WorldWideScience

Sample records for htsc film substrates

  1. Laser deposition of HTSC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', Eh.N.; Bagratashvili, V.N.; Zherikhin, A.N.; Sviridov, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) films fabrication by the laser deposition are reviewed. Physical and chemical processes taking place during laser deposition are considered, such as the target evaporation, the material transport from the target to the substrate, the film growth on the substrate, thermochemical reactions and mass transfer within the HTSC films and their stability. The experimental results on the laser deposition of different HTSC ceramics and their properties investigations are given. The major technological issues are discussed including the deposition schemes, the oxygen supply, the target compositions and structure, the substrates and interface layers selection, the deposition regimes and their impact on the HTSC films properties. 169 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. CVD synthesis of HTSC films using volatile coordination compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, S.V.; Zub, V.Y.; Balakshina, O.N.; Mazurenko, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Thin HTSC films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x with high c-axis orientation have been grown using PE MOCVD technique and adducts of copper, yttrium and barium acetylacetonate with α,α'- dipyridyl as precursors. In-situ films were deposited in N 2 and O 2 gas reactant mixture at reduced substrate temperatures. HTSC films prepared on SrTiO 3 , ZrO 2 (Y) and MgO substrates have rather high electric characteristics (e.g. j c ∼10 4 - 10 5 A/cm 2 ). The problem of β-diketonate adducts using as precursors for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of superconductive films was discussed. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of oxygen distribution in HTSC-insulator in film structures on light ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.M.; Grekhov, I.V.; Eremin, V.K.; Konnikov, S.G.; Linijchuk, I.A.; Razumov, S.V.; Semchinova, O.K.; Strokan, N.B.; Dyumin, A.N.; Lebedev, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    Use of nuclear reaction method on accelerated ions for profiling of oxygen concentration in thin-film HTSC structures is considered. Reaction on 16 O(d, α) 14 N deuterons, in course of which ∼ 2.6 MeV α-particles are generated, is used. Detected in experiment 2.0-2.6 MeV α-particle spectrum permits to recognstruct oxygen concentration profile in sample depth. Results obtained on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and Y 2 BaCuO 5 film om MgO sunstrates, relating to the case of both uniform and nonuniform oxygen distribution, are presented. Resolution in the depth ∼ 200 A and accuracy of concentration measurement (relatively MgO substrate) of several percents are attained during oxygen profiling

  4. Fabrication and examination of epitaxial HTSC/isolator thin films on sapphire substrates for application in high frequency devices; Herstellung und Untersuchung von epitaktischen HTSL/Isolator-Schichten auf Saphirsubstraten zur Anwendung in HF-Bauelementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, H.

    1995-10-01

    The use of high temperature superconductors (HTSC) like YBCO with distinct lower surface resistance compared to normal conductors allows miniaturisation of high frequency (HF) circuits. The object of this work was the fabrication of YBCO thin films on low loss sapphire substrates applicable for stripline devices. To induce epitaxial growth and to avoid chemical reaction at the film-substrate boundary buffer layers were investigated. The examination of the growth properties and especially of the surface impedance has been allotted particular importance. In contrast to CaTiO{sub 3} it was possible to deposit CeO{sub 2}-buffer layers in direct growth up to a thickness of about 30 nm without cracks. The films show all growth properties required and even Laue-oscillations being a feature of high quality growth enabling the determination of film thickness distribution without destruction. The YBCO growth-, transport- and HF-properties meet the ones of YBCO films on standard substrates. A remarkable result is that the mosaic distribution of the CEO film, itself strongly dependend on film thickness, does not influence that of the YBCO film considerably. Rather it changes its shape subsequently due to YBCO deposition. A further particularity in contrast to deposition on standard substrates is the need to adjust the substrate heater tempeature for deposition of YBCO films with thicknesses {>=}300 nm needed for HF application. To demonstrate their usefullness some stripline devices like planar coils and side coupled filters have been fabricated and characterised. (orig.)

  5. Far infrared ellipsometric study of HTSC gap in ab- and c-oriented epitaxial YBaCuO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkov, A.B.; Tishchenko, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    To test different models of HTSC and to study mechanism of this phenomenon comparison of the measured complex dielectric function var-epsilon(w,T) and of the computed one is very useful. In the case of anisotropic substance, such as YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , var-epsilon(w,T) is a tensor with different var-epsilon a , var-epsilon b , var-epsilon c components. However, the structure of oriented YBaCuO films permits one to determine var-epsilon c and only averaged var-epsilon ab value. To carry out ellipsometric measurements on small samples in far IR the light beam should be focused onto the sample surface. Earlier the authors found an original decision of the direct problem of convergent beam ellipsometry (CBE). This report is devoted to the inverse problem of CBE for the following reflecting system: 1-axis anisotropic film on isotropic substrate. By this technique they have obtained temperature dependencies (4--300 K) of var-epsilon ab and var-epsilon c , at fixed laser frequencies 84, 120, 357 cm -1

  6. Effect of cooling rate on the structure and properties of thick films of YBa2Cu3O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.R.; Oleinikov, N.N.; Gas'kov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    A problem associated with the production of quality films is chemical interaction of the HTSC material with the substrate. This leads to a considerable worsening or complete loss of the superconducting properties of a functional material. A second problem is selection of a substrate whose thermal expansion coefficient (TCE) is as close as possible to the TCE of the superconducting material. Omission of this condition leads to production of a HTSC material which is subject to perturbing mechanical stresses (compressive or tensile stress), and this is a potential cause of the reduction of the functional parameters of the material. The authors note that other substrate requirements should be considered only during production of thin films. Unfortunately, the production of quality thick films is apparently not worked out with resolution of the latter two problems. It is very important in production of HTSC materials to consider the rate of cooling at the moment of formation of the orthorhombic phase (in the following, the tetragonal-orthorhombic transition). Undesirable relaxation can be avoided if the cooling rate is lowered below some critical value. According to the computations, this problem is solved most successfully in HTSC materials of the composition YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x if their ceramic structure consists of crystallites whose size does not exceed 1-2 μm. The goal of this work is to elucidate the effect of the cooling rate of thick films of composition YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x in the temperature range corresponding to transition of the tetragonal to the orthorhombic phase on their structure and properties

  7. In-situ deposition of YBCO high-Tc superconducting thin films by MOCVD and PE-MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Noh, D.W.; Chern, C.; Li, Y.Q.; Norris, P.E.; Kear, B.; Gallois, B.

    1991-01-01

    Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) offers the advantages of a high degree of compositional control, adaptability for large scale production, and the potential for low temperature fabrication. The capability of operating at high oxygen partial pressure is particularly suitable for in situ formation of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) films. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) thin films having a sharp zero-resistance transition with T(sub c) greater than 90 K and J(sub c) of approximately 10(exp 4) A on YSZ have been prepared, in situ, at a substrate temperature of about 800 C. Moreover, the ability to form oxide films at low temperature is very desirable for device applications of HTSC materials. Such a process would permit the deposition of high quality HTSC films with a smooth surface on a variety of substrates. Highly c-axis oriented, dense, scratch resistant, superconducting YBCO thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 C by a remote microwave-plasma enhanced metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) process. Nitrous oxide was used as a reactant gas to generate active oxidizing species. This process, for the first time, allows the formation of YBCO thin films with the orthorhombic superconducting phase in the as-deposited state. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K with a transition width of about 5 K. MOCVD was carried out in a commercial production scale reactor with the capability of uniform deposition over 100 sq cm per growth run. Preliminary results indicate that PE-MOCVD is a very attractive thin film deposition process for superconducting device technology

  8. Dynamic behavior of HTSC opening switch models controlled by short over-critical current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.V.; Krastelev, E.G.; Voronin, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    We present results of experimental research of dynamical properties of thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 HTSC-switch models under action of short overcritical current pulses to test this method of control of fast high-power opening switches for accelerator applications

  9. Effect of the repulsive force in the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid bearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic levitation using the pinning force of the YBaCuO high-T c bulk superconductor (HTSC) materials has an advantage to achieve stable levitation without control. To increase levitation force, the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid magnetic bearing system is introduced. A circular shaped three phase Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet is installed on the rotor, and HTSC bulk superconductor is set on the stator. The additional permanent magnet is installed under the HTSC. Repulsive force of the permanent magnet is used for levitation, and pinning force between the HTSC and permanent magnet is used for guidance force of the bearing. In this system, relationship between permanent magnet and the HTSC is important. When repulsive force of the permanent magnet is large, pinning force of superconductor is used to keep the rotor position. As a result, stability for the lateral direction is decreased with hybrid system. For levitation force, effect of the hybrid system is not observed with column HTSC. Compared with the ring HTSC results, the following thing is considered. Because there is no space that flux of one permanent magnet acts on the other one with the column HTSC configuration, interaction between two permanent magnets becomes small.

  10. Modification of critical current in HTSC tape conductors by a ferromagnetic layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemoery, F; Souc, J; Seiler, E; Vojenciak, M; Granados, X

    2008-01-01

    In some applications of tape conductors from high temperature superconductors (HTSC) the magnetic field is created by the transported current itself. This is e.g. the case of power transmission cables or current leads. Quite complex distribution of local magnetic field determines then the ability of the superconducting element to carry electrical current. We have investigated how much the critical current of a tape conductor can be changed by putting a ferromagnetic layer in the vicinity of the HTSC material. Numerical procedure has been developed to resolve the current and field distribution in such superconductor-ferromagnet composite tape. Theoretical predictions have been confirmed by experiments on sample made from Bi-2223/Ag composite tape. The critical current of such tape can be improved by placing a soft ferromagnetic material at the tape's edges. On the other hand, the calculations show that the ferromagnetic substrate of YBCO coated tape reduces its self-field critical current

  11. Summaries of reports of the 30. Conference on low-temperature physics. Pt. 1. Fundamental questions of superconductivity including HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Thesis of reporsts of the 30th Conference on low-temperature physics are presented. Fundamental problems of superconductivity are discussed including HTSC in bulk crystals, in thin films of Josephson junctions, ceramics and heterostructures. Specific features of superconductor structure and magnetic properties and also different mechanisms of superconductivity are analyzed

  12. Magnetic flux creep in HTSC and Anderson-Kim theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykov, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental data on flux creep in high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) were analyzed in the review paper. On the one hand, the main attention is paid to the most striking experimental results which have had a significant influence on the investigations of flux creep in HTSC. On the other hand, the analysis of theoretical studies is concentrated on the works, which explain the features of flux creep on the basis of the Anderson-Kim (AK) theory modifications, and received previously unsufficient attention. However, it turned out that the modified AK theory could explain a lot of features of flux creep in HTSC: the scaling behaviour of current-voltage curves of HTSC, the finite rate of flux creep at ultra low temperatures, the logarithmic dependence of effective pinning potential as a function of transport current and its decrease with temperature. The harmonic potential field which is used in this approach makes it possible to solve accurately the both problems: viscous vortex motion and flux creep in this field. Moreover the distribution of pinning potential and the interaction of vortices with each other are taken into account in the approach. Thus, the modification of the AK theory consists, essentially, in its detailed elaboration and approaching to real situations in superconductors

  13. Growth of epitaxial thin films by pulsed laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    High-quality, high-temperature superconductor (HTSc) films can be grown by the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) process. This article provides a detailed introduction to the advantages and curent limitations of PLA for epitaxial film growth. Emphasis is placed on experimental methods and on exploitation of PLA to control epitaxial growth at either the unit cell or the atomic-layer level. Examples are taken from recent HTSc film growth. 33 figs, 127 refs

  14. Transient analysis for alternating over-current characteristics of HTSC power transmission cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. H.; Hwang, S. D.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, the transient analysis for the alternating over-current distribution in case that the over-current was applied for a high-TC superconducting (HTSC) power transmission cable was performed. The transient analysis for the alternating over-current characteristics of HTSC power transmission cable with multi-layer is required to estimate the redistribution of the over-current between its conducting layers and to protect the cable system from the over-current in case that the quench in one or two layers of the HTSC power cable happens. For its transient analysis, the resistance generation of the conducting layers for the alternating over-current was reflected on its equivalent circuit, based on the resistance equation obtained by applying discrete Fourier transform (DFT) for the voltage and the current waveforms of the HTSC tape, which comprises each layer of the HTSC power transmission cable. It was confirmed through the numerical analysis on its equivalent circuit that after the current redistribution from the outermost layer into the inner layers first happened, the fast current redistribution between the inner layers developed as the amplitude of the alternating over-current increased.

  15. Bayesian inference of substrate properties from film behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, R; Demkowicz, M J; Marzouk, Y M

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that by observing the behavior of a film deposited on a substrate, certain features of the substrate may be inferred with quantified uncertainty using Bayesian methods. We carry out this demonstration on an illustrative film/substrate model where the substrate is a Gaussian random field and the film is a two-component mixture that obeys the Cahn–Hilliard equation. We construct a stochastic reduced order model to describe the film/substrate interaction and use it to infer substrate properties from film behavior. This quantitative inference strategy may be adapted to other film/substrate systems. (paper)

  16. Theoretical and experimental investigations on synchronization in many-junction arrays of HTSC Josephson junctions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, P.; Heinz, E.; Pfuch, A.; Machalett, F.; Krech, W.; Basler, M.

    1996-06-01

    Different many-junction arrays of Josephson junctions were studied theoretically to analyse the mechanisms of synchronization, the influence of internal and external parameters and the maximal allowed spread of parameters for the single junctions. Concepts to realize arrays using standard high-T c superconductor technology were created, e.g. the new arrangement of multijunction superconducting loops (MSL). First experimental results show the relevance of this concept. Intrinsic one-dimensional arrays in thin film technology were prepared as mesas out of Bi or Tl 2212 films. to characterize HTSC Josephson junctions methods based on the analysis of microwave-induced steps were developed. (orig.) [de

  17. Frozen magnetoresistance at magnetization reversal of granular Bi(Pb)-HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, A.A.; Omelchenko, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    The frozen magnetoresistance dependences of granular Bi(Pb)-HTSC samples on fields initiating a magnetic flux trapping and on magnetic reversal fields Rt(Hi, Hr) are investigated. It is found that the Rt (Hr) dependences are nonmonotonous. The frozen magnetoresistance decreases substantially after the first pulse Hr applied (Hr < Hi) but remains practically unchanged at subsequent remagnetization by magnetic pulses of alternating polarity and of the same amplitude. The effect of magnetic reversal on magnetoresistance anisotropy and the negative magnetoresistance phenomenon are studied. Is shown that the results obtained are inconsistent with the model of critical state for SC grains and the model of SC loops but are well described quantitatively by the proposed Bi(Pb)-HTSC model according to which the magnetic flux trapping occurs in normal grains with HTSC shells and the sample resistance is determined by weak link chains

  18. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

    2009-09-01

    Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As

  19. Pd thin films on flexible substrate for hydrogen sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztürk, Sadullah [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf University, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Kılınç, Necmettin, E-mail: nkilinc@nigde.edu.tr [Nigde University, Mechatronics Engineering Department, 51245 Nigde (Turkey); Nigde University, Nanotechnology Application and Research Center, 51245 Nigde (Turkey)

    2016-07-25

    In this work, palladium (Pd) thin films were prepared via RF sputtering method with various thicknesses (6 nm, 20 nm and 60 nm) on both a flexible substrate and a hard substrate. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) sensing properties of Pd films on flexible substrate have been investigated depending on temperatures (25–100 °C) and H{sub 2} concentrations (600 ppm – 10%). The effect of H{sub 2} on structural properties of the films was also studied. The films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. It is found that whole Pd films on hard substrate show permanent structural deformation after exposed to 10% H{sub 2} for 30 min. But, this H{sub 2} exposure does not causes any structural deformation for 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate and 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate shows reversible sensor response up to 10% H{sub 2} concentration without any structural deformation. On the other hand, Pd film sensors that have the thicknesses 20 nm and 60 nm on flexible substrate are irreversible for higher H{sub 2} concentration (>2%) with film deformation. The sensor response of 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate increased with increasing H{sub 2} concentration up 4% and then saturated. The sensitivity of the film decreased with increasing operation temperature. - Highlights: • Pd thin films fabricated by RF sputtering on both flexible and hard substrates. • Structural deformation observed for films on hard substrate after exposing 10% H{sub 2}. • 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate shows reversible sensor response up to 10% H{sub 2}. • H{sub 2} sensing properties of film on flexible substrate investigated depending on temperature and concentration. • The sensitivity of the film decreased with increasing operation temperature.

  20. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  1. Application of HTSC coils for mitigation of VDE during a major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Uchimoto, T.; Miya, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The authors proposed the new method to control plasma position passively with use of high Tc superconducting coils (HTSCs). HTSCs are robust against the thermal disturbance, so that they can be installed in the vicinity of plasmas. In this study, we examine that the VDEs during disruptions can be mitigated or not by using HTSC coils as a stabilizer. Shape and profile of plasmas will change considerably during a disruption, so that the linearized model cannot be applied to this problem. Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) is employed to evaluate the stabilizing effect of HTSC during a major disruption. The configuration of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is taken as an example for numerical analyses. The result of simulations using linear model agreed with that of TSC computation. The results of the simulation show that VDEs during disruptions are mitigated due to the stabilizing effect of HTSC. The vertical instability growth rate is improved if HTSC coils are installed on the backplate. The electromagnetic forces on HTSCs during a disruption were also estimated. A design to accommodate these forces is possible without any difficulty. (author)

  2. Dewetting of thin polymer film on rough substrate: II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, Pylyp; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The theory of the dewetting process developed for a model of substrate-film interaction forces was examined by an experimental investigation of the dewetting process of thin polystyrene (PS) films on chemically etched silicon substrates. In the dependence on PS films thickness and silicon roughness, various situations of dewetting were observed as follows: (i) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is much larger than the critical spinodal wavelength of a film, then spinodal dewetting of the film is observed; (ii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is larger in comparison with film thickness, then the dewetting due to substrate roughness is observed and the dewetted film patterns repeat the rough substrate structure; (iii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is small in comparison with the film thickness, then spinodal dewetting proceeds

  3. Adhesion of rhodium films on metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, L.; Covarel, G.; Tuilier, M.-H.; Steiner, R.; Oelhafen, P.

    2008-01-01

    Rhodium coated metallic films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on metallic substrates. All films were elaborated in same conditions on copper, molybdenum and stainless steel. Adhesion strength tests were carried out by scratch test. The results reveal that the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate is influenced by the hardness of the substrate. Increase of deposition temperature improves the adhesion of the coating. In addition, pre-treatment of substrates by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc and the layer thickness have has some effects on the final adhesion strength

  4. Adhesion of rhodium films on metallic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marot, L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)], E-mail: laurent.marot@unibas.ch; Covarel, G.; Tuilier, M.-H. [Laboratoire Mecanique, Materiaux et Procedes de Fabrication, Pole STIC-SPI-Math 61 rue Albert Camus, Universite de Haute-Alsace, F-68093 - Mulhouse Cedex (France); Steiner, R.; Oelhafen, P. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-09-01

    Rhodium coated metallic films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on metallic substrates. All films were elaborated in same conditions on copper, molybdenum and stainless steel. Adhesion strength tests were carried out by scratch test. The results reveal that the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate is influenced by the hardness of the substrate. Increase of deposition temperature improves the adhesion of the coating. In addition, pre-treatment of substrates by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc and the layer thickness have has some effects on the final adhesion strength.

  5. Plastic properties of thin films on substrates as measured by submicron indentation hardness and substrate curvature techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, M.F.; Gardner, D.S.; Nix, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Substrate curvature and submicron indentation measurements have been used recently to study plastic deformation in thin films on substrates. In the present work both of these techniques have been employed to study the strength of aluminum and tungsten thin films on silicon substrates. In the case of aluminum films on silicon substrates, the film strength is found to increase with decreasing thickness. Grain size variations with film thickness do not account for the variations in strength. Wafer curvature measurements give strengths higher than those predicted from hardness measurements suggesting the substrate plays a role in strengthening the film. The observed strengthening effect with decreased thickness may be due to image forces on dislocations in the film due to the elastically stiffer silicon substrate. For sputtered tungsten films, where the substrate is less stiff than the film, the film strength decreases with decreasing film thickness

  6. Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) thin film dc SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference device)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racah, Daniel

    1991-03-01

    Direct current superconducting quantum interferometers (SQUIDs) based on HTSC thin films have been measured and characterized. The thin films used were of different quality: (1) Granular films on Sapphire substrates, prepared either by e-gun evaporation, by laser ablation or by MOCVD (metal oxide chemical vapor deposition), (2) Epitaxial films on MgO substrates. Modulations of the voltage on the SQUIDs as a function of the applied flux have been observed in a wide range of temperatures. The nature of the modulation was found to be strongly dependent on the morphology of the film and on its critical current. The SQUIDs based on granular films were relatively noisy, hysteretic and with a complicated V-phi shape. Those devices based on low quality (lowIc) granular films could be measured only at low temperatures (much lower than 77 K). While those of higher quality (granular films with high Ic) could be measured near to the superconductive transition. The SQUID based on high quality epitaxial film was measured near Tc and showed an anomalous, time dependent behavior.

  7. Superconductor thin films: topotactic corrosion mechanism of YBa2Cu3O7 with water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, R.; Schoellhorn, R.; Kabius, B.; Schubert, J.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion in high-T c superconductors (HTSC) caused by water vapor is examined. HTSC thin films prepared using the laser ablation technique are shown to lose their superconducting properties due to the topotactic formation of a new hydroxylated phase which is a result of the corrosion. The mechanism of the corrosion process, which could be important in future applications of HTSC, is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Iron films deposited on porous alumina substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yyasu@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nishida, Naoki [Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshio [The University of Electro-Communications (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Iron films were deposited on porous alumina substrates using an arc plasma gun. The pore sizes (120 – 250 nm) of the substrates were controlled by changing the temperature during the anodic oxidation of aluminum plates. Iron atoms penetrated into pores with diameters of less than 160 nm, and were stabilized by forming γ-Fe, whereas α-Fe was produced as a flat plane covering the pores. For porous alumina substrates with pore sizes larger than 200 nm, the deposited iron films contained many defects and the resulting α-Fe had smaller hyperfine magnetic fields. In addition, only a very small amount of γ-Fe was obtained. It was demonstrated that the composition and structure of an iron film can be affected by the surface morphology of the porous alumina substrate on which the film is grown.

  9. Standard-free electron-probe microanalysis of thin films of HTSC-oxide and semiconductors (h<1μm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvardakov, A.M.; Mikhajlova, A.Ya.; San'gin, V.P.; Lazarev, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    A simplified variant of the standard-free electron-probe microanalysis is elaborated to carry out rapid analysis of chemical composition of >1μm thickness thin films of high-temperature superconductor oxides and semiconductors on alien substrates. The suggested technique has increased the efficiency of search for optimal conditions of preparation YBa 2 Cu 3 O x thin films existing in magnetron and InSb ion-beam techniques of spraying on SrTiO 3 and α-Al 2 O 3 monocrystal base substrates

  10. Investigation of HTSC; influence of microstructure, magnetic and of non-magnetic impurities; synthesis of new systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlleben, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated intensively the parameters of preparation of HTSC of the BiCaSrCuO system and could prepare the 2212- and 2232 phases separately in X-ray pure form. Concerning the 123-system the substitution of Cu by 3d-elements changed the superconducting behaviour strongly where as a replacement of Y by other Rare Earth-elements does not influence much the superconducting properties. Fluctuations occur in a wide range around T c . The layered-structure and granular character of the HTSC determine strongly the magnetic behaviour of HTSC especially the so-called Meissnereffect. Our first magnetic data of HTSC showed that even in magnetic fields smaller than Hc 1 (perpendicular) we did not receive 100% fluxexpulsion (Meissner). The fluxexpulsion of most of our samples was only 1/3 of -1/4 π. However in very small fields ( [de

  11. High temperature superconductors in satellite communications. High power microwave resonators and filters in planar HTSC technology. Final report; Hochtemperatur-Supraleiter-Systeme in der Satellitenkommunikation. Leistungstaugliche Hochfrequenz-Resonatoren und -Filter in planarer HTSL-Technologie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumfalk, A.; Kaiser, T.; Kolesov, S.; Chaloupka, H.; Piel, H.; Hein, M.

    1999-07-31

    Goal of the R and D project was the development of miniaturized HTSC resonators and filters. The work was divided into two main packages: ({alpha}) Systematic investigations of thin film samples, manufactured by partners of the common project as well as the development of characterization methods. ({beta}) Considerations of all relevant topics related to the design and manufacturing of high power filters with given specifications. The power handling capability of thin films is the most challenging issue in film production. A large variation in film quality could be observed that can cause problems in the realization of HTSC components. Employing the introduced concept of edge current free disk and ring resonators, high power HTSC filters can be realized with an improvement of 400 in power handling capability compared to other HTSC resonator types. During optimization of the unloaded quality factor, dielectric losses were identified to be the limiting factor. Two-pole, four-pole Chebyshev and four pole elliptic filters were developed and characterized and showed low loss and high power handling capability. (orig.) [German] Die Zielsetzung des F und E-Vorhabens war es, stark miniaturisierte leistungstaugliche Resonatoren und Filter auf der Basis von Hochtemperatur-supraleitenden Duennfilmen zu entwickeln. Die Arbeiten gliederten sich in zwei Teilbereiche: Einerseits wurden Methoden zur Hochfrequenz-Charakterisierung der zugrundeliegenden HTSL-Schichten entwickelt und systematische Untersuchungen an Proben schichtherstellender Verbundpartner durchgefuehrt. Andererseits wurden alle relevanten Teilprobleme zur Entwicklung hochleistungstauglicher Filter bearbeitet und entsprechende Problemloesungen entwickelt. Bei der Schichtherstellung stellte sich die geforderte Leistungstragfaehigkeit der HTSL-Schichten als besondere Herausforderung dar. Es wurde eine grosse Streuung der Filmqualitaet beobachtet, wodurch die Realisierung von Bauelementen erschwert werden kann. Die

  12. Ag films deposited on Si and Ti: How the film-substrate interaction influences the nanoscale film morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, F.; Torrisi, V.

    2017-11-01

    Submicron-thick Ag films were sputter deposited, at room temperature, on Si, covered by the native SiO2 layer, and on Ti, covered by the native TiO2 layer, under normal and oblique deposition angle. The aim of this work was to study the morphological differences in the grown Ag films on the two substrates when fixed all the other deposition parameters. In fact, the surface diffusivity of the Ag adatoms is different on the two substrates (higher on the SiO2 surface) due to the different Ag-SiO2 and Ag-TiO2 atomic interactions. So, the effect of the adatoms surface diffusivity, as determined by the adatoms-substrate interaction, on the final film morphology was analyzed. To this end, microscopic analyses were used to study the morphology of the grown Ag films. Even if the homologous temperature prescribes that the Ag film grows on both substrates in the zone I described by the structure zone model some significant differences are observed on the basis of the supporting substrate. In the normal incidence condition, on the SiO2/Si surface a dense close-packed Ag film exhibiting a smooth surface is obtained, while on the TiO2/Ti surface a more columnar film morphology is formed. In the oblique incidence condition the columnar morphology for the Ag film occurs both on SiO2/Si and TiO2/Ti but a higher porous columnar film is obtained on TiO2/Ti due to the lower Ag diffusivity. These results indicate that the adatoms diffusivity on the substrate as determined by the adatom-surface interaction (in addition to the substrate temperature) strongly determines the final film nanostructure.

