WorldWideScience

Sample records for hu-25 guardian aircraft

  1. Flight Testing Surfaces Engineered for Mitigating Insect Adhesion on a Falcon HU-25C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Michelle; Wohl, Chris J.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Penner, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Insect residue contamination on aircraft wings can decrease fuel efficiency in aircraft designed for natural laminar flow. Insect residues can cause a premature transition to turbulent flow, increasing fuel burn and making the aircraft less environmentally friendly. Surfaces, designed to minimize insect residue adhesion, were evaluated through flight testing on a Falcon HU-25C aircraft flown along the coast of Virginia and North Carolina. The surfaces were affixed to the wing leading edge and the aircraft remained at altitudes lower than 1000 feet throughout the flight to assure high insect density. The number of strikes on the engineered surfaces was compared to, and found to be lower than, untreated aluminum control surfaces flown concurrently. Optical profilometry was used to determine insect residue height and areal coverage. Differences in results between flight and laboratory tests suggest the importance of testing in realistic use environments to evaluate the effectiveness of engineered surface designs.

  2. Guardians of 'the gift'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja M. B.

    2017-01-01

    . They must take the difficult decisions of whether to admit critically ill patients onto the organ waiting list; face the distress of post-transplant sufferings and deaths; and deal with organ recipients who do not behave according to post-transplant recommendations. Drawing on a familiar metaphor...... for donated organs, it is suggested that transplant doctors and nurses are ‘guardians of the gift’. Attention to the emotional burdens and rewards of this particular position enables new understandings of the practices of transplant medicine, of gift exchange theory, and of the role of emotion in medical......This paper deals with the emotional challenges encountered by doctors and nurses caring for heart and lung transplant patients. Organ transplantation enables body parts from the dead to become usable in patients with no other life-saving option. These exchanges are not possible without transplant...

  3. Blue Guardian: open architecture intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Russell G.; Borntrager, Luke A.; Soine, Andrew T.; Green, David M.

    2017-04-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) - Sensors Directorate has developed the Blue Guardian program to demonstrate advanced sensing technology utilizing open architectures in operationally relevant environments. Blue Guardian has adopted the core concepts and principles of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office (AFRCO) Open Mission Systems (OMS) initiative to implement an open Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platform architecture. Using this new OMS standard provides a business case to reduce cost and program schedules for industry and the Department of Defense (DoD). Blue Guardian is an early adopting program of OMS and provides much needed science and technology improvements, development, testing, and implementation of OMS for ISR purposes. This paper presents results and lessons learned under the Blue Guardian Project Shepherd program which conducted Multi-INT operational demonstrations in the Joint Interagency Task Force - South (JIATF-S) and USSOUTHCOM area of operations in early 2016. Further, on-going research is discussed to enhance Blue Guardian Multi-INT ISR capabilities to support additional mission sets and platforms, including unmanned operations over line of sight (LOS) and beyond line of sight (BLOS) datalinks. An implementation of additional OMS message sets and services to support off-platform sensor command and control using OMS/UCI data structures and dissemination of sensor product data/metadata is explored. Lastly, the Blue Guardian team is working with the AgilePod program to use OMS in a full Government Data Rights Pod to rapidly swap these sensors to different aircraft. The union of the AgilePod (which uses SOSA compliant standards) and OMS technologies under Blue Guardian programs is discussed.

  4. Guardians of the ERAD Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihao; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2017-10-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway facilitates the disposal of terminally misfolded proteins in the early secretory pathway yet spares folding intermediates from being destroyed. Zhang et al. report on a protein complex that acts as a guardian to protect these folding intermediates from being targeted for ERAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  6. 38 CFR 8.32 - Authority of the guardian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of the guardian. 8.32 Section 8.32 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.32 Authority of the guardian. What actions does a guardian have the authority to take for insurance purposes? The...

  7. Evaluating Potential Guardians for Adults Adjudicated Incompetent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakis, George J

    2016-09-01

    Despite the considerable interest from psychology and law in how to assess and conceptualized competency issues, relatively little has been written about guardianship, particularly how to best evaluate guardianship candidates. This is problematic because a guardian is assigned once an individual is adjudicated incompetent and decision-making about this is difficult in some cases. As psychologists have much to offer the court in making recommendations about a suitable guardian, the purpose of this article is to provide specific recommendation in domains to assess in an interview with a potential guardian. Domains that should be assessed include the following: relationship with proposed ward, knowledge and insight about proposed ward, guardianship plans, decision-making style, and suitability for guardianship. Recommendations are also provided for especially difficult cases such as when working with families in conflict, the presence of undue influence, and when a family member or friend is pitted against a disinterested public agency. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Motives for Taking Orphan Children into a Foster (Guardian) Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, T. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Research in Russia on the opinions of guardians and experts of the department of guardianship examines the motives that people have for taking orphan children into their homes. The data indicate that about 80 percent of the guardians are grandmothers taking care of their grandchildren, whose parents have been stripped of their parental rights.…

  9. On beliefs in non-shamanic guardian spirits among Saamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Hultkrantz

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Often the saiva (or saivo spirits have been defined as the guardian and helping spirits of the shaman. In this way, Saami shamanism appears as a counterpart to shamanism in Siberia and North America where guardian-spirit beliefs have similarly played a distinctive role. These beliefs should be considered as one of the constituent elements of shamanism. However, the concept of guardian spirits is not necessarily limited to shamans. The intention of this paper is to try to prove the occurrence of a non-shamanic guardian-spirit belief among the Saamis, and to discuss its religio-historical import. Apparently not only shamans but also other Saamis formerly owned guardian spirits that were handed down in the family. Among the western Saamis these spirits were anthropomorphic (if we may believe the sources, among the eastern Skolt Saamis they were zoomorphic. There is also some information on the purchase of guardian spirits. It seems, furthermore, that some persons—not just the shamans—could achieve guardian spirits through their own efforts. The reasons why the occurrence of this non-shamanic guardian-spirit belief has been so slightly dealt with by research are in particular the following. Firstly, scholarly interest has been directed towards shamanism and the role of the guardian spirits within the shamanic complex. Secondly, the early source writers turned primarily to the shamans in order to secure information on Saami religion, and the shamans of course described saivo from their own points of interest. Seen from a comprehensive circumpolar and circumboreal perspective, the Saami saivo complex may be interpreted as a European counterpart to the North American Indian belief in guardian spirits.

  10. Guardians' Knowledge and Husbandry Practices of Feline Environmental Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Pontes, Joana; Pomba, Constança

    2016-01-01

    Feline environmental enrichment can prevent numerous disorders including anxiety, stress, obesity, and feline idiopathic cystitis. Despite its easy implementation and low cost, it has received little attention. The main goal of this study was to assess guardians' knowledge concerning feline environmental enrichment and husbandry practices. A questionnaire was given to 130 companion animal guardians at the Lisbon Veterinary Faculty's Teaching Hospital. The applications of 22 environmental enrichment measures related to food/water, litter box, and space/entertainment areas were evaluated. The majority of the households studied (74.6%) had a moderately enriched environment. Hygiene-related measures were those most adopted by guardians, while those requiring guardians' commitment or previous awareness were the least implemented. A rating scale was proposed and applied to assess feline domestic environmental quality.

  11. Fabiola Gianotti is one of The Guardian's "most inspirational women"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Fabiola Gianotti, spokesperson for the ATLAS experiment, was named one of the world’s 100 most inspirational women by The Guardian newspaper. The list was drawn up in celebration of the International Women’s Day on 8 March.    

  12. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents/guardians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 75% of the parents/guardians gave positive responses in regard to maintaining teeth for life for themselves and for their children. A moderate number of respondents 75(43.1%) reported supervising their children during tooth brushing. However, majority (92%) said that their children brushed less than twice a day.

  13. Retrospective analysis of guardians' perceptions of cognitively impaired elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisensee, M G; Kjervik, D K; Anderson, J B

    1992-01-01

    The increased number of elderly persons who will become cognitively impaired in the near future is a cause for concern to all in the health care professions. Even though the final determination of incapacity and incompetency is a legal decision, input from health care professionals is weighed heavily by courts. Health professionals can have influence at the clinical level and also at the level of influencing social policy. Nurses rely on input from the assessments of informal caregivers. This research was conducted to determine guardians' perceptions of important criteria on the Incompetency Assessment Scale. Eleven guardians, a majority of whom were daughters of the elderly wards, perceived 9 of the 22 criteria on the IAS as important or very important to the question of incompetency. All nine criteria are found in Minnesota's statutory definition of incompetency, and also appear in the first two levels of the Maslow hierarchy of needs. Further research is recommended to develop a weighting or clustering of criteria to more accurately ascertain the way that incompetency judgments are made by guardians and other caregivers.

  14. The Needs-Based Assessment of Parental (Guardian) Support: a test of its validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M; Leah Lamb, J; Gradante, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a newly developed measure of guardian support, the Needs-Based Assessment of Parental (Guardian) Support (NAPS), an empirical evaluation of that measure, and its comparison with another measure of guardian support. The theoretical model that underlies this measure applies humanistic theory and Maslow's hierarchy of needs to the understanding of guardian support. The study employed a cross-sectional nonexperimental survey design using 183 nonoffending guardians who accompanied children presenting for a medical/forensic examination for sexual abuse. The NAPS and an existing measure of guardian support were administered during the hospital outpatient visit, and basic information concerning the child and abuse situations were gathered. The NAPS had robust psychometric properties and was culturally sensitive. Tests of specific hypotheses supported the construct validity of the measure and a conceptualization of guardian support as hierarchical, with four stages of support. The brevity and ease of administration of the NAPS for both the clinician and guardian suggest that it is a viable assessment tool. The strong support for the NAPS' underlying theoretical model suggests that the nonoffending guardians' available resources need to be considered when assessing guardian support.

  15. Direct messaging to parents/guardians to improve adolescent immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shain, David S; Stager, Margaret M; Runkle, Anne P; Leon, Janeen B; Kaelber, David C

    2015-05-01

    To study the impact on adolescent immunization rates of direct messages to parents/guardians. Electronic health record rules identified adolescents needing an immunization. Parents/guardians of adolescents were messaged via a single vendor using automated text, prerecorded voice, and/or postcard. Parents/guardians of 3,393 patients, ages 11-18 years, with one or more primary care visits in the prior 2 years, identified as needing (average of 2.04 years) a vaccination (meningococcal conjugate, human papillomavirus, or tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccines) were messaged (mean age, 14 years; 50% male; 38% African-American; 23% white; 19% Hispanic; and 79% public health insurance). A total of 7,094 messages were sent: 3,334 automated voice (47%), 2,631 texts (37%), and 1,129 postcards (16%). After the first message, 865 adolescents (25.5%) received at least one vaccine. Within 24 weeks of messaging 1,324 vaccines (745 human papillomavirus; 403 meningococcal conjugate; and 176 tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccines) occurred in 959 visits (83.8% physician visits and 16.2% nurse visits). Average visits generated $204 gross reimbursement for $1.77 in messaging expenses per vaccine given. No differences in immunization completion rates occurred by age, gender, race/ethnicity, or insurance type. At 24 weeks, one message was more effective than two or three messages (35.6%, 19.4%, and 24.1% effectiveness, respectively; p adolescents needing vaccination and required minimal financial expenditure. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Guardian. Volume 10, Number 2, Winter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    against civilian aircraft include a missile strike on a DHL cargo aircraft in 20034 and an attempted missile strike on an Israeli airliner in...9B05E0D9163 FF93AA25755C0A9649C8B63 4 Space Daily. “ DHL Aircraft Hit by Missile over Baghdad Had Lost All Hydraulics.” December 8, 2003. Available at http...Many, if not all, of the Taliban militants that escaped from prison linked up with Taliban forces in Arghandab to reinforce their troop strength . If

  17. 38 CFR 14.634 - Banks or trust companies acting as guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banks or trust companies... Practice and Information Concerning Fees, 38 U.s.c. 5901-5905 § 14.634 Banks or trust companies acting as guardians. Banks or trust companies, corporate entities, acting as guardians for claimants, may be...

  18. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of visa...

  19. Guardian Industries Corp. to Cut Harmful Air Pollution at Flat Glass Manufacturing Plants in Seven States

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) today announced a settlement with Guardian Industries Corp. that will resolve alleged violations of the Clean Air Act at Guardian's flat glass manu

  20. 76 FR 19472 - Consolidated Glass and Mirror Corporation, a Subsidiary of Guardian Industries Corporation, Galax...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... stated ``Guardian is a diversified global manufacturing company * * * Guardian * * * operates facilities throughout North America, Europe, South America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.'' During the... to apply for TAA and conducted business with the subject firm during the relevant period. Information...

  1. U.S. EPA Requires Guardian Industries Corp. to Cut Harmful Air Pollution at Glass Manufacturing Plants in Seven States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOS ANGELES --The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Justice today announced a settlement with Guardian Industries Corp. that will resolve a Clean Air Act enforcement action involving Guardian's flat glass manufacturing facilit

  2. [Effect of pretreatment education of the guardians of children's behavior during dental treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Zhang, Sun

    2012-02-18

    To assess the effect of the pretreatment education of the guardians on the children's and guardian's behavior during dental treatment. The study group included 235 children aged 2-8 years who received dental treatment in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. Interviews were conducted with accompanying guardians to collect information of children and their guardians, including parent's Corah Dental Anxiety Scale. The guardians were randomly divided into two groups. Group I was control group in which the guardians received a pamphlet about how to clean children's teeth, group II was the education group in which the guardians received a pamphlet about how to help a child to cooperate with the dentist during dental treatment. Children's heart rate was recorded at different time points: before the treatment, at local anesthesia (LA), during the treatment and at the end of the treatment. Children's dental behavior was rated by a modified Venham's clinical anxiety scale and a cooperative behavior rating scale. The guardian's tension was sorted into four levels and the characteristics of their language were recorded. Among the 235 children, 131 were boys and 104 were girls with mean age of 4.35 years, and 165 children were treated under LA. The group I included 129 children and 95 children were treated with LA. The group II included 106 children and 70 children were treated with LA. The children's behavior in group II was better than that in group I(χ(2)=4.56, P=0.033). The guardians in group II were more relaxed than in group I at all the four times points: Beginning (Z=-2.581, P=0.01), LA (Z=-3.613, P=0.002), Treatment (Z=-3.096, P=0.002), Whole (Z=-3.042, P=0.002); and more positive language were used in group II at three times points: LA (χ(2)=15.57, Peducation for guardians before dental treatment may improve children's dental behavior and guardians' tension in dental treatment.

  3. 'There isn't anything like a GAL': The Guardian ad litem Service in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hamilton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of the guardian ad litem service in Ireland within the context of public law proceedings. In the first part, the role of the guardian ad litem in Irish courts is outlined and this is followed by a discussion of the broader legal context informing the right of children to be heard in Irish courts. The article discusses some of the concerns about the lack of statutory regulation, standards and structure in the Irish guardian ad litem system. The tension inherent in expressing the wishes and views of children while making recommendations regarding their welfare and best interests is also considered. The article concludes with the view that giving children a statutory right to be heard which is not supported with adequate resources and proper frameworks is of limited value.

  4. Aircraft Disinsection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some countries may require aircraft coming from countries where certain insects or insect-borne diseases are present, such as malaria and Zika virus, to be treated with insecticide. Find out about regulation of pesticides for this treatment.

  5. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  6. Trace Gas Retrievals from the GeoTASO Aircraft Instrument During the DISCOVER-AQ Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Liu, C.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Delker, T.; Good, W. S.; Murcray, F.; Ruppert, L.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is a recently-developed passive remote sensing instrument capable of making 2-D measurements of trace gases from aircraft. GeoTASO was developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator program and is a test-bed instrument for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) decadal survey and the upcoming Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite missions. The instrument collects spectra of backscattered UV-visible radiation for the detection of tropospheric trace gases such as NO2, ozone, formaldehyde and SO2. GeoTASO flew on the NASA HU-25C Falcon aircraft during the 2013 (Texas) and 2014 (Colorado) DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns, making satellite-analog measurements of trace gases at a spatial resolution of approximately 500x500 m over urban areas, power plants and other industrial sources of pollution. We present the GeoTASO retrieval algorithms, trace gas measurement results, and validation comparisons with ground-based observations and other aircraft instruments during these campaigns.

  7. But is this really the 'parent' or 'guardian'? Practical strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [7,9] Finally, a caregiver is a person who cares for a child with the implied or express consent of a parent or guardian and can include, for example, a foster parent, an aunt or a grandparent.[7,9]. • Research staff should ask questions to establish the nature of the relationship between the child and the accompanying adult, in.

  8. Los repositorios de información, guardianes de la memoria digital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Rodríguez Bravo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el papel de los archivos como guardianes de la memoria digital y productores de información web. Se aborda el reto que los repositorios digitales constituyen en la conservación de los recursos digitales, dando un repaso a los modelos y principales proyectos desarrollados, principalmente en el entorno de las Bibliotecas Nacionales.

  9. 75 FR 60138 - Consolidated Glass and Mirror Corporation, a Subsidiary of Guardian Industries Corporation, Galax...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Consolidated Glass and Mirror Corporation, a Subsidiary of Guardian... (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Consolidated Glass and Mirror Corporation, a... glass products. The negative determination was based on the findings that the subject firm did not...

  10. Galveston Bay Foundation Receives Second Place Gulf Guardian Award in the Civic/Non Profit Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (July 30, 2015) The Gulf of Mexico Program recently announced Galveston Bay Foundation (GBF) will receive a Second Place 2015 Gulf Guardian Award in the Civic/Non Profit Category. The awards ceremony will be held on July 30, 2015, at the Te

  11. Guardians' Perceptions of Dogs' Welfare and Behaviors Related to Visiting the Veterinary Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariti, Chiara; Pierantoni, Ludovica; Sighieri, Claudio; Gazzano, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    A large survey of Italian dog guardians (n = 906) was conducted to assess dog behavior and welfare at the veterinary clinic and to investigate how guardians and veterinarians affect them. This study confirmed that the veterinary clinic is a source of stress for most dogs, who showed impaired welfare in all phases: in the waiting room, entering the examination room, on the examination table, and when approached by the vet. This study also characterizes some factors related to the guardians' and veterinarians' behavior that affect the dogs' behavior and welfare during the veterinary examination. If dogs had not been examined by a vet since puppyhood, if they did not accept treatments by their guardians, and if they were scolded when refusing a treatment, the risk for having problems with dog welfare and behavior at the veterinary clinic increased. The attention paid by the vet to the dog was found to be positively related with a good response of the dog to the vet. Prevention seems to be the key for the protection of dog welfare related to veterinary care.

  12. A Tale of Two Stories from “Below the Line” : Comment Fields at the Guardian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, Todd; Wright, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the nature of debate on “below the line” comment fields at the UK’s Guardian, and how, if at all, such debates are impacting journalism practice. The article combines a content analysis of 3792 comments across 85 articles that focused on the UN Climate Change Summit, with 10

  13. Dr. Richard D. Gragg III to Receive Third Place Gulf Guardian Award in the Individual Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, the Gulf of Mexico Program announced that Dr. Richard D. Schulterbrandt Gragg III will receive a Third Place 2015 Gulf Guardian Award in the Individual Category. The award will be given tonight at an awards ceremony at the Texas State Aqua

  14. But is this really the 'parent' or 'guardian'? Practical strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detail is not contained in current ethical guidelines[3] nor recent regulations issued by the Minister of Health.[8]. Implementing a parent and/or guardian consent approach. In our view, taking reasonable steps to implement a parental or guar dianship consent strategy means the following: • Researchers should be aware of ...

  15. Knowledge of parents or guardians about children’s bronchial asthma. Participation of a nurse in health education of parents or guardians and a sick child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Langier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research: To verify and assess the influence of the level of parental/guardian knowledge about a child’s bronchial asthma on the effectiveness of treatment and to define the role of health education in chronic bronchial asthma and participation of a nurse in education of parents/guardians of a child suffering from asthma. Material and methods : The method used in this thesis was a diagnostic survey. The research technique was questionnaire. The tool used in the research was a questionnaire form which consisted of 30 questions preceded by instructions. The survey was carried out among 75 parents of sick children. Results: Parental knowledge concerning children’s illness is not satisfactory, although they declare they have appropriate, good knowledge about this illness. Conclusions : Based on the analysis of the results of the research which was carried out, it is stated that because of the chronic nature of bronchial asthma it is necessary to include health education into comprehensive treatment and nursing procedures concerning children with bronchial asthma. It is also stated that participation of a well-qualified nurse in the education process is essential. It is observed that the level of parental knowledge does not depend on the length of the illness but on the effectiveness of health education. A satisfactory level of parental knowledge influences the effectiveness of treatment of bronchial asthma as an important part in prevention of exacerbations and complications.

  16. Assessment of Guardian Peach Rootstock for Resistance to Two Isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A P; Pinochet, J

    2001-12-01

    Guardian, Lovell, and Nemaguard peach rootstocks were evaluated for their susceptibility and growth response to two isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus. One nematode isolate was obtained from peach in Georgia (P. vulnus [GA-isolate]) and the other from apple in Idaho (P. vulnus [ID-isolate]). Nematode reproduction and pathogenicity as related to rootstock were determined 29 months after inoculation in outdoor microplots. All rootstocks were susceptible to both nematode isolates. Guardian supported a greater number of nematodes per gram dry root weight than Lovell or Nemaguard rootstocks. All rootstocks supported greater numbers of P. vulnus (GA-isolate) than P. vulnus (ID-isolate). Tree growth among the three rootstocks was similar in the presence of either P. vulnus isolate, but growth suppression was greatest in P. vulnus (GA-isolate) plots, intermediate in P. vulnus (ID-isolate) plots, and least in the uninoculated plots.

  17. Spreadsheet Guardian: An Approach to Protecting Semantic Correctness throughout the Evolution of Spreadsheets

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesz, Daniel; Käfer, Verena; Wagner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Spreadsheets are powerful tools which play a business-critical role in many organizations. However, many bad decisions taken due to faulty spreadsheets show that these tools need serious quality assurance. Furthermore, while collaboration on spreadsheets for maintenance tasks is common, there has been almost no support for ensuring that the spreadsheets remain correct during this process. We have developed an approach named Spreadsheet Guardian which separates the specification of spreadsheet...

  18. Perceptions and attitudes among parents and guardians on the use of pediatric medicines and their cariogenic and erosive potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beatriz Gonçalves Neves; Viviane Santos daSilva Pierro; Lucianne Cople Maia

    2007-01-01

      The study assesses the perceptions of parents/guardians on the use of pediatric medicines and their cariogenic/erosive potential, interviewing them on the relationship between the use of pediatric...

  19. Prevention nearby: the influence of the presence of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. Using data obtained on crime events from adult child sexual offenders incarcerated in Queensland (Australia), mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of potential guardianship on the severity of abuse. Controlling for victim and situational characteristics, the analyses showed that the presence of a potential guardian reduced the duration of sexual contact and the occurrence of penetration. Presence of a potential guardian decreased the risk of sexual penetration by 86%. The study highlights the importance of the presence of a potential guardian for reducing the severity of child sexual abuse, and suggests more broadly that guardianship may be an important protective factor in sexual offending. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Evaluation of parents/guardian knowledge about the bruxism of their children: Family knowledge of bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Maria Serra-Negra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Bruxism is the habitual, involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that affects both children and adults. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge parents/guardians have about the bruxism of their children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was developed for 221 parents/guardians of patients of the pediatric dentist in the Faculty of Dentistry of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A previously tested questionnaire, based on the criteria of the American Association of Sleep Medicine (AASM, was used to collect data from the participants in the waiting room of the clinics involved. Descriptive analysis was elaborated and the chi-squared test was applied (level of significance of 5% using statistical software SPSS 17.0. Results: The majority of the participants were mothers of the patients (84.2%. The mean age of the parents/guardians was 36.6 years. The mean age of children was 7.6 years. In total, 76.6% of the mothers, 40.2% of the fathers, and 48% of the children reported having bruxism. The participants believed that bruxism was associated with emotional factors (63.8% and/or mystical factors (20.4%. The majority reported having sought help from doctors (54.4%, followed by mystics (20.4% and dentists (19.1%. A statistically significant association was found between bruxism and children with restless sleep (P < 0.001 and in cases where both the parents and children were affected by bruxism (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Families require greater clarification regarding the factors that trigger bruxism.

