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Sample records for hu sheep electronic

  1. Characterization of a novel xylanase gene from rumen content of Hu sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Luo, Yang; He, Bo; Jiang, Lin-Shu; Liu, Jian-Xin; Wang, Jia-Kun

    2015-12-01

    A novel xylanase gene, xyn-lxy, was cloned from a metagenomic fosmid library, which was previously constructed from the rumen contents of Hu sheep and was functionally characterized in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame was composed of 1923 bp and encoded for 640 amino acids, including a catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase family 10 and carbohydrate-binding module 9. The gene showed 97 % identity with uncultured bacterium Contig1552 but low similarity with xylanases from known cellulolytic-degrading microorganisms in the rumen. The recombinant XYN-LXY showed a specific activity of 664.7 U mg(-1). The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50 °C and 6.0, respectively. Specifically, XYN-LXY was exclusively activated by Mn(2+) among all of the cations and reducing agents tested in this study. An enzymatic hydrolysis assay revealed that XYN-LXY degraded birchwood xylan into xylooligosaccharide with a low degree of polymerization. After incubation for 4 h, the concentration of the dominant product, xylobiose, was 2.297 ± 0.175 mg ml(-1) (74.07 % of total product) followed by xylose with a concentration of 0.656 ± 0.010 mg ml(-1) (21.14 % of total product). The XYN-LXY exhibited deep degradation effects on the xylan substrate, which were rarely observed with endo-xylanase, making it a promising candidate for industrial application, especially in biofuel production.

  2. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the zona pellucida 3 gene is associated with the first parity litter size in Hu sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yuqing; Huang, Huarong; Liu, Guiqiong; Jiang, Xunping; Rong, Weiheng

    2018-03-31

    Zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) is a primary sperm receptor and acrosome reaction inducer. As a candidate gene, the ZP3 gene has been widely studied since it has great influence on reproductive traits in farm animals. However, little is known about the association between polymorphisms of the coding region of the ZP3 gene and the first parity litter size in Hu sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ZP3 gene associated with the first parity litter size in Hu sheep. A total of 462 female Hu sheep were sampled to detect SNPs in the coding region of the ZP3 gene. Six SNPs were identified and the reliability of all estimated allele frequencies reached 0.9545 except for one locus (g.2293C > T). SNP (rs401271989) was identified as that involved in amino acid change (Ile → Leu). This amino acid was located at the beginning of a β-strand and outside of the ZP3 protein membrane, and it was most likely to be a ligand-binding site (the possibility was 0.917). At this locus, individuals with AC genotype had a larger litter size than those with CC genotype in the first parity (2.050 vs 1.727, p size in Hu sheep, and it may affect the function of ZP3 protein by impacting the secondary and tertiary protein structures. The present study demonstrates that SNP (rs401271989) could be used in marker-assisted selection of the first parity litter size in Hu sheep. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. INVIVO DEGRADATION OF PROCESSED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN EVALUATED WITH TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; NIEUWENHUIS, P; KOERTEN, HK; DAMINK, LO; TENHOOPEN, H; FEIJEN, J

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  4. In vivo degradation of processed dermal sheep collagen evaluated with transmission electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Koerten, H.K.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde-Damink, L.; ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  5. In vivo and in vitro effects of imidacloprid on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus): a light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, H; D'Haese, J; Mencke, N; Hansen, O

    2001-04-01

    The effects of imidacloprid (Advantage) on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus Linne 1758) were studied in vivo and in vitro by means of direct observation (monitored on video tape) and by light and electron microscopy. It was found that: 1. Imidacloprid acted rapidly on all motile stages of the sheep keds. Within 3-4 min after exposure they became immobile and their legs and the abdomen started tetanic trembling movements for 15-30 min, leading to death. 2. The compound is apparently taken up by the body, since it also acted on those sheep keds that had been exclusively exposed to imidacloprid-contaminated filter papers. 3. The compound is available and active for more than 1 month in the wool of sheep; even rainfall does not reduce its efficacy. Body contact between treated mother sheep and their lambs protects them from infestation with these ectoparasites. 4. The compound initiates an ultimately lethal destruction of the ganglia, nerve chords and related muscle fibers, as can be seen in electron micrographs.

  6. Effects of Dietary Neutral Detergent Fiber to Non-Fiber Carbohydrates Ratio on Ruminal Nitrate Reduction of Hu Sheep%饲粮中性洗涤纤维与非纤维性碳水化合物比例对湖羊瘤胃还原硝态氮的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林淼; 张建刚; 陈志远; 赵国琦

    2014-01-01

    本试验采用4×4拉丁方试验设计,研究4种中性洗涤纤维与非纤维性碳水化合物比例(NDF/NFC)的饲粮(0.58、0.71、1.20、1.57)对湖羊瘤胃硝态氮含量动态变化和发酵特性的影响。各组饲粮中均含有1.0%硝酸钾,在喂后0、0.5、1.0、1.5、2.0、4.0、6.0、8.0 h通过瘤胃瘘管采集瘤胃液,测定硝酸盐和亚硝酸盐含量以及瘤胃发酵参数;晨饲后2.0 h通过颈静脉采血,测定高铁血红蛋白含量。结果表明,6.0~8.0 h饲粮NDF/NFC=0.71时瘤胃亚硝酸盐含量最低;且0~1.5 h随着NDF/NFC的增大,氨态氮( NH3-N)含量有逐渐降低的趋势;0、8.0 h总微生物蛋白质含量以NDF/NFC=0.58时最高,且与NDF/NFC=0.71时差异不显著(P>0.05),整个试验期未出现亚硝酸盐中毒。因此,在本试验条件下,湖羊饲粮NDF/NFC=0.71时,最有利于瘤胃硝态氮还原及瘤胃发酵。%A 4 × 4 Latin square design in this study was used to investigate the effects of different dietary neu-tral detergent fiber to non-fiber carbohydrates ratios (NDF/NFC) (0.58, 0.71, 1.20 and 1.57) on dynamic changes of ruminal nitrate nitrogen content and fermentation characteristics of Hu sheep. The diet of each group contained 1.0% potassium nitrate, and rumen fluid was obtained at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 h after feeding to determine the contents of nitrate and nitrite and ruminal fermentation parameters. Blood sample was collected at 2.0 h after feeding to determine the blood methemoglobin content. The results showed that the nitrite content of sheep fed diet with NDF/NFC=0.71 was lowest at 6.0 to 8.0 h after feeding. With the rising of NDF/NFC, NH3-N content had a trend of decrease at 0 to 1.5 h after feeding. Total microbial protein con-tent of sheep fed diet with NDF/NFC=0.58 was highest at 0 and 8.0 h after feeding, and had no significant difference with sheep fed diet with NDF/NFC=0.71 ( P>0.05) . In addition, the nitrite toxicity was not detec-ted during

  7. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  8. Effects of Different Dietary Sources of Roughage on Performance, Ruminal Fermentation and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Hu Sheep%不同粗饲料来源饲粮对湖羊生长性能、瘤胃发酵及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴天佑; 赵睿; 罗阳; 王洪荣

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to study the effects of different dietary sources of roughage on performance,ruminal fermentation and serum biochemical parameters of Hu sheep under the same energy and protein conditions.Eighteen healthy Hu sheep with similar body weight were randomly divided into three groups with six sheep per group,and sheep in different groups were fed three diets with peanut vine (PV group),beanstalk (BS group) and sugarcan molasses (SM group) as the only dietary roughage source,respectively,under the same energy and protein levels.The test had a 15-day pre-experiment and a 45-day experiment.The results showed as follows:1) average daily gain of Hu sheep in PV group was significant higher than that of BS and SM groups (P<0.05).2) Acetate,butyrate,total volatile fatty acid contents and the ratio of acetate to propionate in rumen fluid of SM group were significantly lower than those of the other groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01);propionate content of SM group was significantly higher than that of PV group at 9 h (P<0.05 or P<0.01),but there was no significant difference among groups at 24 h (P>0.05).3) Serum urea nitrogen content of SM group was significantly higher than that of PV group (P<0.05),and serum creatinine content was significantly higher than that of BS group (P<0.05).In conclusion,under the same dietary energy and protein levels condition,compared to BS and SM,PV as the only dietary roughage source can improve performance,ruminal fermentation and nitrogen utilization rate,and save the supplementation of concentrate.%本试验在相同能量和蛋白质水平下,研究了不同粗饲料来源的饲粮对湖羊生长性能、瘤胃发酵功能及血清生化指标的影响.选用体况良好、体重相近的湖羊18只,随机分为3组,每组6只.在相同能量和蛋白质水平饲粮条件下,分别饲喂以花生藤(PV组)、豆秸(BS组)和甘蔗渣(SM组)作为单一粗饲料配制3种不同粗饲料来源的饲粮.试验期60 d

  9. Both gas chromatography and an electronic nose reflect chemical polymorphism of juniper shrubs browsed or avoided by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, Gábor; Novák, Ildikó; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2011-07-01

    Chemical polymorphism may contribute to variation in browsing damage by mammalian herbivores. Earlier, we demonstrated that essential oil concentration in juniper, Juniperus communis, was negatively associated with herbivore browsing. The aim of the present study was to characterize the volatile chemical composition of browsed and non-browsed J. communis. By using either gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) or an electronic nose device, we could separate sheep-browsed or non-browsed juniper shrubs by their essential oil pattern and complex odor matrix. The main components of the essential oil from J. communis were monoterpenes. We distinguished three chemotypes, dominated either by α-pinene, sabinene, or δ-3-carene. Shrubs belonging to the α-pinene- or sabinene-dominated groups were browsed, whereas all individuals with the δ-3-carene chemotype were unused by the local herbivores. The electronic nose also separated the browsed and non-browsed shrubs indicating that their odor matrix could guide sheep browsing. Responses of sheep could integrate the post-ingestive effects of plant secondary metabolites with sensory experience that stems from odor-phytotoxin interactions. Chemotype diversity could increase the survival rate in the present population of J. communis as certain shrubs could benefit from relatively better chemical protection against the herbivores.

  10. WE-AB-202-06: Correlating Lung CT HU with Transformation-Based and Xe-CT Derived Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, K; Patton, T; Bayouth, J; Reinhardt, J; Christensen, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Regional lung ventilation is useful to reduce radiation-induced function damage during lung cancer radiation therapy. Recently a new direct HU (Hounsfield unit)-based method was proposed to estimate the ventilation potential without image registration. The purpose of this study is to examine if there is a functional dependence between HU values and transformation-based or Xe-CT derived ventilation. Methods: 4DCT images acquired from 13 patients prior to radiation therapy and 4 mechanically ventilated sheep subjects which also have associated Xe-CT images were used for this analysis. Transformation-based ventilation was computed using Jacobian determinant of the transformation field between peak-exhale and peak-inhale 4DCT images. Both transformation and Xe-CT derived ventilation was computed for each HU bin. Color scatter plot and cumulative histogram were used to compare and validate the direct HU-based method. Results: There was little change of the center and shape of the HU histograms between free breathing CT and 4DCT average, with or without smoothing, and between the repeated 4DCT scans. HU of −750 and −630 were found to have the greatest transformation-based ventilation for human and sheep subjects, respectively. Maximum Xe-CT derived ventilation was found to locate at HU of −600 in sheep subjects. The curve between Xe-CT ventilation and HU was noisy for tissue above HU −400, possibly due to less intensity change of Xe gas during wash-out and wash-in phases. Conclusion: Both transformation-based and Xe-CT ventilation demonstrated that lung tissues with HU values in the range of (-750, −600) HU have the maximum ventilation potential. The correlation between HU and ventilation suggests that HU might be used to help guide the ventilation calculation and make it more robust to noise and image registration errors. Research support from NIH grants CA166703 and CA166119 and a gift from Roger Koch.

  11. WE-AB-202-06: Correlating Lung CT HU with Transformation-Based and Xe-CT Derived Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, K; Patton, T; Bayouth, J [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reinhardt, J; Christensen, G [The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Regional lung ventilation is useful to reduce radiation-induced function damage during lung cancer radiation therapy. Recently a new direct HU (Hounsfield unit)-based method was proposed to estimate the ventilation potential without image registration. The purpose of this study is to examine if there is a functional dependence between HU values and transformation-based or Xe-CT derived ventilation. Methods: 4DCT images acquired from 13 patients prior to radiation therapy and 4 mechanically ventilated sheep subjects which also have associated Xe-CT images were used for this analysis. Transformation-based ventilation was computed using Jacobian determinant of the transformation field between peak-exhale and peak-inhale 4DCT images. Both transformation and Xe-CT derived ventilation was computed for each HU bin. Color scatter plot and cumulative histogram were used to compare and validate the direct HU-based method. Results: There was little change of the center and shape of the HU histograms between free breathing CT and 4DCT average, with or without smoothing, and between the repeated 4DCT scans. HU of −750 and −630 were found to have the greatest transformation-based ventilation for human and sheep subjects, respectively. Maximum Xe-CT derived ventilation was found to locate at HU of −600 in sheep subjects. The curve between Xe-CT ventilation and HU was noisy for tissue above HU −400, possibly due to less intensity change of Xe gas during wash-out and wash-in phases. Conclusion: Both transformation-based and Xe-CT ventilation demonstrated that lung tissues with HU values in the range of (-750, −600) HU have the maximum ventilation potential. The correlation between HU and ventilation suggests that HU might be used to help guide the ventilation calculation and make it more robust to noise and image registration errors. Research support from NIH grants CA166703 and CA166119 and a gift from Roger Koch.

  12. HuMax-CD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lone; Kragballe, Knud; Zachariae, Claus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is characterized by infiltration with mononuclear cells. Especially activated memory CD4+ T cells are critical in the pathogenesis. Interaction between the CD4 receptor and the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule is important for T-cell activation. OBJECTIVE......: To test safety and efficacy of a fully human monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody (HuMax-CD4) in the treatment of psoriasis. DESIGN: Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Patients Eighty-five patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. INTERVENTIONS: Subcutaneous infusions...... dose level, 6 (38%) of 16 patients obtained more than 25% reduction of PASI and 3 (19%) obtained more than 50% reduction of PASI. A dose-dependent decrease in total lymphocyte count was seen and was parallel to a dose-dependent decrease in CD4+ T cells. This decrease was due to a decrease in the memory...

  13. HU deviation in lung and bone tissues: Characterization and a corrective strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hua A; Meier, Joseph G; Wendt, Richard E

    2018-05-01

    In the era of precision medicine, quantitative applications of x-ray Computed Tomography (CT) are on the rise. These require accurate measurement of the CT number, also known as the Hounsfield Unit. In this study, we evaluated the effect of patient attenuation-induced beam hardening of the x-ray spectrum on the accuracy of the HU values and a strategy to correct for the resulting deviations in the measured HU values. A CIRS electron density phantom was scanned on a Siemens Biograph mCT Flow CT scanner and a GE Discovery 710 CT scanner using standard techniques that are employed in the clinic to assess the HU deviation caused by beam hardening in different tissue types. In addition, an anthropomorphic ATOM adult male upper torso phantom was scanned on the GE Discovery 710 scanner. Various amounts of Superflab bolus material were wrapped around the phantoms to simulate different patient sizes. The mean HU values that were measured in the phantoms were evaluated as a function of the water-equivalent area (A w ), a parameter that is described in the report of AAPM Task Group 220. A strategy by which to correct the HU values was developed and tested. The variation in the HU values in the anthropomorphic ATOM phantom under different simulated body sizes, both before and after correction, were compared, with a focus on the lung and bone tissues. Significant HU deviations that depended on the simulated patient size were observed. A positive correlation between HU and A w was observed for tissue types that have an HU of less than zero, while a negative correlation was observed for tissue types with HU values that are greater than zero. The magnitude of the difference increases as the underlying attenuation property deviates further away from that of water. In the electron density phantom study, the maximum observed HU differences between the measured and reference values in the cortical bone and lung materials were 426 and 94 HU, respectively. In the anthropomorphic phantom

  14. Time-Dependent Variations in Structure of Sheep Wool Irradiated by Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hanzlíková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool scoured in tap water with no special degreasing and containing a balanced humidity responding to usual laboratory conditions was irradiated by accelerated electron beam in the range of 0–350 kGy dose. Time variations of the wool structure were measured using FTIR, Raman, and EPR spectroscopy. The aim was to determine whether preexposure treatment of the wool, as well as postexposure time, affects the properties of the irradiated wool. Reactive products such as S-sulfonate, cystine monoxide, cystine dioxide, cysteic acid, disulphides, and carboxylates displayed a considerable fluctuation in quantity depending on both the absorbed dose and time. Mutual transformations of S-oxidized products into cysteic acid appeared to be faster than those in dry and degreased wool assuming that the present humidity inside the fibres is decisive as an oxygen source. EPR results indicated a longer lifetime for free radicals induced by lower doses compared with the radicals generated by higher ones. The pattern of the conformational composition of the secondary structure (α-helix, β-sheet, random, and residual conformations also showed a large variability depending on absorbed dose as well as postexposure time. The most stable secondary structure was observed in nonirradiated wool but even this showed a small but observable change after a longer time, too.

  15. Lines of Evidence–Incremental Markings in Molar Enamel of Soay Sheep as Revealed by a Fluorochrome Labeling and Backscattered Electron Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Horst; Kierdorf, Uwe; Frölich, Kai; Witzel, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    We studied the structural characteristics and periodicities of regular incremental markings in sheep enamel using fluorochrome injections for vital labeling of forming enamel and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. Microscopic analysis of mandibular first molars revealed the presence of incremental markings with a daily periodicity (laminations) that indicated successive positions of the forming front of interprismatic enamel. In addition to the laminations, incremental markings with a sub-daily periodicity were discernible both in interprismatic enamel and in enamel prisms. Five sub-daily increments were present between two consecutive laminations. Backscattered electron imaging revealed that each sub-daily growth increment consisted of a broader and more highly mineralized band and a narrower and less mineralized band (line). The sub-daily markings in the prisms of sheep enamel morphologically resembled the (daily) prisms cross striations seen in primate enamel. Incremental markings with a supra-daily periodicity were not observed in sheep enamel. Based on the periodicity of the incremental markings, maximum mean daily apposition rates of 17.0 µm in buccal enamel and of 13.4 µm in lingual enamel were recorded. Enamel extension rates were also high, with maximum means of 180 µm/day and 217 µm/day in upper crown areas of buccal and lingual enamel, respectively. Values in more cervical crown portions were markedly lower. Our results are in accordance with previous findings in other ungulate species. Using the incremental markings present in primate enamel as a reference could result in a misinterpretation of the incremental markings in ungulate enamel. Thus, the sub-daily growth increments in the prisms of ungulate enamel might be mistaken as prism cross striations with a daily periodicity, and the laminations misidentified as striae of Retzius with a supra-daily periodicity. This would lead to a considerable overestimation of

  16. Pengenalan Pose Tangan Menggunakan HuMoment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Budhi Utami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision yang didasarkan pada pengenalan bentuk memiliki banyak potensi dalam interaksi manusia dan komputer. Pose tangan dapat dijadikan simbol interaksi manusia dengan komputer seperti halnya pada penggunaan berbagai pose tangan pada bahasa isyarat. Berbagai pose tangan dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan fungsi mouse, untuk mengendalikan robot, dan sebagainya. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada pembangunan sistem pengenalan pose tangan menggunakan HuMoment. Proses pengenalan pose tangan dimulai dengan melakukan segmentasi citra masukan untuk menghasilkan citra ROI (Region of Interest yaitu area telapak tangan. Selanjutnya dilakukan proses deteksi tepi. Kemudian dilakukan ekstraksi nilai HuMoment. Nilai HuMoment dikuantisasikan ke dalam bukukode yang dihasilkan dari proses pelatihan menggunakan K-Means. Proses kuantisasi dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai Euclidean Distance terkecil antara nilai HuMomment citra masukan dan bukukode. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, nilai akurasi sistem dalam mengenali pose tangan adalah 88.57%.

  17. Infecciones en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos

    OpenAIRE

    Cuéllar Ponce de León, Luis Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Las infecciones son causa frecuente de morbimortalidad en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. La frecuencia y diversidad de infecciones en esta población dependerá del tipo de inmunocompromiso, tratamiento recibido y aspecto epidemiológico. Los huéspedes con neutropenia desarrollan infecciones por bacterias extracelulares no encapsuladas y hongos levaduriformes y filamentosos; el diagnóstico precoz y tratamiento oportuno de las mismas son considerados una emergencia por su severidad y gran mortali...

  18. Nanosystems based on siRNA silencing HuR expression counteract diabetic retinopathy in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Marialaura; Pascale, Alessia; Cupri, Sarha; Pignatello, Rosario; Osera, Cecilia; D Agata, Velia; D Amico, Agata Grazia; Leggio, Gian Marco; Ruozi, Barbara; Govoni, Stefano; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated whether specifically and directly targeting human antigen R (HuR), a member of embryonic lethal abnormal vision (ELAV) proteins family, may represent a new potential therapeutic strategy to manage diabetic retinopathy. Nanosystems loaded with siRNA silencing HuR expression (lipoplexes), consisting of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and liposomes (SUV) were prepared. Photon correlation spectroscopy analysis, Zeta potential measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies were carried out to characterize the complexation of siRNA with the lipid nanocarriers. Nanosystems were evaluated by using AFM and scanning electron microscopy. The lipoplexes were injected into the eye of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Retinal HuR and VEGF levels were detected by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Retinal histology was also carried out. The results demonstrated that retinal HuR and VEGF are significantly increased in STZ-rats and are blunted by HuR siRNA treatment. Lipoplexes with a weak positive surface charge and with a 4:1 N/P (cationic lipid nitrogen to siRNA phosphate) ratio exert a better transfection efficiency, significantly dumping retinal HuR and VEGF levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that siRNA can be efficiently delivered into the rat retina using lipid-based nanocarriers, and some of the lipoplexes loaded with siRNA silencing HuR expression are potential candidates to manage retinal diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A probabilistic Hu-Washizu variational principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Besterfield, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    A Probabilistic Hu-Washizu Variational Principle (PHWVP) for the Probabilistic Finite Element Method (PFEM) is presented. This formulation is developed for both linear and nonlinear elasticity. The PHWVP allows incorporation of the probabilistic distributions for the constitutive law, compatibility condition, equilibrium, domain and boundary conditions into the PFEM. Thus, a complete probabilistic analysis can be performed where all aspects of the problem are treated as random variables and/or fields. The Hu-Washizu variational formulation is available in many conventional finite element codes thereby enabling the straightforward inclusion of the probabilistic features into present codes.

  20. Hu on poolel teel / James Miles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Miles, James

    2006-01-01

    2007. aastal toimuv kommunistliku partei 17. kongress tähistab Hiina presidendi Hu Jintao jaoks oma võimuaja poole peale jõudmist, ees ootavad sellised väljakutsed nagu olümpiamängude korraldamine, valimiskeeris Taiwanis ning hullunud majanduse stabiliseerimine. Vt samas: Hiina avanemise pidu

  1. Infecciones en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Cuéllar Ponce de León

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones son causa frecuente de morbimortalidad en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. La frecuencia y diversidad de infecciones en esta población dependerá del tipo de inmunocompromiso, tratamiento recibido y aspecto epidemiológico. Los huéspedes con neutropenia desarrollan infecciones por bacterias extracelulares no encapsuladas y hongos levaduriformes y filamentosos; el diagnóstico precoz y tratamiento oportuno de las mismas son considerados una emergencia por su severidad y gran mortalidad asociada. El compromiso de la inmunidad humoral se relaciona con infecciones por microorganismos encapsulados (bacterias extracelulares y hongos; la secuencia clínica presentada en estas infecciones es neumonía aguda-bacteremia/fungemia-meningoencefalitis aguda/crónica. Muchas de estas infecciones son inmunoprevenibles. Los huéspedes con compromiso de la inmunidad celular desarrollan infecciones por microorganismos intracelulares y también por algunos extracelulares; muchas de las infecciones ocurren por reactivación; a menudo requieren profilaxis antimicrobiana tanto primaria como secundaria. El tratamiento medicamentoso (quimioterapia, drogas inmunosupresoras, etc. y los procedimientos invasivos facilitan el desarrollo de determinadas infecciones. El aspecto epidemiológico, que incluye el estilo de vida, ocupación, viajes previos, etc. permite evaluar y determinar el riesgo de potenciales infecciones. En conclusión, la prevención de las infecciones y el uso racional de antimicrobianos son los pilares fundamentales en el manejo efectivo de los huéspedes inmunocomprometidos.

  2. Drivers for precision livestock technology adoption: A study of factors associated with adoption of electronic identification technology by commercial sheep farmers in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Eliana; Hopkins, Thomas; Gurney, Emma; Shortall, Orla; Lovatt, Fiona; Davies, Peers; Williamson, George; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2018-01-01

    The UK is the largest lamb meat producer in Europe. However, the low profitability of sheep farming sector suggests production efficiency could be improved. Although the use of technologies such as Electronic Identification (EID) tools could allow a better use of flock resources, anecdotal evidence suggests they are not widely used. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of EID technology, and explore drivers and barriers of adoption of related tools among English and Welsh farmers. Farm beliefs and management practices associated with adoption of this technology were investigated. A total of 2000 questionnaires were sent, with a response rate of 22%. Among the respondents, 87 had adopted EID tools for recording flock information, 97 intended to adopt it in the future, and 222 neither had adopted it, neither intended to adopt it. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multivariable logistic regression modelling were used to identify farmer beliefs and management practices significantly associated with adoption of EID technology. EFA identified three factors expressing farmer's beliefs-external pressure and negative feelings, usefulness and practicality. Our results suggest farmer's beliefs play a significant role in technology uptake. Non-adopters were more likely than adopters to believe that 'government pressurise farmers to adopt technology'. In contrast, adopters were significantly more likely than non-adopters to see EID as practical and useful (p≤0.05). Farmers with higher information technologies literacy and intending to intensify production in the future were significantly more likely to adopt EID technology (p≤0.05). Importantly, flocks managed with EID tools had significantly lower farmer- reported flock lameness levels (p≤0.05). These findings bring insights on the dynamics of adoption of EID tools. Communicating evidence of the positive effects EID tools on flock performance and strengthening farmer's capability in use of technology are likely

  3. Drivers for precision livestock technology adoption: A study of factors associated with adoption of electronic identification technology by commercial sheep farmers in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Thomas; Gurney, Emma; Shortall, Orla; Lovatt, Fiona; Davies, Peers; Williamson, George; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2018-01-01

    The UK is the largest lamb meat producer in Europe. However, the low profitability of sheep farming sector suggests production efficiency could be improved. Although the use of technologies such as Electronic Identification (EID) tools could allow a better use of flock resources, anecdotal evidence suggests they are not widely used. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of EID technology, and explore drivers and barriers of adoption of related tools among English and Welsh farmers. Farm beliefs and management practices associated with adoption of this technology were investigated. A total of 2000 questionnaires were sent, with a response rate of 22%. Among the respondents, 87 had adopted EID tools for recording flock information, 97 intended to adopt it in the future, and 222 neither had adopted it, neither intended to adopt it. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multivariable logistic regression modelling were used to identify farmer beliefs and management practices significantly associated with adoption of EID technology. EFA identified three factors expressing farmer’s beliefs–external pressure and negative feelings, usefulness and practicality. Our results suggest farmer’s beliefs play a significant role in technology uptake. Non-adopters were more likely than adopters to believe that ‘government pressurise farmers to adopt technology’. In contrast, adopters were significantly more likely than non-adopters to see EID as practical and useful (p≤0.05). Farmers with higher information technologies literacy and intending to intensify production in the future were significantly more likely to adopt EID technology (p≤0.05). Importantly, flocks managed with EID tools had significantly lower farmer- reported flock lameness levels (p≤0.05). These findings bring insights on the dynamics of adoption of EID tools. Communicating evidence of the positive effects EID tools on flock performance and strengthening farmer’s capability in use of

  4. SU-E-T-470: Importance of HU-Mass Density Calibration Technique in Proton Pencil Beam Dose Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penfold, S; Miller, A [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Stoichiometric calibration of Hounsfield Units (HUs) for conversion to proton relative stopping powers (RStPs) is vital for accurate dose calculation in proton therapy. However proton dose distributions are not only dependent on RStP, but also on relative scattering power (RScP) of patient tissues. RScP is approximated from material density but a stoichiometric calibration of HU-density tables is commonly neglected. The purpose of this work was to quantify the difference in calculated dose of a commercial TPS when using HU-density tables based on tissue substitute materials and stoichiometric calibrated ICRU tissues. Methods: Two HU-density calibration tables were generated based on scans of the CIRS electron density phantom. The first table was based directly on measured HU and manufacturer quoted density of tissue substitute materials. The second was based on the same CT scan of the CIRS phantom followed by a stoichiometric calibration of ICRU44 tissue materials. The research version of Pinnacle{sup 3} proton therapy was used to compute dose in a patient CT data set utilizing both HU-density tables. Results: The two HU-density tables showed significant differences for bone tissues; the difference increasing with increasing HU. Differences in density calibration table translated to a difference in calculated RScP of −2.5% for ICRU skeletal muscle and 9.2% for ICRU femur. Dose-volume histogram analysis of a parallel opposed proton therapy prostate plan showed that the difference in calculated dose was negligible when using the two different HU-density calibration tables. Conclusion: The impact of HU-density calibration technique on proton therapy dose calculation was assessed. While differences were found in the calculated RScP of bony tissues, the difference in dose distribution for realistic treatment scenarios was found to be insignificant.

  5. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  6. Identification of sheep ovary genes potentially associated with off-season reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Ka; Zhao, Zongsheng; Blair, Hugh T; Zhang, Peng; Li, Daquan; Ma, Runlin Z

    2012-04-20

    Off-season reproduction is a favorable economic trait for sheep industry. Hu sheep, an indigenous Chinese sheep breed, demonstrates a higher productivity of lambs and displays year-around oestrous behavior under proper nutrition and environment. The genetic basis behind these traits, however, is not well understood. In order to identify genes associated with the off-season reproduction, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library using pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 oestrous Hu females as a tester and the pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 non-oestrous Chinese Merino females as a driver. A total of 382 resulting positive clones were obtained after the SSH. We identified 114 differentially up-regulated genes in oestrous Hu sheep by using subsequent screening and DNA sequencing, of which 8 were previously known, 93 were reported for the first time in sheep, and 13 were novel with no significant homology to any sequence in the DNA databases. Functions of the genes identified are related to cell division, signal transduction, structure, metabolism, or cell defense. To validate the results of SSH, 6 genes (Ntrk2, Ppap2b, Htra1, Nid1, Serpine2 and Foxola) were selected for conformational analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and two of them (Htral and Foxo1a) were verified by Northern blot. All of the 6 genes were differentially up-regulated in the ovary of oestrous Hu. It is obvious that off-season reproduction is a complex trait involving multiple genes in multiple organs. This study helps to provide a foundation for the final identification of functional genes involved in the sheep ovary. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Notas sobre el paisaje de Huánuco Pampa

    OpenAIRE

    Román Godines, Oscar; Ministerio de Cultura

    2013-01-01

    El complejo arqueológico Huánuco Pampa se encuentra ubicado en la provincia Dos de Mayo en el departamento de Huánuco y en la actualidad es quizás el principal vestigio de la cosmovisión y la planificación urbana inca.

  8. Sparks sädeleb Rabarocki öös. Ettevaatust! Eliidi rünnak. Hu? Hu da hell?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika ansamblist Sparks. Vaiko Eplik & Eliit heliplaatidest "1: Aastaajad", "2: Aastaajad" ja "3: Kosmoseodüsseia", esinemisest festivalil Rabarock. Hannaliisa Uusma, Leslie Da Bassi ja DJ Criticali projektist HU?, singlitest "Kosmos" ja "Absoluutselt" (Rabarockil esitusel materjal HU? debüütalbumilt "Film")

  9. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  10. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as

  11. Quantitative assessment of periimplant bone density (HU) on CBCT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Jong Gook; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2008-01-01

    The primary aims of this retrospective study were to compare subjective bone quality and bone quality based on the Hounsfield scale in different segments of the edentulous jaw, and to establish quantitative and objective assessment of the bone quality. Twenty eight randomly selected cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans were analyzed. For evaluation one hundred and twelve edentulous areas were selected. Implant recipient sites were evaluated visually for Lekholm and Zarb classification. The same sites were subsequently evaluated digitally using the Hounsfield scale with Vimplant 2.0 TM , and the results were correlated with visual classification. Data was subject for statistical analysis in order to determine correlation between recorded HU and the regions of the mouth with the Kruskal-Wallis test. The highest unit/mean density value (311 HU) was found in the anterior mandible, followed by 259 HU for the posterior mandible, 216 HU for the anterior maxilla, and 127 HU for the posterior maxilla. These results demonstrate a strong correlation for HU depending on the region of the mouth (p TM with Vimplant TM software.

  12. The influence of radiation on reproduction of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanikova, A.; Pastorova, B.; Halagan, J.; Maracek, I.; Sopkova, D.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the sexual apparatus of slovak merino ewes were studies in the anoestrous period after irradiation (2.5 Gy) and hormonal stimulation. Estrus synchronization of the sheep has been carried out by application of 20 mg chlorosuperlutine in impregnated vaginal Ageline sponges. The sheep were hormone stimulated by application of 1500 IU of Serum gonadotrophin. The animals were killed approximately 120 h after the application of the hormone. Samples from the sexual apparatus were processed by the common histological methods for examination under a light microscope and for examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Despite higher number of ovulations in irradiated and hormonally stimulated sheep, the examination of viability of irradiated oocytes showed absence of pregnancy in all 20 sheep after mating. This indicated that the dose of 2.5 Gy was not harmless to the reproductive system of sheep. (authors)

  13. Trypanosoma (megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the parasites and the insect gut wall surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, D H; Selkirk, M; Lavin, D

    1978-12-01

    A description of the different stages of Trypanosoma (M.) melophagium in different regions of the gut of the sheep ked (Melophagus ovinus) as observed by the SEM is presented. The extensive pile carpet or palisade colonization of the midgut and pylorus is described. The method of attachment and the relationship of the parasites to the microvilli in the midgut and the cuticle of the pylorus and ileum observed by other methods are confirmed. The micro-structure of the surfaces themselves in the regions of the gut to which parasites attach are described. The use of the technique for the study of other similar systems is discussed.

  14. Subunit-specific phenotypes of Salmonella typhimurium HU mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, D R; Edlund, M; Hughes, K T; Marsh, M; Higgins, N P

    1990-01-01

    Salmonella hupA and hupB mutants were studied to determine the reasons for the high degree of conservation in HU structure in bacteria. We found one HU-1-specific effect; the F'128 plasmid was 25-fold less stable in hupB compared with hupA or wild-type cells. F' plasmids were 120-fold more unstable in hupA hupB double mutants compared with wild-type cells, and the double mutant also had a significant alteration in plasmid DNA structure. pBR322 DNA isolated from hupA hupB strains was deficient...

  15. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Highlight the Potential for Different Genetic Mechanisms for Litter Size Among Sheep Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song-Song; Gao, Lei; Xie, Xing-Long; Ren, Yan-Ling; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Feng; Shen, Min; Eyϸórsdóttir, Emma; Hallsson, Jón H.; Kiseleva, Tatyana; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Reproduction is an important trait in sheep breeding as well as in other livestock. However, despite its importance the genetic mechanisms of litter size in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are still poorly understood. To explore genetic mechanisms underlying the variation in litter size, we conducted multiple independent genome-wide association studies in five sheep breeds of high prolificacy (Wadi, Hu, Icelandic, Finnsheep, and Romanov) and one low prolificacy (Texel) using the Ovine Infinium HD BeadChip, respectively. We identified different sets of candidate genes associated with litter size in different breeds: BMPR1B, FBN1, and MMP2 in Wadi; GRIA2, SMAD1, and CTNNB1 in Hu; NCOA1 in Icelandic; INHBB, NF1, FLT1, PTGS2, and PLCB3 in Finnsheep; ESR2 in Romanov and ESR1, GHR, ETS1, MMP15, FLI1, and SPP1 in Texel. Further annotation of genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that different biological pathways could be involved in the variation in litter size of females: hormone secretion (FSH and LH) in Wadi and Hu, placenta and embryonic lethality in Icelandic, folliculogenesis and LH signaling in Finnsheep, ovulation and preovulatory follicle maturation in Romanov, and estrogen and follicular growth in Texel. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying the prolificacy trait in sheep and other mammals, suggesting targets for selection where the aim is to increase prolificacy in breeding projects.

  16. Abundances of the planetary nebula Hu 1-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Hyung, S; Aller, LH; Beintema, DA; Bernard-Salas, J; Feibelman, WA; Klockner, HR

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the "elliptical" nebula Hu 1-2 are presented. These spectra are combined with new, high resolution spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebula is then calculated and compared to

  17. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  18. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis nucleoid-associated protein HU with structure-based inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Tuhin; Ghosh, Soumitra; Dixit, Karuna; Ganesan, Varsha; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Dey, Debayan; Sarma, Siddhartha P.; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    2014-06-01

    The nucleoid-associated protein HU plays an important role in maintenance of chromosomal architecture and in global regulation of DNA transactions in bacteria. Although HU is essential for growth in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), there have been no reported attempts to perturb HU function with small molecules. Here we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of HU from Mtb. We identify a core region within the HU-DNA interface that can be targeted using stilbene derivatives. These small molecules specifically inhibit HU-DNA binding, disrupt nucleoid architecture and reduce Mtb growth. The stilbene inhibitors induce gene expression changes in Mtb that resemble those induced by HU deficiency. Our results indicate that HU is a potential target for the development of therapies against tuberculosis.

  19. An Outbreak of Sheep Pox in Zabajkalskij kray of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. The performance of probiotic fermented sheep milk and ice cream sheep milk in inhibiting enamel mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, P; Frazão, J V; Vieira, T I; Balthazar, C F; Andrade, M M; Alexandria, A K; Cruz, A G; Fonseca-Gonçalves, A; Maia, L C

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different sheep milk-based food matrices - fermented sheep milk and ice cream - with added probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei 431) on dental enamel subjected to an in vitro highly cariogenic challenge. Sixty enamel blocks were selected and randomly allocated into five treatment groups (n=12): conventional fermented sheep milk (CFSM), probiotic fermented sheep milk (PFSM), conventional sheep milk ice cream (CSMIC), probiotic sheep milk ice cream (PSMIC) and control using deionized water. The blocks were subjected to highly cariogenic pH cycling and the products were applied (5min), in a blinded way, once a day to simulate a daily use for 8 consecutive days. A microhardness test was performed before and after the treatment to estimate the percentage of microhardness surface loss (% SML). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was performed to confirm the mineral loss. All groups had lost microhardness after the experiment. However, CFSM and PFSM exhibited the most positive findings when compared to the control in both ice creams. Scanning electron microscopy showed less mineral loss in CFSM and PFSM compared with CSMIC, PSMIC and control after the cariogenic challenge. Overall, fermented milk decreased mineral loss from enamel subjected to a highly cariogenic challenge, regardless of the presence of probiotics in their composition, which had a higher efficacy compared to ice cream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Jessup, D A

    1982-04-01

    During 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California and Washington. Contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. Circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. Pasteurella multocida and Corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of dead bighorns. The presence of domestic sheep may have been an important stress which initiated or compounded the disease.

  2. Cytoplasmic Hu-Antigen R (HuR) Expression is Associated with Poor Survival in Patients with Surgically Resected Cholangiocarcinoma Treated with Adjuvant Gemcitabine-Based Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Naru; Uemura, Kenichiro; Nakagawa, Naoya; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro

    2018-05-01

    Hu-antigen R (HuR) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability, translation, and nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of HuR in cholangiocarcinoma patients who received adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy (AGC) after surgical resection. Nuclear and cytoplasmic HuR expression was investigated immunohistochemically in 131 patients with resected cholangiocarcinoma, including 91 patients administered AGC and 40 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The correlation between HuR expression and survival was evaluated by statistical analysis. High nuclear and cytoplasmic HuR expression was observed in 67 (51%) and 45 (34%) patients, respectively. Cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01), while high cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival [DFS] (p = 0.03) and overall survival [OS] (p = 0.001) in the 91 patients who received AGC, but not in the 40 patients who did not receive AGC (DFS p = 0.17; OS p = 0.07). In the multivariate analysis of patients who received AGC, high cytoplasmic HuR expression was an independent predictor of poor DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.77; p = 0.04) and OS (HR 2.09; p = 0.02). Nuclear HuR expression did not affect the survival of enrolled patients. High cytoplasmic HuR expression was closely associated with the efficacy of AGC in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The current findings warrant further investigations to optimize adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for resectable cholangiocarcinoma.

  3. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  4. Gaucher disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgos, Litsa; Lancaster, Malcolm J; Nimmo, Judith S; Hopwood, John J

    2011-02-01

    Gaucher disease, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene, was recently discovered in sheep on a "Southdown" sheep stud in Victoria, Australia. Clinical signs include neuropathy, thickened leathery skin, and ichthyosis, with lambs unable to stand from birth. Affected lambs were found to be deficient in glucocerebrosidase activity, and mutational analysis found them to be homozygous for the missense mutations c.1142G>A (p.C381Y) and c.1400C>T (p.P467L). In addition, four silent mutations were detected (c.777C>A [p.Y259Y], c1203A>G [p.Q401Q], c.1335T>C [p.I445I], c.1464C>G [p.L488L]). The human equivalent [C342Y] to the C381Y mutation leads to an acute neuronopathic phenotype in patients. Identification of an acute neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease in sheep provides a large animal model that will enable studies of pathology and evaluation of therapies to treat this common lysosomal storage disorder.

  5. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  6. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  7. HuPSON: the human physiology simulation ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündel, Michaela; Younesi, Erfan; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Wang, Jiali; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bijun; de Bono, Bernard; Mevissen, Heinz-Theodor; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2013-11-22

    Large biomedical simulation initiatives, such as the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), are substantially dependent on controlled vocabularies to facilitate the exchange of information, of data and of models. Hindering these initiatives is a lack of a comprehensive ontology that covers the essential concepts of the simulation domain. We propose a first version of a newly constructed ontology, HuPSON, as a basis for shared semantics and interoperability of simulations, of models, of algorithms and of other resources in this domain. The ontology is based on the Basic Formal Ontology, and adheres to the MIREOT principles; the constructed ontology has been evaluated via structural features, competency questions and use case scenarios.The ontology is freely available at: http://www.scai.fraunhofer.de/en/business-research-areas/bioinformatics/downloads.html (owl files) and http://bishop.scai.fraunhofer.de/scaiview/ (browser). HuPSON provides a framework for a) annotating simulation experiments, b) retrieving relevant information that are required for modelling, c) enabling interoperability of algorithmic approaches used in biomedical simulation, d) comparing simulation results and e) linking knowledge-based approaches to simulation-based approaches. It is meant to foster a more rapid uptake of semantic technologies in the modelling and simulation domain, with particular focus on the VPH domain.

  8. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  9. Characteristics of Smallholder Sheep Production at Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The household owners of sheep seldom fed forage to their sheep (17.86%), while 25% of commercial sheep farmers fed forage. The common diseases in the area were diarrhea, pneumonia and mange. The constraints to sheep production in the area included automobile accidents, seasonal lack of feed, diseases, theft and ...

  10. SUPPORT FOR HU CFRT SUMMER HIGH SCHOOL FUSION WORKSHOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh

    2010-01-01

    Nine summer fusion science research workshops for minority and female high school students were conducted at the Hampton University Center for Fusion Research and Training from 1996 to 2005. Each workshop was of the duration of eight weeks. In all 35 high school students were mentored. The students presented 28 contributed papers at the annual meetings of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics. These contributed papers were very well received by the plasma physics and fusion science research community. The students won a number of prestigious local, state, and national honors, awards, prizes, and scholarships. The notable among these are the two regional finalist positions in the 1999 Siemens-Westinghouse Science and Technology Competitions; 1st Place U.S. Army Award, 2006; 1st Place U.S. Naval Science Award, 2006; Yale Science and Engineering Association Best 11th Grade Project, 2006; Society of Physics Students Book Award, 2006; APS Corporate Minority Scholarship and others. This workshop program conducted by the HU CFRT has been an exemplary success, and served the minority and female students exceptionally fruitfully. The Summer High School Fusion Science Workshop is an immensely successful outreach activity conducted by the HU CFRT. In this workshop, we train, motivate, and provide high quality research experiences to young and talented high school scholars with emphasis on under-represented minorities and female students in fusion science and related areas. The purpose of this workshop is to expose minority and female students to the excitement of research in science at an early stage in their academic lives. It is our hope that this may lead the high school students to pursue higher education and careers in physical sciences, mathematics, and perhaps in fusion science. To our knowledge, this workshop is the first and only one to date, of fusion science for under-represented minorities and female high school students at an HBCU. The faculty

  11. Temperature dependence of HU values for various water equivalent phantom materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homolka, P.; Nowotny, R.; Gahleitner, A.