  13. Hot Films on Ceramic Substrates for Measuring Skin Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffz, Greg; Leiser, Daniel; Bartlett, Jim; Lavine, Adrienne

    2003-01-01

    Hot-film sensors, consisting of a metallic film on an electrically nonconductive substrate, have been used to measure skin friction as far back as 1931. A hot film is maintained at an elevated temperature relative to the local flow by passing an electrical current through it. The power required to maintain the specified temperature depends on the rate at which heat is transferred to the flow. The heat transfer rate correlates to the velocity gradient at the surface, and hence, with skin friction. The hot-film skin friction measurement method is most thoroughly developed for steady-state conditions, but additional issues arise under transient conditions. Fabricating hot-film substrates using low-thermal-conductivity ceramics can offer advantages over traditional quartz or polyester-film substrates. First, a low conductivity substrate increases the fraction of heat convected away by the fluid, thus increasing sensitivity to changes in flow conditions. Furthermore, the two-part, composite nature of the substrate allows the installation of thermocouple junctions just below the hot film, which can provide an estimate of the conduction heat loss.

  14. Bosonic Spectral Function and the Electron-Phonon Interaction in HTSC Cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, E. G.; Tamm, I. E.; Kulic, M.L.; Kulic, M.L.; Dolgov, O. V.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss experimental evidence related to the structure and origin of the bosonic spectral function a2F(ο) in high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates at and near optimal doping. Global properties of a2F(ο), such as number and positions of peaks, are extracted by combining optics, neutron scattering, ARPES and tunnelling measurements. These methods give evidence for strong electron-phonon interaction (EPI) with 1<λep <3.5 in cuprates near optimal doping. We clarify how these results are in favor of the modified Migdal-Eliashberg (ME) theory for HTSC cuprates near optimal doping. In Section 2 we discuss theoretical ingredients such as strong EPI, strong correlations which are necessary to explain the mechanism of d-wave pairing in optimally doped cuprates. These comprise the ME theory for EPI in strongly correlated systems which give rise to the forward scattering peak. The latter is supported by the long-range part of EPI due to the weakly screened Madelung interaction in the ionic-metallic structure of layered HTSC cuprates. In this approach EPI is responsible for the strength of pairing while the residual Coulomb interaction and spin fluctuations trigger the d-wave pairing.

  15. Direct transfer of graphene films for polyurethane substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilani, C.; Romani, E.C.; Larrudé, D.G. [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barbosa, Gelza M. [Diretoria de Sistemas de Armas da Marinha, Marinha do Brasil, 20010-00 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, F.L., E-mail: lazaro@vdg.fis.puc-rio.br [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by CVD using copper foils as substrates. • Monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene were transferred to PU. • Samples were characterized by Raman and optical spectroscopies. • PU/monolayer graphene has transmittance around 80% in visible range. - Abstract: We have proposed the direct transfer of large-area graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition to polymeric substrate by evaporating of solvents of polyurethane/tetrahydrofurane solution. The graphene films on polyurethane substrates were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, optical and atomic force microscopies and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra revealed that it is possible to transfer in a controlled manner monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene films over polyurethane substrate.

  16. Direct transfer of graphene films for polyurethane substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilani, C.; Romani, E.C.; Larrudé, D.G.; Barbosa, Gelza M.; Freire, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by CVD using copper foils as substrates. • Monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene were transferred to PU. • Samples were characterized by Raman and optical spectroscopies. • PU/monolayer graphene has transmittance around 80% in visible range. - Abstract: We have proposed the direct transfer of large-area graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition to polymeric substrate by evaporating of solvents of polyurethane/tetrahydrofurane solution. The graphene films on polyurethane substrates were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, optical and atomic force microscopies and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra revealed that it is possible to transfer in a controlled manner monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene films over polyurethane substrate.

  17. TRIBOLOGY OF BIO-INSPIRED NANOWRINKLED FILMS ON ULTRASOFT SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen M. Lackner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic design of new materials uses nature as antetype, learning from billions of years of evolution. This work emphasizes the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, combining both hardness and wear resistance of its surface (the stratum corneum with high elasticity of the bulk (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis. The key for combination of such opposite properties is wrinkling, being consequence of intrinsic stresses in the bulk (soft tissue: Tribological contact to counterparts below the stress threshold for tissue trauma occurs on the thick hard stratum corneum layer pads, while tensile loads smooth out wrinkles in between these pads. Similar mechanism offers high tribological resistance to hard films on soft, flexible polymers, which is shown for diamond-like carbon (DLC and titanium nitride thin films on ultrasoft polyurethane and harder polycarbonate substrates. The choice of these two compared substrate materials will show that ultra-soft substrate materials are decisive for the distinct tribological material. Hierarchical wrinkled structures of films on these substrates are due to high intrinsic compressive stress, which evolves during high energetic film growth. Incremental relaxation of these stresses occurs by compound deformation of film and elastic substrate surface, appearing in hierarchical nano-wrinkles. Nano-wrinkled topographies enable high elastic deformability of thin hard films, while overstressing results in zigzag film fracture along larger hierarchical wrinkle structures. Tribologically, these fracture mechanisms are highly important for ploughing and sliding of sharp and flat counterparts on hard-coated ultra-soft substrates like polyurethane. Concentration of polyurethane deformation under the applied normal loads occurs below these zigzag cracks. Unloading closes these cracks again. Even cyclic testing do not lead to film delamination and retain low friction behavior, if the adhesion to the substrate is high

  18. Tribology of bio-inspired nanowrinkled films on ultrasoft substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Juergen M; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Major, Lukasz; Teichert, Christian; Hartmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetic design of new materials uses nature as antetype, learning from billions of years of evolution. This work emphasizes the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, combining both hardness and wear resistance of its surface (the stratum corneum) with high elasticity of the bulk (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis). The key for combination of such opposite properties is wrinkling, being consequence of intrinsic stresses in the bulk (soft tissue): Tribological contact to counterparts below the stress threshold for tissue trauma occurs on the thick hard stratum corneum layer pads, while tensile loads smooth out wrinkles in between these pads. Similar mechanism offers high tribological resistance to hard films on soft, flexible polymers, which is shown for diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium nitride thin films on ultrasoft polyurethane and harder polycarbonate substrates. The choice of these two compared substrate materials will show that ultra-soft substrate materials are decisive for the distinct tribological material. Hierarchical wrinkled structures of films on these substrates are due to high intrinsic compressive stress, which evolves during high energetic film growth. Incremental relaxation of these stresses occurs by compound deformation of film and elastic substrate surface, appearing in hierarchical nano-wrinkles. Nano-wrinkled topographies enable high elastic deformability of thin hard films, while overstressing results in zigzag film fracture along larger hierarchical wrinkle structures. Tribologically, these fracture mechanisms are highly important for ploughing and sliding of sharp and flat counterparts on hard-coated ultra-soft substrates like polyurethane. Concentration of polyurethane deformation under the applied normal loads occurs below these zigzag cracks. Unloading closes these cracks again. Even cyclic testing do not lead to film delamination and retain low friction behavior, if the adhesion to the substrate is high and the initial

  19. Thin film with oriented cracks on a flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bao; McGilvray, Andrew; Shi, Bo

    2010-07-27

    A thermoelectric film is disclosed. The thermoelectric film includes a substrate that is substantially electrically non-conductive and flexible and a thermoelectric material that is deposited on at least one surface of the substrate. The thermoelectric film also includes multiple cracks oriented in a predetermined direction.

  20. Stress in film/substrate system due to diffusion and thermal misfit effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Shanshan; Xuan Fuzhen; Wang Zhengdong; Tu Shantung

    2009-01-01

    The stress in film/substrate systems has been analysed taking into consideration the coupling effects of diffusion and thermal misfit within the framework of Fick's second law. The solution of diffusion-induced stress in a film/substrate system involving the thermal misfit stress feedback is developed. The effects of modulus ratios, diffusivity ratios, thickness ratios of the substrate and the film and the partial molar volume of the diffusing component on the stress distribution in the film/substrate system are then discussed with the help of the finite difference method. Results indicate that the stresses in the film/substrate system vary with diffusion time. Diffusion enhances the magnitudes of film stress when the thermal misfit stress is compressive in the film. Furthermore, the absolute values of stress in the film increase with the increasing modulus ratios of the substrate and film, while they reduce with the increasing partial molar volume of the diffusing component and the diffusivity ratio of the substrate and the film.

  1. Ferromagnetic film on a superconducting substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2001-01-01

    We study the equilibrium domain structure and magnetic flux around a ferromagnetic film with perpendicular magnetization M 0 on a superconducting (SC) substrate. At 4πM 0 c1 the SC is in the Meissner state and the equilibrium domain width in the film, l, scales as (l/4πλ L )=(l N /4πλ L ) 2/3 with the domain width on a normal (nonsuperconducting) substrate, l N /4πλ L >>1; λ L being the London penetration length

  2. Ferromagnetic film on a superconducting substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2001-01-01

    We study the equilibrium domain structure and magnetic flux around a ferromagnetic film with perpendicular magnetization M{sub 0} on a superconducting (SC) substrate. At 4{pi}M{sub 0}film, l, scales as (l/4{pi}{lambda}{sub L})=(l{sub N}/4{pi}{lambda}{sub L}){sup 2/3} with the domain width on a normal (nonsuperconducting) substrate, l{sub N}/4{pi}{lambda}{sub L}>>1; {lambda}{sub L} being the London penetration length.

  3. Cracking in thin films of colloidal particles on elastomeric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Sharp, James

    2012-02-01

    The drying of thin colloidal films of particles is a common industrial problem (e.g paint drying, ceramic coatings). An often undesirable side effect is the appearance of cracks. As the liquid in a suspension evaporates, particles are forced into contact both with each other and the substrate, forming a fully wetted film. Under carefully controlled conditions the observed cracks grow orthogonal to the drying front, spaced at regular intervals along it. In this work we investigated the role of the substrate in constraining the film. Atomic force microscopy, was used to image the particle arrangements on the top and bottom surfaces of films, dried on liquid and glass substrates. We present convincing evidence that the interface prevents particle rearrangements at the bottom of the film, leading to a mismatch strain between upper and lower surfaces of the film which appears to drive cracking. We show that when the modulus of the substrate becomes comparable to the stresses measured in the films, the crack spacing is significantly altered. We also show that cracks do not form on liquid substrates. These combined experiments highlight the importance of substrate constraint in the crack formation mechanism.[4pt] [1] M.I. Smith, J.S. Sharp, Langmuir 27, 8009 (2011)

  4. A Basic Experiment on Two-Dimensional Force of HTSC-Bulk in DC Magnetic-Field

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 欣二郎; 松田, 茂雄; 松本, 洋和

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTSC) bulk can levitate stably on a track which consists of permanent magnets of the same polarity. This is because HTSC-bulk has a pinning force which keeps from vertical displacement due to the weight. We have proposed a new LSM theory which is based on an idea of considering the pinning force as synchronizing force in using armature travelling-magnetic-field instead of permanent magnets. However, the lift force enough to levitate the vehicle on the ground ...

  5. Quality of YBCO thin films grown on LAO substrates exposed to the film deposition - film removal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagoev, B; Nurgaliev, T [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mozhaev, P B [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sardela, M; Donchev, T [Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, 104 South Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)], E-mail: blago_sb@yahoo.com

    2008-05-01

    The characteristics are investigated of high temperature superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) films grown on LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) substrates being exposed a different number of times to YBCO film deposition and acid-solution-based cleaning procedures. Possible mechanisms of degradation of the substrate surface quality reflecting on the growing YBCO film parameters are discussed and analyzed.

  6. Thin polymer films on chemically patterned, corrugated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoghegan, Mark; Wang Chun; Rehse, Nicolaus; Magerle, Robert; Krausch, Georg

    2005-01-01

    We study the effect of a chemical pattern on the wetting and dewetting behaviour of thin polystyrene (PS) films on regularly corrugated silicon substrates. Our results reveal that the film preparation, annealing method, and confinement play a critical role in the final film structure. On evaporating gold on both sides of the facets (such that it covered the crests of the facets, and not the troughs), we observed dewetting, which proceeded to the gold, demonstrating an enthalpic effect contrary to the outcome previously observed when gold was only evaporated on one side of the facet. We also coated the substrate with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS); this led to a gold and OTS striped structure. PS films several nanometres thick dewet such substrates, with a preferential direction for dewetting in the direction of the stripes forming droplets of a considerably larger size than the stripes

  7. Effect of substrate crystallographic orientation of garnet-ferrite film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burym, Yu.A.; Dubinko, S.V.; Mitsaj, Yu.N.; Borovitskaya, L.N.; Prokopov, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of garnet-ferrite films with a composition (YbGdPrBi) 3 (FeAlGa) 5 O 12 grown under identical conditions on variously oriented substrates, have been studied. The substrate orientation was changed in such a way that the vector of the substrate normal was in the [110] plane between the [111] and [112] directions. We have found that the substrate misorientation leads to an inclined position of the easy magnetization axis (EMA) and a reduction of the film growth rate. The change of the film physical properties (Faraday rotation, Curie temperature, magnetization) indicates the film composition variation with the substrate orientation change. The temperature dependence of the EMA slope angle in the studied samples is determined by the magnetoelastic contribution to the anisotropy constants. (author)

  8. Quality improvement of organic thin films deposited on vibrating substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Y.A.; Caldas, P.G.; Prioli, R.; Cremona, M., E-mail: cremona@fis.puc-rio.br

    2011-12-30

    Most of the Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) have a multilayered structure composed of functional organic layers sandwiched between two electrodes. Thin films of small molecules are generally deposited by thermal evaporation onto glass or other rigid or flexible substrates. The interface state between two organic layers in OLED device depends on the surface morphology of the layers and affects deeply the OLED performance. The morphology of organic thin films depends mostly on substrate temperature and deposition rate. Generally, the control of the substrate temperature allows improving the quality of the deposited films. For organic compounds substrate temperature cannot be increased too much due to their poor thermal stability. However, studies in inorganic thin films indicate that it is possible to modify the morphology of a film by using substrate vibration without increasing the substrate temperature. In this work, the effect of the resonance vibration of glass and silicon substrates during thermal deposition in high vacuum environment of tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum(III) (Alq{sub 3}) and N,N Prime -Bis(naphthalene-2-yl)-N,N Prime -bis(phenyl)-benzidine ({beta}-NPB) organic thin films with different deposition rates was investigated. The vibration used was in the range of hundreds of Hz and the substrates were kept at room temperature during the process. The nucleation and subsequent growth of the organic films on the substrates have been studied by atomic force microscopy technique. For Alq{sub 3} and {beta}-NPB films grown with 0.1 nm/s as deposition rate and using a frequency of 100 Hz with oscillation amplitude of some micrometers, the results indicate a reduction of cluster density and a roughness decreasing. Moreover, OLEDs fabricated with organic films deposited under these conditions improved their power efficiency, driven at 4 mA/cm{sup 2}, passing from 0.11 lm/W to 0.24 lm/W with an increase in their luminance of about 352 cd/m{sup 2

  9. Substrate-HTcS thin film interaction studies by (S)TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, P.P.J.; Klepper, D.; Kitazawa, K.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper concerns with compatibility aspects beween HTcS thin film either their substrates. The influence of substrate-thin film interaction and thin film microstructure on the superconducting properties is discussed. In this respect, data based on (S)TEM observations are presented. It is

  10. Diamond film growth with modification properties of adhesion between substrate and diamond film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setasuwon P.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond film growth was studied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A special equipment was build in-house, employing a welding torch, and substrate holder with a water-cooling system. Acetylene and oxygen were used as combustion gases and the substrate was tungsten carbide cobalt. It was found that surface treatments, such as diamond powder scratching or acid etching, increase the adhesion and prevent the film peel-off. Diamond powder scratching and combined diamond powder scratching with acid etching gave the similar diamond film structure with small grain and slightly rough surface. The diamond film obtained with both treatments has high adhesion and can withstand internal stress better than ones obtained by untreated surface or acid etching alone. It was also found that higher substrate temperature produced smoother surface and more uniform diamond grain.

  11. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.

  12. Fracture Analysis of MWCNT/Epoxy Nanocomposite Film Deposited on Aluminum Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Chien, Pao-Chu

    2017-04-13

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced epoxy films were deposited on an aluminum substrate by a hot-pressing process. Three-point bending tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus of MWCNT reinforced nanocomposite films. Compared to the neat epoxy film, nanocomposite film with 1 wt % of MWCNT exhibits an increase of 21% in the Young's modulus. Four-point-bending tests were conducted to investigate the fracture toughness of the MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite film deposited on an aluminum substrate with interfacial cracks. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the strain energy in a film/substrate composite beam is derived. The difference of strain energy before and after the propagation of the interfacial crack are calculated, leading to the determination of the strain energy release rate. Experimental test results show that the fracture toughness of the nanocomposite film deposited on the aluminum substrate increases with the increase in the MWCNT content.

  13. Anisotropy of magnetoresistance on trapping magnetic fields in granular HTSC

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhanov, A A

    2003-01-01

    The features of magnetoresistance in Bi (Pb)-HTSC ceramics with the magnetic fields trapped are investigated. It is found that on trapping magnetic flux the magnetoresistance in granular HTSC becomes anisotropic. Moreover, for magnetic fields H parallel and currents perpendicular to field H sub i which induces the trapping the magnetoresistance field dependence DELTA R(H) is nonmonotonic and the magnetoresistance is negative for small fields H < Hinv. The effect of trapped field and transport current and their orientations on the dependence DELTA R(H) is investigated. In particular, it is found that the field of magnetoresistance sign inversion Hinv almost linearly grows with increase of the effective trapped magnetic fields. Hinv decreases down to zero as the angle between fields H and H sub i increases up to pi/2 and slightly decreases with increasing transport current. The results are treated in terms of the model of magnetic flux trapping in superconducting grains or 'loops' embedded in a matrix of wea...

  14. Defect studies of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on various substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhova, O; Čížek, J; Procházka, I; Kužel, R; Novotný, M; Bulír, J; Lancok, J; Anwand, W; Brauer, G; Connolly, J; McCarthy, E; Krishnamurthy, S; Mosnier, J-P

    2013-01-01

    ZnO thin films deposited on various substrates were characterized by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD). All films studied exhibit wurtzite structure and crystallite size 20–100 nm. The mosaic spread of crystallites is relatively small for the films grown on single crystalline substrates while it is substantial for the film grown on amorphous substrate. SPIS investigations revealed that ZnO films deposited on single crystalline substrates exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the film deposited on amorphous substrate. This is most probably due to a higher density of misfit dislocations, which compensate for the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate.

  15. Properties of nickel films growth by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at elevated substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslim, Noormariah, E-mail: 14h8702@ubd.edu.bn [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Soon, Ying Woan [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Physical and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Lim, Chee Ming; Voo, Nyuk Yoong [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam)

    2016-08-01

    Pure nickel (Ni) thin films of thicknesses of 100 nm were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at a power of 100 W and at various substrate temperatures i.e., room temperature, 100, 200, and 300 °C. The crystalline structure, surface topography, surface morphology, electrical resistivity, and optical properties of the deposited films were studied. The properties of the Ni films could be controlled by altering the substrate temperature. Specifically, the films featured a face-centered cubic crystalline structure with predominant (111) crystallite orientation at all the substrate temperatures employed, as observed from the X-ray diffraction analysis. Films deposited at substrate temperatures greater than 200 °C additionally displayed crystalline (200) and (220) diffraction peaks. The surface morphology analysis revealed that the grain size of the Ni thin films increased with increasing substrate temperatures employed. This increase was accompanied with a decrease in the resistivity of the Ni films. The surface roughness of the films increased with increasing substrate temperatures employed, as observed from the atomic force microscopy analysis. - Highlights: • RF magnetron sputtering is a good alternative method to deposit Ni films. • Properties of Ni films could be controlled simply by tuning substrate temperatures. • Crystallite size and surface roughness increased with substrate temperatures. • Electrical resistivity reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. • Optical properties also changed with substrate temperatures.

  16. Analyzing the LiF thin films deposited at different substrate temperatures using multifractal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, R.P. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Dwivedi, S., E-mail: suneetdwivedi@gmail.com [K Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Mittal, A.K. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); K Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Kumar, Manvendra [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Pandey, A.C. [K Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India)

    2014-07-01

    The Atomic Force Microscopy technique is used to characterize the surface morphology of LiF thin films deposited at substrate temperatures 77 K, 300 K and 500 K, respectively. It is found that the surface roughness of thin film increases with substrate temperature. The multifractal nature of the LiF thin film at each substrate temperature is investigated using the backward two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average analysis. The strength of multifractility and the non-uniformity of the height probabilities of the thin films increase as the substrate temperature increases. Both the width of the multifractal spectrum and the difference of fractal dimensions of the thin films increase sharply as the temperature reaches 500 K, indicating that the multifractility of the thin films becomes more pronounced at the higher substrate temperatures with greater cluster size. - Highlights: • Analyzing LiF thin films using multifractal detrended moving average technique • Surface roughness of LiF thin film increases with substrate temperature. • LiF thin films at each substrate temperature exhibit multifractality. • Multifractility becomes more pronounced at the higher substrate temperatures.

  17. Influence of substrate and film thickness on polymer LIPSS formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jing; Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 121, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Rebollar, Esther, E-mail: e.rebollar@csic.es [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR-CSIC), Serrano 119, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • The estimation of temperature upon pulse accumulation shows that a small positive offset is caused by each individual pulse. • Number of pulses needed for LIPSS formation in PS thin films depends on polymer thickness. • Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of supporting substrate influence the onset for LIPSS formation and their quality. • Quality of LIPSS is affected by the substrate optical properties. - Abstract: Here we focus on the influence of both, substrate and film thickness on polymer Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) formation in polymer films. For this aim a morphological description of ripples structures generated on spin-coated polystyrene (PS) films by a linearly polarized laser beam with a wavelength of 266 nm is presented. The influence of different parameters on the quality and characteristics of the formed laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was investigated. We found that well-ordered LIPSS are formed either on PS films thinner than 200 nm or thicker than 400 nm supported on silicon substrates as well as on thicker free standing films. However less-ordered ripples are formed on silicon supported films with intermediate thicknesses in the range of 200–380 nm. The effect of the thermal and optical properties of the substrate on the quality of LIPSS was analyzed. Differences observed in the fluence and number of pulses needed for the onset of surface morphological modifications is explained considering two main effects which are: (1) The temperature increase on polymer surface induced by the action of cumulative laser irradiation and (2) The differences in thermal conductivity between the polymer and the substrate which strongly affect the heat dissipation generated by irradiation.

  18. PLASMA POLYMER FILMS AS ADHESION PROMOTING PRIMERS FOR ALUMINUM SUBSTRATES. PART I: CHARACTERIZATION OF FILMS AND FILM/SUBSTRATE INTERFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films (~800 Å in thickness) were deposited onto aluminum substrates (6111-T4 alloy) in radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) powered reactors to be used as primers for structural adhesive bonding. Processing variables such as sub...

  19. Influence of negative substrate bias voltage on the impurity concentrations in Zr films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.-W.; Bae, J.W.; Mimura, K.; Isshiki, M.

    2006-01-01

    Zr films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates without a substrate bias voltage and with substrate bias voltages of -50 V and -100 V using a non-mass separated ion beam deposition system. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and glow discharge mass spectrometry were used to determine the impurity concentrations in a Zr target and Zr films. It was found that the total amount of impurities in the Zr film deposited at the substrate bias voltage of -50 V was much lower than that in the Zr film deposited without the substrate bias voltage. It means that applying a negative bias voltage to the substrate can suppress the increase in impurities of Zr films. Furthermore, it was confirmed that dominant impurity elements such as C, N and O have a considerable effect on the purity of Zr films and these impurities can be remarkably reduced by applying the negative substrate bias voltage

  20. Diffusion and adhesion properties of Cu films on polyimide substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, T.X.; Liu, Y.Q.; Fu, Z.Q.; Luo, T.Y.; Zhang, K.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Copper thin films were prepared on polyimide (PI) substrates by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Titanium nitride (TiN) diffusion barrier layers were deposited between the copper films and the PI substrates by PVD. Auger electron spectroscopy compositional depth profile showed that TiN barrier layer was very effective in preventing copper diffusion into PI substrate even after the Cu/TiN/PI samples were annealed at 300 deg. C for 5 h. For the as-deposited CVD-Cu/PI, CVD-Cu/TiN/PI, and as-deposited PVD-Cu/PI samples, the residual stress in Cu films was very small. Relatively larger residual stress existed in Cu films for PVD-Cu/TiN/PI samples. For PVD-Cu/TiN/PI samples, annealing can increase the peeling strength to the level observed without a diffusion barrier. The adhesion improvement of Cu films by annealing treatment can be attributed to lowering of the residual tensile stress in Cu films

  1. Mastering the biaxial stress state in nanometric thin films on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurie, D., E-mail: faurie@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM-CNRS, UPR3407, Université Paris 13, Villetaneuse (France); Renault, P.-O.; Le Bourhis, E. [Institut Pprime UPR3346, CNRS – Université de Poitiers, Futuroscope (France); Geandier, G. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR7198, Université de Lorraine, Nancy Cedex (France); Goudeau, P. [Institut Pprime UPR3346, CNRS – Université de Poitiers, Futuroscope (France); Thiaudière, D. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint-Aubin, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    Biaxial stress state of thin films deposited on flexible substrate can be mastered thanks to a new biaxial device. This tensile machine allows applying in-plane loads F{sub x} and F{sub y} in the two principal directions x and y of a cruciform-shaped polymer substrate. The transmission of the deformation at film/substrate interface allows controlling the stress and strain field in the thin films. We show in this paper a few illustrations dealing with strain measurements in polycrystalline thin films deposited on flexible substrate. The potentialities of the biaxial device located at Soleil synchrotron are also discussed.

  2. High-quality substrate for fluorescence enhancement using agarose-coated silica opal film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Li, Juan; Sun, Liguo; Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Lv, Linli; Zhao, Xiangwei; Xiao, Pengfeng; Hu, Jing; Lv, Mei; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-08-01

    To improve the sensitivity of fluorescence detection in biochip, a new kind of substrates was developed by agarose coating on silica opal film. In this study, silica opal film was fabricated on glass substrate using the vertical deposition technique. It can provide stronger fluorescence signals and thus improve the detection sensitivity. After coating with agarose, the hybrid film could provide a 3D support for immobilizing sample. Comparing with agarose-coated glass substrate, the agarose-coated opal substrates could selectively enhance particular fluorescence signals with high sensitivity when the stop band of the silica opal film in the agarose-coated opal substrate overlapped the fluorescence emission wavelength. A DNA hybridization experiment demonstrated that fluorescence intensity of special type of agarose-coated opal substrates was about four times that of agarose-coated glass substrate. These results indicate that the optimized agarose-coated opal substrate can be used for improving the sensitivity of fluorescence detection with high quality and selectivity.

  3. Role of substrate morphology in ion induced dewetting of thin solid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, Luca, E-mail: luca.repetto@unige.it [Physics Department and Nanomed Labs, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Lo Savio, Roberto [Physics Department and Nanomed Labs, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Šetina Batič, Barbara [Inštitut Za Kovinske Materiale in Tehnologije, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Firpo, Giuseppe; Valbusa, Ugo [Physics Department and Nanomed Labs, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • We have created by ion bombardment silicon substrates with different topographies. • The substrates have been characterized by ellipsometry, AFM, SEM and EDX. • The substrates have been used for experiments of ion induced Cr films. • We show that different substrate topographies can induce different dewetted patterns. • Substrate topography can favor spinodal dewetting against heterogeneous nucleations. - Abstract: We investigate the role of the substrate morphology in the dewetting of ultrathin chromium films irradiated with 30 keV Ga ions. Silicon surfaces with different roughness were used as substrates for the films. The results of the irradiation experiments and of related simulations indicate that the chromium films can undergo a dewetting-like process through the two standard channels that show up for liquids, namely the spinodal channel, and the dewetting by heterogeneous nucleation. The two processes are competitive, and the prevailing one can be predicted and selected according to the characteristics of the substrate.