  1. AirGuardian – UAV Hardware and Software System for Small Size UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Stojcsics

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AirGuardian is a complex of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and ground station UAV hardware and software systems which has been developed at Obuda University. The hardware and software of the autopilot (AERObot, the antenna tracker station and the ground control station were simultaneously created resulting in the optimal cooperation of the modules. The aim of the research on AERObot – the special autopilot – was to create a generic autopilot which is capable of controlling different designs, weights and structures of airframes without any complex mathematical model recalculation.

  2. IMPACT OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AND THEIR GUARDIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Amanda Letícia Bezerra; de Araújo, Filipe Moreira; dos Santos, Maria Amélia Lopes; dos Santos, Alex de Assis Santos; Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of atopic dermatitis on the quality of life of pediatric patients in the age group of 5-16 years, and their parents, assisted at the Dermatology Department of Universidade do Estado do Pará in 2015. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 51 patients and their guardians, to whom two questionnaires about the quality of life were applied, the Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the Dermatitis Family Impact (DFI). To evaluate the severity of the disease, the researchers applied the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) evaluated the correlation between CDLQI, DFI, SCORAD, and the contingency coefficient C evaluated the association between the qualitative variables, considering p<0.05 significant. Results: Of the patients, 55% were female. The average age was 9.5±3.2 years, and 41% had family income up ≤1 minimum wage. The average score was 5.4±5.1 for CDLQI, 6.6±4.5 for DFI, and 28.3±19.8 for SCORAD. The correlation among the scores CDLQI, DFI, and SCORAD was significant by the PPMCC (p<0,001). Conclusions: Atopic dermatitis affects the quality of life of both children and their guardians, and indicates the importance of including the study of quality of life as a complement to clinical evaluation. PMID:28977306

  3. A process evaluation of the UK-wide Antibiotic Guardian campaign: developing engagement on antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Alex; Hopkins, Susan; Sallis, Anna; Budd, Emma L; Ashiru-Oredope, Diane

    2017-06-01

    Public Health England developed and led a new UK-wide pledge campaign aiming to improve behaviours around the prudent use and prescription of antibiotics. This paper presents a process evaluation for the first season of the campaign to determine the impact of the campaign and inform future campaigns. Data were collected from AntibioticGuardian.com and Google analytics between August 2014 and January 2015. The primary outcome was the decision to pledge and was assessed according to target audience, location, source and route of referral to the website. There were 47 158 unique visits to the website and 12 509 visitors made a pledge (26.5%) to become Antibiotic Guardians (AGs); 69% were healthcare professionals. Social media directed the most traffic to the website (24% of the public that signed up cited social media as how they discovered the campaign), other acquisition routes such as self-directed, email or website referral, were more effective at encouraging visitors to pledge. The campaign completed its goal of 10 000 AGs in the first year. Further work is required to improve engagement with target audiences and determine whether this campaign has an impact on antibiotic consumption and prescribing behaviour among the public and healthcare professionals.

  4. Descriptive analysis of narrative photojournalism in two digital newspapers: Folha de Sao Paulo and The Guardian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín López Del Ramo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the paucity of studies in this field, this paper seeks to develop an analysis of new products in the digital news media’s narrative photojournalism, its components and substantive aspects, focusing on digital newspapers Folha de Sao Paulo and The Guardian. The sample consists of 35 pieces with a total of 899 photographs, of which 351 (39.1% correspond to Folha de Sao Paulo and 548 (60.9% to The Guardian. Drawing on a content analysis methodology, a self-designed record is used with indicators that are seldom referred to in studies on photography, such as structural design, functionality or integration of multimedia content. The results indicate that these products have different formats and configurations, possess a clear structure, are of a medium-high length, and contain simple functionality. A good hierarchical organization, variety, large size and high-quality images provide a strong visual impact. The textual elements complement and clarify the logical meaning of the story. The inclusion of audiovisual content and links is discreet but well contextualized. All this represents a significant aesthetic-communicative advance as compared to the conventional treatment of photography in the digital press.

  5. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  6. Which bank? A guardian model for regulation of embryonic stem cell research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, A

    2007-08-01

    In late 2005 the Legislation Review: Prohibition of Human Cloning Act 2002 (Cth) and the Research Involving Human Embryos Act 2002 (Cth) recommended the establishment of an Australian stem cell bank. This article aims to address a lack of discussion of issues surrounding stem cell banking by suggesting possible answers to the questions of whether Australia should establish a stem cell bank and what its underlying philosophy and functions should be. Answers are developed through an analysis of regulatory, scientific and intellectual property issues relating to embryonic stem cell research in the United Kingdom, United States and Australia. This includes a detailed analysis of the United Kingdom Stem Cell Bank. It is argued that a "guardian" model stem cell bank should be established in Australia. This bank would aim to promote the maximum public benefit from human embryonic stem cell research by providing careful regulatory oversight and addressing ethical issues, while also facilitating research by addressing practical scientific concerns and intellectual property issues.

  7. Representing, Narrating, and Translating the Syrian Humanitarian Disaster in The Guardian and The New York Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Jaber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars have attempted to understand certain aspects of translation and its fundamental role in constituting reality and representing the Other during media news coverage of international events. However, translation is often an invisible activity during such coverage. The relationship between translation and representation of the Other in the global media and news texts raises ethical questions about translation and textual manipulation. This dilemma is reinforced by the media’s selection of specific quotations and narratives for translating and publishing. It also imposes the question of media responsibility and translators’ ethics towards representing the Other, especially when the media deal with international events. The majority of media codes of ethics do not mention translation as a fundamental factor in ensuring and maintaining news accuracy and objectivity as well as fair representation of the Other. This paper scrutinizes media responsibility and translation ethics based on The Guardian and The New York Times’ representation of the Syrian humanitarian disaster (SHD as embedded in the translated quotations and narratives told by Syrian citizen journalists (residents, refugees, protesters, eyewitnesses, and activists. To do so, it draws on Mona Baker’s narrative theory, on Stuart Hall and Edward Said’s theory of representation, and on media responsibility and translation ethics theoretical approaches. Accordingly, the corpus consists of 326 news texts distributed as follows: 177 news texts from The Guardian and 149 news texts from The New York Times. This represents a three-year timeframe of the SHD, from March 2011 to February 2014. The findings provide further understanding of the media’s responsibility in representing the events of the Other and translation ethical practices in the text.

  8. Homebuilt aircraft crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselquist, A; Baker, S P

    1999-06-01

    While the number of general aviation crashes has decreased over the 5 yr prior to 1993, the total number of homebuilt aircraft crashes has increased by nearly 25%. Research was undertaken to analyze these crashes and identify causal factors or unique problems associated with homebuilt aircraft. Some 200 National Transportation Safety Board computer records and two-page descriptive briefs were analyzed for homebuilt aircraft crashes during 1993. Using descriptive epidemiology, variables were looked at in detail and comparisons were made with general aviation crashes during the-same year. Despite accounting for only 3% of all hours flown in general aviation certified aircraft for 1993, homebuilt aircraft accounted for 10% of the crashes and experienced a higher fatal crash rate. Crashes due to mechanical failure and crashes on takeoff and climb were more common in homebuilt aircraft as compared with general aviation. Other significant causal factors for homebuilt aircraft crashes included: minimal flight time in type specific aircraft, improper maintenance and improper design or assembly. Greater emphasis needs to be placed on educating homebuilt aircraft owners in the importance of following Federal Aviation Administration guidelines for certification and air worthiness testing. Understanding the aircraft's specifications and design limitations prior to the initial flight and properly maintaining the aircraft should also help to reverse the trend in the number of these crashes and subsequent lives lost. A system for assuring that all home-built aircraft are certified and more accurate reporting of flight hours are needed for accurate tracking of homebuilt aircraft crash rates.

  9. Your Child with Tuberculosis: A Guide for Parents and Guardians = Su Nino con Tuberculosis: Un Manual para Los Padres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Rodolfo

    Presented in both Spanish and English versions, this booklet is a guide for parents and guardians of children who have tuberculosis (TB). The booklet is organized around specific questions covering topics such as the causes and spread of TB, demographics of TB sufferers, detecting and curing TB, TB treatment and medications, research on the…

  10. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  11. The Guardian of the Genome p53 Regulates Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Plasticity Beyond Organelle Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiles, William J; Camera, Donny M

    2017-11-27

    The Guardian of the Genome p53 has been established as a potent tumor suppressor. However, culminating from seminal findings in rodents more than a decade ago, several studies have demonstrated that p53 is required to maintain basal mitochondrial function [i.e., respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis]. Specifically, via its role(s) as a tumor suppressor, p53 intimately surveys cellular DNA damage, in particular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), to ensure that the mitochondrial network is carefully monitored and cell viability is upheld, since aberrant mtDNA damage leads to apoptosis and widespread cellular perturbations. Indeed, data from rodents and humans have demonstrated that p53 forms an integral component of the exercise-induced signal transduction network regulating skeletal muscle mitochondrial remodeling. In response to exercise-induced disruptions to cellular homeostasis that have the potential to harm mtDNA (e.g., contraction-stimulated ROS emissions), appropriate p53-regulated, mitochondrial turnover responses prevail to protect the genome and ultimately facilitate a shift from aerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation; adaptations critical for endurance-based exercise that are commensurate with p53's role as a tumor suppressor. Despite these observations, several discrepancies exist between rodent and human studies pinpointing p53 subcellular trafficking from nuclear to mitochondrial compartments following acute exercise. Such interspecies differences in p53 activity and the plausible p53-mediated adaptions to chronic exercise training will be discussed herein. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Where do livestock guardian dogs go? Movement patterns of free-ranging Maremma sheepdogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bommel, Linda; Johnson, Chris N

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of the world, livestock guardian dogs (LGDs) are a relatively new and increasingly popular method for controlling the impact of wild predators on livestock. On large grazing properties in Australia, LGDs are often allowed to range freely over large areas, with minimal supervision by their owners. How they behave in this situation is mostly unknown. We fitted free-ranging Maremma sheepdogs with GPS tracking collars on three properties in Victoria, Australia; on two properties, four sheep were also fitted with GPS collars. We investigated how much time the Maremmas spent with their livestock, how far they moved outside the ranges of their stock, and tested whether they use their ranges sequentially, which is an effective way of maintaining a presence over a large area. The 95% kernel isopleth of the Maremmas ranged between 31 and 1161 ha, the 50% kernel isopleth ranged between 4 and 252 ha. Maremmas spent on average 90% of their time in sheep paddocks. Movements away from sheep occurred mostly at night, and were characterised by high-speed travel on relatively straight paths, similar to the change in activity at the edge of their range. Maremmas used different parts of their range sequentially, similar to sheep, and had a distinct early morning and late afternoon peak in activity. Our results show that while free-ranging LGDs spend the majority of their time with livestock, movements away from stock do occur. These movements could be important in allowing the dogs to maintain large territories, and could increase the effectiveness of livestock protection. Allowing LGDs to range freely can therefore be a useful management decision, but property size has to be large enough to accommodate the large areas that the dogs use.

  13. Meet your Aircraft Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This quiz is designed to help a pilot meet his or her aircraft. Although no attempt is made to cover in depth all of the information contained in the typical Pilot's Operating Handbook (POH), Owner's Manual (OM), or Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), the ...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AIRCRAFT,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criteria of effectiveness of aviation; Development of aviation in the period 1918-1939; Main factors of the progress of speed; Cause of changes of main...factors of combat efficiency of aircraft; Equation of state of production of aircraft; Development of aviation 1939-1959; and Development of one-shot winged and ballistic vehicles.

  15. Contextualising aircraft maintenance documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, H.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    The use of documentation for task support in aircraft line maintenance is still mostly paper-based, which is slow, burdensome and prone to error. This paper provides an overview of the issues associated with the use of paper-based documentation in aircraft line maintenance and describes the

  16. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  17. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  18. Aircraft Engine Emissions Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    Protection Agency, " Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines," 43 FR 12615, March 24, Vq7. 51 ~~SL% 12. Souza, A.F. F-100 Afterburner...R.G. Technical Support Report-Aircraft Emissions Factors, USEPA Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control , Ann Arbor, MI, March 1977. 14. Souza, A.F...STAVILITY CATEGOUY 6 WIND SPELU (METERS/SECOND) 1600 WINU DIRECTION TAILWIN) TEMPERATURa " (F) 38.0O MIXING DEPT" (METLRS) l1.o00

  19. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmati, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  20. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  1. [Analysis on influences of guardians on behavior of left-behind children aged 3 to 7 years in countryside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-wen; DU, Qi-yun; Liu, Zhi-yu; Liu, Yan-ping; Huang, Qun; Wu, Hong; Luo, Jia-you; Zhang, Ling-li

    2010-05-01

    To explore the influences of guardians on emotion and behavior of rural left-behind children aged 3 to 7 years. A self-designed questionnaire of children's condition and Children Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (the edition for parents, SDQ) were used to investigate 805 left-behind children aged 3 to 7 years in countryside. The prevalence of difficulty among left-behind children was 3.5%, in male it was 4.1% and in female 2.7%, the difference was not significant (chi(2) = 1.154, P > 0.05) between male and female. The scores of peer communication problems among associate the left-behind children were (2.30 +/- 1.86), which was significantly higher than that (2.09 +/- 1.74) of not left-behind children (P < 0.05). The score of emotion symptom was (2.76 +/- 1.84) and the total score of difficulty was (11.41 +/- 4.77) among left-behind children was significantly higher than those of left-behind children with one parent stayed out (2.29 +/- 1.64) and (10.41 +/- 5.18), were significantly different (t = -2.489 - 2.006, P < 0.05), the score of social behavior (6.39 +/- 2.26) was significantly lower than that of left-behind children with father or mother stayed out (7.34 +/- 2.18, P < 0.001). The score of social behavior of children whose guardians had higher education level (7.02 +/- 2.21) was significantly higher than those with guardians who were illiterate or semiliterate (6.20 +/- 2.44, P < 0.01). There are evident problems in emotion and behavior among left-behind children with parents staying out. One of parents should stay home to care for children. To improve educational level of guardian will be beneficial to development of physical and mental health among left-behind children.

  2. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  3. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  4. Unmanned Aircraft Systems - Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office utilizes UAS technology for collecting remote sensing data on a local scale. Typical UAS projects...

  5. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  6. Aircraft Depainting Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kozol, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    ... of aircraft and component stripping at various levels of maintenance. Under this program, the Navy pursued development of non-HAP chemical paint strippers as alternatives for methylene chloride based strippers...

  7. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  8. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  9. Aircraft Survivability. Summer 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    aircraft in Mombasa, Kenya, in 2002 and a DHL cargo aircraft in Baghdad, Iraq, in 2003, the threat is not limited to military operations, but is of...Government/ Customer Iterate Based on Changes Over the Life of the A/C Describe Performance Requirements Figure 3 Value of Impact Capability Figure 2 FSC... customer describing their performance requirements, identifying probable mission scenarios, prioritizing possible impact conditions, and setting

  10. Aircraft engine noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennepohl, F.

    An overview of the main aircraft engine noise sources is given. Special emphasis is devoted to turbomachinery/rotor noise, which plays an important role in all engine concepts appropriate to regional aircraft, such as turbofans, propellers, or new propfan engine concepts. The noise generating mechanisms, including propagation within the engine, and calculation methods used are described. Noise reduction methods are considered, with emphasis on cutoff design of turbomachines. Some noise features of counter rotating propellers and swept rotor blades are mentioned.

  11. In-Flight Chemical Composition Observations of Aircraft Emissions using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, L. D.; Martin, R.; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial aircraft are an important source of aerosols to the upper troposphere. The microphysical and chemical properties of these emitted aerosols govern their ability to act as ice nuclei, both in near-field contrails and for cirrus formation downstream. During the ACCESS-II (Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions) campaign, NASA DC-8 CFM56-2-C1 engine emissions were sampled systematically at a range of cruise-relevant thrust levels and at several altitudes. Sampling was done aboard the NASA HU-25 Falcon aircraft, which was equipped with a suite of aerosol and gas-phase instruments focused on assessing the effects of burning different fuel mixtures on aerosol properties and their associated contrails. Here we present in-flight measurements of particle chemical composition made by a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The AMS was able to sufficiently resolve near-field (within 100m) aircraft emissions plumes. Low-sulfur HEFA (hydro-processed esters and fatty-acids) and JetA fuels yielded particles that contained 11 and 8% sulfate, respectively, compared to 30% sulfate contribution for traditional JetA fuel. Each of the fuels produced organic aerosol with similarly low oxygen content. Lubrication oils, which are not a combustion product but result from leaks in the engine, were likely a dominant fraction of the measured organic mass based on mass-spectral marker analysis. These results are compared to similar engine conditions from ground-based testing.

  12. Challenges faced by elderly guardians in sustaining the adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovdal, M; Campbell, C; Madanhire, C; Nyamukapa, C; Gregson, S

    2011-08-01

    Grandparents throughout sub-Saharan Africa have shown immense courage and fortitude in providing care and support for AIDS-affected children. However, growing old comes with a number of challenges which can compromise the quality of care and support they are able to provide, particularly for children infected by HIV and enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. For ART to be effective, and for infected children not to develop drug-resistance, a complex treatment regimen must be followed. Drawing on the perspectives of 25 nurses and eight grandparents of HIV-infected children in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe, we explore some of the challenges faced by grandparents in sustaining children's adherence to ART. These challenges, serving as barriers to paediatric ART, are poverty, immobility, deteriorating memory and poor comprehension of complex treatments. Although older HIV-infected children were found to play an active role in sustaining the adherence to their programme of treatment by contributing to income and food generating activities and reminding their guardians about check-ups and drug administration, such contribution was not available from younger children. There is therefore an urgent need to develop ART services that both take into consideration the needs of elderly guardians and acknowledge and enhance the agency of older children as active and responsible contributors to ART adherence.

  13. Demand characterization and looking for a children’s emergency care: opinion of parents and legal guardians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Antoniassi Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Health services are organized hierarchically in order to obtain better resolution and universal access. However, in practice, this has not occurred due to the limitation of services in primary care, and the gateway has been hospitals, through the ready attendance, emergency rooms or clinics because many believe it is the fastest and most effective form of care. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the reasons for parents/guardians to choose the ready attendance service for the assistance of their children. It is a descriptive and cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 380 parents/guardians, the collection site was a children's health care center in Londrina, from June to August 2013. After analyzing the data, it was observed that 73.9% of the population resorted directly to the ready attendance service. From the small portion that searched for other hospitals, only 12.6% were sent to the ready attendance service. The main complaint was fever with 25.7% and cases of seizures appeared in last place with 0.4%. The present study revealed a great demand of the population studied by ready attendance services instead of primary care, with complaints often solvable in primary care, which confirms the deficiency in priority principles by the Unified Health System such as accessibility and response capacity of primary health services.

  14. Proposal of the School Children Support System Using ICF to Communicate with the Teachers, the Specialists and the Guardians, Requiring Special Support Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoshi, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Akio; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Araki, Chikahiro

    At the present, educational support is required to the school children who confronts problems on study, life style, mental and health. For the school children who hold these problems, inference and understanding of those around adults are mandatory, for that intimate cooperation between the school, home and specialized agencies should be important. With above reason, the school children support system using ICF to communicate the school, the specialist and the guardian is developed in this works. Realization of this system, immediate support to the school children and their guardians will be possible. It is also considered to be a preventive support instead of an allopathic support.

  15. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  17. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.

  18. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  19. MODELLING OF SOME AIRCRAFT PARAMETERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . There has, therefore, been a wide range reaction against aircraft noise in particular by community residents living close to the airports. Research has, thus, been mainly on effect of aircraft noise particularly and environmental noise and ...

  20. Measurement and research of the exposure doses of the animal guardians and radiation workers in the animal hospital in Gwangju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Seung; Yun, Seon Yeong; Yeo, Hwa Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Nambu University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In modern society, having companion animals as family members is getting popular. According to the data from National Statistical Office, the population of people with companion animals and pets is now over 10 million. The increase of companion animals led to an increase of animal hospitals. Accordingly, radiation generating devices for diagnosis are being used frequently. In addition, as animal hospitals are increasingly using radiation generating devices, in order to protect the related workers and promote animal cares, the government enacted the regulations relating to operations and installations of the devices at animal hospitals. Therefore, this study handles the radiation safety management related stuffs by measuring and assessing radiation dose to the animal guardians and radiation workers in the animal hospitals in Gwangju.

  1. Guardianes del río. Reflexiones sobre lo que hacemos y aprendemos al lado del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Mines, Patricia; Giavedoni, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Guardianes del río” nace como un Proyecto de Extensión de Interés Social de la Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL, Santa Fe, Argentina), con el objeto de integrar a los alumnos y exalumnos de la Escuela Media O. Rupp de Alto Verde en la identificación, protección y divulgación del patrimonio natural y cultural de ese barrio costero.En torno de esta propuesta se han creado, a lo largo de más de 5 años, espacios de aprendizaje para alumnos y docentes como prácticas de educación experiencial...

  2. The Aircraft Industry, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    France Eurocopter , Marseille, France Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France Rolls Royce Aircraft Engines, Civil and...A320/340/380 Production Lines, Blagnac, France BAE Systems plc Corporate Offices, London, United Kingdom Dassault Corporate Headquarters, St. Cloud...Defence Aerospace Divisions, Derby, United Kingdom Societe Nationale d’Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d’Aviation (SNECMA), Evry, France

  3. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  4. Aircraft to Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This video discusses how the technology of computer modeling can improve the design and durability of artificial joints for human joint replacement surgery. Also, ultrasound, originally used to detect structural flaws in aircraft, can also be used to quickly assess the severity of a burn patient's injuries, thus aiding the healing process.

  5. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  6. Exploration of the relationship between parent/guardian sociodemographics, intention, and knowledge and the oral health status of their children/wards enrolled in a Central Florida Head Start Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherwax, J A; Bray, K K; Williams, K B; Gadbury-Amyot, C C

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible relationships between parent/guardian sociodemographics, intention, knowledge, and the oral health status of their child/ward. Intention includes three factors as defined in the Theory of Planned Behavior: attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control, and oral health status was measured by decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) scores. A convenience sample of parent/guardian with child/ward with age of three to five (n = 181 dyads) enrolled in a Head Start program in the state of Florida participated. A cross-sectional observational study comprised of two components, parent/guardian questionnaire and an oral health status form for recording dmft scores of participating child/ward was employed. Parent/guardian race/ethnicity and years of education were significantly related to dmft of child/ward. The highest rates of severe early childhood caries (ECC) were found in child/ward whose parent/guardian is Hispanic and parent/guardian with less than a high school education. Multivariate regression analysis found that increased education level of parent/guardian was significantly associated with lower dmft in this population. No significant relationship was found between parent/guardian self-reported intention (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control), knowledge and dmft scores of the child/ward. Researchers have called for greater attention to the impact of parental influences in the aetiology of ECC. Results from this study were consistent with current studies where parent/guardian race/ethnicity and educational level served as predictors of oral health status of children. In this study population, parent/guardian intention and knowledge were not shown to significantly impact the oral health status of their child/ward. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake among primary school children in Japan: Combined effect of children's and their guardians' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Asakura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving the dietary habits of children is important to decrease the future burden of noncommunicable diseases. While various food education programs have been implemented worldwide, evaluation of nutrition knowledge is difficult, even at baseline. Further, the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake has not been clarified in non-western countries. Methods: After developing nutrition knowledge questionnaires for Japanese primary school children and adults, we examined whether higher nutrition knowledge of children and their guardians was associated with better dietary intake in children. A total of 1210 children in four public primary schools and 319 guardians were included in this cross-sectional study. Results: Nutrition knowledge questionnaires were developed for children in lower and higher grades and adults. Higher nutrition knowledge of the children was significantly associated with higher vegetable intake (p for trend = 0.024 for boys and <0.0001 for girls in lower grades, <0.0001 for boys and 0.020 for girls in higher grades. Higher nutrition knowledge of the guardians was also associated with higher vegetable intake, except for boys in higher grades. The relationship between guardians' nutrition knowledge and intake of staple foods and fruits in children differed by children's sex. Conclusions: We developed nutrition knowledge questionnaires for Japanese children and adults and identified a relationship between higher nutrition knowledge and healthier dietary habits. The child's own nutrition knowledge of dietary intake might be as important as that of the guardian for some foods. Sex differences in the effect of nutrition knowledge should receive greater attention in food education.