    2002-01-01

    The temperature dependence of water equivalent phantom materials used in radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging has been investigated. Samples of phantom materials based on epoxy resin, polyethylene, a polystyrene-polypropylene mixture and commercially available phantom materials (Solid Water TM , Gammex RMI and Plastic Water TM , Nuclear Associates) were scanned at temperatures from 15 to 40 deg. C and HU values determined. At a reference temperature of 20 deg. C materials optimized for CT applications give HU values close to zero while the commercial materials show an offset of 119.77 HU (Plastic Water) and 27.69 HU (Solid Water). Temperature dependence was lowest for epoxy-based materials (EPX-W: -0.23 HU deg. C -1 ; Solid Water: -0.25 HU deg. C -1 ) and highest for a polyethylene-based material (X0: -0.72 HU deg. C -1 ). A material based on a mixture of polystyrene and polypropylene (PSPP1: -0.27 HU deg. C -1 ) is comparable to epoxy-based materials and water (-0.29 HU deg. C -1 ). (author)

  12. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  13. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  14. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  15. TH-CD-207B-11: Multi-Vendor Phantom Study of CT Lung Density Metrics: Is a Reproducibility of Less Than 1 HU Achievable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-Mayer, H [National Institute of Standards & Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Judy, P [Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Fain, S [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hoppel, B [Toshiba Medical Research Institute USA, Inc, Vernon Hills, IL (United States); Lynch, D [Nation Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Fuld, M [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To standardize the calibration procedures of CT lung density measurements using low-density reference foams in a phantom, and to demonstrate a reproducibility of less than 1 HU for lung equivalent foam densities measured across CT vendor platforms and protocols. Methods: A phantom study was conducted on CT scanner models from 4 vendors at 100, 120, and 135/140 kVp and 1.5, 3, and 6 mGy dose settings, using a lung density phantom containing air, water, and 3 reference foams (indirectly calibrated) with discrete densities simulating a 5-cm slice of the human chest. Customized segmentation software was used to analyze the images and generate a mean HU and variance for each of the density for the 22 vendor/protocols. A 3-step calibration process was devised to remove a scanner-dependent parameter using linear regression of the HU value vs the relative electron density. The results were mapped to a single energy (80 keV) for final comparison. Results: The heterogeneity across vendor platforms for each density assessed by a random effects model was reduced by 50% after re-calibration, while the standard deviation of the mean HU values also improved by about the same amount. The 95% CI of the final HU value was within +/−1 HU for all 3 reference foam densities. For the backing lung foam in the phantom (served as an “unknown”), this CI is +/− 1.6 HU. The kVp and dose settings did not appear to have significant contributions to the variability. Conclusion: With the proposed calibration procedures, the inter-scanner reproducibility of better than 1 HU is demonstrated in the current phantom study for the reference foam densities, but not yet achieved for a test density. The sources of error are being investigated in the next round of scanning with a certified Standard Reference Material for direct calibration. Fain: research funding from GE Healthcare to develop pulmonary MRI techniques. Hoppel: employee of Toshiba Medical Research Institute USA

  16. Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A., was studied. Muscle samples of the oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue, skeletal and heart muscles were examined. Varied natural infection rates in the muscles of the examined sheep strains were recorded as 83% in Niemy, 81.5% in Najdy and 90% in Sawakny sheep. Muscles of the diaphragm showed the highest infection level above all organs except Najdy sheep in which oesophagus has the highest rate. Also, the heart was the lowest infected organ (40% Niemy, 44% Najdy and 53% Sawakny). Microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis arieticanis are easily identified in sections through the heart muscles of the domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cysts measured 38.5-64.4 μm (averaged 42.66 μm) in width and 62.4-173.6 μm (averaged 82.14 μm) in length. The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.1-0.27 μm thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and hairy-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance. This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 12-16 μm in length with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. Experimental infection of carnivores by feeding heavily infected sheep muscles revealed that the dog, Canis familiaris, is the only final host of the present Sarcocystis species. Gamogony, sporogonic stages and characteristics of sporulated oocysts were also investigated.

  17. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  18. HuD Regulates Coding and Noncoding RNA to Induce APP→Aβ Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ju Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The primarily neuronal RNA-binding protein HuD is implicated in learning and memory. Here, we report the identification of several HuD target transcripts linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathogenesis. HuD interacted with the 3′ UTRs of APP mRNA (encoding amyloid precursor protein and BACE1 mRNA (encoding β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 and increased the half-lives of these mRNAs. HuD also associated with and stabilized the long noncoding (lncRNA BACE1AS, which partly complements BACE1 mRNA and enhances BACE1 expression. Consistent with HuD promoting production of APP and APP-cleaving enzyme, the levels of APP, BACE1, BACE1AS, and Aβ were higher in the brain of HuD-overexpressing mice. Importantly, cortex (superior temporal gyrus from patients with AD displayed significantly higher levels of HuD and, accordingly, elevated APP, BACE1, BACE1AS, and Aβ than did cortical tissue from healthy age-matched individuals. We propose that HuD jointly promotes the production of APP and the cleavage of its amyloidogenic fragment, Aβ.

  19. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a sheep pox virus isolated from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X L; Yang, F; Li, H X; Dou, Y X; Meng, X L; Li, H; Luo, X N; Cai, X P

    2013-05-14

    An outbreak of sheep pox was investigated in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China. Through immunofluorescence testing, isolated viruses, polymerase chain reaction identification, and electron microscopic examination, the isolated strain was identified as a sheep pox virus. The virus was identified through sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene, open reading frame (ORF) 095, and ORF 103 genes. This study is the first to use the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes as candidate genes for the analysis of sheep pox. The results showed that the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes could be used for the genotyping of the sheep pox virus.

  20. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Arroyo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Creole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35º. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof.  It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.

  1. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  2. Measurement of hard tissue density of head phantom based on the HU by using CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moon Sun; Kang, Dong Wan; Kim, Jae Duk

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a conversion coefficient for Hounsfield Units(HU) to material density (g cm -3 ) obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBMercuRay TM ) data and to measure the hard tissue density based on the Hounsfield scale on dental head phantom. CT Scanner Phantom (AAPM) equipped with CT Number Insert consists of five cylindrical pins of materials with different densities and teflon ring was scanned by using the CBMercuRay TM (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) volume scanner. The raw data were converted into DICOM format and the HU of different areas of CT number insert measured by using CBWorks TM . Linear regression analysis and Student t-test were performed statistically. There was no significant difference (P>0.54) between real densities and measured densities. A linear regression was performed using the density, ρ (g cm -3 ), as the dependent variable in terms of the HU (H). The regression equation obtained was ρ=0.00072 H-0.01588 with an R2 value of 0.9968. Density values based on the Hounsfield scale was 1697.1 ± 24.9 HU in cortical bone, 526.5 ± 44.4 HU in trabecular bone, 2639.1 ± 48.7 HU in enamel, 1246.1 ± 39.4 HU in dentin of dental head phantom. CBCT provides an effective option for determination of material density expressed as Hounsfield Units.

  3. Investigation of the HU-density conversion method and comparison of dose distribution for dose calculation on MV cone beam CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Joo; Lee, Seu Ran; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Modern radiation therapy techniques, such as Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) has become a routine clinical practice on linear accelerators for the increase the tumor dose conformity and improvement of normal tissue sparing at the same time. For these highly developed techniques, megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) system produce volumetric images at just one rotation of the x-ray beam source and detector on the bottom of conventional linear accelerator for real-time application of patient condition into treatment planning. MV CBCT image scan be directly registered to a reference CT data set which is usually kilo-voltage fan-beam computed tomography (kVFBCT) on treatment planning system and the registered image scan be used to adjust patient set-up error. However, to use MV CBCT images in radiotherapy, reliable electron density (ED) distribution are required. Patients scattering, beam hardening and softening effect caused by different energy application between kVCT, MV CBCT can cause cupping artifacts in MV CBCT images and distortion of Houns field Unit (HU) to ED conversion. The goal of this study, for reliable application of MV CBCT images into dose calculation, MV CBCT images was modified to correct distortion of HU to ED using the relationship of HU and ED from kV FBCT and MV CBCT images. The HU-density conversion was performed on MV CBCT image set using Dose difference map was showing in Figure 1. Finally, percentage differences above 3% were reduced depending on applying density calibration method. As a result, total error co uld be reduced to under 3%. The present study demonstrates that dose calculation accuracy using MV CBCT image set can be improved my applying HU-density conversion method. The dose calculation and comparison of dose distribution from MV CBCT image set with/without HU-density conversion method was performed. An advantage of this study compared to other approaches is that HU

  4. Occurrence of chai hu (Bupleuri radix) in prescriptions of Chinese herbal medicine in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabine D; Becker, Simon; Wolf, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Chai hu (Bupleuri radix), one of the most frequently used herbs in Chinese herbal medicine, has 3 major functions, depending on dosage and combination with other herbs. The aim of this study was to investigate how chai hu is prescribed in everyday practice in Switzerland, and whether these prescription patterns reflect its various applications. A random sample of 1,053 prescriptions was drawn from the database of Lian Chinaherb AG, Wollerau, Switzerland, and analyzed regarding the most frequently used classical formulas containing chai hu, daily dosages and combinations with other herbs. 29.0% of all prescriptions contained chai hu, and 98.0% of these were in granular form. The most frequently used classical formulas were xiao yao san ('rambling powder'), jia wei xiao yao san ('augmented rambling powder') and chai hu shu gan san ('Bupleurum powder to spread the liver'). In more than half of the prescriptions, chai hu was combined with bai shao (Paeoniae Radix Alba), dang gui (Angelicae sinensis radix) or fu ling (Poria). 51.8% of the prescriptions contained a low daily dosage of chai hu, 24.9% a medium and 15.1% a high dosage. Chai hu was generally prescribed in classic combinations with other herbs and in a medium dosage. Due to the addition of supplementary herbs to classical formulas, its daily dose was often diminished from a high or medium dose to a low dose. This raises the question if chai hu would then still exert its desired function of, e.g., moving liver-qi in these prescriptions.

  5. Metabolic aspects of growth in HU-treated crown-gall tissue cultures. II. Helianthus annuus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Rennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of growth and changes in nucleic acid and protein contents in sunflower calluses and tumours cultured in hydroxyurea (HU containing media were examined. HU-induced changes in healthy tissues ran in parallel always in the same direction, in tumourous ones however an uncoupling between DNA synthesis and tissue growth on one hand and RNA and protein synthesis on the other took place. A detailed analysis of the results allows to suppose that the specific activity of HU on tumourous tissue could be an index of: 1 quantitative disturbances in its genes function (2 degree of the lass of sensitivity to the factors of regulation.

  6. Blocking Breast Cancer Metastasis by Targeting RNA-Binding Protein HuR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0730 TITLE: Blocking Breast Cancer Metastasis by Targeting RNA-Binding Protein HuR PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Danny Welch...NUMBER Blocking Breast Cancer Metastasis by Targeting RNA-Binding Protein HuR 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...increased aggressiveness in breast cancer , the primary objective of this proposal is to assess whether HuR (or analogs) prevent and/or treat metastasis and/or

  7. High quality draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, XinJun; Li, Ang; Lv, LongXian; Yuan, Chunhui; Guo, Lihua; Jiang, Xiawei; Jiang, Haiyin; Qian, GuiRong; Zheng, BeiWen; Guo, Jing; Li, LanJuan

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii belongs to the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales , class Bacilli and phylum Firmicutes . The increasing relevance of S. cohnii to human health prompted us to determine the genomic sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, a multidrug-resistant isolate from a hospital in China. Here we describe the features of S. cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, together with the genome sequence and its annotation. This is the first genom...

  8. Zebrafish transgenic line huORFZ is an effective living bioindicator for detecting environmental toxicants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chieh Lee

    Full Text Available Reliable animal models are invaluable for monitoring the extent of pollution in the aquatic environment. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of huORFZ, a novel transgenic zebrafish line that harbors a human upstream open reading frame of the chop gene fused with GFP reporter, as an animal model for monitoring environmental pollutants and stress-related cellular processes. When huORFZ embryos were kept under normal condition, no leaked GFP signal could be detected. When treated with hazardous chemicals, including heavy metals and endocrine-disrupting chemicals near their sublethal concentrations (LC50, huORFZ embryos exhibited different tissue-specific GFP expression patterns. For further analysis, copper (Cu2+, cadmium (Cd2+ and Chlorpyrifos were applied. Cu2+ triggered GFP responses in skin and muscle, whereas Cd2+ treatment triggered GFP responses in skin, olfactory epithelium and pronephric ducts. Moreover, fluorescence intensity, as exhibited by huORFZ embryos, was dose-dependent. After surviving treated embryos were returned to normal condition, survival rates, as well as TUNEL signals, returned to pretreatment levels with no significant morphological defects observed. Such results indicated the reversibility of treatment conditions used in this study, as long as embryos survived such conditions. Notably, GFP signals decreased along with recovery, suggesting that GFP signaling of huORFZ embryos likely reflected the overall physiological condition of the individual. To examine the performance of the huORFZ line under real-world conditions, we placed huORFZ embryos in different river water samples. We found that the huORFZ embryos correctly detected the presence of various kinds of pollutants. Based on these findings, we concluded that such uORFchop-based system can be integrated into a first-line water alarm system monitoring the discharge of hazardous pollutants.

  9. Zebrafish Transgenic Line huORFZ Is an Effective Living Bioindicator for Detecting Environmental Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chien; Li, Hong-Ping; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Reliable animal models are invaluable for monitoring the extent of pollution in the aquatic environment. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of huORFZ, a novel transgenic zebrafish line that harbors a human upstream open reading frame of the chop gene fused with GFP reporter, as an animal model for monitoring environmental pollutants and stress-related cellular processes. When huORFZ embryos were kept under normal condition, no leaked GFP signal could be detected. When treated with hazardous chemicals, including heavy metals and endocrine-disrupting chemicals near their sublethal concentrations (LC50), huORFZ embryos exhibited different tissue-specific GFP expression patterns. For further analysis, copper (Cu2+), cadmium (Cd2+) and Chlorpyrifos were applied. Cu2+ triggered GFP responses in skin and muscle, whereas Cd2+ treatment triggered GFP responses in skin, olfactory epithelium and pronephric ducts. Moreover, fluorescence intensity, as exhibited by huORFZ embryos, was dose-dependent. After surviving treated embryos were returned to normal condition, survival rates, as well as TUNEL signals, returned to pretreatment levels with no significant morphological defects observed. Such results indicated the reversibility of treatment conditions used in this study, as long as embryos survived such conditions. Notably, GFP signals decreased along with recovery, suggesting that GFP signaling of huORFZ embryos likely reflected the overall physiological condition of the individual. To examine the performance of the huORFZ line under real-world conditions, we placed huORFZ embryos in different river water samples. We found that the huORFZ embryos correctly detected the presence of various kinds of pollutants. Based on these findings, we concluded that such uORFchop-based system can be integrated into a first-line water alarm system monitoring the discharge of hazardous pollutants. PMID:24594581

  10. dNTP deficiency induced by HU via inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase affects neural tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Zhen; Wang, Xiuwei; Dong, Yanting; Xu, Lin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Murine NTDs were successfully induced by means of hydroxyurea (HU). • The impairment of dNTP was induced via inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase. • dNTP deficiency induced by HU caused defective DNA synthesis and repair. • Abnormal apoptosis and proliferation induced by HU affected neural tube development. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental toxic chemicals in utero during the neural tube development period can cause developmental disorders. To evaluate the disruption of neural tube development programming, the murine neural tube defects (NTDs) model was induced by interrupting folate metabolism using methotrexate in our previous study. The present study aimed to examine the effects of dNTP deficiency induced by hydroxyurea (HU), a specific ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, during murine neural tube development. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with various doses of HU on gestation day (GD) 7.5, and the embryos were checked on GD 11.5. RNR activity and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels were measured in the optimal dose. Additionally, DNA damage was examined by comet analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cellular behaviors in NTDs embryos were evaluated with phosphorylation of histone H3 (PH-3) and caspase-3 using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results showed that NTDs were observed mostly with HU treatment at an optimal dose of 225 mg/kg b/w. RNR activity was inhibited and dNTP levels were decreased in HU-treated embryos with NTDs. Additionally, increased DNA damage, decreased proliferation, and increased caspase-3 were significant in NTDs embryos compared to the controls. Results indicated that HU induced murine NTDs model by disturbing dNTP metabolism and further led to the abnormal cell balance between proliferation and apoptosis

  11. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair

  12. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  13. Different modes of interaction by TIAR and HuR with target RNA and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henry S; Wilce, Matthew C J; Yoga, Yano M K; Pendini, Nicole R; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Cowieson, Nathan P; Wilson, Gerald M; Williams, Bryan R G; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2011-02-01

    TIAR and HuR are mRNA-binding proteins that play important roles in the regulation of translation. They both possess three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and bind to AU-rich elements (AREs), with seemingly overlapping specificity. Here we show using SPR that TIAR and HuR bind to both U-rich and AU-rich RNA in the nanomolar range, with higher overall affinity for U-rich RNA. However, the higher affinity for U-rich sequences is mainly due to faster association with U-rich RNA, which we propose is a reflection of the higher probability of association. Differences between TIAR and HuR are observed in their modes of binding to RNA. TIAR is able to bind deoxy-oligonucleotides with nanomolar affinity, whereas HuR affinity is reduced to a micromolar level. Studies with U-rich DNA reveal that TIAR binding depends less on the 2'-hydroxyl group of RNA than HuR binding. Finally we show that SAXS data, recorded for the first two domains of TIAR in complex with RNA, are more consistent with a flexible, elongated shape and not the compact shape that the first two domains of Hu proteins adopt upon binding to RNA. We thus propose that these triple-RRM proteins, which compete for the same binding sites in cells, interact with their targets in fundamentally different ways.

  14. Preliminary bluetongue Transmission with the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A J; Jochim, M M; Bowne, J G

    1965-09-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs.

  15. Preliminary Bluetongue Transmissions with the Sheep Ked Melophagus Ovinus (L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, A. J.; Jochim, M. M.; Bowne, J. G.

    1965-01-01

    Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs. PMID:4221988

  16. The synthetic cannabinoid HU210 induces spatial memory deficits and suppresses hippocampal firing rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Goonawardena, A V; Pertwee, R G; Hampson, R E; Riedel, G

    2007-07-01

    Previous work implied that the hippocampal cannabinoid system was particularly important in some forms of learning, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is scarce. We therefore assessed the effects of the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 on memory and hippocampal activity. HU210 (100 microg kg(-1)) was administered intraperitoneally to rats under three experimental conditions. One group of animals were pre-trained in spatial working memory using a delayed-matching-to-position task and effects of HU210 were assessed in a within-subject design. In another, rats were injected before acquisition learning of a spatial reference memory task with constant platform location. Finally, a separate group of animals was implanted with electrode bundles in CA1 and CA3 and single unit responses were isolated, before and after HU210 treatment. HU210 treatment had no effect on working or short-term memory. Relative to its control Tween 80, deficits in acquisition of a reference memory version of the water maze were obtained, along with drug-related effects on anxiety, motor activity and spatial learning. Deficits were not reversed by the CB(1) receptor antagonists SR141716A (3 mg kg(-1)) or AM281 (1.5 mg kg(-1)). Single unit recordings from principal neurons in hippocampal CA3 and CA1 confirmed HU210-induced attenuation of the overall firing activity lowering both the number of complex spikes fired and the occurrence of bursts. These data provide the first direct evidence that the underlying mechanism for the spatial memory deficits induced by HU210 in rats is the accompanying abnormality in hippocampal cell firing.

  17. HuR represses Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity by promoting cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inae; Hur, Jung; Jeong, Sunjoo, E-mail: sjsj@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Wnt signaling as well as β-catenin overexpression enhance HuR cytoplasmic export. • HuR overexpression promotes cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin from the perinuclear fraction. • Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity is repressesed by HuR. - Abstract: β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells.

  18. HuR represses Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity by promoting cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inae; Hur, Jung; Jeong, Sunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Wnt signaling as well as β-catenin overexpression enhance HuR cytoplasmic export. • HuR overexpression promotes cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin from the perinuclear fraction. • Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity is repressesed by HuR. - Abstract: β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells

  19. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  20. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, H. T.; Wan, Y. J.; You, J. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Lan, S.; Fan, Y. X.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg0.75 of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg0.75 of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  1. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  2. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  3. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  4. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  5. The International Sheep and Wool Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This revised book is an expanded and updated version of the Australian Sheep and Wool Handbook published in 1991 and focuses on the sheep wool and meat industry. The book is divided in 5 sections, each including several chapters written by well-known and qualified researchers and industry representatives from many countries. The first section on Major sheep and wool industries, in my opinion, is particularly interesting because it explores the sheep and wool industries of leading countries (e.g. Australia, South Africa and New Zealand and continents (Europe and South America, and those of emerging countries (e.g. China.....

  6. Estudo da anomalia de Pelger-Huët em núcleo familiar Pelger-Huët anomaly study in a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia H. O. Calderan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Pelger-Huët anomaly is a dominant autosomal disease, characterized by the incomplete segmentation of the granulocytes nucleus without lost of the cellular function. The heterozygotes form of this anomaly is assintomatic and it did not possess physic meant, while the homozygote form is rare and can be lethal, being therefore, important differentiates of other infectious alterations. The pseudo-anomaly can occasionally be observed in cases of granulocitic leukemia, mieloproliferatives Diseases, some infections and after exposition the determined drugs. We evaluate eleven members of a familiar nucleus and, after the blood cells analysis, six of then had presented neutrophils and eosinophils with nuclei characteristic of the heterozygotes form of the Pelger-Huët anomaly. The recognition of this leukocyte anomaly, mainly in patients without infection and presenting great number of not segmented neutrophils, can prevent wrong interpretations of the blood cells count and unnecessary clinical and therapeutically behaviors.

  7. Activity-dependent expression of ELAV/Hu RBPs and neuronal mRNAs in seizure and cocaine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruchinapalli, Dhanrajan M; Caron, Marc G; Keene, Jack D

    2008-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that both seizure (glutamate) and cocaine (dopamine) treatment modulate synaptic plasticity within the mesolimbic region of the CNS. Activation of glutamatergic neurons depends on the localized translation of neuronal mRNA products involved in modulating synaptic plasticity. In this study, we demonstrate the dendritic localization of HuR and HuD RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and their association with neuronal mRNAs following these two paradigms of seizure and cocaine treatment. Both the ubiquitously expressed HuR and neuronal HuD RBPs were detected in different regions as well as within dendrites of the brain and in dissociated neurons. Quantitative analysis revealed an increase in HuR, HuD and p-glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) protein levels as well as neuronal mRNAs encoding Homer, CaMKIIalpha, vascular early response gene, GAP-43, neuritin, and neuroligin protein products following either seizure or cocaine treatment. Inhibition of the Akt/GSK3beta signaling pathway by acute or chronic LiCl treatment revealed changes in HuR, HuD, pGSK3beta, p-Akt, and beta-catenin protein levels. In addition, a genetically engineered hyperdopaminergic mouse model (dopamine transporter knockout) revealed decreased expression of HuR protein levels, but no significant change was observed in HuD or fragile-X mental retardation protein RBPs. Finally, our data suggest that HuR and HuD RBPs potentially interact directly with neuronal mRNAs important for differentiation and synaptic plasticity.

  8. An experimental study of mechanism in treatment for endometriosis with Xiao Chai Hu Tang in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Zuo Liandong; Li Hongyi

    2005-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of Xiao Chai Hu Tang in treatment for endometriosis in rats, the rat model of endometriosis was established. Using immunohistochemistry method, Fas and Caspase-3 protein expression in endometrium and endometriotic tissue of each group were observed. The results showed that in the group treated with Xiao Chai Hu Tang, the protein expressions of Fas and Caspase-3 in endometriotic tissue were higher than those in endometrium, while in the control group, the result was just opposite. The difference was not obvious in the group treated with Danazol . The higher levels of the protein expression of Fas in endometriotic tissue may related to the pathogenesis of the endometriosis. The mechanism of Xiao Chai Hu Tang treatment may be partly to increase apoptosis in endometriotic tissue. (authors)

  9. Effets des sels organiques de tributyletain sur l'huître adulte Crassostrea gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Heral, Maurice; Alzieu, Claude; Caux, O.; Razet, Daniel; Garnier, Jacqueline

    1983-01-01

    La toxicité des composés organostanniques a été mise en évidence à l'égard de l'huître Crassostrea gigas tant aux stades larvaires (His & Robert, 1980) que chez l'adulte (Alzieu & al., 1980, 1981). Parallèlement ces mêmes auteurs ont montré l'accumulation d'étain dans les huîtres contaminées expérimentalement ainsi que le rôle que peut jouer le fluorure de TBT dans la perturbation de la croissance (Héral & al. 1981) et dans la malformation de la coquille des huîtres (Alzieu & al., 1981). Dans...

  10. Nilai Kalor Bakar Limbah Padat (HuWAC Sebagai Bahan Bakar Alternatif dalam Produksi Batu Bata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeparjono Soeparjono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Menipisnya persediaan minyak bumi dan sulitnya mendapatkan kayu bakar dengan harga murah sebagai bahan bakar untuk kalangan industri kecil produksi batu bata, diperlukan adanya pemikiran mencari bahan bakar alternatif dan murah. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui nilai kalor bakar limbah HuWAC sebagai bahan bakar alternatif untuk produksi batu merah. Sasarannya limbah HuWAC pabrik monosodium glutamat AJINOMOTO Mojokerto dengan sampel acak yang dikeringkan panas matahari. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif rancangan deskriptif. Unsur-unsur yang terbakar dalam sampel dilakukan koreksi. Pengambilan data dilakukan secara langsung dengan alat Kalorimeter. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor bakar yang dihitung dengan formula Dulong, LVH = 2614 kcal/kg dan HHV = 2745 kcal/kg, sedangkan dari alat Kalorimeter Hgr = 2728 kcal/kg. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa HuWAC dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar alternatif di kalangan industri kecil produksi batu bata.

  11. HuMOVE: a low-invasive wearable monitoring platform in sexual medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuti, Gastone; Nardi, Matteo; Valdastri, Pietro; Menciassi, Arianna; Basile Fasolo, Ciro; Dario, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate an accelerometer-based wearable system, named Human Movement (HuMOVE) platform, designed to enable quantitative and continuous measurement of sexual performance with minimal invasiveness and inconvenience for users. Design, implementation, and development of HuMOVE, a wearable platform equipped with an accelerometer sensor for monitoring inertial parameters for sexual performance assessment and diagnosis, were performed. The system enables quantitative measurement of movement parameters during sexual intercourse, meeting the requirements of wearability, data storage, sampling rate, and interfacing methods, which are fundamental for human sexual intercourse performance analysis. HuMOVE was validated through characterization using a controlled experimental test bench and evaluated in a human model during simulated sexual intercourse conditions. HuMOVE demonstrated to be a robust and quantitative monitoring platform and a reliable candidate for sexual performance evaluation and diagnosis. Characterization analysis on the controlled experimental test bench demonstrated an accurate correlation between the HuMOVE system and data from a reference displacement sensor. Experimental tests in the human model during simulated intercourse conditions confirmed the accuracy of the sexual performance evaluation platform and the effectiveness of the selected and derived parameters. The obtained outcomes also established the project expectations in terms of usability and comfort, evidenced by the questionnaires that highlighted the low invasiveness and acceptance of the device. To the best of our knowledge, HuMOVE platform is the first device for human sexual performance analysis compatible with sexual intercourse; the system has the potential to be a helpful tool for physicians to accurately classify sexual disorders, such as premature or delayed ejaculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-01-01

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3 km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8–41 µm in length and 0.4–1.39 µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. - Highlights: • Lymph-nodes draining sheep lung were used to assess environmental fluoro-edenite exposure. • Monitoring fluoro-edenite fibres in sheep lung nodes can provide pollution surveillance. • Our findings document a risk of fluoro-edenite fibre inhalation a few kilometres from the source. • Sheep appear to be a valuable bioindicator species.

  13. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledda, Caterina, E-mail: cledda@unict.it [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Loreto, Carla [Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Pomara, Cristoforo [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Rapisarda, Giuseppe [Department of Veterinary Medicine, ASP Catania, Catania (Italy); Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita [Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Fenga, Concettina [Occupational Medicine, Department of the Environment, Safety, Territory, Food and Health Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Rapisarda, Venerando [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3 km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8–41 µm in length and 0.4–1.39 µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. - Highlights: • Lymph-nodes draining sheep lung were used to assess environmental fluoro-edenite exposure. • Monitoring fluoro-edenite fibres in sheep lung nodes can provide pollution surveillance. • Our findings document a risk of fluoro-edenite fibre inhalation a few kilometres from the source. • Sheep appear to be a valuable bioindicator species.

  14. High quality draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, XinJun; Li, Ang; Lv, LongXian; Yuan, Chunhui; Guo, Lihua; Jiang, Xiawei; Jiang, Haiyin; Qian, GuiRong; Zheng, BeiWen; Guo, Jing; Li, LanJuan

    2014-06-15

    Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii belongs to the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales, class Bacilli and phylum Firmicutes. The increasing relevance of S. cohnii to human health prompted us to determine the genomic sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, a multidrug-resistant isolate from a hospital in China. Here we describe the features of S. cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, together with the genome sequence and its annotation. This is the first genome sequence of the species Staphylococcus cohnii.

  15. Different modes of interaction by TIAR and HuR with target RNA and DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Henry S.; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Yoga, Yano M. K.; Pendini, Nicole R.; Gunzburg, Menachem J.; Cowieson, Nathan P.; Wilson, Gerald M.; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Jacqueline A.

    2011-01-01

    TIAR and HuR are mRNA-binding proteins that play important roles in the regulation of translation. They both possess three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and bind to AU-rich elements (AREs), with seemingly overlapping specificity. Here we show using SPR that TIAR and HuR bind to both U-rich and AU-rich RNA in the nanomolar range, with higher overall affinity for U-rich RNA. However, the higher affinity for U–rich sequences is mainly due to faster association with U-rich RNA, which we propose i...

  16. The rate of spread of sheep scab within small groups of Merino and Dorper sheep : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A single Merino sheep, artificially infested with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, and a similarly infested Dorper sheep were placed with 9 uninfested Merino or 9 uninfested Dorper sheep respectively during winter and the rate of spread of infestation on the uninfested sheep observed. The same procedure was repeated in summer. It took 14 and 8 weeks respectively in winter before all sheep in the 2 groups displayed lesions of sheep scab, whereas in summer it took 10 and 12 weeks before all sheep had lesions.

  17. Pneumonia in bighorn sheep: Risk and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Manlove, Kezia R.; Almberg, Emily S.; Kamath, Pauline; Cox, Mike; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Roug, Annette; Shannon, Justin M.; Robinson, Rusty; Harris, Richard B.; Gonzales, Ben J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew; Besser, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease was an important driver of historic declines and extirpations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America and continues to impede population restoration and management. Domestic sheep have long been linked to pneumonia outbreaks in bighorn sheep and this association has now been confirmed in 13 captive commingling experiments. However, ecological and etiological complexities still hinder our understanding and control of the disease. We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about the biology and management of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep and propose strategies for moving forward. Epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep is polymicrobial. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, a bacterium host-specific to Caprinae and commonly carried by healthy domestic sheep and goats appears to be a necessary primary agent. All-age epizootics following introduction of M. ovipneumoniae along with other pathogens into bighorn sheep populations are usually severe (median mortality 47%) but fatality rates vary widely, from 15 – 100%. Disease severity may be influenced by the strain of M. ovipneumoniae, by secondary bacterial and viral pathogens, and by factors affecting transmission and host immunity. Once introduced, M. ovipneumoniae can persist in bighorn sheep populations for decades. Carrier dams transmit the pathogen to their susceptible lambs, triggering fatal pneumonia outbreaks in nursery groups, which limits recruitment and slows or prevents population recovery. The result is that demographic costs of pathogen persistence often outweigh the impacts of the initial invasion and die-off. There is currently no effective vaccine or antibiotic for domestic or wild sheep and to date, no management actions have been successful in reducing morbidity, mortality, or disease spread once pathogen invasion has occurred. Molecular-based strain typing suggests that spillover of M. ovipneumoniae into bighorn sheep populations from domestic small ruminants

  18. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  19. An Assessment of Omani Native Sheep Fiber Production and Quality Characteristics

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    Osman Mahgoub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool production and quality measurements were carried out on 100 Omani native female sheep (body weight 38.6 ± 5.5 kg; age 993 ± 488 d. Sheep were kept in partially shaded pens and fed ad libitum Rhodes grass hay (crude protein 8.83% plus a daily amount of 200 g general ruminant concentrate (crude protein 16.5% DM. Animals were shorn once a year and samples were taken from the left mid-side site to determine fleece and fiber characteristics. The scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the fine appearance of the wool fibers. A skin sample was used to study the histological arrangement and number of secondary and primary follicles. The greasy fleece weight (GFW in Omani sheep ranged between 0.50- 2.65 kg (mean 1.12 ± 0.43 kg and the GFW expressed as a percentage of BW ranged between 1.0-7.6 with a mean of 2.9 ± 1.16. Clean wool yield in Omani sheep fleece ranged between 57.1 and 88.4% with a mean of 76.4 ± 7.6. Omani sheep fleece contained various staple shapes and had a mean staple length of 22.9 ± 1.16 cm, 4.3 ± 0.8 crimps per staple; and a mean fiber diameter of 46 ± 12 µm. Electron microscopy revealed three types of fibers; wrap-around, angled type and polygonal and elongated scales. This study indicated a wide variation in the wool characteristics of Omani native sheep fleece, which suggested that selection may be employed to improve wool production and quality in these sheep.

  20. Nuevos centros de almacenamiento inca en Huánuco Pampa

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Inga, Carlo José Alonso

    2013-01-01

    Se proporcionan nuevos alcances sobre la identificación y el estudio de nuevos lugares de almacenamiento o colcas asociados al Centro Administrativo Inca de Huánuco Pampa, los mismos que no fueron reconocidos por otros investigadores que trabajaron en la zona.

  1. Rare Association of Anti-Hu Antibody Positive Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome and Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lukacs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM and subacute sensory neuronopathy (SSN are remote effects of cancer, usually associated with small-cell lung carcinoma and positive anti-Hu antibody. We describe the rare association of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC with anti-Hu antibody positivity resulting in this paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. Patient. A 76-year-old female presented with bilateral muscle weakness and paraesthesia of the upper and lower limbs in a length-dependent “glove and stocking” distribution. Central nervous system symptoms included cognitive problems, personality change, and truncal ataxia. Case notes and the literature were reviewed. Result. Autoantibody screening was positive for anti-Hu antibody (recently renamed antineuronal nuclear antibody 1, ANNA-1. The diagnosis of PEM and SSN was supported by MRI and lumbar puncture results. A superficial bladder TCC was demonstrated on CT and subsequently confirmed on histology. No other primary neoplasm was found on full-body imaging. The neurological symptoms were considered to be an antibody-mediated paraneoplastic neurological syndrome and improved after resection of the tumour. Discussion. The association of anti-Hu positive paraneoplastic neurological syndrome and TCC has not been described in the literature previously. We emphasize the need for detailed clinical examination and the importance of a multidisciplinary thought process and encourage further awareness of this rare association.

  2. The herbal mixture Xiao-Chai-Hu Tang (XCHT) induces apoptosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Xiao-Chai-Hu Tang (XCHT) is an extract of seven herbs with anticancer properties, but its mechanism of action is unknown. In this study, we evaluated XCHT-treated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Materials and Methods: Using a hepatic cancer xenograft model, ...

  3. Extended Hu¨ckel Calculations on Solids Using the Avogadro Molecular Editor and Visualizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Patrick; Ludoweig, Herbert; Autschbach, Jochen; Zurek, Eva

    2018-01-01

    The "Yet Another extended Hu¨ckel Molecular Orbital Package" (YAeHMOP) has been merged with the Avogadro open-source molecular editor and visualizer. It is now possible to perform YAeHMOP calculations directly from the Avogadro graphical user interface for materials that are periodic in one, two, or three dimensions, and to visualize…

  4. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  5. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection.

  6. Simultaneous Administration of ADSCs-Based Therapy and Gene Therapy Using Ad-huPA Reduces Experimental Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Ríos, Alejandra; García-Benavides, Leonel; García-Bañuelos, Jesus; Salazar-Montes, Adriana; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    hADSCs transplantation in cirrhosis models improves liver function and reduces fibrosis. In addition, Ad-huPA gene therapy diminished fibrosis and increased hepatocyte regeneration. In this study, we evaluate the combination of these therapies in an advanced liver fibrosis experimental model. hADSCs were expanded and characterized before transplantation. Ad-huPA was simultaneously administrated via the ileac vein. Animals were immunosuppressed by CsA 24 h before treatment and until sacrifice at 10 days post-treatment. huPA liver expression and hADSCs biodistribution were evaluated, as well as the percentage of fibrotic tissue, hepatic mRNA levels of Col-αI, TGF-β1, CTGF, α-SMA, PAI-I, MMP2 and serum levels of ALT, AST and albumin. hADSCs homed mainly in liver, whereas huPA expression was similar in Ad-huPA and hADSCs/Ad-huPA groups. hADSCs, Ad-huPA and hADSCs/Ad-huPA treatment improves albumin levels, reduces liver fibrosis and diminishes Collagen α1, CTGF and α-SMA mRNA liver levels. ALT and AST serum levels showed a significant decrease exclusively in the hADSCs group. These results showed that combinatorial effect of cell and gene-therapy does not improve the antifibrogenic effects of individual treatments, whereas hADSCs transplantation seems to reduce liver fibrosis in a greater proportion.

  7. Immunostimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) on carps Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Hironobu; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Korenaga, Hiroki; Kono, Tomoya; Shivappa, R B; Sakai, Masahiro

    2009-10-15

    Human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) is an important immunomodulatory substance used in the treatment and prevention of numerous infectious and immune-related diseases in animals. However, the immunostimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha in fish remain to be investigated. In the current study, the immune responses of the carp species Cyprinus carpio L. to treatment with huIFN-alpha were analyzed via measurement of superoxide anion production, phagocytic activity and the expression of cytokine genes including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 10. Low doses of huIFN-alpha were administered orally once a day for 3 days, and sampling was carried out at 1, 3 and 5 days post-treatment. Our results indicate that a low dose of huIFN-alpha significantly increased phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in the carp kidney. The huIFN-alpha-treated fish also displayed a significant upregulation in cytokine gene expression. The current study demonstrates the stimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha on the carp immune system and highlights the immunomodulatory role of huIFN-alpha in fish.

  8. Drug Transporter Expression and Activity in Human Hepatoma HuH-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jouan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2. By contrast, they failed to display functional activities of the uptake transporters sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP, organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, and of the canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Concomitantly, mRNA expressions of various sinusoidal and canalicular hepatic drug transporters were not detected (NTCP, OATP1B1, organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2, OCT1 and bile salt export pump or were found to be lower (OATP1B3, OATP2B1, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, BCRP and MRP3 in hepatoma HuH-7 cells than those found in human hepatocytes, whereas other transporters such as OAT7, MRP4 and MRP5 were up-regulated. HuH-7 cells additionally exhibited farnesoid X receptor (FXR- and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-related up-regulation of some transporters. Such data indicate that HuH-7 cells, although expressing rather poorly some main hepatic drug transporters, may be useful for investigating interactions of drugs with MRPs, notably MRP2, and for studying FXR- or Nrf2-mediated gene regulation.

  9. Transcriptomic-Wide Discovery of Direct and Indirect HuR RNA Targets in Activated CD4+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsharaporn Techasintana

    Full Text Available Due to poor correlation between steady state mRNA levels and protein product, purely transcriptomic profiling methods may miss genes posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs and microRNAs (miRNAs. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP methods developed to identify in vivo targets of RBPs have greatly elucidated those mRNAs which may be regulated via transcript stability and translation. The RBP HuR (ELAVL1 and family members are major stabilizers of mRNA. Many labs have identified HuR mRNA targets; however, many of these analyses have been performed in cell lines and oftentimes are not independent biological replicates. Little is known about how HuR target mRNAs behave in conditional knock-out models. In the present work, we performed HuR RIP-Seq and RNA-Seq to investigate HuR direct and indirect targets using a novel conditional knock-out model of HuR genetic ablation during CD4+ T activation and Th2 differentiation. Using independent biological replicates, we generated a high coverage RIP-Seq data set (>160 million reads that was analyzed using bioinformatics methods specifically designed to find direct mRNA targets in RIP-Seq data. Simultaneously, another set of independent biological replicates were sequenced by RNA-Seq (>425 million reads to identify indirect HuR targets. These direct and indirect targets were combined to determine canonical pathways in CD4+ T cell activation and differentiation for which HuR plays an important role. We show that HuR may regulate genes in multiple canonical pathways involved in T cell activation especially the CD28 family signaling pathway. These data provide insights into potential HuR-regulated genes during T cell activation and immune mechanisms.

  10. Scrapie-specific pathology of sheep lymphoid tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases often result in accumulation of disease-associated PrP (PrP(d in the lymphoreticular system (LRS, specifically in association with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs and tingible body macrophages (TBMs of secondary follicles. We studied the effects of sheep scrapie on lymphoid tissue in tonsils and lymph nodes by light and electron microscopy. FDCs of sheep were grouped according to morphology as immature, mature or regressing. Scrapie was associated with FDC dendrite hypertrophy and electron dense deposit or vesicles. PrP(d was located using immunogold labelling at the plasmalemma of FDC dendrites and, infrequently, mature B cells. Abnormal electron dense deposits surrounding FDC dendrites were identified as immunoglobulins suggesting that excess immune complexes are retained and are indicative of an FDC dysfunction. Within scrapie-affected lymph nodes, macrophages outside the follicle and a proportion of germinal centre TBMs accumulated PrP(d within endosomes and lysosomes. In addition, TBMs showed PrP(d in association with the cell membrane, non-coated pits and vesicles, and also with discrete, large and random endoplasmic reticulum networks, which co-localised with ubiquitin. These observations suggest that PrP(d is internalised via the caveolin-mediated pathway, and causes an abnormal disease-related alteration in endoplasmic reticulum structure. In contrast to current dogma, this study shows that sheep scrapie is associated with cytopathology of germinal centres, which we attribute to abnormal antigen complex trapping by FDCs and abnormal endocytic events in TBMs. The nature of the sub-cellular changes in FDCs and TBMs differs from those of scrapie infected neurones and glial cells suggesting that different PrP(d/cell membrane interactions occur in different cell types.

  11. Chronic copper poisoning and changes in the central nervous system of sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J McM; Blakemore, W F; Gopinath, C; Hall, G A; Parker, J H

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the changes in the brain by both light and electron microscopy at various stages during the production of chronic copper poisoning in sheep. Results indicate that in brain tissue the volume of astrocytic nuclei was significantly greater than that of controls. The swollen astrocytes contained an excess of glycogen, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum.

  12. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ​​for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ​​in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

  13. Sarcocystis spp. in domestic sheep in Kunming City, China: prevalence, morphology, and molecular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-Jie; Huang, Si; Wen, Tao; Esch, Gerald W; Liang, Yu; Li, Hong-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are intermediate hosts for at least six named species of Sarcocystis: S. tenella, S. arieticanis, S. gigantea, S. medusiformis, S. mihoensis, and S. microps. Here, only two species, S. tenella and S. arieticanis, were found in 79 of 86 sheep (91.9%) in Kunming, China, based on their morphological characteristics. Four genetic markers, i.e., 18S rRNA gene, 28S rRNA gene, mitochondrial cox1 gene, and ITS-1 region, were sequenced and characterized for the two species of Sarcocystis. Sequences of the three former markers for S. tenella shared high identities with those of S. capracanis in goats, i.e., 99.0%, 98.3%, and 93.6%, respectively; the same three marker sequences of S. arieticanis shared high identities with those of S. hircicanis in goats, i.e., 98.5%, 96.5%, and 92.5%, respectively. No sequences in GenBank were found to significantly resemble the ITS-1 regions of S. tenella and S. arieticanis. Identities of the four genetic markers for S. tenella and S. arieticanis were 96.3%, 95.4%, 82.5%, and 66.2%, respectively. © J.-J. Hu et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  14. The Elav-like protein HuR exerts translational control of viral internal ribosome entry sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas-Aravena, Andrea; Ramdohr, Pablo; Vallejos, Maricarmen; Valiente-Echeverria, Fernando; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Rodriguez, Felipe; Pino, Karla; Holzmann, Cristian; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Gallouzi, Imed-Eddine; Lopez-Lastra, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    The human embryonic-lethal abnormal vision (ELAV)-like protein, HuR, has been recently found to be involved in the regulation of protein synthesis. In this study we show that HuR participates in the translational control of the HIV-1 and HCV IRES elements. HuR functions as a repressor of HIV-1 IRES activity and acts as an activator of the HCV IRES. The effect of HuR was evaluated in three independent experimental systems, rabbit reticulocyte lysate, HeLa cells, and Xenopus laevis oocytes, using both overexpression and knockdown approaches. Furthermore, results suggest that HuR mediated regulation of HIV-1 and HCV IRESes does not require direct binding of the protein to the RNA nor does it need the nuclear translocation of the IRES-containing RNAs. Finally, we show that HuR has a negative impact on post-integration steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle. Thus, our observations yield novel insights into the role of HuR in the post-transcriptional regulation of HCV and HIV-1 gene expression.

  15. HuR/ELAVL1 RNA binding protein modulates interleukin-8 induction by muco-active ribotoxin deoxynivalenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hye Jin; Yang, Hyun; Park, Seong Hwan; Moon, Yuseok

    2009-01-01

    HuR/Elav-like RNA binding protein 1 (ELAVL1) positively regulates mRNA stability of AU-rich elements (ARE)-containing transcript such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ribotoxic stresses can trigger the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by enhancing mRNA stability and the transcriptional activity. We investigated the effects of ribotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on HuR translocation and its involvement in the regulation of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA stability. Exposure to the muco-active DON induced nuclear export of both endogenous and exogenous HuR RNA binding protein in human intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, the interference with HuR protein production suppressed ribotoxic DON-induced IL-8 secretion and its mRNA stability. Cytoplasmic HuR protein interacted with IL-8 mRNA and the complex stabilization was due to the presence of 3'-untranslated region of the transcript. Partly in terms of IL-8-modulating transcription factors, HuR protein was demonstrated to be positively and negatively associated with DON-induced early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), respectively. HuR was a critical mechanistic link between ribotoxic stress and the pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and may have a broader functional significance with regard to mucosal insults since ribotoxic stress responses are also produced upon interactions with the diverse environment of gut.

  16. Frozen yogurt from sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to develop frozen yogurt formulations from powdered yogurt of sheep milk, through an experimental design of 2², with a triplicate at the central point. The variables studied were emulsifier/stabilizer (0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% and powder for cream (2.75%, 3.00% and 3.25%. The parameters evaluated were sensory characteristics, texture, and microbiological counts. The results showed that the formulations had counts of S. aureus and fecal coliforms at 45 °C, lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella sp within the limits established by legislation. Instrumental analysis of texture-related parameters (firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and consistency of the formulations with different concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer and cream powder showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. In sensory analysis, Formulations 3 and 4 with lower concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer scored the highest values, thus indicating good acceptability.