  4. Role of substrate morphology in ion induced dewetting of thin solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, Luca; Lo Savio, Roberto; Šetina Batič, Barbara; Firpo, Giuseppe; Valbusa, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have created by ion bombardment silicon substrates with different topographies. • The substrates have been characterized by ellipsometry, AFM, SEM and EDX. • The substrates have been used for experiments of ion induced Cr films. • We show that different substrate topographies can induce different dewetted patterns. • Substrate topography can favor spinodal dewetting against heterogeneous nucleations. - Abstract: We investigate the role of the substrate morphology in the dewetting of ultrathin chromium films irradiated with 30 keV Ga ions. Silicon surfaces with different roughness were used as substrates for the films. The results of the irradiation experiments and of related simulations indicate that the chromium films can undergo a dewetting-like process through the two standard channels that show up for liquids, namely the spinodal channel, and the dewetting by heterogeneous nucleation. The two processes are competitive, and the prevailing one can be predicted and selected according to the characteristics of the substrate

  5. Direct-current substrate bias effects on amorphous silicon sputter-deposited films for thin film transistor fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Seung-Ik; Rack, Philip D.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect that direct current (dc) substrate bias has on radio frequency-sputter-deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) films has been investigated. The substrate bias produces a denser a-Si film with fewer defects compared to unbiased films. The reduced number of defects results in a higher resistivity because defect-mediated conduction paths are reduced. Thin film transistors (TFTs) that were completely sputter deposited were fabricated and characterized. The TFT with the biased a-Si film showed lower leakage (off-state) current, higher on/off current ratio, and higher transconductance (field effect mobility) than the TFT with the unbiased a-Si film

  6. In situ fabrication of AgI films on various substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Z.; Liu, A.R.; Wang, S.M.; Huang, B.J.; Ma, X.M.; Zhao, H.X.; Li, D.P.; Zhang, L.Z.

    2008-01-01

    A facile solution-phase chemical route is developed to directly construct silver iodide (AgI) films/crystals on various substrates including silver foil, silicon wafer and glass, etc. The resulting AgI films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The AgI films with different morphologies can be obtained by controlling the reaction parameters. This method is a simple and fast way for in situ deposition of AgI crystals/films on different substrates. These films may be applied in chemical sensing systems and solid-state batteries as solid electrolytes

  7. Thermal plasma fabricated lithium niobate-tantalate films on sapphire substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulinich, S.A.; Yoshida, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Terashima, K.

    2003-01-01

    We report the deposition of LiNb 1-x Ta x O 3 (0≤x≤1) films on (001) sapphire substrates in soft vacuum using a radio frequency thermal plasma. The growth rate, crystallinity, c-axis orientation, and surface roughness were examined as functions of substrate temperature, precursor feed rate, and substrate surface condition. The film Nb/Ta ratio was well controlled by using an appropriate uniform mixture of lithium-niobium and lithium-tantalum alkoxide solutions. The epitaxy and crystallinity of the films were much improved when the film growth rate was raised from 20 to 180-380 nm/min, where the films with the (006) rocking curve full width at half maximum values as low as 0.12 deg. -0.2 deg. could be produced. The film roughness could be reduced by using a liquid precursor with higher metal concentrations, achieving the root-mean-square value on the order of 5 nm. The refractive indices of the films are in good correspondence with their composition and crystallinity

  8. Interface thermal resistance of nanostructured FeCoCu film and Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaenko, Yuri M.; Medvedev, Yuri V.; Genenko, Yuri A.; Ghafari, Mohammad; Hahn, Horst

    2006-05-01

    Results of measurement of thermal resistance (RFS ) of film substrate interface of 10 nm (Fe1-x Cox )1-y Cuy film on Si substrate with 50 nm SiO2 sublayer are presented. The estimated magnitude is two orders greater then RFS of epitaxial manganite films on StTiO3 substrate with and without sublayer. The significant increase of RFS is explained by granular structure of film with average size of grain about 10 nm. In this case the additional thermal barier in the film-substrate interface is appeared. It provides the change of regime of phonons propagation from ballistic to diffusion one. The principle possibility of variation of RFS in wide range as a task of nanotechnology is discussed.

  9. Effect of Substrates on the Dynamic Properties of Inkjet-Printed Ag Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokman Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic properties of inkjet-printed Ag thin films on flexible substrates were measured using flexural wave propagation. The Ag nanoparticle suspension was inkjet-printed on polyimide (PI, silicon wafer, and glass. The effects of flexible substrates on the dynamic properties of the films were investigated. Beam-shaped Ag-printed substrates were fabricated by pico-second laser pulse cutting. The wave approach was presented to analyze the vibrations of the thin film on the substrates. The Young’s modulus and loss factor of the Ag thin films with the substrates were represented by the combined bending stiffness of the bilayer beam. The vibration response of the base-excited cantilever was measured using an accelerometer and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV. Vibration transfers were analyzed to obtain dynamic characteristics of the Ag-printed bilayer beam. The substrate affects the reduction of the Ag thin film thickness during the sintering process and surface roughness of the film. The proposed method based on the wave approach allows measurement of the dynamic properties regardless of the ratio of the modulus between the thin film and substrate.

  10. Nonlinear optical parameters of nanocrystalline AZO thin film measured at different substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences, Beni -Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Al-ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Dahlan, Ammar sadik [Department of architecture, faculty of environmental design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-01-15

    The 2.2 wt% of aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent and preferential c-axis oriented thin films were prepared by using radio frequency (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. For structural analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Electron Microscope (AFM) was used for morphological studies. The optical parameters such as, optical energy gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric loss, tangent loss, first and third order nonlinear optical properties of transparent films were investigated. High transmittance above 90% and highly homogeneous surface were observed in all samples. The substrate temperature plays an important role to get the best transparent conductive oxide thin films. The substrate temperature at 150 °C showed the growth of highly transparent AZO thin film. Energy gap increased with the increased in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films. Dielectric constant and loss were found to be photon energy dependent with substrate temperature. The change in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films also affect the non-liner optical properties of thin films. The value of χ{sup (3)} was found to be changed with the grain size of the thin films that directly affected by the substrate temperature of the pure and Al doped ZnO thin films.

  11. Structural characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotný, M; Bulíř, J; Lančok, J; Čížek, J; Kužel, R; Connolly, J; McCarthy, E; Krishnamurthy, S; Mosnier, J-P; Anwand, W; Brauer, G

    2012-01-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on three different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0) and fused silica (FS). The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and defect studies were carried out using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). Films deposited on all substrates studied in this work exhibit the wurtzite ZnO structure and are characterized by an average crystallite size of 20-100 nm. However, strong differences in the microstructure of films deposited on various substrates were found. The ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit local epitaxy, i.e. a well-defined relation between film crystallites and the substrate. Domains with different orientation relationships with the substrate were found in both films. On the other hand, the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits fibre texture with random lateral orientation of crystallites. Extremely high compressive in-plane stress of σ ∼ 14 GPa was determined in the film deposited on the MgO substrate, while the film deposited on sapphire is virtually stress-free, and the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits a tensile in-plane stress of σ ∼ 0.9 GPa. SPIS investigations revealed that the concentration of open-volume defects in the ZnO films is substantially higher than that in a bulk ZnO single crystal. Moreover, the ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit a significantly higher density of defects than the film deposited on the amorphous FS substrate. (paper)

  12. Effects of substrate material on carbon films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.; Xu, X.Y.; Man, B.Y.; Kong, D.M.; Xu, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared tri-layers by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) on sapphire substrate. ► We found that the formation of the graphene film has a strong relation to the structure and properties of the substrate. ► The different carbon film formation mechanism of the buffer layers can affect the morphology of the film. - Abstract: The carbon thin films were grown on different substrates with different buffer layers by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) with a high purity graphite carbon target. A UV pulsed KrF excimer laser with a wavelength of 248 nm was used as laser source. The structure, surface morphology and other properties of the carbon thin films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the properties of the carbon thin films and the formation of the graphene film have a strong relation to the structure and properties of the substrate. The substrate with a hexagonal wurtzite structure which is similar to the hexagonal honeycomb structure of the carbon atoms arranged in the graphene is more beneficial for the formation of the graphene thin film. In our experiment conditions, the carbon films grown on sapphire substrates with different buffer layers have an ordered structure and a smooth surface, and form high quality tri-layer graphene films.

  13. Structure and scintillation properties of CsI(Tl) films on Si single crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lina [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: shuangliu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chen, Dejun; Zhang, Shangjian; Liu, Yong; Zhong, Zhiyong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Falco, Charles M. [University of Arizona, College of Optical Sciences, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • We obtained the desired micro-columnar structure of CsI(Tl) films on the orienting Si substrates. • We improved the micro-columnar structure of CsI(Tl) films under the relatively large deposition rate through using the substrate with a pre-deposited CsI nanolayer. • We modeled the interface structures between the CsI(Tl) films with (200) and (310) orientation and Si(111) substrates to explain the preferred orientation of film under the influence of the orienting substrate significantly. • We gained a new spectrum of the CsI(Tl) films peaked at 740 nm wavelength. - Abstract: CsI(Tl) scintillation films fabricated on glass substrates are widely applied for X-ray imaging because their ability to grow in micro-columnar structure and proper emission wavelength matching CCD cameras. But the coupling process between the CsI(Tl) films and Si-based photo detector would cause coupling loss. In this work, CsI(Tl) films were deposited on the orienting Si substrates and the Si substrates covered by the pre-deposited CsI nanolayers. Structure and scintillation properties of films were examined by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and radioluminescent spectrum. The films deposited on the orienting Si substrates show the micro-columnar morphology with perfect single crystalline structure and the photoluminescence spectra with bimodal distribution. The performances of the films prepared on the pre-deposited CsI nanolayer, containing micro-columns structure and the light yield are improved.

  14. Structure and scintillation properties of CsI(Tl) films on Si single crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lina; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Dejun; Zhang, Shangjian; Liu, Yong; Zhong, Zhiyong; Falco, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We obtained the desired micro-columnar structure of CsI(Tl) films on the orienting Si substrates. • We improved the micro-columnar structure of CsI(Tl) films under the relatively large deposition rate through using the substrate with a pre-deposited CsI nanolayer. • We modeled the interface structures between the CsI(Tl) films with (200) and (310) orientation and Si(111) substrates to explain the preferred orientation of film under the influence of the orienting substrate significantly. • We gained a new spectrum of the CsI(Tl) films peaked at 740 nm wavelength. - Abstract: CsI(Tl) scintillation films fabricated on glass substrates are widely applied for X-ray imaging because their ability to grow in micro-columnar structure and proper emission wavelength matching CCD cameras. But the coupling process between the CsI(Tl) films and Si-based photo detector would cause coupling loss. In this work, CsI(Tl) films were deposited on the orienting Si substrates and the Si substrates covered by the pre-deposited CsI nanolayers. Structure and scintillation properties of films were examined by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and radioluminescent spectrum. The films deposited on the orienting Si substrates show the micro-columnar morphology with perfect single crystalline structure and the photoluminescence spectra with bimodal distribution. The performances of the films prepared on the pre-deposited CsI nanolayer, containing micro-columns structure and the light yield are improved.

  15. Electromechanical properties of amorphous In-Zn-Sn-O transparent conducting film deposited at various substrate temperatures on polyimide substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sung; Lee, Eun Kyung; Eun, Kyoungtae; Choa, Sung-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    The electromechanical properties of the amorphous In-Zn-Sn-O (IZTO) film deposited at various substrate temperatures were investigated by bending, stretching, twisting, and cyclic bending fatigue tests. Amorphous IZTO films were grown on a transparent polyimide substrate using a pulsed DC magnetron sputtering system at different substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. A single oxide alloyed ceramic target (In2O3: 80 wt %, ZnO: 10 wt %, SnO2: 10 wt % composition) was used. The amorphous IZTO film deposited at 150 °C exhibited an optimized electrical resistivity of 5.8 × 10-4 Ω cm, optical transmittance of 87%, and figure of merit of 8.3 × 10-3 Ω-1. The outer bending tests showed that the critical bending radius decreased as substrate temperature increased. On the other hand, in the inner bending tests, the critical bending radius increased with an increase in substrate temperature. The differences in the bendability of IZTO films for the outer and inner bending tests could be attributed to the internal residual stress of the films. The uniaxial stretching tests also showed the effects of the internal stress on the mechanical flexibility of the film. The bending and stretching test results demonstrated that the IZTO film had higher bendability and stretchability than the conventional ITO film. The IZTO film could withstand 10,000 bending cycles at a bending radius of 10 mm. The effect of the surface roughness on the mechanical durability of all IZTO films was very small due to their very smooth surfaces.

  16. Impact of the substrate on the efficiency of thin film thermoelectric technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Quintana, J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectricity is one of the simplest technologies for thermal energy conversion. Moreover, because of their relatively low efficiency, bulk thermoelectric materials are generally used in environments where their solid state nature outweighs their poor efficiency. Nevertheless, low dimensional thermoelectric materials shed a light in order to achieve higher thermoelectric performance than their bulk counterparts via quantum and spatial confinement of energy carriers. The Thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is the basic criterion for estimating the performance of thermoelectric materials. In this work, by way of an extension of the Harman method to thin films onto substrate to evaluate ZT it is shown that the solely presence of a substrate affects significantly the intrinsic value of the ZT independently of the electrical and thermal nature of the substrate. Furthermore, the model unveils that as the thickness ratio between substrate and thin film increases, the parameter ZT sharply tends to zero; this effect opens a serious problem to overcome by the thin film thermoelectric technology, especially at nanoscale. In this sense, challenges in order to engineering planar thermoelectric devices at micro/nanoscale are properly identified. - Highlights: • Extended Harman method to evaluate ZT of thin films onto substrate is presented. • ZT of thermoelectric thin films is strongly affected by substrate's nature. • Thin dielectric substrates are desirable to hold ZT in in-plane configuration. • Film/substrate thickness ratio play important role on the device performance. • Challenges to engineering planar thermoelectric devices are properly identified

  17. Effect of film thickness, type of buffer layer, and substrate temperature on the morphology of dicyanovinyl-substituted sexithiophene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Alexandr A., E-mail: alexander.levin@iapp.de [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Levichkova, Marieta [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Hildebrandt, Dirk; Klisch, Marina; Weiss, Andre [Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wynands, David; Elschner, Chris [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Pfeiffer, Martin [Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Leo, Karl; Riede, Moritz [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-31

    The influence of film thickness, type of buffer underlayer, and deposition substrate temperature on the crystal structure, microstructure, and morphology of the films of dicyanovinyl-substituted sexithiophene with four butyl-chains (DCV6T-Bu{sub 4}) is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectivity methods. A neat Si wafer or a Si wafer covered by a 15 nm buffer underlayer of fullerene C{sub 60} or 9,9-Bis[4-(N,N-bis-biphenyl-4-yl-amino)phenyl]-9H-fluorene (BPAPF) is used as a substrate. The crystalline nature and ordered molecular arrangement of the films are recorded down to 6 nm film thickness. By using substrates heated up to 90 Degree-Sign C during the film deposition, the size of the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} crystallites in direction perpendicular to the film surface increases up to value of the film thickness. With increasing deposition substrate temperature or film thickness, the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} film relaxes, resulting in reducing the interplane distances closer to the bulk values. For the films of the same thickness deposited at the same substrate temperature, the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} film relaxes for growth on Si to BPAPF to C{sub 60}. Thicker films grown at heated substrates are characterized by smaller density, higher roughness and crystallinity and better molecular ordering. A thin (up to about 6 nm-thick) intermediate layer with linear density-gradient is formed at the C{sub 60}/DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} interface for the films with buffer C{sub 60} layer. The XRD pattern of the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} powder is indexed using triclinic unit cell parameters.

  18. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on three-dimensional shape substrate model by liquid electrochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.Y.; Zhang, G.F.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, D.D.; Cong, Y.; Buck, V.

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) shape substrate model by electrolysis of 2-propanol solution at low temperature (60 °C). This 3D shape model was composed of a horizontally aligned stainless steel wafer and vertically aligned stainless steel rods. Morphology and microstructure of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results suggested there were only differences in film uniformity and thickness for two kinds of samples. The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films deposited on horizontally aligned substrate were smooth and homogeneous. And the film thickness of DLC films gained on the vertical substrates decreased along vertical direction. It is believed that bubble formation could enhance nucleation on the wetted capillary area. This experiment shows that deposition of DLC films by liquid phase deposition on 3D shape conductive substrates is possible. - Highlights: • DLC film is expected to be deposited on complex surface/shape substrate. • DLC film is deposited on 3D shape substrate by liquid electrochemical method. • Horizontal substrate is covered by smooth and homogeneous DLC films. • Film thickness decreases along vertical direction due to boiling effect

  19. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on three-dimensional shape substrate model by liquid electrochemical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.Y. [Institute of Nano-photonics, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, 116600 Dalian (China); Zhang, G.F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024, Dalian China (China); Zhao, Y.; Liu, D.D. [Institute of Nano-photonics, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, 116600 Dalian (China); Cong, Y., E-mail: congyan@ciomp.ac.cn [Institute of Nano-photonics, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, 116600 Dalian (China); Buck, V. [Thin Film Technology Group, Faculty of Physics, University Duisburg-Essen and CeNIDE, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) shape substrate model by electrolysis of 2-propanol solution at low temperature (60 °C). This 3D shape model was composed of a horizontally aligned stainless steel wafer and vertically aligned stainless steel rods. Morphology and microstructure of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results suggested there were only differences in film uniformity and thickness for two kinds of samples. The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films deposited on horizontally aligned substrate were smooth and homogeneous. And the film thickness of DLC films gained on the vertical substrates decreased along vertical direction. It is believed that bubble formation could enhance nucleation on the wetted capillary area. This experiment shows that deposition of DLC films by liquid phase deposition on 3D shape conductive substrates is possible. - Highlights: • DLC film is expected to be deposited on complex surface/shape substrate. • DLC film is deposited on 3D shape substrate by liquid electrochemical method. • Horizontal substrate is covered by smooth and homogeneous DLC films. • Film thickness decreases along vertical direction due to boiling effect.

  20. Modification of Bi:YIG film properties by substrate surface ion pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Mikhailova, T.V.; Kotov, V.A.; Balabanov, D.E.; Sharay, I.V.; Salyuk, O.Y.; Vasiliev, M.; Golub, V.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of substrates ion beam treatment on magnetoptical properties Bi:YIG films. • Substrate surface damage results in sign inversion of the magneto-optical effects. • Atomically smooth films growth takes place on low energy ions treated substrates. • High energy ions treatment results in selective nucleation mechanism of the growth. - Abstract: The effect of a controlled ion beam pre-treatment of (1 1 1)-oriented Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 substrates on the magneto-optical properties and surface morphology of the ultrathin bismuth-substituted yttrium–iron garnet films with a composition Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 was studied. It has been shown that the observed sign inversion of magneto-optical effects (Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism) observed in films that were deposited on the GGG substrate pre-treated by 1 keV and 4 keV Ar + ion beams is a result of the substrate surface amorphization caused by the ion bombardment

  1. Influence of maglev force relaxation on the forces of bulk HTSC subjected to different lateral displacements above the NdFeB guideway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yujie; Hou Xiaojing

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The relaxation properties of maglev forces have been investigated simultaneously. → Influence of relaxation on forces of HTSC subjected to different LDs above PMG is different. → The influence is explained based on motion of flux lines, re/demagnetization of HTSC during LD. → The work provide a scientific analysis for the practical application of the bulk HTSC. - Abstract: This paper studied the influence of maglev force relaxation on the force (both levitation and guidance forces) of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) subjected to different lateral displacements above a NdFeB guideway. Firstly, the maglev forces relaxation property of bulk HTSC above the permanent-magnet guideway (PMG) was studied experimentally, then the levitation and guidance forces were measured by SCML-2 measurement system synchronously at different lateral displacements, some times later(after relaxation), the forces were measured again as the same way. Compared to the two measured results, it was found that the change of the levitation force was larger compared to the case without relaxation, while the change of the guidance force was smaller. In addition, the rate of change of levitation force and guidance force was different for different maximum lateral displacements. This work provided a scientific analysis for the practical application of the bulk HTS.

  2. Influence of maglev force relaxation on the forces of bulk HTSC subjected to different lateral displacements above the NdFeB guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Yujie, E-mail: qyjswjtu@vip.sohu.co [Department of Computer and Information Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471023 (China); Hou Xiaojing [Department of Computer and Information Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471023 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The relaxation properties of maglev forces have been investigated simultaneously. {yields} Influence of relaxation on forces of HTSC subjected to different LDs above PMG is different. {yields} The influence is explained based on motion of flux lines, re/demagnetization of HTSC during LD. {yields} The work provide a scientific analysis for the practical application of the bulk HTSC. - Abstract: This paper studied the influence of maglev force relaxation on the force (both levitation and guidance forces) of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) subjected to different lateral displacements above a NdFeB guideway. Firstly, the maglev forces relaxation property of bulk HTSC above the permanent-magnet guideway (PMG) was studied experimentally, then the levitation and guidance forces were measured by SCML-2 measurement system synchronously at different lateral displacements, some times later(after relaxation), the forces were measured again as the same way. Compared to the two measured results, it was found that the change of the levitation force was larger compared to the case without relaxation, while the change of the guidance force was smaller. In addition, the rate of change of levitation force and guidance force was different for different maximum lateral displacements. This work provided a scientific analysis for the practical application of the bulk HTS.

  3. Preparation of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films on Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Tsuyoshi; Akiyama, Masahiko; Ueda, Tomomasa; Onozuka, Yutaka; Hara, Yujiro; Suzuki, Kouji

    2000-09-01

    Lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films were prepared on non-alkaline glass substrates widely used in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices, by plasma-assisted magnetron RF sputtering with an immersed coil. After preparation of the PZT thin film, the glass was available for use in LCD device processing. No mutual diffusion of the elements was recognized between the glass substrate and the bottom electrode. The PZT layer had a dense film structure with rectangular and columnar grains, and only its perovskite phase was crystalline. PZT thin films on a glass substrate had leakage current densities of about 10-8 A/cm2, acceptable hysteresis loop shapes with the remanent polarization (Pr) of 45 μC/cm2 and the coercive field (Ec) of 90 kV/cm. Ferroelectric properties on a glass substrate almost conform with those on a Si-based substrate.

  4. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeffrey M; Martin, Heidi B

    2014-02-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp 2 carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes.

  5. Deposition of indium tin oxide films on acrylic substrates by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, B.S.; Hsieh, S.T.; Wu, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto acrylic substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. Low substrate temperature (< 80 C) and low rf power (< 28 W) were maintained during sputtering to prevent acrylic substrate deformation. The influence of sputtering parameters, such as rf power, target-to-substrate distance, and chamber pressure, on the film deposition rate, the electrical properties, as well as the optical properties of the deposited films was investigated. Both the refractive index and the extinction coefficient were derived. The high reflection at wavelengths greater than 3 μm made these sputtered ITO films applicable to infrared mirrors

  6. Fabrication of AlN thin films on different substrates at ambient temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, W X; Wu, P H; Yang, S Z; Ji, Z M

    2002-01-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is very useful as a barrier in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) device or as an insulating layer in many other applications. At ambient temperature, we deposit AlN thin films onto different substrates (such as MgO, LaAlO sub 3 and Si) by using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and pure Al target. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and PHI-scan patterns show that the films grown on MgO substrates are excellent epitaxial films with (101) orientation of a hexagonal lattice. A possible structure of the interface between the film and the substrate is suggested and discussed.

  7. Analyses of edge effects on residual stresses in film strip/substrate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway

    2000-01-01

    The residual stress distribution in a thin-film strip overlaid on a substrate is influenced by the edges of the strip. An analytical model is developed to derive a closed-form solution for the stress distribution along the film width. Because the film is much thinner than the substrate, the stress variation through the film thickness is ignored; however, the stress variation through the substrate thickness is considered in the analysis. Compared to the existing analytical models, the present model is more rigorous and the analytical results agree better with both finite element results and experimental measurements. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  8. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite thin films on polyetheretherketone substrates using a sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, K., E-mail: kazuhide.ozeki.365@vc.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Masuzawa, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Aoki, H. [International Apatite Institute Co., Ltd., 2-12-9, Misaki-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0061 (Japan)

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films were coated on a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate using a sputtering technique. A thin titanium (Ti) intermediate layer was formed between the HA and the PEEK surface to improve adhesion of the HA film to the PEEK substrate. The coated films were recrystallized using a hydrothermal treatment to reduce the dissolution of the HA film. The films were then characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A pull-out test was performed to measure the film-to-substrate adhesion strength, and an immersion test was performed in ultra-pure water. In the XRD patterns of the sputtered film with the Ti intermediate layer on the PEEK substrate, small HA peaks and large Ti peaks were observed. After the hydrothermal treatment, the intensity of the HA peaks increased. The transmittance of the HA films with 5 and 10 nm Ti intermediate layers was > 79% and 68%, respectively, in the visible light wavelength region (400–700 nm) after the hydrothermal treatment. The adhesion strength of the hydrothermally treated HA films increased with decreasing thickness of the Ti intermediate layer, and the strength reached 2.7 MPa with the 5-nm-thick Ti intermediate layer. In the immersion test, the HA film with a 5-nm-thick Ti intermediate layer without hydrothermal treatment exhibited a released Ti concentration of 42.0 ± 2.4 ppb. After hydrothermal treatment, the released Ti concentration decreased to 17.3 ± 1.1 ppb. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films were coated on a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate using a sputtering technique. • A thin Ti intermediate layer was formed between the HA and the PEEK surface to improve adhesion of the HA film. • The adhesion strength of the HA films with the Ti intermediate layer increased with decreasing thickness of the Ti layer.

  9. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite thin films on polyetheretherketone substrates using a sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, K.; Masuzawa, T.; Aoki, H.

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films were coated on a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate using a sputtering technique. A thin titanium (Ti) intermediate layer was formed between the HA and the PEEK surface to improve adhesion of the HA film to the PEEK substrate. The coated films were recrystallized using a hydrothermal treatment to reduce the dissolution of the HA film. The films were then characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A pull-out test was performed to measure the film-to-substrate adhesion strength, and an immersion test was performed in ultra-pure water. In the XRD patterns of the sputtered film with the Ti intermediate layer on the PEEK substrate, small HA peaks and large Ti peaks were observed. After the hydrothermal treatment, the intensity of the HA peaks increased. The transmittance of the HA films with 5 and 10 nm Ti intermediate layers was > 79% and 68%, respectively, in the visible light wavelength region (400–700 nm) after the hydrothermal treatment. The adhesion strength of the hydrothermally treated HA films increased with decreasing thickness of the Ti intermediate layer, and the strength reached 2.7 MPa with the 5-nm-thick Ti intermediate layer. In the immersion test, the HA film with a 5-nm-thick Ti intermediate layer without hydrothermal treatment exhibited a released Ti concentration of 42.0 ± 2.4 ppb. After hydrothermal treatment, the released Ti concentration decreased to 17.3 ± 1.1 ppb. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films were coated on a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate using a sputtering technique. • A thin Ti intermediate layer was formed between the HA and the PEEK surface to improve adhesion of the HA film. • The adhesion strength of the HA films with the Ti intermediate layer increased with decreasing thickness of the Ti layer.