  8. Aircraft specific exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecht, M.; Deidewig, F.; Doepelheuer, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this work to calculate essential species of aircraft emissions has been approached by a combination of different tasks. First of all engine performance and emission correlation has been modelled taking sea level static measurements from the engine certification process as a reference. At second a flight simulation program has been modified to couple aircraft and engine performance along a flight mission profile. By this for a selected number of aircraft/engine combinations the emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and HC as well as fuel burn for short, medium and long haul flights have been calculated and finally adapted to a specified format of flight distance and altitude increments. Sensitivity studies of the change of emissions along the cruise section showed a 30% decrease of the NO{sub x} emission rate until the end of cruise. Differences of ambient air temperature from ISA conditions will have a substantial impact on NO{sub x}, CO and HC emissions rather than on mission fuel. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  9. Comparing the accuracy of syndrome surveillance systems in detecting influenza-like illness: GUARDIAN vs. RODS vs. electronic medical record reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Julio C; Shah, Shital C; Rumoro, Dino P; Bayram, Jamil D; Hallock, Marilyn M; Gibbs, Gillian S; Waddell, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    A highly sensitive real-time syndrome surveillance system is critical to detect, monitor, and control infectious disease outbreaks, such as influenza. Direct comparisons of diagnostic accuracy of various surveillance systems are scarce. To statistically compare sensitivity and specificity of multiple proprietary and open source syndrome surveillance systems to detect influenza-like illness (ILI). A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing data from 1122 patients seen during November 1–7, 2009 in the emergency department of a single urban academic medical center. The study compared the Geographic Utilization of Artificial Intelligence in Real-time for Disease Identification and Alert Notification (GUARDIAN) system to the Complaint Coder (CoCo) of the Real-time Outbreak Detection System (RODS), the Symptom Coder (SyCo) of RODS, and to a standardized report generated via a proprietary electronic medical record (EMR) system. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each classifier's ability to identify ILI cases were calculated and compared to a manual review by a board-certified emergency physician. Chi-square and McNemar's tests were used to evaluate the statistical difference between the various surveillance systems.ResultsThe performance of GUARDIAN in detecting ILI in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, as compared to a physician chart review, was 95.5%, 97.6%, and 97.1%, respectively. The EMR-generated reports were the next best system at identifying disease activity with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 36.7%, 99.3%, and 83.2%, respectively. RODS (CoCo and SyCo) had similar sensitivity (35.3%) but slightly different specificity (CoCo = 98.9%; SyCo = 99.3%). The GUARDIAN surveillance system with its multiple data sources performed significantly better compared to CoCo (χ2 = 130.6, p 12%) and sensitivity (>47%) were observed for GUARDIAN with only chief complaint data as compared to RODS (CoCo and SyCo) and EMR

  10. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft covered...

  11. Survivin is a guardian of the intestinal stem cell niche and its expression is regulated by TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Eva; Schneider, Evelyn; Neufert, Clemens; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    As an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family member, Survivin is known for its role during regulation of apoptosis. More recently its function as a cell cycle regulator has become evident. Survivin was shown to play a pivotal role during embryonic development and is highly expressed in regenerative tissue as well as in many cancer types. We examined the function of Survivin during mouse intestinal organogenesis and in gut pathophysiology. We found high expression of Survivin in experimentally induced colon cancer in mice but also in colon tumors of humans. Moreover, Survivin was regulated by TGF-β and was found to be highly expressed during mucosal healing following intestinal inflammation. We identified that expression of Survivin is essential early on in life, as specific deletion of Survivin in Villin expressing cells led to embryonic death around day 12 post coitum. Together with our recent study on the role of Survivin in the gut of adult mice our data demonstrate that Survivin is an essential guardian of embryonic gut development and adult gut homeostasis protecting the epithelium from cell death promoting the proliferation of intestinal stem and progenitor cells.

  12. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on...

  13. Assesment of household burden of orphaning and coping strategies by guardians and families with orphans and vulnerable children in Hossana Town, SNNPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balew, Gizachew; Worku, Netsanet; Tilaye, Tesfaye; Huruy, Kahsay; Fetene, Teshome

    2010-07-01

    Globally the number of orphans is increasing due to HIV/AIDS, internal corflicts and others. Orphanage and vulnerability causes much of its burden on poor households and children. This study was initiated to assess household challenges of orphaning and coping strategies by families and guardians living with Orphan and Vulnerable Children (OVC). It has also tried to look at the types and level of challenge facing OVC. Community based descriptive cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted from October to November 2008 using a pre-tested Amharic questionnaire among guardians of OVC in Hossana town. Hadiya zone, SNNPR. A total of 334 samples were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Sixty nine percent (69%) of guardians were women. Almost all of the OVC had participated in one domestic activity and 26.9% of OVC were involved in domestic work in other houses. A little more than twenty two percent (22.2%) have history of involvement in productive child labor; of whom 79.7% were found working at the time of data collection Above thirty five percent (35.6%) of respondents believe that the OVC are discriminated and 23.5% of the discriminators were step parents. As household coping mechanism 24.9% reported selling domestic animals, 15.6% selling household equipments and 12.9% sell plots of land which all occurs due to lack of resources in households. The study concluded that caregivers lack sufficient resources to provide basic needs to OVC. Hence, community based training on micro finance assistance, discrimination and psychological support should be given to guardians and the community in general.

  14. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  15. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  16. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake among primary school children in Japan: Combined effect of children's and their guardians' knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Keiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Improving the dietary habits of children is important to decrease the future burden of noncommunicable diseases. While various food education programs have been implemented worldwide, evaluation of nutrition knowledge is difficult, even at baseline. Further, the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake has not been clarified in non-western countries. After developing nutrition knowledge questionnaires for Japanese primary school children and adults, we examined whether higher nutrition knowledge of children and their guardians was associated with better dietary intake in children. A total of 1210 children in four public primary schools and 319 guardians were included in this cross-sectional study. Nutrition knowledge questionnaires were developed for children in lower and higher grades and adults. Higher nutrition knowledge of the children was significantly associated with higher vegetable intake (p for trend = 0.024 for boys and children differed by children's sex. We developed nutrition knowledge questionnaires for Japanese children and adults and identified a relationship between higher nutrition knowledge and healthier dietary habits. The child's own nutrition knowledge of dietary intake might be as important as that of the guardian for some foods. Sex differences in the effect of nutrition knowledge should receive greater attention in food education. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  18. Eduardo Pérez Romagnoli; Los Guardianes de Baco. Artesanos toneleros e industrias de recipientes de vino en Mendoza y San Juan, Argentina (1885-1930, Rosario, Prohistoria ediciones, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS CARMINATI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Pérez Romagnoli; Los Guardianes de Baco. Artesanos toneleros e industrias de recipientes de vino en Mendoza y San Juan, Argentina (1885-1930, Rosario, Prohistoria ediciones, 2008

  19. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.

  20. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.

  1. Individualized Dosing of Children’s Liquid Medications in the Community Pharmacy Setting: A Survey of Parents and Guardians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiao Zhai, MS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To determine parents’ and/or guardians’ interest in having pharmacists provide children’s liquid medications in a pre-measured, individualized dosing device 2 To assess parents’ and/or guardians’ perception of dosing liquid medications for a child. Design: Observational survey Setting: Regional chain pharmacy in North Carolina Participants: > 18 years old, parent/guardian of a child <13 who had prescription filled for liquid medication within the pharmacy chain, responsible for administering child’s liquid medication Intervention: 14 item questionnaire Main Outcome Measure: Interest in pharmacists providing children’s liquid medications in pre-measured, individualized dosing devices Results: 250 questionnaires were mailed; 42 were marked “return to sender” (16.8%, 22 were returned completed (10.6%, and 20 of the 22 met inclusion criteria (9.6%. 95% of study participants reported being interested in having pharmacists provide children’s liquid medications in the proposed dosing device, and 40% were willing to pay for such a service. 90% of respondents reported it is “not at all difficult” to understand the amount of dose a child is to receive, while 55% reported it is “not at all difficult” to measure doses. 25% of respondents reported sometimes using a kitchen spoon to measure a child’s medication. Conclusion: Community pharmacists should explore providing children’s liquid medications in an individualized dosing device, as study results determined parents are interested in and willing to pay for the theoretical device. Further large-scale studies would be beneficial in determining interest in and willingness to pay for the dosing device in various pharmacy settings nationwide.

  2. Association between harmful oral habits and the structures and functions of the stomatognathic system: perception of parents/guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thayse Steffen; Oliveira, Fabiana de; Cardoso, Maria Cristina de Almeida Freitas

    2017-05-15

    To verify the occurrence and associate the presence and duration of harmful oral habits with the structures and functions of the stomatognathic system. This is a cross-sectional, exploratory study. Participants' participation was formalized by the signing of an Informed Consent Form. The non-probabilistic sample comprised 289 children aged one to 12 years assisted at a Family Health Strategy unit. The data were obtained through a questionnaire to identify harmful oral habits applied to the children's parents and/or guardians. The results were considered at 5% level of significance. The statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 19.0 software and the chi-squared association test was employed to investigate the categorical variables. The breastfeeding rate found was 85%; however, only 32.4% of the children were exclusively breastfed until six months of age. The most prevalent habits and those currently maintained were use of conventional bottle (28.62%) and conventional pacifier (23.18%). Significant correlation (p=0.001) was found between keeping the mouth open and oral and oronasal breathing. The presence of habits such as using orthodontic bottle (p=0.016) and orthodontic pacifier (p=0.001) was associated with the breathing mode reported. Habit duration was associated with the perception of changes in speech (p=0.046) and with malocclusion (p=0.014). The presence and duration of harmful oral habits were associated with the perception of changes in the structures and functions of the stomatognathic system regarding occlusion, breathing, and speech, accounting for a significant portion of the demand for rehabilitation.

  3. Milk disrupts p53 and DNMT1, the guardians of the genome: implications for acne vulgaris and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that milk shapes the postnatal metabolic environment of the newborn infant. Based on translational research, this perspective article provides a novel mechanistic link between milk intake and milk miRNA-regulated gene expression of the transcription factor p53 and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), two guardians of the human genome, that control transcriptional activity, cell survival, and apoptosis. Major miRNAs of milk, especially miRNA-125b, directly target TP53 and complex p53-dependent gene regulatory networks. TP53 regulates the expression of key genes involved in cell homeostasis such as FOXO1, PTEN, SESN1, SESN2, AR, IGF1R, BAK1, BIRC5, and TNFSF10. Nuclear interaction of p53 with DNMT1 controls gene silencing. The most abundant miRNA of milk and milk fat, miRNA-148a, directly targets DNMT1. Reduced DNMT1 expression further attenuates the activity of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) involved in the regulation of chromatin structure and access to transcription. The presented milk-mediated miRNA-p53-DNMT1 pathway exemplified at the promoter regulation of survivin (BIRC5) provides a novel explanation for the epidemiological association between milk consumption and acne vulgaris and prostate cancer. Notably, p53- and DNMT1-targeting miRNAs of bovine and human milk survive pasteurization and share identical seed sequences, which theoretically allows the interaction of bovine miRNAs with the human genome. Persistent intake of milk-derived miRNAs that attenuate p53- and DNMT1 signaling of the human milk consumer may thus present an overlooked risk factor promoting acne vulgaris, prostate cancer, and other p53/DNMT1-related Western diseases. Therefore, bioactive miRNAs of commercial milk should be eliminated from the human food chain.

  4. Aircraft agility maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Eugene M.; Thompson, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    A new dynamic model for aircraft motions is presented. This model can be viewed as intermediate between a point-mass model, in which the body attitude angles are control-like, and a rigid-body model, in which the body-attitude angles evolve according to Newton's Laws. Specifically, consideration is given to the case of symmetric flight, and a model is constructed in which the body roll-rate and the body pitch-rate are the controls. In terms of this body-rate model a minimum-time heading change maneuver is formulated. When the bounds on the body-rates are large the results are similar to the point-mass model in that the model can very quickly change the applied forces and produce an acceleration to turn the vehicle. With finite bounds on these rates, the forces change in a smooth way. This leads to a measurable effect of agility.

  5. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  6. Aircraft Rotor Surface Coating Qualification Testing Aircraft Rotor Surface Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... The Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center "AMRDEC" located at Redstone Arsenal, AL selected the NCDMM to coordinate the initial effort to qualify a new aircraft rotor...

  7. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72 Stat...

  8. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class rating...

  9. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for flight...

  10. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on official...

  11. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of...

  12. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on aircraft...

  13. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or...

  14. CERN's Guardian Angels

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Any trouble at CERN? The Technical Control Room operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN every day, all year long. They deal with problems that go from simple water leaks to devastating power cuts.   The Technical Control Room with Kenneth Olesen and Mark Harvey, minutes before their starting time. This big room is probably the liveliest at CERN, since there's always someone there, everyday, all year long. Laurent Randot and Eric Lienard working in the Technical Control Room at CERN in building 212. They've started at 7 a.m. and today has been a relatively quiet day. There have been some microcuts in the electric net because of the wind. But these have been repaired rather quickly... The relief: It's 2.30 p.m. Time for Laurent Randot and Eric Lienard to show their colleagues Mark Harvey and Kenneth Olesen what has been going on during the morning. They are the next TCR team of the day. Mark Harvey and Kenneth Olesen start their working day. They will work until 11p.m., when another team wil...

  15. Guardians at the gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Patent protection and FDA exclusivities are the two principal forms of protection available to companies that develop therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Propo-sed changes to both forms of protection are currently being debated in the United States Congress. Specifically, Congress is presently debating both biosimilar and patent reform legislations. Although no bill has yet passed, it is expected that patent reform legislation should pass this year. It is less likely that a biosimilar bill will pass this year. However, when legislations are enacted, the changes will significantly impact the business of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. PMID:20065635

  16. Guardians of the Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    idealistic followers, was led by an heroic, dedicated, and disciplined elite ready to use any force needed to drive out the soft, comfort -seeking, and...tables, and other furniture ; also dainties, and perfumes, and incense, and courtesans, and cakes, all these not of one sort only, but in every variety...and there was a stipend that made jury service attractive to the elderly and seasonal workers.184 By today’s standards, citizenship was severely

  17. 76 FR 76686 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft... reporting requirements with regard to aircraft accidents or incidents, found at paragraph (a)(10) of section... final rule entitled, ``Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue...

  18. Effects of a school-based stroke education program on stroke-related knowledge and behaviour modification-school class based intervention study for elementary school students and parental guardians in a Japanese rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Suzuka; Okamura, Tomonori; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Takekawa, Hidehiro; Nagao, Masanori; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Hino, Tenyu; Wada, Shinichi; Arimizu, Takuro; Takebayashi, Toru; Kobashi, Gen; Hirata, Koichi; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2017-12-21

    This study aimed to determine the effect of a stroke education programme on elementary school students and their parental guardians in a rural area in Japan that has high stroke mortality. School class based intervention study. Eleven public elementary schools in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. 268 students aged 11-12 years and 267 parental guardians. Students received lessons about stroke featuring animated cartoons and were instructed to communicate their knowledge about stroke to their parental guardians using material (comic books) distributed in the lessons. Stroke knowledge (symptoms, risk factors and attitude towards stroke) and behavioural change for risk factors were assessed at baseline, immediately after the programme and at 3 months. We also evaluated behavioural change for risk factors among parental guardians. The percentage of students with all correct answers for stroke symptoms, risk factors and the recommended response to stroke was significantly increased at 3 months P<0.001). We observed a significant increase in the percentage of guardians who chose all correct symptoms (P<0.001: 61.0% vs 85.4%) and risk factors (P<0.001: 41.2% vs 59.9%) at 3 months compared with baseline. The percentage of parental guardians with a high behavioural response to improving risk factors was significantly increased at 3 months compared with baseline (P<0.001). In a rural population with high stroke mortality, stroke education can improve knowledge about stroke in elementary school students and their parental guardians. We conducted the intervention as a part of compulsory education; this study was not a clinical trial. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (M27-026). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems - Raw Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office utilizes UAS technology for collecting remote sensing data on a local scale. Typical UAS projects...

  1. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  2. Quality standard of aircraft maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Боузаієнне Меккі бен Салем

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The question of the account of operation conditions of an aeronautical engineering in airlines is considered at formation and a correcting of plans on aircrafts park maintenance.

  3. Aerothermodynamics of aircraft engine components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oates, Gordon C

    1985-01-01

    ....A45A37 1985 ISBN 0-915928-97-3 2. Aircraft gas turbines. 629.134'353 85-13355 Copyright © 1985 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the ...

  4. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among patients and their parents /guardian in an Iranian referral hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourakbari, Babak; Khodabandeh, Mahmoud; Mahmoudi, Shima; Sabouni, Farah; Aziz-Ahari, Alireza; Bahador, Abbas; Keshavarz Valian, Sepideh; Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Reihaneh; Mamishi, Setareh

    2017-06-01

    Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the nose appears to play a key role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. It is important to investigate the genetic relatedness of S. aureus and MRSA clones in different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, including MRSA strains in both hospitalized children and general adult population (parents/guardian). In addition, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and molecular diversity of S. aureus in both population was evaluated in an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital. All samples were obtained through nasal screening of patients and general adult population at admission and discharge day. The prevalence, resistance, and molecular diversity of all S. aureus isolates were examined. In the current study, nasal carriage of S. aureus and Staphylococcus non aureus was identified in 384 (26%) and 1004 (68%) of the study population. The prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage in children and adults was 6.6% (29 out of 438) and 2.8% (29 out of 1046), respectively. Among S. aureus strains isolated obtained from patients and general adult population at admission day, high sensitivity to most of the antibiotics such as vancomycin (100%), rifampin (95%), linezolid (94%), quinupristin/dalfopristin (94%), minocycline (94%), chloramphenicol (89%), gentamycin (87%), amikacin (87%), clindamycin (86%) and moxifloxacin (83%) was seen. The most resistance antibiotics were penicillin (96-98%) and methicillin (44-47%). The susceptibility patterns of nasal S. aureus strains isolated at discharge day was not statistically different from S. aureus isolates obtained at admission day. Admission S. aureus isolated strains of 77 patients (64%) were similar to the isolated S. aureus strains of discharge, while S. aureus isolated strains of 43 patients (36%) was not similar to the strain of discharge (had similarity of less than 70%). High prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus and

  6. Aircraft ditching loads simulation tool

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanni, A.; Vandewaeter, L.; Havill, C.; Kanyoo, P.; Taunton, D.J.; Blake, J.I.R.; Cropper, E.; Hancock, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents a novel methodology developed for calculating the steady loads acting on aircraft structures in the event of ditching in water. It represents the preliminary result of Stirling Dynamics as part of a NATEP research project. The overall objective of the project is to expand the capabilities of the Stirling Dynamics proprietary software SD-GLOAD (originally designed for ground and crash loads dynamic simulations) to aircraft ditching simulations. The methodology present...

  7. Assessing acceptability of parents/guardians of adolescents towards introduction of sex and reproductive health education in schools at Kinondoni Municipal in Dar es Salaam city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonile, Lumuli; Kayombo, Edmund J

    2008-04-01

    To assess acceptability of parents/guardians of adolescents towards the introduction of sex and reproductive health education in the community and schools. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to get 150 participants for this study. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the sampled participants and was supplemented with guided focus group discussion in Kinondoni Municipality of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The analysis of the findings shows that there is a mixed feeling on the introduction of sex and reproductive health education in schools. Participants strongly supported that they should talk with their adolescents about sexuality and reproductive health (88.6%) but their culture prohibits them from doing so (76.7%). Also supported that condoms could protect against HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (82%), but strongly opposed the use of condoms to their adolescents because it would encourage promiscuity (78%). When the data were analysed by faith of the religions of the participants, 64% were in favour of introducing sex education and reproductive health, but were opposed to use of condoms to their adolescents. All participants were against vijiweni, which were recreation centres for the youths because they taught bad manners to their adolescents. The preferred source of information about sex education and reproductive health should be from the parents/guardians (86%), religious leaders (70%), media (62%), health workers (61%) and school teachers (59%). All in all the will of introduction of sex education and reproductive health in the community is there but the approach need to be worked out carefully by taking into account of the cultural and religious factors. Parents/guardians, religious leaders and traditional charismatic leaders should take part in designing the programme and even being involved in teaching it. The other option is to lump together sex education and reproductive health education in science especially in biology

  8. Desensitization to a whole egg by rush oral immunotherapy improves the quality of life of guardians: A multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, delayed-start design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh-Nagato, Naoka; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Nagao, Mizuho; Fujisawa, Takao; Shimojo, Naoki; Iwata, Tsutomu

    2017-08-01

    Patients with food allergies and their families have a significantly reduced health-related quality of life (QOL). We performed a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, delayed-start design study to clarify the efficacy and safety of rush oral immunotherapy (rOIT) and its impact on the participants' daily life and their guardians (UMIN000003943). Forty-five participants were randomly divided into an early-start group and a late-start group. The early-start group received rOIT for 3 months, while the late-start group continued the egg elimination diet (control). In the next stage, both groups received OIT until all participants had finished 12 months of maintenance OIT. The ratio of the participants in whom an increase of the TD was achieved in the first stage was significantly higher in the early-start group (87.0%), than in the late-start group (22.7%). The QOL of the guardians in the early-start group significantly improved after the first stage (65.2%), in comparison to the late-start group (31.8%). During 12 months of rOIT, the serum ovomucoid-specific IgE levels, the percentage of CD203c + basophils upon stimulation with egg white, and the wheal size to egg white were decreased, while the serum ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels were increased. However, approximately 80% of the participants in the early-start group showed an allergic reaction during the first stage of the study, whereas none of the patients in the late-start group experienced an allergic reaction. rOIT induced desensitization to egg and thus improved the QOL of guardians; however, the participants experienced frequent allergic reactions due to the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation of aircraft noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the basis for increased sensitivity of people to noise during aircraft noise studies. This change in sensitivity could be attributed to either a physiological time-of-day effect (i.e., a circadian rhythm) or simply to the total number of aircraft noise events experienced during a laboratory test period. In order to investigate the time-of-day factor, noise sensitivity measures were obtained from subjects at home with cassette tape recorders/headsets over a 24 hour period. The effect of number of aircraft noise events on noise sensitivity was investigated within a laboratory. In these tests, measures of sensitivity to noise were obtained from subjects before and after their exposure to varying numbers of aircraft noise events. The 24 hour data showed no evidence that noise sensitivity is physiologically cyclical. Consequently, these data can not explain annoyance response variation to aircraft noise tests conducted during the daytime. However, the number of aircraft noise events did influence the subject's noise sensitivity. This effect completely accounts for the systematic increase in noise sensitivity during a laboratory test period.