  17. Metabolic aspects of growth in HU-treated crown-gall tissue cultures. I. Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Rennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An influence of hydroxyurea (HU on the growth, DNA and RNA contents and protein synthesis in the tobacco tumour tissue culture was studied in comparison with a homologous callus tissue. In conformity with expectations considerable decrease of DNA level in both tissues is a primary effect of HU activity. This results in the growth inhibition and in the secondary metabolic effects; these effects depend not only on the concentration of inhibitor but also on the age of tissue. In spite of some common features the character of these changes shows a distinct differentiation depending on the tissue type. TMs points to specific modifications of the biochemical regulation of growth in a tumour.

  18. Cooperative interplay of let-7 mimic and HuR with MYC RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Pendini, Nicole R; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Matthew C J; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2015-01-01

    Both RNA-binding proteins (RBP) and miRNA play important roles in the regulation of mRNA expression, often acting together to regulate a target mRNA. In some cases the RBP and miRNA have been reported to act competitively, but in other instances they function cooperatively. Here, we investigated HuR function as an enhancer of let-7-mediated translational repression of c-Myc despite the separation of their binding sites. Using an in vitro system, we determined that a let-7 mimic, consisting of single-stranded (ss)DNA complementary to the let-7 binding site, enhanced the affinity of HuR for a 122-nt MYC RNA encompassing both binding sites. This finding supports the biophysical principle of cooperative binding by an RBP and miRNA purely through interactions at distal mRNA binding sites.

  19. Acute Hepatitis Induced by Chinese Hepatoprotective Herb, Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ming Hsu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-chai-hu-tang (syo-saiko-to in Japanese is a herbal remedy that has been widely used in China for treatment of respiratory, hepatobiliary, and gastrointestinal diseases, particularly among patients with chronic liver disease. However, its safety has recently been challenged. We, herein, report a Chinese patient with acute hepatitis induced by this herb. A 52-year-old woman presented with weakness, fatigue, and tea-colored urine after continual consumption of the decoction of xiao-chai-hu-tang for 1.5 months. Laboratory studies disclosed acute hepatitis even though all of the viral hepatitis markers were negative. Liver biopsy also revealed a picture of acute hepatocellular hepatitis. The symptoms improved after discontinuing the drug, and liver biochemical tests normalized 2 months later. The case report reminds us of the probable adverse drug reaction of herbs, even in some that are claimed to have hepatoprotective effects.

  20. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  1. Selective breeding for scrapie resistance in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Santos Sotomaior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is determined by the host’s prion protein gene (PRNP. PRNP polymorphisms at codons 136 (alanine, A/valine, V, 154 (histidine, H/arginine, R and 171 (glutamine, Q/histidine, H/arginine, R are the main determinants of sheep susceptibility/resistance to classical scrapie. There are four major variants of the wild-type ARQ allele: VRQ, AHQ, ARH and ARR. Breeding programs have been developed in the European Union and the USA to increase the frequency of the resistant ARR allele while decreasing the frequency of the susceptible VRQ allele in sheep populations. In Brazil, little PRNP genotyping data are available for sheep, and thus far, no controlled breeding scheme for scrapie has been implemented. This review will focus on important epidemiological aspects of scrapie and the use of genetic resistance as a tool in breeding programs to control the disease.

  2. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF COW AND SHEEP'S BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Sawsan Ahmed Elhouri Ahmed; Mubarak Dirar Abdallah2

    2017-01-01

    In this work five samples of (cow and sheep's bones) were prepared to powders in a period of crashing (10 up to 50 sec); weight = 56.73mg To find values of: Refractive index Energy gap And Electrical Conductivity

  3. 1988 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during 1988 and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butcher's shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat

  4. 1989 sheep monitoring programme January - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1990-06-01

    This report details the work undertaken by the Board during 1989 and includes the results of on-farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat (author)

  5. Sheep monitoring programme January - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Scully, B.J.

    1989-02-01

    This report summarises the work undertaken by the Board during the first nine months of 1988, and includes the results of in vivo farm measurements, slaughterhouse monitoring and butchers' shops surveys relating to sheep and sheepmeat.(author)

  6. Breast cancer detection via Hu moment invariant and feedforward neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Yang, Jiquan; Nguyen, Elijah

    2018-04-01

    One of eight women can get breast cancer during all her life. This study used Hu moment invariant and feedforward neural network to diagnose breast cancer. With the help of K-fold cross validation, we can test the out-of-sample accuracy of our method. Finally, we found that our methods can improve the accuracy of detecting breast cancer and reduce the difficulty of judging.

  7. Downregulation of β-Adrenoceptors in Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Remodeling through HuR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yin

    Full Text Available β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs play an important role in cardiac remodeling, which is the key pathological process in various heart diseases and leads to heart failure. However, the regulation of β-AR expression in remodeling hearts is still unclear. This study aims to clarify the possible mechanisms underlying the regulation of β1- and β2-AR expression in cardiac remodeling. The rat model of cardiac remodeling was established by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol(ISO at the dose of 0.25 mg·kg(-1·d(-1 for 7 days. We found that the expression of β1- and β2-ARs decreased in the remodeling heart. The mechanisms may include the inhibition of DNA transcription and the increase of mRNA degradation. cAMP-response element binding protein(CREB is a well-known transcription factor of β-AR. However, the expression and activation of CREB was not changed in the remodeling heart. Further, human Antigen-R (HuR, a RNA binding protein, which binds to the 3'-untranslated region of the β-AR mRNA and promotes RNA degradation, was increased in the remodeling model. And in vitro, HuR deficiency reversed the reduction of β-AR mRNA induced by ISO. Therefore, the present findings indicate that HuR, but not CREB, is responsible for the reduction of β-AR expression in ISO induced cardiac remodeling.

  8. HuAc: Human Activity Recognition Using Crowdsourced WiFi Signals and Skeleton Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint of WiFi-based and vision-based human activity recognition has attracted increasing attention in the human-computer interaction, smart home, and security monitoring fields. We propose HuAc, the combination of WiFi-based and Kinect-based activity recognition system, to sense human activity in an indoor environment with occlusion, weak light, and different perspectives. We first construct a WiFi-based activity recognition dataset named WiAR to provide a benchmark for WiFi-based activity recognition. Then, we design a mechanism of subcarrier selection according to the sensitivity of subcarriers to human activities. Moreover, we optimize the spatial relationship of adjacent skeleton joints and draw out a corresponding relationship between CSI and skeleton-based activity recognition. Finally, we explore the fusion information of CSI and crowdsourced skeleton joints to achieve the robustness of human activity recognition. We implemented HuAc using commercial WiFi devices and evaluated it in three kinds of scenarios. Our results show that HuAc achieves an average accuracy of greater than 93% using WiAR dataset.

  9. Coordination of genomic structure and transcription by the main bacterial nucleoid-associated protein HU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Farcas, Anca; Geertz, Marcel; Zhelyazkova, Petya; Brix, Klaudia; Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2010-01-01

    The histone-like protein HU is a highly abundant DNA architectural protein that is involved in compacting the DNA of the bacterial nucleoid and in regulating the main DNA transactions, including gene transcription. However, the coordination of the genomic structure and function by HU is poorly understood. Here, we address this question by comparing transcript patterns and spatial distributions of RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli wild-type and hupA/B mutant cells. We demonstrate that, in mutant cells, upregulated genes are preferentially clustered in a large chromosomal domain comprising the ribosomal RNA operons organized on both sides of OriC. Furthermore, we show that, in parallel to this transcription asymmetry, mutant cells are also impaired in forming the transcription foci—spatially confined aggregations of RNA polymerase molecules transcribing strong ribosomal RNA operons. Our data thus implicate HU in coordinating the global genomic structure and function by regulating the spatial distribution of RNA polymerase in the nucleoid. PMID:20010798

  10. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Idris Babiker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livestock markets. These markets are deficient in basic infrastructures and systematic marketing research. The system as a whole is faced by various complex obstacles and constraints, which decrease the contribution of livestock in general, and sheep in particular, to the national economy, and suppress the optimum exploitation of this resource. These obstacles are represented in the lack of transportation networks that connect the production and consumption centres to break the seasonality of supply that creates shortages and high prices at the consumption centres. This paper employs the policy analysis matrix (PAM technique to examine the Sudanese live sheep and mutton competitiveness in the international market. The results indicated that the market price was greater than the border price implying a positive incentive as an implicit subsidy to the live sheep exporter. The mutton exporters were found subsidised as well. The international value added (IVA indicted a positive foreign exchange earnings or savings. Exported live sheep and mutton coefficient of competitiveness (CIC implied that sheep and mutton exports are profitable and internationally competitive.

  11. The inhibition, reactivation and mechanism of VX-, sarin-, fluoro-VX and fluoro-sarin surrogates following their interaction with HuAChE and HuBuChE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chih-Kai; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh; Gerdes, John M; Thompson, Charles M

    2018-06-16

    In this study, the mechanisms of HuAChE and HuBChE inhibition by Me-P(O) (OPNP) (OR) [PNP = p-nitrophenyl; R = CH 2 CH 3 , CH 2 CH 2 F, OCH(CH 3 ) 2 , OCH(CH 3 ) (CH 2 F)] representing surrogates and fluoro-surrogates of VX and sarin were studied by in vitro kinetics and mass spectrometry. The in vitro measures showed that the VX- and fluoro-VX surrogates were relatively strong inhibitors of HuAChE and HuBChE (k i  ∼ 10 5 -10 6  M -1 min -1 ) and underwent spontaneous and 2-PAM-mediated reactivation within 30 min. The sarin surrogates were weaker inhibitors of HuAChE and HuBChE (k i  ∼ 10 4 -10 5  M -1 min -1 ), and in general did not undergo spontaneous reactivation, although HuAChE adducts were partially reactivatable at 18 h using 2-PAM. The mechanism of HuAChE and HuBChE inhibition by the surrogates was determined by Q-TOF and MALDI-TOF mass spectral analyses. The surrogate-adducted proteins were trypsin digested and the active site-containing peptide bearing the OP-modified serine identified by Q-TOF as triply- and quadruply-charged ions representing the respective increase in mass of the attached OP moiety. Correspondingly, monoisotopic ions of the tryptic peptides representing the mass increase of the OP-adducted peptide was identified by MALDI-TOF. The mass spectrometry analyses validated the identity of the OP moiety attached to HuAChE or HuBChE as MeP(O) (OR)-O-serine peptides (loss of the PNP leaving group) via mechanisms consistent with those found with chemical warfare agents. MALDI-TOF MS analyses of the VX-modified peptides versus time showed a steady reduction in adduct versus parent peptide (reactivation), whereas the sarin-surrogate-modified peptides remained largely intact over the course of the experiment (24 h). Overall, the presence of a fluorine atom on the surrogate modestly altered the rate constants of inhibition and reactivation, however, the mechanism of inhibition (ejection of PNP group) did not change

  12. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  13. Computed tomography imaging for the characterisation of drugs with radiation density measurements and HU spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieron, Dominik A; Steib, Moritz; Suter, Dominik; Obmann, Verena C; Huber, Adrian T; Ebner, Lukas; Inderbitzin, Daniel; Christe, Andreas

    2018-01-29

    To investigate the computed tomography (CT) density of frequently administered medications (1) for the better characterisation of substances on abdominal CT, (2) to allow radiologists to narrow down possibilities in the identification of hyperdense material in the bowel and (3) to provide forensic doctors with a tool to identify gastric contents before an autopsy. From the list of the local hospital pharmacy, the 50 most frequently used medications were identified and scanned twice with a 128 row CT scanner (Acquillion, Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan). The protocol comprised two tube voltages of 100 kVp and 120 kVp, with a tube current of 100 mAs, a collimation of 0.5 mm and a slice thickness of 0.5 mm. Two readers were asked to measure the density (in Hounsfield units) and the noise (standard deviation of the Hounsfield units) of each pill in the two scans (100/120 kVp). After 4 weeks, both readers repeated the measurements to test repeatability (intra-rater agreement). The behaviour of each pill in hydrochloric acid (pH 2) was examined and the dissolution time was determined. The most dense pill was Cordarone (7265 HU), and the least was Perenterol (529 HU), with an attenuation that was lower than fat density (standard deviation of pixel density (noise) reflects inhomogeneity of the pharmacological product, varying from 9 to 1592 HU among the different pills (at 120 kVp). The absolute average HU increase per pill when changing to lower voltage was 78 ± 253 HU, with a linear fitting line with a slope of 0.21 as a constant variable in the density spectroscopy. After 4 hours in hydrochloric acid, only six tablets were still intact, including Flagyl and Dafalgan. The intra- and inter-rater agreements for all measurements were nearly perfect, with a correlation coefficient r of ≥0.99 (p <0.0001). Our data suggest that measuring the attenuation of drugs on CT images, including the homogeneity, and applying CT spectroscopy can narrow down possible identities of the most

  14. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  15. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo [Institut für Biochemie I (Pathobiochemie), Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pleli, Thomas [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Piiper, Albrecht [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.eberhardt@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D{sub 1} encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E{sub 2} synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on

  16. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel; Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo; Pleli, Thomas; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Piiper, Albrecht; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D 1 encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E 2 synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on different Hu

  17. Innate Immune Activation Can Trigger Experimental Spondyloarthritis in HLA-B27/Huβ2m Transgenic Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tok, Melissa N.; Satumtira, Nimman; Dorris, Martha; Pots, Desirée; Slobodin, Gleb; van de Sande, Marleen G.; Taurog, Joel D.; Baeten, Dominique L.; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M.

    2017-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) does not display the typical features of auto-immune disease. Despite the strong association with MHC class I, CD8(+) T cells are not required for disease induction in the HLA-B27/Huβ2m transgenic rats. We used Lewis HLA-B27/Huβ2m transgenic rats [21-3 × 283-2]F1,

  18. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  19. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  20. HuR binds to a single site on the C/EBPβ mRNA of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Heath; Carver, Melinda; Pekala, Phillip H.

    2007-01-01

    HuR is a ligand for nuclear mRNAs containing adenylate-uridylate rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region. Once bound to the mRNA, HuR is recognized by adapter proteins which then facilitate nuclear export of the complex. In the cytosol HuR is thought to function to control stability and translation of its ligand message. In the 3T3-L1 cells HuR is constitutively expressed and localized predominantly to the nucleus in the preadipocytes. However within 30 min of exposure to the differentiation stimulus, the HuR content in the cytosol increases consistent with HuR regulating the availability of relevant mRNAs for translation. Using in vitro RNA gel shifts, we have demonstrated that the C/EBPβ message is a ligand for HuR and that the single binding site is an adenylate-uridylate rich element in the 3'-untranslated region

  1. A kinetic analysis of kappa-opioid agonist binding using the selective radioligand (/sup 3/H)U69593

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.A.; Hunter, J.C.; Hill, R.G.; Hughes, J.

    1989-07-01

    The interaction of the nonselective opioid ligand (3H)bremazocine and of the kappa-opioid (3H)U69593 with the kappa-receptor was investigated in guinea-pig cortical membranes. Each radioligand bound to a single population of high-affinity sites, although (3H)U69593 apparently recognised only 70% of those sites labelled by (3H)bremazocine. Naloxone and the kappa-selective ligands U69593 and PD117302 exhibited full inhibition of the binding of both radioligands. Kinetic analysis demonstrated biphasic rates of association and dissociation for both (3H)bremazocine and (3H)U69593. Detailed analysis of the binding of (3H)U69593 revealed that the fast rate of association was dependent on radioligand concentration, in contrast to the slow rate, which was independent of ligand concentration. Guanylyl-5'-imidodiphosphate (GppNHp) inhibited binding of (3H)U69593; saturation analysis demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of GppNHp resulted in a decrease in affinity without any significant change in binding capacity. GppNHp attenuated the formation of the slow component of (3H)U69593 binding, while accelerating the fast component. The data are consistent with the formation of a high-affinity complex between the kappa-receptor and a guanine nucleotide binding protein. Guanine nucleotides promote the dissociation of this ternary complex and the stabilisation of a lower-affinity state of the receptor.

  2. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Afar,Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat ... the region favors the pastoral livestock production system. ..... yellow color on carcass, in ... Foroda/Surota/ Bronchopnemonia fever, coughing, nostrils.

  3. truncatula pasture bY sheeP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amounts of amino acids derived by sheep on ... Keywords: Intake, digestion, Medicago truncatula, grazing, sheep ... low productivity based on studies of intake and digestion ... salivary content of extrusa was measured by tritiated water.

  4. Domain-specific phosphomimetic mutation allows dissection of different protein kinase C (PKC) isotype-triggered activities of the RNA binding protein HuR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sebastian; Doller, Anke; Pendini, Nicole R; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The ubiquitous mRNA binding protein human antigen R (HuR) participates in the post-transcriptional regulation of many AU-rich element (ARE)-bearing mRNAs. Previously, by using in vitro kinase assay, we have identified serines (Ser) 158, 221 and 318 as targets of protein kinase C (PKC)-triggered phosphorylation. In this study, we tested whether GFP- or GST-tagged HuR constructs bearing a phosphomimetic Ser (S)-to-Asp (D) substitution at the different PKC target sites, would affect different HuR functions including HuR nucleo-cytoplasmic redistribution and binding to different types of ARE-containing mRNAs. The phosphomimetic GFP-tagged HuR protein bearing a phosphomimetic substitution in the hinge region of HuR (HuR-S221D) showed an increased cytoplasmic abundance when compared to wild-type HuR. Conversely, data from in vitro kinase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), implicates that phosphorylation at Ser 221 is not relevant for mRNA binding of HuR. Quantification of in vitro binding affinities of GST-tagged wild-type HuR and corresponding HuR proteins bearing a phosphomimetic substitution in either RRM2 (HuR-S158D) or in RRM3 (HuR-S318D) by microscale thermophoresis (MST) indicates a specific binding of wild-type HuR to type I, II or type III-ARE-oligonucleotides in the high nanomolar range. Interestingly, phosphomimetic mutation at position 158 or 318 had a negative influence on HuR binding to type I- and type II-ARE-mRNAs whereas it significantly enhanced HuR affinity to a type III-ARE substrate. Our data suggest that differential phosphorylation of HuR by PKCs at different HuR domains coordinates subcellular HuR distribution and leads to a preferential binding to U-rich bearing target mRNA. © 2013.

  5. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  6. Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 'Hu Hong' (bad thing): parental perceptions of teenagers' sexuality in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Lan Anh Thi; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Paek, Seung Chun; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2017-02-28

    Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers' sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexuality information. Guided by a Community Advisory Board (CAB), this qualitative study uses four focus group discussions (FGDs) consisting of 12 mothers and 12 fathers, as well as twelve individual in-depth interviews (IDIs) with a diverse sample of parents of teens in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Content and discourse analysis were conducted, based on Foucauldian concepts. Four themes emerged: 1) Meanings of sexuality and sexuality education, 2) Early sexual intercourse destroys teenagers' future, 3) Teenagers are not hu hong (spoil/bad thing), are innocent and virgin, and 4) Policing and controlling of sexual intercourse among teens. Parents did not view their teenage children as sexual beings; those who are sexual are considered hu hong. Parents believed that teens need to be policed and controlled to prevent them from becoming hu hong, particularly girls. Controlling of sexuality information by parents was therefore common in HCMC, but differed by gender and educational levels of parents. For example, fathers more than mothers were not comfortable teaching their teenage children about sex and sexuality. Parents with higher education police their teenage children's usage of the Internet and social media, while parents with lower education control who can be friends with their teenage children. Vietnamese parents in general have negative views of sex and sexuality education for their teenage children. Recognizing that many Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage, parents need to

  8. Effects of weaning age on growth, nutrient digestibility and metabolism, and serum parameters in Hu lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Chai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, nutrient digestion and metabolism, and serological indicators, and to obtain an optimal weaning age in Hu lambs. Forty-eight newborn Hu lambs (birth weight, 2.53 ± 0.14 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups. The lambs in control group (ER suckled their dams. The lambs in other three experimental groups were weaned on milk replacer at 10, 20, and 30 days of age (EW10, EW20, and EW30 groups, respectively. The results were as follows: 1 lambs in EW10 and EW30 groups had a lower (P  0.05 among groups; however, the apparent digestibility and deposition of calcium in early weaned lambs were lower (P < 0.05 than those in ewe-reared lambs. 4 The albumin content in EW30 group was lower (P < 0.05 than that in ER group; the globulin content in EW30 group was higher (P < 0.05 than that in other groups; the content of serum insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ in weaned lambs tended to increase compared with lambs in ER group. Finally, the growth rate of lambs decreased within 10 days post-weaning, but early weaning boosted creep feed intake, leading to better growth and health later in life. The Hu lambs can be weaned on milk replacer and creep feed at 10 days of age.

  9. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  10. Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers. AAG Adam, NB Hamza, MAW Salim, KS Khalil. Abstract. The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep ...

  11. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies in sheep and springbok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that sheep and springbok on the eleven farms had not been exposed to Brucella melitensis and B. abortus infections and that on previously positive farms the infection had been eliminated in sheep and had not spread to springbok. Key words: springbok, sheep, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, ...

  12. Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Sheep herding plays a significant role in the livelihoods of rural households in Mali and other semi-arid countries of West Africa. Although sheep herding could improve the incomes of rural women, its potential is not being realized because a lack of feed reduces the meat production of sheep. Agroforestry ...

  13. Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming

  14. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  15. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  16. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United States...

  17. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  18. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  19. Preferencias de los huéspedes de hostels de la ciudad de La Plata

    OpenAIRE

    De la Cruz, Gastón Miguel

    2013-01-01

    La presente tesis tiene como objeto estudiar las preferencias de huéspedes de un grupo de hostels de la ciudad de La Plata, con el fin de determinar la existencia de una demanda que tenga como principal preferencia a un atributo de índole social. Para cumplir con este objetivo se utilizó la técnica estadística análisis conjunto (conjoint analysis en inglés) la cual obligó a descomponer el concepto hostel en seis (6) atributos, de los cuales tres (3) atributos entran en la definición de índole...

  20. Cooperative interplay of let-7 mimic and HuR with MYC RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Pendini, Nicole R; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Matthew Cj; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2015-01-01

    Both RNA-binding proteins (RBP) and miRNA play important roles in the regulation of mRNA expression, often acting together to regulate a target mRNA. In some cases the RBP and miRNA have been reported to act competitively, but in other instances they function cooperatively. Here, we investigated HuR function as an enhancer of let-7-mediated translational repression of c-Myc despite the separation of their binding sites. Using an in vitro system, we determined that a let-7 mimic, consisting of...

  1. Inhibition of cell division in hupA hupB mutant bacteria lacking HU protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Dri, A M; Rouviere-Yaniv, J; Moreau, P L

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli hupA hypB double mutants that lack HU protein have severe cellular defects in cell division, DNA folding, and DNA partitioning. Here we show that the sfiA11 mutation, which alters the SfiA cell division inhibitor, reduces filamentation and production of anucleate cells in AB1157 hupA hupB strains. However, lexA3(Ind-) and sfiB(ftsZ)114 mutations, which normally counteract the effect of the SfiA inhibitor, could not restore a normal morphology to hupA hupB mutant bacteria. The...

  2. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MicroRNA-16 Modulates HuR Regulation of Cyclin E1 in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Guo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RNA binding protein (RBPs and microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in development of cancers. Although their individual roles have been studied, the crosstalk between RBPs and miRNAs is under intense investigation. Here, we show that in breast cancer cells, cyclin E1 upregulation by the RBP HuR is through specific binding to regions in the cyclin E1 mRNA 3' untranslated region (3'UTR containing U-rich elements. Similarly, miR-16 represses cyclin E1, dependent on its cognate binding sites in the cyclin E1 3'UTR. Evidence in the literature indicates that HuR can regulate miRNA expression and recruit or dissociate RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC. Despite this, miR-16 and HuR do not affect the other’s expression level or binding to the cyclin E1 3'UTR. While HuR overexpression partially blocks miR-16 repression of a reporter mRNA containing the cyclin E1 3'UTR, it does not block miR-16 repression of endogenous cyclin E1 mRNA. In contrast, miR-16 blocks HuR-mediated upregulation of cyclin E1. Overall our results suggest that miR-16 can override HuR upregulation of cyclin E1 without affecting HuR expression or association with the cyclin E1 mRNA.

  4. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  5. Experimental poisoning by cassava wastewater in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir C. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The processing of Manihot esculenta (cassava tubers yield different by-products, including cassava wastewater, which is the liquid pressed out of the tuber after it has been mechanically crushed. Cyanide poisoning after ingestion of cassava wastewater has been reported in ruminants and pigs in Northeastern Brazil. With the aim of studying its toxicity, cassava wastewater was administered orally to six sheep at doses of 0.99, 0.75, 0.70, 0.63, and 0.5 mg of hydrocyanic acid kg-1 body weight, which corresponded to 14.2, 10.6, 9.8, 8.89, and 7.1 mL of wastewater kg-1. On the second day, the sheep received a volume of wastewater which corresponded to 0.46, 0.34, 0.31, 0.28, and 0.23 mg of HCN kg-1. A sheep used as control received 9.9 mL of water kg-1 BW. Sheep that received from 0.75 to 0.99 mg kg-1 of HCN on the first day exhibited severe clinical signs of poisoning, and the sheep that received 0.63 and 0.5 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs. All sheep were successfully treated with sodium thiosulfate. On the second day, only the sheep that received 0.46 mg kg-1 and 0.34 mg kg-1 exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered spontaneously. The concentration of HCN in the wastewater was 71.69±2.19 μg mL-1 immediately after production, 30.56±2.45 μg mL-1 after 24 hours, and 24.25±1.28 μg mL-1 after 48 hours. The picric acid paper test was strongly positive 5 minutes after production; moderately positive 24 hours after production, and negative 48 hours after production. We conclude that cassava wastewater is highly toxic to sheep if ingested immediately after production, but rapidly loses toxicity in 24-48 hours.

  6. HuH-7 reference genome profile: complex karyotype composed of massive loss of heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Fumio; Hirayama, Noriko; Ozawa, Midori; Satoh, Motonobu; Kohara, Arihiro

    2018-05-17

    Human cell lines represent a valuable resource as in vitro experimental models. A hepatoma cell line, HuH-7 (JCRB0403), has been used extensively in various research fields and a number of studies using this line have been published continuously since it was established in 1982. However, an accurate genome profile, which can be served as a reliable reference, has not been available. In this study, we performed M-FISH, SNP microarray and amplicon sequencing to characterize the cell line. Single cell analysis of metaphases revealed a high level of heterogeneity with a mode of 60 chromosomes. Cytogenetic results demonstrated chromosome abnormalities involving every chromosome in addition to a massive loss of heterozygosity, which accounts for 55.3% of the genome, consistent with the homozygous variants seen in the sequence analysis. We provide empirical data that the HuH-7 cell line is composed of highly heterogeneous cell populations, suggesting that besides cell line authentication, the quality of cell lines needs to be taken into consideration in the future use of tumor cell lines.

  7. Inhibition of cell division in hupA hupB mutant bacteria lacking HU protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dri, A M; Rouviere-Yaniv, J; Moreau, P L

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli hupA hypB double mutants that lack HU protein have severe cellular defects in cell division, DNA folding, and DNA partitioning. Here we show that the sfiA11 mutation, which alters the SfiA cell division inhibitor, reduces filamentation and production of anucleate cells in AB1157 hupA hupB strains. However, lexA3(Ind-) and sfiB(ftsZ)114 mutations, which normally counteract the effect of the SfiA inhibitor, could not restore a normal morphology to hupA hupB mutant bacteria. The LexA repressor, which controls the expression of the sfiA gene, was present in hupA hupB mutant bacteria in concentrations half of those of the parent bacteria, but this decrease was independent of the specific cleavage of the LexA repressor by activated RecA protein. One possibility to account for the filamentous morphology of hupA hupB mutant bacteria is that the lack of HU protein alters the expression of specific genes, such as lexA and fts cell division genes. Images PMID:2019558

  8. Validation of whole-blood transcriptome signature during microdose recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Durussel, Jérôme; Shurlock, Jonathan; Mooses, Martin; Fuku, Noriyuki; Bruinvels, Georgie; Pedlar, Charles; Burden, Richard; Murray, Andrew; Yee, Brendan; Keenan, Anne; McClure, John D; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2017-11-14

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively). Differential gene expression analysis was carried out following normalisation and significance declared following application of a 5% false discovery rate (FDR) and a 1.5 fold-change. Adaptive model analysis was also applied to incorporate these markers for the detection of rHuEpo. ALAS2, BCL2L1, DCAF12, EPB42, GMPR, SELENBP1, SLC4A1, TMOD1 and TRIM58 were differentially expressed during and throughout the post phase of microdose rHuEpo administration. The CD247 and TRIM58 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, immediately following exercise when compared with the baseline both before and after rHuEpo/placebo. No significant gene expression changes were found 30 min after exercise in either rHuEpo or placebo groups. ALAS2, BCL2L1, DCAF12, SLC4A1, TMOD1 and TRIM58 tended to be significantly expressed in the elite runners ten days after arriving at altitude and one week after returning from altitude (FDR > 0.059, fold-change varying from 1.39 to 1.63). Following application of the adaptive model, 15 genes showed a high sensitivity (≥ 93%) and specificity (≥ 71%), with BCL2L1 and CSDA having the highest sensitivity (93%) and specificity (93%). Current results provide further evidence that

  9. Chronic intoxication with copper in sheep: prophylaxis and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomov, A

    1964-01-01

    In the period 1961-1962 chronic intoxication of sheep with copper was observed on 7 farms, the number of sheep totaling about 9000. In one of the flocks intoxication occurred after feeding the sheep for a long time with aftermath collected from orchards which had been sprinkled with copper compounds. The aftermath was proven to contain from 11 to 17 mg. per cent of copper. The other flocks were put to pasture in vineyards after the grapes had been gathered. Intoxication in these flocks was caused by vineleaves. No accumulation of copper through the soil was established in the investigated fresh grass found in the vineyards and which the sheep had also grazed. From 36 to 81 mg. per cent of copper was established in the livers of dead sheep. In order to protect the sheep from this intoxication, 100-200 mg. of ammonium or sodium molybdate and 5-10 g. of sodium sulfate were used in the case of each sheep daily for 2-3 weeks. The concentrated fodder of the sheep was moistened with an aqueous solution of these compounds. A very good prophylactic effect was obtained. At the same time oats, maize, oilcakes and others, which constitute a fodder rich in fats, were eliminated from the food rations of the sheep. The above substances, given at larger doses simultaneously with vitamin B/sub 12/ were also used for the treatment of diseased sheep, and of 10 ill sheep, 7 recovered.

  10. The Use of Soluble Transferrin Receptor in the Detection of rHuEPO abuse in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan McGrowder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO increases the number of circulating erythrocytes and muscle oxygenation. The recombinant forms of EPO have indiscriminately been used by athletes, mainly in endurance sports to increase their erythrocytes concentration, thus generating a better delivery of oxygen to the muscle tissue. The administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO except for therapeutic use was prohibited by the International Olympic Committee (IOC and its unauthorized use considered as doping. In the last few years, a number of studies using parameters indicative of accelerated erythropoiesis have investigated a number of indirect methods for the detection of rHuEPO abuse. No single indirect marker has been found that can satisfactorily demonstrated rHuEPO misuse. Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR is a new marker of iron status and erythropoietic activity. It has been included in multivariable blood testing models for the detection of performance enhancing EPO abuse in sports. Indirect markers of altered erythropoiesis give reliable evidence of current or discontinued rHuEPO usage. This review describes the physical, biological and pharmacokinetic properties of endogenous EPO and its recombinant form. It also discusses the available strategies for the detection of rHuEPO abuse in sports, involving the use of sTfR concentration directly or in mathematical multivariate models.

  11. HuR binding to AU-rich elements present in the 3' untranslated region of Classical swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chin-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV is the member of the genus Pestivirus under the family Flaviviridae. The 5' untranslated region (UTR of CSFV contains the IRES, which is a highly structured element that recruits the translation machinery. The 3' UTR is usually the recognition site of the viral replicase to initiate minus-strand RNA synthesis. Adenosine-uridine rich elements (ARE are instability determinants present in the 3' UTR of short-lived mRNAs. However, the presence of AREs in the 3' UTR of CSFV conserved in all known strains has never been reported. This study inspects a possible role of the ARE in the 3' UTR of CSFV. Results Using RNA pull-down and LC/MS/MS assays, this study identified at least 32 possible host factors derived from the cytoplasmic extracts of PK-15 cells that bind to the CSFV 3' UTR, one of which is HuR. HuR is known to bind the AREs and protect the mRNA from degradation. Using recombinant GST-HuR, this study demonstrates that HuR binds to the ARE present in the 3' UTR of CSFV in vitro and that the binding ability is conserved in strains irrespective of virulence. Conclusions This study identified one of the CSFV 3' UTR binding proteins HuR is specifically binding to in the ARE region.

  12. Detection, identification, and differentiation of sheep pox virus and goat pox virus from clinical cases in Giza Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, M A; Khafagi, M H

    2016-12-01

    To isolate, identify, and differentiate Capripoxviruses (CaPV) (sheep pox virus and goat pox virus) infections by egg inoculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RPO30) in clinically affected animals in Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. A total of 37 scab samples were collected from clinically suspected field cases of sheep pox and goat pox. These samples were collected during (2014-2015) during different outbreaks of sheep pox and goat pox from Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. The samples were subjected to egg inoculation, TEM, and (RPO30) gene-based PCR. By using the egg inoculation: Previously prepared 37 scab samples (n=23 sheep and n=14 goats) were inoculated on the chorioallantoic membrane of specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs (12 days old age). In the presence of the suitable percentage of humidity and candling, the inoculated eggs were incubated at 37°C. By using the TEM: Samples showed positive pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membranes, were fixed in glutaraldehyde, then processed and sectioned for TEM. Using the (RPO30) gene-based PCR assay, 30 of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) were screened. Using the egg inoculation, a characteristic pock lesions for poxviruses were seen in 30/37 (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) (81.08%). Using the TEM, examination of the positive samples after egg inoculation revealed positive result in 23/30 (n=15 sheep and n=8 goats) (76.66%). The positive results represented by the presence of negatively stained oval-shape virus particles. Using the (RPO30) gene-based PCR assay, out of 30 total of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) were screened, 27 (90%) samples (n=17 sheep and n=10 goats) were positive. The given band sizes of sheep and goats were 172 and 152 bp, respectively. PCR assay depended on RPO30 gene can be used lonely for the

  13. Factors affecting litter size in Texel sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharafeldin, M.A.

    1960-01-01

    The effect of age of ewes and of different lambing years on fertility expressed as number of lambs born and surviving to 2 months per lambing has been studied in field data collected by the herdbook for Texel sheep in North Holland. The fertility of ewes was compared when first bred at about 8

  14. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  15. Estimating phosphorus intake by grazing sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phosphorus levels in various organs, tissues, bones, body fluids or excretory products of sheep reflected dietary ... did decrease bone mineral deposition slightly. Rumen fluid P and total daily urinary P levels did .... which were alike in composition except for their levels of. P and Ca. After 98 days rib biopsy specimens were.

  16. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  17. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  18. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  19. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...

  20. Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

  1. Differential gene expression in ovaries of Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep using RNA-Seq technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ying Chen

    Full Text Available The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction.

  2. Development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, R J; Bunch, T D; Workman, G W; Mock, R E

    1991-03-15

    From 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 Ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 O c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. Bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. Treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha interferon, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. Treatments were chosen on the basis of recommendations of others for treating pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep as well as our own experience in sheep and cattle. Regardless of treatment used, bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 4 developed signs of pneumonia within 10 to 14 days of exposure. Bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 3 died within 11 to 17 days of initial exposure. In trial 4, the bighorn sheep was isolated from the carrier sheep for treatment of pneumonia on day 14 and died on day 30. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from lung tissue in 3 of the 4 bighorn sheep. On the basis of results of trials 1 to 4, a more in depth clinical study was conducted in trial 5. Nasal and blood specimens were collected prior to and during trial 5 for bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Comparison of the Debye–Hückel and the Mean Spherical Approximation Theories for Electrolyte Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Thomsen, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamics of electrolyte solutions has been investigated by many scientists throughout the last century. While several theories have been presented, the most popular models for the electrostatic interactions are based on the Debye–Hückel and mean spherical approximation (MSA) theories....... In this paper we investigate the differences between the Debye–Hückel and the MSA theories, and comparisons of the numerical results for the Helmholtz energy and its derivatives with respect to temperature, volume and composition are presented. The investigation shows that the nonrestricted primitive MSA...... theory performs similarly to Debye–Hückel, despite the differences in the derivation. We furthermore show that the static permittivity is a key parameter for both models and that in many cases it completely dominates the results obtained from the two models. Consequently, we conclude that the simpler...

  4. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A

    2002-07-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to {sup 137}Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding

  5. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137 Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137 Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137 Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter

  6. Hu Hong’ (bad thing: parental perceptions of teenagers’ sexuality in urban Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Anh Thi Do

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers’ sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexuality information. Methods Guided by a Community Advisory Board (CAB, this qualitative study uses four focus group discussions (FGDs consisting of 12 mothers and 12 fathers, as well as twelve individual in-depth interviews (IDIs with a diverse sample of parents of teens in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC, Vietnam. Content and discourse analysis were conducted, based on Foucauldian concepts. Results Four themes emerged: 1 Meanings of sexuality and sexuality education, 2 Early sexual intercourse destroys teenagers’ future, 3 Teenagers are not hu hong (spoil/bad thing, are innocent and virgin, and 4 Policing and controlling of sexual intercourse among teens. Parents did not view their teenage children as sexual beings; those who are sexual are considered hu hong. Parents believed that teens need to be policed and controlled to prevent them from becoming hu hong, particularly girls. Controlling of sexuality information by parents was therefore common in HCMC, but differed by gender and educational levels of parents. For example, fathers more than mothers were not comfortable teaching their teenage children about sex and sexuality. Parents with higher education police their teenage children’s usage of the Internet and social media, while parents with lower education control who can be friends with their teenage children. Conclusions Vietnamese parents in general have negative views of sex and sexuality education for their teenage children. Recognizing that many

  7. Characterization of the hypothermic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 in the rat. Relation to the adrenergic system and endogenous pyrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, H; Wohlman, A; Mechoulam, R; Weidenfeld, J

    1995-02-01

    In the present study we have characterized the hypothermic effect of the psychoactive cannabinoid HU-210, by investigating its interaction with the endogenous pyrogens, IL-1 and PGE2. We also studied the involvement of the adrenergic system in mediation of this hypothermic effect. Injection of HU-210 directly into the preoptic area caused a dose dependent reduction of rectal temperature from 37 to 32.1 degrees C. Injection of the non-psychoactive analog, HU-211 which does not bind to brain cannabinoid receptor, did not affect body temperature. Injection of the adrenergic agonists, CGP-12177 and clonidine (beta, and alpha adrenergic agonists, respectively) abrogated the hypothermia induced by HU-210. Injection of the adrenergic antagonists, prazosin (alpha 1) and propranolol (beta) enhanced the hypothermic effect of HU-210. Intracerebral administration of IL-1 or PGE2 to rats pretreated with HU-210 caused a transient inhibition of the hypothermia. The ex vivo rate of basal or bacterial endotoxin-induced synthesis of PGE2 by different brain regions, including the preoptic area was not affected by HU-210 administration. These results suggest that the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 acts in the preoptic area, probably via the brain cannabinoid receptor to induce hypothermia. The hypothermic effect can be antagonized by adrenergic agonists and enhanced by adrenergic antagonists. HU-210 does not interfere with the pyrogenic effect of IL-1 or PGE2.

  8. Iodine-131-labelled CDR grafted monoclonal antibody huA33 metastatic colorectal carcinoma: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.L.; Lee, F.T.; Scott, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with metastatic colorectal carcinoma two years after initial surgery for sigmoid carcinoma. As part of the staging work-up she was initially referred for a 18 F-FDG PET scan at the PET Centre. FDG PET scans of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated multiple hepatic lesions, but there was no evidence of disease outside the liver. On the basis of extensive hepatic disease, the patient was scheduled for a laparotomy for insertion of an hepatic artery catheter for chemotherapy. In view of her clinical presentation, the patient was eligible for a Phase 1 trial with 131 l-labelled huA33, and agreed to participate. HuA33 is a humanised CDR-grafted recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against an antigen found on >95 per cent of all colorectal carcinomas, and on small bowel and colonic mucosa. The phase 1 trial is a protein dose escalation study designed to examine the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, dosimetry and safety profile of huA33, and sequential gamma camera images of the whole body were obtained daily until seven days post infusion. SPECT images were obtained on day 6. Excellent localisation of 131 l-huA33 was seen in hepatic lesions. Calculation of whole body retention and tumour uptake was performed, and pharmacokinetic analysis also undertaken. Biopsies of tumour obtained at surgery were used to quantitate tumour uptake and cellular trafficking of 131 l-huA33. On the basis of this phase 1 study, future therapeutic trials of 131 I-huA33 are planned

  9. National Cooperative rHu Erythropoietin Study in patients with chronic renal failure--an interim report. The National Cooperative rHu Erythropoietin Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, N W; Lazarus, J M; Nissenson, A R

    1993-08-01

    This second interim report of the National Cooperative rHu Erythropoietin Study presents data from 324 patients new to recombinant human erythropoietin (Epoetin alfa) who completed at least 12 months of study participation. Mean hematocrit levels increased to approximately 30% by month 3 in patients on hemodialysis (n = 293) and stabilized for the remainder of the study whether Epoetin alfa was administered by the intravenous (n = 250) or subcutaneous (n = 42) route. The intravenous dosage level ranged between 106.9 and 121.6 U/kg/wk; subcutaneous dosing ranged between 87.4 and 108.0 U/kg/wk; dosing levels in patients on peritoneal dialysis (n = 31) were similar, although there was a trend towards slightly higher hematocrit levels. Throughout the 12 months of the study, there was no relationship between blood pressure and either hematocrit level or Epoetin alfa dose. Approximately two thirds of the patients were receiving iron supplementation at any given time, and there was a trend towards the increased use of oral iron supplements. The incidence of adverse events in this cohort of patients was low throughout the study, and there was no relationship between the incidence of adverse events and either hematocrit level or Epoetin alfa dose. Based on an analysis of data from baseline to first follow-up, Epoetin alfa therapy resulted in improvement in several quality-of-life factors, most notable of which was vitality. Improvement occurred in all patient subgroups with some variability in the level and intensity of effect. Overall, these data demonstrate that Epoetin alfa therapy is safe and effective when used in a broad cross-section of patients on dialysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. First International Workshop on Human Factors in Modeling (HuFaMo 2015)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald; Chaudron, Michel R. V.; Amaral, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    human factors in modeling. Our goal is to improve the state of the science and professionalism in empirical research in the Model Based Engineering community. Typical examples of research questions might consider the usability of a certain approach, such as a method or language, or the emotional states......Modeling is a human-intensive enterprise. As such, many research questions related to modeling can only be answered by empirical studies employing human factors. The International Workshop Series on Human Factors in Modeling (HuFaMo) is dedicated to the discussion of empirical research involving...... or personal judgements of modelers. While concerned with foundations and framework support for modeling, the community has been somehow neglecting the issue of human factors in this context. There is a growing need from the community concerned with quality factors to understand the best practices...

  11. La voz y la letra en "Un huésped", de Yoko Tawada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lucía Correa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Los textos de Yoko Tawada, escritorajaponesa residente en Alemania,hacen presente el desgarramientode quien vive fuera de la lenguamaterna. Es una obra que se balanceasobre el límite entre loscódigos, donde nada hay evidente,donde la palabra parece tener vidapropia. Entre los textos que tomanesta extrañeza del lenguaje comosustrato, se encuentra el relato"Un huésped", cuya particular referenciaa la voz y a la letra comodos registros que se entrelazan yse repelen alternativamente, loconvierte en una valiosa fuente dereflexiones sobre lo oral, la voz, laletra, la lectura y la escritura.Palabras clave: Yoko Tawada, literaturajaponesa contemporánea, voz,letra, escritura.

  12. Spectroscopy of bright Algol-type semi-detached close binary system HU Tauri (HR 1471)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    2018-01-01

    Radial velocities of the primary component (B8V) of HU Tauri derived from the photographic spectra obtained during January 1974 to December 1974 and spectroscopic orbital elements from the analysis of the radial velocity curve of the B8V primary are given. The H line of the late type secondary component is clearly detected on the photographic spectra taken around the quadratures and radial velocities of the secondary component are derived. The radial velocity semi amplitudes of the primary (K) and secondary (K) are found to be 60 km/sec and 234 km/sec respectively. The mass ratio M/M = K/K is found to be 0.2564. The detection of the H line of the secondary is confirmed from the high resolution spectra that I obtained during 1981 and 1983 at quadratures using the 2.1-m McDonald observatory Otto Struve reflector telescope and high resolution coude Reticon spectrograph.

  13. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the relict woody plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng, which belongs to the Cupressaceae family. There were around ten species in the Metasequoia genus, which were widely spread across the Northern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous of the Mesozoic and in the Cenozoic. M. glyptostroboides is the only remaining representative of this genus. Here, we report the complete chloroplast (cp genome sequence and the cp genomic features of M. glyptostroboides. The M. glyptostroboides cp genome is 131,887 bp in length, with a total of 117 genes comprised of 82 protein-coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. In this genome, 11 forward repeats, nine palindromic repeats and 15 tandem repeats were detected. A total of 188 perfect microsatellites were detected through simple sequence repeat (SSR analysis and these were distributed unevenly within the cp genome. Comparison of the cp genome structure and gene order to those of several other land plants indicated that a copy of the inverted repeat (IR region, which was found to be IR region A (IRA, was lost in the M. glyptostroboides cp ge-nome. The five most divergent and five most conserved genes were determined and further phylogenetic analysis was performed among plant species, especially for relat-ed species in conifers. Finally, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that M. glyptostro-boides is a sister species to Cryptomeria japonica (L. F. D. Don and to Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata. The complete cp genome sequence information of M. glyp-tostroboides will be great helpful for further investigations of this endemic relict woody plant and for in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the conif-erous cp genomes, especially for the position of M. glyptostroboides in plant systemat-ics and evolution.