  10. Synthesis of LSM films deposited by dip-coating on YSZ substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Leandro da; Souza, Mariana M.V.M.; Ribeiro, Nielson F.P.

    2010-01-01

    The dip-coating process was used to deposit films of La 0.7 Sr 0. 3MnO 3 (LSM) used as cathode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In this study we evaluated the relationship between the deposition parameters such as speed of withdrawal and number of deposited layers of LSM film on a substrate of 8% YSZ commercial, and structural properties, such as thickness and formation of cracks. The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With parameters set the film had good adhesion to the substrate with a thickness around 10 μm, showing possible adherence problems when more than one layer is deposited on the substrate. (author)

  11. Optical properties of thin Cu films as a function of substrate temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Savaloni, H

    2003-01-01

    Copper films (250 nm) deposited on glass substrates, at different substrate temperatures. Their optical properties were measured by ellipsometry (single wavelength of 589.3 nm) and spectrophotometry in the spectral range of 200-2600 nm. Kramers Kronig method was used for the analysis of the reflectivity curves of Cu films to obtain the optical constants of the films, while ellipsometry measurement was carried out as an independent method. The influence of substrate temperature on the microstructure of thin metallic films [Structure Zone Model ] is well established. The Effective Medium Approximation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the Structure Zone Model and Effective Medium Approximation predictions. Good agreements between Structure Zone Model as a function of substrate temperature and the values of volume fraction of voids obtained from Effective Medium Temperature analysis, are obtained; by increasing the substrate temperature the separation of the metallic grains decrease hence t...

  12. Adherence of diamond films on refractory metal substrates for thermionic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, B.H.; Ramalingam, M.L.; Adams, S.F.; Cloyd, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond films are currently being considered as electrical insulation material for application in the thermionic fuel element of a power producing nuclear reactor system. The function of the diamond insulator in this application is to electrically isolate the collector of each cell in the TFE from the coolant and outer sheath. Deposition of diamond films on plane surfaces of Si/SiO 2 have already been demonstrated to be quite effective. However, the diamond films on refractory metal surfaces tend to spall off in the process of deposition revealing an inefficient adherence characteristic between the film and the substrate. This paper is geared towards explaining this deficiency by way of selected experimentation and the use of analytical tools to predict uncertainties such as the mismatch in coefficient of expansion, micrographic study of the interface between the film and the substrate and X-ray diffraction spectra. The investigation of the adherence characteristics of several diamond films on Mo and Nb substrates revealed that there was an allowable stress that resulted in the formation of the critical thickness for the diamond film

  13. Substrate considerations for graphene synthesis on thin copper films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howsare, Casey A; Robinson, Joshua A; Weng Xiaojun; Bojan, Vince; Snyder, David

    2012-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition on copper substrates is a primary technique for synthesis of high quality graphene films over large areas. While well-developed processes are in place for catalytic growth of graphene on bulk copper substrates, chemical vapor deposition of graphene on thin films could provide a means for simplified device processing through the elimination of the layer transfer process. Recently, it was demonstrated that transfer-free growth and processing is possible on SiO 2 . However, the Cu/SiO 2 /Si material system must be stable at high temperatures for high quality transfer-free graphene. This study identifies the presence of interdiffusion at the Cu/SiO 2 interface and investigates the influence of metal (Ni, Cr, W) and insulating (Si 3 N 4 , Al 2 O 3 , HfO 2 ) diffusion barrier layers on Cu–SiO 2 interdiffusion, as well as graphene structural quality. Regardless of barrier choice, we find the presence of Cu diffusion into the silicon substrate as well as the presence of Cu–Si–O domains on the surface of the copper film. As a result, we investigate the choice of a sapphire substrate and present evidence that it is a robust substrate for synthesis and processing of high quality, transfer-free graphene. (paper)

  14. Molecular tailoring of interfaces for thin film on substrate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Martha Elizabeth

    Thin film on substrate systems appear most prevalently within the microelectronics industry, which demands that devices operate in smaller and smaller packages with greater reliability. The reliability of these multilayer film systems is strongly influenced by the adhesion of each of the bimaterial interfaces. During use, microelectronic components undergo thermo-mechanical cycling, which induces interfacial delaminations leading to failure of the overall device. The ability to tailor interfacial properties at the molecular level provides a mechanism to improve thin film adhesion, reliability and performance. This dissertation presents the investigation of molecular level control of interface properties in three thin film-substrate systems: photodefinable polyimide films on passivated silicon substrates, self-assembled monolayers at the interface of Au films and dielectric substrates, and mechanochemically active materials on rigid substrates. For all three materials systems, the effect of interfacial modifications on adhesion is assessed using a laser-spallation technique. Laser-induced stress waves are chosen because they dynamically load the thin film interface in a precise, noncontacting manner at high strain rates and are suitable for both weak and strong interfaces. Photodefinable polyimide films are used as dielectrics in flip chip integrated circuit packages to reduce the stress between silicon passivation layers and mold compound. The influence of processing parameters on adhesion is examined for photodefinable polyimide films on silicon (Si) substrates with three different passivation layers: silicon nitride (SiNx), silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy), and the native silicon oxide (SiO2). Interfacial strength increases when films are processed with an exposure step as well as a longer cure cycle. Additionally, the interfacial fracture energy is assessed using a dynamic delamination protocol. The high toughness of this interface (ca. 100 J/m2) makes it difficult

  15. Substrate effects on the characteristics of (In2O3)1-x (ZnO)x films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. M.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, H. M.; Kim, J. H.; Ryu, S. W.; Park, S. H.; Ahn, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    The electrical and the optical properties of (In 2 O 3 ) 1-x (ZnO) x (IZO) films deposited by the rf magnetron sputtering on plastic substrates, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly carbonate (PC), were investigated. The results are compared with those of IZO films deposited on a conventional coring glass (CG) substrate. The average transmittance of the IZO films deposited on plastic substrates is over 80 %, irrespective of the substrate, which is comparable to that of IZO films deposited on CG substrates. IZO films deposited on PC or PET substrates show larger resistivities than those deposited on CG substrates. This may be attributed to the fact that compositions, such as H 2 O or the organic solvent contained in the plastic substrates, are adsorbed into the IZO layer during sputtering. The surface resistance of the IZO films is nearly independent of the substrate and decreases with increasing deposition time. Compared to the IZO films deposited on PET substrates without hard coatings, those deposited on PET substrates with hard coatings show superior electrical stability for thermal environments.

  16. Epitaxial Growth of Permalloy Thin Films on MgO Single-Crystal Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Permalloy (Py: Ni - 20 at. % Fe) thin films were prepared on MgO single-crystal substrates of (100), (110), and (111) orientations by molecular beam epitaxy. Py crystals consisting of fcc(100) and hcp(112-bar 0) orientations epitaxially nucleate on MgO(100) substrates. With increasing the substrate temperature, the volume ratio of fcc(100) to hcp(112-bar 0) crystal increases. The metastable hcp(112-bar 0) structure transforms into more stable fcc(110) structure with increasing the film thickness. Py(110) fcc single-crystal films are obtained on MgO(110) substrates, whereas Py films epitaxially grow on MgO(111) substrates with two types of fcc(111) variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of these fcc-Py films agree within ±0.4% with the values of bulk fcc-Py crystal, suggesting that the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the films around the Py/MgO(100) and the Py/MgO(110) interfaces to reduce the lattice mismatches. The magnetic properties are considered to be reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropies of bulk fcc-Py and/or metastable hcp-Py crystals and the shape anisotropy caused by the surface undulations.

  17. Epitaxial Growth of Permalloy Thin Films on MgO Single-Crystal Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2011-07-06

    Permalloy (Py: Ni - 20 at. % Fe) thin films were prepared on MgO single-crystal substrates of (100), (110), and (111) orientations by molecular beam epitaxy. Py crystals consisting of fcc(100) and hcp(112-bar 0) orientations epitaxially nucleate on MgO(100) substrates. With increasing the substrate temperature, the volume ratio of fcc(100) to hcp(112-bar 0) crystal increases. The metastable hcp(112-bar 0) structure transforms into more stable fcc(110) structure with increasing the film thickness. Py(110){sub fcc} single-crystal films are obtained on MgO(110) substrates, whereas Py films epitaxially grow on MgO(111) substrates with two types of fcc(111) variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of these fcc-Py films agree within {+-}0.4% with the values of bulk fcc-Py crystal, suggesting that the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the films around the Py/MgO(100) and the Py/MgO(110) interfaces to reduce the lattice mismatches. The magnetic properties are considered to be reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropies of bulk fcc-Py and/or metastable hcp-Py crystals and the shape anisotropy caused by the surface undulations.

  18. Lanthanum gallate substrates for epitaxial high-temperature superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, R. L.; Giess, E. A.; Gallagher, W. J.; Segmuller, A.; Cooper, E. I.

    1988-11-01

    It is demonstrated that lanthanum gallate (LaGaO3) has considerable potential as an electronic substrate material for high-temperature superconducting films. It provides a good lattice and thermal expansion match to YBa2Cu3O(7-x), can be grown in large crystal sizes, is compatible with high-temperature film processing, and has a reasonably low dielectric constant and low dielectric losses. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films grown on LaGaO3 single-crystal substrates by three techniques have zero resistance between 87 and 91 K.

  19. Modification of Bi:YIG film properties by substrate surface ion pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Mikhailova, T.V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Avenue, 4, Simferopol, 95007 (Ukraine); Kotov, V.A. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, RAS, 11 Mohovaya Street, Moscow, 125009 (Russian Federation); Balabanov, D.E. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, 141700 (Russian Federation); Sharay, I.V.; Salyuk, O.Y. [Institute of Magnetism, NAS of Ukraine, 03142, Kiev (Ukraine); Vasiliev, M. [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup 6027 (Australia); Golub, V.O., E-mail: v_o_golub@yahoo.com [Institute of Magnetism, NAS of Ukraine, 03142, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Effects of substrates ion beam treatment on magnetoptical properties Bi:YIG films. • Substrate surface damage results in sign inversion of the magneto-optical effects. • Atomically smooth films growth takes place on low energy ions treated substrates. • High energy ions treatment results in selective nucleation mechanism of the growth. - Abstract: The effect of a controlled ion beam pre-treatment of (1 1 1)-oriented Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} substrates on the magneto-optical properties and surface morphology of the ultrathin bismuth-substituted yttrium–iron garnet films with a composition Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was studied. It has been shown that the observed sign inversion of magneto-optical effects (Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism) observed in films that were deposited on the GGG substrate pre-treated by 1 keV and 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion beams is a result of the substrate surface amorphization caused by the ion bombardment.

  20. Interplane redistribution of oxygen in fine-grained HTSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, E.F. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Mamsurova, L.G. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: mamsurova@chph.ras.ru; Permyakov, Yu.V. [National Institute for Physical, Radio and Technical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Mendeleevo, Moscow Region 141570 (Russian Federation); Pigalskiy, K.S. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Vishnev, A.A. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2004-10-01

    Moessbauer spectra (T = 78 and 293 K) and X-ray (T = 293 K) studies of fine-grained high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2.985}{sup 57}Fe{sub 0.015}O{sub y} (y = 6.92-6.93, T{sub c} = 91-91.5 K) with the average grain sizes equal to 0.4, 1, and 2 {mu}m are carried out. The redistribution in the intensities of Moessbauer spectra components with the decrease in the average grain size is found. The latter evidences the oxygen content to increase in (CuO{sub {delta}}) basal planes at the expense of its decrease in (CuO{sub 2}) and (BaO) planes. The redistribution of the oxygen between the different planes of the unit cell is accompanied by the decrease in the lattice parameter c. These effects are caused likely by nonequilibrium conditions which are commonly used in preparation of fine-grained HTSC. The assumption about the existence of partial disorder between Y{sup 3+} and Ba{sup 2+} sites in the samples explains the observed changes in the values of {delta} and c parameters. An efficiency of Moessbauer spectra studies for the compounds of YBaCuO type in the case of the enhanced oxygen parameter {delta} and the possibility of its quantitative estimation from the analysis of the intensities of Moessbauer spectrum components is demonstrated.

  1. Realistic reflectance spectrum of thin films covering a transparent optically thick substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, M., E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “Ennio De Giorgi,” University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    A spectrophotometric strategy is presented and discussed for calculating realistically the reflectance spectrum of an absorbing film deposited over a thick transparent or semi-transparent substrate. The developed route exploits simple mathematics, has wide range of applicability (high-to-weak absorption regions and thick-to-ultrathin films), rules out numerical and curve-fitting procedures as well as model-functions, inherently accounts for the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface as well as substrate backside, and describes the film reflectance spectrum as determined by the experimental situation (deposition approach and parameters). The reliability of the method is tested on films of a well-known material (indium tin oxide) by deliberately changing film thickness and structural quality through doping. Results are found consistent with usual information yielded by reflectance, its inherent relationship with scattering processes and contributions to the measured total reflectance.

  2. Physical properties of lanthanum monosulfide thin films grown on (100) silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahay, M.; Garre, K.; Wu, X.; Poitras, D.; Lockwood, D. J.; Fairchild, S.

    2006-06-01

    Thin films of lanthanum monosulfide (LaS) have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The films are golden yellow in appearance with a mirrorlike surface morphology and a sheet resistance around 0.1 Ω/□, as measured using a four-probe measurement technique. The thin films are characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The root-mean-square variation of (1 μm thick) film surface roughness measured over a 1 μm2 area by AFM was found to be 1.74 nm. XRD analysis of fairly thick films (micrometer size) reveals the growth of the cubic rocksalt structure with a lattice constant of 5.863(7) A˚, which is close to the bulk LaS value. HRTEM images reveal that the films are comprised of nanocrystals separated by regions of amorphous material. Two beam bright field TEM images show that there is a strain contrast in the Si substrate right under the interface with the LaS film and penetrating into the Si substrate. This suggests that there is an initial epitaxial-like growth of the LaS film on the Si substrate that introduces a strain as a result of the 8% lattice mismatch between the film and substrate. Ellipsometry measurements of the LaS films are well characterized by a Drude-Lorentz model from which an electron concentration of about 2.52×1022 cm-3 and a mobility around 8.5 cm2/V s are derived. Typical crystalline LaS features were evident in Raman spectra of the films, but the spectra also revealed their disordered (polycrystalline) nature.

  3. Morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition: The role of substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simurda, M.; Nemec, P.; Formanek, P.; Nemec, I.; Nemcova, Y.; Maly, P.

    2006-01-01

    We combine optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study the growth and the structural morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on two considerably different substrates. The films grown on glass are compact and strongly adherent to the substrate. On the contrary, the films deposited on carbon-coated glass (with approx. 20 nm thick amorphous carbon layer) are only loosely adherent to the substrate. Using transmission electron microscopy we revealed that even though the films grown on both substrates are assembled from closely spaced nanocrystals with diameter of about 5 nm, the films morphology on the sub-micrometer scale is considerably different in the two cases. While the films deposited on glass are rather compact, the films prepared on carbon layer have high porosity and are formed by interconnected spheres which size is dependent on the duration of deposition (e.g. 155 nm for 6 h and 350 nm for 24 h). This shows that the choice of the substrate for CBD has a stronger influence on the sub-micrometer film morphology than on the properties of individual nanocrystals forming the film

  4. Pulsed laser deposition of transparent conductive oxide thin films on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socol, G.; Socol, M.; Stefan, N.; Axente, E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Craciun, D.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, C.N.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Stanculescu, A.; Visan, D.; Sava, V.; Galca, A.C.; Luculescu, C.R.; Craciun, V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCO thin films were grown by PLD on PET substrate at low temperature. ► We found that the quality of TCO on PET substrate depends on the target–substrate distance. ► TCO with high transparency (>95%) and reduced electrical resistivity (∼5 × 10 −4 Ω cm) were obtained. ► Optimized TCO films deposited on PET were free of any cracks. - Abstract: The influence of target–substrate distance during pulsed laser deposition of indium zinc oxide (IZO), indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates was investigated. It was found that the properties of such flexible transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/PET electrodes critically depend on this parameter. The TCO films that were deposited at distances of 6 and 8 cm exhibited an optical transmittance higher than 90% in the visible range and electrical resistivities around 5 × 10 −4 Ω cm. In addition to these excellent electrical and optical characteristics the films grown at 8 cm distance were homogenous, smooth, adherent, and without cracks or any other extended defects, being suitable for opto-electronic device applications.

  5. Buckling of a stiff thin film on an elastic graded compliant substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhou; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou

    2017-12-01

    The buckling of a stiff film on a compliant substrate has attracted much attention due to its wide applications such as thin-film metrology, surface patterning and stretchable electronics. An analytical model is established for the buckling of a stiff thin film on a semi-infinite elastic graded compliant substrate subjected to in-plane compression. The critical compressive strain and buckling wavelength for the sinusoidal mode are obtained analytically for the case with the substrate modulus decaying exponentially. The rigorous finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to validate the analytical model and investigate the postbuckling behaviour of the system. The critical buckling strain for the period-doubling mode is obtained numerically. The influences of various material parameters on the results are investigated. These results are helpful to provide physical insights on the buckling of elastic graded substrate-supported thin film.

  6. Heat explosion approach to radiofrequency heating of a conductor film on silicon substrate: Application for silicide film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelleg, J.; Rosenberg, S.; Sinder, M.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative analysis of the kinetics of phase formation in a conductor film/Si substrate system by radiofrequency (RF) heating is presented. The analysis is done by using the mathematical approach of the heat explosion theory. It is shown that the system can experience heating at constant temperature or a sudden temperature increase, i.e. heat explosion. The relation between the parameters of the system in the heat explosion regime is presented in a simple analytical form. It was found that measurable quantities, such as film thickness, sheet resistance, specimen dimensions and applied magnetic field, determine whether the process occurs in the constant heating or heat explosion stages. The model was tested for the Ta-Ti-Si system by considering some of the mentioned measurable quantities which were obtained by RF induction heating of Ta-Ti film on Si(1 1 1) and Si(1 0 0) substrates. The agreement of theory with experiment is reasonable. Concentration of Ta in the conductor film, film thickness and the orientation of the Si substrate might influence the reaction rate. On Si(1 1 1) substrates the reaction goes to completion, whereas on Si(1 0 0) intermediate phases remain. This observation was explained in terms of an interface reaction-controlled process of Si atoms transferring from the substrate to the film.

  7. Effects of substrate temperature, substrate orientation, and energetic atomic collisions on the structure of GaN films grown by reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiaber, Ziani S.; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo N.; Silva, José H. D. da [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Bauru, São Paulo 17033-360 (Brazil); Leite, Douglas M. G. [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, UNIFEI, Itajubá, Minas Gerais 37500-903 (Brazil); Bortoleto, José R. R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Sorocaba, São Paulo 18087-180 (Brazil)

    2013-11-14

    The combined effects of substrate temperature, substrate orientation, and energetic particle impingement on the structure of GaN films grown by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering are investigated. Monte-Carlo based simulations are employed to analyze the energies of the species generated in the plasma and colliding with the growing surface. Polycrystalline films grown at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000 °C clearly showed a dependence of orientation texture and surface morphology on substrate orientation (c- and a-plane sapphire) in which the (0001) GaN planes were parallel to the substrate surface. A large increase in interplanar spacing associated with the increase in both a- and c-parameters of the hexagonal lattice and a redshift of the optical bandgap were observed at substrate temperatures higher than 600 °C. The results showed that the tensile stresses produced during the film's growth in high-temperature deposition ranges were much larger than the expected compressive stresses caused by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the film and substrate in the cool-down process after the film growth. The best films were deposited at 500 °C, 30 W and 600 °C, 45 W, which corresponds to conditions where the out diffusion from the film is low. Under these conditions the benefits of the temperature increase because of the decrease in defect density are greater than the problems caused by the strongly strained lattice that occurr at higher temperatures. The results are useful to the analysis of the growth conditions of GaN films by reactive sputtering.

  8. Lateral overgrowth of diamond film on stripes patterned Ir/HPHT-diamond substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhangcheng; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shaopeng; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Tianfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2018-05-01

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of diamond films on patterned Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates have been carried out by microwave plasma CVD system. Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates are fabricated by photolithographic and magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology of the as grown ELO diamond film is characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The quality and stress of the ELO diamond film are investigated by surface etching pit density and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two ultraviolet photodetectors are fabricated on ELO diamond area and non-ELO diamond area prepared on same substrate, and that one on ELO diamond area indicates better photoelectric properties. All results indicate quality of ELO diamond film is improved.

  9. Lanthanum gallate substrates for epitaxial high-temperature superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, R.L.; Giess, E.A.; Gallagher, W.J.; Segmueller, A.; Cooper, E.I.; Chisholm, M.F.; Gupta, A.; Shinde, S.; Laibowitz, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    We demonstrate that lanthanum gallate (LaGaO 3 ) has considerable potential as an electronic substrate material for high-temperature superconducting films. It provides a good lattice and thermal expansion match to YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub x/, can be grown in large crystal sizes, is compatible with high-temperature film processing, and has a reasonably low dielectric constant (ε≅25) and low dielectric losses. Epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub x/ films grown on LaGaO 3 single-crystal substrates by three techniques have zero resistance between 87 and 91 K

  10. Fracture characterization of inhomogeneous wrinkled metallic films deposited on soft substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Nagakura, Takumi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yonezu, Akio

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the fracture properties of wrinkled metallic films on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft substrate. In particular, the crack density of the wrinkled film during tensile deformation was examined. In order to achieve better deformability of metallic thin films, a method to fabricate a wrinkled thin film on a PDMS soft substrate was first established. The copper (Cu) nano-film fabricated in this study possessed a wrinkled geometry, which plays a critical role in determining the extent of large elastic deformation. To create the wrinkled structure, wet-etching with a polymeric sacrificial layer was used. A sacrificial layer was first deposited onto a silicone rubber sheet. During the curing process of the layer, a compressive strain was applied such that the hardened surface layer buckled, and a wrinkled form was obtained. Subsequently, a PDMS solution was used to cover the layer in order to form a wrinkled PDMS substrate. Finally, the Cu film was deposited onto the wrinkled PDMS, such that the wrinkled Cu film on a soft PDMS substrate was fabricated. The use of uni-axial tensile tests resulted in film crack generation at the stress concentration zone in the wrinkled structure of the films. When the tensile loading was increased, the number of cracks increased. It was found that the increase in crack density was strongly related to the inhomogeneous nature of the wrinkled structure. Such a trend in crack density was investigated using FEM (finite element method) computations, such that this study established a simple mechanical model that may be used to predict the increase in crack density during tensile deformation. This model was verified through several experiments using various wrinkle patterns. The proposed mechanical model may be useful to predict the crack density of a wrinkled metallic film subject to tensile loading.

  11. Substrate dependent morphologies of self-assembled nanocrystalline manganite films: An atomic force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, S.N.; Mona, J.; Ganesan, V.; Choudhary, R.J.; Phase, D.M.

    2009-06-01

    Thin films of La 0 .7Sr 0 .3MnO 3 (LSMO) have been deposited on different substrates: Si (001), Al 2 O 3 (AlO) (0001) and LaAlO 3 (LAO) (001), using a pulsed laser deposition system. 100 nm films have been deposited at substrate temperature of 700 deg C and oxygen partial pressure of 400 mTorr. X-Ray diffraction analysis shows a polycrystalline growth of both layers on Si and Al 2 O 3 substrates, while a c-axis oriented growth on LAO substrate. Atomic force microscopy images exhibit interesting island-like morphology of grain size ∼ 250 nm on Si substrate. Similar morphology with much smaller (∼ 150 nm), closely packed islands are seen to grow on AlO substrate. Films on LAO show comparatively a smooth morphology with the grains size less than 100 nm, decorated by characteristic depressions at the grain boundaries. The formation of self-assembled nanostructures can be understood on the basis of film-substrate lattice misfit, strains in the systems and eventual growth of the films to attain energy minimization (author)

  12. Direct growth of nanocrystalline hexagonal boron nitride films on dielectric substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Roland Yingjie [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories@NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tsang, Siu Hon [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Loeblein, Manuela; Chow, Wai Leong [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CNRS-International NTU Thales Research Alliance CINTRA UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Loh, Guan Chee [Institue of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Toh, Joo Wah; Ang, Soon Loong [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Teo, Edwin Hang Tong, E-mail: htteo@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-03-09

    Atomically thin hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) films are primarily synthesized through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on various catalytic transition metal substrates. In this work, a single-step metal-catalyst-free approach to obtain few- to multi-layer nanocrystalline h-BN (NCBN) directly on amorphous SiO{sub 2}/Si and quartz substrates is demonstrated. The as-grown thin films are continuous and smooth with no observable pinholes or wrinkles across the entire deposited substrate as inspected using optical and atomic force microscopy. The starting layers of NCBN orient itself parallel to the substrate, initiating the growth of the textured thin film. Formation of NCBN is due to the random and uncontrolled nucleation of h-BN on the dielectric substrate surface with no epitaxial relation, unlike on metal surfaces. The crystallite size is ∼25 nm as determined by Raman spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the NCBN formed sheets of multi-stacked layers with controllable thickness from ∼2 to 25 nm. The absence of transfer process in this technique avoids any additional degradation, such as wrinkles, tears or folding and residues on the film which are detrimental to device performance. This work provides a wider perspective of CVD-grown h-BN and presents a viable route towards large-scale manufacturing of h-BN substrates and for coating applications.

  13. Investigation of carbon nanotube-containing film on silicon substrates and its tribological behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhiyong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cheng, Xianhua, E-mail: xhcheng@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • CNT-containing film was self-assembled on silicon substrates. • CNTs are strongly bonded with the substrates by chemical combination between La and oxygen-containing functional groups. • CNT-containing film has excellent friction reduction, load-carrying capacity and anti-wear ability. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with Lanthanum (La) modifier and appropriate acid-treatment methods. CNT-containing film was deposited on silicon substrates via a self-assembly process. The formation and microstructure of La treated CNTs and CNT-containing film were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and water contact angle (WCA). Its tribological properties were evaluated with a UMT-2MT reciprocating friction tester. The results show that CNTs were adsorbed on silicon substrates by means of chemically bonding between La and oxygen-containing functional groups. The friction coefficient of the silicon substrates is reduced from 0.87 to 0.12 after the deposition of CNT-containing film on its surface. CNT-containing film shows excellent antiwear, friction reducing ability and load-carrying capacity due to excellent mechanical and self-lubrication properties of CNTs.

  14. Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordill, M J; Marx, V M; Kirchlechner, C

    2014-11-28

    Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems.

  15. Method to reduce levitation force decay of the bulk HTSC above the NdFeB guideway due to lateral movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, G T; Lin, Q X; Wang, J S; Wang, S Y; Deng, Z G; Lu, Y Y; Liu, M X; Zheng, J [Applied Superconductivity Lab, Mail Stop 152 Southwestern Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn

    2008-06-15

    A magnetic levitation vehicle using bulk high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTSC) is considered as a promising transportation type thanks to its lateral inherent stability, but previous studies have found that the levitation force (LF) decays due to lateral movement. In this paper, a pre-load method is presented to reduce the LF decay, and the experimental results indicate that this method is very applicable in supressing this decay in spite of the applied field and material property of the bulk HTSC, and this effect can be ascribed to the reduction of the hysteresis loss in the bulk HTSC, i.e. more trapped magnetic flux after the pre-load case. In the end, experimental results indicate that the Halbach PMG has an advantage to reduce the cost of the PMG, but its rate of LF decay is also larger due to lateral movement.