  10. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  11. A longitudinal study on determinants of HPV vaccination uptake in parents/guardians from different ethnic backgrounds in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Catharina J; van der Loeff, Maarten F Schim; Hazeveld, Yvonne; de Melker, Hester E; van der Wal, Marcel F; Nielen, Astrid; El Fakiri, Fatima; Prins, Maria; Paulussen, Theo G W M

    2017-02-21

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage in the Netherlands is low (~60%) compared to other childhood vaccinations (>90%), and even lower among ethnic minorities. The aim of this study was to explore the possible impact of ethnicity on the determinants of both HPV vaccination intention and HPV vaccination uptake among parents/guardians having a daughter that is invited for the HPV vaccination. In February 2014, parents/guardians living in Amsterdam were invited to complete a questionnaire about social-psychological determinants of their decision making process regarding the HPV vaccination of their daughter and socio-demographic characteristics. This questionnaire was sent approximately one month before the daughter was scheduled to receive her first HPV vaccine dose. Their daughters' HPV vaccination status was retrieved from the national vaccination database. We distinguished four ethnic groups: Dutch (NL), Surinamese, Netherlands Antillean, and Aruban (SNA), Middle-Eastern and North-African (MENA), and Other. To assess the impact of determinants on both intention and uptake, linear and logistic regression analyses were used respectively. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation by chained equation. In total 1,309 parents/guardians participated (33% participation rate). In all groups we found the mothers' intention to be the strongest predictor of their daughters' HPV vaccination uptake. Explained variance of uptake was highest in the NL-group (pseudo-R2:0.56) and lower in the other ethnic groups (pseudo-R2 varied between 0.23 and 0.29). The lower explained variance can be attributed to the relative large proportion of participants with a positive intention that finally did not go for vaccination in the SNA-group (11%) and MENA-group (30%). Explained variance (R2) of intention varied between 0.66 and 0.77 across ethnic groups, and was best explained by the proximal social-psychological determinants. The strength of association of these

  12. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  13. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  14. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  15. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  16. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  17. Use of Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Net among Pregnant Women and Guardians of Children under Five in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. Inungu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs are one of the most effective tools for preventing malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. This study examined knowledge, attitude, and practice on the use of ITNs in the prevention of malaria among pregnant women and guardians of children under five in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods. A total of 5,138 pregnant women and guardians of children under five were interviewed. Results. The majority of participants (>80% knew the signs and symptoms of malaria; 81.6% reported having an ITN in the household, but 78.4% reported using it the night before the interview. Only 71.4% of pregnant women used ITN the night compared to 68.2% of children under five. In the Logistic Regression model, women who believed that it is normal to use ITNs were 1.9 times more likely to use it than those who did not (OR: 1.930; women who were confident in their abilities to use ITNs were 1.9 times more likely than those who were not confident (OR: 1.915; and women who had a good attitude towards ITNs were also more likely to use ITNs compared to those who did not (OR: 1.529. Conclusion. New and innovative evidence-based behavior change interventions are needed to increase the utilization of ITNs among vulnerable groups.

  18. Algorithm project weight calculation aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Абрамова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process of a complex technical object design on the example of the aircraft, using information technology such as CAD/CAM/CAE-systems, presents the basic models of aircraft which are developed in the process of designing and reflect the different aspects of its structure and function. The idea of control parametric model at complex technical object design is entered, which is a set of initial data for the development of design stations and enables the optimal complex technical object control at all stages of design using modern computer technology. The paper discloses a process of weight design, which is associated with all stages of development aircraft and its production. Usage of a scheduling algorithm that allows to organize weight calculations are carried out at various stages of planning and weighing options to optimize the use of available database of formulas and methods of calculation

  19. Aircraft Skin Restoration and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandouzi, M.; Gaydos, S.; Guo, D.; Ghelichi, R.; Jodoin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of the cold spray technology has made possible the deposition of low porosity and oxide-free coatings with good adhesion and with almost no change in the microstructure of the coated parts. This focuses on the use of low-pressure cold spray process to repair damaged Al-based aircraft skin, aiming at obtaining dense coatings with strong adhesion to the Al2024-T3 alloy. In order to prove the feasibility of using of the cold spray process as a repair process for aircraft skin, series of characterisation/tests including microstructures, microhardness, adhesion strength, three-point bending, surface finish, fatigue test, and corrosion resistance were performed. The obtained results revealed that the low-pressure cold spray process is a suitable for the repair of aircraft skin.

  20. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  1. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  2. Aircraft Dynamic Modeling in Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunninham, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    A method for accurately identifying aircraft dynamic models in turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The method uses orthogonal optimized multisine excitation inputs and an analytic method for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic modeling in turbulence. A turbulence metric was developed to accurately characterize the turbulence level using flight measurements. The modeling technique was demonstrated in simulation, then applied to a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft in flight. Comparisons of modeling results obtained in turbulent air to results obtained in smooth air were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  3. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  4. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  5. Military Airlift: The Joint Cargo Aircraft Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knight, William

    2007-01-01

    Joint Cargo Aircraft (JCA) is a joint acquisition program between the Army and the Air Force designed to procure a commercial off-the-shelf aircraft, capable of meeting Army requirements for "direct support" to maneuver units...

  6. Military Airlift: The Joint Cargo Aircraft Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hess, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Joint Cargo Aircraft (JCA) is a joint acquisition program between the Army and Air Force intended to procure a commercial off-the-shelf aircraft capable of meeting Army and Air Force requirements for intra-theater airlift...

  7. Statistical estimation of aircraft service conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Боузаієнне Меккі бен Салем

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  The question of an estimation of aircraft service conditions in airlines with use of statistical methods is considered at the analysis of maintenance programs of a aircrafts park to normative requirements.

  8. THE AIRPORT DE-ICING OF AIRCRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KONIECZKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a summary of the issues involved in de-icing several kinds of aircrafts before flight. The basic risks of an iced aircraft and the factors that can influence its intensity are stated. It discusses the methods for de-icing and protecting against ice formation on small aircrafts, helicopters, and large aircrafts. It also classifies the fluids and other methods used for these de-icing operations, and explains the characteristics and limitations of their use.

  9. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been registered...

  10. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10...

  11. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with Fixed...

  12. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102 Section... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ...

  13. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each...

  14. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft...

  15. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part...

  16. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has lighted...

  17. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has been...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access to...

  19. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within...

  20. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ...

  1. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting in...

  2. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground crews...

  3. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity of...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings installed...

  5. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  6. Unmanned Cargo Aircraft : From Anywhere to Everywhere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    While unmanned aircraft have been in use for decades, their suitability for transporting cargo is only now slowly being recognised. The first prototypes of unmanned cargo aircraft (UCA) are currently being tested. There are two categories of UCA: short-distance aircraft for delivering packages and

  7. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate

  8. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  9. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  10. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  11. Flight Control of Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of flight control research for flexible high aspect wing aircraft in support of the NASA ARMD Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. It summarizes multi-objective flight control technology being developed for drag optimization, flutter suppression, and maneuver and gust load alleviation.

  12. Bonded repairs for aircraft fuselages

    OpenAIRE

    Vlot, A.; Verhoeven, S.; Nijssen, P.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This report will give an overview of the bonded repair work that has been done over the last few years by the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering of Delft University of Technology, in cooperation with the Center for Aircraft Structural Life Extension at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs.

  13. Bonded repairs for aircraft fuselages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlot, A.; Verhoeven, S.; Nijssen, P.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This report will give an overview of the bonded repair work that has been done over the last few years by the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering of Delft University of Technology, in cooperation with the Center for Aircraft Structural Life Extension at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado

  14. Aircraft en route noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from a laboratory experiment conducted in order to quantify the annoyance experienced by people on the ground in response to en route noise (ERN) generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. Objectives included the comparison of annoyance responses to ERN with the annoyance responses to takeoff and landing noise; the comparison of the annoyance responses to advanced turboprop aircraft ERN with those of the turbofan ERN; and also the ability of aircraft noise measurement procedures and corrections to predict annoyance to ERN. Tests were conducted at the Langley Acoustics Research Laboratory on 32 human subjects selected at random. Subjects judged the annoyance level of 24 Propfan Test Assessment advanced turboprop ERN stimuli, 18 conventional turbofan ERN stimuli, and 60 conventional turboprop and turbofan takeoff and landing noise stimuli. Analysis of resulting data compared annoyance responses to different aircraft types and operations, examined the ability of current noise measurement and correction procedures to predict annoyance ERN, and calculated optimum duration correction magnitudes for ERN.

  15. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures...

  16. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  17. Descripción de las estadísticas de problemáticas psicosociales en guardianes penitenciarios de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapias Saldaña, Ángela C.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe las problemáticas encontradas en personal de custodia y vigilancia del Instituto Penitenciario Colombiano presentadas en el intervalo de 2000 a 2005. Se observan 378 casos que reportan incidencia de homicidio, suicidio, accidentalidad y uso de sustancias psicoactivas. Todas estas circunstancias requieren una explicación científica del fenómeno y representan un desafío social e institucional para prevenir e intervenir en la salud mental de los guardianes penitenciarios. Se concluye que las problemáticas más frecuentes son las asociadas con muerte y heridas y que el rango más vulnerable de la población son los dragoneantes.

  18. Do patients with chronic pain diseases believe in guardian angels: even in a secular society? A cross-sectional study among German patients with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, Arndt; Reiser, Franz; Michalsen, Andreas; Zahn, Anne; Baumann, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    We intended to analyze whether patients with chronic diseases believe in guardian angels (GdA) as a coping resource. In a cross-sectional survey, we analyzed data from 576 German patients with chronic diseases (mean age 51.3 ± 15.4 years). We found that 56 % of the patients often or even regularly believed in GdA, with significantly more women than men believing. Particularly interesting was the fact that 38 % of patients who were identified as neither religious nor spiritual (R-S-) believed in GdAs. This belief may indicate that patients are interested in bridging the gap between the concrete struggle to manage illness and non-rational/transcendent realms.

  19. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  20. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  1. Aircraft Survivability: An Overview of Aircraft Fire Protection, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    combination of the two. The detectors are designed to look at a narrow frequency band; however, initial designs were not sophis- ticated enough to...for complete ignition prevention. Experimental Setup This test program was conducted at the Simulated Aircraft Fuel Tank Environ- ment ( SAFTE ) Facility...experi- enced a roll oscillation at a frequency of 0.35 hertz (Hz). Figure 3 shows a liquid phenomenon known as a hydraulic jump (circled region

  2. CID Aircraft slap-down

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  3. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  4. Aircraft Derived Data Validation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    required to solve for wind. However, local variations in wind results in unrepresentative estimates when only two samples are used; Therefore, a more...CONCLUSION 37 10. FUTURE WORK 39 REFERENCES 40 A. DATA DEPENDENCY CHART A-1 B. WIND FIELD SAMPLE B-1 C. AIRCRAFT SPECIFIC VALIDATION REPORT (ASVR) SAMPLE ...C-1 D. CROSS TRACK REPORT (XTR) SAMPLE D-1 E. ACRONYM LIST E-1 viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure No. Page 1.1 Register Layouts 2 2.1 ATCRBS

  5. Piloted Aircraft Environment Simulation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    model of the KC- 135 tanker aircraft. 1.2 AS INE EIEET DEFINEDI1T AS TNEAllRFORCE APRVED IT AS TESYSTEMS CNINA AS ThECONTRACTRMADE I AS N LOGISTCS ...approach trajectory, he will control speed with pitch attitude, and sink rate with power. More rapid changes can be achieved by reversing the control...thrust reversers (or parachutes) may be of most concern, coupled with runway conditions (water or ice) and crosswinds. Failures and assymetrics will

  6. Aircraft Evaluation Using Stochastic Duels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    control , structural load factors, and weapon effectiveness are influential in determining the winner in the dogfight. Our model is designed to...models focus on higher resolution applications such as missile control designs. Our aim in this chapter is to provide a review of some of the...occurs. 1. The weapons onboard the aircraft are only missiles, thus excluding the use of guns . This assumption serves to focus on the more

  7. IAR-93 military aircraft monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BISCA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation, we will concentrate on the vertical support, which is free from all sides. A Finite Element Model (FEM of the IAR-93 aircraft monument has been developed in PATRAN/NASTRAN®, partly from a previous ANSYS® model FEM can be used to investigate potential structural modifications or changes in column monument with realistic component corrections. Model validation should be part of every modern engineering analysis and quality assurance procedure

  8. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight except...

  9. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.15 Detaining an aircraft...

  10. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a) Aircraft of member States of... States airspace only if a license has been issued by the State in which the aircraft is registered and...

  11. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  12. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  13. The Antibiotic Guardian campaign: a qualitative evaluation of an online pledge-based system focused on making better use of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Joanna May; Bhattacharya, Alex; Ashiru-Oredope, Diane; Gobin, Maya; Audrey, Suzanne

    2017-07-11

    The Antibiotic Guardian Campaign was developed to increase commitment to reducing Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), change behaviour and increase knowledge through an online pledge system for healthcare professionals and members of the public to become Antibiotic Guardians (AG). This qualitative evaluation aimed to understand AG experiences of the campaign and perceived impact on behaviour. Ninety-four AGs (48 via a survey and 46 who had agreed to future contact) were invited to participate in a telephone semi-structured interview. The sample was based on self-identification as a healthcare professional or a member of the public, pledge group (e.g. adults, primary care prescribers etc.), pledge and gender. Interviews explored how participants became aware of the campaign, reasons for joining, pledge choices, responses to joining and views about the campaign's implementation. Interviews were analysed using the Framework Method. Twenty-two AGs (10 healthcare professionals and 12 members of the public) were interviewed. AGs became aware of the campaign through professional networks and social media, and were motivated to join by personal and professional concern for AMR. Choice of pledge group and pledge were attributed to relevance and potential impact on AMR and the behaviour of others through pledge enactment and promotion of the campaign. Most AGs could not recall their pledge unprompted. Most felt they fulfilled their pledge, although this reflected either behaviour change or the pledge reinforcing pre-existing behaviour. The campaign triggered AGs to reflect on AMR related behaviour and reinforced pre-existing beliefs. Several AGs promoted the campaign to others. Responding collectively as part of the campaign was thought to have a greater impact than individual action. However, limited campaign visibility was observed and the campaign was perceived to have restricted ability to reach those unaware of AMR. AGs were motivated to reduce AMR and most felt they

  14. 75 FR 51953 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... notification and reporting of aircraft accidents or incidents by adding a definition of ``unmanned aircraft... Register (FR), is available for inspection and copying in the NTSB's public reading room, located at 490 L... the addition of a new definition of ``unmanned aircraft accident'' to the section of the NTSB's...

  15. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect... Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Ind stria AMT-200 912 A2 Mec nico- Metal rgica Ltda. Diamond Aircraft...

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  17. Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

  18. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  19. Altus I aircraft on lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft climbs away after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet. The Altus II, the first of the two craft to be completed, made its first flight on May 1, 1996. With its engine augmented by a single-stage turbocharger, the Altus II reached an altitude of 37,000 ft during its first series of development flights at Dryden in Aug., 1996. In Oct. of that year, the Altus II was flown in an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement study for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory in Oklahoma. During the course of those flights, the Altus II set a single-flight endurance record for remotely-operated aircraft of more than 26 hours. The Altus I, completed in 1997, flew a series of development flights at Dryden that summer. Those test flights culminated with the craft reaching an altitude of 43,500 ft while carrying a simulated 300-lb payload, a record for an unmanned aircraft powered by a piston engine augmented with a single-stage turbocharger. The Altus II sustained an altitudeof 55,000 feet for four hours in 1999. A pilot in a control station on the ground flies the

  20. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is realized in Maintenance and Repair System which does not include maintenance organization and planning and is a set of related elements: aircraft, Maintenance and Repair measures, executors and documentation that sets rules of their interaction for maintaining of the aircraft reliability and readiness for flight. The aircraft organizational and technical states are considered, their characteristics and heuristic estimates of connection in knots and arcs of graphs and of aircraft organi- zational states during regular maintenance and at technical state failure are given. It is shown that in real conditions of air- craft maintenance, planned aircraft technical state control and maintenance control through it, is only defined by Mainte- nance and Repair conditions at a given Maintenance and Repair type and form structures, and correspondingly by setting principles of Maintenance and Repair work types to the execution, due to maintenance, by aircraft and all its units mainte- nance and reconstruction strategies. The realization of planned Maintenance and Repair process determines the one of the constant maintenance component. The proposed graphical models allow to reveal quantitative correlations between graph knots to improve maintenance processes by statistical research methods, what reduces manning, timetable and expenses for providing safe civil aviation aircraft maintenance.

  1. New entrants and overcapacity: lessons from regional aircraft manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial aircraft manufacturing industry has been largely dominated by the advanced economies in North America and Western Europe. During recent decades, several emerging economies have invested heavily in the commercial aircraft industry, notably in regional aircraft manufacturing. This paper

  2. Development of a Flammability Test Method for Aircraft Blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Flammability testing of aircraft blankets was conducted in order to develop a fire performance test method and performance criteria for blankets supplied to commercial aircraft operators. Aircraft blankets were subjected to vertical Bunsen burner tes...

  3. Representações do Brasil na imprensa britânica: uma análise cultural do jornal The Guardian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Gamba Dalpiaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo trata das representações do Brasil na imprensa de qualidade britânica. O objetivo é investigar os elementos culturais presentes no jornal The Guardian que, se analisados em conjunto, contribuem para dar visibilidade a uma identidade brasileira, permeada por práticas simbólicas do contexto onde circulam. Buscam-se aportes no campo dos estudos culturais e do jornalismo, adotando a perspectiva da análise cultural e o modelo analítico de Johnson (1999 como percurso metodológico. Deste modo, descreve-se o circuito de cultura enfatizando as articulações entre os momentos: produção e culturas vividas, produção e textos e textos e leituras. Verifica-se que a identidade brasileira construída pelos britânicos emerge da complexidade sociocultural da nação por meio de seu território, da desigualdade social e da diversidade cultural.

  4. Archaeal DNA Polymerase-B as a DNA Template Guardian: Links between Polymerases and Base/Alternative Excision Repair Enzymes in Handling the Deaminated Bases Uracil and Hypoxanthine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Abellón-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Archaea repair of uracil and hypoxanthine, which arise by deamination of cytosine and adenine, respectively, is initiated by three enzymes: Uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG, which recognises uracil; Endonuclease V (EndoV, which recognises hypoxanthine; and Endonuclease Q (EndoQ, (which recognises both uracil and hypoxanthine. Two archaeal DNA polymerases, Pol-B and Pol-D, are inhibited by deaminated bases in template strands, a feature unique to this domain. Thus the three repair enzymes and the two polymerases show overlapping specificity for uracil and hypoxanthine. Here it is demonstrated that binding of Pol-D to primer-templates containing deaminated bases inhibits the activity of UDG, EndoV, and EndoQ. Similarly Pol-B almost completely turns off EndoQ, extending earlier work that demonstrated that Pol-B reduces catalysis by UDG and EndoV. Pol-B was observed to be a more potent inhibitor of the enzymes compared to Pol-D. Although Pol-D is directly inhibited by template strand uracil, the presence of Pol-B further suppresses any residual activity of Pol-D, to near-zero levels. The results are compatible with Pol-D acting as the replicative polymerase and Pol-B functioning primarily as a guardian preventing deaminated base-induced DNA mutations.

  5. Child marriage prevention in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: association of communication exposure and social influence with parents/guardians' knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders...

  7. Bayesian Inference of Aircraft Initial Mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aircraft mass is a crucial piece of information for studies on aircraft performance, trajectory prediction, and many other ATM topics. However, it is a common challenge for researchers who have no access to this proprietary information. Previously, several studies have proposed methods to estimates

  8. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  9. Aircraft of Today. Aerospace Education I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savler, D. S.

    This textbook gives a brief idea about the modern aircraft used in defense and for commercial purposes. Aerospace technology in its present form has developed along certain basic principles of aerodynamic forces. Different parts in an airplane have different functions to balance the aircraft in air, provide a thrust, and control the general…

  10. AIRCRAFT SHELTER-DICE THROW Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    SHELTER-OICE THROW Test Site Layout for 9 AFWL Test Structures 4 AIRCRAFT SHELTER-DICE THROW ANFO Charge Configuration 10 5 Upgraded Aircraft Shelter...approximately 150 meters (500 ft). This shelter is the same as Shelter "$", but with a heavy overlay of concrete. As with Shelter "B", end walls were

  11. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  12. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  13. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  14. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft particle emissions contribute a modest, but growing, portion of the overall particle emissions budget. Characterizing aircraft particle emissions is...

  15. Partially Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose electric drive specific power, electric drive efficiency, and electrical propulsion fraction as the key performance parameters for a partially turboelectric aircraft power system and to investigate their impact on the overall aircraft performance. Breguet range equations for a base conventional turbofan aircraft and a partially turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the partially turboelectric system are enumerated. A break even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency, for a given electrical propulsion fraction, that can preserve the range, fuel weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the conventional aircraft. Current and future power system performance is compared to the required performance to determine the potential benefit.

  16. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  17. Do supersonic aircraft avoid contrails?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stenke

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a potential future fleet of supersonic aircraft on contrail coverage and contrail radiative forcing is investigated by means of simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM4.L39(DLR including a contrail parameterization. The model simulations consider air traffic inventories of a subsonic fleet and of a combined fleet of sub- and supersonic aircraft for the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. In case of the combined fleet, part of the subsonic fleet is replaced by supersonic aircraft. The combined air traffic scenario reveals a reduction in contrail cover at subsonic cruise levels (10 to 12 km in the northern extratropics, especially over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. At supersonic flight levels (18 to 20 km, contrail formation is mainly restricted to tropical regions. Only in winter is the northern extratropical stratosphere above the 100 hPa level cold enough for the formation of contrails. Total contrail coverage is only marginally affected by the shift in flight altitude. The model simulations indicate a global annual mean contrail cover of 0.372% for the subsonic and 0.366% for the combined fleet in 2050. The simulated contrail radiative forcing is most closely correlated to the total contrail cover, although contrails in the tropical lower stratosphere are found to be optically thinner than contrails in the extratropical upper troposphere. The global annual mean contrail radiative forcing in 2050 (2025 amounts to 24.7 mW m−2 (9.4 mW m−2 for the subsonic fleet and 24.2 mW m−2 (9.3 mW m−2 for the combined fleet. A reduction of the supersonic cruise speed from Mach 2.0 to Mach 1.6 leads to a downward shift in contrail cover, but does not affect global mean total contrail cover and contrail radiative forcing. Hence the partial substitution of subsonic air traffic leads to a shift of contrail occurrence from mid to low latitudes, but the resulting change in

  18. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The... Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously The...

  19. Aircraft wing structure detail design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Garrett L.; Roberts, Ron; Mallon, Bob; Alameri, Mohamed; Steinbach, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The provisions of this project call for the design of the structure of the wing and carry-through structure for the Viper primary trainer, which is to be certified as a utility category trainer under FAR part 23. The specific items to be designed in this statement of work were Front Spar, Rear Spar, Aileron Structure, Wing Skin, and Fuselage Carry-through Structure. In the design of these parts, provisions for the fuel system, electrical system, and control routing were required. Also, the total weight of the entire wing planform could not exceed 216 lbs. Since this aircraft is to be used as a primary trainer, and the SOW requires a useful life of 107 cycles, it was decided that all of the principle stresses in the structural members would be kept below 10 ksi. The only drawback to this approach is a weight penalty.

  20. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  1. Residents' annoyance responses to aircraft noise events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Stephens, D. G.; Fields, J. M.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-weighted sound pressure level. A significant difference was found between the ratings of commercial jet aircraft and general aviation propeller aircraft, with the latter being judged less annoying. After the effects of noise level were accounted for, no significant differences were found between the ratings of landings and takeoffs. Aircraft noise annoyance reactions are stronger in lowered ambient noise conditions. This is consistent with the theory that reduced nighttime and evening ambient levels could create different reactions at different times of day. After controlling for ambient noise in a multiple regression analysis, no significant differences were found between the ratings of single events obtained during the three time periods: morning, afternoon, and evenings.