  14. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the relict woody plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Xu, Haibin; Yang, Liming; Liu, Guangxin; Sheng, Yu; Zheng, Chen; Zheng, Weiwei; Cheng, Tielong; Shi, Jisen

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng, which belongs to the Cupressaceae family. There were around 10 species in the Metasequoia genus, which were widely spread across the Northern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous of the Mesozoic and in the Cenozoic. M. glyptostroboides is the only remaining representative of this genus. Here, we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence and the cp genomic features of M. glyptostroboides. The M. glyptostroboides cp genome is 131,887 bp in length, with a total of 117 genes comprised of 82 protein-coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. In this genome, 11 forward repeats, nine palindromic repeats, and 15 tandem repeats were detected. A total of 188 perfect microsatellites were detected through simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis and these were distributed unevenly within the cp genome. Comparison of the cp genome structure and gene order to those of several other land plants indicated that a copy of the inverted repeat (IR) region, which was found to be IR region A (IRA), was lost in the M. glyptostroboides cp genome. The five most divergent and five most conserved genes were determined and further phylogenetic analysis was performed among plant species, especially for related species in conifers. Finally, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that M. glyptostroboides is a sister species to Cryptomeria japonica (L. F.) D. Don and to Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata. The complete cp genome sequence information of M. glyptostroboides will be great helpful for further investigations of this endemic relict woody plant and for in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the coniferous cp genomes, especially for the position of M. glyptostroboides in plant systematics and evolution.

  15. Preliminary evidence of early bone resorption in a sheep model of acute burn injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gordon L; Xie, Yixia; Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Liangjun; Hu, Minyi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2014-03-01

    Treatment with bisphosphonates within the first 10 days of severe burn injury completely prevents bone loss. We therefore postulated that bone resorption occurs early post burn and is the primary explanation for acute bone loss in these patients. Our objective was to assess bone for histological and biomechanical evidence of early resorption post burn. We designed a randomized controlled study utilizing a sheep model of burn injury. Three sheep received a 40 % total body surface area burn under isoflurane anesthesia, and three other sheep received cotton-smoke inhalation and served as control. Burned sheep were killed 5 days post procedure and controls were killed 2 days post procedure. Backscatter scanning electron microscopy was performed on iliac crests obtained immediately postmortem along with quantitative histomorphometry and compression testing to determine bone strength (Young's modulus). Blood ionized Ca was also determined in the first 24 h post procedure as was urinary CTx. Three of three sheep killed at 5 days had evidence of scalloping of the bone surface, an effect of bone resorption, whereas none of the three sheep killed at 2 days post procedure had scalloping. One of the three burned sheep killed at 5 days showed quantitative doubling of the eroded surface and halving of the bone volume compared to sham controls. Mean values of Young's modulus were approximately one third lower in the burned sheep killed at 5 days compared to controls, p = 0.08 by unpaired t test, suggesting weaker bone. These data suggest early post-burn bone resorption. Urine CTx normalized to creatinine did not differ between groups at 24 h post procedure because the large amounts of fluids received by the burned sheep may have diluted urine creatinine and CTx and because the urine volume produced by the burned sheep was threefold that of the controls. We calculated 24 h urinary CTx excretion, and with this calculation CTx excretion/24 h in the burned sheep was

  16. Anti-Inflammatory and Osteoprotective Effects of Cannabinoid-2 Receptor Agonist HU-308 in a Rat Model of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Cesar A; Surkin, Pablo N; Mohn, Claudia E; Elverdin, Juan C; Fernández-Solari, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Anti-inflammatory and immunologic properties of cannabinoids have been reported in several tissues. Expression of cannabinoid receptor Type 2 was reported in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, suggesting a key role in bone metabolism. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of treatment with cannabinoid-2 receptor agonist HU-308 in the oral health of rats subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontitis. Twenty-four rats were distributed in four groups (six rats per group): 1) control rats; 2) sham rats; 3) rats submitted to experimental periodontitis (LPS); and 4) rats submitted to experimental periodontitis and treated with HU-308 (LPS+HU). In groups LPS and LPS+HU, periodontitis was induced by LPS (1 mg/mL) injected into the gingival tissue (GT) of maxillary and mandibular first molars and into the interdental space between the first and second molars, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. In group LPS+HU, HU-308 (500 ng/mL) was applied topically to the GT daily. Alveolar bone loss resulting from LPS-induced periodontitis was significantly attenuated with HU-308 treatment (LPS+HU), measured by macroscopic and histologic examination. Treatment also reduced gingival production of inflammatory mediators augmented in LPS-injected rats, such as: 1) inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) activity (LPS: 90.18 ± 36.51 pmol/minute/mg protein versus LPS+HU: 16.37 ± 4.73 pmol/minute/mg protein; P periodontitis on the salivary secretory response to pilocarpine. Moreover, iNOS activity and PGE2 content, which were increased by LPS-induced periodontitis in the submandibular gland, returned to control values after HU-308 treatment. This study demonstrates anti-inflammatory, osteoprotective, and prohomeostatic effects of HU-308 in oral tissues of rats with LPS-induced periodontitis.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a catalase gene "HuCAT3" from pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) and its expression under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qiong; Gao, Guo-Li; Fan, Qing-jie; Qiao, Guang; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Tao; Peng, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Yong-Qiang

    2015-05-25

    Abiotic stresses usually cause H2O2 accumulation, with harmful effects, in plants. Catalase may play a key protective role in plant cells by detoxifying this excess H2O2. Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) shows broad ecological adaptation due to its high tolerance to abiotic stresses, e.g. drought, heat and poor soil. However, involvement of the pitaya catalase gene (HuCAT) in tolerance to abiotic stresses is unknown. In the present study, a full-length HuCAT3 cDNA (1870 bp) was isolated from pitaya based on our previous microarray data and RACE method. The cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence shared 73-77% and 75-80% identity with other plant catalases, respectively. HuCAT3 contains conserved catalase family domain and catalytic sites. Pairwise comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that HuCAT3 is most similar to Eriobotrya japonica CAT, followed by Dimocarpus longan CAT and Nicotiana tabacum CAT1. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that HuCAT3 is mainly expressed in green cotyledons and mature stems, and was regulated by H2O2, drought, cold and salt stress, whereas, its expression patterns and maximum expression levels varied with stress types. HuCAT activity increased as exposure to the tested stresses, and the fluctuation of HuCAT activity was consistent with HuCAT3 mRNA abundance (except for 0.5 days upon drought stress). HuCAT3 mRNA elevations and HuCAT activities changes under cold stress were also in conformity with the cold tolerances among the four genotypes. The obtained results confirmed a major role of HuCAT3 in abiotic stress response of pitaya. This may prove useful in understanding pitaya's high tolerance to abiotic stresses at molecular level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study genetic diversity in Indonesian sheep population using microsatellite markers. A total of 18 microsatellite loci have been used for genotyping Indonesian sheep. Total sheep blood 200 samples were extracted from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep populations by using a salting out method. Microsatellite loci data were analyzed using POPGENE 3.2 software. Based on this study obtained 180 alleles from 17 microsatellite loci, while average number of alleles was 6.10 alleles (6 to 18 alleles from five Indonesian sheep populations (garut sheep of fighting type, garut sheep of meat type, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. The average of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He values were 0.5749 and 0.6896, respectively, while the genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT and average genetic differentiation (FST were 0.1006, 0.1647 and 0.0712, respectively. Genetic distance and genetic tree showed that Indonesian sheep population was distinct from garut sheep of fighting and meat types, purbalingga sheep, batur sheep and jember sheep population. Based on this results were needed a strategy for conservation and breeding programs in each Indonesian sheep population.

  19. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  20. The histone-like protein HU has a role in gene expression during the acid adaptation response in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Alhejandra; Toledo, Héctor

    2017-08-01

    Gastritis, ulcers, and gastric malignancy have been linked to human gastric epithelial colonization by Helicobacter pylori. Characterization of the mechanisms by which H. pylori adapts to the human stomach environment is of crucial importance to understand H. pylori pathogenesis. In an effort to extend our knowledge of these mechanisms, we used proteomic analysis and qRT-PCR to characterize the role of the histone-like protein HU in the response of H. pylori to low pH. Proteomic analysis revealed that genes involved in chemotaxis, oxidative stress, or metabolism are under control of the HU protein. Also, expression of the virulence factors Ggt and NapA is affected by the null mutation of hup gene both at neutral and acid pH, as evidenced by qRT-PCR analysis. Those results showed that H. pylori gene expression is altered by shift to low pH, thus confirming that acid exposure leads to profound changes in genomic expression, and suggest that the HU protein is a regulator that may help the bacterium adapt to the acid stress. In accordance with previous reports, we found that the HU protein participates in gene expression regulation when the microorganism is exposed to acid stress. Such transcriptional regulation underlies protein accumulation in the H. pylori cell. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the RNA-binding domain of HuR and its poly(U)-binding properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong; Li, Heng; Shi, Hui; Liu, Yang; Liu, Huihui; Zhao, Hui; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Here, the recombinant ARE-binding region of HuR (residues 18–186) was crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.2, b = 133.1, c = 31.4 Å. Human antigen R (HuR), a ubiquitously expressed member of the Hu protein family, is an important post-transcriptional regulator which has three RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domains. The two tandem N-terminal RRM domains can selectively bind to the AU-rich element (ARE), while the third one interacts with the poly(A) tail and other proteins. Here, the recombinant ARE-binding region of HuR (residues 18–186) was crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.2, b = 133.1, c = 31.4 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 Å. Mutagenesis analysis and SPR assays revealed its poly(U)-binding properties

  2. Sheep internal parasites on Rab and Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relja Beck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to determine which groups and species of internal parasites endanger the health of sheep on the islands of Rab and Pag. The research was carried out in 10 flocks on both islands taking the fresh dung out of 30% of the total number of sheep in each flock. It was ascertained that the gastrointestinal parasites and protozoa of Eimeria genus are present in most flocks on both islands. The presence of the fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum was ascertained in considerably larger number of flocks on the island of Rab than on the island of Pag. On the other hand, the presence of parasites of Moniezia and Nematodirus genus was ascertained in larger number of flocks on the island of Pag. In two flocks on Rab parasites of Protostrongylus genus were ascertained while on the island of Pag they were not found in any flock.

  3. Measurement of bone blood flow in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.S.; Lehner, C.E.; Pearson, D.W.; Kanikula, T.; Adler, G.; Venci, R.; Lanphier, E.H.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Bone blood flow in sheep tibia has been estimated via the measurement of the perfusion limited clearance of 41 Ar from the bone mineral matrix following fast neutron activation of 44 Ca. Tibia blood flows were estimated for the intact sheep, and after the installation of an intramedullary pressure tap to elevate bone marrow pressure by saline infusion. The results indicate that normal blood flow in the tibia is in the range of 1.1 to 3.7 ml/100ml-min in the intact animal and at normal marrow pressure. With an elevated intramedullary pressure of approximately 100 mmHg, the bone blood flow measured varied around 0.5 to 1.1 ml/100ml-min. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5–7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success. PMID:23084976

  5. Encephalitic Sarcocystosis and its Prophylactic Treatment in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZMEN, Özlem; ŞAHİNDURAN, Şima; HALIGÜR, Mehmet; YUKARI, Bayram Ali; DORRESTEIN, Gerry M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological findings in sheep naturally infected with severe encephalitic sarcocystosis and to evaluate the prophylactic effect of amprolium on the disease. From a flock of approximately 350 animals, 10 sheep were referred to the Veterinary Faculty Clinic with neurological symptoms that developed during the previous 2 weeks. These 10 sheep were clinically and pathologically examined, and the remaining animals in the flock without neurolog...

  6. Sudanese live sheep and mutton exports competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Babiker Idris Babiker; Abdul-Jabbar Mohammed Abdullah; Mohamed Ahmed Al-Feel

    2011-01-01

    The livestock sector of Sudan provides livelihood for about 17% of the population. Sudanese livestock products meet the domestic demand for meat in addition to a substantial excess for export amounting to about 22% of total country exports. It contributes about 19% of GDP. Sheep marketing in Sudan is characterised by traditional operations and is informally organised, although, recently there are great efforts by the formal livestock authorities to organise some secondary and terminal livesto...

  7. Tibiotarsal arthrodesis in a Moufflon sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J G; Farrow, C S; Haigh, J C

    1978-11-01

    Restraint of a mature Moufflon sheep resulted in severe fracture and luxation of a previously osteoarthritic tibiotarsal joint. Arthrodesis was accomplished by means of internal pin fixation and an external fiberglass cast. After 3 months of hospitalization, the ram was returned to the original flock. Competition for dominance within the flock resulted in physical trauma to the ram. Seven months after surgery, the ram sustained a fractured ulna and died from exposure.

  8. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    with ewe-juvenile groups at Allan Gulch, Tweed Creek, Peck Gulch and eventually Stone Hill marked the northward progression of all age and sex classes...r ~W- k’-P-.- M N rer. C.A. l12. Tioe Birh-_rrn sheep Co-- rad: C. 6zare. F :.Pa.r:: D- r~. A.S., F.A. Jcn-rstone. C.A.P.. Savory , an-1 fl.F.D:srn

  9. Peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation mobilised by r-metHuG-CSF (filgrastim); a less costly alternative to autologous bone marrow transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Uyl-de Groot (Carin); D.J. Richel (Dirk); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn a retrospective study, we calculated the treatment costs of 63 patients who received either autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (r-metHuG-CSF) (filgrastim) (n=13) or without r-metHuG-CSF (n=22) or altenatively,

  10. Ultrastructure of Sheep Primordial Follicles Cultured in the Presence of Indol Acetic Acid, EGF, and FSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rabelo Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured in MEM (control or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6 d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion, the presence of IAA, EGF, and FSH helped to maintain ultrastructural integrity of sheep primordial follicles cultured in vitro.

  11. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that selecting sheep for a low behavioural reactivity to stressful situations will improve their metabolic efficiency, and thereby feed efficiency, during a controlled trial in an animal house. Twenty-four Merino wethers were used, 12 each from lines selected...... for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified....... It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  12. Preliminary Results Regarding Organic Sheep Meat Consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ilisiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With a national flock of  10.07 million sheep, Romania currently occupies the 3rd place in the EU (after the UK and Spain in terms of the sheep numbers. However, only 0.85% (85.419 heads are being reared in organic production systems. The development of sheep breeding in organic systems is very heavily influenced by the economic factors, but also by the consumer demand for organic products. An empirical study on consumer behavior towards sheep meat produced in organic system was developed in 2016. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of developing sheep breeding sector in the organic system, in the terms of the consumer’s behavior towards  sheep meat obtained in organic system in order to develop strategies that will lead to sustainable development of the sector. The finding shown that 85% of consumers consider that sheep meat produced in organic farming system is more expensive compared to that produced in the conventional systems. However, 74% of respondents believe that higher prices are justified. The availability of the respondents to pay an additional price for organic sheep product is high, hovering around 77%. Current research highlights the potential production and marketing of sheep from Romania in organic system, which could have a positive impact on overall farm income and on animal welfare.

  13. Induction of ovarian cystic follicles in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, S A; Bailey, M T; Head, W A; Wheaton, J E

    2000-10-01

    Cystic follicles are a significant cause of infertility in women, dairy cattle and sheep. Sheep were used as a model to identify factors that may elicit formation of cystic follicles. Insulin resistance and elevated LH activity were tested in overweight ewes because of associations among these factors and the formation of cystic follicles. Sheep were synchronized using a progesterone-releasing pessary and insulin resistance was induced during the synchronization period through administration of bovine somatotropin. Following removal of pessaries follicular growth was stimulated by treatment with eCG or eCG and hCG (PG-600). Follicular growth was monitored via daily transrectal ultrasonography and blood samples were collected for hormonal analyses. Six of 18 ewes had a subnormal or absent preovulatory gonadotropin surge and developed cystic follicles. Neither insulin resistance nor elevated LH activity were associated with formation of cystic follicles. Ewes that developed cystic follicles were heavier (93 +/- 4 kg) than ewes that ovulated (81 +/- 3 kg; P = 0.02). Furthermore, following pessary removal and initiation of daily ultrasonography, ewes that developed cystic follicles lost body weight (-3 +/- 1%), while ovulatory ewes continued to gain body weight (1 +/- 1%; P = 0.005). It is speculated that in heavy ewes metabolic factors associated with acute body weight loss inhibit the positive feedback of estradiol and thereby suppress the preovulatory gonadotropin surge leading to formation of cystic follicles.

  14. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  15. Live monitoring of cattle, reindeer and sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the fallout differed considerably from area to area in Norway and specially were found from soil samples that the mountain pasture in Middle and South of Norway were heavily contaminated. These natural ecosystem is important in several nutrition pathways; notably sheep, goat, reindeer and cattle. In June 1986 the Health Directorate imposed action levels for the nuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137. The action levels were 370 Bq/kg for milk and baby food and 600 Bq/kg for all other types of food. In November 1986, the action level for reindeer meat were increased to 6000 Bq/kg, and in June 1987 the level was also increased to 6000 Bq/kg for wild freshwater fish. The most effected meat production were reindeer, sheep and cattle. Almost 20 to 35% of the sheep had activity levels above the action limits. This fact initiated a broad program to establish effective measure to increase the activity levels and to sort out the animals which could be slaughtered. Three main approaches have been utilized in Norway in order to achieve this and to limit the potential health risk: action aimed at reducing uptake from soil to vegetation (plowing, use of fertilizing etc.); action aimed at reducing uptake from fodder to animals (use of cesium binder, change of slaughter time), or reducing unacceptable activity levels in animals (downfeeding); action aimed at reducing intake to human (interdiction, dietary advice). Live monitoring were in several of these actions necessary for a successful result

  16. A dual model HU conversion from MRI intensity values within and outside of bone segment for MRI-based radiotherapy treatment planning of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Juha, E-mail: juha.p.korhonen@hus.fi [Clinical Research Institute Helsinki University Central Hospital Ltd., POB-700, 00029 HUS, Finland and Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS (Finland); Kapanen, Mika [Clinical Research Institute Helsinki University Central Hospital Ltd., POB-700, 00029 HUS (Finland); Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS (Finland); Department of Medical Physics, Tampere University Hospital, POB-2000, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Keyriläinen, Jani; Seppälä, Tiina; Tenhunen, Mikko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The lack of electron density information in magnetic resonance images (MRI) poses a major challenge for MRI-based radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). In this study the authors convert MRI intensity values into Hounsfield units (HUs) in the male pelvis and thus enable accurate MRI-based RTP for prostate cancer patients with varying tissue anatomy and body fat contents. Methods: T{sub 1}/T{sub 2}*-weighted MRI intensity values and standard computed tomography (CT) image HUs in the male pelvis were analyzed using image data of 10 prostate cancer patients. The collected data were utilized to generate a dual model HU conversion technique from MRI intensity values of the single image set separately within and outside of contoured pelvic bones. Within the bone segment local MRI intensity values were converted to HUs by applying a second-order polynomial model. This model was tuned for each patient by two patient-specific adjustments: MR signal normalization to correct shifts in absolute intensity level and application of a cutoff value to accurately represent low density bony tissue HUs. For soft tissues, such as fat and muscle, located outside of the bone contours, a threshold-based segmentation method without requirements for any patient-specific adjustments was introduced to convert MRI intensity values into HUs. The dual model HU conversion technique was implemented by constructing pseudo-CT images for 10 other prostate cancer patients. The feasibility of these images for RTP was evaluated by comparing HUs in the generated pseudo-CT images with those in standard CT images, and by determining deviations in MRI-based dose distributions compared to those in CT images with 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the anisotropic analytical algorithm and 360° volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with the Voxel Monte Carlo algorithm. Results: The average HU differences between the constructed pseudo-CT images and standard CT images of each

  17. Comparison of HuRAM+ and HERA for Development of Data Worksheet for Simulator based HERA Databank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sunyoung; Jung, Wondea

    2013-01-01

    We also compared the existing HERA methods and HERA database to select essential data fields. We performed a preliminary study to see the possibility to induce the operator's emergency operating procedure (EOP) noncompliance behaviors under a simulated emergency. The purpose of this paper is to compare the HuRAM + and HERA to obtain an insight into the construction of a data worksheet for a qualitative HERA. In this paper, we performed a case study for applying simulator training data to HuRAM + and HERA. With this insight, as well as the results of the researches mentioned above, we have a plan to develop a systematic and qualitative HERA and a data worksheet for the work. In this paper, we compared HuRAM + and HERA to obtain an insight into the construction of a data worksheet for a qualitative HERA and performed a case study. HERA requires a burden to analyze and input an event data due to too many data fields even though it is well designed to estimate Heaps. It is somewhat more convenient to input data into the HuRAM + ; however, it is difficult to analyze the organization and safety culture factors. We are now trying to develop the framework of a data worksheet for a qualitative HERA based on simulator training data. The purpose of our data worksheet is to provide key information for HEP estimation and to enhance the understanding of an operators' behavior under an off-normal plant status. We aim less encumbered means of obtaining the needed data for HERA by changing the existing data worksheet framework of HuRAM + and HERA and by reducing data fields that require reading the between the lines

  18. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  19. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    OpenAIRE

    bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated ...

  20. The RNA binding protein HuR does not interact directly with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and does not affect reverse transcription in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronenborn Angela M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lemay et al recently reported that the RNA binding protein HuR directly interacts with the ribonuclease H (RNase H domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT and influences the efficiency of viral reverse transcription (Lemay et al., 2008, Retrovirology 5:47. HuR is a member of the embryonic lethal abnormal vision protein family and contains 3 RNA recognition motifs (RRMs that bind AU-rich elements (AREs. To define the structural determinants of the HuR-RT interaction and to elucidate the mechanism(s by which HuR influences HIV-1 reverse transcription activity in vitro, we cloned and purified full-length HuR as well as three additional protein constructs that contained the N-terminal and internal RRMs, the internal and C-terminal RRMs, or the C-terminal RRM only. Results All four HuR proteins were purified and characterized by biophysical methods. They are well structured and exist as monomers in solution. No direct protein-protein interaction between HuR and HIV-1 RT was detected using NMR titrations with 15N labeled HuR variants or the 15N labeled RNase H domain of HIV-1 RT. Furthermore, HuR did not significantly affect the kinetics of HIV-1 reverse transcription in vitro, even on RNA templates that contain AREs. Conclusions Our results suggest that HuR does not impact HIV-1 replication through a direct protein-protein interaction with the viral RT.

  1. 89Zr-huJ591 immuno-PET imaging in patients with advanced metastatic prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Solomon, Stephen B.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Lefkowitz, Robert A.; Osborne, Joseph R.; O'Donoghue, Joseph A.; Beylergil, Volkan; Ruan, Shutian; Cheal, Sarah M.; Lyashchenko, Serge; Gonen, Mithat; Lewis, Jason S.; Holland, Jason P.; Reuter, Victor E.; Loda, Massimo F.; Smith-Jones, Peter M.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Larson, Steven M.; Bander, Neil H.; Scher, Howard I.; Morris, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Given the bone tropism of prostate cancer, conventional imaging modalities poorly identify or quantify metastatic disease. 89 Zr-huJ591 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed in patients with metastatic prostate cancer to analyze and validate this as an imaging biomarker for metastatic disease. The purpose of this initial study was to assess safety, biodistribution, normal organ dosimetry, and optimal imaging time post-injection for lesion detection. Ten patients with metastatic prostate cancer received 5 mCi of 89 Zr-huJ591. Four whole-body scans with multiple whole-body count rate measurements and serum activity concentration measurements were obtained in all patients. Biodistribution, clearance, and lesion uptake by 89 Zr-huJ591 immuno-PET imaging was analyzed and dosimetry was estimated using MIRD techniques. Initial assessment of lesion targeting of 89 Zr-huJ591 was done. Optimal time for imaging post-injection was determined. The dose was well tolerated with mild chills and rigors seen in two patients. The clearance of 89 Zr-huJ591 from serum was bi-exponential with biological half-lives of 7 ± 4.5 h (range 1.1-14 h) and 62 ± 13 h (range 51-89 h) for initial rapid and later slow phase. Whole-body biological clearance was 219 ± 48 h (range 153-317 h). The mean whole-body and liver residence time was 78.7 and 25.6 h, respectively. Dosimetric estimates to critical organs included liver 7.7 ± 1.5 cGy/mCi, renal cortex 3.5 ± 0.4 cGy/mCi, and bone marrow 1.2 ± 0.2 cGy/mCi. Optimal time for patient imaging after injection was 7 ± 1 days. Lesion targeting of bone or soft tissue was seen in all patients. Biopsies were performed in 8 patients for a total 12 lesions, all of which were histologically confirmed as metastatic prostate cancer. One biopsy-proven lesion was not positive on 89 Zr-huJ591, while the remaining 11 lesions were 89 Zr-huJ591 positive. Two biopsy-positive nodal lesions were noted only on 89 Zr-huJ591 study, while the

  2. {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 immuno-PET imaging in patients with advanced metastatic prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Solomon, Stephen B.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Lefkowitz, Robert A.; Osborne, Joseph R. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); O' Donoghue, Joseph A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Beylergil, Volkan; Ruan, Shutian; Cheal, Sarah M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Lyashchenko, Serge [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiochemistry and Molecular Imaging Probes Core, New York, NY (United States); Gonen, Mithat [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Lewis, Jason S. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiochemistry and Molecular Imaging Probes Core, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Holland, Jason P. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Reuter, Victor E. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Loda, Massimo F. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Smith-Jones, Peter M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science of Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Weber, Wolfgang A.; Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Bander, Neil H. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Urology, New York, NY (United States); Scher, Howard I.; Morris, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Given the bone tropism of prostate cancer, conventional imaging modalities poorly identify or quantify metastatic disease. {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed in patients with metastatic prostate cancer to analyze and validate this as an imaging biomarker for metastatic disease. The purpose of this initial study was to assess safety, biodistribution, normal organ dosimetry, and optimal imaging time post-injection for lesion detection. Ten patients with metastatic prostate cancer received 5 mCi of {sup 89}Zr-huJ591. Four whole-body scans with multiple whole-body count rate measurements and serum activity concentration measurements were obtained in all patients. Biodistribution, clearance, and lesion uptake by {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 immuno-PET imaging was analyzed and dosimetry was estimated using MIRD techniques. Initial assessment of lesion targeting of {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 was done. Optimal time for imaging post-injection was determined. The dose was well tolerated with mild chills and rigors seen in two patients. The clearance of {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 from serum was bi-exponential with biological half-lives of 7 ± 4.5 h (range 1.1-14 h) and 62 ± 13 h (range 51-89 h) for initial rapid and later slow phase. Whole-body biological clearance was 219 ± 48 h (range 153-317 h). The mean whole-body and liver residence time was 78.7 and 25.6 h, respectively. Dosimetric estimates to critical organs included liver 7.7 ± 1.5 cGy/mCi, renal cortex 3.5 ± 0.4 cGy/mCi, and bone marrow 1.2 ± 0.2 cGy/mCi. Optimal time for patient imaging after injection was 7 ± 1 days. Lesion targeting of bone or soft tissue was seen in all patients. Biopsies were performed in 8 patients for a total 12 lesions, all of which were histologically confirmed as metastatic prostate cancer. One biopsy-proven lesion was not positive on {sup 89}Zr-huJ591, while the remaining 11 lesions were {sup 89}Zr-huJ591 positive. Two biopsy-positive nodal lesions were noted only on

  3. Feasibility of CBCT-based dose calculation: Comparative analysis of HU adjustment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotina, Irina; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Stock, Markus; Steininger, Thomas; Lütgendorf-Caucig, Carola; Georg, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this work was to compare the accuracy of different HU adjustments for CBCT-based dose calculation. Methods and materials: Dose calculation was performed on CBCT images of 30 patients. In the first two approaches phantom-based (Pha-CC) and population-based (Pop-CC) conversion curves were used. The third method (WAB) represents override of the structures with standard densities for water, air and bone. In ROI mapping approach all structures were overridden with average HUs from planning CT. All techniques were benchmarked to the Pop-CC and CT-based plans by DVH comparison and γ-index analysis. Results: For prostate plans, WAB and ROI mapping compared to Pop-CC showed differences in PTV D median below 2%. The WAB and Pha-CC methods underestimated the bladder dose in IMRT plans. In lung cases PTV coverage was underestimated by Pha-CC method by 2.3% and slightly overestimated by the WAB and ROI techniques. The use of the Pha-CC method for head–neck IMRT plans resulted in difference in PTV coverage up to 5%. Dose calculation with WAB and ROI techniques showed better agreement with pCT than conversion curve-based approaches. Conclusions: Density override techniques provide an accurate alternative to the conversion curve-based methods for dose calculation on CBCT images.

  4. Antioxidant and antidermatophytic activities of essential oil and extracts of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Yoon, Jung In; Chul Kang, Sun

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the antioxidant and antidermatophytic potential of the essential oil and extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The free radical scavenging activities of the oil and ethyl acetate extract were found to be superior (IC(50)=9.1 and 14.24 microg/ml, respectively) as compared to butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA), (IC(50)=18.27 microg/ml). Also the ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest phenolic contents (93.26 mg/g of dry wt) as compared to the other extracts. Further, oil (1250 microg/disc) and extracts (1750 microg/disc) revealed 35.33-67.66 and 18.0-53.3% antidermatophytic effect, respectively, along with their respective MIC values (62.5-500 and 250-4000 microg/ml) against Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, T. rubrum KCTC 6375, T. rubrum KCTC 6352, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6085, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6077, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6316, Microsporum canis KCTC 6591, M. canis KCTC 6348 and M. canis KCTC 6349. The oil also had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6591.

  5. La huída en la obra de Mario Vargas Llosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Arce Ross

    Full Text Available Se trata de poner en perspectiva la mayor parte de novelas de Mario Vargas Llosa en función del tema de la huída, partiendo del hecho que é1 solicitó la nacionalidad Española inmediatamente después de haber perdido las elecciones para la Presidencia del Perú y de haber escrito El pez en el agua. Nuestro análisis intenta demostrar la importancia de la figura paterna – principalmente en el sentido de su ausencia y de sus bruscas reapariciones – en la cristalización sintomática del tema de la fuga. Es por eso que una analogía con la posición fóbica, en relación al padre o a sus substitutos, nos ha parecido pertinente. Teniendo como pivot el análisis de la forma, del contexto y del contenido de su libro de memorias, este trabajo definiría así las bases de una contribución literaria de la obra de Vargas Llosa a la clinica de la fobia.

  6. Systematics of a kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu (Dinophyceae), and its cryptomonad endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuang; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Huan; Cheng, Yingyin; Liu, Guoxiang; Hu, Zhengyu

    2013-01-01

    New specimens of the kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu were collected in China. We investigated the systematics of the dinoflagellate and the origin of its endosymbiont based on light morphology and phylogenetic analyses using multiple DNA sequences. Cells were dorsoventrally flattened with a sharply acute hypocone and a hemispherical epicone. The confusion between G. eucyaneum and G. acidotum Nygaard still needs to be resolved. We found that the hypocone was conspicuously larger than the epicone in most G. eucyaneum cells, which differed from G. acidotum, but there were a few cells whose hypocone and epicone were of nearly the same size. In addition, there was only one site difference in the partial nuclear LSU rDNA sequences of a sample from Japan given the name G. acidotum and G. eucyaneum in the present study, which suggest that G. eucyaneum may be a synonym of G. acidotum. Spectroscopic analyses and phylogenetic analyses based on nucleomorph SSU rDNA sequences and chloroplast 23 s rDNA sequences suggested that the endosymbiont of G. eucyaneum was derived from Chroomonas (Cryptophyta), and that it was most closely related to C. coerulea Skuja. Moreover, the newly reported kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates G. myriopyrenoides and G. eucyaneum in our study were very similar, and the taxonomy of kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates was discussed.

  7. Systematics of a kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu (Dinophyceae, and its cryptomonad endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xia

    Full Text Available New specimens of the kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu were collected in China. We investigated the systematics of the dinoflagellate and the origin of its endosymbiont based on light morphology and phylogenetic analyses using multiple DNA sequences. Cells were dorsoventrally flattened with a sharply acute hypocone and a hemispherical epicone. The confusion between G. eucyaneum and G. acidotum Nygaard still needs to be resolved. We found that the hypocone was conspicuously larger than the epicone in most G. eucyaneum cells, which differed from G. acidotum, but there were a few cells whose hypocone and epicone were of nearly the same size. In addition, there was only one site difference in the partial nuclear LSU rDNA sequences of a sample from Japan given the name G. acidotum and G. eucyaneum in the present study, which suggest that G. eucyaneum may be a synonym of G. acidotum. Spectroscopic analyses and phylogenetic analyses based on nucleomorph SSU rDNA sequences and chloroplast 23 s rDNA sequences suggested that the endosymbiont of G. eucyaneum was derived from Chroomonas (Cryptophyta, and that it was most closely related to C. coerulea Skuja. Moreover, the newly reported kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates G. myriopyrenoides and G. eucyaneum in our study were very similar, and the taxonomy of kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates was discussed.

  8. Pathological brain detection based on wavelet entropy and Hu moment invariants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yudong; Wang, Shuihua; Sun, Ping; Phillips, Preetha

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of developing an accurate pathological brain detection system, we proposed a novel automatic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to detect pathological brains from normal brains obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. The problem still remained a challenge for technicians and clinicians, since MR imaging generated an exceptionally large information dataset. A new two-step approach was proposed in this study. We used wavelet entropy (WE) and Hu moment invariants (HMI) for feature extraction, and the generalized eigenvalue proximal support vector machine (GEPSVM) for classification. To further enhance classification accuracy, the popular radial basis function (RBF) kernel was employed. The 10 runs of k-fold stratified cross validation result showed that the proposed "WE + HMI + GEPSVM + RBF" method was superior to existing methods w.r.t. classification accuracy. It obtained the average classification accuracies of 100%, 100%, and 99.45% over Dataset-66, Dataset-160, and Dataset-255, respectively. The proposed method is effective and can be applied to realistic use.

  9. Managing Stability in the Taiwan Strait: Non-Military Policy towards Taiwan under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-ueh Chang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s Taiwan policy has been one of coupling intimidation (the “stick” approach with coercion (the “carrot” approach, a policy mix which, in the near term, is not likely to change, as is evidenced by the passage of the “Anti-Secession Law” in March, 2005. However, under Hu Jintao, the focus has been on pragmatism. The warm atmosphere that presently reigns in the Taiwan Strait area is unprecedented. Further talks are expected before the two cross-Strait leaders are slated to step down, simultaneously, in 2012. An era of reconciliation and negotiations has dawned. For the first time there is consensus regarding norms of interaction between the two sides. Cross-Strait relations have stabilized after years of tumult. More open, stable and predictable cross-Strait relations are in the interests of both sides. Difficulties surely lie ahead, but they will be dealt with in a different manner than what has been witnessed in the past.

  10. Characterization of introduced breed of sheep and pattenl of conservation of Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep in North Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto D

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatera thin tail (STT sheep are highly adapted to the local environment, no seasonal reproductive activity, and highresistance to internal parasite, but they have small body size and low mature body weight. "On Fann research" to identify morphological characteristics of intoduced breed and STT sheep, as well as an altemative conservation pattem were conducted in two location, i.e. Pulahan village, Air Batu District, Asahan Regency as the potensial area for STT sheep and Pulo Gambar village, Galang District, Deli Serdang Regency as the development area of introduced breed of sheep. The approach of Agroecosystem analysis, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of STT and introduced breed of sheep as well as interview to the farmer that raised STT in order to get recommendation of conservation pattern were aplied. The study show that STT sheep were isolated from the other area, and the populations tend to decrease from year to year. Qualitative characteristics of STT indicated smaller linear body measurements than those of introducted breed of sheep at the same age. Qualitative characteristics indicated that STT possess dominance body color of light brown and white (50.93% vs 41.28%. The STT mostly have one body color pattern (61.75%. The dominance spotted pattem were 1-10% of the body (60.29%, while the dominance of the head color was light brown (48.40%. Conservation pattern of STT are through natural process, in which the farmers are directly conserved, therefore the farmers do not have opportunity to develop their sheep farming. Therefore the conservation pattern recomnendation for STT sheep are by defending the location as "in situ conservation" or "on farm conservation" and giving "compensation program" to fanner because STT sheep farming less benefit than those of introduced breed of sheep.

  11. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Tarif Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  12. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  13. An approach to defining the energy requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Cuzzit, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs

  14. Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural. Karoo pasture. 2. Nitrogen. P.J.L.Zeeman, P.G. Marais and M.J. Coetsee. Research Institute of the Karoo Region, Middelburg, Cape. The nitrogen (N) content of material selected by cattle, Boer goats,. Dorper and Merino sheep on natural Karoo pasture was ...

  15. Polymorphism of calpastatin gene in Arabic sheep using PCR- RFLP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastatin has been known as candidate gene in muscle growth efficiency and meat quality. This gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep. In order to evaluate the calpastatin gene polymorphism, random blood sample were collected from 111 Arabic ram sheep from different regions. The DNA extraction was ...

  16. Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...

  17. Feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the aid of questionnaires, farm visits and personal interviews, to determine the feed and feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat producers in the area. Materials fed to sheep and goats included cut forage such as grasses, weeds, herbs, forbs, trees and shrubs, lianas, crop ...

  18. Reproductive health status of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide basic information regarding reproductive status of Gaddi sheep reared by nomadic tribe of Himachal Pradesh. Female genitalia of Gaddi sheep (n=190) were collected from unorganized abattoirs around Palampur over a period of one and half years. Out of total genitalia examined, 80.53% ...

  19. Standardinng initial cooling of sheep semen before freezing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheep semen before freezing. C. Kemp. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2,. Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. Received 6 June 1985. A practical and repeatable method for the cooling, during the processing phase, of sheep semen, with the aim of minimizing inter-experiment variation is ...

  20. Gene expression and maturation evaluation of sheep oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated X protein (Bax) of matured sheep oocytes. To carry out this study, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) aspirated from sheep ovaries were cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with various concentrations of FSE (0, 1 and 10 μg/mL).

  1. Effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... growth traits in Ghezel sheep breed. Growth related data (birth weight, weaning weight, month 6 weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to month 6) were collected from lambs that have been born during 1994 - 2006 at Ghezel sheep breeding station in west Azerbaijan and data was analyzed using

  2. Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in ...

  3. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella on Sheep Carcasses Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indicated that Salmonella is a common problem in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Adama municipal abattoir. Therefore, Sources of pathogens in food animals need to be investigated and a further study of pathogens in the food chain is recommended. Keywords: Adama Carcass Ethiopia Prevalence Salmonella Sheep.

  5. Sexual Dimorphism in Lori Sheep Vomeronasal Organ dimensions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of gender on anatomy of vomeronasal organ (VNO) and their correlations with some external body measurements in Lori sheep. Six external body characteristics were measured on 21 Lori sheep (10 ewes and 11 rams). Heads of the animals were collected and several ...

  6. Performance Of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the possible growth promoting effect of rare earth elements (REE) in growing West African dwarf sheep as well as their influence on the haematological and blood serum biochemical changes was conducted for 12 weeks. Forty West African dwarf sheep were allotted to four dietary treatments: a ...

  7. Serological survey for antibodies against pestiviruses in sheep in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestiviruses including Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1 (BVDV1), BVDV-2 and Border Disease Virus (BDV) have been reported in sheep populations worldwide. These viruses are not strictly host specific and can also infect cattle, goats, swine and wild ruminants. In sheep, clinical signs are related t...

  8. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  9. Doramectin and albendazole resistance in sheep in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.D.; Huijbers, R.

    2007-01-01

    A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on a sheep farm with suspected avermectin resistance. Five groups of 10 sheep were formed. Group 1 was the untreated control group. Groups 2¿5 were treated according to weight with the recommended dose of, respectively, levamisole, doramectin,

  10. REVEALING THE HISTORY OF SHEEP DOMESTICATION USING RETROVIRUS INTEGRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R.R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M.H.; Kazwala, R.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Arranz, J.J.; Ali, B.A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M.J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M.W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.

    2011-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their “retrotype” and morphological traits, dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as “primitive” on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of NW Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the vast majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

  11. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  12. Revealing the history of sheep domestication using retrovirus integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Bernardo; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick; Amorim, Antonio; Goyache, Félix; Mainland, Ingrid; Kao, Rowland R; Pemberton, Josephine M; Beraldi, Dario; Stear, Michael J; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Arranz, Juan J; Ali, Bahy A; Wang, Zhiliang; Uzun, Metehan; Dione, Michel M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik; Saarma, Urmas; Ahmad, Sohail; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Holland, Martin J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W; Kantanen, Juha; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

    2009-04-24

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication.

  13. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of 32 P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney

  14. The addition of inulin and Lactobacillus casei 01 in sheep milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Celso F; Silva, Hugo L A; Esmerino, Erick A; Rocha, Ramon S; Moraes, Jeremias; Carmo, Mariana A V; Azevedo, Luciana; Camps, Ihosvany; K D Abud, Yuri; Sant'Anna, Celso; Franco, Robson M; Freitas, Mônica Q; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Escher, Graziela B; Granato, Daniel; Senaka Ranadheera, C; Nazarro, Filomena; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-04-25

    The effect of the Lactobacillus casei 01 and inulin addition on sheep milk ice cream during storage (-18 °C, 150 days) was investigated. Control, probiotic and synbiotic ice cream (10% w/w sheep milk cream; 10% w/w sheep milk cream, L. casei 01, 6 log CFU/mL; 10% w/w inulin, L. casei 01, 6 log CFU/mL, respectively) were manufactured. Microbiological counts (probiotic count, survival after in vitro gastrointestinal resistance, Caco-2 cell adhesion), bioactivity and microstructure were analysed. Physical and textural characteristics, colour parameters, thermal analysis and organic acids/volatile compounds were also evaluated. All formulations supported L. casei 01 viability and maintained above the minimum therapeutic level (>6 log CFU/mL) during storage. Inulin did not affect L. casei 01 survival after the passage through simulated gastrointestinal tract and adhesion to Caco-2 cells while improved the ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity. L. casei 01 addition produced several volatile compounds, such as carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Also, scanning electron microscopy showed an interaction between probiotic bacteria and inulin fibre on synbiotic ice cream and the adhesion of L. casei to Caco-2 cells was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  16. Phosphorus availability from different sources for sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Abdalla, A.L.; Meirelles, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    An assay was carried out with 12 sheep to determine the endogenous losses of P and the true absorption of this element from rock phosphate (TP), diammonium phosphate (DP) and bone meal (BM). Animals received the experimental diet for 30 days and after this period 200μCi 32 P was injected in each one. Blood and faeces samples were collected to determine specific activity. Faecal endogenous P and P availability were estimated. P availability was 58.39, 69.71 and 75.03 per cent for TP, DP and BM, respectively. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  17. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautaniemi Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  18. Molecular evidence for the subspecific differentiation of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and polyphyletic origin of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Zou, Dandan; Tang, Lei; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Quekun; Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Fangdong

    2012-06-01

    Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), a Central Asian ungulate with restricted geographic distribution, exhibits unclear variation in morphology and phylogeographic structure. The composition of species and subspecies in the genus Pseudois is controversial, particularly with respect to the taxonomic designation of geographically restricted populations. Here, 26 specimens including 5 dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), which were collected from a broad geographic region in China, were analyzed for 2 mitochondrial DNA fragments (cytochrome b and control region sequences). In a pattern consistent with geographically defined subspecies, we found three deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. The currently designated two subspecies of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, were recognized in the phylogenetic trees. In addition, the Helan Mountain population showed distinct genetic characteristics from other geographic populations, and thus should be classified as a new subspecies. In contrast, dwarf blue sheep clustered closely with some blue sheep from Sichuan Province in the phylogenetic trees. Therefore, dwarf blue sheep appear to be a subset of Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. After considering both population genetic information and molecular clock analysis, we obtained some relevant molecular phylogeographic information concerning the historical biogeography of blue sheep. These results also indicate that western Sichuan was a potential refugium for blue sheep during the Quaternary period.

  19. Supplier evaluation system of the wood processing enterprise in the region of the CZ, SK, HU and AT

    OpenAIRE

    Muselíková, Vladislava

    2015-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis Supplier evaluation system of the wood processing enterprise in the region of the CR, the SK, HU and AT deals with the analysis of the current supplier evaluation system in IKEA Industry company in Malacky. The theoretical part is based on literature review and contains a description of the purchasing process and methodology for selection and evaluation of suppliers. The practical part is devoted to the analysis of the Supplier Classification in IKEA. The main output of th...

  20. HTLV-1 Infection and Neuropathogenesis in the Context of Rag1-/-γc-/- (RAG1-Hu) and BLT Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginwala, Rashida; Caruso, Breanna; Khan, Zafar K; Pattekar, Ajinkya; Chew, Glen M; Corley, Michael J; Loonawat, Ronak; Jacobson, Steven; Sreedhar, Sreesha; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Jain, Pooja

    2017-09-01

    To date, the lack of a suitable small animal model has hindered our understanding of Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 chronic infection and associated neuropathogenesis defined as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The host immune response plays a critical role in the outcome of HTLV-1 infection, which could be better tested in the context of humanized (hu) mice. Thus, we employ here the Balb/c-Rag1 -/- γc -/- or Rag1 as well as Bone marrow-Liver-Thymic (BLT) mouse models for engraftment of human CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells. Flow cytometry and histological analyses confirmed reconstitution of Rag1 and BLT mice with human immune cells. Following HTLV-1 infection, proviral load (PVL) was detected in the blood of Rag-1 and BLT hu-mice as early as 2 weeks post-infection (wpi) with sustained elevation in the subsequent weeks followed by Tax expression. Additionally, infection was compared between adult and neonatal Rag1 mice with both PVL and Tax expression considerably higher in the adult Rag1 mice as compared to the neonates. Establishment of peripheral infection led to lymphocytic infiltration with concomitant Tax expression and resulting myelin disruption within the central nervous system of infected mice. In addition, up-regulation in the expression of several immune checkpoint mediators such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), T-cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT), and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) were observed on CD8 + T cells in various organs including the CNS of infected hu-mice. Collectively, these studies represent the first attempt to establish HTLV-1 neuropathogenesis in the context of Rag-1 and BLT hu-mice as potential novel tools for understanding HTLV-1 neuropathogenesis and testing of novel therapies such as immune checkpoint blockade in the amelioration of chronic HTLV-1 infection.

