure. These color histograms and their combinations were used as input for model development and then were statistically evaluated by using linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and support vector machine (SVM) techniques. Here, two common solutions for solving a multiclass classification problem were applied: (1) transformation to binary classification problem using a one-against-all (OAA) approach and (2) extension from binary classifiers to a single globally optimized multilabel classification model. In the OAA strategy, LDA, QDA, and SVM reached up to 97% in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for both the training and test sets. In extension from binary case, despite good performances by the SVM classification model, QDA and LDA provided better results up to 92% for RGB-grayscale-HSI color histograms and up to 93% for the HSI color map, respectively. In order to reduce the numbers of independent variables for modeling, a principle component analysis algorithm was used. Our results suggest that the proposed method is promising for the identification and classification of different types of motor oils.

  15. Colored Tensor Models - a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Gurau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Colored tensor models have recently burst onto the scene as a promising conceptual and computational tool in the investigation of problems of random geometry in dimension three and higher. We present a snapshot of the cutting edge in this rapidly expanding research field. Colored tensor models have been shown to share many of the properties of their direct ancestor, matrix models, which encode a theory of fluctuating two-dimensional surfaces. These features include the possession of Feynman graphs encoding topological spaces, a 1/N expansion of graph amplitudes, embedded matrix models inside the tensor structure, a resumable leading order with critical behavior and a continuum large volume limit, Schwinger-Dyson equations satisfying a Lie algebra (akin to the Virasoro algebra in two dimensions, non-trivial classical solutions and so on. In this review, we give a detailed introduction of colored tensor models and pointers to current and future research directions.

  16. Development of colored alumilite dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Yagi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yokoo, Noriko [Radiation Application Development Association, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor, which are installed in the vacuum vessel of the ITER, are maintained by remote handling equipment (RH equipment). The RH equipment for maintenance is operated under sever environmental conditions, such as high temperature (50{approx}100 degC), high gamma-ray radiation ({approx}1 kGy/h) in an atmosphere of inert gas or vacuum; therefore many components of the RH equipment must have a suitable radiation resistance efficiency for long time operation (10{approx}100 MGy). Typical components of the RH equipment have been extensively tested under an intensive gamma-ray radiation. Monitoring of the radiation dose of the components of the RH equipment is essential to control the operation period of the RH equipment considering radiation resistance. However, the maximum measurable radiation dose of the conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chamber, liquid, glass and plastic dosimeters are limited to be approximately 1MGy which is too low to monitor the RH equipment for the ITER. In addition, these conventional dosimeters do not involve sufficient radiation resistance against the high gamma-ray radiation as well as are not easy handling and low cost. Based on the above backgrounds, a new dosimeter with bleaching of an azo group dye to be applied to a radiation monitor has been developed for high gamma-ray radiation use. The colored alumilite dosimeter is composed of the azo group dye (-N=N-) in an anodic oxidation layer of aluminum alloy (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). It can monitor the radiation dose by measuring the change of the bleaching of azo dye in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer due to gamma-ray irradiation. The degree of bleaching is measured as the change of hue (color) and brightness based on the Munsell's colors with a three dimensional universe using spectrophotometer. In the tests, the dependencies such as colors, anodized layer thickness, type of azo

  17. Methods for computing color anaglyphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, David F.; Zhou, Ya; Sullivan, Sophia

    2010-02-01

    A new computation technique is presented for calculating pixel colors in anaglyph images. The method depends upon knowing the RGB spectral distributions of the display device and the transmission functions of the filters in the viewing glasses. It requires the solution of a nonlinear least-squares program for each pixel in a stereo pair and is based on minimizing color distances in the CIEL*a*b* uniform color space. The method is compared with several techniques for computing anaglyphs including approximation in CIE space using the Euclidean and Uniform metrics, the Photoshop method and its variants, and a method proposed by Peter Wimmer. We also discuss the methods of desaturation and gamma correction for reducing retinal rivalry.

  18. The interaction between surface color and color knowledge: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramão, Inês; Faísca, Luís; Forkstam, Christian; Inácio, Filomena; Araújo, Susana; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate the contribution of surface color and color knowledge information in object identification. We constructed two color-object verification tasks - a surface and a knowledge verification task - using high color diagnostic objects; both typical and atypical color versions of the same object were presented. Continuous electroencephalogram was recorded from 26 subjects. A cluster randomization procedure was used to explore the differences between typical and atypical color objects in each task. In the color knowledge task, we found two significant clusters that were consistent with the N350 and late positive complex (LPC) effects. Atypical color objects elicited more negative ERPs compared to typical color objects. The color effect found in the N350 time window suggests that surface color is an important cue that facilitates the selection of a stored object representation from long-term memory. Moreover, the observed LPC effect suggests that surface color activates associated semantic knowledge about the object, including color knowledge representations. We did not find any significant differences between typical and atypical color objects in the surface color verification task, which indicates that there is little contribution of color knowledge to resolve the surface color verification. Our main results suggest that surface color is an important visual cue that triggers color knowledge, thereby facilitating object identification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Coloring your information: How designers use Theory of Color in creative ways to present infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, C. R.; Fuad, A.

    2017-12-01

    Various methods of data presentation is now visualized through engaging infographics and perform the presentation techniques a new kind of storytelling. Geometric elements for infographics perform interesting data, which is developed with color harmony. There are categories of colors based on color circle from the theory of color design: primary color, secondary color and tertiary color. This color circle allows a designer to visualize the balance and harmony of colors when they are side by side. These composition of colors can be formed as a harmonious dyad, triad, or tetrads. A harmonious dyad is formed from two diametrically opposed colors on the color circle, which known as contrast complementary and works best in color harmonious if one of the colors is dominant. A harmonious triad is represented by three colors from the color circle which positions with an equilateral triangle. An triangle of yellow-red-blue shows the most powerful of harmonious triad and call as the fundamental triad. A harmonious tetrad is developed from two pairs of complementary colors, which can be formed by rectangle or square on the color circle. It help to figure out how objects are connected on presenting data. To create an efficiency infographic, presenting data has to prepare with some strategic. The color circle has the power to perform the infographic when it is made for a fascinating design.

  20. Coloring and The Lonely Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Rabern, Landon

    2007-01-01

    We improve upper bounds on the chromatic number proven independently in \\cite{reedNote} and \\cite{ingo}. Our main lemma gives a sufficient condition for two paths in graph to be completely joined. Using this, we prove that if a graph has an optimal coloring with more than $\\frac{\\omega}{2}$ singleton color classes, then it satisfies $\\chi \\leq \\frac{\\omega + \\Delta + 1}{2}$. It follows that a graph satisfying $n - \\Delta < \\alpha + \\frac{\\omega - 1}{2}$ must also satisfy $\\chi \\leq \\frac{\\ome...