  2. Collision avoidance for aircraft in abort landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathwig, Jarret

    We study the collision avoidance between two aircraft flying in the same vertical plane: a host aircraft on a glide path and an intruder aircraft on a horizontal trajectory below that of the host aircraft and heading in the opposite direction. Assuming that the intruder aircraft is uncooperative, the host aircraft executes an optimal abort landing maneuver: it applies maximum thrust setting and maximum angle of attack lifting the flight path over the original path, thereby increasing the timewise minimum distance between the two aircraft and, in this way, avoiding the potential collision. In the presence of weak constraints on the aircraft and/or the environment, the angle of attack must be brought to the maximum value and kept there until the maximin point is reached. On the other hand, in the presence of strong constraints on the aircraft and the environment, desaturation of the angle of attack might have to take place before the maximin point is reached. This thesis includes four parts. In the first part, after an introduction and review of the available literature, we reformulate and solve the one-subarc Chebyshev maximin problem as a two-subarc Bolza-Pontryagin problem in which the avoidance and the recovery maneuvers are treated simultaneously. In the second part, we develop a guidance scheme (gamma guidance) capable of approximating the optimal trajectory in real time. In the third part, we present the algorithms employed to solve the one-subarc and two-subarc problems. In the fourth part, we decompose the two-subarc Bolza-Pontryagin problem into two one-subarc problems: the avoidance problem and the recovery problem, to be solved in sequence; remarkably, for problems where the ratio of total maneuver time to avoidance time is sufficiently large (≥5), this simplified procedure predicts accurately the location of the maximin point as well as the maximin distance.

  3. Aircraft control in wake vortex wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Gregory R.

    1995-01-01

    In the past, there have been a number of fatal incidents attributable to wake vortex encounters, involving both general aviation and commercial aircraft. In fact, the wake vortex hazard is considered to be the single dominant safety issue determining the aircraft spacing requirements at airports. As the amount of air traffic increases, the number of dangerous encounters is likely only to increase. It is therefore imperative that a means be found to reduce the danger. That is the purpose of this research: to use nonlinear inverse dynamic (NID) control methods in the design of an aircraft control system which can improve the safety margin in a wake vortex encounter.

  4. Aircraft wake vortices in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerz, Thomas; Holzäpfel, Frank; Hofbauer, Thomas; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Frech, Michael

    The studies summarized here were motivated by the need to gain information (i) about the impact of aircraft emissions upon the atmosphere and the climate and (ii) about optimized separation distances between aircraft landing at an airport for possibly increasing its capacity. To this end, large-eddy simulations have been performed to learn about the behaviour of vortex wakes shed by cruising aircraft in the free atmosphere and in the atmospheric boundary layer close to the ground. Some results are best illustrated in animated form and may be found under http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/wirbelschleppe/WakeVortex.html.

  5. Computing Linear Mathematical Models Of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Derivation and Definition of Linear Aircraft Model (LINEAR) computer program provides user with powerful, and flexible, standard, documented, and verified software tool for linearization of mathematical models of aerodynamics of aircraft. Intended for use in software tool to drive linear analysis of stability and design of control laws for aircraft. Capable of both extracting such linearized engine effects as net thrust, torque, and gyroscopic effects, and including these effects in linear model of system. Designed to provide easy selection of state, control, and observation variables used in particular model. Also provides flexibility of allowing alternate formulations of both state and observation equations. Written in FORTRAN.

  6. 8 CFR 234.3 - Aircraft; how considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft; how considered. 234.3 Section 234... PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.3 Aircraft; how considered. Except as otherwise specifically provided in the Immigration and Nationality Act and this chapter, aircraft arriving...

  7. 14 CFR 49.11 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 49.11 Section 49.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.11 FAA Aircraft Registry. To be eligible for recording...

  8. 14 CFR 375.11 - Other foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in § 375.10...

  9. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an aircraft...

  10. 42 CFR 71.44 - Disinsection of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disinsection of aircraft. 71.44 Section 71.44... Disinsection of aircraft. (a) The Director may require disinsection of an aircraft if it has left a foreign area that is infected with insect-borne communicable disease and the aircraft is suspected of harboring...

  11. 14 CFR 65.67 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher certification courses... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.67 Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Personnel. (a) Each applicant for an aircraft...

  12. 14 CFR 47.19 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 47.19 Section 47.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.19 FAA Aircraft Registry. Each application, request, notification, or other...

  13. 177 airport acoustics: aircraft ise ibution and modelling of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords :jlircraft noise, aircraft parameters and enoironmenta[ noise climate. 1. Introduction. Since the early 1950s, the number of transportation aircraft has increased tremendously (EPA, 1971). The increase, especially of general aviation aircraft, jet aircraft and helicopters, has had significant impart on our environment, ...

  14. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... receive about this proposed AD. Discussion Three forced landings of Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-18...

  15. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  16. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  17. Airframe Certification Methods for Unmanned Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saff, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    The application of conventional structural certification methods to unmanned aircraft can lead to unacceptably long development times and costs that are out of line with the development costs for the airframe...

  18. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  19. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  20. PLANNING OF TRAINING AIRCRAFT FLIGHT HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visnja Vojvodić Rosenzweig

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the training aircraft causes downtime of operations and thereby reduces the operational availability, which is crucial for flight planning in a training organisation. Manual daily planning within the fleet delivers suboptimal results and often causes discontinued flight of several aircraft that have to be maintained at the same time. Optimal maintenance schedule of training aircraft can be obtained by a sliding scale method. This paper presents a mathematical model of the sliding scale formulated by a mixed integer linear problem. Allocation of flight hours is optimised by using AMPL programming language, assuring that a sufficient number of aircraft are always available for training. The model can be used by a flight dispatch department in a training organisation as a basis for optimised planning and reduction of maintenance downtime.

  1. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  2. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  3. Children restraint systems for civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    Child restraint systems have been developed to provide protection to children involved in automobile crashes. These systems are not yet approved for use in civil aircraft. Six typical systems were exposed to controlled impacts on a test sled to simul...

  4. Child restraint systems for civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    Child restraint systems have been developed to provide protection to children involved in automobile crashes. These systems are not yet approved for use in civil aircraft. Six typical systems were exposed to controlled impacts on a test sled to simul...

  5. Unmanned Aircraft Systems - Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office utilizes UAS technology for collecting remote sensing data on a local scale. Typical UAS projects...

  6. Unmanned Aircraft Systems - Point Cloud Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office utilizes UAS technology for collecting remote sensing data on a local scale. Typical UAS projects...

  7. Finite Element Aircraft Simulation of Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    A Simulation of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence (SORBET) model has been : developed for realtime aircraft simulation that accommodates stochastic : turbulence and distributed discrete gusts as a function of the terrain. This : model is applicable to c...

  8. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  9. Spring 2008 Industry Study: Aircraft Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John; Dedecker, Craig; Doerer, Robert; Dols, Jonathan; Ekwall, Bengt; Heck, Mark; Jungco, Rolando; Koch, David; Lolley, James; Matyi, Kyle; McCaffrey, Terrance; Provost, Carla; Snyder, Daniel; Szucs, Jozsef; Truhn, Harry; Tyler, J. R

    2008-01-01

    .... With the exception of the relatively less mature unmanned aircraft systems sector, significant changes to the number and identity of competing firms are not likely in the next few years, although...

  10. Unmanned aircraft systems for transportation decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    Our nation relies on accurate geospatial information to map, measure, and monitor transportation infrastructure and the surrounding landscapes. This project focused on the application of Unmanned Aircraft systems (UAS) as a novel tool for improving e...

  11. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2005-2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents the Department of Defense's (DoD) roadmap for developing and employing unmanned aircraft systems over the next 25 years (2005 to 2030). It describes the missions identified by theater warfighters to which systems could be appli...

  12. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  13. Safety of Cargo Aircraft Handling Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlavatý

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get acquainted with the ways how to improve the safety management system during cargo aircraft handling. The first chapter is dedicated to general information about air cargo transportation. This includes the history or types of cargo aircraft handling, but also the means of handling. The second part is focused on detailed description of cargo aircraft handling, including a description of activities that are performed before and after handling. The following part of this paper covers a theoretical interpretation of safety, safety indicators and legislative provisions related to the safety of cargo aircraft handling. The fourth part of this paper analyzes the fault trees of events which might occur during handling. The factors found by this analysis are compared with safety reports of FedEx. Based on the comparison, there is a proposal on how to improve the safety management in this transportation company.

  14. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  15. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  16. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  17. Methods for Aircraft State and Parameter Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    IFIP Conference on Optimization Techniques. Rome, Italy, May 1973. 3. Mehra, Raman K., and Stepner, David E.: "Maximm Likelihood Identification and...Aircraft. Rept. 1356, Res.. Dept., Cessan Aircraft Co., Key 1957. 10. Stepner, David E., and Mehra, Raman K.: ?Kaximum Likelihood Identification and...the position input signal ass mostly dus to talmtry noise. which mae metly 1 percent of full scale. The eccelerometer signal noias , mialy due to

  18. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  19. Energy-Absorbing Passenger Seat for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, C. P.; Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Development of energy-absorbing passenger seat, designed to minimize injury in commercial-aircraft crash, part of joint FAA/NASA controlledimpact flight test of transport-category commercial aircraft. Modified seat mechanism collapses under heavy load to absorb impact energy and thereby protect passenger. Results of simulation tests indicate probability of passenger survival high. Proposed seat mechanism mitigates passenger injuries by reducing impact forces in crash.

  20. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Daggett, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  1. Crashworthiness of composite seats for civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been conducted into the design of civil aircraft seats which are forward-facing and use the lap-belt method of restraint. Within these terms of reference, the response of the seat restraint occupant system (SROS) to impact loading has been analysed using physical (dynamic testing) and analytical (computer simulation) modelling techniques. With the increasing use of fibre-reinforced polymer composites in aircraft for weight efficiency, and the consequent appearance of composite se...

  2. Aircraft Survivability. Susceptibility Reduction. Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    importance of what we do, and showcased the joint nature of our organization. CDR Fehrle and LT John responded to the scene immediately to begin the...Eye-One Photo SG” spectro-photometer (Gretag Macbeth GRET-0366), which provides 10nm resolution across the 380-730nm spectral range. The paints...Approach The short timelines, prevalence, and portable nature of the aircraft threats described lead us to a change in the paradigm of aircraft

  3. Distributed radar sensors for aircraft detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, G. H.

    1991-04-01

    Radars suitable for aircraft detection could be deployed on singlet space-based interceptor (SBI) platforms. They could operate at short ranges and still achieve useful search rates. Powers are modest and insensitive to frequency; the dominant costs are the pulsers and phased-array elements. A fundamental simplification results from mounting the radar on the life jacket rather than the SBI. Many satellites could be processed to derive aircraft trajectories sufficiently accurate for the commitment of fighters or defensive missiles.

  4. Unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, Predator B in flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. ALTAIR/PREDATOR B -- General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator testbed aircraft to validate a variety of command and control technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Ten-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 84 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of those basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

  5. Annoyance caused by aircraft en route noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance response of people on the ground to enroute noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The en route noises were ground level recordings of eight advanced turboprop aircraft flyovers and six conventional turbofan flyovers. The eight advanced turboprop enroute noises represented the NASA Propfan Test Assessment aircraft operating at different combinations of altitude, aircraft Mach number, and propeller tip speed. The conventional turbofan en route noises represented six different commercial airliners. The overall durations of the en route noises varied from approximately 40 to 160 sec. In the experiment, 32 subjects judged the annoyance of the en route noises as well as recordings of the takeoff and landing noises of each of 5 conventional turboprop and 5 conventional turbofan aircraft. Each of the noises was presented at three sound pressure levels to the subjects in an anechoic listening room. Analysis of the judgments found small differences in annoyance between three combinations of aircraft type and operation. Current tone and corrections did not significantly improve en route annoyance prediction. The optimum duration-correction magnitude for en route noise was approximately 1 dB per doubling of effective duration.

  6. Smart fastener technology for aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Paul, Clare A.

    1995-04-01

    Hidden and inaccessible corrosion in aircraft structures is the number 1 logistics problem for the Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of greater than one billion dollars per year. The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is being developed to detect and characterize corrosion factors in hidden locations of aircraft structures. The SAFE concept is a novel `in-situ' measurement approach that measures and autonomously records several environmental factors (i.e., pH, temperature, chloride) associated with corrosion. The SAFE system integrated an electrochemical-based microsensor array directly into the aircraft structure to measure the evidence of active corrosion as an in-situ measurement without reducing aircraft structural integrity. The long term-payoff for the SAFE system will be in predictive maintenance for fixed and rotary wing aircraft structures, industrial tanks, and fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs.

  7. Phytochemicals: guardians of our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, W J

    1997-10-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, nonnutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of chronic disease such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension as well as other medical conditions. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and pectin, contains a host of active phytochemicals. The phytochemicals in grains reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  8. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  9. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported

  10. Common factors in the withdrawal of European aircraft manufacturers from the regional aircraft market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether there were common causes for the withdrawal from the regional aircraft market of three established manufacturers (BAE Systems, Fokker and Saab), while competitors thrived. We focus on the markets for 50- and 100-seat aircraft. One cause concerning the 50-seat market was the

  11. 76 FR 40219 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... action'' under Executive Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and... stria AMT-200 912 A2. Mec nico- Metal rgica Ltda. Diamond Aircraft Industries... HK 36 R ``SUPER 912 A...

  12. Smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system: a condition-based corrosion detection system for aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Seifert, Greg; Paul, Clare A.

    1996-05-01

    The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is an advanced structural health monitoring effort to detect and characterize corrosion in hidden and inaccessible locations of aircraft structures. Hidden corrosion is the number one logistics problem for the U.S. Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of $700M per year in 1990 dollars. The SAFE system incorporates a solid-state electrochemical microsensor and smart sensor electronics in the body of a Hi-Lok aircraft fastener to process and autonomously report corrosion status to aircraft maintenance personnel. The long-term payoff for using SAFE technology will be in predictive maintenance for aging aircraft and rotorcraft systems, fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service, and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs. A summary of the SAFE concept, laboratory test results, and future field test plans is presented.

  13. Design of workcards for aircraft inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Drury, C G; Lofgren, J

    1994-10-01

    The workcard is the primary document that controls an aircraft inspection task and serves as a major factor influencing inspection performance. The present study develops a methodology for design of workcards, based on the application of human factors knowledge to the analysis of aircraft inspection tasks. A taxonomy for design of usable documentation was developed using four basic categories: information readability, information context, information organization, and physical handling/environmental factors. Within the framework of this taxonomy two extreme representative conditions of aircraft inspection tasks, the A-check and the C-check, were analysed for usability. Issues for workcard redesign were identified within the taxonomy using data from user responses. These were then used to develop alternative design solutions offering improved usability. The increase in usability was measured using inspections of DC-9 aircraft, and proved significant. Not only does this study propose specific design solutions, it also provides a generic methodology that can be followed for design of quality documentation for other aircraft inspection tasks. This methodology is currently being extended for the design of usable information for automated workcards and hypermedia-based documentation.

  14. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  15. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  16. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    An aircraft turn-round refers to the set of processes taking place from when an aircraft parks at its arrival stand until the time it departs from its departure stand. When handling a turn-round, the different processes involved (arrival, disembarkation of passengers, cleaning, etc.) require...... to handle a given set of aircraft turn-rounds. We develop a set packing-based model formulation of the problem which is both flexible in the sense that it can encapsulate any type of resource required during the handling of a turn-round and strong in the sense that conflicts that occur when two or more turn......-rounds simultaneously claim the same resource are handled implicitly. To solve the model, a heuristic based on linear programming is developed. The heuristic iteratively solves a relaxed, restricted version of the problem, adding extra variables at each iteration if needed. The additional variables are identified...

  17. Aircraft induced contrail cirrus over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Condensation trails (contrails) and aircraft induced cirrus are nowadays a common feature at the mid latitude skies. Previously the impact of aircraft induced cirrus changes has been roughly estimated from observed decadal trends in cirrus cover but the direct attribution of observed cirrus changes to changes in aviation activity remains uncertain. In this paper the amount of additional cirrus induced from spreading contrails in humid air is estimated from the direct correlation between observed cirrus cover derived with suitable methods from METEOSAT data and aviation flight density reported by EUROCONTROL at high spatial and temporal resolution from June 22 to July 27, 1998 and September 27 to October 21, 2000. The results indicate that the aircraft induced cirrus cover over Europe is about ten times larger than that of linear contrails in the same region. Radiative forcing from the additional cirrus may be more than 10 times higher than that of linear contrails and aviation induced CO{sub 2} increases. (orig.)

  18. Open Vehicle Sketch Pad Aircraft Modeling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Geometric modeling of aircraft during the Conceptual design phase is very different from that needed for the Preliminary or Detailed design phases. The Conceptual design phase is characterized by the rapid, multi-disciplinary analysis of many design variables by a small engineering team. The designer must walk a line between fidelity and productivity, picking tools and methods with the appropriate balance of characteristics to achieve the goals of the study, while staying within the available resources. Identifying geometric details that are important, and those that are not, is critical to making modeling and methodology choices. This is true for both the low-order analysis methods traditionally used in Conceptual design as well as the highest-order analyses available. This paper will highlight some of Conceptual design's characteristics that drive the designer s choices as well as modeling examples for several aircraft configurations using the open source version of the Vehicle Sketch Pad (Open VSP) aircraft Conceptual design geometry modeler.

  19. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows one of the QF-106s used in the Eclipse project in flight. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  20. View of QF-106 aircraft cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    View of the cockpit and instrument panel of the QF-106 airplane used in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  1. Eclipse program C-141A aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wind loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  2. Unmanned aircraft system bridge inspection demonstration project phase II final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within the aircraft. Unmanned aircraft are familiarly referred to as drones, a...

  3. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... directive (AD): Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing... Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously The Lancair...

  4. Improving transient analysis technology for aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, R. J.; Chargin, Mladen

    1989-01-01

    Aircraft dynamic analyses are demanding of computer simulation capabilities. The modeling complexities of semi-monocoque construction, irregular geometry, high-performance materials, and high-accuracy analysis are present. At issue are the safety of the passengers and the integrity of the structure for a wide variety of flight-operating and emergency conditions. The technology which supports engineering of aircraft structures using computer simulation is examined. Available computer support is briefly described and improvement of accuracy and efficiency are recommended. Improved accuracy of simulation will lead to a more economical structure. Improved efficiency will result in lowering development time and expense.

  5. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  6. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  7. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  8. Rapid prototyping of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George; Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Hall, Kenneth; Holifield, Walt; Sullivan, Rani; Brown, Scott

    The faculty, staff and students of the Raspet Flight Research Laboratory (RFRL) have developed a rapid prototyping capability in a series of research aircraft and unmanned aircraft development projects. There has been a steady change in the technologies used to accomplish these tasks at the RFRL. The most recent development has been the utilization of computer graphics and a 5-axis gantry robot router to accelerate the design, moldmaking and parts trimming tasks. The composite structure fabrication processes at the RFRL have evolved from wet-lay-up to autoclave curve. Currently, the feasibility of the stitched composite material preform and resin transfer molding process is being explored.

  9. NASA/JPL Aircraft SAR Workshop Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, N. (Editor); Evans, D. L. (Editor); Held, D. N. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Speaker-supplied summaries of the talks given at the NASA/JPL Aircraft SAR Workshop on February 4 and 5, 1985, are provided. These talks dealt mostly with composite quadpolarization imagery from a geologic or ecologic prespective. An overview and summary of the system characteristics of the L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) flown on the NASA CV-990 aircraft are included as supplementary information. Other topics ranging from phase imagery and interferometric techniques classifications of specific areas, and the potentials and limitations of SAR imagery in various applications are discussed.

  10. Response of geese to aircraft disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David; Stehn, Robert A.; Derksen, Dirk V.

    2000-01-01

    Low-flying aircraft can affect behavior, physiology, and distribution of wildlife (Manci et al., 1988), and over time, may impact a population by reducing survival and reproductive performance. Thus, it is important to identify the particular aspects of overflights that affect animals so that management strategies can be developed to minimize adverse effects.Waterfowl are particularly sensitive to low-flying aircraft (Manci et al., 1988) and respond at all stages of their annual cycle, including breeding (Gollop et al., 1974a; Laing, 1991), molting (Derksen et al., 1979; Mosbech and Glahder, 1991), migration (Jones and Jones, 1966; Belanger and Bedard, 1989), and wintering (Owens, 1977; Kramer et al., 1979; Henry, 1980). Waterfowl response can be quite variable both within and among species (Fleming et al., 1996). For example, response can vary with age, sex, and body condition of individual, habitat type and quality, and previous exposure to aircraft (Dahlgren and Korshgen, 1992). However, the most important factors influencing a response are aircraft type (Davis and Wiseley, 1974; Jensen, 1990), noise (Mosbech and Glahder, 1991; Temple, 1993), and proximity to the birds, as measured in altitude and lateral distance (Derksen et al., 1979; Belanger and Bedard, 1989; Ward et al., 1994). Wildlife managers can reduce impacts on a population by controlling or modifying these factors.In an experimental study conducted at Izembek Lagoon in southwestern Alaska in 1985-1988 (Ward and Stehn, 1989), we conducted planned aircraft overflights with control of aircraft type, noise, altitude, and lateral distance to flocks (hereafter called lateral distance) to measure behavioral response of fall-staging Pacific brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and Canada geese (B. canadensis taverneri) to fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. These data were then used to develop predictive models of the relationship between aircraft type, noise, altitude, and lateral distance and the response of

  11. An aircraft Earth station for general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, R.; Boughton, J.; Lyons, R.; Spenler, S.; Rigley, J.

    While the focus has been international commercial air traffic, an opportunity exists to provide satellite communications to smaller aircraft. For these users equipment cost and weight critically impact the decision to install satellite communications equipment. Less apparent to the operator is the need for a system infrastructure that will be supported both regionally and internationally and that is compatible with the ground segment being installed for commercial aeronautical satellite communications. A system concept is described as well as a low cost terminal that are intended to satisfy the small aircraft market.

  12. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  13. PRN 96-3: Pesticide Products Used to Disinsect Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice specifies labeling changes for any pesticide product (insecticide) used for disinsecting aircraft. EPA required these changes based on incident information associated with the use of insecticide spray products occupied aircraft cabins.

  14. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  15. Noise transmission loss of aircraft panels using acoustic intensity methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The two-microphone, cross-spectral, acoustic intensity measurement technique was used to determine the acoustic transmission loss of three different aircraft panels. The study was conducted in the transmission loss apparatus in the Langley aircraft noise reduction laboratory.

  16. The contribution of aircraft emissions to the atmospheric sulfur budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, E. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Feichter, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Sausen, R.; Hein, R. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model including the atmospheric sulfur cycle has been used to investigate the impact of aircraft sulfur emissions on the global sulfur budget of the atmosphere. The relative contribution from aircraft sulfur to the atmospheric sulfate burden is larger than the ratio between aircraft emissions and surface emissions due to the calculated long turn-over time of aircraft sulfate (about 12 days). However, in terms of the sulfate mass balance, aircraft emissions are small, contributing about 1% of the total sulfate mass north of 40 deg C where the aircraft emissions are largest. Despite this small contribution to sulfate mass, the aircraft emissions could potentially significantly enhance the background number concentration of aerosol particles. Based on the model calculations the increased stratospheric background aerosol mass observed during the last decades can not be explained by increased aircraft sulfur emissions 50 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Fault Tolerance, Diagnostics, and Prognostics in Aircraft Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...

  18. Practical Voice Recognition for the Aircraft Cockpit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...

  19. Civil aircraft side-facing seat research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...

  20. 77 FR 50954 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental... proposed airworthiness directive (AD) for all Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Model 402C airplanes... Company (Cessna) Model 402C airplanes modified by Sierra Industries, Ltd. Supplemental Type Certificate...