  1. Tra stabilità sociale e pornografia: giochi di parole sovversivi e armonizzazione su Internet nell’era Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarena Fazzari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the policies adopted by the government of Hu Jintao (2002-2012 about the Internet. Such laws have been partially translated into Italian. Their aim alternates between the fight against pornography and the protection of social stability. The ‘digital resistance’ attempts to evade censorship through homophony, e.g. through the Baidu ten mythical creatures, the most famous being Caonima.

  2. HuD and the Survival Motor Neuron Protein Interact in Motoneurons and Are Essential for Motoneuron Development, Function, and mRNA Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao le, Thi; Duy, Phan Q; An, Min; Talbot, Jared; Iyer, Chitra C; Wolman, Marc; Beattie, Christine E

    2017-11-29

    Motoneurons establish a critical link between the CNS and muscles. If motoneurons do not develop correctly, they cannot form the required connections, resulting in movement defects or paralysis. Compromised development can also lead to degeneration because the motoneuron is not set up to function properly. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms that control vertebrate motoneuron development, particularly the later stages of axon branch and dendrite formation. The motoneuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein leading to defects in vertebrate motoneuron development and synapse formation. Here we show using zebrafish as a model system that SMN interacts with the RNA binding protein (RBP) HuD in motoneurons in vivo during formation of axonal branches and dendrites. To determine the function of HuD in motoneurons, we generated zebrafish HuD mutants and found that they exhibited decreased motor axon branches, dramatically fewer dendrites, and movement defects. These same phenotypes are present in animals expressing low levels of SMN, indicating that both proteins function in motoneuron development. HuD binds and transports mRNAs and one of its target mRNAs, Gap43 , is involved in axonal outgrowth. We found that Gap43 was decreased in both HuD and SMN mutants. Importantly, transgenic expression of HuD in motoneurons of SMN mutants rescued the motoneuron defects, the movement defects, and Gap43 mRNA levels. These data support that the interaction between SMN and HuD is critical for motoneuron development and point to a role for RBPs in SMA. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In zebrafish models of the motoneuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), motor axons fail to form the normal extent of axonal branches and dendrites leading to decreased motor function. SMA is caused by low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. We show in motoneurons in vivo that SMN interacts with the RNA binding

  3. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  4. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  5. Brucellosis outbreak in a flock of seventeen sheep in Zaria | Onoja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a case report of brucellosis in a flock of sheep in Zaria. The flock comprised of seventeen Yankasa sheep, 14 ewes and 3 rams, with history of 2 recent cases of abortion, a presented case of uterine prolapse and 3 cases of carpal hygroma (1st and 2nd sheep bilaterally and the 3rd sheep left unilaterally).

  6. A Conjugated Aptamer-Gold Nanoparticle Fluorescent Probe for Highly Sensitive Detection of rHuEPO-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyang Zhang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present here a novel conjugated aptamer-gold nanoparticle (Apt-AuNPs fluorescent probe and its application for specific detection of recombinant human erythropoietin-α (rHuEPO-α. In this nanobiosensor, 12 nm AuNPs function as both a nano-scaffold and a nano-quencher (fluorescent energy acceptor, on the surface of which the complementary sequences are linked (as cODN-AuNPs and pre-hybridized with carboxymethylfluorescein (FAM-labeled anti-rHuEPO-α aptamers. Upon target protein binding, the aptamers can be released from the AuNP surface and the fluorescence signal is restored. Key variables such as the length of linker, the hybridization site and length have been designed and optimized. Full performance evaluation including sensitivity, linear range and interference substances are also described. This nanobiosensor provides a promising approach for a simple and direct quantification of rHuEPO-α concentrations as low as 0.92 nM within a few hours.

  7. Comment on "Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century" by Hu et al. (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. McLandress

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper Hu et al. (2011 suggest that the recovery of stratospheric ozone during the first half of this century will significantly enhance free tropospheric and surface warming caused by the anthropogenic increase of greenhouse gases, with the effects being most pronounced in Northern Hemisphere middle and high latitudes. These surprising results are based on a multi-model analysis of CMIP3 model simulations with and without prescribed stratospheric ozone recovery. Hu et al. suggest that in order to properly quantify the tropospheric and surface temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery, it is necessary to run coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models with stratospheric ozone chemistry. The results of such an experiment are presented here, using a state-of-the-art chemistry-climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model. In contrast to Hu et al., we find a much smaller Northern Hemisphere tropospheric temperature response to ozone recovery, which is of opposite sign. We suggest that their result is an artifact of the incomplete removal of the large effect of greenhouse gas warming between the two different sets of models.

  8. HuR and GRSF1 modulate the nuclear export and mitochondrial localization of the lncRNA RMRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji Heon; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Panda, Amaresh C.; Munk, Rachel; Kim, Jiyoung; Curtis, Jessica; Moad, Christopher A.; Wohler, Christina M.; Indig, Fred E.; de Paula, Wilson; Dudekula, Dawood B.; De, Supriyo; Piao, Yulan; Yang, Xiaoling; Martindale, Jennifer L.; de Cabo, Rafael; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Some mitochondrial long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are encoded by nuclear DNA, but the mechanisms that mediate their transport to mitochondria are poorly characterized. Using affinity RNA pull-down followed by mass spectrometry analysis, we found two RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), HuR (human antigen R) and GRSF1 (G-rich RNA sequence-binding factor 1), that associated with the nuclear DNA-encoded lncRNA RMRP and mobilized it to mitochondria. In cultured human cells, HuR bound RMRP in the nucleus and mediated its CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1)-dependent export to the cytosol. After RMRP was imported into mitochondria, GRSF1 bound RMRP and increased its abundance in the matrix. Loss of GRSF1 lowered the mitochondrial levels of RMRP, in turn suppressing oxygen consumption rates and modestly reducing mitochondrial DNA replication priming. Our findings indicate that RBPs HuR and GRSF1 govern the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial localization of the lncRNA RMRP, which is encoded by nuclear DNA but has key functions in mitochondria. PMID:27198227

  9. Publicidad y consumo de alimentos en estudiantes de Huánuco (Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Sevillano García

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Las importantes carencias nutritivas apreciadas en estudiantes del distrito de Huánuco (Perú, junto con la publicidad televisiva de productos de dudosa calidad nutricional observada, nos llevó a plantear y desarrollar una investigación con el objeto de analizar la relación entre ambos fenómenos titulada: Influencia de los anuncios televisivos en el consumo de alimentos publicitados durante el 2010, cuyo resumen se presenta en este artículo. En la investigación planteamos un estudio correlacional con una muestra de 120 escolares de diversas instituciones educativas, a quienes se aplicaron satisfactoriamente encuestas, entrevistas y guía de evaluación física; también se analizó la publicidad emitida por los canales de televisión sobre alimentos y su contenido nutricional. El análisis inferencial aplicado fue Ji cuadrado (?2. Con esta investigación se ha demostrado que el estado de salud de los escolares está afectado, siendo muy agudo respecto a la caries dental, problema que se atribuye al consumo de ciertos alimentos. Se constata que existe relación positiva, con alta significancia estadística, entre la adherencia a los anuncios televisivos y el consumo de alimentos publicitados de alto contenido en sodio, calcio, azúcar y de calorías por los escolares estudiados; así mismo, se prueba la interdependencia entre la exposición a los anuncios televisivos y el consumo de alimentos con productos de alto contenido en grasa que merecen ser vigilados y controlados por los responsables.

  10. ZASTOSOWANIE FUNKCJONAŁU HU-WASHIZU W PLASTYCZNEJ ANALIZIE MES PŁYT GRUBYCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub LEWANDOWSKI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available W pracy sformułowano oryginalny, autorski funkcjonał dla zagadnień teorii plastyczności. Podstawą był funkcjonał Hu-Washizu z teorii sprężystości. Przyrostowa postać funkcjonału pozwala w prosty sposób budować algorytmy MES. Zastosowanie funkcjonału przedstawiono na przykładzie płyty grubej. Zastosowano model warstwowy aby uwzględnić częściowe uplastycznienie przekroju płyty. Algorytm MES dla płyty grubej zbudowano w oparciu o trójkątny trzy węzłowy element skończony z liniowymi funkcjami kształtu dla wszystkich przemieszczeń uogólnionych. Naprężenia i odkształcenia w tego typu elemencie przyjmuje się jako stałe. Przedstawiony algorytm nie wymaga żadnych dodatkowych równań teorii plastyczności i jest równoważny stowarzyszonemu prawu płynięcia plastycznego. Algorytm prowadzi do nieliniowego, przyrostowego układu równań algebraicznych, który rozwiązuje się metodą Newtona. Kilka prostych przykładów pozytywnie weryfikuje przyjęte założenia i stosowane algorytmy.

  11. Effects of Bai-Hu decoction on fever induced by lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Long Jia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the antifebrile effect and mechanisms of Bai-Hu decoction (BHD, a traditional Chinese medical (TCM prescription. The rabbits used in this study received an intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS after being orally administered with BHD, ibuprofen, or saline, and their rectal temperatures were monitored by a copper–constantan thermocouple. Concentrations of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in serum and hypothalamus were assayed using the commercially available rabbit IL-1β and TNF-α enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits following the manufacturer’s instructions. The BHD treatment group exhibited a significant fall in body temperature in both peaks compared with the LPS group (p<0.05. BHD reduced the concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α in serum, and of TNF-α in hypothalamus to control the febrile responses at 1 hour. Besides the levels of IL-1β in hypothalamus and serum, the concentration of TNF-α in hypothalamus was decreased remarkably in the BHD group than in the LPS group at 3 hours. The main findings, the partial mechanisms of BHD in reducing biphasic fever elicited by LPS, were that treatments with the crude extract of BHD could remarkably reduce the increased concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α, not only in serum but also in hypothalamus. The results indicated that BHD would be a valuable candidate for further investigation as a traditional antifebrile and anti-inflammatory natural drug.

  12. Critical experiments on low-enriched uranium oxide system with H/U=1.25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.; Rothe, R.E.; Tuck, G.

    1982-01-01

    Fifteen (15) critical experiments were performed on a horizontal split table machine using 4.48%-enriched sup(235)U uranium oxide(U 3 O 8 ). The oxide was compacted to a density of 4.68g/cm 3 and placed in 152 mm cubical aluminum cans. Water was added to achive an H/U of 1.25. Various arrays of oxide cans were distributed on each half of the split table, and the separation between halves reduced until criticality occurred. The critical table separation varied from 3.59 mm to 18.40 mm. Twelve (12) experiments required the addition of a high-enriched(-93 %sup(235)U) metal or solution driver to achieve criticality. These experiments were performed in a plastic, concrete, or thin steel reflector. Three additional experiments in the plastic reflector contained either 9.3-mm- or 24.3-mm-thick plastic moderator material between the oxide cans and did not require a driver to achieve criticality. Critical uranium driver masses ranged from 9.999 kg to 14.000 kg (solution driver), and from 25.378 kg to 29.278 kg (metal driver) for 5X5X5 arrays of uranium oxide cans. Always, one or four of these 125 cans had to be removed to make room for the drivers. Therefore, the uranium oxide masses used were 1823.8 kg and 1863.5 kg. For the moderated experiments, the uranium oxide mass ranged between 574.4 kg and 1210.0 kg. (Author)

  13. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abu Samraa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 600 sheep were collected from 5 different provinces randomly chosen in South Africa. Two sheep abattoirs (representing formal slaughter of sheep and 1 rural location (representing informal slaughter of sheep per province were also selected randomly. The serum samples were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using 2 different serological tests : an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test available as a commercial kit. This study provides the first published data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa, although positive titres have been found previously in wild felids, ferrets, chinchillas and a dog. Data on seroprevalence in sheep is considered important because consumption of mutton is universally considered to be a source of zoonotic transfer to humans. Seroprevalence in humans in South Africa was previously found to be 20% and it is postulated that this may be linked to the informal slaughter and consumption of mutton. During this study, the overall national seroprevalence per province in sheep was found to be 5.6 % (IFA and 4.3 % (ELISA, respectively. This is lower than in other countries, possibly because South Africa has an arid climate. Differences in seroprevalence in different areas studied suggested an association with the climate and a significant correlation (P > 0.05 was detected between the prevalence of T. gondii and the minimum average temperature. The seroprevalence was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01 in sheep originating from commercial farms (7.9 % than in rural sheep in the informal sector (3.4 %. Also, sheep managed extensively had a seroprevalence of 1.8 %, which was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the seroprevalence in sheep under semi-intensive or intensive management systems (5.3 %. An incidental finding of interest was the considerable movement of sheep to abattoirs and mutton after slaughter. The

  14. Host preference of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Meintjies

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep scab mites, Psoroptes ovis, collected from a Merino donor sheep, were used to infest Merino and Dorper sheep, and Angora and Boer goats. Mites were placed on the sheep on 1 or 2 occasions and on 5 occasions on the goats. All the animals were examined at regular intervals for the presence of scab lesions and living mites. Both sheep breeds developed lesions, but those on the Merino sheep were always larger than those on the Dorper sheep at the same intervals after infestation. None of the goats developed lesions or showed signs of irritation, or harboured any mites.

  15. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K

    2010-10-01

    Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.

  17. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  18. HuMiTar: A sequence-based method for prediction of human microRNA targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ke

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRs are small noncoding RNAs that bind to complementary/partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes to regulate protein production of the target transcript and to induce mRNA degradation or mRNA cleavage. The ability to perform accurate, high-throughput identification of physiologically active miR targets would enable functional characterization of individual miRs. Current target prediction methods include traditional approaches that are based on specific base-pairing rules in the miR's seed region and implementation of cross-species conservation of the target site, and machine learning (ML methods that explore patterns that contrast true and false miR-mRNA duplexes. However, in the case of the traditional methods research shows that some seed region matches that are conserved are false positives and that some of the experimentally validated target sites are not conserved. Results We present HuMiTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of miRs, which is based on a scoring function that considers base-pairing for both seed and non-seed positions for human miR-mRNA duplexes. Our design shows that certain non-seed miR nucleotides, such as 14, 18, 13, 11, and 17, are characterized by a strong bias towards formation of Watson-Crick pairing. We contrasted HuMiTar with several representative competing methods on two sets of human miR targets and a set of ten glioblastoma oncogenes. Comparison with the two best performing traditional methods, PicTar and TargetScanS, and a representative ML method that considers the non-seed positions, NBmiRTar, shows that HuMiTar predictions include majority of the predictions of the other three methods. At the same time, the proposed method is also capable of finding more true positive targets as a trade-off for an increased number of predictions. Genome-wide predictions show that the proposed method is characterized by 1.99 signal

  19. DNA clasping by mycobacterial HU: the C-terminal region of HupB mediates increased specificity of DNA binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HU a small, basic, histone like protein is a major component of the bacterial nucleoid. E. coli has two subunits of HU coded by hupA and hupB genes whereas Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb has only one subunit of HU coded by ORF Rv2986c (hupB gene. One noticeable feature regarding Mtb HupB, based on sequence alignment of HU orthologs from different bacteria, was that HupB(Mtb bears at its C-terminal end, a highly basic extension and this prompted an examination of its role in Mtb HupB function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With this objective two clones of Mtb HupB were generated; one expressing full length HupB protein (HupB(Mtb and another which expresses only the N terminal region (first 95 amino acid of hupB (HupB(MtbN. Gel retardation assays revealed that HupB(MtbN is almost like E. coli HU (heat stable nucleoid protein in terms of its DNA binding, with a binding constant (K(d for linear dsDNA greater than 1000 nM, a value comparable to that obtained for the HUalphaalpha and HUalphabeta forms. However CTR (C-terminal Region of HupB(Mtb imparts greater specificity in DNA binding. HupB(Mtb protein binds more strongly to supercoiled plasmid DNA than to linear DNA, also this binding is very stable as it provides DNase I protection even up to 5 minutes. Similar results were obtained when the abilities of both proteins to mediate protection against DNA strand cleavage by hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton's reaction, were compared. It was also observed that both the proteins have DNA binding preference for A:T rich DNA which may occur at the regulatory regions of ORFs and the oriC region of Mtb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data thus point that HupB(Mtb may participate in chromosome organization in-vivo, it may also play a passive, possibly an architectural role.

  20. ORIGIN, HISTORY AND CURRENT SITUATION OF PELIBUEY SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio Ubaldo Aguilar Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic sheep (Ovis aries is descendant from Asian mouflon and was domesticated in the Near East. Later, sheep began its dissemination to West Africa, where it is believed that the ancestry of Pelibuey sheep came from. Pelibuey sheep were brought to America by the Spaniards to feed the crew of the boats. It is unclear whether these animals came directly from West Africa or from the Canary Islands. It is considered that Pelibuey sheep entered to Mexico between 1930 and 1940, although some authors think that this breed already existed in the country in the late nineteenth century. Since 1963, Pelibuey sheep has been the most studied breed in Mexico, due to its ability to produce in tropics, as well as its high adaptability to most agro-ecological zones of the country. A brief review about productive and reproductive traits in current Pelibuey herds, allowed to conclude that they are very similar to those of the first sheep studied almost 50 years ago. Currently, the breed has been subjected to  non-planned crosses with other breeds to increase productivity, which puts in risk this important genetic resource. Therefore, there is a need to realize the conservation of the breed.

  1. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-07-01

    Bighornsheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are four- to eightfold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (Psheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  2. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus from organic farms in Croatia: phylogenetic inferences support restriction to sheep and sheep keds and close relationship with trypanosomes from other ruminant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinković, Franjo; Matanović, Krešimir; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Garcia, Herakles A; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium is a parasite of sheep transmitted by sheep keds, the sheep-restricted ectoparasite Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). Sheep keds were 100% prevalent in sheep from five organic farms in Croatia, Southeastern Europe, whereas trypanosomes morphologically compatible with T. melophagium were 86% prevalent in the guts of the sheep keds. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses using sequences of small subunit rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spliced leader, and internal transcribed spacer 1 of the rDNA distinguished T. melophagium from all allied trypanosomes from other ruminant species and placed the trypanosome in the subgenus Megatrypanum. Trypanosomes from sheep keds from Croatia and Scotland, the only available isolates for comparison, shared identical sequences. All biologic and phylogenetic inferences support the restriction of T. melophagium to sheep and, especially, to the sheep keds. The comparison of trypanosomes from sheep, cattle, and deer from the same country, which was never achieved before this work, strongly supported the host-restricted specificity of trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum. Our findings indicate that with the expansion of organic farms, both sheep keds and T. melophagium may re-emerge as parasitic infections of sheep. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  3. miR-29b, miR-205 and miR-221 enhance chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in HuH28 human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Okamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is highly resistant to chemotherapy, including gemcitabine (Gem treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous, non-coding, short RNAs that can regulate multiple genes expression. Some miRNAs play important roles in the chemosensitivity of tumors. Here, we examined the relationship between miRNA expression and the sensitivity of CCA cells to Gem. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to determine the miRNA expression profiles of two CCA cell lines, HuH28 and HuCCT1. To determine the effect of candidate miRNAs on Gem sensitivity, expression of each candidate miRNA was modified via either transfection of a miRNA mimic or transfection of an anti-oligonucleotide. Ontology-based programs were used to identify potential target genes of candidate miRNAs that were confirmed to affect the Gem sensitivity of CCA cells. RESULTS: HuCCT1 cells were more sensitive to Gem than were HuH28 cells, and 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed whose ratios over ± 2log2 between HuH28 and HuCCT1. Among these 18 miRNAs, ectopic overexpression of each of three downregulated miRNAs in HuH28 (miR-29b, miR-205, miR-221 restored Gem sensitivity to HuH28. Suppression of one upregulated miRNA in HuH28, miR-125a-5p, inhibited HuH28 cell proliferation independently to Gem treatment. Selective siRNA-mediated downregulation of either of two software-predicted targets, PIK3R1 (target of miR-29b and miR-221 or MMP-2 (target of miR-29b, also conferred Gem sensitivity to HuH28. CONCLUSIONS: miRNA expression profiling was used to identify key miRNAs that regulate Gem sensitivity in CCA cells, and software that predicts miRNA targets was used to identify promising target genes for anti-tumor therapies.

  4. Effect of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 on quorum sensing and on the production of quorum sensing-mediated virulence factors by Vibrio harveyi

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Divya; Smoum, Reem; Breuer, Aviva; Mechoulam, Raphael; Steinberg, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacterial populations communicate through the cell density-dependent mechanism of quorum sensing (QS). Vibrio harveyi, one of the best studied model organisms for QS, was used to explore effects of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 on QS and different QS-regulated physiological processes in bacteria. Results Analysis of QS-regulated bioluminescence in wild-type and mutant strains of V. harveyi revealed that HU-210 affects the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) pathway, one of three known QS casca...

  5. Hair sheep in Mexico and Venezuela: Reproduction in Pelibuey and West African Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, J.; Lopez Barbella, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    The literature review is largely limited to recent research conducted on hair sheep in Mexico and Venezuela. Whereas reproduction is the general topic reviewed, much of the research quoted deals with the influence of nutrition, management, climate and disease on various indices of reproduction in the ewe and ram. Areas where information is minimal are also identified, as are research topics which need to be addressed. (author). 90 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Changes in Cellular mRNA Stability, Splicing, and Polyadenylation through HuR Protein Sequestration by a Cytoplasmic RNA Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Barnhart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of RNA viruses on the posttranscriptional regulation of cellular gene expression is unclear. Sindbis virus causes a dramatic relocalization of the cellular HuR protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in infected cells. This is to the result of the expression of large amounts of viral RNAs that contain high-affinity HuR binding sites in their 3′ UTRs effectively serving as a sponge for the HuR protein. Sequestration of HuR by Sindbis virus is associated with destabilization of cellular mRNAs that normally bind HuR and rely on it to regulate their expression. Furthermore, significant changes can be observed in nuclear alternative polyadenylation and splicing events on cellular pre-mRNAs as a result of sequestration of HuR protein by the 3′ UTR of transcripts of this cytoplasmic RNA virus. These studies suggest a molecular mechanism of virus-host interaction that probably has a significant impact on virus replication, cytopathology, and pathogenesis.

  7. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  8. Vitamin and water requirements of dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Bovera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the physiological role and the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K, vitamin C  and water in dairy sheep. Regarding the vitamins, classical clinical symptoms and/or non-specific parameters, such as  lowered production and reproduction rates are associated with their deficiencies or excesses. Until the last decade,  these compounds were considered important only for the prevention of such alterations; currently, there is more  emphasis on their function as the vitamins can play a key role in optimising animal health. In this respect, of particu-  lar interest is the action of the antioxidant vitamins (especially vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in improving  the efficiency of the immune system. 

  9. Changes in hypothalamus in continuously irradiated sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendarcik, J.; Stanikova, A.; Rajtova, V.; Molnarova, M.

    1983-01-01

    Neurosecretion, PAS-positive mucopolysaccharides and the Nissl substance were studied in the neurons of the rostral, medial and caudal hypothalamus of continuously irradiated ewes. The study was performed on 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed of a live weight of 34 kg. The animals were in the period of physiological anoestrus and their age was two to three years. The first group of six ewes was the control. The second group included 15 sheep irradiated with a total dose of 6.7 Gy (700 R) for seven days. Co 60 was used as the source of irradiation. The animals of this group were killed seven days following treatment. The ewes in the third group were left for the study of mortality. The brains were perfused with 2% buffered paraformaldehyde immediately after the bleeding of the sheep; then the brains were removed from the skulls and fixed in buffered picroformol. Paraffin slices were stained with haematoxylin-eosine, aldehyde-fuchsine and alcian blue for neurosecretion, by the PAS reaction for mucopolysaccharides and with cresyl violet for the Nissl substance. It was found that irradiation of the whole body inhibited the activity of neurosecretory cells in the rostral and medial hypothalamus, thus reducing neurosecretion. These regions also showed a reduced activity of the PAS reaction used for the demonstration of mucopolysaccharides. The observed changes also included damage of the endothelium of blood vessels with the occurrence of erythrocyte extravasates and with haemorrhages. In this way, the trophism of neurosecretory cells was affected, which is ascribed to the decrease in the amount of neurosecretory material. In the caudal hypothalamus, neurosecretion and PAS-positivity were slightly stimulated by irradiation. The Nissl substance disappeared as a result of irradiation. (author)

  10. Study on common phenotypic traits for purchasing sheep and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected sheep purchased for various purposes were studied. The study methods ... household economy in many countries. Ethiopia has ... Among these are mentioned skull morphology and size, body length, wither height, ear and tail length ...

  11. Genomewide association study of body weight traits in Baluchi sheep

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assisted selection (MAS) and gene-based selection in sheep breeding strategies. ... control criteria (genotyping frequency >95%, minor allele frequency >0.05 and .... of roles in the body: food digestion, regulation of other proteins and ...

  12. OSTEOPENIA in cancellous bone of sheep induced by Glucocorticoid alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, L.; Bollen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is a great need for suitable large animal models that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans, and that they have adequate bone size for bone prosthesis and biomaterial research. Previous investigations have shown that osteoporotic sheep model requires glucocorticoid (GC......) microarchitectural properties and mechanical properties of sheep cancellous bone after a 7 months steroid treatment; and thus to validate a large animal model for orthopaedic implant/biomaterial research. Materials and Methods: Eighteen female sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups: group 1 (GC-1) received GC......, osteocalcin was significantly reduced after 7 months but a rebound phenomenon was observed 3 months after cessation of GC. In conclusion, this study has validated an osteopenia sheep model. Bone quality was significantly reduced following a 7 months GC-treatment and recovered after further 3 month observation...

  13. Persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Edul, Vanina Siham Kanoore; Pozo, Mario Omar; Murias, Gastón; Canullán, Carlos Manuel; Martins, Enrique Francisco; Ferrara, Gonzalo; Canales, Héctor Saul; Laporte, Mercedes; Estenssoro, Elisa; Ince, Can

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that persistent villi hypoperfusion explains intramucosal acidosis after endotoxemic shock resuscitation. DESIGN: Controlled experimental study. SETTING: University-based research laboratory. SUBJECTS: A total of 14 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated sheep.

  14. Biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of crosslinked dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanatecrcrosslinked DSC (HDSC)

  15. The morphology of skin sheep of different genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    LADYSH I.A.

    2011-01-01

    The peculiarities of the morphology by the merino sheep skin Askania and Prekos breed in the different natureclimatic conditions were studied. The breeds and age peculiarities of the morphology skin layers were established.

  16. Ethnoveterinary practices among sheep rearers in Ona-Ara Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Keywords: Ethnoveterinary medicine, Ethnoveterinary knowledge, Nigeria, Oyo State, Sheep. Received 14-10-2012 ... can be used to provide economical solutions to improve productivity of ... Other factors included road traffic accidents, theft.

  17. Detection of phylogenetic extraction of sheep populations in East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... populations in East and South Asia based on fuzzy ... Based on the previous research, according to the Hierarchy clustering, the sheep populations in East and South ... have been known and some data have been obtained,.

  18. APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE PRACTICAI- APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP BREEDING. C.A. van der ..... There is, however, no practical evidence in this ... 1910" Comparison of three Australian merino strains for wool and body traits.

  19. The efficacy of showers for control of ectoparasites of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, A C; Quick, M P

    1978-01-21

    Ectoparasites of sheep in Britain include the tick Ixodes ricinus, the blowfly, Lucilia sericata, the ked, Melophagus ovinus and the lice, Damalinia ovis and Linognathus ovillus. The most important ectoparasite, however, is the mite Psoroptes communis ovis which causes sheep scab. This notifiable disease was eradicated from Britain in 1952 but was reported again in 1973. The control of ectoparasites depends largely on the efficient application of insecticide to the fleece and skin. Plunge dipping in a bath is generally regarded as the most efficient method and is compulsory for the control of sheep scab but it is not always the most convenient. After the eradication of sheep scab in 1952 plunge dipping was no longer compulsory and jetting, spraying and showering techniques were then employed for the other ectoparasites.

  20. Do Welsh hill farmers dream of radioactive sheep?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Gwyn; Williams, Aled; Last, D.

    1993-01-01

    A low-power portable device is being used successfully in North Wales to provide precise position-logging of sheep grazing on upland hill pastures following irradiation by fallout from the Chernobyl reactor. This follows the discovery that radiation levels appear to vary significantly among sheep from the same flock, suggesting hot-spots of radiation. The design and execution of the system is described. (UK)

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF UDDER MORPHOLOGY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić, Zoran; Mioč, Boro; Vnučec, Ivan; Pavić, Vesna; Konjačić, Miljenko

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, selection of dairy sheep breeds was focused almost exclusively on increasing the amount of milk produced and so today they produce several times more milk than breeds selected for meat and wool. However, due to the permanent striving for increasing sheep milk production udder weight becomes too great, and suspensory system can not withstand this overweight so it ruptures more often. That significantly shortens the duration of animal’s production life and adversely affects udde...

  2. MRI of experimental focal cerebral ischemia in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerschler, A.; Waldmin, D.; Gille, U.; Leipzig Univ.; Zimmer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: With respect to the specific characteristic of rete mirabile epidurale rostrale in sheep, the aim of this study was to investigate the use of time of flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to observe vascular anatomy and to validate MCA occlusion in a new model of experimental focal cerebral ischemia by permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in sheep (designed to study stroke therapy using autologous stem cells from umbilical cord blood). Furthermore, we wanted to assess the extent and natural time course of ischemic focal brain injury in sheep using functional and morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Method: 13 Merino sheep were examined. In 4 of the animals all, in 5 sheep 1 or 2 MCA branches were occluded and in 1 one case touched (sham operation). 4 controls did not undergo a surgical procedure. 23 MRI sessions were performed in 10 sheep. These sessions included T1, T2, T2 * sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and TOF MRA before and 2 - 46 days after the onset of stroke using a 1.5T clinical MR scanner. Corrosion casts of the cerebral arteries of 3 sheep were prepared and compared to MRA. Results: The MRA visualized the vessel anatomy or occlusion distal to the rete mirabile. Anatomical variants concerning the variant origin of the MCA and inconstant arteria choroidea rostralis and communicans rostralis were revealed. Sheep with occluded left MCA showed space occupying lesions with a drop in ADC values. Depending on the number of preserved MCA branches (0; 1; 2), highly significant (p < 0.001) differences in lesion size (21 ± 5.7; 13; 1.7 ± 1.3 ml) could be found. No indication of ischemia but minimal contusion damage was observed in the sham operated animal. (orig.)

  3. Innate Immune Activation Can Trigger Experimental Spondyloarthritis in HLA-B27/Huβ2m Transgenic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N. van Tok

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spondyloarthritis (SpA does not display the typical features of auto-immune disease. Despite the strong association with MHC class I, CD8+ T cells are not required for disease induction in the HLA-B27/Huβ2m transgenic rats. We used Lewis HLA-B27/Huβ2m transgenic rats [21-3 × 283-2]F1, HLA-B7/Huβ2m transgenic rats [120-4 × 283-2]F1, and wild-type rats to test our hypothesis that SpA may be primarily driven by the innate immune response. In vitro, splenocytes were stimulated with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cytokine expression and production was measured. In vivo, male and female rats were immunized with 30, 60, or 90 µg of heat-inactivated M. tuberculosis and clinically monitored for spondylitis and arthritis development. After validation of the model, we tested whether prophylactic and therapeutic TNF targeting affected spondylitis and arthritis. In vitro stimulation with heat-inactivated M. tuberculosis strongly induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-6, IL-1α, and IL-1β, in the HLA-B27 transgenic rats compared with controls. In vivo immunization induced an increased spondylitis and arthritis incidence and an accelerated and synchronized onset of spondylitis and arthritis in HLA-B27 transgenic males and females. Moreover, immunization overcame the protective effect of orchiectomy. Prophylactic TNF targeting resulted in delayed spondylitis and arthritis development and reduced arthritis severity, whereas therapeutic TNF blockade did not affect spondylitis and arthritis severity. Collectively, these data indicate that innate immune activation plays a role in the initiation of HLA-B27-associated disease and allowed to establish a useful in vivo model to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease initiation and progression.

  4. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  5. Effect of chronic copper poisoning on the kidneys of sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopinath, C; Hall, G A; Howell, J M.C.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of copper poisoning on kidneys was studied in 16 housed sheep given a daily drench of copper sulfate at the rate of 20 mg CuSO/sub 4/5H/sub 2/O per kg body weight. Seven similar sheep were kept as controls. All sheep were bled and weighed at weekly intervals, urine was collected via a catheter from groups of sheep at varying times and animals were killed in groups throughout the experiment. Nine sheep were allowed to develop the hemolytic crisis. Prior to hemolysis copper levels in the liver and copper and iron levels in the kidneys rose significantly, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic granules became numerous in the epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT), but significant changes were not detected by the histochemical methods used nor was kidney function impaired. In the animals that developed hemolysis there was degeneration, necrosis and loss of enzyme activity from the cells of the PCT. The tubule cells contained large amounts of hemoglobin, copper and iron and much of this material seemed to be localized in intracytoplasmic granules that were probably lysosomes. There was marked functional impairment at this time and blood urea levels began to rise. These lesions, an interstitial fibroblastic and inflammatory cell response together with changes suggestive of tubular regeneration were seen in the posthemolytic group of sheep.

  6. Current practices on sheep and beef farms in New Zealand for depriving sheep of feed prior to transport for slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M W; Gregory, N G; Muir, P D

    2012-05-01

    To assess current practices on sheep and beef farms that deprive sheep of feed prior to transport to facilitate effluent management and processing at slaughter. A national telephone survey of 122 sheep and 346 sheep and beef farmers was conducted in March and April 2010. They were asked how long sheep were held off green feed prior to transport and why, what environment the sheep were held in, and if that period ever varied. Of the 468 respondents, 303 (65%) removed their sheep from green feed 3-12 h before transport for slaughter, with longer periods reported in the South than North Island. The main reasons given were to reduce the volume of effluent for transport operators (n=174), to prevent wool staining during transport (n=173), and that sheep were better suited to load and travel empty (n=171). Water was provided during feed deprivation by 313 farmers. The period of food deprivation could be altered in response to requirements of transporters and processors, the weather, and by the class of stock involved, although 115/468 (25%) farmers stated that they never changed their normal protocol. Amongst survey respondents, common practices compared favourably with recommendations to reduce effluent during transportation. Previous studies have investigated the effects of fasting lambs whilst in lairage prior to slaughter and focussed on carcass quality such as carcass weight and tenderness. Changes in liveweight and gastrointestinal tract contents suggest feed deprivation reduces the risk of defaecation and urination contributing to the accumulation of effluent during transport and of carcass contamination during processing. However, the point at which that risk is acceptable to transport and processing is unclear. Fasting results in physiological changes indicative of altered metabolism but it is not clear when those changes are indicative of adaptation to food deprivation or metabolic depletion and compromised welfare. There may be opportunities to improve the

  7. HuR and podoplanin expression is associated with a high risk of malignant transformation in patients with oral preneoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Yanagawa-Matsuda, Aya; Higashino, Fumihiro; Hida, Kyoko; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2016-11-01

    The risk of malignant transformation in oral preneoplastic lesions (OPLs) is challenging to assess. The objective of the present study was to determine the expression of ELAV like RNA binding protein 1 (HuR) and podoplanin in OPLs, and to evaluate the use of each protein as biomarkers for the risk assessment of malignant transformations. Immunohistochemistry for HuR and podoplanin was performed on the tissues of 51 patients with OPL, including cases of low grade dysplasia (LGD) and high grade dysplasia (HGD). The association between the protein expression patterns and clinicopathological parameters, including oral cancer free survival (OCFS) time, was analyzed during the follow-up period. HuR and podoplanin expression was observed in 28 (55%) and 36 (71%) of 51 patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the expression of HuR and podoplanin was associated with the risk of progression to oral cancer (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that HuR and podoplanin expression was associated with a 2.93-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-10.34; P=0.055) and 2.06-fold (95% CI, 0.55-8.01; P=0.283) increase in risk of malignant transformation, respectively. The risk of OPL malignant transformation was considerably increased with the coexpression of HuR and podoplanin compared with the histological grading (95% CI, 1.64-23.59; P=0.005). The results of the present study demonstrated that the expression of HuR and podoplanin associates with malignant transformation and suggests that the proteins may be used as biomarkers to identify OPL patients with an increased risk of cancer development.

  8. HuB (elavl2 mRNA is restricted to the germ cells by post-transcriptional mechanisms including stabilisation of the message by DAZL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E Wiszniak

    Full Text Available The ability of germ cells to carry out a gene regulatory program distinct from the surrounding somatic tissue, and their capacity to specify an entire new organism has made them a focus of many studies that seek to understand how specific regulatory mechanisms, particularly post-transcriptional mechanisms, contribute to cell fate. In zebrafish, germ cells are specified through the inheritance of cytoplasmic determinants, termed the germ plasm, which contains a number of maternal mRNAs and proteins. Investigation of several of these messages has revealed that the restricted localisation of these mRNAs to the germ plasm and subsequent germ cells is due to cis-acting sequence elements present in their 3'UTRs. Here we show that a member of the Hu family of RNA-binding proteins, HuB, is maternally provided in the zebrafish embryo and exhibits germ cell specific expression during embryogenesis. Restriction of HuB mRNA to the germ cells is dependent on a number of sequence elements in its 3'UTR, which act to degrade the mRNA in the soma and stabilise it in the germ cells. In addition, we show that the germ cell specific RNA-binding protein DAZL is able to promote HuB mRNA stability and translation in germ cells, and further demonstrate that these activities require a 30 nucleotide element in the 3'UTR. Our study suggests that DAZL specifically binds the HuB 3'UTR and protects the message from degradation and/or enhances HuB translation, leading to the germ cell specific expression of HuB protein.

  9. Treatment of depression with Chai Hu Shu Gan San: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 42 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Xu, Xia; Zhang, Jinping; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2018-02-17

    Depression is a common mental disorder. Chai Hu Shu Gan San, a traditional Chinese medicine, is used to treat depression empirically. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Chai Hu Shu Gan San in treating depression. Several databases, including PubMed, China National Knowledge Internet, Wanfang, Chongqing VIP, and the Cochrane library, were systematically searched from their date of foundation to January 1, 2017. In this review, wehave included randomized control trials that compared Chai Hu Shu Gan San (or its combination with a regular Western medicine) with a regular Western medicine alone for the treatment of depression. Two investigators independently extracted and analyzed the data using RevMan 5.2.0 software. Mean difference (with a 95% confidence interval) was used as efficacy indices for outcomes. We included 42 studies involving 3234 patients with depression in 15 different types of diseases. Meta analyses showed better effect of Chai Hu Shu Gan San than fluoxetine for pure depression (MD = - 1.59, from - 2.82 to - 0.37, 4 trials, I 2  = 26%), for post-stroke depression (MD = - 4.20, from - 6.20 to - 2.19, 7 trials, I 2  = 96%), and for postpartum depression (MD = - 4.10, from - 7.48 to - 0.72 7 trials, I 2  = 86%). None of the articles reported severe adverse events of oral administration of Chai Hu Shu Gan San. Furthermore, any adverse effects of using Chai Hu Shu Gan San alone were fewer than those of regular Western medicines. This review found that Chai Hu Shu Gan San has some advantages in treating depression, especially post-stroke depression and post-partum depression. A meticulously designed and conducted randomized control trial is needed for further evaluation.

  10. One of the Two Genes Encoding Nucleoid-Associated HU Proteins in Streptomyces coelicolor Is Developmentally Regulated and Specifically Involved in Spore Maturation▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Paola; Larsson, Jessica; Bucca, Giselda; Laing, Emma; Smith, Colin P.; Flärdh, Klas

    2009-01-01

    Streptomyces genomes encode two homologs of the nucleoid-associated HU proteins. One of them, here designated HupA, is of a conventional type similar to E. coli HUα and HUβ, while the other, HupS, is a two-domain protein. In addition to the N-terminal part that is similar to that of HU proteins, it has a C-terminal domain that is similar to the alanine- and lysine-rich C termini of eukaryotic linker histones. Such two-domain HU proteins are found only among Actinobacteria. In this phylum some organisms have only a single HU protein of the type with a C-terminal histone H1-like domain (e.g., Hlp in Mycobacterium smegmatis), while others have only a single conventional HU. Yet others, including the streptomycetes, produce both types of HU proteins. We show here that the two HU genes in Streptomyces coelicolor are differentially regulated and that hupS is specifically expressed during sporulation, while hupA is expressed in vegetative hyphae. The developmental upregulation of hupS occurred in sporogenic aerial hyphal compartments and was dependent on the developmental regulators whiA, whiG, and whiI. HupS was found to be nucleoid associated in spores, and a hupS deletion mutant had an average nucleoid size in spores larger than that in the parent strain. The mutant spores were also defective in heat resistance and spore pigmentation, although they possessed apparently normal spore walls and displayed no increased sensitivity to detergents. Overall, the results show that HupS is specifically involved in sporulation and may affect nucleoid architecture and protection in spores of S. coelicolor. PMID:19717607

  11. pp32 (ANP32A expression inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth and induces gemcitabine resistance by disrupting HuR binding to mRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy K Williams

    Full Text Available The expression of protein phosphatase 32 (PP32, ANP32A is low in poorly differentiated pancreatic cancers and is linked to the levels of HuR (ELAV1, a predictive marker for gemcitabine response. In pancreatic cancer cells, exogenous overexpression of pp32 inhibited cell growth, supporting its long-recognized role as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer. In chemotherapeutic sensitivity screening assays, cells overexpressing pp32 were selectively resistant to the nucleoside analogs gemcitabine and cytarabine (ARA-C, but were sensitized to 5-fluorouracil; conversely, silencing pp32 in pancreatic cancer cells enhanced gemcitabine sensitivity. The cytoplasmic levels of pp32 increased after cancer cells are treated with certain stressors, including gemcitabine. pp32 overexpression reduced the association of HuR with the mRNA encoding the gemcitabine-metabolizing enzyme deoxycytidine kinase (dCK, causing a significant reduction in dCK protein levels. Similarly, ectopic pp32 expression caused a reduction in HuR binding of mRNAs encoding tumor-promoting proteins (e.g., VEGF and HuR, while silencing pp32 dramatically enhanced the binding of these mRNA targets. Low pp32 nuclear expression correlated with high-grade tumors and the presence of lymph node metastasis, as compared to patients' tumors with high nuclear pp32 expression. Although pp32 expression levels did not enhance the predictive power of cytoplasmic HuR status, nuclear pp32 levels and cytoplasmic HuR levels associated significantly in patient samples. Thus, we provide novel evidence that the tumor suppressor function of pp32 can be attributed to its ability to disrupt HuR binding to target mRNAs encoding key proteins for cancer cell survival and drug efficacy.

  12. EVALUATION OF ELISA METHOD TO DETECTION OF COW β-LACTOGLOBULIN IN SHEEP MILK AND SHEEP MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Paulov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to optimalize the ELISA method to detect the adulteration of sheep milk and sheep milk products by cow milk in the laboratory. We have focused on laboratory testing of ELISA kit (β-Lactoglobulin ELISA Set, SEDIUM R&D for detection of cow β-Lg in sheep milk order to obtain high-quality, reliable and economically advantageous method suitable for routine use in practice. The results shown that for the quality of adulteration determination  it is necessary to verify the sensitivity of applied kit by the samples dilution in accordance with the producer declared quantification range contained in the manual ELISA kit. The starting point for obtaining of relevant data was to create separate regression curves with high deter­mination coefficient, which allowed to quickly and easily detect the cow milk additions in sheep milk, cloddish sheep and Slovak sheep cheese. doi:10.5219/78  

  13. Efficacy of the Frame and Hu mathematical model for the quantitative analysis of agents influencing growth of chick embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korohoda, K.; Czyz, J.