  16. Substrate dependent physical properties of evaporated CdO thin films for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Anuradha; Chander, S.; Patel, S.L. [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001 (India); Rangra, K.J. [Sensors and Transducers Group, CSIR-CEERI, Pilani-333031 (India); Dhaka, M.S., E-mail: msdhaka75@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Substrate dependent physical properties of CdO thin films are carried out. • XRD patterns reveal that the films have cubic structure of space group Fm3m. • Optical direct band gap is found to vary with the substrates. • SEM images show that the films are compact and homogeneous. • I–V characteristics show ohmic behavior of the deposited CdO films. - Abstract: In this study, CdO thin films were grown by e-beam evaporation technique on glass, indium tin oxide (ITO), fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and silicon (Si) wafer. The deposited films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and source meter (current–voltage) for structural, optical, surface morphological, elemental and electrical analysis, respectively. The films have single phase of cubic structure (space group Fm3m) with (200) preferred orientation. The structural parameters viz. inter-planar spacing, grain size, lattice constant, internal strain and dislocation density are calculated and found to vary with the nature of the substrates. The optical band gap was found in the range 2.24–3.95 eV and strongly dependents on the substrates. The SEM analysis shows that the films are compact, homogeneous and have granular structure without any defects like pin holes and cracks. The EDS spectra confirmed the presence of cadmium (Cd) and oxygen (O) in the films deposited on different substrates. The current–voltage characteristics of the films show ohmic behavior.

  17. Differences in structure and magnetic behavior of Mn-AlN films due to substrate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takanobu; Nakatani, Ryoichi; Endo, Yasushi; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The structure and magnetic behavior of Mn-AlN (Al 1-x Mn x N, x = 0.03, 0.04) films deposited on thermally oxidized Si (001) substrates and sapphire (0001) substrates were studied. Mn-AlN films deposited on each substrate had a wuertzite-type AlN phase with a preferentially oriented c-axis. Mn-AlN films that were deposited on Si (001) substrate exhibited paramagnetic behavior. In addition to paramagnetic behavior, weak ferromagnetic behavior with curie temperatures higher than room temperature were observed for Mn-AlN films deposited on sapphire (0001) substrates.

  18. Comparative Study of Electroless Copper Film on Different Self-Assembled Monolayers Modified ABS Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiushuai Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper films were grown on (3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS, (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and 6-(3-(triethoxysilylpropylamino-1,3,5- triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES self-assembled monolayers (SAMs modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS substrate via electroless copper plating. The copper films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Their individual deposition rate and contact angle were also investigated to compare the properties of SAMs and electroless copper films. The results indicated that the formation of copper nuclei on the TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate was faster than those on the MPTMS-SAMs and APTES-SAMs modified ABS substrate. SEM images revealed that the copper film on TES-SAM modified ABS substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of copper nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of TES-SAMs modified resin, the coverage of copper nuclei on MPTMS and APTES modified ABS substrate was very limited and the copper particle size was too big. The adhesion property test demonstrated that all the SAMs enhanced the interfacial interaction between copper plating and ABS substrate. XRD analysis showed that the copper film deposited on SAM-modified ABS substrate had a structure with Cu(111 preferred orientation, and the copper film deposited on TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate is better than that deposited on MPTMS-SAMs or APTES-SAMs modified ABS resins in electromigrtion resistance.

  19. Application of HTSC-thin films in microwave bandpass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reveals unique performance capabilities of High-Temperature Superconducting Thin-Film (HTSCTFs) for possible applications in microwave bandpass filters (BPFs). Microwave filters fabricated with HTSCTFs have demonstrated lowest insertion loss, highest rejection, and sharpest skirt selectivity. Thin films of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO), Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (BSCCO) and Thallium Calcium Barium Copper Oxide (TCBCO) will be most attractive for filters

  20. Characterization of PZT thin films on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutschke, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PbZr x Ti 1-x O 3 ,PZT) is one of the most applied ceramic materials because of its distinctive piezo- and ferroelectric properties. Prepared as thin films on flexible, metallic substrates it can be used for various applications as strain gauges, key switches, vibration dampers, microactuators and ultrasonic transducers. The aim of this work is to analyze the microstructure and the phase-content of PZT-thin films deposited on temperature- und acid-resistant hastelloy-sheets, to correlate the results with the ferroelectric and dielectric properties. It is demonstrated, that the specific variation of the microstructure can be achieved by different thermal treatments and the selective addition of Neodymium as dopant. Nd-doping leads to a shift of the maximum nucleation rate towards reduced temperatures and a decrease in the rate of growth compared to undoped films. The PZT-films are prepared by a sol-gel-process in fourfold multilayers with a composition near the morphotropic phase boundary, where the tetragonal und rhombohedral perovskite-phases coexist. The crystallisation in Nd-doped and undoped films takes place heterogeneously, preferentially at the interfaces and on the surface of the multilayered films as well as on the inner surface of pores within the films. For the first time, the Zr:Ti fluctuation phenomena emerging in sol-gel derived PZT films is related to the microstructure and the local phase content on a nanometer scale. In this connection it is proved, that long-distance Zr:Ti gradients arise preferentially before and during the crystallisation of the pyrochlore phase. During the following crystallisation of the perovskite phase, the crystallites grow across these gradients without modifying them. It is pointed out that the fluctuation in the Zr:Ti ratio has only minor influence on the amount of the tetragonal or rhombohedral distortion of the crystallites after the transition from the para- to the ferroelectric state due to

  1. Bi-epitaxial tilted out-of-plane YBCO junctions on NdGaO{sub 3} substrates with YSZ seeding layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozhaev, P.B. (Institute of Physics and Technology RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Mozhaev, J.E.; Bindslev Hansen, J.; Jacobsen, C.S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Physics, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kotelyanskil, I.M.; Luzanov, V.A. (Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Benacka, S.; Strbik, V. (Institute of Electrical Engineering SAS, Bratislava (SK))

    2008-10-15

    Bi-epitaxial junctions with out-of plane tilt of the c axis were fabricated of YBCO superconducting thin films on NdGaO{sub 3} substrates with different miscut angles. Bi-epitaxial growth was provided by implementation of an Y:ZrO{sub 2} seeding layer on a certain part of the substrate. Junctions with different orientation of the bi-epitaxial boundaries were fabricated, their DC electrical properties were studied as a function of the boundary orientation angle. The junctions showed extremely high critical current densities for all tested miscut angles and bi-epitaxial boundary orientations (about 105 A/cm2 at 77 K and up to 106 A/cm2 at 4.2 K). The dependence of critical current density on the bi-epitaxial boundary orientation angle may be explained as an effect of a d-wave pairing mechanism in the HTSC with the simple Sigrist-Rice model. The studied boundaries may be considered as model structures for the grain boundaries in the coated conductors. (au)

  2. Films nématiques minces sur substrats liquides

    OpenAIRE

    Delabre , Ulysse

    2009-01-01

    This work analyzes the organization of thin films of nematic liquid crystals on liquid substrates (water and glycerol). In this situation, the planar anchoring at the liquid interface is stronger than the homeotropic anchorage at the air interface. Below a critical thickness about 0.5-0.6 µm, stripes appear that correspond to a modulation of the nematic orientation. The stripe wavelength is much larger than the film thickness. We have analyzed the specific situation of very thin films and we ...

  3. Effect of Substrate Roughness on Adhesion and Structural Properties of Ti-Ni Shape Memory Alloy Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hyunsuk; Bae, Joohyeon; Jeong, Hyomin; Choi, Byeongkeun; Nam, Taehyun; Noh, Jungpil

    2018-09-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) thin films are very attractive material for industrial and medical applications such as micro-actuator, micro-sensors, and stents for blood vessels. An important property besides shape memory effect in the application of SMA thin films is the adhesion between the film and the substrate. When using thin films as micro-actuators or micro-sensors in MEMS, the film must be strongly adhered to the substrate. On the other hand, when using SMA thin films in medical devices such as stents, the deposited alloy thin film must be easily separable from the substrate for efficient processing. In this study, we investigated the effect of substrate roughness on the adhesion of Ti-Ni SMA thin films, as well as the structural properties and phase-transformation behavior of the fabricated films. Ti-Ni SMA thin films were deposited onto etched glass substrates with magnetron sputtering. Radio frequency plasma was used for etching the substrate. The adhesion properties were investigated through progressive scratch test. Structural properties of the films were determined via Feld emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Phase transformation behaviors were observed with differential scanning calorimetry and low temperature-XRD. Ti-Ni SMA thin film deposited onto rough substrate provides higher adhesive strength than smooth substrate. However the roughness of the substrate has no influence on the growth and crystallization of the Ti-Ni SMA thin films.

  4. Substrate dependent hierarchical structures of RF sputtered ZnS films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalana, S. R.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2018-05-01

    RF magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnS nanostructures with special emphasis given to study the effect of substrates (quartz, glass and quartz substrate pre-coated with Au, Ag, Cu and Pt) on the structure, surface evolution and optical properties. Type of substrate has a significant influence on the crystalline phase, film morphology, thickness and surface roughness. The present study elucidates the suitability of quartz substrate for the deposition of stable and highly crystalline ZnS films. We found that the role of metal layer on quartz substrate is substantial in the preparation of hierarchical ZnS structures and these structures are of great importance due to its high specific area and potential applications in various fields. A mechanism for morphological evolution of ZnS structures is also presented based on the roughness of substrates and primary nonlocal effects in sputtering. Furthermore, the findings suggest that a controlled growth of hierarchical ZnS structures may be achieved with an ordinary RF sputtering technique by changing the substrate type.

  5. Influence of the substrate texture on the structural and electrochemical properties of sputtered LiCoO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki-Taek; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Kim, Ki-Won; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Min; Huh, Sun-Chul; Chung, Han-Shik; Noh, Jung-Pil

    2013-01-01

    LiCoO 2 thin films were fabricated on textured and annealed STS304 substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering method. The effects of the substrate texture on the structural and electrochemical properties of the LiCoO 2 thin film deposited on both the substrates have been investigated. The crystal structures and surface morphologies of the deposited films were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Based on the XRD analysis, the LiCoO 2 thin film deposited on the textured substrate was found to exhibit (003) preferred orientation, while the film deposited on annealed substrate exhibited (104) preferred orientation. In addition, SEM analysis revealed that the film deposited on the textured substrate showed a smooth morphology. On the other hand, the film deposited on the annealed substrate exhibited a very rough surface morphology, which resulted in a higher surface area. Consequently, the initial discharge capacity of the film deposited on the annealed substrate was higher than that of the film deposited on the textured substrate. The film deposited on the textured substrate exhibited a good cyclic performance compared to the film deposited on the annealed substrate. - Highlights: • The sputtered LiCoO 2 thin films were influenced by the substrate texture. • The film deposited on the annealed substrate exhibited (104) preferred orientation. • The film deposited on the textured substrate exhibited a good cyclic performance

  6. Effect of substrate properties and thermal annealing on the resistivity of molybdenum thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, U.; Seidel, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the influence of substrate properties (e.g. roughness characteristics and chemical composition) on the electrical resistivity of evaporated molybdenum thin films is investigated as a function of varying parameters, such as film thickness (25-115 nm) and post-deposition annealing with temperatures up to T PDA = 900 deg. C. A thermally oxidized silicon wafer with very low surface roughness was used as one substrate type. In contrast, a low temperature co-fired ceramics substrate with a glass encapsulant printed in thick film technology is the representative for rough surface morphology. The electrical resistivity follows the prediction of the size effect up to T PDA = 600 deg. C independent of substrate nature. On the silicon-based substrate, the thickness-independent portion of the film resistivity ρ g in the 'as deposited' state is about 29 times higher than the corresponding bulk value for a mono-crystalline sample. Thin films of this refractory metal on the SiO 2 /Si substrate exhibit an average grain size of 4.9 nm and a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR). On the glass/ceramic-based substrate, however, ρ g is half the value as compared to that obtained on the SiO 2 /Si substrate and the TCR is positive

  7. Dewetting behavior of Au films on porous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaowei; Lee, Ung-Ju; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the stability of thin films and their spontaneous pattern formation upon dewetting is essential to a host of physical phenomena. In this paper, we study the dewetting phenomena of Au thin films deposited on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes to analyze the stability of the metal film on porous substrates. AAO membranes, as-sputtered and dewetted Au films are all characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. We found that both the roughness of AAO surface and modification of AAO pores exhibit remarkable influences on the dewetting behavior of Au films. The observed dewetting phenomena are explained from an energetic point of view since dewetting is a process of minimization of the system free energy.

  8. Influence of the substrate on the morphological evolution of gold thin films during solid-state dewetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsimama, Patrick D.; Herz, Andreas; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dewetting of thin gold films is faster on TiO_2 than on SiO_2. • Dewetting of thin gold films is faster on amorphous TiO_2 than on crystalline TiO_2. • The kinetics is attributed to the energy of adhesion. • The morphology of thin Au films deposited on TiO_2 substrates is different to those deposited on SiO_2 substrates. • The dewetting activation energy of Au films deposited on crystalline substrates was higher than the activation energy of Au nanofilms deposited on amorphous TiO_2 substrates. - Abstract: The evolution of electron-beam evaporated Au thin films deposited on crystalline TiO_2 (c-TiO_2) and amorphous TiO_2 (a-TiO_2) as well as amorphous SiO_2 substrates are investigated. The kinetic of dewetting is clearly dependent on the type of substrate and is faster on TiO_2 substrates than on SiO_2 substrates. This difference can result from the difference in adhesion energy. Furthermore, the kinetic of dewetting is faster on a-TiO_2 than on c-TiO_2, possibly due to the crystallization of TiO_2 during annealing induced dewetting process. The morphologies of dewetted Au films deposited on crystalline TiO_2 are characterized by branched holes. The XRD patterns of the Au films deposited on TiO_2 substrates constituted peaks from both metallic Au and anatase TiO_2. The activation energy of Au films deposited on crystalline TiO_2 substrates was higher than that that of the films deposited on amorphous TiO_2 substrates.

  9. Effect of substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure on RF sputtered NiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheemadan, Saheer; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.

    2018-04-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were deposited by RF sputtering process and the physical properties were investigated for varying substrate temperatures and oxygen partial pressure. The variation of the crystallographic orientation and microstructure of the NiO thin films with an increase in substrate temperature were studied. It was observed that NiO thin films deposited at 350 °C shows relatively good crystalline characteristics with a preferential orientation along (111) plane. With the optimum substrate temperature of 350 °C, the NiO thin films were deposited under various oxygen partial pressures at the same experimental conditions. The structural, optical and electrical properties of NiO thin films under varying oxygen partial pressure of 10%–50% were investigated. From XRD it is clear that the films prepared in the pure argon atmosphere were amorphous while the films in oxygen partial pressure exhibited polycrystalline NiO phase. SEM and AFM investigations unveil that the higher substrate temperature improves the microstructure of the thin films. It is revealed that the NiO thin films deposited at oxygen partial pressure of 40% and a substrate temperature of 350 °C, showed higher electrical conductivity with p-type characteristics.

  10. Peculiarities of the temperature dependences of trapped magnetic field in Y-HTSC ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, A.A.; Omel'chenko, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The temperature dependence H t (T) of trapped magnetic field (TMF) in Y-HTSC ceramics are studied. For the fields-cooled trapping the H t (T) dependences coincide with the dependences of H t on trapping temperature T t . Both dependences fall off monotonously with increasing temperature, and for low fields they reach saturation as temperature is decreased. When the trapping is induced by the field pulse after zero cooling the H t (T t ) dependences show a maximum while the H t (T) curves drop monotonously with increase in temperature. In this case the rate of their dropping increases with decrease in pulse magnitude and the temperature of TMF vanishing decreases with T t and H. The results are discussed and it is shown that contrast to the Been model the theory based on the model of TMF in superconductive loops gives an adequate analytical description of the observed features of the temperature dependences of trapped magnetic field in the Y-HTSC ceramics

  11. Radiolytic preparation of thin Au film directly on resin substrate using high-energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Yuji, E-mail: okubo@upst.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Seino, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kugai, Junichiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ueno, Koji [Japan Electron Beam Irradiation Service Ltd., 5-3 Ozushima, Izumiohtsu, Osaka 595-0074 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takao A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    A novel method for preparing thin Au films directly on resin substrates using an electron beam was developed. The thin Au films were prepared on a resin substrate by the reduction of Au ions in an aqueous solution via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam (4.8 MeV). This reduction method required 7 s of the irradiation time of the electron beam. Furthermore, no reductant or catalyst was needed. As the concentration of Au ions in the precursor solution was increased, the amount of Au deposited on the resin substrate increased, too, and the structure of the prepared Au film changed. As a result, the film color changed as well. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images of the thus-prepared Au film indicated that the Au films were consisted of two layers: a particle layer and a bottom bulk layer. There was strong adhesion between the Au films and the underlying resin substrates. This was confirmed by the tape-peeling test and through ultrasonic cleaning. After both processes, Au remained on the resin substrates, while most of the particle-like moieties were removed. This indicated that the thin Au films prepared via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam adhered strongly to the resin substrates. - Highlights: • A thin gold (Au) film was formed by EBIRM for the first time. • The irradiation time of the electron beam was less than 10 s. • Thin Au films were obtained without reductant or catalyst. • Au films were consisted of two layers: a particle layer and a bottom bulk layer. • There was strong adhesion between the bottom bulk layer and the underlying resin substrates.

  12. Investigation of iron film-substrate interfaces using Rutherford backscattering and channeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheswaran, S.; Thevuthasan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of α-Fe 2 O 3 (0001) (hematite) were epitaxially grown on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates using the new molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). We have investigated the interface between the hematite films and sapphire substrates using Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and channeling experiments. Theoretical simulations were performed using VEGAS code to investigate the surface and interface structural properties of the films

  13. Growth of InN films on spinel substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, K. [Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Megruro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ohta, J.; Fujioka, H. [Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Megruro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Oshima, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    We have grown InN films on MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(111) substrates with atomically flat surfaces using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and compared their structural properties with those grown on (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(111) substrates. It has been revealed that InN(0001) films grow on MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(111) with an in-plane epitaxial relationship of InN[1 anti 100]//MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}[1 anti 10], achieving a lattice mismatch minimum. The InN films exhibited a clear sixfold rotational symmetry, without 30 rotational domains and with a full width at half maximum value of the InN 0002 rocking curve being 17.5 arcmin. Comparison between InN films grown on MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and those on (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} led us to conclude that suppression of the interfacial reactions between the InN films and the substrate is inherently important to obtain high quality InN on substrates with a spinel structure. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Hydrogen-Induced Buckling of Pd Films Deposited on Various Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Vlček, Marián

    2015-07-01

    A Pd-H system is a model system suitable for studying interactions of hydrogen with metals. In the present work, we studied hydrogen-induced buckling of thin Pd films deposited on various substrates with different bonding strengths (sapphire, glimmer) and also the effect of deposition temperature. Lattice expansion and phase transitions were investigated by X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation. The influence of the substrate and microstructure of the film on the buckling process and phase transformation to palladium hydride are discussed.

  15. Hydrogen-Induced Buckling of Pd Films Deposited on Various Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Vlček, Mariá n; Luká č, František; Vlach, Martin; Prochá zka, Ivan; Wagner, Stefan; Uchida, Helmut; Pundt, Astrid; Gemma, Ryota; Čí žek, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    A Pd-H system is a model system suitable for studying interactions of hydrogen with metals. In the present work, we studied hydrogen-induced buckling of thin Pd films deposited on various substrates with different bonding strengths (sapphire, glimmer) and also the effect of deposition temperature. Lattice expansion and phase transitions were investigated by X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation. The influence of the substrate and microstructure of the film on the buckling process and phase transformation to palladium hydride are discussed.

  16. Synthesis of c-axis oriented AlN thin films on different substrates: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriarte, G.F.; Rodriguez, J.G.; Calle, F.

    2010-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films have been deposited by reactive sputtering on different substrates. The crystallographic properties of layered film structures consisting of a piezoelectric layer, aluminum nitride (AlN), synthesized on a variety of substrates, have been examined. Aluminum nitride thin films have been deposited by reactive pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering using an aluminum target in an Ar/N 2 gas mixture. The influence of the most critical deposition parameters on the AlN thin film crystallography has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the rocking curve Full-Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the AlN-(0 0 0 2) peak. The relationship between the substrate, the synthesis parameters and the crystallographic orientation of the AlN thin films is discussed. A guide is provided showing how to optimize these conditions to obtain highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films on substrates of different nature.

  17. Influence of the substrate on the morphological evolution of gold thin films during solid-state dewetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsimama, Patrick D. [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electrical Engineering and Electronics, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Dar Es Salaam Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2958, Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Herz, Andreas; Wang, Dong [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electrical Engineering and Electronics, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Schaaf, Peter, E-mail: peter.schaaf@tu-ilmenau.de [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electrical Engineering and Electronics, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Dewetting of thin gold films is faster on TiO{sub 2} than on SiO{sub 2}. • Dewetting of thin gold films is faster on amorphous TiO{sub 2} than on crystalline TiO{sub 2}. • The kinetics is attributed to the energy of adhesion. • The morphology of thin Au films deposited on TiO{sub 2} substrates is different to those deposited on SiO{sub 2} substrates. • The dewetting activation energy of Au films deposited on crystalline substrates was higher than the activation energy of Au nanofilms deposited on amorphous TiO{sub 2} substrates. - Abstract: The evolution of electron-beam evaporated Au thin films deposited on crystalline TiO{sub 2} (c-TiO{sub 2}) and amorphous TiO{sub 2} (a-TiO{sub 2}) as well as amorphous SiO{sub 2} substrates are investigated. The kinetic of dewetting is clearly dependent on the type of substrate and is faster on TiO{sub 2} substrates than on SiO{sub 2} substrates. This difference can result from the difference in adhesion energy. Furthermore, the kinetic of dewetting is faster on a-TiO{sub 2} than on c-TiO{sub 2}, possibly due to the crystallization of TiO{sub 2} during annealing induced dewetting process. The morphologies of dewetted Au films deposited on crystalline TiO{sub 2} are characterized by branched holes. The XRD patterns of the Au films deposited on TiO{sub 2} substrates constituted peaks from both metallic Au and anatase TiO{sub 2}. The activation energy of Au films deposited on crystalline TiO{sub 2} substrates was higher than that that of the films deposited on amorphous TiO{sub 2} substrates.

  18. On indentation and scratching of thin films on hard substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Per-Lennart; Wredenberg, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Indentation and scratching of thin film/substrate structures, using sharp conical indenters, are studied theoretically and numerically and discussed in particular with material characterization in mind. For simplicity, but not out of necessity, the material behaviour is described by classical elastoplasticity accounting for large deformations. Explicit material parameters are chosen in order to arrive at representative results as regards material behaviour and indenter geometry. The main efforts are devoted towards an understanding of the influence from the film/substrate boundary on global indentation (scratching) properties at different material combinations. Global quantities to be investigated include indentation and scratching hardness, contact area and apparent coefficient of friction at scratching. A comparison of the mechanical behaviour at normal indentation and at scratching is also included. In addition, the behaviour of different field variables is studied and in this case the discussion is focused on fracture initiation governed by a critical stress criterion. The numerical investigation is performed using the finite element method and the numerical strategy is discussed in some detail. Throughout the analysis it is assumed that the substrate is considerably harder than the indented film and consequently the deformation of the substrate is neglected

  19. Deposition of DLC Film on Stainless Steel Substrates Coated by Nickel Using PECVD Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Zahra; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Vaghri, Elnaz; Saghaleini, Amir; Diudea, Mircea V

    2012-06-01

    Research on diamond-like carbon (DLC) films has been devoted to find both optimized conditions and characteristics of the deposited films on various substrates. In the present work, we investigate the quality of the DLC films grown on stainless steel substrates using different thickness of the nickel nanoparticle layers on the surface. Nickel nanoparticles were sputtered on the stainless steel substrates at 200 °C by a DC-sputtering system to make a good adherence between DLC coating and steel substrates. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to characterize the surface roughness and distribution function of the nickel nanoparticles on the substrate surface. Diamond like carbon films were deposited on stainless steel substrates coated by nickel using pure acetylene and C2H2/H2 with 15% flow ratio by DC-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) systems. Microstructural analysis by Raman spectroscopy showed a low intensity ratio ID/IG for DLC films by increasing the Ni layer thickness on the stainless steel substrates. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) evidenced the peaks attributed to C-H bending and stretching vibration modes in the range of 1300-1700 cm-1 and 2700-3100 cm-1, respectively, in good agreement with the Raman spectroscopy and confirmed the DLC growth in all samples.

  20. Comparison of stress states in GaN films grown on different substrates: Langasite, sapphire and silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Guon; Saravana Kumar, R.; Moon, Mee-Lim; Kim, Moon-Deock; Kang, Tae-Won; Yang, Woo-Chul; Kim, Song-Gang

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the evolution of GaN films on novel langasite (LGS) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and assessed the quality of grown GaN film by comparing the experimental results obtained using LGS, sapphire and silicon (Si) substrates. To study the substrate effect, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the microstructure and stress states in GaN films. Wet etching of GaN films in KOH solution revealed that the films deposited on GaN/LGS, AlN/sapphire and AlN/Si substrates possess Ga-polarity, while the film deposited on GaN/sapphire possess N-polarity. XRD, Raman and PL analysis demonstrated that a compressive stress exist in the films grown on GaN/LGS, AlN/sapphire, and GaN/sapphire substrates, while a tensile stress appears on AlN/Si substrate. Comparative analysis showed the growth of nearly stress-free GaN films on LGS substrate due to the very small lattice mismatch ( 3.2%) and thermal expansion coefficient difference ( 7.5%). The results presented here will hopefully provide a new framework for the further development of high performance III-nitride-related devices using GaN/LGS heteroepitaxy.

  1. Influence of substrate temperature, growth rate and TCO substrate on the properties of CSS deposited CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, J., E-mail: jschaffner@surface.tu-darmstadt.de; Feldmeier, E.; Swirschuk, A.; Schimper, H.-J.; Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W.

    2011-08-31

    The growth of CdS thin films by close space sublimation (CSS) has been systematically studied using an ultra-high vacuum system known as DAISY-SOL in order to understand the basic growth mechanisms and their impact on the film properties. Substrate temperature and deposition rate were varied, and the surface properties of the CdS layer were determined by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without breaking the vacuum. To analyze the influence of the deposition conditions on the layer morphology and crystallographic structure, the films were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SEM and AFM studies show a correlation between the deposition rate and the film morphology. For high deposition rates, edged grain shapes and smoother surfaces were observed than for low deposition rates. CdS films were deposited onto two different commercially available fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. XRD studies show that a high <200> texture of the FTO substrate prefers the CdS growth in <0001> orientation of the hexagonal crystal modification.

  2. Thin HTSC films produced by a polymer metal precursor technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, L. v.; Zygalsky, F.; Hinrichsen, G.

    In precursors the metal ions are combined with acid groups of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA), polyacrylic acid (PAA) or novolac. Compared to thermal degradation temperature of pure polymers those of precursors are low. Precursors films were patterned by UV lithography. Diffractometric investigations showed that the c-axis oriented epitaxial films of YBa 2Cu 3O x and Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O x originated from amorphous metal oxide films, which were received after thermal degradation of the precursor. Transition temperatures and current densities were determined by electric resistivity measurements.