  1. Methodology of an Aircraft Accident Response System Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Željko Županič

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the ability to learn from an aircraft accident as the opportunities for learning diminish with the decline in the accident rate. A safety compromising case is studied as the processes of aircraft accident intervention and recovery can degrade the ability of an aircraft accident investigation process to enhance aviation safety by revealing accident causation. In the case study an assessment of the Slovenian aircraft accident response system was made. For the purpose of evaluating the successfulness of aircraft accident intervention and effectiveness of recovery, a model of aircraft accident response system requirements has been developed. Based on non-conformances identified by the model of requirements, remedial measures are proposed for the enhancement of the aircraft accident response system operation. Criteria for the definition of the transition from accident intervention to recovery are derived from the assessment findings in a manner not to impede the aircraft accident investigation effectiveness and efficiency.

  2. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, and commercial aircraft operators need to transform vast amounts of aircraft data accumulated in distributed databases into actionable knowledge. We...

  3. 32 CFR 761.14 - Aircraft: Group authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorization: (a) U.S. public aircraft to enter all defense areas. (b) U.S. private aircraft which are under... companies authorized to utilize naval facilities in defense areas for regular commercial activity, to enter...

  4. Distributed Data Mining for Aircraft Health Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs are implemented by most of the aircraft operators. Vast amounts of FOQA data are distributed between...

  5. HAWK-IFF. A TACTICAL AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM FOR HAWK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTINUOUS WAVE RADAR, CONTROL PANELS, FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS , IDENTIFICATION , IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS , MAINTENANCE, POWER SUPPLIES, RADAR HOMING....ARMY AIRCRAFT, *SURFACE TO AIR MISSILES, *RADAR RECEIVERS, AIRCRAFT, AMPLIFIERS, ANTENNAS, ANTIAIRCRAFT DEFENSE SYSTEMS , CIRCUITS, CODING

  6. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent...

  7. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is less...

  8. Radical Changes in the Aircraft Design Process Through Software

    OpenAIRE

    Siggel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aircraft design process is a complex task, where experts from many different engineering disciplines cooperate on a single objective. Considering each discipline is responsible for only a small part of the entire aircraft – e.g. for the engine, the aerodynamics, or for the loads put to the aircraft structure – the design of a complete aircraft traditionally requires extensive communication between the experts and is therefore a very long and iterative process. In this talk we want to addr...

  9. Simulating the global climate impact of aircraft emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Ponater, M.; Brinkop, S.; Dameris, M.; Feneberg, B.; Grewe, V.; Hein, R.; Koehler, I.; Land, C.; Schumann, U.; Stuber, N. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of aircraft impact on the climate are investigated by means of GCM simulations: The direct climate effect of aircraft water vapour emissions is negligible. Contrails have the potential for significant climate modifications. NO{sub x} emissions by aircraft cause an essential enhancement of the background NO{sub x} concentration and an increase of the O{sub 3} concentration. Finally, aircraft induced ozone changes result in a statistically significant tropospheric warming. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  10. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised...

  11. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards with...

  12. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  13. Future V/STOL Aircraft For The Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, James A.; Zuk, John

    1992-01-01

    Report describes geography and transportation needs of Asian Pacific region, and describes aircraft configurations suitable for region and compares performances. Examines applications of high-speed rotorcraft, vertical/short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft, and short-takeoff-and landing (STOL) aircraft. Configurations benefit commerce, tourism, and development of resources.

  14. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the Commission...

  15. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an aircraft...

  16. 10 CFR 70.14 - Foreign military aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign military aircraft. 70.14 Section 70.14 Energy....14 Foreign military aircraft. The regulations in this part do not apply to persons who carry special nuclear material (other than plutonium) in aircraft of the armed forces of foreign nations subject to 49 U...

  17. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft. A...

  18. Functional Beamforming applied to full scale landing aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merino Martinez, R.; Snellen, M.; Simons, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft noise is becoming an increasingly important problem for the aerospace industry and for the residents living in the vicinities of airports. For efforts aiming at reducing aircraft noise levels, it is important to know all the aircraft elements which generate noise and their relative

  19. Aircraft Noise Simulation for a Virtual Reality Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, M.; Van Veen, T.A.; Visser, H.G.; Simons, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft noise annoyance predictions based on traditional tools lack fidelity when modelling a single aircraft flyover. For evaluating annoyance of new procedures, different aircraft types or changing atmospheric conditions, a new modelling approach is necessary. A research effort has been initiated

  20. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are continuing...

  1. 78 FR 23329 - Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting Meeting Announcement... attend and participate in an Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting scheduled for Thursday, May 16..., Phone Number, U.S. Citizen (Y/N). RSVPs to Corey Muller are required by COB May 1, 2013. Aircraft Access...

  2. 77 FR 22187 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards-Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards--Aircraft.... SUMMARY: This amendment corrects a number of errors in the airworthiness standards for aircraft engine... additional burden on any person. List of Subjects 14 CFR Part 33 Air transportation, Aircraft, Aviation...

  3. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant to...

  4. 47 CFR 90.423 - Operation on board aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation on board aircraft. 90.423 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.423 Operation on board aircraft. (a) Except... after September 14, 1973, under this part may be operated aboard aircraft for air-to-mobile, air-to-base...

  5. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft use... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within a...

  6. 77 FR 65148 - Airworthiness Directives; Intertechnique Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... Aircraft Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Intertechnique Aircraft Systems oxygen mask regulators. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of a... identified in this proposed AD, contact Intertechnique Aircraft Systems, 61 Rue Pierre Curie BP 1, 78373...

  7. 49 CFR 27.72 - Boarding assistance for aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boarding assistance for aircraft. 27.72 Section 27... for aircraft. (a) Paragraphs (b)-(e) of this section apply to airports with 10,000 or more annual... require employees to lift or carry passengers up stairs. Paragraph (c) of this section applies to aircraft...

  8. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ..., supersonic flight over land by civil aircraft has been prohibited in the United States. The Concorde was the... Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation... persons that the FAA is participating in a panel session on civil supersonic aircraft research. The...

  9. Aircraft Fatigue - with Particular Emphasis on Australian Operations and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    civil aircraft, but Gardner even suggested an upper 118limit of 50,000 hours. For fighter aircraft Munier proposed a life of 4,000 hours. A French...Carl, R.A. and Wegeng, T.J. Investigations concerning the fatigue of aircraft structures. Proc. ASTM, vol. 54, 1954, pp. 903-928. 118. Munier , A.E

  10. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 65 - Aircraft Dispatcher Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... location (0 Longitude, UTC). (2) Definitions. (3) Projections. (4) Charts. B. Chart Reading, Application... this chapter; C. 49 CFR part 830; D. General Operating Manual. II. Meteorology A. Basic Weather Studies... general. (2) Principles of flight: (a) Group one aircraft. (b) Group two aircraft. (3) Aircraft...

  11. 49 CFR 1544.225 - Security of aircraft and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.225 Security of aircraft and facilities. Each... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security of aircraft and facilities. 1544.225...

  12. 14 CFR 91.817 - Civil aircraft sonic boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil aircraft sonic boom. 91.817 Section....817 Civil aircraft sonic boom. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft in the United States at a... sonic boom to reach the surface within the United States; and (2) The operator complies with the flight...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract (particularly...

  14. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites AGENCY: Federal... test ranges/sites to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS... integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system at six test ranges. In establishing...

  15. 78 FR 12259 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program AGENCY: Federal... be levied on the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site operators, but prior to the close of the comment... stakeholders regarding the proposed privacy approach for the unmanned aircraft systems test site program. The...

  16. Fleet Management Decision Making With Individual Aircraft Tracking Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can

  17. 19 CFR 122.54 - Aircraft of foreign registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate Customs officer: (1) Type of aircraft; (2) Nationality and registration number of aircraft; (3... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft of foreign registry. 122.54 Section 122.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. 19 CFR 10.62b - Aircraft turbine fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft turbine fuel. 10.62b Section 10.62b... Supplies and Equipment for Vessels § 10.62b Aircraft turbine fuel. (a) General. Unless otherwise provided, aircraft turbine fuel withdrawn from a Customs bonded warehouse for use under section 309, Tariff Act of...

  19. 19 CFR 122.32 - Aircraft required to land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft required to land. 122.32 Section 122.32... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.32 Aircraft required to land. (a) Any aircraft coming into the U.S., from an area outside of the U.S., is required to land, unless it is denied...

  20. 76 FR 60367 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...-006-AD; Amendment 39-16820; AD 2009-13-06 R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... revising an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-23, PA-23-160... this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone: (772...

  1. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc...: This document withdraws a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) that would have applied to all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and PA-19...

  2. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...-020-AD; Amendment 39-17334; AD 2013-02-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960...

  3. 78 FR 35110 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ...-001-AD; Amendment 39-17457; AD 2013-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-31, PA-31-325, and.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive...

  4. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ...-002-AD; Amendment 39-17058; AD 2012-10-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and PA-31T1 airplanes. That AD currently...

  5. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc...

  6. An Analysis of USAF Aircraft Noise and Hedonic Property Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    tracts. This will test for the effect of the presence of aircraft. The hypothesis is that the presence of the aircraft will create a lowered median...aircraft noise has on local communities. Additionally, the effect of the presence of the USAF and the difference between installations with fighter and

  7. Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft: finding ways to train staff for unmanned aircraft operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, CR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As unmanned aircraft are introduced into civil airspace, a framework for training and licencing of dispatch and operating staff will be required. This paper assesses existing pilot training unit standards and proposes a framework within which staff...

  8. Aircraft Detectors, Trap Triggers and Combination Locks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Aircraft Detectors, Trap Triggers and Combination Locks - Functional Diversity of Insect Mechanosensory Hairs. Jürgen Tautz. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 32-38 ...

  9. Weed detection using unmanned aircraft vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pflanz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  10. En Route Jet Aircraft Noise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Most research into commercial noise is primarily focused on reducing the community noise, noise that the local population near an airport experiences as aircraft takeoff and land. While this type of noise may be a main driver for the noise that commu...

  11. Aircraft Performance for Open Air Traffic Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Ellerbroek, J.; Kugler, D.

    2016-01-01

    The BlueSky Open Air Tra_c Simulator developed by the Control & Simulation section of TU Delft aims at supporting research for analysing Air Tra_c Management concepts by providing an open source simulation platform. The goal of this study was to complement BlueSky with aircraft performance

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of a vectored thrust aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.B; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    With realistic relations for the aerodynamic coefficients, numerical simulations are applied to study the longitudional dynamics of a thrust vectored aircraft. As function of the thrust magnitude and the thrust vectoring angle the equilibrium state exhibits two saddle-node bifurcations and three...

  13. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  14. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  15. Incident response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Jacobs, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) was granted by ASHRAE (1306-RP) to conduct scientfic review and feasibility analysis of technologies and methods for measuring aircraft power system contaminants in the cabin air during unanticipated adverse incidents. In particular,

  16. Access improvement to aircraft passengers' hand luggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberda, W; Kampinga, O; Kassels, R; van Kester, R; Noriega, J; Vink, P

    2015-01-01

    Efficient use of space and passenger comfort in aircraft interiors are major issues. There is not much research available about the flying experience regarding passengers' personal belongings. The objective of this study is to explore concepts within the current aircraft seats which improve the passenger experience related to their personal belongings like wallets, mobile phones and laptops. Through on-site observations, interviews and online questionnaires, data regarding the number of personal belongings taken into the airplane and opinions about access to hand luggage were gathered. These data were used to develop different concepts to optimize the aircraft interior, which were evaluated by passengers. Almost every passenger carries a phone (88%), wallet (94%), travel documents (98%) and keys (76%) with them and they like to have these stored close by. Passengers rate the concept that provides integrated storage in the tray table of the aircraft seat the best. Extra storage possibility in the table-tray seems a promising solution according to the passengers.

  17. A Critique of Aircraft Airframe Cost Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    numbers, however, the ASD Cost Escalation Re- ft port 110-C would give a factor of 1.44.) 6 Historiaal and Forecasted Aeronautical Cost Indices...MODEL The SAI model is intended to estimate only the production cost of conceptual transport aircraft. The 17 groups below are designated as cost

  18. The Aerothermodynamics of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    in Section 9.2, 49 mission analyses (the squi ŕn~ of the prime numher greater than the number of independent variables) were run for each en~ine...Aircraft). The educational level of these engineers was generally at the masters or doctoral level in mechanical engineering. Often they were faced with

  19. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  20. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial comm...

  1. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    there is a trend towards design and manufacture of aircraft within the country. Among the recent design ... In the preliminary design stage, several configurations of the proposed air vehicle are evaluated in the light of .... oped the associated instrumentation and computer software for performing these complex tests. Some of ...

  2. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... properly installed shoulder harness for use by each pilot. ...

  3. Aircraft Disposal and Recycle Cost Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky; Borsato, M.; Wognum, N.; Peruzzini, M.; Stjepandić, J.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops a method for the sake of evaluating Disposal and Recycle (D&R) cost in view of the increasing demand in aircraft retirement. Firstly, a process model is extracted. The subordinated cost elements are also identified. Next, the cost aggregations based on the D&R

  4. Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

  5. Project META (Microwave Energy Transmission for Aircraft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    viability of using microwave energy transmission technology to power air vehicles remotely was investigated. On-board antennas ( rectennas ) harvest... rectenna to receive microwave energy and convert it to usable DC power. A prototype was designed and experimentally tested under controlled...beamed energy, beaming energy, remotely powered aircraft, rectenna , microwave propulsion 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  6. Electro-optical System Measures Aircraft Deflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodale, B.; Hampton, H. R.; Seymour, H. R.; Deangelis, V. M.

    1986-01-01

    In-flight deflections of aircraft surfaces are measured accurately over wide range of airspeeds and attitudes by electro-optical instrumentation system. Deflections caused by aerodynamic and acceleration forces are measured on wings, stabilizers, helicopter rotors, and other surfaces. Electro-optical system replaces 70-millimeter motor-driven camera previously used to observe deflections.

  7. Lightweight sidewalls for aircraft interior noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, D. N.; Plotkin, K. J.; Selden, R. G.; Sharp, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was performed to devise lightweight sidewalls for turboprop aircraft. Seven concepts for new sidewalls were analyzed and tested for noise reduction using flat panels of 1.2 m x 1.8 m (4 ft x 6 ft), some of which were aircraft-type constructions and some of which were simpler, easier-to-construct panels to test the functioning of an acoustic principle. Aircraft-application sidewalls were then conceived for each of the seven concepts, and were subjectively evaluated for their ability to meet aircraft nonacoustic design requirements. As a result of the above, the following sidewall concepts were recommended for further investigation: a sidewall in which the interior cavity is vented to ceiling and underfloor areas; sidewalls with wall-mounted resonators, one having a conventional trim panel and one a limp one; and a sidewall with a stiff outer wall and a limp trim panel. These sidewalls appear to promise lower weights than conventional sidewalls adjusted to meet similar acoustic requirements, and further development may prove them to be practical.

  8. Aircraft Integral Fuel Tank Corrosion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-15

    biology of Amorphoteca resinae . Materials und Organismen, 6, (3), p. 161, (1971). 8. D. Cabral. Corrosion by microorganisms of jet aircraft integral fuel...the mycelium of the fungus Hormoconis resinae in the MIC of Al alloys. Proc. XI Int. Corrosion Congress, Houston, USA, 5B, p. 3773, (1993). 14. M

  9. Multivariable Feedback Control of Unstable Aircraft Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Abhishek

    The purpose of a flight control system is to provide stability and control for the aircraft with the help of control surfaces. FCS helps improve aircraft performance characteristics during flight. Stability is secured by the mechanism of feedback. Feedback plays an important part in providing a baseline control approach for stabilizing a non-linear unstable aircraft. It helps suppress effects of disturbances. Numerical Linearization is used to design a stabilizing controller for a non-linear model of the F-16 Fighting Falcon jet initialized with nominal flight condition. First a single-loop at a time feedback is designed using Matlab for longitudinal stabilization. Then the lateral modes of the aircraft are fed back and used in a single-loop at a time fashion to stabilize the lateral dynamics. Then, a multivariable feedback approach is used to stabilize the lateral dynamics for a constant turn rate condition using a cost function optimization approach to find suitable gains for the feedback loops. All of these controllers are tested by using a non-linear Simulink simulation of the scale-model F-16 dynamics.

  10. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 1. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design. S P Govinda Raju. General Article Volume 8 Issue 1 January 2003 pp 72-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/01/0072-0076. Keywords.

  11. Self-defense of Large Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    no aircraft mods, self-contained unit, thermal battery, operational life, 5-year shelf life. Features Digital RF memory( DRFM ) TALD ADM-141A...example of a deception jammer. Digital radio frequency memory ( DRFM ) capability is needed against pulse Doppler radars. It receives the RF signals of a

  12. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje Srinvas; Frost, Susan Alane

    2008-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is focused on mitigating the environmental and operation impacts expected as aviation operations triple by 2025. The approach is to extend technological capabilities and explore novel civil transport configurations that reduce noise, emissions, fuel consumption and field length. Two Next Generation (NextGen) aircraft have been identified to meet the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals - these are the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. The technologies and concepts developed for these aircraft complicate the vehicle s design and operation. In this paper, flight control challenges for NextGen aircraft are described. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential of state-of-the-art control architectures and algorithms to meet the challenges and needed performance metrics for NextGen flight control. A broad range of conventional and intelligent control approaches are considered, including dynamic inversion control, integrated flight-propulsion control, control allocation, adaptive dynamic inversion control, data-based predictive control and reinforcement learning control.

  13. Aircraft route forecasting under adverse weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hauf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper storm nowcasts in the terminal manoeuvring area (TMA of Hong Kong International Airport are used to forecast deviation routes through a field of storms for arriving and departing aircraft. Storms were observed and nowcast by the nowcast system SWIRLS from the Hong Kong Observatory. Storms were considered as no-go zones for aircraft and deviation routes were determined with the DIVSIM software package. Two days (21 and 22 May 2011 with 22 actual flown routes were investigated. Flights were simulated with a nowcast issued at the time an aircraft entered the TMA or departed from the airport. These flights were compared with a posteriori simulations, in which all storm fields were known and circumnavigated. Both types of simulated routes were then compared with the actual flown routes. The qualitative comparison of the various routes revealed generally good agreement. Larger differences were found in more complex situations with many active storms in the TMA. Route differences resulted primarily from air traffic control measures imposed such as holdings, slow-downs and shortcuts, causing the largest differences between the estimated and actual landing time. Route differences could be enhanced as aircraft might be forced to circumnavigate a storm ahead in a different sense. The use of route forecasts to assist controllers coordinating flights in a complex moving storm field is discussed. The study emphasises the important application of storm nowcasts in aviation meteorology.

  14. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  15. Fly-by-light systems and integration for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, John R.; Hay, John A.; Noble, Dana S.

    1994-10-01

    The ever increasing performance and economy of operation requirements placed on transport aircraft are resulting in very complex, highly integrated aircraft control and management systems, substantial improvements in reliability, maintainability, weight savings, manufacturability, and survivability are also required. Fly-By-Light (FBL) technologies and their integration offer the potential of providing light weight, highly capable, flexible, and robust aircraft control and power systems to meet the demanding requirements placed on future transport aircraft. This paper discusses some key FBL technologies and integration on transport aircraft.

  16. Wind-shear endurance capability for powered-lift aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Toshio; Tanaka, Keiji; Hynes, Charles S.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1993-01-01

    The present treatment of safety margin considerations for powered-lift (upper wing surface blowing) STOL aircraft emphasizes wind shear endurance, in order to establish safety margin criteria for such aircraft that are equivalent to those of conventional transport aircraft. The simulation results obtained show that a 6.6 deg climb gradient at V(app) for STOL aircraft is required for equivalent shear endurance in approaching a long STOL airport runway, if the STOL aircraft is equipped with an elaborate control/display system and is permitted a change in configuration.

  17. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...... to another type of aircraft with different parameters. Amongst the main findings of this research project is a method to handle faults on the UAV’s pitot tube, which measures the aircraft speed. A set of software redundancies based on GPS velocity information and engine thrust are used to detect abnormal...

  18. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  19. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the

  20. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Meis, Markus; Kahl, Cara; Peschel, Christin; Eikmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship. PMID:20948931

  1. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  2. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eikmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL and health-related quality of life (HQoL were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  3. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  4. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  5. Advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Results from recent laboratory experiments in which human subjects were exposed to synthetic sounds simulating the flyover noise emitted by advanced turbofan aircraft engines are briefly summarized. The Aircraft Noise Synthesis System described by McCurdy et al. (1987) is used to simulate the noise from (1) a conventional turboprop engine, (2) a jet engine, (3) a single-rotating turbofan engine, and counterrotating turbofans with (4) equal or (5) unequal numbers of blades on the two rotors. The measured annoyance levels are compared with effective perceived noise levels in a graph. For a given noise level, the annoyance levels for (3) are shown to be slightly lower than those for all the other engine types, especially if the tone/broadband noise ratio is relatively high.

  6. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  7. Aeroelastic tailoring of composite aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila-Andres, Mihai; Larco, Ciprian; Rosu, Paul-Virgil; Rotaru, Constantin

    2017-07-01

    The need of a continuously increasing size and performance of aerospace structures has settled the composite materials as the preferred materials in aircraft structures. Apart from the clear capacity to reduce the structural weight and with it the manufacture cost and the fuel consumption while preserving proper airworthiness, the prospect of tailoring a structure using the unique directional stiffness properties of composite materials allows an aerospace engineer to optimize aircraft structures to achieve particular design objectives. This paper presents a brief review of what is known as the aeroelastic tailoring of airframes with the intent of understanding the evolution of this research topic and at the same time providing useful references for further studies.

  8. Active Aircraft Pylon Noise Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elmiligui, Alaa A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An active pylon noise control system for an aircraft includes a pylon structure connecting an engine system with an airframe surface of the aircraft and having at least one aperture to supply a gas or fluid therethrough, an intake portion attached to the pylon structure to intake a gas or fluid, a regulator connected with the intake portion via a plurality of pipes, to regulate a pressure of the gas or fluid, a plenum chamber formed within the pylon structure and connected with the regulator, and configured to receive the gas or fluid as regulated by the regulator, and a plurality of injectors in communication with the plenum chamber to actively inject the gas or fluid through the plurality of apertures of the pylon structure.

  9. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  10. Atomization of broad specification aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skifstad, J. G.; Lefebvre, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The atomization properties of liquid fuels for the potential use in aircraft gas turbine engines are discussed. The significance of these properties are addressed with respect to the ignition and subsequent combustion behavior of the fuel spray/air mixture. It is shown that the fuel properties which affect the atomization behavior (viscosity, surface tension, and density) are less favorable for the broad specification fuels as compared to with those for conventional fuels.

  11. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AS COMPLEX MULTISTRUCTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abufanas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of constructing mathematical models of unmanned aircraft systems as complex systems consisting of a plurality ofsubsystems, each of which is considered as a system. In this case, the relationship between the subsystems are described by equations based on the topological graph theory, and for the preparation of component equations describing the dynamics of the subsystems is proposed to use differential equations discontinuous type based on systems theory of random structure.

  12. Modeling Vibration Intensity of Aircraft Bevel Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Golovanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject is the aircraft bevel gears, which are part of the drive systems of gas turbine engines and helicopter transmissions. The article deals with defect specifics of the aircraft conical gears with a circular tooth as compared to the conical gear wheels of general engineering. The finite element method has been used to find by calculation that the main reason for destruction of aircraft bevel gears is a resonant vibration excitation of the gear wheel rim due to its nodal diameter eigenvibrations happened to be within the operating range of the transmission rotation frequencies. A parametric finite element model has been developed. It allows us to investigate the impact of modification parameters of the drive side of gear wheels on the function of the kinematic transmission error at different values of transmitted torque. Using the method of main coordinates, a reduced dynamic model of the bevel gear has been developed to allow simulating the vibration intensity of bevel gears with various parameters of the working profile modification. Within the framework of evaluation test of the dynamic model, amplitude-frequency characteristics have been constructed for the main parameters of transmission oscillations, including vibrational stresses in the teeth space. It is found that modification parameters of the transmission drive side have a significant effect on the vibration intensity of the bevel gears in the entire operating range. The main factor affecting the vibration stress amplitude in the gear wheel is the amplitude of the kinematic error function with the corresponding torque transmitted. The obtained research results can be used when designing the new aircraft drives and modernizing the existing ones. As part of the further development, it is expected to create a technique for recording the damage accumulation in the conical gears, taking into account the typical flight profile of a gas turbine engine or a helicopter.