    1994-01-01

    The experiments on the effect of various sera and substratum surface area upon growth of chick embryo fibroblasts-like in secondary cultures are described and discussed on the grounds of a mathematical model for growth of anchorage-dependent cells proposed by Frame and Hu. The model and presented results demonstrate the mutual independence of the effects of agent influencing of rate of cell proliferation (i.e. accelerating or retarding growth) and the agents that modify the limitation of cell proliferation (i.e. maximum cell density at confluence). The model proposed by Frame and Hu due to its relative simplicity offers and easy mode of description and quantitative evaluation of experiments concerning cell growth regulation. It is shown that various sera added at constant concentration significantly modify the rate of cell proliferation with little effect upon the maximum cell density attainable. The cells grew much more slowly in the presence of calf serum than in the presence of chick serum and the addition of iron and zinc complexes to calf serum significantly accelerated cell growth. An increase in the substratum surface area by the addition of glass wool to culture vessels significantly increased cell density per constant volume of medium even when retardation of growth was observed. The results presented point to the need of direct cell counting for estimation of cell growth curves and discussion of effects of agents influencing parameters characterizing cell proliferation. (author). 34 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to pneumonia caused by Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Silflow, R M; Lagerquist, J E

    1996-10-01

    We evaluated susceptibility of Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) to bacterial pneumonia induced by two strains of Pasteurella haemolytica of domestic sheep origin by evaluating the sensitivity of blood neutrophils of eight Dall sheep to lysis by cytotoxins of P. haemolytica, and by intratracheal inoculation of three Dall sheep, two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and two domestic sheep with 3.7 x 10(6) or 2.5 x 10(7) colony forming units of P. haemolytica. Neutrophils from the Dall sheep were more sensitive to lysis by cytotoxins from supernatants of a P. haemolytica, biotype A, serotype 2 (A2), of domestic sheep origin, than were neutrophils from six bighorn sheep. This cytotoxic bacterium was the same isolate that was used for intratracheal inoculation of two Dall sheep and two domestic sheep. Inoculation of this cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 resulted in fatal fibrinopurulent pleuropneumonia in the first Dall sheep within 24 hr of inoculation, and pneumonic lesions in the second Dall sheep before it was euthanized 52 hr after inoculation. This strain of P. haemolytica A2 did not cause respiratory disease when inoculated into two domestic sheep. A noncytotoxic strain of P. haemolytica; biotype T, serotype 3,4,10 of domestic sheep origin did not result in pneumonia in the third Dall sheep or two bighorn sheep. Prior to inoculation, P. haemolytica, biotype T isolates were obtained from all three Dall sheep, but none of these isolates was cytotoxic. At necropsy, cytotoxic P. haemolytica A2 was isolated from lungs and other tissues of the two pneumonic Dall sheep. Based on these results, we conclude that Dall sheep appear to be at least as sensitive as bighorn sheep to pneumonia caused by P. haemolytica A2 of domestic sheep origin. Because in vitro and in vivo results appear closely correlated in this and other studies, we believe with additional evaluation and standardization, neutrophil cytotoxicity tests may serve as a substitute for live animal challenges in future

  15. HuR cytoplasmic expression is associated with increased cyclin A expression and poor outcome with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peir-In; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Hsu, Han-Ping; Chen, Li-Tzon; Lin, Ching-Yih; Tai, Chein; Lin, Chun-Mao; Li, Chien-Feng; Li, Wei-Ming; Wang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Ting-Feng; Wu, Wen-Ren; Liao, Alex C; Shen, Kun-Hung; Wei, Yu-Ching; Hsing, Chung-Hsi

    2012-01-01

    HuR is an RNA-binding protein that post-transcriptionally modulates the expressions of various target genes implicated in carcinogenesis, such as CCNA2 encoding cyclin A. No prior study attempted to evaluate the significance of HuR expression in a large cohort with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs). In total, 340 cases of primary localized UTUC without previous or concordant bladder carcinoma were selected. All of these patients received ureterectomy or radical nephroureterectomy with curative intents. Pathological slides were reviewed, and clinical findings were collected. Immunostaining for HuR and cyclin A was performed and evaluated by using H-score. The results of cytoplasmic HuR and nuclear cyclin A expressions were correlated with disease-specific survival (DSS), metastasis-free survival (MeFS), urinary bladder recurrence-free survival (UBRFS), and various clinicopathological factors. HuR cytoplasmic expression was significantly related to the pT status, lymph node metastasis, a higher histological grade, the pattern of invasion, vascular and perineurial invasion, and cyclin A expression (p = 0.005). Importantly, HuR cytoplasmic expression was strongly associated with a worse DSS (p < 0.0001), MeFS (p < 0.0001), and UBRFS (p = 0.0370) in the univariate analysis, and the first two results remained independently predictive of adverse outcomes (p = 0.038, relative risk [RR] = 1.996 for DSS; p = 0.027, RR = 1.880 for MeFS). Cyclin A nuclear expression was associated with a poor DSS (p = 0.0035) and MeFS (p = 0.0015) in the univariate analysis but was not prognosticatory in the multivariate analyses. High-risk patients (pT3 or pT4 with/without nodal metastasis) with high HuR cytoplasmic expression had better DSS if adjuvant chemotherapy was performed (p = 0.015). HuR cytoplasmic expression was correlated with adverse phenotypes and cyclin A overexpression and also independently predictive of worse DSS and MeFS, suggesting its roles in

  16. The RNA binding protein HuR differentially regulates unique subsets of mRNAs in estrogen receptor negative and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discordance between steady-state levels of mRNAs and protein has been attributed to posttranscriptional control mechanisms affecting mRNA stability and translation. Traditional methods of genome wide microarray analysis, profiling steady-state levels of mRNA, may miss important mRNA targets owing to significant posttranscriptional gene regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs. Methods The ribonomic approach, utilizing RNA immunoprecipitation hybridized to microarray (RIP-Chip, provides global identification of putative endogenous mRNA targets of different RBPs. HuR is an RBP that binds to the AU-rich elements (ARE of labile mRNAs, such as proto-oncogenes, facilitating their translation into protein. HuR has been shown to play a role in cancer progression and elevated levels of cytoplasmic HuR directly correlate with increased invasiveness and poor prognosis for many cancers, including those of the breast. HuR has been described to control genes in several of the acquired capabilities of cancer and has been hypothesized to be a tumor-maintenance gene, allowing for cancers to proliferate once they are established. Results We used HuR RIP-Chip as a comprehensive and systematic method to survey breast cancer target genes in both MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive, ER+ and MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor negative, ER- breast cancer cell lines. We identified unique subsets of HuR-associated mRNAs found individually or in both cell types. Two novel HuR targets, CD9 and CALM2 mRNAs, were identified and validated by quantitative RT-PCR and biotin pull-down analysis. Conclusion This is the first report of a side-by-side genome-wide comparison of HuR-associated targets in wild type ER+ and ER- breast cancer. We found distinct, differentially expressed subsets of cancer related genes in ER+ and ER- breast cancer cell lines, and noted that the differential regulation of two cancer-related genes by HuR was contingent upon the cellular

  17. Taenia ovis: an emerging threat to the Chinese sheep industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong

    2016-07-26

    Taenia ovis is a tapeworm that is mainly transmitted between dogs and sheep. Although T. ovis infection is not a public health issue, it causes a great financial loss due to condemnation of carcasses.  The first outbreak of T. ovis infection in China occurred in 2015. Reassessment of adverse effects of T. ovis infection on Chinese sheep industry in future is necessary. The first T. ovis outbreak in China suggests that the epidemic situation across the country is underestimated. For the transmission of T. ovis, many factors, including eggs, dogs and wild canids, human behaviours and sheep trade, should be seriously considered. In blocking the transmission chain, regular treatments of the infected dogs using anthelmintics play a crucial step, but at the moment it is difficult to be fully executed in China, largely due to the behaviours, customs and faith of local farmers. Moreover, combined with no clinical symptoms in the infected adult sheep and goats, the lack of pre-mortem diagnostic tools makes it harder to practice a national wide surveillance as well as inspection and quarantine in increasingly frequent free sheep trade activities in China, leading to an inability to restrict T. ovis infection into small areas. Furthermore, the ongoing campaigns against Echinococcus granulosus may have an adverse effect on control of T. ovis infection because of no consideration of a role of dogs in the transmission of the parasite. Lack of national epidemic data, pre-mortem diagnostic reagents and vaccines severely hampers the implementation of disease control campaigns and the restriction of T. ovis infection into small areas. Consequently, sheep and goats are at an increasing risk of T. ovis exposure and the possibility of large-scale outbreaks across China in future is possible, causing great adversity towards sheep industry.

  18. Ultrasonographic features of the liver with cystic echinococcosis in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hussein Awad; Elrashidy, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to gain information about the ultrasonographic features of livers with cystic echinococcosis, as well as to evaluate the use of ultrasonography for diagnosis of such disease in sheep. Design This was a retrospective study during the period April 2011 to March 2013. Participants A total of 22 Baladi sheep (aged three to six years) were included in this study. Based on clear hepatic ultrasonographic findings, all animals were classified into two groups: those with hepatic cysts (n=9) and without liver cysts (healthy liver, n=13). Results Biochemically, serum concentrations of γ-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and globulins were significantly increased (P<0.01), while albumin was lowered (P<0.01) in sheep with cystic livers. Ultrasonographic findings of diseased sheep livers revealed the presence of rounded, anechoic and unilocular hydatid cysts with ellipse circumference ranged from 6–10 cm. The borders of cysts were mostly well defined. The interior of cysts contained echogenic particulate materials, septations, or fine echoes. At the 10th intercostal space, the ventral margin, size, thickness and angle of livers were higher (P<0.01), while the diameter of portal vein was lower (P<0.01) in sheep with liver cysts than control ones. Furthermore, at the 9th intercostal space, the circumference of the gall bladder was decreased in sheep with hepatic cysts (P<0.01). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ultrasonography for diagnosis of hepatic hydatid cysts were 80 per cent and 100 per cent, and 100 per cent and 83 per cent, respectively. Conclusions Cystic echinococcosis is associated with a number of anatomical alterations in the liver tissues that can be easily recognised by ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasonography alone or in combination with analysis of biochemical parameters reflecting liver function could be helpful for diagnosis of hepatic

  19. Ecotypic variation in population dynamics of reintroduced bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Vernon C.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Wiedmann, Brett P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in southern British Columbia, Canada (BC ecotype), or in the Missouri River Breaks region of central Montana, USA (MT ecotype). In North Dakota, USA, mortality was similar and typically low for adult female bighorn sheep from Montana (0.09 ± 0.029 [SE]) and British Columbia (0.08 ± 0.017) during 2000–2016. Median life expectancy was 11 years for females that reached adulthood (2 yrs old); however, mortality accelerated with age and reached 86% by age 16. Mortalities resulted primarily from low rates of predation, disease, accidents, and unknown natural causes (<0.04 [upper 90% CI]). Similar survival rates of female bighorn sheep from female bighorn sheep from British Columbia and Montana, coupled with greater recruitment of bighorn sheep from Montana, resulted in a greater projected rate of increase for the MT ecotype (λ = 1.21) than for the BC ecotype (1.02), and a more youthful age structure. These results support translocation of bighorn sheep from areas that are environmentally similar to areas that will be stocked. Potential benefits include more rapid population growth, greater resilience to and more rapid recovery from density‐independent losses, an increased possibility that rapidly growing populations will expand into adjacent habitat, increased hunter opportunity, increased connectivity among herds, and a more complete restoration of ecosystem processes.

  20. Executive decision-making in the domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jennifer Morton

    Full Text Available Two new large animal models of Huntington's disease (HD have been developed recently, an old world monkey (macaque and a sheep. Macaques, with their large brains and complex repertoire of behaviors are the 'gold-standard' laboratory animals for testing cognitive function, but there are many practical and ethical issues that must be resolved before HD macaques can be used for pre-clinical research. By contrast, despite their comparable brain size, sheep do not enjoy a reputation for intelligence, and are not used for pre-clinical cognitive testing. Given that cognitive decline is a major therapeutic target in HD, the feasibility of testing cognitive function in sheep must be explored if they are to be considered seriously as models of HD. Here we tested the ability of sheep to perform tests of executive function (discrimination learning, reversal learning and attentional set-shifting. Significantly, we found that not only could sheep perform discrimination learning and reversals, but they could also perform the intradimensional (ID and extradimensional (ED set-shifting tasks that are sensitive tests of cognitive dysfunction in humans. Their performance on the ID/ED shifts mirrored that seen in humans and macaques, with significantly more errors to reach criterion in the ED than the ID shift. Thus, sheep can perform 'executive' cognitive tasks that are an important part of the primate behavioral repertoire, but which have never been shown previously to exist in any other large animal. Sheep have great potential, not only for use as a large animal model of HD, but also for studying cognitive function and the evolution of complex behaviours in normal animals.

  1. MSA Mimic? Rare Occurrence of Anti-Hu Autonomic Failure and Thymoma in a Patient with Parkinsonism: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito A. G. Ricigliano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymoma is a tumor originating from thymic gland, frequently manifesting with paraneoplastic neurological disorders. Its association with paraneoplastic dysautonomia is relatively uncommon. Here, we describe the challenging case of a 71 year-old female who developed subacute autonomic failure with digestive pseudo-obstruction, dysphagia, urinary tract dysfunction and orthostatic hypotension complicating an underlying extrapyramidal syndrome that had started 3 months before hospital admission. Autonomic symptoms had 2-month course and acutely worsened just before and during hospitalization. Combination of severe dysautonomia and parkinsonism mimicked rapidly progressing multiple system atrophy. However, diagnostic exams showed thymic tumor with positive anti-Hu antibodies on both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Complete response of dysautonomia to immunoglobulins followed by thymectomy confirmed the diagnosis of anti-Hu-related paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. With regards to extrapyramidal symptoms, despite previous descriptions of paraneoplastic parkinsonism caused by other antineuronal antibodies, in our case no relation between anti-Hu and parkinsonism could be identified. A literature review of published reports describing anti-Hu positivity in thymic neoplasms highlighted that a definite autonomic disease due to anti-Hu antibodies is extremely rare in patients with thymoma but without myasthenia gravis, with only one case published so far.

  2. Comparison between two treatment protocols with recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rHuEpo in the treatment of late anemia in neonates with Rh-Isoimmunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Zuppa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectve. The Rh-hemolytic disease can lead to a late anemia by hemolytic and hyporigenerative mechanism. We compared the effectiveness of rHuEPO in two care protocols that differ for doses of rHuEPO administrated and for timing of administration. Methods. A cohort of 14 neonates was investigated. The neonates were treated with two different protocols. Protocol A: a dose of 200 U/kg/day of rHuEpo administered subcutaneously starting from the end of the second week of life; Protocol B: a dose of 400 U/kg/day of rHuEpo administered subcutaneously starting from the end of the first week of life. Results. The hematocrit values in the protocol A group decreased during treatment (32,5% vs 25,2%, whereas the hematocrit value in protocol B group remained almost stable (38,7% vs 42,8%. The mean numbers of platelets remained stable in both groups while neutrophils increased in protocol A group and decreased in protocol B (p<0,05. Reticulocyte count increased during treatment in both groups, although only in protocol B group it was statistically significative (p<0,05. Conclusions. Our results suggest a similar efficacy between the two treatment protocols. Increasing doses of rHuEPO do not seem enhancing their effectiveness and the incidence of side effects.

  3. Effect of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 on quorum sensing and on the production of quorum sensing-mediated virulence factors by Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Divya; Smoum, Reem; Breuer, Aviva; Mechoulam, Raphael; Steinberg, Doron

    2015-08-12

    Bacterial populations communicate through the cell density-dependent mechanism of quorum sensing (QS). Vibrio harveyi, one of the best studied model organisms for QS, was used to explore effects of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 on QS and different QS-regulated physiological processes in bacteria. Analysis of QS-regulated bioluminescence in wild-type and mutant strains of V. harveyi revealed that HU-210 affects the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) pathway, one of three known QS cascades of V. harveyi. Furthermore, QS-mediated biofilm formation and swimming motility in the mutant strain BB152 (AI-1(-), AI-2(+)) were significantly reduced in the presence of HU-210. HU-210 inhibited QS-mediated virulence factor production without any inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. It also alters the expression of several genes, which are regulated by QS, specifically downregulating the genes of the AI-2 QS cascade. First evidence is being provided for interference of bacterial signal-transduction systems by a synthetic cannabinoid. The effect of HU-210 was specific to the AI-2 cascade in V. harveyi. AI-2 is known as a "universal autoinducer" and interference with its activity opens a broad spectrum of applications for synthetic cannabinoids in future research as a potential anti-QS agent.

  4. Changes in bone structure of Corriedale sheep with inherited rickets: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Keren E; Firth, Elwyn C; Thompson, Keith G; Marshall, Jonathan C; Blair, Hugh T

    2011-03-01

    An inherited skeletal disease with gross and microscopic features of rickets has been diagnosed in Corriedale sheep in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes present in tibia from sheep with inherited rickets using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. In affected sheep, scans in the proximal tibia, where metaphysis becomes diaphysis, showed significantly greater trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The sheep with inherited rickets had significantly greater BMC and bone area in the mid-diaphysis of the proximal tibia compared to control sheep. However, BMD in the mid-diaphysis was significantly less in affected sheep than in controls, due to the greater cortical area and lower voxel density values in affected sheep. From this it was concluded that the increased strain on under-mineralised bone in sheep with inherited rickets led to increased bone mass in an attempt to improve bone strength. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sero-prevalence study of bluetongue infection in sheep and goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion channels, muddy areas and fecal runoff areas around farms and habitats for them ... susceptible than native African sheep (Davies and Walker, 1974; Howell, 1979; ..... ity in sheep flocks in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Prev. Vet.

  6. Experimental transmission of atypical scrapie to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiropoulos John

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in small ruminants has been an EU regulatory requirement since 2002. A number of European countries have subsequently reported cases of atypical scrapie, similar to previously published cases from Norway, which have pathological and molecular features distinct from classical scrapie. Most cases have occurred singly in flocks, associated with genotypes considered to be more resistant to classical disease. Experimental transmissibility of such isolates has been reported in certain ovinised transgenic mice, but has not previously been reported in the natural host. Information on the transmissibility of this agent is vital to ensuring that disease control measures are effective and proportionate. Results This report presents the successful experimental transmission, in 378 days, of atypical scrapie to a recipient sheep of homologous genotype with preservation of the pathological and molecular characteristics of the donor. This isolate also transmitted to ovinised transgenic mice (Tg338 with a murine phenotype indistinguishable from that of Nor 98. Conclusion This result strengthens the opinion that these cases result from a distinct strain of scrapie agent, which is potentially transmissible in the natural host under field conditions.

  7. Development of mandible in indigenous sheep fetuses

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    N. S. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the precise sites of the beginning of primary ossification centers of the mandible of sheep fetuses as well as their onset time, to achieve this goal, samples were taken weekly starting from the 7th week up to 20th week of intrauterine life. Sections of the samples were stained by the alizarin red and alcian blue technique. Primary centers appeared at the beginning of 7th week as big red spot on either sides of mesenchyme of first branchial arch (Meckel’s cartilage that developed by intramembranous ossification. The rostral part of the mandible, however, was developed by endochondral ossification. The successive bone development process (7–20 weeks, were moniterd by macerating the mandibles using either potassium hydroxide or fly larvae. Measuring tape and graph papers were employed for measurements and for localization of mandibular angle. The results revealed significant increase of these measurements during the successive weeks of intrauterine life.

  8. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

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    Bazer Fuller W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species.

  9. Lead poisoning in cattle and sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcroft, R

    1951-09-15

    The danger of paint and other lead compounds to the bovine is well recognized and has been recorded and discussed fairly extensively from time to time. The literature indicates that the calf is extremely susceptible to lead poisoning, but relatively little has been reported regarding the levels of lead in tissues of animals which have died as a result of lead poisoning, and still less in animals suspected of suffering from sub-lethal doses of lead compounds. In order to provide sufficient data to enable interpretation of figures obtained from tissues in cases of suspected lead poisoning sent in from the field, and to provide information on the metabolic fate of lead in ruminants, investigations were made at Weybridge on the absorption, excretion, retention and general metabolic effects of lead in both cattle and sheep and the results have been published in a series of five papers. In this brief review it is intended to discuss points from these and subsequent investigations which are likely to be of interest to the veterinarian.

  10. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  11. Transvaginal ultrasound ovarian diathermy: sheep as an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Anita M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some techniques of transvaginal ovarian drilling have been previously described. Nevertheless a monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization, that use the expertise and safety of transvaginal puncture for oocyte captation seems to be an easier and feasible approach. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control, and to evaluate the safety of the transvaginal ovarian monopolar cauterization, female sheep at reproductive age were used as an experimental model. Findings An experimental study was performed in a university research center. Seventeen female sheep (15 Corriedale e 2 Suffolk in reproductive age were submitted to transvaginal ovarian cauterization with a monopolar Valleylab Force 2 electrocautery. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Ovarian size were 1.31 cm2 ± 0,43 (Corriedale and 3.41 cm2 ± 0,64 (Suffolk. From 30 ovaries from Corriedale sheep punctured, only 3 were cauterized, presenting macroscopic and typical microscopic lesion. In the Suffolk sheep group, only one ovary was cauterized. No lesion could be found in the needle path. Conclusions This is the first experimental animal model described for ovarian cauterization needle guided by transvaginal ultrasound. The sheep does not seem to be the ideal animal model to study this technique. Another animal model, whose ovaries are better identified by transvaginal ultrasound should be sought for this technique, theoretically less invasive, before it could be offered safely to women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  12. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 μg/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 μg/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver.

  13. Phosphorus metabolic disorder of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Shen

    Full Text Available Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01 and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01. Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01. Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation.

  14. Developing an Ethically Acceptable Virtual Fencing System for Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Marini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To ensure animal welfare isn’t compromised when using virtual fencing, animals must be able to associate a benign conditioned stimulus with an aversive stimulus. This study used an associative learning test to train 30, four-year-old, Merino x Suffolk ewes, to associate an audio cue with an electric stimulus. Collars manually controlled by a GPS hand-held unit were used to deliver the audio and electric stimuli cues. For the associative learning, when sheep approached an attractant at a distance of three m from the trough, an audio cue was applied for one s. If the sheep stopped or changed direction, the audio cue ceased immediately and no electrical stimulus was applied. If the sheep did not respond to the audio cue it was followed by a low-level electrical stimulus. Approaches to the attractant significantly decreased from day one to day two. It took a mean of three pairings of the audio cue and electrical stimulus for a change in behaviour to occur, after which sheep that approached the attractant had a 52% probability of avoiding the electrical stimulus and responding to the audio cue alone. Further research is required to determine whether sheep can be trained to associate an audio cue with a negative stimulus for use in group grazing situations.

  15. Controlling Within-Field Sheep Movement Using Virtual Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Danila; Llewellyn, Rick; Belson, Sue; Lee, Caroline

    2018-02-26

    Virtual fencing has the potential to greatly improve livestock movement, grazing efficiency, and land management by farmers; however, relatively little work has been done to test the potential of virtual fencing with sheep. Commercial dog training equipment, comprising of a collar and GPS hand-held unit were used to implement a virtual fence in a commercial setting. Six, 5-6 year-old Merino wethers, which were naïve to virtual fencing were GPS tracked for their use of a paddock (80 × 20 m) throughout the experiment. The virtual fence was effective at preventing a small group of sheep from entering the exclusion zone. The probability of a sheep receiving an electrical stimulus following an audio cue was low (19%), and declined over the testing period. It took an average of eight interactions with the fence for an association to be made between the audio and stimulus cue, with all of the animals responding to the audio alone by the third day. Following the removal of the virtual fence, sheep were willing to cross the previous location of the virtual fence after 30 min of being in the paddock. This is an important aspect in the implementation of virtual fencing as a grazing management tool and further enforces that the sheep in this study were able to associate the audio with the virtual fence and not the physical location itself.

  16. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  17. Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mota Bandarra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122 and S.madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507 were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.

  18. Valence of facial cues influences sheep learning in a visual discrimination task

    OpenAIRE

    Bellegarde, Lucille; Erhard, Hans; Weiss, A.; Boissy, Alain; Haskell, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emot...

  19. Valence of Facial Cues Influences Sheep Learning in a Visual Discrimination Task

    OpenAIRE

    Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Hans W. Erhard; Alexander Weiss; Alain Boissy; Marie J. Haskell

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emot...

  20. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; Foreyt, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumoni...

  1. Risk assessment of the risk of introduction and distribution of Sheep and goat pox in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorova, Krasimira

    2014-01-01

    Sheep pox and Goat pox (Variola ovina; Variola caprina; Sheep pox, Goat pox) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease can take place with moderate clinical presentations of local breeds, but for animals that have met for the first time the virus ends with death. Caused by a virus of Sheep pox and a virus of Goat pox, genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Economic losses come from reduced milk production, lowering the quality of the leather, wool and more. Sheep...

  2. Development and Characterization of a Humanized Anti-HER2 Antibody HuA21 with Potent Anti-Tumor Properties in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruilin Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is one of the most studied tumor-associated antigens for cancer immunotherapy. An engineered anti-HER-2 chimeric A21 antibody (chA21 is a chimeric antibody targeted to subdomain I of the HER2 extracellular domain. Here, we report the anti-tumor activity of the novel engineered monoclonal antibody humanized chA21 (HuA21 that targets HER2 on the basis of chA21, and we describe the underlying mechanisms. Our results reveal that HuA21 markedly inhibits the proliferation and migration of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and causes enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity potency against HER2-overexpressing tumor cells. In particular, HuA21, but not trastuzumab (Tra, markedly suppresses growth and enhances the internalization of the antibody in Tra-resistant BT-474 breast cancer cells. These characteristics are highly associated with the intrinsic ability of HuA21 to down-regulate HER2 activation and inhibit the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt signaling pathways. Furthermore, the combination of HuA21 with Tra synergistically enhances the anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo and inhibits HER2 activation and the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Altogether, our results suggest that HuA21 may represent a unique anti-HER2 antibody with potential as a therapeutic candidate alone or in combination with other anti-HER2 reagents in cancer therapy.

  3. Whole genome structural analysis of Caribbean hair sheep reveals quantitative link to west african ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair sheep of Caribbean origin have become an important part of the U.S. sheep industry. Lack of wool eliminates a number of health concerns and drastically reduces the cost of production. More importantly, Caribbean hair sheep demonstrate robust performance even in the presence of drug resistant ga...

  4. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I Gede Suparta

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers' conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available.

  5. Sheep do not have a major role in bovine herpesvirus 1 transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.J.; Vellema, P.; Schukken, Y.H.; Barkema, H.W.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Wentink, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    With regard to BHV1 eradication programs in cattle it is important to know whether sheep can he a reservoir of BHV1. We therefore performed an experiment that consisted of three phases. In phase 1, 10 sheep were inoculated with high doses of BHV1 and kept in close contact with 5 sheep and 5 calves.

  6. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic trends for live weight and fleece traits in Menz sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Menz sheep are indigenous to the highlands of Ethiopia, and highly valued for their meat and wool production. The area is characterized as a low input mixed barley-sheep production system. In 1998, a selection experiment was set up to evaluate the response of Menz sheep to selection for yearling

  7. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.; Budisatria, I.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia

  8. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the HIRA Gene Affect Litter Size in Small Tail Han Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of appropriate levels of fecundity is critical for efficient sheep production. Opportunities to increase sheep litter size include identifying single gene mutations with major effects on ovulation rate and litter size. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS data of 89 Chinese domestic sheep from nine different geographical locations and ten Australian sheep were analyzed to detect new polymorphisms affecting litter size. Comparative genomic analysis of sheep with contrasting litter size detected a novel set of candidate genes. Two SNPs, g.71874104G>A and g.71833755T>C, were genotyped in 760 Small Tail Han sheep and analyzed for association with litter size. The two SNPs were significantly associated with litter size, being in strong linkage disequilibrium in the region 71.80–71.87 Mb. This haplotype block contains one gene that may affect litter size, Histone Cell Cycle Regulator (HIRA. HIRA mRNA levels in sheep with different lambing ability were significantly higher in ovaries of Small Tail Han sheep (high fecundity than in Sunite sheep (low fecundity. Moreover, the expression levels of HIRA in eight tissues of uniparous Small Tail Han sheep were significantly higher than in multiparous Small Tail Han sheep (p < 0.05. HIRA SNPs significantly affect litter size in sheep and are useful as genetic markers for litter size.

  10. A comparative study of the fatty acid profiles in commercial sheep cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, C.; Toro-Mujica, P.; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the FA profile of sheep cheese marketed in Chile. Fifty-eight cheeses were collected from supermarkets of 5 different Chilean cities including 34 sheep cheeses, 7 from goat's milk, 11 from cow's milk, 4 from a mixture of sheep, goat and cow's milk...

  11. Status of sheep sera to bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants and sheep pox in a few northern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT, peste des petits ruminants (PPR and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in India. Serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. A total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against BT and PPR viruses. Of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. BT antibodies were found in 293 (56.8% animals, PPR virus antibodies in 215 (41.7% and sheep pox virus antibodies in 106 (68.3%. Of the serum samples tested, 25.2% were positive for antibodies against all three viruses. These findings clearly demonstrated not only the enzootic nature of disease, but also the co-existence of antibodies to more than one of these viruses which would indicate that concurrent infections were common. Therefore, control measures should focus in combating all three diseases simultaneously by exploring the possibility of a trivalent vaccine or the use of multiple genes expressing vectored vaccine.

  12. Recognition of lameness and decisions to catch for inspection among sheep farmers and specialists in GB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green LE

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have used farmer estimates of the prevalence of lameness in their flocks. This assumes that farmers can identify lame sheep. Eight movie clips of sheep with locomotion from sound to moderately lame were used to investigate the ability of farmers and sheep specialists to recognise lame sheep. Each participant was asked to complete a form and indicate, for each movie clip, whether they thought the sheep was lame and whether they would catch it if it was the only lame sheep or if 2 – 5, 6 – 10 or > 10 sheep were equally lame. The farmers' responses were compared with their estimates of flock lameness prevalence and the interval between observing a lame sheep and catching it. Results 178 farmers and 54 sheep specialists participated. Participants could identify even mildly lame sheep but made a separate decision on whether to catch them. This decision was dependent on the severity of lameness and the number of sheep lame in a group. Those who said they would catch the first lame sheep in a group were significantly more likely to catch mildly lame sheep (farmer-reported median prevalence of lameness 5% (IQR: 2%–6%. In contrast, farmers who waited for several sheep to be lame indicated that they would only catch more severely lame sheep (farmer reported median flock lameness 11% (IQR: 9%–15%. Approximately 15% of farmers did not catch individual lame sheep (farmer reported median flock lameness 15% (IQR: 10%–15%. The flock prevalence of lameness increased as time to treatment increased and time to treatment was positively correlated with only catching more severely lame sheep. Conclusion If movie-clips are similar to the flock situation, farmers and specialists can recognise even mildly lame sheep but vary in their management from prompt treatment of the first lame sheep in a group to no individual sheep treatments. The former practices would be appropriate to minimise transmission of footrot, a

  13. Fatal systemic cladosporiosis in a merino sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haligur, Mehmet; Ozmen, Ozlem; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2010-12-01

    Systemic cladosporiosis is described in 25 merino sheep from a flock consisting 250 animals. The fungal pneumonia appeared after an intensive antibiotic treatment, because of a respiratory system disorder. The pen of the flock was humid and crowded, and animals had signs of respiratory distress, coughing, fever and anorexia. All of the ill animals died, and necropsy was performed on 10 sheep. The lesions were characterized by a multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and an abomasitis. Severe hemorrhages were observed in the lungs. At the histopathological examination, severe vasculitis with thrombosis was observed in various organs, especially in the lungs and abomasums, suggestive for a hematogenous dissemination of the infection in these organs. Numerous PAS-positive fungal elements were seen in the pyogranulomatous foci. Dark green fungal colonies were seen in the blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar that were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides. This report highlights that phaeohyphomycosis can cause a severe systemic and fatal disease in merino sheep under insufficient management conditions.

  14. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  15. Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45% examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

  16. Radioactivity and countermeasures like clean feeding of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    It's been 25 years since the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, but there is still radioactivity remaining in the Norwegian nature. The radioactive cesium-137 is taken up by plants and fungi and transferred to animals on rangelands. In the grazing season of 2010 had 20 000 sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding to reduce radioactivity levels in the meat before slaughter. Oppland had most sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding with almost 12 000 animals. Total was paid 2.2 million in compensation to livestock owners in 2010. In the period 1986-2010 is about 2.2 million sheep have been suspended with a charge of approximately NOK 227 million. (AG)

  17. Forage selection by teddy goats versus sheep on thal ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasra, A.W.; Hanjra, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing behaviours of Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were studied on rangelands of ThaI. Bite count method was used to determine the dietary composition of both animal species. The overall preference of Teddy goats was higher for Khabble grass (Cynodon dactylon), which was 40.57% of the total number of bite made on different plant species during the study period (March-July). Teddy goats utilized a wide range of browsing plant species like Wan (Salvadora oleoides), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Babil (Acacia jacquemontii), Jandi (Prosopis spicigera) etc. Browsing species were major component (>50%) of goat diets dur- ing March through June. Whereas Thalli sheep had been consistent in their heavy use of Khabble grass (overall 89.27%). Browsing plant species were not an important component of their diets. Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were competitive for Khabble grass particularly at its vegetative growth stage. (author)

  18. Antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin in naturally parasitized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazwinski, T A; Greenway, T; Presson, B L; Pote, L M; Featherstone, H; Williams, M

    1983-11-01

    Sixteen sheep harboring naturally acquired parasitisms were allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups: (i) sheep given ivermectin in an oral solution at the dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, and (ii) those given the vehicle at a dosage rate of 0.25 ml/kg. All animals were necropsied at 2 weeks after treatment. Parasites and percentages of parasitic reductions, as demonstrated in this trial, were: Dictyocaulus filaria (99.4%), Oestrus ovis first stage instars (100%), Trichuris ovis (98.9%), Strongyloides papillosus (99.8%), Nematodirus spathiger (100%), arrested 4th stage Nematodirus spp (96.2%), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (100%), T axei (100%), Oster tagia circumcincta (100%), Haemonchus contortus (100%), and arrested Haemonchus spp 4th stage larvae (99.9%). The sheep showed no adverse effects due to ivermectin or vehicle administration.

  19. The mechanism of joint capsule thermal modification in an in-vitro sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Peters, D M; Thabit, G; Hecht, P; Vanderby, R; Fanton, G S; Markel, M D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanism responsible for joint capsule shrinkage after nonablative laser application in an in-vitro sheep model. Femoropatellar joint capsular tissue specimens harvested from 20 adult sheep were treated with one of three power settings of a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser or served as a control. Laser treatment significantly shortened the tissue and decreased tissue stiffness in all three laser groups, whereas failure strength was not altered significantly by laser treatment. Transmission electron microscopic examination showed swollen collagen fibrils and loss of membrane integrity of fibroblasts. A thermometric study revealed nonablative laser energy caused tissue temperature to rise in the range of 64 degrees C to 100 degrees C. Electrophoresis after trypsin digestion of the tissue revealed significant loss of distinct alpha bands of Type I collagen in laser treated samples, whereas alpha bands were present in laser treated tissue without trypsin digestion. The results of this study support the concept that the primary mechanism responsible for the effect of nonablative laser energy is thermal denaturation of collagen in joint capsular tissue associated with unwinding of the triple helical structure of the collagen molecule.

  20. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  1. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  2. The genomic architecture of mastitis resistance in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Bramis, G; Bush, S J; Clark, E L; McCulloch, M E B; Smith, J; Schulze, G; Arsenos, G; Hume, D A; Psifidi, A

    2017-08-16

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed. All animals were genotyped with a custom-made 960-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array based on markers located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for mastitis resistance previously detected in three other distinct dairy sheep populations. Heritable variation and strong positive genetic correlations were estimated for clinical mastitis occurrence and the three mastitis indicator traits. SNP markers significantly associated with these mastitis traits were confirmed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 16 and 19. We identified pathways, molecular interaction networks and functional gene clusters for mastitis resistance. Candidate genes within the detected regions were identified based upon analysis of an ovine transcriptional atlas and transcriptome data derived from milk somatic cells. Relevant candidate genes implicated in innate immunity included SOCS2, CTLA4, C6, C7, C9, PTGER4, DAB2, CARD6, OSMR, PLXNC1, IDH1, ICOS, FYB, and LYFR. The results confirmed the presence of animal genetic variability in mastitis resistance and identified genomic regions associated with specific mastitis traits in the Chios sheep. The conserved genetic architecture of mastitis resistance between distinct dairy sheep breeds suggests that across-breed selection programmes would be

  3. Nivel de pobreza y estado nutricional asociados a parasitosis intestinal en estudiantes, Huánuco, Perú, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gabriel Berto Moreano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se ha encontrado una prevalencia alta de parasitosis en escolares de la amazonía; pese a ello, no hay estudios realizados que revisen su asociación con el nivel socioeconómico y estado nutricional. Objetivos: Determinar la relación entre nivel de pobreza y estado nutricional con la presencia de parásitos intestinales en estudiantes escolares del caserío Venenillo, Huánuco. Diseño: Estudio transversal-analítico. Lugar: Caserío de Venenillo, Huánuco. Participantes: Estudiantes escolares de la única institución educativa del centro poblado. Intervenciones: A 42 estudiantes se les realizó examen coproparasitológico mediante observación directa con lugol y técnica de sedimentación rápida de Lumbreras. El nivel de pobreza fue determinado mediante el índice de necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI; y el grado de desnutrición, por medio del índice de Waterlow. El análisis estadístico fue realizado mediante el coeficiente gamma de Goodman y Kruskal. Principales medidas de resultados: Relación de parasitosis intestinal con pobreza y estado nutricional. Resultados: Los parásitos intestinales estuvieron presentes en 97,6%. Se encontró asociación significativa entre el nivel de parasitismo y el nivel de pobreza (p=0,02; gamma=0,82. No se encontró asociación significativa entre nivel de desnutrición y parasitismo (p=0,77. Conclusiones: La parasitosis intestinal se asoció al nivel de pobreza, no así con el nivel de desnutrición en la población de estudio.

  4. Dieta de roedores sigmodontinos (Cricetidae en los bosques montanos tropicales de Huánuco, Perú

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    Maggie C. Noblecilla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido estomacal de cinco especies de roedores sigmodontinos: Akodon orophilus, Microry-zomys altissimus, M. minutus, Thomasomys notatus yT. kalinowskii, procedentes de los bosques montanos de Huánuco, Perú (2564 - 3850 m de altitud. Concluimos que A. orophiluses insectívora por haber presentado un alto volumen de artrópodos (adultos y larvas en el contenido estomacal (90,1%; mientras que T. notatusy T. kalinowskiison principalmente herbívoras por el alto volumen de materia vegetal, 89% y 67,75% respectiva-mente; y que M. altissimusy M. minutusson omnívoras por presentar volúmenes similares tanto para vegetales como para artrópodos. Thomasomys kalinowskiies considerada generalista por la mayor amplitud de nicho (4,61, mientras A. orophiluses considerada especialista por el menor valor (1,70. Akodon orophilusmostró una preferencia por el consumo de artrópodos adultos al tener un bajo coeficiente de variación (CV= 20% y también un significativo aumento en el consumo de larvas de artrópodos en la época húmeda, siendo la única especie con variación estacional en la dieta. Por otro lado, la sobreposición de nicho fue menor a 0,75 en el 80% de los pares de especies comparados, indicando una baja similitud en la dieta. La mayor similitud en la dieta se observó entre M. altissimus- T. notatus(0,822 y M. minutus - T. kalinowskii(0,816. Se concluye que estos roedores sigmodontinos, simpátricos en los bosques montanos de Huánuco, exhiben dietas disímiles, probablemente como una estrategia para evitar o aminorar la competencia interespecífica.

  5. Hygiene assessment of sheep slaughter cycle

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    Pyz-Łukasik Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine microbial contamination of mutton carcass surface with regard to the number of the slaughtered animals. The total bacterial load and Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts were determined. Sampling for microbiological analysis as well as detection and enumeration of each microorganism group were performed according to the Polish Standards. No significant effect of the order of the slaughtering animals during the slaughter day on total bacterial count on mutton carcass surfaces was found. The overall bacterial contamination of mutton carcasses were between 1.0 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.0 log - stage I and 2.5 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.4 log - stage III. No significant difference among the slaughter cycles, as indicated by total microbial numbers was observed. The obtained daily mean log values ranged from 4.7 × 102 (2.67 log and 7.6 × 103 (3.88 log cfu/cm2. The daily log mean values were lower than the maximal bacteria count (M set out for hygiene standard of sheep slaughter process by the Commission Regulation 2073/2005. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were recovered from 21 (65.6% samples while enterococci were identified in 28 (87.5% samples. In most cases, significant differences in the level of contamination with bacteria isolated from the carcasses at each stage of a daily slaughter cycle, were not observed. At stage III, significantly higher levels of bacterial contamination (0.86 and 1.31 log cfu/cm2 respectively were established as compared to stage I (0.37 and 0.58 log cfu/cm2 respectively. There were no Salmonella-positive samples determined. Importantly, the number of slaughtered animals during a slaughter day did not influence bacterial contamination on carcass surface if the successful application of HACCP control system was combined with the implementation of optimal sanitary supervision.

  6. TH-CD-202-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): Evaluation of the Use of Direct Electron Density CT Images in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, T; Sun, B; Li, H; Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Mistry, N [Siemens Healthcare, Cary, NC (United States); Raupach, R; Huenemohr, N; Ritter [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim, Bavaria (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The current standard for calculation of photon and electron dose requires conversion of Hounsfield Units (HU) to Electron Density (ED) by applying a calibration curve specifically constructed for the corresponding CT tube voltage. This practice limits the use of the CT scanner to a single tube voltage and hinders the freedom in the selection of optimal tube voltage for better image quality. The objective of this study is to report a prototype CT reconstruction algorithm that provides direct ED images from the raw CT data independently of tube voltages used during acquisition. Methods: A tissue substitute phantom was scanned for Stoichiometric CT calibrations at tube voltages of 70kV, 80kV, 100kV, 120kV and 140kV respectively. HU images and direct ED images were acquired sequentially on a thoracic anthropomorphic phantom at the same tube voltages. Electron densities converted from the HU images were compared to ED obtained from the direct ED images. A 7-field treatment plan was made on all HU and ED images. Gamma analysis was performed to demonstrate quantitatively dosimetric change from the two schemes in acquiring ED. Results: The average deviation of EDs obtained from the direct ED images was −1.5%±2.1% from the EDs from HU images with the corresponding CT calibration curves applied. Gamma analysis on dose calculated on the direct ED images and the HU images acquired at the same tube voltage indicated negligible difference with lowest passing rate at 99.9%. Conclusion: Direct ED images require no CT calibration while demonstrate equivalent dosimetry compared to that obtained from standard HU images. The ability of acquiring direct ED images simplifies the current practice at a safer level by eliminating CT calibration and HU conversion from commissioning and treatment planning respectively. Furthermore, it unlocks a wider range of tube voltages in CT scanner for better imaging quality while maintaining similar dosimetric accuracy.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S

    2007-01-01

    is very prevalent, and eating unprocessed sheep and lamb meat has a high risk of transmitting infections to humans. The presence of cats on the farm, farm size and using surface water as drinking water for the animals were risk factors for infection in sheep, with age as a significant confounder...... outdoor on pasture and only one was claiming organic farming. Having cats on the farm, age of the animals, farm size and the use of surface water sources for drinking were all significantly associated with T. gondii-infected animals on the farm. T. gondii infection in mutton used for human consumption...

  8. Rituals Cows or just another flock of Sheep?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Pernille

    or body-parts and any special treatment of the bones, such as cutting, skinning and painting. In order to contextualise the faunal deposits I have also included information concerning the cemeteries, the graves, the small finds and the gender and age of the deceased. In the SJE assemblages three types...... of deposits could be identified, these include complete sheep deposited next to the dead, cut cattle skulls as well as large deposits of decorated sheep and goat skulls, the two latter located on or near the original surface of the cemetery. In the following fifth chapter information regarding from a number...

  9. Pregnancy diagnosis in sheep: review of the most practical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karen, A.; Szenci, O.; Kovacs, P.; Beckers, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Various practical methods have been used for pregnancy diagnosis in sheep: radiography, rectal abdominal palpation, assessment of progesterone, assessment of estrone sulphate, RIA assay of placental lactogen, assessment of pregnancy proteins or pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, A-mode ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Real-time, B-mode ultrasonography appears to be the most practical and accurate method for diagnosing pregnancy and determining fetal numbers in sheep. Transabdominal B-mode ultrasonography achieved high accuracy for pregnancy diagnosis (94-100 %) and the determination of fetal numbers (92-99 %) on d 29 to 106 of gestation

  10. Evaluating pharmacological models of high and low anxiety in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Doyle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New tests of animal affect and welfare require validation in subjects experiencing putatively different states. Pharmacological manipulations of affective state are advantageous because they can be administered in a standardised fashion, and the duration of their action can be established and tailored to suit the length of a particular test. To this end, the current study aimed to evaluate a pharmacological model of high and low anxiety in an important agricultural and laboratory species, the sheep. Thirty-five 8-month-old female sheep received either an intramuscular injection of the putatively anxiogenic drug 1-(m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; 1 mg/kg; n = 12, an intravenous injection of the putatively anxiolytic drug diazepam (0.1 mg/kg; n = 12, or acted as a control (saline intramuscular injection n = 11. Thirty minutes after the treatments, sheep were individually exposed to a variety of tests assessing their general movement, performance in a ‘runway task’ (moving down a raceway for a food reward, response to startle, and behaviour in isolation. A test to assess feeding motivation was performed 2 days later following administration of the drugs to the same animals in the same manner. The mCPP sheep had poorer performance in the two runway tasks (6.8 and 7.7 × slower respectively than control group; p < 0.001, a greater startle response (1.4 vs. 0.6; p = 0.02, a higher level of movement during isolation (9.1 steps vs. 5.4; p < 0.001, and a lower feeding motivation (1.8 × slower; p < 0.001 than the control group, all of which act as indicators of anxiety. These results show that mCPP is an effective pharmacological model of high anxiety in sheep. Comparatively, the sheep treated with diazepam did not display any differences compared to the control sheep. Thus we suggest that mCPP is an effective treatment to validate future tests aimed at assessing anxiety in sheep, and that future studies should include other subtle indicators of

  11. A review of Melophagus ovinus (L.), the sheep ked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Richard W

    2005-06-10

    The sheep ked Melophagus ovinus is a member of the parasitic Dipteran family Hippoboscidae; it was a widespread ectoparasite of sheep that was of veterinary importance until the introduction of effective pesticides. Since then it has become of less concern and may have become a relatively uncommon species through much of its former range. Changes in agricultural practice, both greater intensification and development of more extensive systems (including organic farming and conservation grazing), may allow resurgence and a review of existing knowledge of M. ovinus may be timely. This paper reviews the biology, annual population cycles, natural causes of mortality, veterinary and economic significance and control of, and host resistance to, M. ovinus.

  12. Evaluation the effect of albendazole against nematodes in sheep

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    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six sheep farms in Mosul city, Iraq randomly selected, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to Albendazole. On each of 6 sheep farms, 20 lambs were randomly distributed into two equal groups untreated control group, and albendazole (benzimidazole group (10 mg/kg BW. Faecal egg counts and larval cultures were done at 7, 14, and 21 days after anthelmintic treatment. Resistance was apparent for albendazole on 4 farms out of 6 (66.7%. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated: Strongyloides papillosus, Marshalligia marshalli, Nematodirus spathiger and Haemonchus contortus.