  3. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jun [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Seok [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jin-Seo, E-mail: jinseonoh@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  4. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Jun; Lee, Ho Seok; Noh, Jin-Seo

    2016-01-01

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  5. How metal films de-wet substrates-identifying the kinetic pathways and energetic driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, Kevin F; Hamilton, John C; Thuermer, Konrad; Jones, Frank; Talin, A Alec; Bartelt, Norman C; Sato, Yu; K Schmid, Andreas; Saa, Angela; Figuera, Juan de la; Stumpf, Roland

    2009-01-01

    We study how single-crystal chromium films of uniform thickness on W(110) substrates are converted to arrays of three-dimensional (3D) Cr islands during annealing. We use low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to directly observe a kinetic pathway that produces trenches that expose the wetting layer. Adjacent film steps move simultaneously uphill and downhill relative to the staircase of atomic steps on the substrate. This step motion thickens the film regions where steps advance. Where film steps retract, the film thins, eventually exposing the stable wetting layer. Since our analysis shows that thick Cr films have a lattice constant close to bulk Cr, we propose that surface and interface stress provide a possible driving force for the observed morphological instability. Atomistic simulations and analytic elastic models show that surface and interface stress can cause a dependence of film energy on thickness that leads to an instability to simultaneous thinning and thickening. We observe that de-wetting is also initiated at bunches of substrate steps in two other systems, Ag/W(110) and Ag/Ru(0001). We additionally describe how Cr films are converted into patterns of unidirectional stripes as the trenches that expose the wetting layer lengthen along the W[001] direction. Finally, we observe how 3D Cr islands form directly during film growth at elevated temperature. The Cr mesas (wedges) form as Cr film steps advance down the staircase of substrate steps, another example of the critical role that substrate steps play in 3D island formation.

  6. Preparation of MgO Films as Buffer Layers by Laser-ablation at Various Substrate Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; WANG Chuanbin; WANG Fang; SHEN Qiang; ZHANG Lianmeng

    2011-01-01

    MgO thin films were deposited on Si(100) substrates by laser ablation under various substrate temperatures (Tsub),expecting to provide a candidate buffer layer for the textured growth of functional perovskite oxide films on Si substrates.The effect of Tsub on the preferred orientation,crystallinity and surface morphology of the films was investigated.MgO films in single-phase were obtained at 473-973 K.With increasing Tsub,the preferred orientation of the films changed from (200) to (111).The crystallinity and surface morphology was different too,depending on Tsub·At Tsub=673 K,the MgO film became uniform and smooth,exhibiting high crystallinity and a dense texture.

  7. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on various substrates using facing target sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shon, Sun Young; Kim, Bong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated on various substrates, such as glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), at room temperature using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system with hetero ZnO and Al2O3 targets, and their electrical and optical properties were investigated. The AZO film on glass exhibited compressive stress while the films on the plastic substrates showed tensile stress. These stresses negatively affected the crystalline quality of the AZO films, and it is suggested that the poor crystalline quality of the films may be related to the neutral Al-based defect complexes formed in the films; these complexes act as neutral impurity scattering centers. AZO films with good optoelectronic properties could be formed on the glass and plastic substrates by the FTS technique using the hetero targets. The AZO films deposited on the glass, PEN, and PET substrates showed very low resistivities, of 5.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, 7.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, and 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively. Further, the figure merit of the AZO film formed on the PEN substrate in the visible range (400-700 nm) was significantly higher than that of the AZO film on PET and similar to that of the AZO film on glass. Finally, the average transmittances of the films in the visible range (400-700 nm) were 83.16% (on glass), 76.3% (on PEN), and 78.16% (on PET).

  8. Structure, stability and electrochromic properties of polyaniline film covalently bonded to indium tin oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenzhi, E-mail: zhangwz@xatu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Ju, Wenxing; Wu, Xinming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qiguan; Zhou, Hongwei; Wang, Sumin [Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Hu, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: A chemical bonding approach was proposed to prepare the PANI film covalently bonded to ITO substrate and the film exhibited high electrochemical activities and stability compared with that obtained by conventional film-forming approach. - Highlights: • The PANI film covalently bonded to ITO substrate was prepared using ABPA as modifier. • The oxidative potentials of the obtained PANI film were decreased. • The obtained PANI film exhibits high electrochemical activities and stability. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate was modified with 4-aminobenzylphosphonic acid (ABPA), and then the polyaniline (PANI) film covalently bonded to ITO substrate was prepared by the chemical oxidation polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements demonstrated that chemical binding was formed between PANI and ABPA-modified ITO surface, and the maximum thickness of PANI layer is about 30 nm. The adhesive strength of PANI film on ITO substrate was tested by sonication. It was found that the film formed on the modified ITO exhibited a much better stability than that on bare one. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements indicated that the oxidative potentials of PANI film on ABPA-modified ITO substrate were decreased and the film exhibited high electrochemical activities. Moreover, the optical contrast increased from 0.58 for PANI film (without ultrasound) to 1.06 for PANI film (after ultrasound for 60 min), which had an over 83% enhancement. The coloration time was 20.8 s, while the bleaching time was 19.5 s. The increase of electrochromic switching time was due to the lower ion diffusion coefficient of the large cation of (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N{sup +} under the positive and negative potentials as comparison with the small Li{sup +} ion.

  9. Thin film pc-Si by aluminium induced crystallization on metallic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayron C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si on flexible metallic substrates is promising for low cost production of photovoltaic solar cells. One of the attractive methods to produce pc-Si solar cells consists in thickening a large-grained seed layer by epitaxy. In this work, the deposited seed layer is made by aluminium induced crystallization (AIC of an amorphous silicon (a-Si thin film on metallic substrates (Ni/Fe alloy initially coated with a tantalum nitride (TaN conductive diffusion barrier layer. Effect of the thermal budget on the AIC grown pc-Si seed layer was investigated in order to optimize the process (i.e. the quality of the pc-Si thin film. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out using optical microscopy, μ-Raman and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD. At optimal thermal annealing conditions, the continuous AIC grown pc-Si thin film showed an average grain size around 15 μm. The grains were preferably (001 oriented which is favorable for its epitaxial thickening. This work proves the feasibility of the AIC method to grow large grains pc-Si seed layer on TaN coated metal substrates. These results are, in terms of grains size, the finest obtained by AIC on metallic substrates.

  10. Characteristics of tungsten oxide thin films prepared on the flexible substrates using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyuu, Yoshihito

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) thin films have been prepared on the flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using WO 3 targets in oxygen gas. Color of the WO 3 film on the flexible ITO substrates depends on the oxygen gas mixture. The plasma plume produced by PLD using a Nd:YAG laser and WO 3 target is investigated by temporal and spatial-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. WO 3 films prepared on the flexible ITO substrates show electrochromic properties, even when the substrates are bent. The film color changes from blue to transparent within 10-20 s after the applied DC voltage is turned off

  11. Microstructure of epitaxial SrRuO 3 thin films on MgO substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Wan Yong; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yan Rong; Liu, Xing Zhao; Wei, Xian Hua; Li, Jin Long; Zheng, Liang; Qin, Wen Feng; Liang, Zhu

    2006-09-01

    SrRuO 3 thin films have been grown on singular (1 0 0) MgO substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in 30 Pa oxygen ambient and at a temperature of 400-700 °C. Ex situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) θ/2 θ scan indicated that the films deposited above 650 °C were well crystallized though they had a rough surface as shown by atom force microscopy (AFM). XRD Φ scans revealed that these films were composed of all three different types of orientation domains, which was further confirmed by the RHEED patterns. The heteroepitaxial relationship between SrRuO 3 and MgO was found to be [1 1 0] SRO//[1 0 0] MgO and 45°-rotated cube-on-cube [0 0 1] SRO//[1 0 0] MgO. These domain structures and surface morphology are similar to that of ever-reported SrRuO 3 thin films deposited on the (0 0 1) LaAlO 3 substrates, and different from those deposited on (0 0 1) SrTiO 3 substrates that have an atomically flat surface and are composed of only the [1 1 0]-type domains. The reason for this difference was ascribed to the effect of lattice mismatch across the film/substrate interface. The room temperature resistivity of SrRuO 3 films fabricated at 700 °C was 300 μΩ cm. Therefore, epitaxial SrRuO 3 films on MgO substrate could serve as a promising candidate of electrode materials for the fabrication of ferroelectric or dielectric films.

  12. Effects of the substrate temperature on the properties of CuIn5S8 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannouni, M.; Kanzari, M.

    2011-01-01

    Structural, optical and electrical properties of CuIn 5 S 8 thin films grown by thermal evaporation have been studied relating the effects of substrate heating conditions of these properties. The CuIn 5 S 8 thin films were carried out at substrate temperatures in the temperature range 100-300 deg. C. The effects of heated substrate on their physico-chemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), optical transmission and hot probe method. X-ray diffraction revealed that the films are strong preferred orientation along the (3 1 1) plane upon substrate temperature 200 deg. C and amorphous for the substrate temperatures below 200 deg. C. No secondary phases are observed for all the films. The composition is greatly affected by heated substrate. From the optical transmission and reflection, an important absorption coefficient exceeds 10 5 cm -1 at 800 nm was found. As increasing the substrate temperature, the optical energy band gap decreases from 1.70 eV for the unheated films to 1.25 eV for the deposited films at 300 deg. C. It was found that CuIn 5 S 8 thin film is an n-type semiconductor at 250 deg. C.

  13. Load transfer of nanocomposite film on aluminum substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Chien, Pao-Chu

    2018-01-01

    Nanocomposite films have attracted much attention in recent years. Depending on the composition of the film and fabrication method, a large range of applications has been employed for nanocomposite films. In this study, nanocomposite films reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited on the aluminum substrate through hot press processing. A shear lag model and Euler beam theory were employed to evaluate the stress distribution and load carrying capability of the nanocomposite film subjected to tensile load and bending moment. The influence of MWCNT on the Young's modulus and load carrying capability of the nanocomposite film was investigated through a parametric study. The theoretical predictions were verified by comparison with experimental tests. A close agreement with difference less than 6% was achieved between the theoretical prediction and experimental measurements. The Young's modulus and load transfer of the nanocomposite film reinforced with MWCNTs increases with the increase of the MWCNT loading. Compared to the neat epoxy film, nanocomposite film with 1 wt % of MWCNT exhibits an increase of 20% in both the Young's modulus and load carrying capability.

  14. Releasing of Sputtered Au Film by Dissolving Sacrificial Layer and Its Self-Standing on Perforated Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yu; Fujii, Yuma; Yamano, Masafumi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Kondo, Kiminori

    2015-09-01

    Free-standing thin films such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and gold (Au) have been attracted increasing interests as film targets used in the laser-driven ion acceleration experiment. One of the methods to make the free-standing thin film is to use a soluble sacrifice layer. In this study, the fabrication technique of self-standing Au thin film is presented. Gelatin, oblate, silk fibroin, and NaCl were examined as a. Au thin films were deposited by DC plasma sputtering on sacrifice layers. The gelatin and oblate were used as the sacrificial layer and the supporting substrate. Silk fibroin was coated on glass substrates by a spin coater. The NaCl sacrificial layers were deposited on flat Si substrates by the vacuum vapor deposition system. Sputtered Au thin films were released by immersing the substrates in purified water. Self-standing Au thin films were fabricated by scooping up the released Au thin film on a perforated substrate. The highest quality of the self-standing Au thin film was achieved by using NaCl sacrificial layer. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research and Toukai Foundation for Technology.

  15. Effects of bias voltage on the properties of ITO films prepared on polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Song, Woochang; Yi, Junsin

    2005-01-01

    The ITO (indium tin oxide) thin films were deposited on acryl, glass, PET, and poly-carbonate substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The bias voltage was changed from -20 to -80 V. As the bias voltage increased, the deposition rate of ITO films decreased regardless of substrate types. The roughness of the films on PET increased with the bias voltage. The study demonstrated that the bias improved the electrical and optical properties of ITO films regardless of substrate types. The lowest electrical resistivity of 5.5x10 -4 no. OMEGAno. -cm and visible transmittance of about 80% were achieved by applying a negative bias of -60 V

  16. Effect of deposition rate on melting point of copper film catalyst substrate at atomic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimpul, Rinaldo; Syuhada, Ibnu; Rosikhin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2018-03-01

    Annealing process of copper film catalyst substrate was studied by molcular dynamics simulation. This copper film catalyst substrate was produced using thermal evaporation method. The annealing process was limited in nanosecond order to observe the mechanism at atomic scale. We found that deposition rate parameter affected the melting point of catalyst substrate. The change of crystalline structure of copper atoms was observed before it had been already at melting point. The optimum annealing temperature was obtained to get the highest percentage of fcc structure on copper film catalyst substrate.

  17. Fabrication of cuprous chloride films on copper substrate by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Ci, Ji-Wei; Tu, Wei-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Shen, Chin-Chang; Wu, Chih-Hung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-30

    Polycrystalline CuCl films were fabricated by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on a Cu substrate at a low solution temperature of 90 °C. Continuous CuCl films were prepared using the copper (II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) compound as the precursor for both the Cu{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} sources, together with repeated HCl dip treatments. An HCl dip pretreatment of the substrate favored the nucleation of CuCl crystallites. Further, interrupting the film deposition and including an HCl dip treatment of the film growth surface facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. A dual beam (FIB/SEM) system with energy dispersive spectrometry facilities attached revealed a homogeneous CuCl layer with a flat-top surface and an average thickness of about 1 μm. Both the excitonic and biexcitonic emission lines were well-resolved in the 6.4 K photoluminescence spectra. In particular, the free exciton emission line was observable at room temperature, indicating the good quality of the CuCl films prepared by CBD. - Highlights: • Cuprous chloride (CuCl) was prepared on Cu substrate by chemical bath deposition. • HCl dip treatments facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. • A homogeneous elemental distribution was recognized for the deposited CuCl layer. • Excitonic and biexcitonic photoluminescence lines of CuCl films were well-resolved. • The free exciton emission line of CuCl films was observable at room temperature.

  18. Pulsed Laser Deposition of BaTiO3 Thin Films on Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the deposition of BaTiO3 (BTO thin films on various substrates. Three representative substrates were selected from different types of material systems: (i SrTiO3 single crystals as a typical oxide, (ii Si wafers as a semiconductor, and (iii Ni foils as a magnetostrictive metal. We have compared the ferroelectric properties of BTO thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition on these diverse substrates.

  19. Comment on ``Ferromagnetic film on a superconducting substrate''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonin, E. B.

    2002-10-01

    A superconducting substrate is not able to shrink drastically domains in a ferromagnetic film, contrary to the prediction of Bulaevskii and Chudnovsky. This is shown on the basis of the exact solution for the stripe domain structure.

  20. Fabrication and Corrosion Resistance of Superhydrophobic Hydroxide Zinc Carbonate Film on Aluminum Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate (HZC films were fabricated on aluminum substrate through a convenient in situ deposition process. Firstly, HZC films with different morphologies were deposited on aluminum substrates through immersing the aluminum substrates perpendicularly into aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate hexahydrate and urea. Secondly, the films were then modified with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS: CH3(CF26(CH23Si(OCH33 molecules by immersing in absolute ethanol solution containing FAS. The morphologies, hydrophobicity, chemical compositions, and bonding states of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, water contact angle measurement (CA, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, respectively. It was shown by surface morphological observation that HZC films displayed different microstructures such as microporous structure, rose petal-like structure, block-shaped structure, and pinecone-like structure by altering the deposition condition. A highest water contact angle of 156.2° was obtained after FAS modification. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum substrate was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The EIS measurements’ results revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  1. Fabrication of micropillar substrates using replicas of alpha-particle irradiated and chemically etched PADC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.K.M.; Chong, E.Y.W.; Roy, V.A.L.; Cheung, K.M.C.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Yu, K.N.

    2012-01-01

    We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. Polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films were irradiated by alpha particles and then chemically etched to form a cast with micron-scale spherical pores. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica of this PADC film gave a micropillar substrate with micron-scale spherical pillars. HeLa cells cultured on such a micropillar substrate had significantly larger percentage of cells entering S-phase, attached cell numbers and cell spreading areas. - Highlights: ► We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. ► Polyallyldiglycol carbonate films were irradiated and etched to form casts. ► Polydimethylsiloxane replica then formed the micropillar substrates. ► Attachment and proliferation of HeLa cells were enhanced on these substrates.

  2. Low-temperature deposition of ZnO thin films on PET and glass substrates by DC-sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.N.; Ghosh, C.K.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.; Minoura, Hideki; Sarkar, Ajay K.; Akiba, Atsuya; Kamiya, Atsushi; Endo, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    The structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films (260 - 490 nm thick) deposited by direct-current sputtering technique, at a relatively low-substrate temperature (363 K), onto polyethylene terephthalate and glass substrates have been investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the proper phase formation of the material. Optical transmittance data show high transparency (80% to more than 98%) of the films in the visible portion of solar radiation. Slight variation in the transparency of the films is observed with a variation in the deposition time. Electrical characterizations show the room-temperature conductivity of the films deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates for 4 and 5 h around 0.05 and 0.25 S cm -1 , respectively. On the other hand, for the films deposited on glass substrates, these values are 8.5 and 9.6 S cm -1 for similar variation in the deposition time. Room-temperature conductivity of the ZnO films deposited on glass substrates is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of ZnO films deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates under identical conditions. Hall-measurements show the maximum carrier concentration of the films on PET and glass substrate around 2.8 x 10 16 and 3.1 x 10 2 cm -3 , respectively. This report will provide newer applications of ZnO thin films in flexible display technology

  3. Thin-film X-ray filters on microstructured substrates and their thermophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    It is shown that structured substrates having micron- or submicron-sized through holes and coated with an ultrathin organic film can be used for the fabrication of thin-film X-ray filters via direct growth of functional layers on a substrate by sputter deposition, without additional complex processing steps. An optimised process is considered for the fabrication of X-ray filters on support structures in the form of electroplated fine nickel grids and on track-etched polymer membranes with micron- and submicrondiameter through pores. 'Optimisation' is here taken to mean matching the sputter deposition conditions with the properties of substrates so as to avoid overheating. The filters in question are intended for both imaging and single-channel detectors operating in the soft X-ray and vacuum UV spectral regions, at wavelengths from 10 to 60 nm. Thermal calculations are presented for the heating of ultrathin layers of organic films and thin-film support substrates during the sputter deposition of aluminium or other functional materials. The paper discusses approaches for cooling thinfilm composites during the sputter deposition process and the service of the filters in experiments and gives a brief overview of the works that utilised filters produced by the described technique on microstructured substrates, including orbital solar X-ray research in the framework of the CORONAS programme and laboratory laser plasma experiments.

  4. Preparation and structural characterization of FeCo epitaxial thin films on insulating single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(111), SrTiO 3 (111), and Al 2 O 3 (0001) single-crystal substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The effects of insulating substrate material on the film growth process and the structures were investigated. FeCo(110) bcc films grow on MgO substrates with two type domains, Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) and Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) relationships. On the contrary, FeCo films grown on SrTiO 3 and Al 2 O 3 substrates include FeCo(111) bcc crystal in addition to the FeCo(110) bcc crystals with NW and KS relationships. The FeCo(111) bcc crystal consists of two type domains whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. The out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of FeCo(110) bcc and FeCo(111) bcc crystals formed on the insulating substrates are in agreement with those of the bulk Fe 50 Co 50 (at. %) crystal with small errors ranging between +0.2% and +0.4%, showing that the strains in the epitaxial films are very small.

  5. Enhancing and quenching luminescence with gold nanoparticle films: the influence of substrate on the luminescent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Baffa, Oswaldo; Ramos, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) films were sputtered over glass and aluminum substrates to enhance optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), a luminescent technique employed for radiation detection, from x-ray irradiated NaCl nanocrystals. The AuNP films deposited over glass led to enhanced-OSL emission, whereas the AuNP films deposited on aluminum substrates quenched the OSL emission. The enhanced-OSL intensity is proportional to the optical density of the film's plasmon resonance band at the stimulation wavelength. For the case of the AuNP/aluminum films, the luminescence quenching diminishes, and OSL intensity partially recovers upon increasing the distance between the AuNPs and the aluminum substrates, and between the luminescent nanocrystals and the AuNP films. These results suggest that plasmonic interactions between the emitter nanocrystals, the localized surface plasmons (LSP) of the AuNPs, and the substrate are responsible for the OSL enhancement and quenching. In this sense, the substrate dictates whether LSP relaxation occurs by radiative or non-radiative transisitions, leading to enhanced or quenched OSL, respectively. Therefore, besides showing that AuNP films can enhance and/or tune the sensitivity of luminescent radiation detectors, and demonstrating OSL as a new technique to investigate mechanisms of plasmon-enhanced luminescence, these results bring insights on how substrates strongly modify the optical properties of AuNP films. (paper)

  6. Fabrication and magnetization measurement of Ni thin films on silicon substrate by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Yang [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhao Dongxu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China)], E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.cn; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying; Li Binghui; Lu Youming; Fan Xiwu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2008-02-29

    Ni thin films were electrodeposited on n-Si (100) substrate from the electrolytes containing Ni(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4} at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope images of the films reveals the uniform distribution of the nickel all over the substrate surface, which illustrates that the fine Ni films on large scales could be obtained through the method of electrodeposition. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurement with the applied field parallel to the surface shows obvious hysteresis loops of the magnetic thin films. The morphology and magnetism of the Ni thin films evolves with the deposition time increasing. The effect of deposition conditions on the properties of the Ni thin films is investigated.

  7. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Kun-San; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2013-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target–substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target–substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target–substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target–substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target–substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  8. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kun-San; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2013-11-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target-substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target-substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target-substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target-substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target-substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  9. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Kun-San [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lo, Yu-Lung, E-mail: loyl@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target–substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target–substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target–substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target–substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target–substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  10. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  11. Carbon nanotube network thin-film transistors on flexible/stretchable substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2016-03-29

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for flexible thin-film transistors. In one aspect, a device includes a polymer substrate, a gate electrode disposed on the polymer substrate, a dielectric layer disposed on the gate electrode and on exposed portions of the polymer substrate, a carbon nanotube network disposed on the dielectric layer, and a source electrode and a drain electrode disposed on the carbon nanotube network.

  12. Static and high frequency magnetic properties of FeGa thin films deposited on convex flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ying; Zhan, Qingfeng; Dai, Guohong; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yiwei; Yang, Huali; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Xie, Shuhong

    2015-01-01

    Magnetostrictive FeGa thin films were deposited on the bowed flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, which were fixed on the convex mold. A compressive stress was induced in FeGa films when the PET substrates were shaped from convex to flat. Due to the effect of magnetostriction, FeGa films exhibit an obvious in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy which could be enhanced by increasing the applied pre-strains on the substrates during growth. Consequently, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the films was significantly increased, but the corresponding initial permeability was decreased. Moreover, the films with pre-strains less than 0.78% exhibit a working bandwidth of microwave absorption about 2 GHz. Our investigations demonstrated a convenient method via the pre-strained substrates to tune the high frequency properties of magnetic thin films which could be applied in flexible microwave devices

  13. Static and high frequency magnetic properties of FeGa thin films deposited on convex flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Zhan, Qingfeng; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Dai, Guohong; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yiwei; Yang, Huali; Zhang, Yao; Xie, Shuhong; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostrictive FeGa thin films were deposited on the bowed flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, which were fixed on the convex mold. A compressive stress was induced in FeGa films when the PET substrates were shaped from convex to flat. Due to the effect of magnetostriction, FeGa films exhibit an obvious in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy which could be enhanced by increasing the applied pre-strains on the substrates during growth. Consequently, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the films was significantly increased, but the corresponding initial permeability was decreased. Moreover, the films with pre-strains less than 0.78% exhibit a working bandwidth of microwave absorption about 2 GHz. Our investigations demonstrated a convenient method via the pre-strained substrates to tune the high frequency properties of magnetic thin films which could be applied in flexible microwave devices.

  14. Separation of stress-free AlN/SiC thin films from Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redkov, A V; Osipov, A V; Mukhin, I S; Kukushkin, S A

    2016-01-01

    We separated AlN/SiC film from Si substrate by chemical etching of the AlN/SiC/Si heterostructure. The film fully repeats the size and geometry of the original sample and separated without destroying. It is demonstrated that a buffer layer of silicon carbide grown by a method of substitution of atoms may have an extensive hollow subsurface structure, which makes it easier to overcome the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion during the growth of thin films. It is shown that after the separation of the film from the silicon substrate, mechanical stresses therein are almost absent. (paper)

  15. Annealing impact on the structural and photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films on Ag substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Zheng, Gaige; Lai, Min; Pei, Shixin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Gaussian fitting indicates that the PL spectra of the ZnO thin films include four emission peaks which are centered at 380, 520, 570 and 610 nm, respectively. The ZnO thin film deposited on an Ag substrate shows a stronger green emission and a weaker UV emission than the ZnO thin film directly deposited on a Si substrate annealed at 400 °C. With the rise of annealing temperature, the visible emission intensity and wavelength are largely changed. Highlights: • ZnO thin films have been prepared on Ag substrates by sol–gel method. • The Ag substrates have a great effect on the photoluminescence of ZnO thin films. • All the films exhibit three visible emission bands including green, yellow and red. • Annealing causes a large change of the visible emission intensity and wavelength. -- Abstract: In this work, ZnO thin films were prepared by sol–gel method on Ag substrates. The structural and optical properties of the films annealed at different temperatures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence, respectively. The results of XRD showed that all the ZnO thin films had a wurtzite phase and were preferentially oriented along the c-axis direction. The sample annealed at 400 °C exhibited better crystalline quality than the ZnO thin film directly deposited on a Si substrate annealed at the same temperature. The photoluminescence spectra showed that ZnO thin films had an ultraviolet emission band and three visible emission bands including green, yellow and red band. The sample annealed at 400 °C exhibited a stronger green emission and a weaker ultraviolet emission compared with the ZnO thin film deposited on a Si substrate annealed at the same temperature. The difference of the luminescence properties was thought to be originated from different substrates. As for the ZnO films on Ag substrates, the increase of annealing temperature led to different changes of visible emissions

  16. Effect of substrate on texture and mechanical properties of Mg-Cu-Zn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, F.; Zolanvari, A.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, thin films of Mg-Cu-Zn with 60 nm thicknesses have been deposited on the Si(100), Al, stainless steel, and Cu substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. FESEM images displayed uniformity of Mg-Cu-Zn particles on the different substrates. AFM micrograph revealed the roughness of thin film changes due to the different kinds of the substrates. XRD measurements showed the existence of strong Mg (002) reflections and weak Mg (101) peaks. Residual stress and adhesion force have been measured as the mechanical properties of the Mg-Cu-Zn thin films. The residual stresses of thin films which have been investigated by X-ray diffraction method revealed that the thin films sputtered on the Si and Cu substrates endure minimum and maximum stresses, respectively, during the deposition process. However, the force spectroscopy analysis indicated that the films grew on the Si and Cu experienced maximum and minimum adhesion force. The texture analysis has been done using XRD instrument to make pole figures of Mg (002) and Mg (101) reflections. ODFs have been calculated to evaluate the distribution of the orientations within the thin films. It was found that the texture and stress have an inverse relation, while the texture and the adhesion force of the Mg-Cu-Zn thin films have direct relation. A thin film that sustains the lowest residual stresses and highest adhesive force had the strongest {001} basal fiber texture.