  13. Squeeze Film Damping for Aircraft Gas Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    R. W. Shende; S. K. Sane

    1988-01-01

    Modern aircraft gas turbine engines depend heavily on squeeze film damper supports at the bearings for abatement of vibrations caused by a number of probable excitation sources. This design ultimately results in light-weight construction together with higher efficiency and reliability of engines. Many investigations have been reported during past two decades concerning the functioning of the squeeze film damper, which is simple in construction yet complex in behaviour with its non-linearity a...

  14. Fire detector response in aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, S. J.; Mckee, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Photoelectric, ionization, and gas sensors were used to detect the signatures from the radiant heat or flame of various aircraft materials. It was found that both ionization and photoelectric detectors are about equally capable of detecting products of pyrolysis and combustion of synthetic polymers, especially those containing fire-retardant additives. Ionization detectors alone appeared to be sensitive to combustion products of simple cellulosic materials. A gas sensor detector appeared to be insensitive to pyrolysis or combustion products of many of the materials.

  15. Digital adaptive control laws for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Stein, G.

    1979-01-01

    Honeywell has designed a digital self-adaptive flight control system for flight test in the VALT Research Aircraft (a modified CH-47). The final design resulted from a comparison of two different adaptive concepts: one based on explicit parameter estimates from a real-time maximum likelihood estimation algorithm and the other based on an implicit model reference adaptive system. The two designs are compared on the basis of performance and complexity.

  16. Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Durham, Michael H.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes both the vision and the early public-private collaborative research for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The paper outlines an operational definition of SATS, describes how SATS conceptually differs from current air transportation capabilities, introduces four SATS operating capabilities, and explains the relation between the SATS operating capabilities and the potential for expanded air mobility. The SATS technology roadmap encompasses on-demand, widely distributed, point-to-point air mobility, through hired-pilot modes in the nearer-term, and through self-operated user modes in the farther-term. The nearer-term concept is based on aircraft and airspace technologies being developed to make the use of smaller, more widely distributed community reliever and general aviation airports and their runways more useful in more weather conditions, in commercial hired-pilot service modes. The farther-term vision is based on technical concepts that could be developed to simplify or automate many of the operational functions in the aircraft and the airspace for meeting future public transportation needs, in personally operated modes. NASA technology strategies form a roadmap between the nearer-term concept and the farther-term vision. This paper outlines a roadmap for scalable, on-demand, distributed air mobility technologies for vehicle and airspace systems. The audiences for the paper include General Aviation manufacturers, small aircraft transportation service providers, the flight training industry, airport and transportation authorities at the Federal, state and local levels, and organizations involved in planning for future National Airspace System advancements.

  17. Fiber optical sensors for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechstedt, Ralf D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper selected fiber optical point sensors that are of potential interest for deployment in aircraft are discussed. The operating principles together with recent measurement results are described. Examples include a high-temperature combined pressure and temperature sensor for engine health, hydraulics and landing gear monitoring, an ultra-high sensitive pressure sensor for oil, pneumatic and fluid aero systems applications and a combined acceleration and temperature sensor for condition monitoring of rotating components.

  18. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  19. Force Feedback for Assembly of Aircraft Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Marie; Murray, Tom; Robertsson, Anders; Stolt, Andreas; Ossbahr, Gilbert; Nilsson, Klas

    2010-01-01

    Variability in composite manufacture and the limitations in positional accuracy of common industrial robots have hampered automation of assembly tasks within aircraft manufacturing. One way to handle geometry variations and robot compliancy is to use force control. Force control technology utilizes a sensor mounted on the robot to feedback force data to the controller system so instead of being position driven, i.e. programmed to achieve a certain position with the tool, the robot can be prog...

  20. Materials Selection for Sustainable Executive Aircraft Interiors

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Celise Villa dos; Leiva,Daniel Rodrigo; Costa,Fábio Rodrigues; Gregolin,José Angelo Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a methodological guide to explore and select materials for executive aircraft interiors, contributing toward a perspective of materials requirements, indicators and strategies to design more environmentally sustainable products. This was motivated by the signs from the aviation industry to reduce its environmental impact and the permanent need to push for cost efficiency. The guide includes a schedule framework of materials requirements for sustainable design, and also aer...

  1. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  2. Grid generation for a complex aircraft configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The procedure used to create a grid around the F/A-18 fighter aircraft is presented. This work was done for the NASA High Alpha Technology Program. As part of this program, LeRC is numerically and experimentally investigating the flow in the F/A-18 inlet duct at high angles of attack. A grid was needed which could be used to calculate both the external and internal flow around the F/A-18. The grid had to be compatible with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes PARC3D and CFL3D. The programs used to create this grid were I3GVIRGO and GRIDGEN. A surface definition used to create the grid was obtained from McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) and was composed of numerous files each containing a point definition of a portion of the aircraft. These files were read into the geometry manipulation program I3GVIRGO, where they were modified and grouped into smaller GRIDGEN database files. Next, the block outlines and boundary conditions were specified in the GRIDBLOCK program. The GRIDGEN2D program was used to create the surface grid on the block faces, and GRIDGEN3D was used to create the full 3-D grid.

  3. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingtao Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematical explanation of RISM is presented in this paper. The efficiency of RISM can be improved by four times compared with traditional static aeroelastic analysis. General purpose computing on graphical processing units (GPGPU is adopted to accelerate the RISM further, and GPU-accelerated RISM is constructed. The efficiency of GPU-accelerated RISM can be raised by about 239 times compared with that of the loosely coupled aeroelastic analysis. Test shows that the fidelity of GPU-accelerated RISM is high enough for optimization. Optimization framework based on Kriging model is constructed. The efficiency of the proposed optimization system can be improved greatly with the aid of GPU-accelerated RISM. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is optimized using this framework and the range is improved by 4.67% after optimization, which shows effectiveness and efficiency of this framework.

  4. Evolution of civil aircraft industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram I. Afyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil aircraft industry market is а complex multistage system of manufacturers and consumers, which affects countries all over the world. The globalization and world economic growth caused inevitable merger of national markets into one system where the key role belongs to few corporations. In the article the author analyze peculiarities of civil aircraft industry global market shaping. Main reasons of aircraft industry centers appearance are considered through socio political and economic development of the industry. Factors that caused national specialization of manufacturing countries are examined along with peculiarities of Boeing leadership. The main stages of the industry development are described starting from the beginning of the 20th century up to the present day. The author highlights specific characters of European manufacturers development and their merger into one multinational conglomerate. Besides, modern market status is examined through benchmark study of the main competitors. Main tendencies of the industry are segmentation and new aviation industry clusters appearance. Key actors of regional aviation are described, which are Embraer and Bombardier. Reasons of their appearance and development are analyzed. Main pretenders for the aviation industry global market entrance are outlined.

  5. CID Aircraft post-impact lakebed skid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Moments after hitting and sliding through the wing openers the aircraft burst into flame, with a spectacular fireball seen emanating from the right inboard engine area. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General Electric installed and tested four

  6. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  7. Approach Considerations in Aircraft with High-Lift Propeller Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's research into distributed electric propulsion (DEP) includes the design and development of the X-57 Maxwell aircraft. This aircraft has two distinct types of DEP: wingtip propellers and high-lift propellers. This paper focuses on the unique opportunities and challenges that the high-lift propellers--i.e., the small diameter propellers distributed upstream of the wing leading edge to augment lift at low speeds--bring to the aircraft performance in approach conditions. Recent changes to the regulations related to certifying small aircraft (14 CFR x23) and these new regulations' implications on the certification of aircraft with high-lift propellers are discussed. Recommendations about control systems for high-lift propeller systems are made, and performance estimates for the X-57 aircraft with high-lift propellers operating are presented.

  8. Coexistence Analysis of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Low Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhe

    2016-11-01

    The requirement of unmanned aircraft systems in civil areas is growing. However, provisioning of flight efficiency and safety of unmanned aircraft has critical requirements on wireless communication spectrum resources. Current researches mainly focus on spectrum availability. In this paper, the unmanned aircraft system communication models, including the coverage model and data rate model, and two coexistence analysis procedures, i. e. the interference and noise ratio criterion and frequency-distance-direction criterion, are proposed to analyze spectrum requirements and interference results of the civil unmanned aircraft systems at low altitudes. In addition, explicit explanations are provided. The proposed coexistence analysis criteria are applied to assess unmanned aircraft systems' uplink and downlink interference performances and to support corresponding spectrum planning. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed assessments and analysis procedures satisfy requirements of flexible spectrum accessing and safe coexistence among multiple unmanned aircraft systems.

  9. Uncertainty in Risk to Aircraft from Space Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik; See, Alex

    2013-09-01

    In this project, we investigate methods for understanding uncertainty in the risk to aircraft from space vehicle accidents. We have developed heuristic models of the uncertainty in aircraft vulnerability models, aircraft speed and altitude, and space vehicle debris lists. We then compute aircraft risks accounting for these uncertainties for both the grid risk approach and by considering many different azimuth trajectories through a point. The uncertainty is compared to the variation as a function of azimuth, to the size of the approximation in the grid approach, and to the effect of aircraft size. Although the uncertainty estimates in the vulnerability model and debris list are based only on engineering judgment, we draw preliminary conclusions that 1) uncertainties in these models are smaller than the effect of the difference between common commercial aircraft sizes and that 2) the uncertainty in the debris list is most significant of the uncertainties we considered, followed by the uncertainty in the vulnerability model.

  10. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  11. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  12. AIRCRAFT BRAKE TEMPERATURE FROM A SAFETY POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján PIĽA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety is critical throughout all stages of aircraft operation, from air mission to ground operation. One of the most important airframe systems that influences the efficacy of ground safety is a wheel brake system. Aircraft ground speed deceleration requires the dissipation of kinetic energy, which depends on aircraft weight and speed. Significant levels of aircraft kinetic energy must be dissipated in the form of heat energy. The brakes of heavy aircraft are especially prone to overheating during landing and taxiing on the ground. The aim of this paper is to focus on the dangers caused by aircraft brakes when overheating and ways in which to eliminate brake overheating problems from a safety perspective.

  13. Environmental Assessment: T-6 Aircraft Basing and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    AFB. Additionally, the T-37 is used as the primary training aircraft in the Euro -North Atlantic Treaty Organization Joint Jet Pilot Training Program...requirements would remain at current levels. The T-6 instructor pilot changeover would continue at the same rate as that experienced for the T-37...and model (engine type), aircraft configuration (i.e., flaps, landing gear, etc.), engine power setting, aircraft speed, distance between the

  14. Recent and Future Enhancements in NDI for Aircraft Structures (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    qualification , and inspection of aircraft . The damage tolerance approach emerged as the candidate chosen for this change. Developers of the damage...minimize risk of catastrophic failure. Task IV focuses on the analysis that leads to certification of the aircraft structure and the processes/procedures...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0028 RECENT AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS IN NDI FOR AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES (POSTPRINT) Eric A. Lindgren, John Brausch, and

  15. Fatigue tests on big structure assemblies of concorde aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V. P.; Perrais, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Fatigue tests on structural assemblies of the Concorde supersonic transport aircraft are reported. Two main sections of the aircraft were subjected to pressure, mechanical load, and thermal static tests. The types of fatigue tests conducted and the results obtained are discussed. It was concluded that on a supersonic aircraft whose structural weight is a significant part of the weight analysis, many fatigue and static strength development tests should be made and fatigue and thermal tests of the structures are absolutely necessary.

  16. Dedicated Solutions for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Components

    OpenAIRE

    Pitropakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft structures, like any other mechanical structure, are subjected to various external factors that influence their lifetime. Mechanicalnbsp;and the environment are only some of the factors that can degrade the structure of aircraft components. Monitoring of these degradations by regular inspections or automated data recording is vital for the structural health of the critical components of an aircraft. This research proposes a number of dedicated solutions for structural health monitori...

  17. New developments in aluminum for aircraft and automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jocelyn I.

    1994-01-01

    A common bond for the aircraft and automobile industry is the need for cost-efficient, lightweight structures such as provided by aluminum based materials. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and cover the following: new developments in aluminum for aircraft and automobiles; forces shaping future automotive materials needs; aluminum strength/weakness versus competitive materials; evolution of aluminum aerospace alloys; forces shaping future aircraft materials needs; fiber/metal structural laminates; and property requirements for jetliner and military transport applications.

  18. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Jay D [Albuquerque, NM; Kim, Theodore J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  19. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost, operating cost and disposal cost is not provided. This may produce biased cost estimates. Moreover, aircraft LCC estimation is largely dependent on the availability of input parameters. It is often a prob...

  20. New data mining technique for multidimensional aircraft trajectories analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solntseva-Chaley Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of growing airport workload, airspace sectorization is necessary for accidents prevention. Sectorization should be performed taking into account regular traffic of aircrafts. A new data mining technique, solving the problem, is described. It allows to fulfill stable partition of aircraft intent trajectory sample into the groups (asymptotically converged beams, corresponding to the same runway approaches. Method is taking into account special geometric characteristics (curvature, torsion and multiple intersections of multidimensional space trajectories of aircrafts.

  1. Disruption Management for an Airline - Rescheduling of aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis

    2002-01-01

    The Aircraft Recovery Problem (ARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight schedules through a...... is a product of the DESCARTES project, a project funded by the European Union between the Technical University of Denmark, British Airways and Carmen....

  2. Integrated Network of Optimizations for Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls,...

  3. Research on aircraft emissions. Need for future work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A. [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.

    1997-12-31

    Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.

  4. Application of lightweighting technology to military aircraft, vessels, and vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    .... Application of lightweighting technology to military aircraft, vessels, and vehicles assesses the current state of lightweighting implementation in land, sea, and air vehicles and recommends ways...

  5. Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms for many aircraft subsystems are steadily maturing. Unfortunately there is little experience integrating these technologies into...

  6. Aging Aircraft NDI Development and Demonstration Center (AANC): An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    A major center with emphasis on validation of nondestructive inspection techniques for aging aircraft, the Aging Aircraft NDI Development and Demonstration Center (AANC), has been funded by the FAA at Sandia National Laboratories. The Center has been assigned specific tasks in developing techniques for the nondestructive inspection of static engine parts, assessing inspection reliability (POD experiments), developing test beds for nondestructive inspection validation, maintaining a FAA library of characterized aircraft structural test specimens, and leasing a hangar to house a high flight cycle transport aircraft for use as a full scale test bed. 3 refs.

  7. Study of Aircraft Wing with Emphasis on Vibration Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Nataraj Kuntoji; Dr. Vinay V. Kuppast

    2017-01-01

    It is essential that the structural stability of the aircraft wings is a major consideration in the design of the aircraft. Many studies are being carried out for the design of the wings across the globe by the researches to strengthen the aircraft wings for steady and sturdy structures for dynamic conditions. The design of the aircraft wing using NACA standards is been discussed in this work. The wing analysis is carried out by using computer numerical analysis tool, viz., CAD/CAE and CFD. T...

  8. Analysis of Virtual Sensors for Predicting Aircraft Fuel Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous research described the use of machine learning algorithms to predict aircraft fuel consumption. This technique, known as Virtual Sensors, models fuel...

  9. Aircraft Structural Analysis, Design Optimization, and Manufacturing Tool Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative research is proposed in integrating fundamental aircraft design processes with an emphasis on composite structures. Efficient, lightweight composite...

  10. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  11. CID Aircraft pre-impact lakebed skid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The B-720 is seen viewed moments after impact and just before hitting the wing openers. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General Electric installed and tested four degraders (one on each engine); and the FAA refined AMK (blending, testing, and

  12. Forecasting for a Lagrangian aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A forecast system has been developed in preparation for an upcoming aircraft measurement campaign, where the same air parcels polluted by emissions over North America shall be sampled repeatedly as they leave the continent, during transport over the Atlantic, and upon their arrival over Europe. This paper describes the model system in advance of the campaign, in order to make the flight planners familiar with the novel model output. The aim of a Lagrangian strategy is to infer changes in the chemical composition and aerosol distribution occurring en route by measured upwind/downwind differences. However, guiding aircraft repeatedly into the same polluted air parcels requires careful forecasting, for which no suitable model system exists to date. This paper describes a procedure using both Eulerian-type (i.e. concentration fields and Lagrangian-type (i.e. trajectories model output from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to predict the best opportunities for a Lagrangian experiment. The best opportunities are defined as being highly polluted air parcels which receive little or no emission input after the first measurement, which experience relatively little mixing, and which are reachable by as many aircraft as possible. For validation the system was applied to the period of the NARE 97 campaign where approximately the same air masses were sampled on different flights. Measured upwind/downwind differences in carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 decreased significantly as the threshold values used for accepting cases as Lagrangian were tightened. This proves that the model system can successfully identify Lagrangian opportunities.

  13. Wearable Accelerometers in High Performance Jet Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, G Merrill; VanBrunt, Thomas B; Snider, Dallas H; Hoyt, Robert E

    2016-02-01

    Wearable accelerometers have become ubiquitous in the fields of exercise physiology and ambulatory hospital settings. However, these devices have yet to be validated in extreme operational environments. The objective of this study was to correlate the gravitational forces (G forces) detected by wearable accelerometers with the G forces detected by high performance aircraft. We compared the in-flight G forces detected by the two commercially available portable accelerometers to the F/A-18 Carrier Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (CAINS-2) during 20 flights performed by the Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron (Blue Angels). Postflight questionnaires were also used to assess the perception of distractibility during flight. Of the 20 flights analyzed, 10 complete in-flight comparisons were made, accounting for 25,700 s of correlation between the CAINS-2 and the two tested accelerometers. Both accelerometers had strong correlations with that of the F/A-18 Gz axis, averaging r = 0.92 and r = 0.93, respectively, over 10 flights. Comparison of both portable accelerometer's average vector magnitude to each other yielded an average correlation of r = 0.93. Both accelerometers were found to be minimally distracting. These results suggest the use of wearable accelerometers is a valid means of detecting G forces during high performance aircraft flight. Future studies using this surrogate method of detecting accelerative forces combined with physiological information may yield valuable in-flight normative data that heretofore has been technically difficult to obtain and hence holds the promise of opening the door for a new golden age of aeromedical research.

  14. Aircraft wing and fiber metal laminate forming part of such an aircraft wing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, R.C.; Rinze, B.

    2012-01-01

    Fiber metal laminate (4)and an aircraft wing (1) having a longitudinal direction, comprising metal layers (5) and fiber reinforced plastic layers (6, 7, 6', 7'; 6'', 7'') in between said metal layers (5),wherein the metal layers (5) and the fiber reinforced plastic layers (6, 7, 6', 7'; 6'', 7'')

  15. 75 FR 50865 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness... ``significant regulatory action'' under Executive Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT...-200 912 A2. Metalurgica Ltda. Diamond Aircraft Industries... HK 36 R ``SUPER 912 A. DIMONA''. Diamond...

  16. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Engine model Aeromot-Industria Mecanico AMT-200 912 A2. Metalurgica ltda. Diamond Aircraft Industries...

  17. 76 FR 31465 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness... action'' under Executive Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and... Metalurgica AMT-200 and AMT-300 912 A2 ltda. Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH......... H-36 ``DIMONA'' and HK...

  18. 75 FR 70098 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness... ``significant regulatory action'' under Executive Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT... Metalurgica AMT-200 912 A2 ltda. Diamond Aircraft Industries HK 36 R ``SUPER DIMONA''....... 912 A Diamond...

  19. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness... not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26...-Ind stria AMT-200 912 A2 Mec nico- Metal rgica Ltda. Diamond Aircraft Industries...... HK 36 R ``Super...

  20. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... regulatory action'' under Executive Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory... Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industrial Mecanico AMT-200......... 912 A2 Metalurgica tda.. Diamond...

  1. Swarms of UAVs and fighter aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Stantz, K.M.; Gray, P.C.; Robinett, R.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes a method of modeling swarms of UAVs and/or fighter aircraft using particle simulation concepts. Recent investigations into the use of genetic algorithms to design neural networks for the control of autonomous vehicles (i.e., robots) led to the examination of methods of simulating large collections of robots. This paper describes the successful implementation of a model of swarm dynamics using particle simulation concepts. Several examples of the complex behaviors achieved in a target/interceptor scenario are presented.

  2. Climatic impact of aircraft induced ozone changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Feneberg, B.; Ponater, M. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The effect of aircraft induced ozone changes on the global climate is studied by means of the general circulation model ECHAM4. The zonal mean temperature signal is considered. In order to estimate the statistical significance of the climatic impact a multivariate statistical test hierarchy combined with the fingerprint method has been applied. Sensitivity experiments show a significant coherent temperature response pattern in the northern extra-tropics for mid-latitude summer conditions. It consists of a tropospheric warming of about 0.2 K with a corresponding stratospheric cooling of the same magnitude. (author) 16 refs.

  3. Prepositioned Trailers for Aircraft Battle Damage Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    depots ( Kitchens , 1997:5). The use of CLSS personnel in depot work centers provides valuable working experience, which contributes to their increased...Center directorates in performing depot-level maintenance and aircraft modifications at various depots ( Kitchens , 1997:5). CLSSs are functionally...5.08 $5.08 5305-00-144-4024 Screws for thermocouples 1 HD $0.17 $0.17 5120-00-056-3237 Spatula set 1 EA $4.74 $4.74 3230PPAI-7300 Split Helix

  4. Airport, aircraft compatibility; Compatibilite aeroport, avion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J.M. [Aeroport de Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The presentation addresses the foreseeable impact of New Large Aircraft (NLA) and future Supersonic Transport (SST) on airports of the future. After a short presentation of NLA projects under study by Airbus, Boeing and Douglas, the paper first considers the impact of LNA on airport infrastructure and on passenger terminals. Then problems raised by SST are shortly reviewed.The concluding remarks are: NLA will require new or refurbished terminals; existing infrastructure could generally be adjusted if regulating authorities agree on margin reductions on account of new advanced control/guidance systems; the SST will be less critical than the NLA, and coming later. (author)

  5. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  6. Using Radar Odometry on Small Unmanned Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Quist, Eric; Beard, Randy

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops an algorithm to estimate motion using a radar and ground targets. It involves estimating motion using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a side-looking Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) carried on a fixed wing aircraft flying over unknown, flat terrain. The accuracy of the motion estimation is compared to dead reckoning using only the IMU, with truth data being provided by a standard IMU/GPS Kalman filter. Initial results show that over 4....

  7. Energy conservation aircraft design and operational procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisson-Quinton, P.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews studies associated with improved fuel efficiency. Several aircraft design concepts are described including: (1) increases in aerodynamic efficiency through decreased friction drag, parasitic drag, and drag due to lift, (2) structural efficiency and the implementation of composite materials, (3) active control technology, (4) the optimization of airframe-engine integration, and (5) VTOL and STOL concepts. Consideration is also given to operational procedures associated with flight management, terminal-area operations, and the influence of environmental noise constraints on fuel economy.

  8. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  9. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  10. 78 FR 38076 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee of the Aeronautics Committee of the NASA Advisory Council. The... Aircraft System (UAS) Integration into the National Airspace System (NAS) Phase 2 Activity Selection...