  13. Membrane toxicity of abnormal prion protein in adrenal chromaffin cells of scrapie infected sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are associated with accumulations of disease specific PrP (PrP(d in the central nervous system (CNS and often the lymphoreticular system (LRS. Accumulations have additionally been recorded in other tissues including the peripheral nervous system and adrenal gland. Here we investigate the effect of sheep scrapie on the morphology and the accumulation of PrP(d in the adrenal medulla of scrapie affected sheep using light and electron microscopy. Using immunogold electron microscopy, non-fibrillar forms of PrP(d were shown to accumulate mainly in association with chromaffin cells, occasional nerve endings and macrophages. PrP(d accumulation was associated with distinctive membrane changes of chromaffin cells including increased electron density, abnormal linearity and invaginations. Internalisation of PrP(d from the chromaffin cell plasma membrane occurred in association with granule recycling following hormone exocytosis. PrP(d accumulation and internalisation from membranes is similarly associated with perturbations of membrane structure and trafficking in CNS neurons and tingible body macrophages of the LRS. These data suggest that a major toxic effect of PrP(d is at the level of plasma membranes. However, the precise nature of PrP(d-membrane toxicity is tissue and cell specific suggesting that the normal protein may act as a multi-functional scaffolding molecule. We further suggest that the co-localisation of PrP(d with exocytic granules of the hormone trafficking system may provide an additional source of infectivity in blood.

  14. Transmission characteristics and optimal diagnostic samples to detect an FMDV infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Orsel, K.; Kluitenberg-van Hemert, F.; Dekker, A.

    2015-01-01

    We wanted to quantify transmission of FMDV Asia-1 in sheep and to evaluate which samples would be optimal for detection of an FMDV infection in sheep. For this, we used 6 groups of 4 non-vaccinated and 6 groups of 4 vaccinated sheep. In each group 2 sheep were inoculated and contact exposed to 2

  15. Bighorn sheep × domestic sheep hybrids survive Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in the absence of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, R; Shanthalingam, S; Bavananthasivam, J; Kugadas, A; Raghavan, B; Batra, S A; Herndon, C N; Rodriguez, J; Tibary, A; Nelson, D; Potter, K A; Foreyt, W J; Srikumaran, S

    2014-06-04

    Bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are much more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) to pneumonia caused by leukotoxin (Lkt)-producing members of the Family Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Leukotoxin is widely accepted as the critical virulence factor of these bacteria since Lkt-negative mutants do not cause death of BHS. Typically, DS carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi as commensal bacteria in their nasopharynx. In contrast, most BHS do not carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica or B. trehalosi, or carry Lkt-negative strains in their nasopharynx. In previous studies, we demonstrated that unimmunized DS resist M. haemolytica challenge while BHS succumb to it. We hypothesized that Lkt-neutralizing antibodies, induced by Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi innately carried by DS in their nasopharynx, render them less susceptible to infection by these bacteria. In this study we developed BHS×DS F1 hybrids by artificial insemination of domestic ewes with BHS semen. F1 hybrids were fertile, and produced F2 hybrids and back-crosses. The F1, F2, and back-crosses were raised together with domestic ewes. All these animals acquired Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi, and developed high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies in the absence of vaccination. Furthermore, all of these animals resisted challenge with lethal dose of M. haemolytica. These results suggest that lack of previous exposure to Lkt is at least partially responsible for fatal pneumonia in BHS when they acquire Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi from DS when the two species commingle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  17. Induction of photosensitivity in sheep with Erodium moschatum (L. L'Hérit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Stroebel

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Erodium moschatum is an exotic weed in the southern and southwestern coastal areas of the Western Cape Province (WCP, South Africa. It has been suspected as the cause of photosensitivity in sheep. However, attempts to induce photosensitivity by dosing it to sheep have thus far been unsuccessful. During August 1999, 2 sheep suffering from severe photosensitivity were presented for clinical examination to the Western Cape Provincial Veterinary Laboratory (WCPVL. One sheep was sacrificed for autopsy. Except for skin lesions associated with photosensitivity, no icterus or other lesions were present. Histopathological examination of affected skin revealed epidermal necrosis while the liver had no microscopic lesions. It was therefore concluded that the sheep might have been suffering from primary photosensitivity. The farmfrom which the sheep came, situated in the Malmesbury district, WCP, was visited to determine the source of the photodynamic agent. The flock from which the sheep originated had been grazing in a camp where E. moschatum was growing abundantly and had been heavily grazed. Some remaining Erodium in the camp was collected, pulped and dosed over a period of 7 days to an adult sheep. Another sheep was dosed simultaneously with Erodium growing on the premises of the WCPVL. Both sheep developed mild photosensitivity, which was confirmed by histopathological examination of skin biopsies. It was concluded that E. moschatum can induce photosensitivity (probably the primary type in sheep if ingested in large quantities.

  18. Transfer of single dose of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and bevacizumab into milk of sheep

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    Tugba Cakmak Argun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether single-dose intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and ranibizumab transfer into milk. METHODS: This study included lactating 12 sheep and a single 3-month old suckling lamb of each sheep. Two groups consisting of 6 sheep and their lambs were constituted; the ranibizumab group and the bevacizumab group before the administration of intravitreal injections, blood and milk samples were obtained from all sheep and, following the injections, blood and milk samples of all sheep and blood samples of all lambs were collected at regular time points. Serum and milk concentrations of bevacizumab and ranibizumab were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The limit of determination was 0.9 ng/mL for bevacizumab and 0.62 ng/mL for ranibizumab. RESULTS: At 6h after intravitreal injections, bevacizumab concentration was above the limit of determination in the blood of all sheep. At 3wk, when the study was terminated, bevacizumab concentrations were high in 4 sheep. Even though bevacizumab concentrations in milk showed fluctuations, the drug transferred into the milk of all sheep at detectable concentrations. Ranibizumab drug concentrations in the blood and milk of sheep and those in the blood of lambs were below the limit of determination by the ELISA kit. CONCLUSION: This sheep model study demonstrate that intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, which did not transfer into the milk of sheep and suckling lambs, is safer than bevacizumab during lactation period.

  19. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal septicemia and fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The serotypes given were T3, T4, T15 and A1 and these were recovered from lung lesions and other organs. In three trials, domestic sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of bighorn sheep pneumonic lungs, and two concentrations of the P. haemolytica bighorn strain (10(4) and 10(12) organisms). One of these sheep was inoculated intrabronchially. The domestic sheep experienced a transient fever and elevated white blood cell counts. After six days, none of the sheep had lung lesions and inoculated organisms could not be recovered. It is suggested that bighorn sheep are very susceptible to P. haemolytica from domestic livestock and should not be allowed in contact with sheep or cattle.

  20. Short communication. Employment of molecular markers to develop tetraploid “supermale” asparagus from andromonoecious plants of the landrace ‘Morado de Huétor’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose J. Regalado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the development of new “supermale” genotypes retaining the highest genetic diversity possible of the tetraploid asparagus landrace ‘Morado de Huétor’. The elite andromonoecious male HT664 of the ‘Morado de Huétor’ asparagus landrace and the andromonoecious hybrid male HC027, obtained by crossing between this landrace and a commercial cultivar of Asparagus officinalis, were selected for self-pollination to produce possible “supermales” with genes of ‘Morado de Huétor’ (SMHT. To confirm the hybrid nature of HC027, we characterized this genotype with EST-SSR (Expressed Sequence Tag-derived Simple Sequence Repeats markers. We also adopted the sex-linked marker Asp1-T7 for sex determination in ‘Morado de Huétor’ and the resulting hybrids between this landrace and other commercial cultivars. Asp1-T7 marker was used for the selection and genotyping of SMHT. “All-male” cultivars with a different genetic background can be generated by crossing females with these new “supermale” genotypes, and the agronomical traits of these new cultivars would be very different from the “all-male” cultivars currently available in the market, making them extremely interesting for asparagus breeding programs.

  1. Proteínas del huésped incorporadas en el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana tipo 1 (VIH-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Canedo de León

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH, como la mayoría de los virus envueltos, toma esta estructura cuando abandona la célula infectada. El virus adquiere durante este proceso, junto con fragmentos de la membrana de la célula huésped, proteínas derivadas de la membrana celular como parte integral de la envoltura madura. Estos componentes de la envoltura viral derivados del huésped pueden ejercer algunos efectos en el ciclo de vida del virus, en la interacción virus-célula, especialmente en la respuesta del huésped a sus propias proteínas incorporadas por el virus y, finalmente, en la patogénesis de la enfermedad inducida por el virus. El rol de estas proteínas ha recibido cada día más atención, específicamente en la importancia que puedan tener en el proceso infeccioso viral y en le desarrollo del Síndrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una revisión de las proteínas del huésped que son incorporadas por el VIH, haciendo énfasis en el rol potencial de estas proteínas en la patogénesis del SIDA.

  2. Proposed Methodology for Application of Human-like gradual Multi-Agent Q-Learning (HuMAQ) for Multi-robot Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Dip Narayan; Majumder, Somajyoti

    2014-01-01

    Several attempts have been made by the researchers around the world to develop a number of autonomous exploration techniques for robots. But it has been always an important issue for developing the algorithm for unstructured and unknown environments. Human-like gradual Multi-agent Q-leaming (HuMAQ) is a technique developed for autonomous robotic exploration in unknown (and even unimaginable) environments. It has been successfully implemented in multi-agent single robotic system. HuMAQ uses the concept of Subsumption architecture, a well-known Behaviour-based architecture for prioritizing the agents of the multi-agent system and executes only the most common action out of all the different actions recommended by different agents. Instead of using new state-action table (Q-table) each time, HuMAQ uses the immediate past table for efficient and faster exploration. The proof of learning has also been established both theoretically and practically. HuMAQ has the potential to be used in different and difficult situations as well as applications. The same architecture has been modified to use for multi-robot exploration in an environment. Apart from all other existing agents used in the single robotic system, agents for inter-robot communication and coordination/ co-operation with the other similar robots have been introduced in the present research. Current work uses a series of indigenously developed identical autonomous robotic systems, communicating with each other through ZigBee protocol

  3. The monomeric form of Neisseria DNA mimic protein DMP19 prevents DNA from binding to the histone-like HU protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tzu-Ping; Liao, Yi-Ting; Hsu, Kai-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    DNA mimicry is a direct and effective strategy by which the mimic competes with DNA for the DNA binding sites on other proteins. Until now, only about a dozen proteins have been shown to function via this strategy, including the DNA mimic protein DMP19 from Neisseria meningitides. We have shown previously that DMP19 dimer prevents the operator DNA from binding to the transcription factor NHTF. Here, we provide new evidence that DMP19 monomer can also interact with the Neisseria nucleoid-associated protein HU. Using BS3 crosslinking, gel filtration and isothermal titration calorimetry assays, we found that DMP19 uses its monomeric form to interact with the Neisseria HU dimer. Crosslinking conjugated mass spectrometry was used to investigate the binding mode of DMP19 monomer and HU dimer. Finally, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the DNA binding affinity of HU is affected by DMP19. These results showed that DMP19 is bifunctional in the gene regulation of Neisseria through its variable oligomeric forms. PMID:29220372

  4. Proteomics reveal energy metabolism and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction perturbation in human Borna disease virus Hu-H1-infected oligodendroglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Yang, Y; Zhao, M; Bode, L; Zhang, L; Pan, J; Lv, L; Zhan, Y; Liu, S; Zhang, L; Wang, X; Huang, R; Zhou, J; Xie, P

    2014-05-30

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic, non-cytolytic RNA virus which replicates in the cell nucleus targeting mainly hippocampal neurons, but also astroglial and oligodendroglial cells in the brain. BDV is associated with a large spectrum of neuropsychiatric pathologies in animals. Its relationship to human neuropsychiatric illness still remains controversial. We could recently demonstrate that human BDV strain Hu-H1 promoted apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in a human oligodendroglial cell line (OL cells) whereas laboratory BDV strain V acted contrariwise. Here, differential protein expression between BDV Hu-H1-infected OL cells and non-infected OL cells was assessed through a proteomics approach, using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 63 differential host proteins were identified in BDV Hu-H1-infected OL cells compared to non-infected OL cells. We found that most changes referred to alterations related to the pentose phosphate pathway, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and glycolysis /gluconeogenesis. By manual querying, two differential proteins were found to be associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction. Five key signaling proteins of this pathway (i.e., p-Raf, p-MEK, p-ERK1/2, p-RSK, and p-MSK) were selected for Western blotting validation. p-ERK1/2 and p-RSK were found to be significantly up-regulated, and p-MSK was found to be significantly down-regulated in BDV Hu-H1-infected OL cells compared to non-infected OL cell. Although BDV Hu-H1 constitutively activated the ERK-RSK pathway, host cell proliferation and nuclear translocation of activated pERK in BDV Hu-H1-infected OL cells were impaired. These findings indicate that BDV Hu-H1 infection of human oligodendroglial cells significantly perturbs host energy metabolism, activates the downstream ERK-RSK complex of

  5. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize

  6. Infección por Gnathostoma (Spirurida: Gnathostomatidae en Hoplias microlepis: prevalencia, correlación con la talla del pez, huéspedes e implicaciones para salud pública en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alava

    2009-12-01

    Conclusiones. La gnathostomiasis sigue siendo prevalente en la zona costera de Ecuador y el agente patógeno es aún encontrado en el huésped intermediario. Diversos mamíferos neotropicales estarían actuando como huésped reservorio definitivo en el ciclo biológico de Gnathostoma en Ecuador.

  7. Parasitic helminth infections in native sheep (Mehraban in Hamedan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep play an important role in national economy and social economy in rural areas in Iran. The main goal of this study was to investigate the fauna and frequency of parasitic helminth infections prevalent in native sheep in Hamedan, western Iran. From April 2010 to March 2011, the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of 100-sheep were examined using conventional parasitological methods. The overall infection rate was found as 69%. No infection was found in esophagus and rumens. Parabronema skerjabini (22% and Ostertagia circumcincta (1% were recorded as the maximum and minimum cases for the presence of nematode, respectively. On the other hand, the most dominant of trematode and cestode were Fasciola hepatica (13% and Monezia expansa (13%, respectively. The highest infection rate was reported in summer (84%. The prevalence of helminth infection was varied among gender, seasons and age groups. In conclusion, this is the first report of parasitic helminth infections in sheep in Hamedan province in western Iran. Our results provide baseline information for the future studies.

  8. Economics of vaccinating extensively managed sheep flocks against Bluetongue disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluetongue is a serious and recurring threat to sheep producers throughout the world. In the western United States, bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by biting midges in late summer and early autumn, just before lambs are sent to market. No vaccine is currently sold for the most common serotype ...

  9. Improvement of sheep skin quality after treatment with diazinon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cockle, otherwise known as ekek locally, has been economically the most important skin defect among the tanneries in Ethiopia for the last three decades. The disease has been experimented on since 1996 when FAO sponsored the trials on sheep and goat skin improvement trial (TCP/ETH/4558&6712) and found that ...

  10. Assessing genetic diversity of Hamdani sheep breed in Kurdistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variation in Hamdani sheep in the Kurdistan region of Iraq was studied using 35 microsatellite markers. All 35 markers were found to be highly polymorphic. The mean number of observed alleles ranged from four at BMS1494 to twenty five at BM6444 and INRABERN185 loci. The polymorphic information ...

  11. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Wang

    Full Text Available Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed.We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality and EDAR (associated with hair thickness were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9 were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study.Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  12. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Zhang, Li; Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding.

  13. The Reproductive Performance of the Nigerian Dwarf Sheep | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three of the most important parameters of reproduction in sheep, the age at first lambing, the lambing interval and the number of lambs born per ewe at each lambing, were analysed from the herdbook of the breeding flock of the University of Ibadan for the period-1968 to 1974. The means were as follows: 1. age at first ...

  14. The heritability of acceptability in South African Merino sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection for production and reproduction in South African Merino sheep is always combined with selection based on visual appraisal and will, in all probability, remain so for many years to come. Heritabilities for acceptability were estimated using a threshold model to analyse data from two parent Merino studs. Effects ...

  15. Preliminary studies in sheep exposed to 85Kr atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, F.D.; Willard, D.H.; Ballou, J.E.; Sikov, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Accumulation of 85 Kr in arterial blood of sheep occurs within 10 min of inhalation exposure initiation, and disappears by 30 min after exposure termination. As reported for other species, 85 Kr concentrations in fat were approximately 10 times those in other tissues

  16. Intoxication of sheep exposed to ozark milkweed (Asclepias viridis Walter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Scharko, P; Bolin, D; Hong, C B

    2000-12-01

    Some 20 sheep died 1 at a time on a farm in Fleming County, KY, in late July of 1999 after consumption of Asclepias viridis Walter. Major histological lesions were mild multifocal nonsuppurative myocarditis. Gross pathology revealed wet and heavy lungs. Many affected animals had a hunched appearance, and marked posterior paresis was also observed.

  17. Parentage verification and identity test of Ghezel sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... The Ghezel sheep is a fat tail high weight Iranian breed which is raised in the North-west of Iran. To design an efficient improvement program and genetic evaluation system for this indigenous breed, accurate estimates of the population genetic parameters is per-required and all pedigrees and relationships ...

  18. haematology of the west african dwarf sheep under two different

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The coat is usually white in colour or a mixture of black and white. They weight about 30kg. Although there are a number of studies on the normal haematology of the West Africa Dwarf Sheep (Oduye, 1976, Durotoye 1987, Oyewale, 1991), there is no report on the influence of management on the haematology of these ...

  19. Perception of Sheep and Goat Milk Consumption among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 120 respondents were purposively selected to study the perception of sheep and goat milk consumption among rural dwellers in South-Western Nigeria. The study showed that most of the respondents (72.5%) are not aware of the consumption of such milk and as such only few (10, 8%) claimed that they have ...

  20. Determinants of sheep and goat meat consumption in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aepli, M.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the

  1. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  2. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively

  3. Revealing the history of domesticated sheep using retrovirus integrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chessa, Bernado; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relic...

  4. Evaluation of large stock unit equivalents for sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    does not recognize body weight differences of up to 20% between these two breeds. According to ... in body weight; lactating ewes lose 100 g/day in body weight; metabolizability (q) of energy of the feed which sheep select in the veld is .... normally slaughtered at a lower body weight due to fat accumulation. Conclusion.

  5. Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of four indigenous sheep breeds of Balochistan, Pakistan by random amplified polymorphic DNAs. ... The highest number of polymorphic loci 40 was observed in the Mengali breed, while the lowest 28 was in Balochi. Further, 33 and 31 polymorphic loci were seen in Beverigh and Harnai breeds, ...

  6. EARLY USAGE OF SHEEP AND GOAT YOUTH FOR THE REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ANA PIVODA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Female lambs and kids at the age of 9-10 months were used for early reproduction and it was noticed that the medium values of the weight of the lambs calved by female sheep and the kids calved by female kids are close to the medium values of the weight of the lambs and kids calved by adult sheep and goats. The main index of reproduction accomplished by the youth female situated at he level of the values characteristic to the sheep and goats breeds or populations belonging to Carpatina breed, registering lower values. By the early usage of sheep and goats male youth the following were noticed: Palas Merino male lambs, capable for reproduction 80%; the male lambs from Palas prolific population, capable for reproduction 88,8; out of the he-goats lots of Carpatina breed, at the age of 7-10 months, 83.33% the males manifested a normal sexual behaviour; the males which did not have sexual reflexes at the age of 7-10 months and at the age of 19-22 months they were not capable for reproduction, and the ones that had the seminal material of low quality continued to be so.

  7. Experimentally induced cam impingement in the sheep hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, Klaus A; Fiechter, Ruth; Tannast, Moritz; Mamisch, Tallal C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Sheep hips have a natural non-spherical femoral head similar to a cam-type deformity in human beings. By performing an intertrochanteric varus osteotomy, cam-type femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) during flexion can be created. We tested the hypotheses that macroscopic lesions of the articular cartilage and an increased Mankin score (MS) can be reproduced by an experimentally induced cam-type FAI in this ovine in vivo model. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the MS increases with longer ambulatory periods. Sixteen sheep underwent unilateral intertrochanteric varus osteotomy of the hip with the non-operated hip as a control. Four sheep were sacrificed after 14, 22, 30, and 38-weeks postoperatively. We evaluated macroscopic chondrolabral alterations, and recorded the MS, based on histochemical staining, for each ambulatory period. A significantly higher prevalence of macroscopic chondrolabral lesions was found in the impingement zone of the operated hips. The MS was significantly higher in the acetabular/femoral cartilage of the operated hips. Furthermore, these scores increased as the length of the ambulatory period increased. Cam-type FAI can be induced in an ovine in vivo model. Localized chondrolabral degeneration of the hip, similar to that seen in humans (Tannast et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008; 466: 273-280; Beck et al., J Bone Joint Surg Br 2005; 87: 1012-1018), can be reproduced. This experimental sheep model can be used to study cam-type FAI. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  8. Growth performance and economics of sheep production with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve-week feeding trial was conducted using sixteen (16) growing Uda lambs to determine the growth performance of sheep fed varying levels of rice milling waste. Diets containing graded levels of rice milling waste replacing wheat offal at 15, 30 and 45% inclusion levels were formulated. Diet without rice milling waste ...

  9. Determination of anthelmintic resistance in goats and sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nematode parasites are known to pose a challenge to small ruminant production in Tanzania due to their fast development of resistance to the commonly used anthelmintics. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance of anthelmintics in small ruminants. A total of 30 sheep and 30 goats aged between 6 and ...

  10. Purine derivative excretion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 3 x 3 Latin square design experiment, urinary excretions of purine derivatives (allantoin N, Uric acid N, Xanthine + Hypoxanthine N) were measured and used to estimate microbial N yield in 9 sheep fed roughage- based diet supplemented with 0, 150 and 300g DM grass silage respectively. Daily urinary excretions of ...

  11. blood and plasma volumes in normal west african dwarf sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were determined as descried by Benjamin (1978) using the microhaematocrit and ... Standard dye concentration of 20 mg/ml was used for determining the dye concentration in plasma. ... Haemoglobin (Hb), Plasma Volume and Blood Volume in the West African Dwarf. Sheep.

  12. Sheep response to sugar cane tops supplemented with varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty WAD sheep averaging 10.14kg were randomly divided into four groups of 5 replicates, and each group was fed sugarcane tops (SCT) supplemented with varying levels (0%, 25%, 50 and 75%) of Leucaena leucocephala foliage (LLF) in a completely randomized design. Results showed that sugarcane tops (SCT) ...

  13. The evaluation of four Eragrostis curvula ecotypes with grazing sheep.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant differences in the dry matter production and chemical composition of the clipped samples of the ecotypes. Keywords: afrikaans; chemical composition; dry matter production; ecotypes; eragrostis curvula; grazing; live mass; live mass gains; open rotational grazing system; production; sheep; south ...

  14. Synchronization of oestrus in sheep: Use of different doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synchronization of oestrus in sheep: Use of different doses of progestagen outside the normal breeding season. JPC Greyling, WF Kotzé, GJ Taylor, WJ Hagendijk, F Cloete. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Performance and Grazing Pattern of West African Dwarf Sheep to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) West African Dwarf sheep managed semi intensively and grazing on natural pastures were used in a study to determine the performance and grazing pattern to seasonal forage supply and quality. The animals were allowed to graze for about 6 hours daily for four months each in the dry and wet seasons, ...

  16. Experimental infection of Ethiopian highland sheep by different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult worm population and the egg excretion positively and significantly correlated together, whereas they were .... Figure 1: Nematode egg excretion from sheep infected with different doses of H. contortus L3. Total worm burden .... further drop in haematological parameters until the end of the experiment. Eosinophils are ...

  17. Hydatidosis of cattle and sheep, its economic importance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs were studied in. South Wollo .... retail market price of average sized zebu liver, lung and the cost of 1kg of .... cattle. The cysts recovered form sheep were not that much in good shape.

  18. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep (Ovis aries)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    2016-02-09

    Feb 9, 2016 ... Alterations in the liver, central nervous system, and heart muscle have ..... mean heart rate of 119 bpm in normal sheep (Tório et al., 1997). In this ... heart samples could reveal information on remodeling of the extracellular ...

  19. Prevalence of Coenurus cerebralis in sheep in Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosa Tavassoli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis survey was carried out to determine the infection rate of Coenurus cerebralis in Urmiaabattoir, West Azerbaijan, Iran. A total of 402 sheep heads were examined and the number ofC. cerebralis cysts per each head was recorded. Thirty three sheep heads were examined eachmonth during 12 months from 2006 to 2007. Of 402 heads, a number of 75 heads (18.65%were infected with C. cerebralis. The cysts located in the left and right hemispheres andcerebellum were 54.63%, 40.20% and 5.15%, respectively. The infected heads contained 1-4cysts. The highest and lowest prevalence were detected in sheep in March (42.42% and in July(2.94%, respectively. The infection rates according to age of sheep were 42.02% in 0.5 to 2years, 22.50% in 2 to 4 years and 8.92% in older than 4 years. The age specific infection ratesamong age groups were significantly differed (P 0.05.

  20. Genetic diversity of Najdi sheep based on microsatellite analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MUNEEB

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... purpose breed, primarily used for meat, milk and wool production. Najdi has ... PET-Red, NED-Yellow and VIC-Green provided by Applied. Biosystems™ (CA ..... Copper status of Najdi sheep in eastern. Saudi Arabia under ...

  1. Studies on the blood parasites of sheep in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of two hundred and fourteen blood samples collected from West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep between the months of January and April 2001 were examined for haemoparasites using the blood smear method. The rectal temperature, Packed Cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC) ...

  2. Genetic diversity of two Tunisian sheep breeds using random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to study genetic diversity and population structure in six sheep populations belonging to two native Tunisian breeds (the Barbarine and the Western thin tail). A total of 96 samples were typed using eight RAPD primers. 62 bands were scored, of which 44 ...

  3. Genetic diversity of Najdi sheep based on microsatellite analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prime objective of this research was to measure the genetic polymorphism of main sheep breed of Saudi Arabia, Najdi. Randomly selected 49 blood samples were used to extract the DNA followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using 19 microsatellite markers, which were used to investigate the genetic ...

  4. Wet faeces produced by sheep fed dried spineless cactus pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactus pear cladodes in ruminant diets are characterized by the production of wet faeces and assumed to be diarrhoea. Incremental levels of sun-dried and coarsely ground spineless cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Algerian) cladodes were used to substitute part of the lucerne hay in balanced sheep diets. Feed and ...

  5. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB). The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal ...

  6. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Kurdish sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters and (co)variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure, using animal models of kind 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, for body weight in birth, three, six, nine and 12 months of age in a Kurdish sheep flock. Direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the best ...

  7. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbr...

  8. Polymorphism investigation of calpastatin gene in Zel sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hosein

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... Meat tenderness is an important quality characteristic for which consumers are interested. ... Key words: Calpastatin gene, polymorphism, Zel sheep, meat and polymerase chain reaction- ..... correlations for bovine postrigor calpastatin activity, intramuscular fat ... expression of the mRNA in skeletal muscle.

  9. PRESENT AND FUTURE SITUATION OF SHEEP PRODUCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    autumn to produce winter lambs on hay and barley and, if the weather is mild, the same grazing is used as that for the mothers. This, in general, is the Mediter- ranean type of sheep husbandry. There are of course a whole range of situations in between: Percentage of national flock in different husbandry systems. Numbers ...

  10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of sheep in Sherpur, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prianka Rani Poddar

    2017-09-01

    Results: Out of 106 samples, 67.9% (n=72/106 revealed the presence of ova of different helminths. The prevalence of helminth infection was associated with Fasciola gigantica (11.3%; n=12/106, Paramphistomes (13.2%; n=14/106, Schistosoma indicum (3.8%; n=4/106, Moniezia sp. (3.8%; n=4/106, Strongyle-type (24.5%; n=26/106, hook worm (6.6%; n=7/106, Strongyloides sp. (12.3%; n=13/106 and Trichuris sp. (1.9%; n=2/106. Egg count per gram (EPG was calculated which was ranged between 100 and 600. Parasitic counts in lambs, young and adult showed no significant variations (P=0.511 from one other. Infection was significantly (P=0.04 higher in poor body conditioned sheep (76.3 % as contrasted to normal body conditioned sheep (57.4%. No significant variation (P=0.601 was noticed in infection rates between sexes. Females displayed a higher infection (70.0% as compared to males (65.2%. In rearing system, the result was found statistically insignificant (P=0.247. Conclusion: Utterly, GI helminths are endemic at great levels among sheep in the study area. Also, their infestation differs within various age groups, sexes, nutritional condition and rearing system of sheep. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 274-280

  11. Morphological changes in organs of sheep perished following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sheep were whole-body gamma irradiated with doses of 6.7 Gy. The main section finding was hemorrhagic diathesis. A detailed description is presented of changes in organs and mucous membranes, of the areas of hemorhages and ecchymoses. (M.D.)

  12. Histomorphological changes in uterine cervix of sheep following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokosova, M.; Arendarcik, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sheep were whole-body gamma irradiated for seven days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. A quantitative and qualitative microscopic analysis showed greater roundness and articulation of epithelial folds of the cervix uteri. The number and localization of the glands were changed and the surface epithelium of the cervix uteri was reduced. (M.D.)

  13. Genetic variation among pelt sheep population using microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation in three Iranian pelt sheep breeds namely: Gray Shiraz, Zandi and Karakul were investigated using fifteen microsatellite loci. Genomic DNA was extracted from 360 blood samples by extraction kits and salting-out procedure with some modifications. The total number of alleles ranged from 6 to12 in loci.

  14. Assessment of Quality Characteristics of Cellulose, Sheep and Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small intestines of 12 West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep and those of 12 Red Sokoto goats obtained from an abattoir were converted into casings. The imported cellulose casing used for the study was obtained from a sausage manufacturing company. Cellulose casing had the widest diameter of 35.00mm followed by ...

  15. supplementing sheep with protein and phosphorus on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanges between the different treatments and breeds, were statistically significant (P ... (i) a Protein supplement (Fish meal SO/n Sa|t 30f",. Dicalciumphosphate l5f' ... as the cause for the poor response by sheep to supplementary feeding in the form.

  16. Study of gastrointestinal nematodes in Sicilian sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, A; Dara, S; Marino, A M F; Sparagano, O A E; Vitale, F; Reale, S; Caracappa, S

    2004-10-01

    Parasitic gastroenteritis is one of the major causes of productivity loss in sheep and goats. This report records two studies of the helminth fauna from post-mortem examination. The first study, performed on the digestive tract of 72 sheep from a central part of Sicily in a high hill village (1,360 meters above sea level), between April 1996 and March 1997, showed an infection rate of 78%. The second study targeted goats from the western part of Sicily and showed an infection rate of 90%. For sheep, a total of 23 species of helminths were identified belonging to the family of Trichostrongyloidea, with the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia (Teladorsagia), Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, and Nematodirus; Strongilolidea with the genera Oesophagostomum and Chabertia: Ancylostomidea with Bunostomum; and Tricuridea with Tricuris. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most common in the sheep abomasum, Bunostomum trigonocephalum and Trichostrongylus spp. in the small intestine, and Chabertia ovina and Trichuris ovis in the large intestine. For goats, a total of 12 species were isolated in the abomasum with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus axei the most common species. In the small intestine, five species were isolated and Trichostrongylus capricola was the dominant species. T. ovis and O. venulosum were dominant in large intestine and in the cecum. We also found species belonging to other ruminants such as O. ostertagi (in cattle) and S. kolchida and O. leptospicularis (in wild ruminants).

  17. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Iranian Makuie sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farhadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.

  18. Response of West African dwarf sheep to differently processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to assess the response of West African Dwarf sheep to differently processed corncob meal based-diets. Sun-dried corncobs were collected at Teaching and Research farm of Federal University of Technology, Akure, treated with water, lye, urea, poultry litter and fermented for twenty-one (21) ...

  19. Complete genome sequence of a novel pestivirus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Paul; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Postel, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of pestivirus strain Aydin/04-TR, which is the prototype of a group of similar viruses currently present in sheep and goats in Turkey. Sequence data from this virus showed that it clusters separately from the established and previously proposed tentative pestivirus species.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Pestivirus from Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Becher, Paul; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Postel, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of pestivirus strain Aydin/04-TR, which is the prototype of a group of similar viruses currently present in sheep and goats in Turkey. Sequence data from this virus showed that it clusters separately from the established and previously proposed tentative pestivirus species.

  1. The role of bioactive substances in controlling foodborne pathogens derived from Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Na, Minkyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2010-07-01

    In an attempt to isolate bioactive substances, ethyl acetate cone extract of Metasequoia glyptostroboides was subjected to a column chromatographic analysis that resulted in isolation of an abietane type diterpenoid, taxoquinone. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic means. In further, taxoquinone showed potential antibacterial effect as diameters of zones of inhibition against foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19166, Salmonella typhimurium KCTC 2515, Salmonella enteritidis KCTC 2021, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888, Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC2190, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and S. aureus KCTC 1916, which were found in the range of 10.6-15.8mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of taxoquinone against the employed bacterial pathogens were found in the range of 62.5-250 and 125-500 microg/ml. Also the compound had strong antibacterial effect on the viable counts of the tested bacteria. Further, scanning electron microscopic study demonstrated potential detrimental effect of taxoquinone on the morphology of E. coli ATCC 8739. These findings indicate that bioactive compound taxoquinone present in M. glyptostroboides could be used as a promising antibacterial agent in food industry to inhibit the growth of certain important foodborne pathogens. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impacts of elevated ozone on growth and photosynthesis of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Niu, Junfeng

    2014-09-01

    One-year-old Metasequoia glyptostroboides seedlings were exposed to non-filtered ambient air (NF) and elevated ozone (E-O3, NF+60 ppb) in open-top chambers for two years. E-O3 accelerated leaf senescence, as indicated by significant decreases in photosynthetic pigment contents with the elongation of O3 exposure. E-O3 significantly affected gas exchange and carboxylation, inducing reductions in light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat), the maximum activity of Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum electron transport rate (Jmax). Chl a/b, Vc,max/Jmax and stomatal limitation (l) were not affected. Stomatal conductance (gs) was significantly decreased by E-O3 in the first year, but remained unchanged in the second year. It can be inferred that the decrease in Asat by E-O3 was mainly attributed to the changes in non-stomatal factors. After two years' exposure, E-O3 caused significant decreases in canopy photosynthesis and leaf mass per area, and a significant increase in the number of branches, but induced slight, not significant decreases in growth and biomass. Therefore, it can be concluded that the carbon accumulation of the species M. glyptostroboides could be negatively affected after long-term exposure to high O3 concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal and spatial characteristics of male cone development in Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Tang, Liang; Lu, Yan; Wang, Di; Zhang, Min; Ma, Jiuxia

    2012-12-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides, a famous relic species of conifer that survived in China, has been successfully planted in large numbers across the world. However, limited information on male cone development in the species is available. In this study, we observed the morphological and anatomical changes that occur during male cone development in M. glyptostroboides using semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. The male cones were borne oppositely on one-year-old twigs that were mainly located around the outer and sunlit parts of crown. Male cones were initiated from early September and shed pollen in the following February. Each cone consisted of spirally arranged microsporophylls subtended by decussate sterile scales, and each microsporophyll commonly consisted of three microsporangia and a phylloclade. The microsporangial wall was composed of an epidermis, endothecium, and tapetum. In mid-February, the endothecium and tapetum layers disintegrated, and in the epidermal layer the cell walls were thickened with inner protrusions. Subsequently, dehiscence of the microsporangia occurred through rupturing of the microsporangial wall along the dehiscence line. These results suggest that the structure, morphology, architecture and arrangement of male cones of M. glyptostroboides are mainly associated with the production, protection and dispersal of pollen for optimization of wind pollination.

  4. Quartz exposure, retention, and early silicosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, R; Dufresne, A; Cantin, A; Possmayer, F; Sébastien, P; Fabi, D; Bilodeau, G; Martel, M; Bisson, D; Pietrowski, B

    1989-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate the chronology of events in cellular and biochemical changes thought to be important in the development of silicosis, (2) to relate these to changes in lung function and radiograph, and (3) to evaluate the relation of quartz exposure and retention to individual response leading to early silicosis. Thirty-six sheep were exposed by repeated intratracheal infusion at 10-day intervals to 100 mg Minusil-5 in 100 ml saline (Si group), and 10 sheep were exposed at the same intervals to 100 ml saline (control). All sheep were investigated at 3-month intervals by chest radiograph, lung function, and lung lavage. At month 9, chest radiograph score of parenchymal opacities was significantly increased at 2.8 +/- 0.6 versus 0.4 +/- 0.4 in the Si group (p less than .05), establishing early radiologic silicosis. Lung function was significantly altered with reduction in lung compliance, vital capacity, and diffusion capacity (p less than .05). Lung lavage cellularity revealed significant increase in total cells (X 2.5), macrophages (X3), and neutrophils (X3). Albumin in BAL remained at the control level. Fibronectin production was significantly increased, as was the fibroblast growth activity, without significant change in procollagen 3 at this early stage of disease. Total phospholipids were significantly elevated in the Si-exposed sheep, and the profile demonstrated an increase in all the phospholipid components. Spontaneous release of hydrogen peroxide by alveolar cells was not increased, but in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) higher levels of peroxide were found in the quartz-exposed sheep (p less than .05). The cellular and biochemical alterations of lung lavage preceded other changes. At month 12, there were good correlations (r greater than .49, p less than .001) between parameters evaluating related phenomena but poor correlations between measurements evaluating different aspects of the disorder. To

  5. Detrimental ELAVL-1/HuR-dependent GSK3β mRNA stabilization impairs resolution in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Hoffman

    Full Text Available A hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is accumulation of protein-rich edema in the distal airspaces and its removal is critical for patient survival. Previous studies have shown a detrimental role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK 3β during ARDS via inhibition of alveolar epithelial protein transport. We hypothesized that post-transcriptional regulation of GSK3β could play a functional role in ARDS resolution. To address this hypothesis, we performed an in silico analysis to identify regulatory genes whose expression correlation to GSK3β messenger RNA utilizing two lung cancer cell line array datasets. Among potential regulatory partners of GSK3β, these studies identified the RNA-binding protein ELAVL-1/HuR (Embryonic Lethal, Abnormal Vision, Drosophila-Like as a central component in a likely GSK3β signaling network. ELAVL-1/HuR is a RNA-binding protein that selectively binds to AU-rich elements of mRNA and enhances its stability thereby increasing target gene expression. Subsequent studies with siRNA suppression of ELAVL-1/HuR demonstrated deceased GSK3β mRNA and protein expression and improved clearance of FITC-albumin in A549 cells. Conversely, stabilization of ELAVL-1/HuR with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 resulted in induction of GSK3β at mRNA and protein level and attenuated FITC-albumin clearance. Utilizing ventilator-induced lung injury or intra-tracheal installation of hydrochloric acid to induce ARDS in mice, we observed increased mRNA and protein expression of ELAVL-1/HuR and GSK3β. Together, our findings indicate a previously unknown interaction between GSK3β and ELAV-1 during ARDS, and suggest the inhibition of the ELAV-1- GSK3β pathways as a novel ARDS treatment approach.

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF A PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR OUTBREAK IN AFGHAN SHEEP IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. ZAHUR, A. ULLAH, H. IRSHAD, M. S. FAROOQ, M. HUSSAIN AND M. JAHANGIR

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and virological investigations were carried out during an outbreak of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR in Afghan (Bulkhi sheep in Pakistan. The overall morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 41.0, 1.2 and 3.0%, respectively. The epidemic curve was plotted and the values for basic reproductive number (R0 and herd immunity threshold (HIT for the affected flock were estimated to be 6.85 and 85.4%, respectively. The morbid material analysis by immuno-capture ELISA (Ic-ELISA and haemagglutination assay (HA revealed the presence of PPR virus. The PPR virus was isolated and identified through cytopathic effects, Ic-ELISA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM.

  7. The fine structure of sheep myocardial cells; sarcolemmal invaginations and the transverse tubular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMPSON, F O; OERTELIS, S J

    1962-01-01

    An electron microscope study of sheep myocardial cells has demonstrated the presence of a transverse tubular system, apparently forming a network across the cell at each Z band level. The walls of these tubules resemble the sarcolemma in consisting of two dense layers-plasma membrane and basement menbrane; continuity of the tubule walls with the sarcolemma can be seen when longitudinal sections of a cell are obtained between two subsarcolemmal myofibrils and at the same time perpendicular to the cell surface. The demonstration of communication between the lumen of the transverse tubular system and the extracellular space appears to be more definite in this study than in any work hitherto published. It provides anatomical evidence of a possible direct pathway for transmission of the activating impulse from the sarcolemma to the myofibril Z bands.

  8. Ultrastructure of sheep primordial follicles cultured in the presence of indol acetic acid, EGF, and FSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured...... in MEM (control) or in MEM containing IAA, EGF, and FSH, fragments of cultured tissue were processes for transmission electron microscopy. Except in the control, primordial follicles cultured in supplemented media for 6¿d were ultrastructurally normal. They had oocyte with intact nucleus...... and the cytoplasm contained heterogeneous-sized lipid droplets and numerous round or elongated mitochondria with intact parallel cristae were observed. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was rarely found. The granulosa cells cytoplasm contained a great number of mitochondria and abundant RER. In conclusion...

  9. Reindeer as hosts for nematode parasites of sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabok, J T; Oksanen, A; Nieminen, M; Rydzik, A; Uggla, A; Waller, P J

    2006-03-31

    The reindeer husbandry range of Scandinavia overlaps with sheep, goat, and cattle pastures. The aim of this study was to determine whether reindeer are suitable hosts for ovine or bovine nematode parasites, and thus may spread these parasites into the reindeer husbandry regions. To render worm-free, twelve 4-month-old male reindeer calves, six lambs, and six bovine calves were given ivermectin at 200 microg/kg body weight. Five weeks post-treatment, six reindeer calves were each artificially dosed with 10,000 third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from sheep, and an additional six reindeer with L3 derived from cattle. Lambs and bovine calves received the same dose of ovine and bovine larvae as reindeer, from the same larval source, respectively. Faecal samples collected on five occasions after the larval dosing revealed that by the fourth week, all reindeer calves, lambs, and bovine calves were infected. Animals were slaughtered on days 40 (reindeer) or 47 (lambs and bovine calves) after the larval dosing. Reindeer calves were most susceptible to L3 derived from sheep. The overall mean intensity of Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, and Teladorsagia circumcincta, did not differ between reindeer and sheep; however, early fourth-stage larvae of H. contortus were more abundant in reindeer (p = 0.002). The establishment of bovine-derived Ostertagia ostertagi was similar in reindeer (62%) and bovine calves (57%), but larval inhibition was much higher in reindeer (91%, p bovine derived Cooperia oncophora was recorded in reindeer calves (2%) compared with bovine calves (59%). These results show that young reindeer are susceptible hosts to the important gastrointestinal parasites of sheep (T. circumcincta, H. contortus) and cattle (O. ostertagi), as well as being a suitable host for T. axei.

  10. Pathology of AA amyloidosis in domestic sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménsua, C; Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Biescas, E; Fernández, A; Murphy, C L; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A; Luján, L

    2003-01-01

    We describe the main pathologic changes in small ruminants affected by AA amyloidosis, together with the partial sequence of the protein involved. Twenty-one sheep and one goat were selected for presenting macroscopic kidney lesions compatible with systemic amyloidosis. Available tissue samples were studied by histologic, immunopathologic, and ultrastructural means. Renal lesions were characterized grossly by pale cortical surfaces with scattered, miliary, whitish-yellow foci and on cut cortical surfaces by straight, whitish-yellow striations. Gangrenous pneumonia was observed in 16 out of 21 affected sheep (76.2%), although other chronic inflammations were also observed. Amyloid was detected in all grossly affected kidneys using Congo red staining, lesions being most remarkable in glomeruli, affecting 95.5% of animals studied. Congophilic deposits were also observed in intertubular interstitium (68.2%) and medulla (57.1%). All amyloid-affected animals presented proximal convoluted tubule lesions, mostly characterized by an increase in diameter and by hyaline granular degeneration that were responsible for the macroscopic appearance of the kidney. Histologically, amyloid was also seen in blood vessels, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. All amyloid deposits demonstrated greenish-yellow birefringence with polarized light, and the antisera prepared against goat amyloid extracts specifically reacted with birefringent congophilic deposits of both sheep and goats. Ultrastructurally, these deposits were formed by masses of straight, nonbranching fibrils located predominantly in the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and in the mesangium. Partial sequence of the protein in sheep and goats indicated a high degree of homology with the previously reported sequence of sheep Serum Amyloid A.

  11. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chenxi [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China); Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China); Ge, Yubin [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Liu, Mingjun, E-mail: xjlmj2004@yahoo.com.cn [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  12. Ecotypic variation in population dynamics of reintroduced bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Vernon C.; Sargeant, Glen A.; Wiedmann, Brett P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) for translocation historically has been motivated by preservation of subspecific purity rather than by adaptation of source stocks to similar environments. Our objective was to estimate cause‐specific, annual, and age‐specific mortality of introduced bighorn sheep that originated at low elevations in southern British Columbia, Canada (BC ecotype), or in the Missouri River Breaks region of central Montana, USA (MT ecotype). In North Dakota, USA, mortality was similar and typically low for adult female bighorn sheep from Montana (0.09 ± 0.029 [SE]) and British Columbia (0.08 ± 0.017) during 2000–2016. Median life expectancy was 11 years for females that reached adulthood (2 yrs old); however, mortality accelerated with age and reached 86% by age 16. Mortalities resulted primarily from low rates of predation, disease, accidents, and unknown natural causes (recruitment of bighorn sheep from Montana, resulted in a greater projected rate of increase for the MT ecotype (λ = 1.21) than for the BC ecotype (1.02), and a more youthful age structure. These results support translocation of bighorn sheep from areas that are environmentally similar to areas that will be stocked. Potential benefits include more rapid population growth, greater resilience to and more rapid recovery from density‐independent losses, an increased possibility that rapidly growing populations will expand into adjacent habitat, increased hunter opportunity, increased connectivity among herds, and a more complete restoration of ecosystem processes.