  17. Substrate mediated growth of organic semiconducting thin films; Templateffekte bei der Strukturierung organischer Halbleiterfilme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzen, Jan

    2010-09-17

    Since electronic properties of molecular materials are closely related to their structural order a precise control of the molecular packing and crystalline orientation of thin films is of vital interest for an optimization of organic electronic devices. Of particular interest in this respect is the initial stage of film formation which is largely governed by the interplay of intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions. One approach to control the molecular film structure is based on substrate mediated growth. In this respect we have studied structural properties of thin films of pentacene, pentacene- 5,7,12,14-tetrone and perfluoro-pentacene which were grown onto various substrates including metals, metal oxides and graphite. On metal surfaces the molecules initially form a chemisorbed monolayer where molecules even can be uniformly aligned when using appropriate substrates with twofold symmetry. Further deposition, however, is accompanied by a pronounced dewetting and formation of disjoined islands which results from a large structural mismatch between the molecular arrangement in the monolayer and the crystalline phase. In some cases it is possible to orient such islands by utilizing step mediated nucleation and decoration of step bunches which allows the preparation of azimuthally well oriented elongated islands. On single crystalline oxides the growth parallels the situation found before for SiO{sub 2} where islands of upright oriented molecules are formed. The growth on graphite is somewhat particular since the lattice provides a natural template for acenes yielding epitaxially ordered monolayer films with planar adsorption geometry like in case of metals. Interestingly, however, no dewetting occurs upon further growth and instead rather smooth films are formed. The detailed analysis for the case of pentacene showed that the substrate-molecule interaction actually is weaker than the intermolecular interaction so that multilayer films can lift the

  18. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ming [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Xinghua [Hubei Aerospace Industry Technology Academe Special Vehicle Technology Center, Wuhan (China); Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  19. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  20. Atomic-scale epitaxial aluminum film on GaAs substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomic-scale metal films exhibit intriguing size-dependent film stability, electrical conductivity, superconductivity, and chemical reactivity. With advancing methods for preparing ultra-thin and atomically smooth metal films, clear evidences of the quantum size effect have been experimentally collected in the past two decades. However, with the problems of small-area fabrication, film oxidation in air, and highly-sensitive interfaces between the metal, substrate, and capping layer, the uses of the quantized metallic films for further ex-situ investigations and applications have been seriously limited. To this end, we develop a large-area fabrication method for continuous atomic-scale aluminum film. The self-limited oxidation of aluminum protects and quantizes the metallic film and enables ex-situ characterizations and device processing in air. Structure analysis and electrical measurements on the prepared films imply the quantum size effect in the atomic-scale aluminum film. Our work opens the way for further physics studies and device applications using the quantized electronic states in metals.

  1. Fabrication of micropillar substrates using replicas of alpha-particle irradiated and chemically etched PADC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.K.M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chong, E.Y.W. [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Roy, V.A.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Cheung, K.M.C.; Yeung, K.W.K. [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: appetery@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. Polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films were irradiated by alpha particles and then chemically etched to form a cast with micron-scale spherical pores. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica of this PADC film gave a micropillar substrate with micron-scale spherical pillars. HeLa cells cultured on such a micropillar substrate had significantly larger percentage of cells entering S-phase, attached cell numbers and cell spreading areas. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyallyldiglycol carbonate films were irradiated and etched to form casts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polydimethylsiloxane replica then formed the micropillar substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attachment and proliferation of HeLa cells were enhanced on these substrates.

  2. Effects of flexible substrate thickness on Al-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Naoki [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Toko, Kaoru, E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Saitoh, Noriyuki; Yoshizawa, Noriko [Electron Microscope Facility, TIA, AIST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan); Suemasu, Takashi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2015-05-29

    Amorphous germanium (a-Ge) thin films were directly crystallized on flexible plastic substrates at 325 °C using Al-induced crystallization. The thickness of the plastic substrate strongly influenced the crystal quality of the resulting polycrystalline Ge layers. Using a thicker substrate lowered the stress on the a-Ge layer during annealing, which increased the grain size and fraction of (111)-oriented grains within the Ge layer. Employing a 125-μm-thick substrate led to 95% (111)-oriented Ge with grains having an average size of 100 μm. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the Ge grains had a low-defect density. Production of high-quality Ge films on plastic substrates allows for the possibility for developing Ge-based electronic and optical devices on inexpensive flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Ge thin films are directly formed on flexible plastic substrates. • Al-induced crystallization allows the low-temperature growth (325 °C) of amorphous Ge. • The substrate bending during annealing strongly influences the crystal quality of poly-Ge. • A thick substrate (125 μm) leads to 95% (111)-oriented Ge with grains 100 μm in size.

  3. TiO2 thin-films on polymer substrates and their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae-Hun; Han, Yang-Su; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-01-01

    We have developed dip-coating process for TiO 2 -thin film on polymer substrates (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer: ABS, polystyrene: PS). At first, a monodispersed and transparent TiO 2 nano-sol solution was prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide in the presence of acetylacetone and nitric acid catalyst at 80 deg. C. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the dried particles are indicative of crystalline TiO 2 with anatase-type structure. According to the XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, the mean particle size was estimated to be ca. 5 nm. The transparent thin films on ABS and PS substrates were fabricated by dip-coating process by changing the processing variables, such as the number of dip-coating and TiO 2 concentration in nano-sol solution. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis for the thin film samples reveals that the acetylacetone-modified TiO 2 nano-sol particles are effective for enhancing the interfacial adherence between films and polymeric substrates compared to the unmodified one. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) on the TiO 2 thin-films has also been systematically investigated

  4. Recovery Act : Near-Single-Crystalline Photovoltaic Thin Films on Polycrystalline, Flexible Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat Selvamanickam; Alex Freundlich

    2010-11-29

    III-V photovoltaics have exhibited efficiencies above 40%, but have found only a limited use because of the high cost of single crystal substrates. At the other end of the spectrum, polycrystalline and amorphous thin film solar cells offer the advantage of low-cost fabrication, but have not yielded high efficiencies. Our program is based on single-crystalline-like thin film photovoltaics on polycrystalline substrates using biaxially-textured templates made by Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD). MgO templates made by IBAD on flexible metal substrate have been successfully used for epitaxial growth of germanium films. In spite of a 4.5% lattice mismatch, heteroepitaxial growth of Ge was achieved on CeO2 that was grown on IBAD MgO template. Room temperature optical bandgap of the Ge films was identified at 0.67 eV indicating minimal residual strain. Refraction index and extinction coefficient values of the Ge films were found to match well with that measured from a reference Ge single crystal. GaAs has been successfully grown epitaxially on Ge on metal substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. RHEED patterns indicate self annihilation of antiphase boundaries and the growth of a single domain GaAs. The GaAs is found to exhibit strong photoluminescence signal and, an existence of a relatively narrow (FWHM~20 meV) band-edge excitons measured in this film indicates a good optoelectronic quality of deposited GaAs. While excellent epitaxial growth has been achieved in GaAs on flexible metal substrates, the defect density of the films as measured by High Resolution X-ray Diffraction and etch pit experiments showed a high value of 5 * 10^8 per cm^2. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy of the multilayer architecture showed concentration of threading dislocations near the germanium-ceria interface. The defect density was found decrease as the Ge films were made thicker. The defects appear to originate from the MgO layer presumably because of large lattice mismatches

  5. Properties of HTS YBCO thin films deposited on tilted NdGaO3 substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurgaliev, T.; Donchev, T.; Mateev, E.; Miteva, S.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Mozhaeva, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Thin YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films were fabricated by 2-opposed DC magnetron sputtering onto NdGaO 3 substrates, tilted from standard (1 1 0) orientation by 0-26 deg , and their surface morphology and electrical characteristics were investigated. Normal state resistivity (at 295 K) and microwave surface resistance (at 77 K and ∼8 GHz) of the films demonstrated anisotropy, introduced by the tilted substrate, and some improvement of the superconducting parameters of the films was observed at small tilt angles (θ ∼ 1.5-3 deg ). The increase of the microwave surface resistance at high tilt angles for the current tracks, perpendicular to the steps of the substrate, was described in the framework of a simple model, which takes into account the complex conductivity of the film and the weak links between the film terraces

  6. Influence of Substrate Biasing on (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Films Prepared by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Niino, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Yasunori; Misawa, Tatsuya; Yonesu, Akira; Fujita, Hiroharu; Miyake, Shoji

    2004-03-01

    (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering with mirror confinement. DC bias voltage was applied to Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates during deposition to vary the intensity of bombardment of energetic ions and to modify film properties. BST films deposited on the substrates at floating potential (approximately +20 V) were found to be amorphous, while films deposited on +40 V-biased substrates were crystalline in spite of a low substrate temperature below 648 K. In addition, atomic diffusion, which causes deterioration in the electrical properties of the films, was hardly observed in the crystallized films deposited with +40 V bias perhaps due to the low substrate temperature. Plasma diagnoses revealed that application of a positive bias to the substrate reduced the energy of ion bombardment and increased the density of excited neutral particles, which was assumed to result in the promotion of chemical reactions during deposition and the crystallization of BST films at a low temperature.

  7. Effect of substrate temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of pulsed laser ablated nanostructured indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beena, D.; Lethy, K.J.; Vinodkumar, R.; Mahadevan Pillai, V.P.; Ganesan, V.; Phase, D.M.; Sudheer, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline indium oxide (INO) films are deposited in a back ground oxygen pressure at 0.02 mbar on quartz substrates at different substrate temperatures (T s ) ranging from 300 to 573 K using pulsed laser deposition technique. The films are characterized using GIXRD, XPS, AFM and UV-visible spectroscopy to study the effect of substrate temperature on the structural and optical properties of films. The XRD patterns suggest that the films deposited at room temperature are amorphous in nature and the crystalline nature of the films increases with increase in substrate temperature. Films prepared at T s ≥ 473 K are polycrystalline in nature (cubic phase). Crystalline grain size calculation based on Debye Scherrer formula indicates that the particle size enhances with the increase in substrate temperature. Lattice constant of the films are calculated from the XRD data. XPS studies suggest that all the INO films consist of both crystalline and amorphous phases. XPS results show an increase in oxygen content with increase in substrate temperature and reveals that the films deposited at higher substrate temperatures exhibit better stoichiometry. The thickness measurements using interferometric techniques show that the film thickness decreases with increase in substrate temperature. Analysis of the optical transmittance data of the films shows a blue shift in the values of optical band gap energy for the films compared to that of the bulk material owing to the quantum confinement effect due to the presence of quantum dots in the films. Refractive index and porosity of the films are also investigated. Room temperature DC electrical measurements shows that the INO films investigated are having relatively high electrical resistivity in the range of 0.80-1.90 Ωm. Low temperature electrical conductivity measurements in the temperature range of 50-300 K for the film deposited at 300 K give a linear Arrhenius plot suggesting thermally activated conduction. Surface

  8. Synthesis and characterization of electrolyte-grade 10%Gd-doped ceria thin film/ceramic substrate structures for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chourashiya, M. G.; Bharadwaj, S. R.; Jadhav, L. D.

    2010-01-01

    In the present research, spray pyrolysis technique is employed to synthesize 10%Gd-doped ceria (GDC) thin films on ceramic substrates with an intention to use the "film/substrate" structure in solid oxide fuel cells. GDC films deposited on GDC substrate showed enhanced crystallite formation....... In case of NiO-GDC composite substrate, the thickness of film was higher (∼ 13 μm) as compared to the film thickness on GDC substrate (∼ 2 μm). The relative density of the films deposited on both the substrates was of the order of 95%. The impedance measurements revealed that ionic conductivity of GDC...

  9. On mobility of ions in thin films in liquid substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, Yu.A.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of energy dissipation by emission of ripplons is solved for an ion moving in the media with two interfaces (films on solid and liquid substrates), taking into account the Van der Waals interaction. It is shown that in contrast to the earlier considered case of solid substrate where the action of the Van der Waals forces causes only renormalization of the free fall acceleration, in the vase of liquid substrate the influence of these forces is much more complicated. In addition to renormalization of the amplitude of the emitted surface wave and change of the velocity threshold after which the wave mechanism is effective, in sufficiently thin film, where modes are ''intersected'' the analytical expressions for mobility are also significantly modified. In real experimental environments consideration of all the factors mentioned leads as a rule to higher ion mobility

  10. Optical and electrical characteristics of zirconium oxide thin films deposited on silicon substrates by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Frutis, M.; Araiza, J.J.; Falcony, C.; Garcia, M.

    2002-01-01

    The optical and electrical characteristics of zirconium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis on silicon substrates are reported. The films were deposited from a spraying solution of zirconium acetylacetonate in N,N-dimethylformamide using an ultrasonic mist generator on (100) Si substrates. The substrate temperature during deposition was in the range of 400 to 600 grad C. Deposition rates up to 16 A/sec were obtained depending on the spraying solution concentration and on the substrate temperature. A refraction index of the order of 2.0 was measured on these films by ellipsometry. The electrical characteristics of the films were determined from the capacitance and current versus voltage measurements. The addition of water mist during the spraying deposition process was also studied in the characteristics of the films. (Authors)

  11. Upconversion and tribological properties of β-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Er film synthesized on silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chuanying [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cheng, Xianhua, E-mail: xhcheng@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • β-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Er upconversion (UC) film was synthesized on silicon substrate. • Tribological test was used to qualitatively evaluate the adhesion of the UC film. • The UC film was combined with Si substrate by covalent chemical bonds. • The method used in this work can be applicable for other UC films. - Abstract: In this work, β-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Er upconversion (UC) film was successfully prepared on silicon (Si) substrate via self-assemble method for the first time. The chemical composition and surface morphology of the UC film were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle (WCA), X-ray power diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. To investigate the effects of KH-560 primer film and chemical reactions on the UC luminescence properties of β-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Er UC film, decay profiles of the 540 nm and 655 nm radiations were measured. Furthermore, tribological test was applied to qualitatively evaluate the adhesion of the UC film. The results indicate that the UC film has been successfully prepared on Si substrate by covalent chemical bonds. This work provides a facile way to synthesize β-NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Er UC film with robust adhesion to the substrate, which can be applicable for other UC films.

  12. Effect of substrate temperature on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of RF sputtered Ge1−x Snx films on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmodi, H; Hashim, M R

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Ge 1−x Sn x alloy films are co-sputtered on Si(100) substrates using RF magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperatures. Scanning electron micrographs, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) are conducted to investigate the effect of substrate temperature on the structural and optical properties of grown GeSn alloy films. AFM results show that RMS surface roughness of the films increases from 1.02 to 2.30 nm when raising the substrate temperature. This increase could be due to Sn surface segregation that occurs when raising the substrate temperature. Raman spectra exhibits the lowest FWHM value and highest phonon intensity for a film sputtered at 140 °C. The spectra show that decreasing the deposition temperature to 140 °C improves the crystalline quality of the alloy films and increases nanocrystalline phase formation. The results of Raman spectra and XPS confirm Ge–Sn bond formation. The optoelectronic characteristics of fabricated metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on sputtered samples at room temperature (RT) and 140 °C are studied in the dark and under illumination. The sample sputtered at 140 °C performs better than the RT sputtered sample. (paper)

  13. Comparison of structural properties of thermally evaporated CdTe thin films on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, G.H.; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.

    2011-01-01

    The direct energy band gap in the range of 1.5 eV and the high absorption coefficient (105 cm/sup -1/) makes Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) a suitable material for fabrication of thin film solar cells. Thin film solar cells based on CdTe (1 cm area) achieved efficiency of 15.6% on a laboratory scale. CdTe thin films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum 2 X 10/sup -5/mbar on glass and stainless steel (SS) substrates. During deposition substrates temperature was kept same at 200 deg. C for all samples. The structural properties were determined by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns. All samples exhibit polycrystalline nature. Dependence of different structural parameters such as lattice parameter, micro strain, and grain size and dislocation density on thickness was studied. Also the influence of the different substrates on these parameters was investigated. The analysis showed that the preferential orientation of films was dependent on the substrate type. (author)

  14. Self-assembly Ag nanoparticle monolayer film as SERS Substrate for pesticide detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhlisuzh@163.com [School of Chemistry and Life Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Spin Electron and Nanomaterials (Cultivating Base), Suzhou University, SuZhou 234000 (China)

    2013-04-01

    A self-assembled protocol is introduced to provide effective platforms for the fabrication of ordered Ag nanosized monolayer film. The assembled Ag nanosized monolayer film was characterized using scanning electronic microscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The results show that the assembled SERS substrate own excellent Raman enhancement and reproducibility. The synthesized SERS-active substrate was further used to detect methyl-parathion, and the limitation of detection can reach 10{sup −7} M.

  15. Optically transparent boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films for spectroelectrochemical measurements on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobaszek, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Pluciński, J.; Siuzdak, K.; Skowroński, Ł.

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication process of optically transparent boron nanocrystalline diamond (B- NCD) electrode on silicon and quartz substrate was shown. The B-NCD films were deposited on the substrates using Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MWPACVD) at glass substrate temperature of 475 °C. A homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with high sp 3 content in B-NCD films and film thickness depending from substrate in the range of 60-300 nm was obtained. The high refraction index and transparency in visible (VIS) wavelength range was achieved. Moreover, cyclic voltammograms (CV) were recorded to determine reaction reversibility at the B-NCD electrode. CV measurements in aqueous media consisting of 1 mM K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 demonstrated relatively fast kinetics expressed by a redox peak splitting below 503 mV for B-NCD/silicon and 110 mv for B-NCD/quartz

  16. Precise measurement of the transverse piezoelectric coefficient for thin films on anisotropic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Doo-Man; Sato, Masashi; Kanno, Isaku

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a reliable measurement method for the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient for thin films especially on anisotropic substrate. This coefficient for piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films was calculated by measuring the electric field-induced tip displacement of unimorph cantilevers composed of PZT thin films and Si substrates. We evaluated the reliability of the proposed measurement method by comparing it with numerical analysis and confirmed that the relative error of the piezoelectric coefficient (e 31,f ) was less than 1%. We prepared 16 different unimorph cantilevers composed of identical PZT films on different Si beam geometries that had various substrate thicknesses and cantilever widths. Although the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e 31,f of PZT thin films ranged from −6.5 to −14 C/m 2 as a function of the applied voltage, the difference among the 16 samples with an applied voltage of 25 V was within 10%. These results demonstrate that the proposed measurement method has sufficient reliability and can be used to evaluate the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e 31,f of thin films.

  17. Impact of deposition temperature on the properties of SnS thin films grown over silicon substrate—comparative study of structural and optical properties with films grown on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, Kawther; Alouani, Khaled; Vilanova, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films were chemically deposited over silicon substrate in a temperature range of 250 °C-400 °C. The effects of deposition temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films were evaluated. All films present an orthorhombic SnS structure with a preferred orientation along (040). High absorption coefficients (in the range of 105 cm-1) were found for all obtained films with an increase in α value when deposition temperature decreases. Furthermore, the effects of substrate type were investigated based on comparison between the present results and those obtained for SnS films grown under the same deposition conditions but over glass substrate. The results suggest that the formation of SnS films onto glass substrate is faster than onto silicon substrate. It is found that the substrate nature affects the orientation growth of the films and that SnS films deposited onto Si present more defects than those deposited onto glass substrate. The optical transmittance is also restricted by the substrate type, mostly below 1000 nm. The obtained results for SnS films onto silicon suggest their promising integration within optoelectronic devices.

  18. Experimental and simulation study of growth of TiO2 films on different substrates and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghogare, Trupti T.; Kartha, Moses J.; Kendre, Subhash D.; Pathan, Habib M.

    2018-04-01

    Monte-Carlo Ballistic Deposition simulations have done on substrates with different initial roughness. The grown films were observed to be porous. The initial growths of the films with seed like initiations are observed for substrate with high initial roughness. In order to confirm this effect TiO2 films were deposited on different substrates using chemical bath deposition. The surface morphological and optical properties were measured using scanning electron microscopy and a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Flower like porous structure are obtained on glass substrate and continuous porous morphology is formed on ITO substrate. The morphology of the surfaces was successfully reconstructed and the surface porosity was calculated after digitalising images and reconstructed the surfaces. The TiO2 film formed on ITO is observed to be 10% more porous than on the film formed on glass substrate. Diffusion Limited Aggregation simulations with multiple seeds confirms that the observed flower like structure formed are due to the screening effects of the diffusing ion by already deposited particles.

  19. Co thin film with metastable bcc structure formed on GaAs(111 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minakawa Shigeyuki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Co thin films are prepared on GaAs(111 substrates at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 600 ºC by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The growth behavior and the detailed resulting film structure are investigated by in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. In early stages of film growth at temperatures lower than 200 ºC, Co crystals with metastable A2 (bcc structure are formed, where the crystal structure is stabilized through hetero-epitaxial growth. With increasing the film thickness beyond 2 nm, the metastable structure starts to transform into more stable A1 (fcc structure through atomic displacements parallel to the A2{110} close-packed planes. The crystallographic orientation relationship between the A2 and the transformed A1 crystals is A1{111} || A2{110}. When the substrate temperature is higher than 400 ºC, Ga atoms of substrate diffuse into the Co films and a Co-Ga alloy with bcc-based ordered structure of B2 is formed.

  20. Patterning of metallic electrodes on flexible substrates for organic thin-film transistors using a laser thermal printing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kun-Tso; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Ho, Jeng-Rong; Chen, Chih-Kant; Liu, Sung-Ho; Liao, Jin-Long; Cheng, Hua-Chi

    2011-01-01

    We report on a laser thermal printing method for transferring patterned metallic thin films on flexible plastic substrates using a pulsed CO 2 laser. Aluminium and silver line patterns, with micrometre scale resolution on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates, are shown. The printed electrodes demonstrate good conductivity and fulfil the properties for bottom-contact organic thin-film transistors. In addition to providing the energy for transferring the film, the absorption of laser light results in a rise in the temperature of the film and the substrate. This also further anneals the film and softens the plastic substrate. Consequently, it is possible to obtain a film with better surface morphology and with its film thickness implanted in part into the plastic surface. This implantation reveals excellent characteristics in adhesion and flexure resistance. Being feasible to various substrates and executable at ambient temperatures renders this approach a potential alternative for patterning metallic electrodes.

  1. Growth and characterization of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lee, Jongin; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Yi, Junsin; Song, Woo-Chang

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by d.c. magnetron sputtering as the front and back electrical contact for applications in flexible displays and optoelectronic devices. In addition, ITO powder was used for sputter target in order to reduce the cost and time of the film formation processes. As the sputtering power and pressure increased, the electrical conductivity of ITO films decreased. The films were increasingly dark gray colored as the sputtering power increased, resulting in the loss of transmittance of the films. When the pressure during deposition was higher, however, the optical transmittance improved at visible region of light. ITO films deposited onto PET have shown similar optical transmittance and electrical resistivity, in comparison with films onto glass substrate. High quality films with resistivity as low as 2.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm and transmittance over 80% have been obtained on to PET substrate by suitably controlling the deposition parameters

  2. Seebeck coefficient of synthesized Titanium Dioxide thin film on FTO glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usop, R.; Hamed, N. K. A.; Megat Hasnan, M. M. I.; Ikeda, H.; Sabri, M. F. M.; Ahmad, M. K.; Said, S. M.; Salleh, F.

    2018-04-01

    In order to fabricate a thermoelectric device on glass substrate for harvesting waste heat energy through house appliances, the Seebeck coefficient of translucent TiO2 thin film was investigated. The TiO2 thin film was synthesized by using hydrothermal method with F-SnO2 coated glass as substrate. From scanning electron microscopy analysis, the synthesized TiO2 thin film was found to be in nanometer-scale rod structure with a thickness of 4 µm. The Seebeck coefficient was measured in the temperature range of 300 – 400 K. The Seebeck coefficient is found to be in negative value which shows that synthesized film is an n-type semiconductor material, and is lower than the value of bulk-size material. This reduction in Seebeck coefficient of TiO2 thin film is likely due to the low dimensional effect and the difference of carrier concentration.

  3. The Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Structural Properties of Spray Pyrolysed Lead Sulphide (PbS Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad G. Faraj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead sulphide (PbS films were prepared by the chemical spray pyrolysis technique using a solution of Lead nitrate and thiourea. PbS films were deposited (prepared on glass substrate at varied temperature (250-350 oC. Effects of substrate temperature on the structural characteristics of the films were studied. The X-ray diffraction patterns’ results reveal that the all of PbS films have a face centered cubic structure. The X-ray diffraction study showed that irrespective of substrate temperature all the films exhibits a preferred orientation along the (200 plane. The degree of preferred orientation increased with the substrate temperature. It was observed that the increase of the substrate temperature increase the diffraction peak intensity of (200 plane which resulted in increase in grain size and good crystallinity of the films.

  4. Crystallization and growth of Ni-Si alloy thin films on inert and on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, I.; Weiss, B. Z.

    1995-04-01

    The crystallization kinetics and thermal stability of NiSi2±0.2 alloy thin films coevaporated on two different substrates were studied. The substrates were: silicon single crystal [Si(100)] and thermally oxidized silicon single crystal. In situ resistance measurements, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used. The postdeposition microstructure consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases. The amorphous phase, independent of the composition, crystallizes homogeneously to NiSi2 at temperatures lower than 200 °C. The activation energy, determined in the range of 1.4-2.54 eV, depends on the type of the substrate and on the composition of the alloyed films. The activation energy for the alloys deposited on the inert substrate was found to be lower than for the alloys deposited on silicon single crystal. The lowest activation energy was obtained for nonstoichiometric NiSi2.2, the highest for NiSi2—on both substrates. The crystallization mode depends on the structure of the as-deposited films, especially the density of the existing crystalline nuclei. Substantial differences were observed in the thermal stability of the NiSi2 compound on both substrates. With the alloy films deposited on the Si substrate, only the NiSi2 phase was identified after annealing to temperatures up to 800 °C. In the films deposited on the inert substrate, NiSi and NiSi2 phases were identified when the Ni content in the alloy exceeded 33 at. %. The effects of composition and the type of substrate on the crystallization kinetics and thermal stability are discussed.

  5. Effect of modified ITO substrate on electrochromic properties of polyaniline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Silva, U.; Nicho, M.E.; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEMor, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hu, Hailin [Departamento de Materiales Solares, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Av. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, 62580, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-09-22

    In this work, we report the morphological and electrochromic properties of electrochemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) thin films on bare and modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates. In the last case, the surface of ITO glass was covered by a self-assembled monolayer of N-phenyl-{gamma}-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (PAPTS). Atomic force microscopy images and perfilometry show that smoother and thinner PANI films were grown on PAPTS-modified ITO substrates. PANI-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) were assembled by using a viscous polymeric electrolyte (PE) of LiClO{sub 4} and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) co-dissolved in a mixture of propylene and ethylene carbonate. The architectural design of the devices was glass/ITO/PANI/PE/ITO/glass. A dual ECD was also prepared by collocating a poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT) thin film as a complementary electrochromic element. The effect of the PAPTS-modified ITO substrate is reflected in a higher optical transmittance at bleach state and a little less color change at 550 nm of PANI-based ECDs. (author)

  6. Laser welding of thin polymer films to container substrates for aseptic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N.; Kerr, D.; Jackson, M. R.; Parkin, R. M.