  11. Aircraft icing and thermo-mechanical expulsion de-icing technology

    OpenAIRE

    MA, QINGLIN

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is Aircraft Icing and Aircraft Icing and Thermo-Mechanical Expulsion De-icing Technology. The main objectives are to investigate aircraft icing meteorology and effects on aircraft, ice protection systems and thermo-mechanical expulsion de-icing technology. Initially, the research project focuses on aircraft icing meteorology, ice accumulation and icing effects on flight safety. A basic understanding of aircraft icing is explained, including icing conditions and par...

  12. Signal processing of aircraft flyover noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed analysis of signal processing concerns for measuring aircraft flyover noise is presented. Development of a de-Dopplerization scheme for both corrected time history and spectral data is discussed along with an analysis of motion effects on measured spectra. A computer code was written to implement the de-Dopplerization scheme. Input to the code is the aircraft position data and the pressure time histories. To facilitate ensemble averaging, a level uniform flyover is considered in the study, but the code can accept more general flight profiles. The effects of spectral smearing and its removal are discussed. Using test data acquired from an XV-15 tilt-rotor flyover, comparisons are made between the measured and corrected spectra. Frequency shifts are accurately accounted for by the de-Dopplerization procedure. It is shown that by correcting for spherical spreading and Doppler amplitude, along with frequency, can give some idea about noise source directivity. The analysis indicated that smearing increases with frequency and is more severe on approach than recession.

  13. Investigation of damping liquids for aircraft instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulegan, G H

    1929-01-01

    This report covers the results of an investigation carried on at the Bureau of Standards under a research authorization from, and with the financial assistance of, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The choice of a damping liquid for aircraft instruments is difficult owing to the range of temperature at which aircraft operate. Temperature changes affect the viscosity tremendously. The investigation was undertaken with the object of finding liquids of various viscosities otherwise suitable which had a minimum change in viscosity with temperature. The new data relate largely to solutions. The effect of temperature on the kinematic viscosity of the following liquids and solutions was determined in the temperature interval -18 degrees to +30 degrees C. (1) solutions of animal and vegetable oils in xylene. These were poppy-seed oil, two samples of neat's-foot oils, castor oil, and linseed oil. (2) solutions of mineral oil in xylene. These were Squibb's petrolatum of naphthene base and transformer oil. (3) glycerine solutions in ethyl alcohol and in mixture of 50-50 ethyl alcohol and water. (4) mixtures of normal butyl alcohol with methyl alcohol. (5) individual liquids, kerosene, mineral spirits, xylene, recoil oil. The apparatus consisted of four capillary-tube viscometers, which were immersed in a liquid bath in order to secure temperature control. The method of calibration and the related experimental data are presented.

  14. Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan Neville

    2014-01-01

    The civilian use of remotely piloted, or unmanned aircraft is expected to increase rapidly in the years ahead. Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting this emerging sector relate to human factors. As unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are introduced into civil airspace, a failure to adequately consider human factors could result in preventable accidents that may not only result in loss of life, but may also undermine public confidence in remotely piloted operations. Key issues include pilot situational awareness, collision avoidance in the absence of an out-the-window view, the effects of time delays in communication and control systems, control handovers, the challenges of very long duration flights, and the design of the control station. Problems have included poor physical layout of controls, non-intuitive automation interfaces, an over-reliance on text displays, and complicated sequences of menu selection to perform routine tasks. Some of the interface problems may have been prevented had an existing regulation or cockpit design principle been applied. In other cases, the design problems may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material.

  15. Suicide by aircraft: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Corey B; Grabowski, Jurek George; Li, Guohua

    2005-08-01

    Suicide is the 11 th leading cause of death in the United States. The objective of this study is to document the characteristics of aviation-related suicides and suicide attempts. Aviation accidents reported by the National Transportation Safety Board between 1983 and 2003 were screened for cases in which suicide was listed as a probable cause. For each suicide case, two accidents were randomly selected as controls, matched on sex of pilot, type of flight, state, and year of occurrence. Mantel-Haenszel summary Chi-square tests were used to compare cases to controls. Conditional logistic regression modeling was performed to assess the association of pilot and flight characteristics with suicide-related crashes. During the 21-yr study period, 37 pilots committed or attempted suicide by aircraft, with 36 resulting in at least one fatality. All the cases were men and involved general aviation flights. Toxicological test results revealed that 24% of the cases had used alcohol and 14% had used other illicit drugs. Underlying factors included domestic and social problems (46%), legal trouble (40%), and pre-existing psychiatric conditions (38%). Compared with controls, suicide cases involved younger pilots (p aircraft (p crashes caused by suicide differ from unintentional aviation accidents in pilot characteristics, crash circumstances, and outcomes.

  16. Silent Aircraft Initiative Concept Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2008-01-01

    A risk assessment of the Silent Aircraft Initiative's SAX-40 concept design for extremely low noise has been performed. A NASA team developed a list of 27 risk items, and evaluated the level of risk for each item in terms of the likelihood that the risk would occur and the consequences of the occurrence. The following risk items were identified as high risk, meaning that the combination of likelihood and consequence put them into the top one-fourth of the risk matrix: structures and weight prediction; boundary-layer ingestion (BLI) and inlet design; variable-area exhaust and thrust vectoring; displaced-threshold and continuous descent approach (CDA) operational concepts; cost; human factors; and overall noise performance. Several advanced-technology baseline concepts were created to serve as a basis for comparison to the SAX-40 concept. These comparisons indicate that the SAX-40 would have significantly greater research, development, test, and engineering (RDT&E) and production costs than a conventional aircraft with similar technology levels. Therefore, the cost of obtaining the extremely low noise capability that has been estimated for the SAX-40 is significant. The SAX-40 concept design proved successful in focusing attention toward low noise technologies and in raising public awareness of the issue.

  17. Trust Control of VTOL Aircraft Part Deux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Thrust control of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft has always been a debatable issue. In most cases, it comes down to the fundamental question of throttle versus collective. Some aircraft used throttle(s), with a fore and aft longitudinal motion, some had collectives, some have used Thrust Levers where the protocol is still "Up is Up and Down is Down," and some have incorporated both throttles and collectives when designers did not want to deal with the Human Factors issues. There have even been combinations of throttles that incorporated an arc that have been met with varying degrees of success. A previous review was made of nineteen designs without attempting to judge the merits of the controller. Included in this paper are twelve designs entered in competition for the 1961 Tri-Service VTOL transport. Entries were from a Bell/Lockheed tiltduct, a North American tiltwing, a Vanguard liftfan, and even a Sikorsky tiltwing. Additional designs were submitted from Boeing Wichita (direct lift), Ling-Temco-Vought with its XC-142 tiltwing, Boeing Vertol's tiltwing, Mcdonnell's compound and tiltwing, and the Douglas turboduct and turboprop designs. A private party submitted a re-design of the Breguet 941 as a VTOL transport. It is important to document these 53 year-old designs to preserve a part of this country's aviation heritage.

  18. Damage tolerance analysis of aircraft reinforced panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pirondi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at reproducing numerically a campaign of experimental tests performed for the development of reinforced panels, typically found in aircraft fuselage. The bonded reinforcements can significantly reduce the rate of fatigue crack growth and increase the residual strength of the skin. The reinforcements are of two types: stringers and doublers. The former provides stiffening to the panel while the latter controls the crack growth between the stringers. The purpose of the study is to validate a numerical method of analysis that can predict the damage tolerance of these reinforced panels. Therefore, using a fracture mechanics approach, several models (different by the geometry and the types of reinforcement constraints were simulated with the finite element solver ABAQUS. The bonding between skin and stiffener was taken either rigid or flexible due to the presence of adhesive. The possible rupture of the reinforcements was also considered. The stress intensity factor trend obtained numerically as a function of crack growth was used to determine the fatigue crack growth rate, obtaining a good approximation of the experimental crack propagation rate in the skin. Therefore, different solutions for improving the damage tolerance of aircraft reinforced panels can be virtually tested in this way before performing experiments.

  19. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, P., E-mail: p.toscano@ibimet.cnr.it [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Gioli, B. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Dugheri, S. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Salvini, A. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Matese, A. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Bonacchi, A. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Zaldei, A. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Cupelli, V. [Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Occupational Health Division, Largo Palagi 1, 50100 Florence (Italy); Miglietta, F. [Institute for Biometeorology (IBIMET - CNR), Via G. Caproni 8, 50145 Firenze (Italy); Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via Mach 1, San Michele all' Adige, Trento (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground. - Highlights: > Flight plan aimed at sampling industrial area at various altitudes and locations. > SPME sampling strategy was based on plume detection by means of CO{sub 2}. > Concentrations obtained were lower than the limit values or below the detection limit. > Scan mode highlighted presence of {gamma}-butyrolactone (GBL) compound. > Gaussian dispersion modelling was used to estimate GBL source location and strength. - An integrated strategy based on atmospheric aircraft observations and dispersion modelling was developed, aimed at estimating spatial location and strength of VOC point source emissions in industrial areas.

  20. Percepções e atitudes de responsáveis por crianças frente ao uso de medicamentos infantis e sua relação com cárie e erosão dentária Perceptions and attitudes among parents and guardians on the use of pediatric medicines and their cariogenic and erosive potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gonçalves Neves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as percepções e atitudes de responsáveis por crianças sobre os potenciais cariogênico e erosivo de medicamentos infantis. Foram realizadas entrevistas sobre a associação do uso de medicamentos infantis com cárie e erosão dentária, bem como os cuidados com a higiene bucal após sua ingestão. Do total de responsáveis com entrevista completa (n=86, 24 (27,9% consideraram os medicamentos infantis ácidos, 51 (59,3% amargos e 56 (65,1% doces; porém, apenas 16 (28,6% destes últimos realizavam higiene bucal das crianças após utilização (Exato de Fisher; p>0,05. Além disso, apenas 18 (20,9% responsáveis realizavam esta prática, dos quais 8 (44,4% haviam recebido orientação prévia sobre higiene bucal (Exato de Fisher; pThe study assesses the perceptions of parents/guardians on the use of pediatric medicines and their cariogenic/erosive potential, interviewing them on the relationship between the use of pediatric medicines and cavities/dental erosion, as well as oral hygiene procedures after the medication. Among the interviewed parents/guardians (n=86, 24 (27.9% mentioned the sour taste of pediatric medication, 51 (59.3% the bitter taste, and 56 (65.1% considered them sweet, although only 16 (28.6% of these parents/guardians brushed their children's teeth after the medication (Fisher's Exact; p>0.05. Moreover, only 18 (20.9% of the parents/guardians performed oral hygiene practices after the medication, of whom 8 (44.4% received previous instructions (Fisher's Exact; p<0.05. The association between taking medications and dental caries or structural dental defects was mentioned by 61 (70.9% of the parents/guardians, with 24 (39.3% of them justifying this association through the presence of sugar in the formulations. Although parents/guardians consider medicines to be sweet substances and relate their use to dental caries and tooth structure flaws, most of them do not brush their children's teeth after taking

  1. An investigation of fighter aircraft agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, John; Downing, David R.

    1993-01-01

    This report attempts to unify in a single document the results of a series of studies on fighter aircraft agility funded by the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility and conducted at the University of Kansas Flight Research Laboratory during the period January 1989 through December 1993. New metrics proposed by pilots and the research community to assess fighter aircraft agility are collected and analyzed. The report develops a framework for understanding the context into which the various proposed fighter agility metrics fit in terms of application and testing. Since new metrics continue to be proposed, this report does not claim to contain every proposed fighter agility metric. Flight test procedures, test constraints, and related criteria are developed. Instrumentation required to quantify agility via flight test is considered, as is the sensitivity of the candidate metrics to deviations from nominal pilot command inputs, which is studied in detail. Instead of supplying specific, detailed conclusions about the relevance or utility of one candidate metric versus another, the authors have attempted to provide sufficient data and analyses for readers to formulate their own conclusions. Readers are therefore ultimately responsible for judging exactly which metrics are 'best' for their particular needs. Additionally, it is not the intent of the authors to suggest combat tactics or other actual operational uses of the results and data in this report. This has been left up to the user community. Twenty of the candidate agility metrics were selected for evaluation with high fidelity, nonlinear, non real-time flight simulation computer programs of the F-5A Freedom Fighter, F-16A Fighting Falcon, F-18A Hornet, and X-29A. The information and data presented on the 20 candidate metrics which were evaluated will assist interested readers in conducting their own extensive investigations. The report provides a definition and analysis of each metric; details

  2. How Effective Is Communication Training For Aircraft Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Report surveys communication training for aircraft crews. Intended to alleviate problems caused or worsened by poor communication and coordination among crewmembers. Focuses on two training methods: assertiveness training and grid-management training. Examines theoretical background of methods and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. Presents criteria for evaluating applicability to aviation environment. Concludes communication training appropriate for aircraft crews.

  3. 76 FR 71081 - Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum which will begin at 9 a.m., Wednesday, November 30, 2011. NTSB Chairman Deborah A.P. Hersman will chair the two-day forum and all five Board Members will...

  4. 77 FR 24251 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... availability of three new and three revised consensus standards relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM...

  5. 78 FR 35085 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... availability of one new and seven revised consensus standards relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International...

  6. 32 CFR 256.6 - Runway classification by aircraft type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Runway classification by aircraft type. 256.6 Section 256.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.6 Runway classification by aircraft...

  7. Adaptive Backstepping Control and Safety Analysis for Modern Fighter Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    There exist many examples of aircraft incidents in which the pilots have successfully used the remaining control authority over an aircraft to save the airframe and its passengers and cargo from apparently hopeless failure conditions. Unfortunately, the opposite is also true. Several accidents

  8. Modeling aircraft performance parameters with open ADS-B data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Open access to flight data from ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast) has provided researchers more insights for air traffic management than aircraft tracking alone. With large quantities of trajectory data collected from a wide range of different aircraft types, it is possible to

  9. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section 121.701 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED...: Aircraft. (a) Each person who takes action in the case of a reported or observed failure or malfunction of...

  10. On Modeling of Ejection Process in a Training Combat Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowiński, Sebastian; Krzyżyński, Tomasz

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with modeling and simulation of motion trajectory of an ejection seat in the training-combat aircraft TS-11 "Iskra". The ejection seat and its operation are characterized. Mathematical and computer models are elaborated with the help of MATLAB-Simulink applications. Additionally, simulations are conducted for various velocities of the aircraft.

  11. Perspectives on Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Civil Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Safe and cost effective operation are the highest priorities for civil aircraft. Considering that many events that can occur during normal aircraft operation which cause a reduction in the residual strength of the structure, a rigid adherence to inspection and maintenance schedules and timely repair

  12. Census U.S. Civil Aircraft: Calendar Year 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Manufacturer/Model Aircraft/ No. Air Carrier I al Tota Places Engine NAviation Aircraft Tye I EnginesType VAMPIRE MK-3...44 52 2 0 1 1 DH115 VAMPIRE ....................................... 2 54 2 0 2 2 M K -35 .......................................................... 2...2 4 1 1 0 2 2 AVID AERO BAT ................................................ 2 41 1 0 1

  13. Advanced Prospects for Development of Aircraft Assembly Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivtsov, V.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of theoretical studies carried out by the method of virtual bases the concept of automated assembly of aircraft structures, specialized readjustable devices with CNC and robotic systems was created. The principles of automated assembly of aircraft manufacturing enterprise using robotic system are proved.

  14. 78 FR 37701 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Components of the PC-6 are specified in the Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) under Chapter 4 or in the... issue 1, dated 14 May 2010 and Pilatus PC-6 AMM Chapter 4, issue 12, dated 14 May 2010. Since that AD was issued, Pilatus Aircraft Ltd published Pilatus PC-6 AMM (Number 01975) Chapter 4, issue 16 and PC...

  15. 78 FR 14729 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... the Structure and Components of the PC-6 are specified in the Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) under... with Pilatus PC-6 ALS issue 1, dated 14 May 2010 and Pilatus PC-6 AMM Chapter 4, issue 12, dated 14 May 2010. Since that AD was issued, Pilatus Aircraft Ltd published Pilatus PC-6 AMM (Number 01975) Chapter...

  16. 78 FR 72598 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... directive (AD) for British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201... ADs None. (c) Applicability This AD applies to British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series... instructions of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JM7862, Revision 1, dated...

  17. GROUND ICING OF AIRCRAFT: MEASURES TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Storozhuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the pre-conditions for aircraft ground icing, the dynamics of traffic increase in the Russian avia-tion, the urgency of the problem and the ways and methods of it is solution and improvement of aircraft anti-icing protec-tion.

  18. Aircraft Landing and Attitude Control Using Dynamic Matrix Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Calugaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for an efficient control of the aircraft landing and attitude through Dynamic Matrix Control. The idea of MPC structures used in aircraft control has been well established during the last few years, but some aspects require further investigation. With this in mind, the paper proposes structures for aircraft landing and aircraft attitude control by using single DMC controllers for landing and respectively one DMC controller for each of the attitude axis (pitch attitude hold, bank angle hold and heading hold. The model used for analysis of the aircraft landing structure is based on the last phase of landing. Also, the model used to illustrate the attitude control is that of a pitch attitude hold system of a N250-100 aircraft. Simulations are performed for a variety of control and prediction horizons, taking into account the possibility of adding a weighting factor for the control actions. Apart from separate studies on step reference variations, for some use cases, a generic reference trajectory is provided as a control purpose of the system. Results show a better performance of the proposed method in terms of control surface transition and protection of the actuators involved and a better time response in stabilizing the aircraft attitude. Overall, the aspects shown ensure an improved aircraft attitude control and landing stabilization.

  19. 77 FR 75590 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Accomplished in Accordance With Previous Service Information Cessna Aircraft Company released the following POH... Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aircraft Company (Cessna) (previously COLUMBIA or LANCAIR) Models LC40-550FG, LC41-550FG, and LC42-550FG...

  20. Enhancing Aircraft Utilization: Improved Use of Cargo-Holding Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    certain irevisions to LTMMIPS. modifications to MACas operating procedures, and chainge. to performance reporting.I DD FORM 1473.84 MAR 83 APR edition...of the peacetime aircraft capacity, remained somewhat immune to reduction. Among the many actions MAC has taken to improve aircraft capacity utili

  1. New Low-Gravity Research Aircraft Takes to the Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A new research aircraft began operations at the NASA Lewis Research Center this past year. The aircraft, a McDonnell Douglas Corporation DC-9, began providing researchers funded by NASA Headquarter's Microgravity Science and Applications Division additional opportunities to perform research in a weightless environment, similar to that in orbiting spacecraft.

  2. Contract Issues in the Sale of Commercial Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    and ground equipment, r-a. continual efficient uss of this equipment, and the dealings with the myriad of investment, legal and governmental impedimnts...estimated that ten percent of the wide body fle -t is for sale in the used aircraft markt . The price for used narrow body aircraft has fallen also [Ref

  3. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate only shall subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to an...

  4. Application of a greedy algorithm to military aircraft fleet retirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Udluft, H.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a retirement analysis model for aircraft fleets. By employing a greedy algorithm, the presented solution is capable of identifying individually weak assets in a fleet of aircraft with inhomogeneous historical utilization. The model forecasts future retirement scenarios

  5. Parametric Identification of Aircraft Loads: An Artificial Neural Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Undergraduate Student Paper Postgraduate Student Paper Parametric Identification of Aircraft Loads: An Artificial Neural Network Approach...monitoring, flight parameter, nonlinear modeling, Artificial Neural Network , typical loadcase. Introduction Aircraft load monitoring is an... Neural Networks (ANN), i.e. the BP network and Kohonen Clustering Network , are applied and revised by Kalman Filter and Genetic Algorithm to build

  6. 78 FR 24985 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction.... That AD applies to all Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 190, 195 (L-126A,B,C), 195A, and 195B... amendatory instruction are corrected to read as follows: 2004-21-08 R1 Cessna Aircraft Company: Amendment 39...

  7. Robust Control of an Ill-Conditioned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, S.G.; Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Grimble, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point.......A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point....

  8. Vulnerability of fighter–aircraft for new threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerten, E. van

    2002-01-01

    Technical developments in modern fighter aircraft design will contribute to aircraft survivability by influencing either the aircraft’s susceptibility or its vulnerability. On the other hand, technical developments in missile warhead and ammunition design will result in a lethality increase against

  9. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost,

  10. 78 FR 54561 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...-17457; AD 2013-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY... an airworthiness directive (AD) that published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to all Piper... airplane exhaust system, and repair or replacement of parts as necessary for all Piper Aircraft, Inc...

  11. 78 FR 56150 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ...-018-AD; Amendment 39-17489; AD 2013-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc...-01 applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T, and PA-46... modifying and eventually replacing the fuel vent valves if the nitrile parts are installed for certain Piper...

  12. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc...: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper... identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone...

  13. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    Lithium-Ion Batteries for Hybrid Electric Vehicles," Mitsubishi Motor Corporation, Japan, Technical Review 15, 2003. [40] Hiroaki et al Yoshida...SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS THESIS Matthew D...of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT/GAE/ENY/11-M26 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT

  14. DETERMINATION OF COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT WING GEOMETRY DURING THE FLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shevyakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the task of determination of wing shape for sub-sonic commercial aircraft by photogrammetric method. It provides the procedure for measurements taken on ground and in flight. It also provides the outcome of wing twist for commercial aircraft at cruise.

  15. PRINCIPLE "EARLY MATCHING" AERODYNAMIC DESIGN AIRCRAFT WITH LANDING GEAR HOVERCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Morozov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of "early matching" aircraft aerohydrodynamic layouts with air cushion landing gear is suggested. Application of this principle is considered as an example of adaptation to the ball screw base circuit of light transport aircraft. The principle, other than weight, aerodynamic, technological and operational requirements includes additional project activities related to the installation of ball screws.

  16. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII...

  17. Electric Wheel-Hub-Drive for Aircraft Application - Airbus Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for Passenger Aircraft Autonomous Taxiing: Task: Autonomous taxiing of a passenger aircraft A320 - Driving conditions: TOW 50 tons with 25 km/h - Maximun power of 50 kW To be solved by a drive within the NLG: - Electric machine integrated in the rim of the NLG - Three switchable gear ratios - Fed by a fuel cell system

  18. Flexible and Reusable Tactical Behaviour Models for Combat Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, P.J.M.; Eigeman, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) currently has the need to replace its fleet of F-16 combat aircraft due to aging. As a result of the introduction of a new aircraft, with advanced stealth capabilities, new weapons and sensors, and extensive network enabled capabilities the existing

  19. Mission Planning for Unmanned Aircraft with Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karl Damkjær

    Unmanned aircraft invokes different feelings in people. Some see ruthless killing machines, other see a potential for fast and cheap distribution of goods, yet other see flexible and convenient emergency rescue drones. Regardless, advances and miniaturization in motors, sensors, and computer...... are mostly under human command, just like remote controlled planes have been for years. Actually the revolution of the drones is not so much a revolution of the unmanned aircraft as it is a digital control revolution. Only a few years ago, hopeful remote-control pilots had to invest countless hours...... for the aircraft, which collects the needed data in the best possible fashion. All she has to do is release the aircraft and collect it again when it lands. In this dissertation we study the automatic mission planning for unmanned aircraft. The basis for the research is the case of agriculture automation where...

  20. Riveted Lap Joints in Aircraft Fuselage Design, Analysis and Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Skorupa, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue of the pressurized fuselages of transport aircraft is a significant problem all builders and users of aircraft have to cope with for reasons associated with assuring a sufficient lifetime and safety, and formulating adequate inspection procedures. These aspects are all addressed in various formal protocols for creating and maintaining airworthiness, including damage tolerance considerations. In most transport aircraft, fatigue occurs in lap joints, sometimes leading to circumstances that threaten safety in critical ways. The problem of fatigue of lap joints has been considerably enlarged by the goal of extending aircraft lifetimes. Fatigue of riveted lap joints between aluminium alloy sheets, typical of the pressurized aircraft fuselage, is the major topic of the present book. The richly illustrated and well-structured chapters treat subjects such as: structural design solutions and loading conditions for fuselage skin joints; relevance of laboratory test results for simple lap joint specimens to rive...