  13. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chenxi; Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng; Ge, Yubin; Liu, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. ► Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. ► shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. ► MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. ► Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  14. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesca; Barsotti, Giovanni; Attili, Anna Rita; Mugnaini, Linda; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Preziuso, Silvia; Corazza, Michele; Preziuso, Giovanna; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to identify conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep. Prospective study. Tuscany. 100 eyes from 50 adult Massese female sheep were examined. The sheep included in the study were considered free of anterior ophthalmic abnormalities. Bacteria were identified by morphological assessment, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Identification of filamentous fungi was achieved at the genus level, and Aspergillus species were identified based on keys provided by other authors. Yeast colonies were highlighted, but not identified. Positive cultures were obtained from 100/100 eyes for bacteria, and from 86/100 eyes for fungi. A total of 14 types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi were isolated. Yeasts were isolated from 13/100 eyes. The most frequent fungal isolates were saprophytic fungi. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora of clinically normal eyes were reported in sheep. The positivity obtained for conjunctival bacteria was higher compared to findings in the literature by other authors in the same species (100 per cent v 40 per cent), while our results were in line with a recent work performed on mouflons (Ovis Musimon) with a 100 per cent positivity for bacterial conjunctival fornix. In our survey, Gram-positive species were prevalent, as reported by other authors in different species. Few data are available in the literature regarding conjunctival fungal flora in healthy small ruminants. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal flora in this study was higher than findings reported in mouflons (86 per cent v 45 per cent). Differences in fungal prevalence may be due to different methods of managing herds, though further studies are required to verify this hypothesis. The similarities in bacterial and fungal isolates between sheep and mouflons suggest a genera pattern of conjunctival colonisation by bacteria and fungi.

  15. Variation in the metabolism of radiocaesium between individual sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Mayes, R.W.; MacEachern, P.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Considerable variability has been recorded in the radiocaesium activity concentration of muscle between individual sheep in the same flocks in upland areas that received fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In a previous paper we demonstrated that there is a propensity for certain sheep within a flock to be always amongst the most contaminated and others to be consistently the least contaminated. Here we report a study to determine the extent to which variation in the metabolism of radiocaesium by individual sheep may contribute to the observed variability within sheep flocks. The transfer coefficient and biological half-life of orally administered ionic radiocaesium in muscle were determined under controlled conditions in 22 ewes from an upland farm in an area of the UK which received comparatively high levels of Chernobyl fallout. There was considerable variation between individuals in both the transfer coefficient (0.19-0.56 day.kg -1 ; mean 0.34 day.kg -1 ) and biological half-life in muscle (5.2- 18.7 days; mean 9.8 days). Changes in liveweight during the study and feed intake together accounted for 72% of the variation in the derived transfer coefficients; liveweight change also accounted for 56% of the observed variation in biological half-life. In a subsequent study, the true absorption coefficient of radiocaesium was determined in 12 of the ewes. There was a positive correlation between transfer and true absorption coefficients (R=0.57). We conclude that differences in the metabolism of radiocaesium will contribute to the observed variability in radiocaesium activity concentrations within sheep flocks in areas which were contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. We also suggest that for growing animals, the influence of liveweight change and feed intake on radiocaesium transfer may be greater than observed here. Similarly, in dairy cattle, for which feed intake changes considerably during the course of a lactation, large temporal variation in radiocaesium

  16. Fingerprinting Persistent Turbidity in Sheep Creek Reservoir, Owhyee, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, R. N.; Hooper, R. L.; Kerner, D.; Nicols, S.

    2007-12-01

    Sheep Creek Reservoir near Owyhee, NV is historically a quality rainbow trout fishery. Persistent high-turbidity has been an issue since a major storm event in 2005 resulted in surface water runoff into the Reservoir. The high turbidity is adversely impacting the quality of the fishery. Initial turbidity measurements in 2005 were upwards of 80NTU and these numbers have only decreased to 30NTU over the past two summers. Field parameters indicate the turbidity is associated with high total suspended solids (TSS) and not algae. Five water samples collected from around the reservoir during June, 2007 indicated uniform TSS values in the range of 5 to 12mg/L and oriented powder x-ray diffraction(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) analyses of suspended sediment shows very uniform suspended particulate mineralogy including smectite, mixed layer illite/smectite (I/S), discrete illite, lesser amounts of kaolin, sub-micron quartz and feldspar. Diatoms represent a ubiquitous but minor component of the suspended solids. Six soil samples collected from possible source areas around the reservoir were analyzed using both XRD and TEM to see if a source area for the suspended solids could be unambiguously identified. Soils on the east side of the reservoir contain smectite and mixed layer I/S but very little of the other clays. The less than 2 micron size fraction from soils collected from a playa on the topographic bench immediately to the west of the reservoir show a mineralogic finger-print essentially identical to the current suspended sediment. The suspended sediment probably originates on the bench to the west of the reservoir and cascades into the reservoir over the topographic break during extreme storm events. The topographic relief, short travel distance and lack of a suitable vegetated buffer zone to the west are all consistent with a primary persistent suspended sediment source from the west. Identification of the sediment source allows for design of a cost

  17. Experimental contact transmission of Pasteurella haemolytica from clinically normal domestic sheep causing pneumonia in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderka, D K; Wishart, W D

    1988-10-01

    Two Rocky Mountain bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were held in captivity for 120 days before being housed with two domestic sheep. The lambs were clinically normal and had no Pasteurella spp. on nasal swab cultures. The domestic sheep were known to carry Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A in the nasal passages. After being in close contact for 19 days. P. haemolytica biotype A was cultured from nasal swabs of one of the bighorn lambs. By 26 days, both bighorn sheep developed coughs, were anorectic and became lethargic and nasal swabs yielded P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10. Twenty-nine days after contact, the lambs were necropsied and found to have extensive fibrinous bronchopneumonia. From affected tissues pure cultures of beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T, serotype 10 were grown. Both domestic sheep remained clinically normal and had no gross or microscopic lesions, but they carried the same P. haemolytica serotype in their tonsils. Behavioural observations gave no indication of stress in the bighorn lambs.

  18. Modelo de gestión cultural: Una experiencia con el Qhapaq Ñan en Huánuco

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    Denesy Palacios Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Plantear el aprovechamiento del patrimonio cultural arqueológico del Qhapaq Ñan en Huánuco en condición de parque cultural, mediante un modelo eficiente de gestión cultural basada en la investigación, protección, conservación y uso social, para convertir a este lugar en un destino turístico y así contribuir con un proyecto no solo para salvaguardarlo sino también para incrementar los ingresos económicos y reducir los niveles de pobreza en la zona. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio que describe y recoge experiencias de gestión cultural respecto a cómo se aprovecha en otros sitios el legado o patrimonio cultural arqueológico, tanto en el ámbito mundial como nacional. La investigación fue cuantitativa y cualitativa, con un alcance correlacional. Se usó el diseño descriptivo, comparativo, analítico, histórico, deductivo. Resultados: El estudio plantea la necesidad de optimizar los recursos para el aprovechamiento del Qhapaq Ñan como parque cultural a través de una adecuada gestión cultural, y que dicho parque comprenderá 68,34 km, desde el tambo de Tambococha o Tunsucancha hasta el tambo de Taparako, por ser uno de los tramos mejor conservados e involucra importantes zonas de patrimonio cultural material e inmaterial. Conclusiones: El Camino Inca en Huánuco es uno de los patrimonios más importantes del país, y es posible ser impulsado como un parque cultural mediante un modelo de gestión cultural, si tenemos en cuenta las diversas experiencias de gestión en el país y en mundo, cuyos aportes deben servir de apoyo para un modelo de gestión en este campo.

  19. Genetic diversity of Haemonchus contortus isolated from sympatric wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and sheep in Helan Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Dong; Wang, Ji-Fei; Zhang, Dan-Yu; Peng, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Zhao-Ding; Bowman, Dwight D; Hou, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-09-19

    Haemonchus contortus is known among parasitic nematodes as one of the major veterinary pathogens of small ruminants and results in great economic losses worldwide. Human activities, such as the sympatric grazing of wild with domestic animals, may place susceptible wildlife hosts at risk of increased prevalence and infection intensity with this common small ruminant parasite. Studies on phylogenetic factors of H. contortus should assist in defining the amount of the impact of anthropogenic factors on the extent of sharing of agents such as this nematode between domestic animals and wildlife. H. contortus specimens (n = 57) were isolated from wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) inhabiting Helan Mountains (HM), China and additional H. contortus specimens (n = 20) were isolated from domestic sheep that were grazed near the natural habitat of the blue sheep. Complete ITS2 (second internal transcribed spacer) sequences and partial sequences of the nad4 (nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene) gene were amplified to determine the sequence variations and population genetic diversities between these two populations. Also, 142 nad4 haplotype sequences of H. contortus from seven other geographical regions of China were retrieved from database to further examine the H. contortus population structure. Sequence analysis revealed 10 genotypes (ITS2) and 73 haplotypes (nad4) among the 77 specimens, with nucleotide diversities of 0.007 and 0.021, respectively, similar to previous studies in other countries, such as Pakistan, Malaysia and Yemen. Phylogenetic analyses (BI, MP, NJ) of nad4 sequences showed that there were no noticeable boundaries among H. contortus populations from different geographical origin and population genetic analyses revealed that most of the variation (94.21%) occurred within H. contortus populations. All phylogenetic analyses indicated that there was little genetic differentiation but a high degree of gene flow among the H. contortus populations among

  20. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spičic, Silvio; Račić Ivana; Andrijanić, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepanić, Maja; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus.

  1. Comparative analysis of the number of sheep in FYR and some European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Slavica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming in Serbia, from year to year, notices a descending course in number of sheep, as well as in production of milk and meat. The main objective of this paper is the analysis of the number of sheep in Serbia and the surrounding countries (FYR. By comparing the current state of the total number of sheep (in 2011 with the state in the former Yugoslavia, the result shown is that there are 66% less sheep in Serbia compared to the total number seen in 1967 (base year. Compared to the last census from 2012, there is an increased number of sheep in Serbia, compared to previous year (2011 by 18.4%. Other former Yugoslav republics (FYR also have a decrease in the total number of sheep: in Bosnia and Herzegovina by 76.5%, in Montenegro by 64.3%, in Croatia by 41.3%, in Macedonia by 63.5% compared to 1967 (base year, except for Slovenia, which has an increase in the total number of sheep by 83,000 head of cattle. In paper is given overview of the number of sheep for some European countries and for some part of world, in purpose of comparison with sheep state in FYR.

  2. Production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Krvavica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year; which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.

  3. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Besser

    Full Text Available Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus. However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep.In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats.M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of

  4. Exposure of bighorn sheep to domestic goats colonized with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces sub-lethal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; Foreyt, William J

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that has been associated with contact with domestic Caprinae. The disease is polymicrobial but is initiated by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is commonly carried by both domestic sheep (O. aries) and goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). However, while previous bighorn sheep comingling studies with domestic sheep have resulted in nearly 100% pneumonia mortality, only sporadic occurrence of fatal pneumonia was reported from previous comingling studies with domestic goats. Here, we evaluated the ability of domestic goats of defined M. ovipneumoniae carriage status to induce pneumonia in comingled bighorn sheep. In experiment 1, three bighorn sheep naïve to M. ovipneumoniae developed non-fatal respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) following comingling with three naturally M. ovipneumoniae-colonized domestic goats. Gross and histological lesions of pneumonia, limited to small areas on the ventral and lateral edges of the anterior and middle lung lobes, were observed at necropsies conducted at the end of the experiment. A control group of three bighorn sheep from the same source housed in isolation during experiment 1 remained free of observed respiratory disease. In experiment 2, three bighorn sheep remained free of observed respiratory disease while comingled with three M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic goats. In experiment 3, introduction of a domestic goat-origin strain of M. ovipneumoniae to the same comingled goats and bighorn sheep used in experiment 2 resulted in clinical signs of respiratory disease (coughing, nasal discharge) in both host species. At the end of experiment 3, gross and histological evidence of pneumonia similar to that observed in experiment 1 bighorn sheep was observed in both affected bighorn sheep and domestic goats. M. ovipneumoniae strains carried by domestic goats were transmitted to comingled bighorn sheep, triggering development of pneumonia. However

  5. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus response to feces and urine from sheep (Ovis aries and reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein R. Moe

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In many Norwegian alpine and tundra areas sheep and reindeer graze sympatrically. Areas covered with dung or urine may have consequences for reindeer pasture utilization. Experiments were conducted on 5 stall fed male reindeer calves where animals were individually presenred with two troughs (experimental and control containing 200 g of concentrate. Fresh and dry sheep and reindeer pellets (50 g wet weight were mixed with the concentrate in the experimental trough and the aversive response was tested against the control. Both fresh sheep (P < 0.0001 and reindeer (P < 0.0001 pellets were associated with aversive response by reindeer. A similar response was found for dry sheep (P = 0.006 and dry reindeer (P = 0.0009 pellets. Similar trials were conducted using sheep and reindeer urine (20 g sprayed evenly on the food and the aversive response by reindeer was tested against the control (sprayed with 20 g of water. Both sheep and reindeer urine stimulated an aversive response by reindeer {P = 0.03 for both tests. The differences in the aversive response of reindeer ro fresh sheep and reindeer pellets, dry sheep and reindeer pellets and sheep and reindeer urine were also tested. No differences by reindeer were found between sheep and reindeer pellets, either for fresh (P = 0.28 or dry (P = 0.07, or between food treated with sheep and reindeer urine (P = 0.28. Possible habituation to sheep and reindeer pellets was tested using 8 consecutive trials with dry pellets, followed by 2 additional trials when dry pellets were soaked in water. This was done to simulate natural dry periods followed by rain showers. Habituation effects were found in trials with dry sheep and reindeer pellets. Subsequent trials with fecal pellets soaked in water significantly reduced food intake when compared with the last habituation trial with dry pellets (P < 0.05.

  6. Comments on the paper 'Sorption of radionickel to goethite: effect of water quality parameters and temperature' by Hu et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuh-Shan Ho

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Hu et al. [1]. published a paper with the above title. In section 'Effect of contact time', the authors stated, 'In order to study the sorption rate constant of Ni(II) to goethite, the pseudo-second-order rate equation was used to fit the kinetic sorption of Ni(II) to goethite' and referred to two self-citations published in 2008 and 2010 respectively [2, 3]. In fact, this kinetic model has already been published first in 1996 [4], and a modified model was presented in the following years to correct a mistake in the 1996 paper [5-7]. However the mistake in the model was duplicated by other researchers [8, 9]. In order to stop the proliferation of the mistake a comment has been made [10]. This type of error could be avoided if authors have had paid more attentions to details about the model from the original paper [11]. Accuracy in citing references is very important for the transmission of scientific knowledge. Citation errors reflect poorly on authors who republish original ideas that were already published. Hopefully, the identification of this type of problems will lead to improved accuracy in referencing [12]. Authors should make serious efforts to check the accuracy of references cited in their manuscripts as well as to read the original article before quoting it rather than citing from abstracts or cross-references [13]. It is recommended that more attention should be paid in preparing bibliographies and in checking quoted references [14]. (author)

  7. Karyotypes of Akodon orophilus Osgood 1913 and Thomasomys sp. (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae from Huánuco, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional chromosomal preparations were made of three native mice from Huánuco, Peru: a male and a female of Thomasomys sp., and a male of Akodon orophilus. Thomasomys sp. had a karyotype of 2n = 42, XY (n = 21, meanwhile A. orophilus presented 2n = 22, XY (n = 11. Comparisons between chromosomal pairs from the existent literature indicate that both are new karyotypes. Thomasomys sp. has a distinct sexual Y chromosome, the only metacentric (m reported for the genus. The chromosomes X and Y of A. orophilus are acrocentrics (a; and the length of chromosome Y (2/3 of the length of X distinguishes A. orophilus from other congeneric. Because the structural differences between the sexual chromosomes usually generates mechanism of reproductive isolation at intraspecific level and are bigger still in interspecific crosses, we concluded that the karyotypes reported here support the validity of the species A. orophilus and suggest that Thomasomys sp. represents a new species to science.

  8. Renal Protective Effect of Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang on Diabetic Nephropathy of Type 1-Diabetic Mice

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    Chun-Ching Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (XCHT, a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of seven medicinal plants, is used in the treatment of various diseases. We show here that XCHT could protect type-1 diabetic mice against diabetic nephropathy, using streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice and high-glucose (HG-exposed rat mesangial cell (RMC as models. Following 4 weeks of oral administration with XCHT, renal functions and renal hypertrophy significantly improved in the STZ-diabetic mice, while serum glucose was only moderately reduced compared to vehicle treatment. Treatment with XCHT in the STZ-diabetic mice and HG-exposed RMC resulted in a decrease in expression levels of TGF-β1, fibronectin, and collagen IV, with concomitant increase in BMP-7 expression. Data from DPPH assay, DHE stain, and CM-H2DCFDA analysis indicated that XCHT could scavenge free radicals and inhibit high-glucose-induced ROS in RMCs. Taken together, these results suggest that treatment with XCHT can improve renal functions in STZ-diabetic mice, an effect that is potentially mediated through decreasing oxidative stress and production of TGF-β1, fibronectin, and collagen IV in the kidney during development of diabetic nephropathy. XCHT, therefore merits further investigation for application to improve renal functions in diabetic disorders.

  9. Synergistic Anticancer Effects of Vorinostat and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate against HuCC-T1 Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

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    Tae Won Kwak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of vorinostat and epigallocatechin-3-gallate against HuCC-T1 human cholangiocarcinoma cells. A novel chemotherapy strategy is required as cholangiocarcinomas rarely respond to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Both vorinostat and EGCG induce apoptosis and suppress invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. The combination of vorinostat and EGCG showed synergistic growth inhibitory effects and induced apoptosis in tumor cells. The Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and caspase-3 and -7 activity increased, but poly (ADP-ribose polymerase expression decreased when compared to treatment with each agent alone. Furthermore, invasion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression, and migration of tumor cells decreased following treatment with the vorinostat and EGCG combination compared to those of vorinostat or EGCG alone. Tube length and junction number of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs decreased as well as vascular endothelial growth factor expression following vorinostat and EGCG combined treatment. These results indicate that the combination of vorinostat and EGCG had a synergistic effect on inhibiting tumor cell angiogenesis potential. We suggest that the combination of vorinostat and EGCG is a novel option for cholangiocarcinoma chemotherapy.

  10. Academic Citation Practice: A Sinking Sheep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekdal, Ole Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    An explosion in access to electronic databases and digital information is changing the way we view source citation. While the original purpose of referencing--showing the reader exactly where the author got his or her input--is clearly more important than ever, citation is increasingly taking on other roles, ones that have little to do with good…

  11. Intoxicação experimental por Tetrapterys multiglandulosa (Malpighiaceae em ovinos Experimental poisoning by Tetrapterys multiglandulosa (Malpighiaceae in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Riet-Correa

    2005-06-01

    (g/kg/bw, daily, during 9 days. After 9 days the steer showed nervous signs, and on the 12thday was euthanatized. No gross lesions were observed at necropsy. Status spongiosus was observed on the deeper layers of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter. Six male sheep were divided in three groups of two sheep each. Group 1 (Sheep 1 and 2 received daily doses of 6 g/kg/bw of the dry plant, during 30 days; Group 2 (Sheep 3 and 4 received daily doses of 3 g/kg/bw, during 60 days; and Group 3 was the control group. Sheep 1 was euthanatized 30 days after the start of the ingestion. Only cardiac arrhythmia was observed clinically, and no lesions were observed at necropsy. Sheep 2, 3 and 4 had also cardiac arrhythmia from day 9, 12 and 18, respectively. From day 52 they started to show depression, reluctance to move and incoordination. Clinical signs got gradually worst and the sheep were euthanatized on days 60, 70 and 80, when clinical signs were marked, and the animals will die at any moment. Hydrothorax, hydropericardium, ascites, nutmeg appearance of the liver and hard whitish myocardium, mainly in the interventricular septum and left ventricle, were observed at necropsy. Histologically, the heart of Sheep 2, 3 and 4 had areas of fibrosis associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. No lesions were found in the heart of Sheep 1. The 4 treated sheep had status spongiosus in different areas of the cerebrum and brain stem, mainly of the deep layers of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter. Status spongiosus were also observed in the cerebellar white matter and cervical medulla. In the later the vacuolization was moderate in the white matter and mild in the grey matter. Status spongiosus were mild in Sheep 1 and moderate to severe in Sheep 2, 3 and 4. On electron microscopy it was observed that the status spongiosus is due to an intramyelinic edema. No gross or histologic lesions were observed on the two control sheep, which were euthanized on day 80

  12. Lung cancer induced in mice by the envelope protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV closely resembles lung cancer in sheep infected with JSRV

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    York Denis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6 vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to determine if Env expression alone in mice can account for the disease features observed in sheep, or whether additional aspects of virus replication in sheep are important, such as oncogene activation following retrovirus integration into the host cell genome. Results We have generated mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mab against JSRV Env and have used these to study mouse and sheep lung tumor histology. These Mab detect Env expression in tumors in sheep infected with JSRV from around the world with high sensitivity and specificity. Mouse and sheep tumors consisted mainly of well-differentiated adenomatous foci with little histological evidence of anaplasia, but at long times after vector exposure some mouse tumors did have a more malignant appearance typical of adenocarcinoma. In addition to epithelial cell tumors, lungs of three of 29 sheep examined contained fibroblastic cell masses that expressed Env and appeared to be separate neoplasms. The Mab also stained nasal adenocarcinoma tissue from one United States sheep, which we show was due to expression of Env from ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV, a virus closely related to JSRV. Systemic administration of the AAV6 vector encoding JSRV Env to mice produced numerous hepatocellular tumors, and some hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas, showing that the Env protein can induce tumors in multiple cell types. Conclusion Lung cancers induced by JSRV infection in sheep and by JSRV Env expression in mice have similar histologic features and are primarily characterized by adenomatous proliferation of peripheral lung epithelial cells. Thus it is

  13. The ecological adaptability of cloned sheep to free-grazing in the Tengger Desert of Inner Mongolia, China

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    Xinxin LI,Huijuan WANG,Guanghua SU,Zhuying WEI,Chunling BAI,Wuni-MENGHE,Yanhui HOU,Changqing YU,Shorgan BOU,Guangpeng LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the birth of the first cloned sheep, somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been successfully used to clone a variety of mammals. Cloned livestock have no apparent health risks, and the quality and safety of the cloned animal products are similar to non-cloned animals. The social behavior and environmental adaptability of postnatal cloned animals, especially when used for grassland farm production purposes, is unknown. In the present study, the cloned Dorper sheep equipped with GPS location devices were free-grazed in a harsh natural environment similar to conditions commonly experienced by Mongolian sheep. The main findings of this research were as follows. (1 Under free-grazing conditions, the cloned sheep showed excellent climatic and ecological adaptability. In extreme temperature conditions ranging from -30 to 40ºC, the cloned sheep maintained acceptable body condition and behaved as other sheep. (2 The cloned sheep quickly adapted from a herd feeding strategy to the harsh environment and quickly exhibited a grazing regimen as other free-grazing sheep. (3 The cloned sheep exhibited free-grazing patterns and social behavior as other sheep. (4 The cloned sheep in the harsh environment thrived and produced healthy lambs. Overall, the cloned Dorper sheep exhibited excellent ecological adaptation, which is an important consideration for breeding meat sheep by cloning. The Dorper sheep readily adapted to the free-grazing conditions on the Mongolian plateau grassland, which attests to their ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions.

  14. Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations.

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    Michael P Heaton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected controls were identified among 736 naturally exposed sheep older than five years of age. These pairs were used in a genome-wide association study with 50,614 markers. A single SNP was identified in the ovine transmembrane protein (TMEM154 that exceeded genome-wide significance (unadjusted p-value 3×10(-9. Sanger sequencing of the ovine TMEM154 coding region identified six missense and two frameshift deletion mutations in the predicted signal peptide and extracellular domain. Two TMEM154 haplotypes encoding glutamate (E at position 35 were associated with infection while a third haplotype with lysine (K at position 35 was not. Haplotypes encoding full-length E35 isoforms were analyzed together as genetic risk factors in a multi-breed, matched case-control design, with 61 pairs of 4-year-old ewes. The odds of infection for ewes with one copy of a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele were 28 times greater than the odds for those without (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 5-1,100. In a combined analysis of nine cohorts with 2,705 sheep from Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa, the relative risk of infection was 2.85 times greater for sheep with a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 2.36-3.43. Although rare, some sheep were homozygous for TMEM154 deletion mutations and remained uninfected despite a lifetime of significant exposure. Together, these findings indicate that TMEM154 may play a central role in ovine lentivirus infection and removing sheep with the most susceptible genotypes may help eradicate OPP and protect flocks from reinfection.

  15. Establishment of selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model in experimental sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jihai; Gu Xiulian; Chao Shengwu; Zhang Peng; Fan Ruilin; Wang Li'na; Wang Lulu; Wang Ling; Li Bo; Chen Taotao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model in experimental sheep suitable for animal experiment. Methods: By using Seldinger's technique the catheter sheath was placed in both the femoral vein and femoral artery in ten sheep. Under C-arm DSA guidance the catheter was inserted through the catheter sheath into the pulmonary artery. Via the catheter appropriate amount of sheep autologous blood clots was injected into the selected pulmonary arteries. The selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model was thus established. Pulmonary angiography was performed to check the results. The pulmonary arterial pressure, femoral artery pressure,heart rates and partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO 2 ) were determined both before and after the treatment. The above parameters obtained after the procedure were compared with the recorded parameters measured before the procedure, and the sheep model quality was evaluated. Results: The baseline of pulmonary arterial pressure was (27.30 ± 9.58) mmHg,femoral artery pressure was (126.4 ± 13.72) mmHg, heart rate was (103 ± 15) bpm and PaO 2 was (87.7 ± 12.04) mmHg. Sixty minutes after the injection of (30 ± 5) ml thrombotic agglomerates, the pulmonary arterial pressures rose to (52 ± 49) mmHg, femoral artery pressures dropped to (100 ± 21) mmHg. The heart rates went up to (150 ± 26) bpm. The PaO 2 fell to (25.3 ± 11.2) mmHg. After the procedure the above parameters were significantly different from that measured before the procedure in all ten animals (P < 0.01). The pulmonary arteriography clearly demonstrated that the selected pulmonary arteries were successfully embolized. Conclusion: The anatomy of sheep's femoral veins,vena cava system, pulmonary artery and right heart system are suitable for the establishment of the catheter passage, for this reason, selected acute pulmonary thromboembolism model can be easily created in experimental sheep. The technique is feasible and the model

  16. Acute coenurosis of dairy sheep from 11 flocks in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadinis, N D; Psychas, V; Polizopoulou, Z; Papadopoulos, E; Papaioannou, N; Komnenou, A Th; Thomas, A-L; Petridou, E J; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Lafi, S Q; Brellou, G D

    2012-07-01

    A syndrome of acute neurological dysfunction with increased mortality was observed in lambs of 10 dairy sheep flocks and adult animals in one flock in Central and Northern Greece. Each farmer completed a questionnaire regarding the management and feeding of their flocks. In seven of the 11 flocks the affected animals were grazing pasture, while in the remaining four flocks (5, 8, 9, 10) the animals were fed alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) and concentrates indoors. A follow-up study of the affected flocks was conducted during the next 12 months. Of 42 sheep with acute coenurosis that were examined, the most prominent neurological abnormalities were ataxia, depression, blindness, scoliosis, coma and dysmetria. Except for the four sheep that were comatose, all other animals had normal body temperatures and their appetites remained normal or were slightly decreased. Haematological findings of 15 examined sheep were within normal limits. The affected sheep were subject to euthanasia. A histopathological examination was performed in 13 cases. Faecal samples from dogs associated with these flocks were negative for taeniid infections. During the following 12 months cases of chronic coenurosis in these flocks were observed. In the 42 animals that were necropsied, the main gross findings were cystic formations between 0.5-1 cm in diameter with translucent walls that were seen lying free on the leptomeninges or partly penetrating the brain tissue, sterile microabscecess and brain necrosis. Histopathological evaluation of tissue sections of 13 brains showed multifocal purulent or pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis, accompanied by eosinophilic infiltrations. No bacteria were isolated following bacterial culture of brain tissue Parasitological examination of the cysts from five cases revealed whitish specks on the transparent cyst wall and germination membrane representing the scolices. Acute coenurosis was diagnosed in all cases studied. Acute coenurosis can be one of the

  17. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  18. Shared bacterial and viral respiratory agents in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack C.; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  19. Avaliação dos óbitos ocorridos no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (HU/UFSC Evaluation of deaths occurred at the University Hospital (HU/UFSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Duarte Moritz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os óbitos ocorridos no HU/UFSC. Comparar o perfil dos pacientes que morreram nas enfermarias com o daqueles que morreram na UTI. Verificar se os óbitos foram considerados esperados (E e não evitáveis (NE. Constatar se houve recusa/suspensão de terapêutica (RST precedendo a morte. MÉTODOS: Obtivemos dados por meio de ficha elaborada pela Comissão de Óbito Hospitalar (COH, na qual constavam os aspectos demográficos, clínicos e terapêuticos dos pacientes e a avaliação da COH sobre a expectativa/evitabilidade dos óbitos. RESULTADOS: Analisamos os dados dos 326 pacientes com mais de 14 anos, que morreram entre julho/2004 e dezembro/2005. Desses, 128 morreram na UTI (G1 e 198 nas enfermarias (G2. A RST precedeu 38,2% dos óbitos no G1 e 2% no G2 (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the deaths which occurred at the HU/UFSC. To compare the profile of patients who died in the wards with that of patients who died in the ICU. To classify deaths which were expected or not, and avoidable or not. To verify how often withholding or withdrawing (WW therapy preceded death. METHODS: Archives of the Hospital Death Commission (HDC were analyzed. The clinical and demographic records were retrieved from the HDC data bank. Deaths were classified by the HDC as expected or not and avoidable or not. RESULTS: Data from 326 dead persons over 14 years of age were analyzed. One hundred and twenty eight deaths occurred in the ICU (G1 and 198 in the wards (G2. WW therapy preceded 38.2% of deaths in G1 and 2% in G2 (p<0.001. The main WW therapies were vasoactive drugs and antibiotics. Almost 20% of deaths were unexpected/avoidable in G1. In G2 6.5% were considered unexpected and 5% avoidable (p<0.005. Patients in G1 were younger and mostly male (p<0.005. Do-not-resuscitate orders were registered in 48.4% of patients' medical charts in G2 and 6.3% in G1 (p<0.001. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed in 23.4% of patients in G1 and in 5.5% in G2 (p<0

  20. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  1. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Drew

    Full Text Available Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  2. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep. PMID:28282407

  3. Validation of the Osteopenia Sheep Model for Orthopaedic Biomaterial Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2009-01-01

    months. This suggests that a prolonged administration of GC is needed for a long-term observation to keep osteopenic bone.                 In conclusion, after 7 months of GC treatments with restricted diet, the microarchitectural characteristics, mechanical competence, mineralization of the bone tissues...... resemble osteoporosis in humans. This study aimed to validate glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia sheep model for orthopaedic implant and biomaterial research. We hypothesized that a 7-month GC treatment together with restricted diet but without OVX would induce osteopenia. Materials and Methods: Eighteen...... for 7 months. The sheep were housed outdoors in paddocks, and received restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus (0.55% calcium and 0.35% phosphorus) and hay. After sacrifice, cancellous bone specimens from the 5th lumbar vertebra, bilateral distal femur, and bilateral proximal tibia, and cortical...

  4. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examination.......50. There was no difference between the prevalence in sheep and goat herds. Records for well over half of the herds could be combined with data from the Danish Central Husbandry Register. No association between occurrence of ED and herd size was found. Cattle were registered as contemporarily present on 135 out of 521 herds...... which was shown to be strongly associated to ED. The estimated herd prevalences of ED among farms with and without contemporary cattle were 0.24 and 0.042, respectively....

  5. Veterinary and medical aspects of abortion in Danish sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Aalbæk, Bent; Fog-Larsen, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The Danish sheep population totals around 144,000 animals, but little is known of the causes and prevalance of diseases. This study focuses on the causes of abortion in Danish sheep. During one breeding season, aborted foetuses and stillbirths with signs of intrauterine death or malformation were...... submitted for laboratory examination from a population of 3,758 breeding ewes. Samples from 24 incidents of abortion and 21 ewes delivering malformed lambs or lambs with ante partum decomposition were submitted. A specific aetiology was established in 66.7% and 14.3% of the cases, respectively. Bacterial...... pathogens were the most prevalent cause of abortion. Several of the abortifacients were zoonotic microorganisms, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Toxoplasma gondii. The identified microorganisms probably represent the most common causes...

  6. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  7. First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep.

  8. Studies on the serological relationships between avian pox, sheep pox, goat pox and vaccinia viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, P. K.; Nilakantan, P. R.

    1970-01-01

    By using neutralization, complement fixation and immunogel-diffusion tests, it has been demonstrated that cross-reactions occur between various avian pox viruses and between sheep pox and goat pox viruses. No such reactions were demonstrated between avian pox viruses and vaccinia virus or between avian pox and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. Furthermore, no serological relationship was demonstrable between vaccinia virus and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. PMID:4989854

  9. Valence of Facial Cues Influences Sheep Learning in a Visual Discrimination Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille G. A. Bellegarde

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emotional states of neutral (ruminating in the home pen or negative valence (social isolation or aggressive interaction. Sheep (n = 35 first had to learn a discrimination task with colored cards. Animals that reached the learning criterion (n = 16 were then presented with pairs of images of the face of a single individual taken in the neutral situation and in one of the negative situations. Finally, sheep had to generalize what they had learned to new pairs of images of faces taken in the same situation, but of a different conspecific. All sheep that learned the discrimination task with colored cards reached the learning criterion with images of faces. Sheep that had to associate a negative image with a food reward learned faster than sheep that had to associate a neutral image with a reward. With the exception of sheep from the aggression-rewarded group, sheep generalized this discrimination to images of faces of different individuals. Our results suggest that sheep can perceive the emotional valence displayed on faces of conspecifics and that this valence affects learning processes.

  10. Comparison of airway responses in sheep of different age in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena A Lambermont

    Full Text Available Animal models should display important characteristics of the human disease. Sheep have been considered particularly useful to study allergic airway responses to common natural antigens causing human asthma. A rationale of this study was to establish a model of ovine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS for the in vitro measurement of airway responses in newborn and adult animals. We hypothesized that differences in airway reactivity in sheep are present at different ages.Lambs were delivered spontaneously at term (147d and adult sheep lived till 18 months. Viability of PCLS was confirmed by the MTT-test. To study airway provocations cumulative concentration-response curves were performed with different allergic response mediators and biogenic amines. In addition, electric field stimulation, passive sensitization with house dust mite (HDM and mast cells staining were evaluated.PCLS from sheep were viable for at least three days. PCLS of newborn and adult sheep responded equally strong to methacholine and endothelin-1. The responses to serotonin, leukotriene D4 and U46619 differed with age. No airway contraction was evoked by histamine, except after cimetidine pretreatment. In response to EFS, airways in PCLS from adult and newborn sheep strongly contracted and these contractions were atropine sensitive. Passive sensitization with HDM evoked a weak early allergic response in PCLS from adult and newborn sheep, which notably was prolonged in airways from adult sheep. Only few mast cells were found in the lungs of non-sensitized sheep at both ages.PCLS from sheep lungs represent a useful tool to study pharmacological airway responses for at least three days. Sheep seem well suited to study mechanisms of cholinergic airway contraction. The notable differences between newborn and adult sheep demonstrate the importance of age in such studies.

  11. Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm eKonold

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible prion disease of sheep and goats. Prions can persist and remain potentially infectious in the environment for many years and thus pose a risk of infecting animals after re-stocking. In vitro studies using serial Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (sPMCA have suggested that objects on a scrapie-affected sheep farm could contribute to disease transmission. This in vivo study aimed to determine the role of field furniture (water troughs, feeding troughs, fencing and other objects that sheep may rub against used by a scrapie-infected sheep flock as a vector for disease transmission to scrapie-free lambs with the prion protein genotype VRQ/VRQ, which is associated with high susceptibility to classical scrapie. When the field furniture was placed in clean accommodation sheep became infected when exposed to either a water trough (four out of five or to objects used for rubbing (four out of seven. This field furniture had been used by the scrapie-infected flock eight weeks earlier and had previously been shown to harbor scrapie prions by sPMCA. Sheep also became infected (20 out of 23 through exposure to contaminated field furniture placed within pasture not used by scrapie-infected sheep for 40 months, even though swabs from this furniture tested negative by PMCA. This infection rate decreased (1 out of 12 on the same paddock after replacement with clean field furniture. Twelve grazing sheep exposed to field furniture not in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for 18 months remained scrapie-free.The findings of this study highlight the role of field furniture used by scrapie-infected sheep to act as a reservoir for disease re-introduction although infectivity declines considerably if the field furniture has not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. PMCA may not be as sensitive as VRQ/VRQ sheep to test for environmental contamination.

  12. The evalution of reproduction parametres in chosen herd of sheep

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠOVÁ, Kristýna

    2009-01-01

    It has been observed the breed herd of Texel sheep in the foothills area of Orlické mountains in the year 2005-2008. The base of herd was consisted of 374 ewes, 575 lambs and 6 rams in total. These parametres of reproduction - conception, fertility, rearing, empty ewes, abortions, lambing, stillborn, death after born, were monitored at ewes. For the parametres of reproduction at ewes were found significant effects of ewe´s age and ram´s line.

  13. Prion diseases are efficiently transmitted by blood transfusion in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, F.; McCutcheon, S.; Goldmann, W.; Chong, A.; Foster, J.; Siso, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Jeffrey, M.; Hunter, N.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, following on from the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic, led to concerns about the potential risk of iatrogenic transmission of disease by blood transfusion and the introduction of costly control measures to protect blood supplies. We previously reported preliminary data demonstrating the transmission of BSE and natural scrapie by blood transfusion in sheep. The final results of this experiment, reported here, give unexpectedly ...

  14. Biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa)

    OpenAIRE

    Bečanová, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Aneta Bečanová Supervisor: Mgr. Hana Bártíková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) Biotransformation of anthelmintics is a process that prevents the parasite from adverse effects of xenobiotics. Therefore, it is the main factor that causes the reduction of an anthelmintic effect, resistance development and...

  15. Copper carrier protein in copper toxic sheep liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, A L; Dean, P D.G.

    1973-01-01

    The livers of copper-toxic sheep have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis followed by staining the gels for copper with diethyldithiocarbamate and for protein with amido schwartz. These gels were compared with similar gels obtained from the livers of normal and copper-deficient animals. The copper-toxic livers contained an extra protein band which possessed relatively weakly bound copper. Possible origins of this protein are discussed. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  16. Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Michael P; Clawson, Michael L; Chitko-Mckown, Carol G; Leymaster, Kreg A; Smith, Timothy P L; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Stephen N; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Mousel, Michelle R; Lewis, Gregory S; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Keen, James E; Laegreid, William W

    2012-01-01

    Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected controls were identified among 736 naturally exposed sheep older than five years of age. These pairs were used in a genome-wide association study with 50,614 markers. A single SNP was identified in the ovine transmembrane protein (TMEM154) that exceeded genome-wide significance (unadjusted p-value 3×10(-9)). Sanger sequencing of the ovine TMEM154 coding region identified six missense and two frameshift deletion mutations in the predicted signal peptide and extracellular domain. Two TMEM154 haplotypes encoding glutamate (E) at position 35 were associated with infection while a third haplotype with lysine (K) at position 35 was not. Haplotypes encoding full-length E35 isoforms were analyzed together as genetic risk factors in a multi-breed, matched case-control design, with 61 pairs of 4-year-old ewes. The odds of infection for ewes with one copy of a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele were 28 times greater than the odds for those without (p-valuesheep from Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa, the relative risk of infection was 2.85 times greater for sheep with a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele (p-valuesheep were homozygous for TMEM154 deletion mutations and remained uninfected despite a lifetime of significant exposure. Together, these findings indicate that TMEM154 may play a central role in ovine lentivirus infection and removing sheep with the most susceptible genotypes may help eradicate OPP and protect flocks from reinfection.

  17. Pythiosis in sheep from Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio D. Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reports pythiosis in a sheep from southwestern Paraná, Brazil, confirmed by indirect ELISA (Enzime-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and immunohistochemistry, as well as it describes the macro and microscopic injuries, in order to understand the pathogenicity. A 4-year-old ewe from a flock of 30 Santa Inês sheep, raised semi-extensively with access to a weir, showed cachexia, bilateral enlargement in nasal region, a serous and bloody secretion with a fetid odor from its nose and swollen submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Blood collection was performed trough jugular vein puncture in order to make complete blood cell count (CBC and to obtain serum for the subsequent serological examination. As the hematological counts were within the normal range for sheep, the animal was euthanized and submitted to necropsy. Indirect ELISA resulted positive for pythiosis. Necropsy revealed necrosis of the hard palate with a diameter of 3.5cm and extending up to the nasal cavity, forming a fistula. Submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous on section. Microscopic findings for submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes consisted in moderate infiltration of eosinophils mainly in the subcapsular sinus, characterizing reactive eosinophilic lymphadenitis. The nasal cavity revealed rhinitis and oral cavity stomatitis with necro-eosinophilic and pronounced multifocal granulomatous infiltration and presence of hyphae. Hyphae found in palate and nasal cavity were positive for Pythium insidiosum by Grocott's method and immunohistochemistry, the last one considered to be confirmatory for the pathogen diagnostic. This report has an important epidemiological aspect, as it is the first case of pythiosis in sheep confirmed by serology in South Brazil and an alert of possible infection by the pathogen in floodplains.

  18. Phosphorus metabolism and estimation of phosphorus requirements for sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvandini, H.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to determine the effects of different dietary phosphorus (P) levels on endogenous faecal loss and to estimate the minimum daily requirement of P for sheep. The study was conducted with 24 Suffolk sheep which received a basic diet consisting of a hay-concentrate mixture. The treatment consisted of different amounts of bone meal, added to the basic diet, so as to obtain supplementary P levels of 0, 2 and 3 g/day. Twenty-one days after the introduction of the experimental diet, 7.4 MBq radioactive P ( 32 P) was injected in the left jugular vein of each sheep and blood, feces and urine were collected daily for 8 days at 24-hour intervals. The samples were analysed for inorganic P and for radioactive specific activities. Mean endogenous faecal losses of P were 10.00, 31.79, 39.35 and 38.06 mg/kg live weight (LW) per day in sheep supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3 g respectively. A positive linear relation ship was observed between endogenous faecal loss and consumed P, indicating that this loss was linked to dietary P. Total P excretion in the faeces, as well as P absorption, retention urinary excretion and salivary secretion were also directly related to P intake, as part of the mechanism of homeostatic control of organism animal. The minimum endogenous faecal loss for zero P intake, calculated by interpolation, was 8.27 mg/kg LW per day, and for zero balance, the calculated phosphorus consumption was 21.36 mg/kg LW per day. (author)

  19. Identity of Fasciola spp. in sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; ElKhatam, Ahmed; Zidan, Shereif; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-12-01

    In Egypt, liver flukes, Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae), have a serious impact on the farming industry and public health. Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are known to occur in cattle, providing the opportunity for genetic recombination. Little is known on the identity and genetic variability of Fasciola populations in sheep. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of liver flukes in sheep in Menofia Province as a representative area of the delta region in Egypt, as measured by postmortem examination of slaughtered animals at three abattoirs. The identity and genetic variability of Fasciola spp. in slaughtered animals were determined by PCR-sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Physical inspection of the liver indicated that 302 of 2058 (14.7%) slaughtered sheep were infected with Fasciola spp. Sequence analysis of the ITS1 and nad1 genes of liver flukes from 17 animals revealed that 11 animals were infected with F. hepatica, four with F. gigantica, and two with both species. Seventy eight of 103 flukes genetically characterized from these animals were F. hepatica, 23 were F. gigantica, and two had ITS1 sequences identical to F. hepatica but nad1 sequences identical to F. gigantica. nad1 sequences of Egyptian isolates of F. gigantica showed pronounced differences from those in the GenBank database. Egyptian F. gigantica haplotypes formed haplogroup D, which clustered in a sister clade with haplogroups A, B and C circulating in Asia, indicating the existence of geographic isolation in the species. Both F. hepatica and F. gigantica are prevalent in sheep in Egypt and an introgressed form of the two occurs as the result of genetic recombination. In addition, a geographically isolated F. gigantica population is present in the country. The importance of these observations in epidemiology of fascioliasis needs to be examined in future

  20. New challenges for vaccination to prevent chlamydial abortion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrican, Gary; Wheelhouse, Nick; Wattegedera, Sean R; Longbottom, David

    2012-05-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) is caused by the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia abortus. OEA remains a common cause of infectious abortion in many sheep-rearing countries despite the existence of commercially available vaccines that protect against the disease. There are a number of confounding factors that influence the uptake and use of these vaccines, which includes an inability to discriminate between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using conventional serological diagnostic techniques. This suggests that the immunity elicited by current vaccines is similar to that observed in convalescent, immune sheep that have experienced OEA. The existence of these vaccines provides an opportunity to understand how protection against OEA is elicited and also to understand why vaccines can occasionally appear to fail, as has been reported recently for OEA. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), the cytokine that classically defines Th1-type adaptive immunity, is a strong correlate of protection against OEA in sheep and has been shown to inhibit the growth of C. abortus in vitro. Humoral immunity to C. abortus is observed in both vaccinated and naturally infected sheep, but antibody responses tend to be used more as diagnostic markers than targets for strategic vaccine design. A future successful DIVA vaccine against OEA should aim to elicit the immunological correlate of protection (IFN-γ) concomitantly with an antibody profile that is distinct from that of the natural infection. Such an approach requires careful selection of protective components of C. abortus combined with an effective delivery system that elicits IFN-γ-producing CD4+ve memory T cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.