    2000-03-01

    Keyhole laser welding of polymers is a subject well covered and researched, but relatively little information exists regarding the welding of thin polymer films, particularly to a heavier substrate. This paper presents the design of a suitable test apparatus for laser welding thin film to a heavier substrate, and shows the results of an investigation into the feasibility of laser welding multi-layer polymer film lids to tubs for the manufacture of aseptic food containers. A consistent weld, free from defects, is the key to process success. Typical welding defects have been synthesised in order to investigate, and consequently remove, their cause. The result is a reliable welding method based on even film clamping. With careful attention to machine design, a seal of high mechanical strength and chemical integrity is possible.

  7. Influence of Surface Roughness and Agitation on the Morphology of Magnetite Films Electrodeposited on Carbon Steel Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Hyeok Jeon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the effects of surface roughness and agitation on the morphology of magnetite films electrodeposited from alkaline Fe(III-triethanolamine (TEA solutions on carbon steel substrates. The surface roughness of the carbon steel substrates was maintained in the range of 1.64–0.06 μm by using mechanical grinding and polishing methods. The agitation speed was set at 0 and 900 rpm during the electrodeposition process. The particle size and surface roughness value of the magnetite films gradually decreased with decreasing substrate roughness. However, the influence of the substrate roughness on the thickness of the magnetite film was negligible. The morphology of the magnetite film fabricated at 900 rpm appeared to be highly faceted compared to that of the magnetite film produced at 0 rpm. The thickness and surface roughness of the magnetite film significantly increased with the agitation speed, which also significantly affected the electrodeposition efficiency. The effects of substrate surface roughness and agitation on the morphology of magnetite films electrodeposited on carbon steel substrates were also discussed. The obtained results provide critical information for the simulation of magnetite deposits on carbon steel pipes in the secondary systems of nuclear power plants.

  8. MgB2 thin films on silicon nitride substrates prepared by an in situ method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticone, Eugenio; Gandini, Claudio; Portesi, Chiara; Rajteri, Mauro; Bodoardo, Silvia; Penazzi, Nerino; Dellarocca, Valeria; Gonnelli, Renato S

    2004-01-01

    Large-area MgB 2 thin films were deposited on silicon nitride and sapphire substrates by co-deposition of Mg and B. After a post-annealing in Ar atmosphere at temperatures between 773 and 1173 K depending on the substrate, the films showed a critical temperature higher than 35 K with a transition width less than 0.5 K. The x-ray diffraction pattern suggested a c-axis preferential orientation in films deposited on amorphous substrate. The smooth surface and the good structural properties of these MgB 2 films allowed their reproducible patterning by a standard photolithographic process down to dimensions of the order of 10 μm and without a considerable degradation of the superconducting properties

  9. Microbubble-Triggered Spontaneous Separation of Transparent Thin Films from Substrates Using Evaporable Core-Shell Nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Intae; Lee, Byungsun; Kim, Jae Hong; Kim, Chunho; Yoo, Ji Yong; Ahn, Byung Wook; Hwang, Jeongho; Lee, Jonghyuk; Lee, Jun Hyup

    2018-05-23

    The spontaneous separation of a polymer thin film from a substrate is an innovative technology that will enable material recycling and reduce manufacturing cost in the film industry, and this can be applied in a wide range of applications, from optical films to wearable devices. Here, we present an unprecedented spontaneous strategy for separating transparent polymer films from substrates on the basis of microbubble generation using nanocapsules containing an evaporable material. The core-shell nanocapsules are prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate)-polyethyleneimine nanoparticles via the encapsulation of methylcyclohexane (MCH). A spherical nanostructure with a vaporizable core is obtained, with the heat-triggered gas release ability leading to the formation of microbubbles. Our separation method applied to transparent polymer films doped with a small amount of the nanocapsules encapsulating evaporable MCH enables spontaneous detachment of thin films from substrates via vacuum-assisted rapid vaporization of MCH over a short separation time, and clear detachment of the film is achieved with no deterioration of the inherent optical transparency and adhesive property compared to a pristine film.

  10. The effect of substrate temperature on the microstructural, electrical and optical properties of Sn-doped indium oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoufi, Davood; Taherniya, Atefeh

    2015-06-01

    In this work, Sn doping In2O3 (ITO) thin films with a thickness of 200 nm were deposited on glass substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method at different substrate temperatures. The crystal structure of these films was studied by X-ray diffraction technique. The sheet resistance was measured by a four-point probe. Van der Pauw method was used to measure carrier density and mobility of ITO films. The optical transmittance spectra were recorded in the wavelength region of 300-800 nm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used for the surface morphology analysis. The prepared ITO films exhibited body-centered cubic (BCC) structure with preferred orientation of growth along the (2 2 2) crystalline plane. The grain size of the films increases by rising the substrate temperature. Transparency of the films, over the visible light region, is increased with increasing the substrate temperature. It is found that the electrical properties of ITO films are significantly affected by substrate temperature. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, whereas the carrier density and mobility are enhanced with an increase in substrate temperature. The evaluated values of energy band gap Eg for ITO films were increase from 3.84 eV to 3.91 eV with increasing the substrate temperatures from 200 °C to 500 °C. The SEM micrographs of the films revealed a homogeneous growth without perceptible cracks with particles which are well covered on the substrate.

  11. Growth of TiO2 Thin Film on Various Substrates using RF Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2011-01-01

    The conductivity of Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin film fabricated using Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering on Silicon (Si), Indium doped--Tin Oxide (ITO) and microscope glass (M) substrates is presented in this paper. The dependant of thin film thickness and type of substrate been discussed. TiO 2 was deposited using Ti target in Ar+O 2 (45:10) mixture at 250 W for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 minute. Resultant thickness varies from 295 nm to 724 nm with deposition rate 6.4 nm/min. On the other hand, resistivity, Rs value for ITO substrate is between 5.72x10 -7 to 1.54x10 -6 Ω.m, Si substrate range is between 3.52x10 -6 to 1.76x10 -5 Ω.m and M substrate range is between 99 to 332 Ω.m. The value of resistivity increases with the thickness of the thin film.

  12. Structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnS films grown on porous Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-feng; Hu, Bo; Yi, Hou-hui; Li, Wei-bing

    2011-11-01

    ZnS films were deposited on porous silicon (PS) substrates with different porosities. With the increase of PS substrate porosity, the XRD diffraction peak intensity decreases and the surface morphology of the ZnS films becomes rougher. Voids appear in the films, due to the increased roughness of PS structure. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the samples before and after deposition of ZnS were measured to study the effect of substrate porosity on the luminescence properties of ZnS/PS composites. As-prepared PS substrates emit strong red light. The red PL peak of PS after deposition of ZnS shows an obvious blueshift. As PS substrate porosity increases, the trend of blueshift increases. A green emission at about 550 nm was also observed when the porosity of PS increased, which is ascribed to the defect-center luminescence of ZnS. The effect of annealing time on the structural and luminescence properties of ZnS/PS composites were also studied. With the increase of annealing time, the XRD diffraction peak intensity and the self-activated luminescence intensity of ZnS increase, and, the surface morphology of the ZnS films becomes smooth and compact. However, the red emission intensity of PS decreases, which was associated with a redshift. White light emission was obtained by combining the luminescence of ZnS with the luminescence of PS.

  13. Highly textured Nd-Fe-B films grown on amorphous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannemann, Ullrich; Melcher, Steffen; Faehler, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    Thin films with an almost perfect alignment of Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains with the c-axis (easy magnetisation direction) perpendicular to the film plane were achieved on amorphous SiN substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The texture arises due to epitaxial growth on a Ta(1 1 0) buffer deposited prior to the Nd-Fe-B film. Out-of-plane coercivity of 1.3 T and remanence to saturation magnetisation ratio around 0.95 are obtained for Nd-rich films. An analysis of the coercivity mechanism shows that the switching mechanism is nucleation dominated, independent of the Nd content

  14. Highly textured Nd-Fe-B films grown on amorphous substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, Ullrich E-mail: u.hannemann@ifw-dresden.de; Melcher, Steffen; Faehler, Sebastian

    2004-05-01

    Thin films with an almost perfect alignment of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with the c-axis (easy magnetisation direction) perpendicular to the film plane were achieved on amorphous SiN substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The texture arises due to epitaxial growth on a Ta(1 1 0) buffer deposited prior to the Nd-Fe-B film. Out-of-plane coercivity of 1.3 T and remanence to saturation magnetisation ratio around 0.95 are obtained for Nd-rich films. An analysis of the coercivity mechanism shows that the switching mechanism is nucleation dominated, independent of the Nd content.

  15. Superconductivity degradation in Gd-containing high temperature superconductors (HTSC) under thermal neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Kudrenitskis, I.; Makletsov, A.; Arhipov, A.; Karklin, N.

    1999-01-01

    The physical properties of ordered crystals are extremely sensitive to the degree of order in the distribution of the various kinds of atoms over the corresponding sites in the crystal lattice. An increasingly popular means of creating disordered states is to use nuclear radiation. The type of radiation defects which appear and the nature and degree of the structural changes in ordered crystals depend on the kind of radiation and the fluence level, the irradiation temperature, the type of crystal structure, the composition and initial disorder of the material, the character of the interatomic forces, etc. There are many such scientific publications where the effects of fast neutron irradiation on high temperature superconductors (HTSC) have been studied in both polycrystalline and single crystalline superconductors. It is known also that the role of thermal neutrons in structural defects forming is negligible in comparison with fast neutrons because of their small (∼0.025 eV) energy. But it is evident enough that in superconductors containing isotopes with large thermal neutron cross sections the important results concerning the role of point defects could be obtained. Such point defects are creating due to soft displacements of isotopes having interacted with thermal neutrons. Such the possibility of creating point defects in solids including HTSC is investigating by several groups (Austria, USA, China, Latvia) and these investigations have found the support in the person of IAEA. In this review the authors consider the changes brought about by thermal-neutron irradiation (E∼0.025 eV) in the structure, superconducting and magnetic properties of gadolinium containing ordered HTSC with the structure 123, whose extreme electric and magnetic properties continue to attract both research and practical interest. All of the studies reviewed have been done on bulk polycrystalline samples RBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (where R - natural mixture of Gd isotopes, 155 Gd, 157 Gd, 160

  16. Study of interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium copper, lead nitrates solutions with sodium oxalate solution with the aim of HTSC synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.P.; Krasnobaeva, O.N.; Nosova, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of developing a new technique for HTSC oxides synthesis on the base of combined sedimentation of hydroxy salts and their heat treatment is studied interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium, copper and lead nitrates with alkali solution of sodium oxalate. Conditions for total sedimentation of all five metals from the solution are found. The phase composition of interaction products is determined. It is established that they are high-dispersed homogeneous mixture of three phases of variable composition: twin hydroxalate of copper-bismuth, lead hydroxalate and twin oxalate of strontium-calcium. After heat treatment of the phases are obtained the HTSC oxides

  17. Effects of the substrate temperature on the properties of CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannouni, M., E-mail: gm_mounir@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere 1002-Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere 1002-Tunis (Tunisia)

    2011-10-01

    Structural, optical and electrical properties of CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} thin films grown by thermal evaporation have been studied relating the effects of substrate heating conditions of these properties. The CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} thin films were carried out at substrate temperatures in the temperature range 100-300 deg. C. The effects of heated substrate on their physico-chemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), optical transmission and hot probe method. X-ray diffraction revealed that the films are strong preferred orientation along the (3 1 1) plane upon substrate temperature 200 deg. C and amorphous for the substrate temperatures below 200 deg. C. No secondary phases are observed for all the films. The composition is greatly affected by heated substrate. From the optical transmission and reflection, an important absorption coefficient exceeds 10{sup 5} cm{sup -1} at 800 nm was found. As increasing the substrate temperature, the optical energy band gap decreases from 1.70 eV for the unheated films to 1.25 eV for the deposited films at 300 deg. C. It was found that CuIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} thin film is an n-type semiconductor at 250 deg. C.

  18. Sintering effect on the optoelectronic characteristics of HgSe nanoparticle films on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Kwangsub; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2010-01-01

    The optoelectronic characteristics of HgSe nanoparticle films spin-coated on flexible plastic substrates are investigated under the illumination of 1.3 μm wavelength light. The sintering process improves the optoelectronic characteristics of the HgSe nanoparticle films. The photocurrent of the sintered HgSe nanoparticle films under the illumination of 1.3 μm wavelength light is approximately 20 times larger in magnitude than that of the non-sintered films in air at room temperature. Moreover, the endurance of the flexible optoelectronic device investigated by the continuous substrate bending test reveals that the photocurrent efficiency changes negligibly up to 250 cycles.

  19. Wrinkling of flexoelectric nano-film/substrate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengkai; Huang, Huaiwei; Liu, Yijie; Zhu, Zheng H.

    2018-02-01

    The study of wrinkling mechanisms essentially helps to establish stable and controllable performance in electronic products. To gain some basic understanding of the wrinkling process in flexoelectric dielectrics, this paper models the wrinkling of nano-film/substrate systems, typically seen in stretchable electronics, subjected to substrate prestrain and voltage loading on electrodes. Flexoelectricity is considered through the constitutive equations proposed by Shen and Hu, and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is applied to formulate the expressions of wrinkling wavelength and amplitude through the Ritz method. The effects of flexoelectricity, surface parameters, prestrain, applied voltage, structural scale etc on wrinkling behaviors, including wrinkling deformation and the wrinkling critical condition, are discussed. Results reveal that the action of both flexoelectric and surface effects is significant over only a small scale range, with film thickness less than 10 nm. Alongside these issues, the fundamental difference between flexoelectric and piezoelectric effects on wrinkling behaviors is highlighted. Piezoelectricity may act as a promoter or suppressor of wrinkling initiation and amplitude, depending on the applied voltage, while flexoelectricity not only reduces the critical prestrain or voltage required for wrinkling, but also decreases the wrinkling wavelength and amplitude.

  20. Microstructure and magnetic properties of FeCo epitaxial thin films grown on MgO single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikada, Kouhei; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(100), MgO(110), and MgO(111) substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. FeCo thin films with (100), (211), and (110) planes parallel to the substrate surface grow on respective MgO substrates. FeCo/MgO interface structures are studied by high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and the epitaxial growth mechanism is discussed. Atomically sharp boundaries are recognized between the FeCo thin films and the MgO substrates where misfit dislocations are introduced in the FeCo thin films presumably to decrease the lattice misfits. Misfit dislocations are observed approximately every 9 and 1.4 nm in FeCo thin film at the FeCo/MgO(100) and the FeCo/MgO(110) interfaces, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the lattice spacing measured parallel to the single-crystal substrate surfaces are in agreement within 0.1% with those of the respective bulk values of Fe 50 Co 50 alloy crystal, showing that the FeCo film strain is very small. The magnetic anisotropies of these epitaxial films basically reflect the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bulk FeCo alloy crystal

  1. Efficient transfer of large-area graphene films onto rigid substrates by hot pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junmo; Hwang, Soonhwi; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Min Hyeok; Ryu, Jaechul; Seo, Sang Jae; Hong, Byung Hee; Kim, Moon Ki; Choi, Jae-Boong

    2012-06-26

    Graphene films grown on metal substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method have to be safely transferred onto desired substrates for further applications. Recently, a roll-to-roll (R2R) method has been developed for large-area transfer, which is particularly efficient for flexible target substrates. However, in the case of rigid substrates such as glass or wafers, the roll-based method is found to induce considerable mechanical damages on graphene films during the transfer process, resulting in the degradation of electrical property. Here we introduce an improved dry transfer technique based on a hot-pressing method that can minimize damage on graphene by neutralizing mechanical stress. Thus, we enhanced the transfer efficiency of the large-area graphene films on a substrate with arbitrary thickness and rigidity, evidenced by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) images, Raman spectra, and various electrical characterizations. We also performed a theoretical multiscale simulation from continuum to atomic level to compare the mechanical stresses caused by the R2R and the hot-pressing methods, which also supports our conclusion. Consequently, we believe that the proposed hot-pressing method will be immediately useful for display and solar cell applications that currently require rigid and large substrates.

  2. Effects of annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machinaga, Hironobu; Ueda, Eri; Mizuike, Atsuko; Takeda, Yuuki; Shimokita, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. The ITO films were annealed at the range from 150 °C to 195 °C after the DC sputtering deposition for the production of polycrystalline ITO layers on the substrates. The onset strains of cracking in the annealed ITO films were evaluated by the uniaxial stretching tests with electrical resistance measurements during film stretching. The results indicate that the onset strain of cracking in the ITO film is clearly increased by increasing the annealing temperature. The in-situ measurements of the inter-planer spacing of the (222) plane in the crystalline ITO films during film stretching by using synchrotron radiation strongly suggest that the large compressive stress in the ITO film increases the onset strain of cracking in the film. X-ray stress analyses of the annealed ITO films and thermal mechanical analyses of the PET substrates also clarifies that the residual compressive stress in the ITO film is enhanced with increasing the annealing temperature due to the considerably larger shrinkage of the PET substrate. - Highlights: • Indium-tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • Mechanical durability of the ITO is improved by high temperature post-annealing. • The shrinkage in the PET increases with rising the post-annealing temperature. • The shrinkage of the PET enhances the compressive stress in the ITO film. • Large compressive stress in the ITO film may improve its mechanical durability

  3. Semiconductor- to metallic-like behavior in Bi thin films on KCl substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Thanh Nhan; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Bi thin films, with a thickness of 100 nm, are deposited by electron-beam evaporation on a freshly cleaved (100) KCl substrate. The substrate temperature during film growth (T_d_e_p) ranges from room temperature up to 170 °C. Films deposited at room temperature exhibit a maze-like microstructure typical of the rhombohedral (110) texture, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. For T_d_e_p above 80 °C, a different microstructure appears, characterized by concentric triangular shapes corresponding to the trigonal (111) texture. Temperature dependence of the resistivity shows a transition from a semiconductor-like behavior for films deposited at room temperature to a metallic-like behavior for T_d_e_p above 80 °C. From magnetoresistance measurements between room temperature and 1.6 K, we extract the electron and hole mobilities, concentrations, and mean free paths, which allow to draw a complete picture of the transport properties of both types of films.

  4. Influence of the side chain and substrate on polythiophene thin film surface, bulk, and buried interfacial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Minyu; Jasensky, Joshua; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Pichan, Cayla; Lu, Xiaolin; Chen, Zhan

    2016-08-10

    The molecular structures of organic semiconducting thin films mediate the performance of various devices composed of such materials. To fully understand how the structures of organic semiconductors alter on substrates due to different polymer side chains and different interfacial interactions, thin films of two kinds of polythiophene derivatives with different side-chains, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(3-potassium-6-hexanoate thiophene) (P3KHT), were deposited and compared on various surfaces. A combination of analytical tools was applied in this research: contact angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize substrate dielectric surfaces with varied hydrophobicity for polymer film deposition; X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to examine the polythiophene film bulk structure; sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was utilized to probe the molecular structures of polymer film surfaces in air and buried solid/solid interfaces. Both side-chain hydrophobicity and substrate hydrophobicity were found to mediate the crystallinity of the polythiophene film, as well as the orientation of the thiophene ring within the polymer backbone at the buried polymer/substrate interface and the polymer thin film surface in air. For the same type of polythiophene film deposited on different substrates, a more hydrophobic substrate surface induced thiophene ring alignment with the surface normal at both the buried interface and on the surface in air. For different films (P3HT vs. P3KHT) deposited on the same dielectric substrate, a more hydrophobic polythiophene side chain caused the thiophene ring to align more towards the surface at the buried polymer/substrate interface and on the surface in air. We believe that the polythiophene surface, bulk, and buried interfacial molecular structures all influence the hole mobility within the polythiophene film. Successful characterization of an organic conducting

  5. Room temperature deposition of perpendicular magnetic anisotropic Co{sub 3}Pt thin films on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shen; Dai, Hong-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Wei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan-Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan (China); Ou, Sin-Liang, E-mail: slo@mail.dyu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shi-Wei [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lu, Hsi-Chuan; Wang, Sea-Fue [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sun, An-Cheng, E-mail: acsun@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan-Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    Co{sub 3}Pt alloy thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at room temperature (RT) and 300 °C, which showed high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and isotropy magnetic behaviors, respectively. Co{sub 3}Pt HCP (0002) planes grew along the substrate plane for the films deposited at RT. The easy axis [0001] was consequently vertical to the substrate surface and obtained the predominant PMA. Large magnetic domains and sharp boundary also supported high PMA in RT-deposited samples. On the other hand, the PMA was significantly decreased with increasing the deposition temperature from RT to 300 °C. Hard HCP(0002) and soft A1(111) co-existed in the film and the magnetic exchanged coupling between these two phases induced isotropy magnetic behavior. In addition, the various thicknesses (t) of the RT-deposited Co{sub 3}Pt films were deposited with different base pressures prior to sputtering. The Kerr rotation loops showed high PMA and out-of-plane squareness (S{sub ⊥}) of ~0.9 were found in low base pressure chamber. Within high base pressure chamber, Co{sub 3}Pt films just show magnetic isotropy behaviors. This study provides a fabrication method for the preparation of high PMA HCP-type Co{sub 3}Pt films on the glass substrate without any underlayer at RT. The results could be the base for future development of RT-deposited magnetic alloy thin film with high PMA. - Highlights: • Fabricated high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Co{sub 3}Pt thin film on glass substrate. • Prepared HCP Co{sub 3}Pt thin film at room temperature. • The key to enhance the PMA of the Co{sub 3}Pt films. • Thinner film is good to fabricate PMA Co{sub 3}Pt thin films.

  6. Radiation induced improvement of superconducting properties of HTSC materials (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, E.M.; Kirk, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate unique opportunities for significant improvement of superconducting properties of YBaCuO single crystals, ceramics, films and tapes by means of different irradiation. It was found (about 200 papers) that irradiation with moderate doses of high energy particles (electron, protons, neutrons, ions) results in significant enhancement of magnetization and Jc at high magnetic fields (1-5 T). So called flux pinning centers responsible for such enhancement are still a subject for study. Most researches ascribe the stronger pinners to linear and columnar defects, and weaker ones to point defects. Several researches reported also about small increase of the critical temperature Tc after ionizing irradiation (X- or gamma-rays). All these data are related to improvement of Jc in bulk - intragranular critical current, which is much higher than the real intragranular transport critical current Ic limited by weak intergrain contacts. Much less studied is the effect of irradiation on the intragranular critical current and conductivity. Several authors found some increase of current carrying ability of YBaCuO ceramics, crystals and films after X-ray , gamma-ray, oxygen plasma, electron and proton irradiations. However there was not mentioned direct correlation between the radiation induced changes in the Tc, Jc, Ic and the normal state resistivity. Only a few papers are devoted to synthesis or sintering the particular texture ensuring enhancement of the intergranular contacts by minimizing both off-plan and in-plan grain misorientation. The transport Ic at 77 K and the normal state resistivity correlated well each to other and with the c-axis-texturing degree of the YBaCuO ceramics. Our latest experiment on proton irradiation at elevated temperatures of the coated conductors (the second generation of HTSC tapes) demonstrated a noticeable increase of the transport (intergranular) Ic at 77 K and a significant decrease of the normal state

  7. Profilometry of thin films on rough substrates by Raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Ledinský, Martin

    2016-12-06

    Thin, light-absorbing films attenuate the Raman signal of underlying substrates. In this article, we exploit this phenomenon to develop a contactless thickness profiling method for thin films deposited on rough substrates. We demonstrate this technique by probing profiles of thin amorphous silicon stripes deposited on rough crystalline silicon surfaces, which is a structure exploited in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. Our spatially-resolved Raman measurements enable the thickness mapping of amorphous silicon over the whole active area of test solar cells with very high precision; the thickness detection limit is well below 1 nm and the spatial resolution is down to 500 nm, limited only by the optical resolution. We also discuss the wider applicability of this technique for the characterization of thin layers prepared on Raman/photoluminescence-active substrates, as well as its use for single-layer counting in multilayer 2D materials such as graphene, MoS2 and WS2.

  8. Profilometry of thin films on rough substrates by Raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Ledinský , Martin; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Vetushka, Aliaksei; Geissbü hler, Jonas; Tomasi, Andrea; Despeisse, Matthieu; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif  , Christophe; Fejfar, Antoní n

    2016-01-01

    Thin, light-absorbing films attenuate the Raman signal of underlying substrates. In this article, we exploit this phenomenon to develop a contactless thickness profiling method for thin films deposited on rough substrates. We demonstrate this technique by probing profiles of thin amorphous silicon stripes deposited on rough crystalline silicon surfaces, which is a structure exploited in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. Our spatially-resolved Raman measurements enable the thickness mapping of amorphous silicon over the whole active area of test solar cells with very high precision; the thickness detection limit is well below 1 nm and the spatial resolution is down to 500 nm, limited only by the optical resolution. We also discuss the wider applicability of this technique for the characterization of thin layers prepared on Raman/photoluminescence-active substrates, as well as its use for single-layer counting in multilayer 2D materials such as graphene, MoS2 and WS2.

  9. Growth of tin oxide thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloly, Abdul Rasheed; Satheesh, M. [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Martínez-Tomás, M. Carmen; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain); Rajappan Achary, Sreekumar [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Bushiri, M. Junaid, E-mail: junaidbushiri@gmail.com [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} thin films were grown on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates. • Samples on hydrophobic substrates are having comparatively larger lattice volume. • Films on hydrophobic substrates have larger particles and low density distribution. • Substrate dependent photoluminescence emission is observed and studied. • SnO{sub 2} thin films grown over hydrophobic substrates may find potential applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have demonstrated the growth of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophobic (siliconized) and hydrophilic (non-siliconized) glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of SnO{sub 2} thin films with tetragonal rutile-phase structure. Average particle size of nanoparticles was determined to be in the range of 3–4 nm measured from the front view images obtained by a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FESEM), while the size of nanoparticle clusters, when present, were in the range of 11–20 nm. Surface morphology of SnO{sub 2} films grown over hydrophobic substrates revealed larger isolated particles which are less crowded compared to the highly crowded and agglomerated smaller particles in films on hydrophilic substrates. Blue shift in the band gap is observed in samples in which the average particle size is slightly larger than the exciton Bohr radius. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of samples grown over hydrophobic substrates exhibited an intense defect level emission and a weak near band edge emission. The enhanced visible emission from these SnO{sub 2} thin films is attributed to lattice defects formed during the film growth due to the mismatch between the film and the hydrophobic substrate surface.

  10. ALD grown nanostructured ZnO thin films: Effect of substrate temperature on thickness and energy band gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO thin films with high transparency have been grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition at various temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 300 °C. Efforts have been made to observe the effect of substrate temperature on the thickness of the deposited thin films and its consequences on the energy band gap. A remarkably high growth rate of 0.56 nm per cycle at a substrate temperature of 200 °C for ZnO thin films have been achieved. This is the maximum growth rate for ALD deposited ZnO thin films ever reported so far to the best of our knowledge. The studies of field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry patterns confirm the deposition of uniform and high quality nanosturtured ZnO thin films which have a polycrystalline nature with preferential orientation along (100 plane. The thickness of the films deposited at different substrate temperatures was measured by ellipsometry and surface profiling system while the UV–visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies have been used to evaluate the optical properties of the respective thin films. It has been observed that the thickness of the thin film depends on the substrate temperatures which ultimately affect the optical and structural parameters of the thin films.

  11. Ferromagnetic Film on a Superconducting Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    We study the equilibrium domain structure and magnetic flux around a ferromagnetic (FM) film with perpendicular magnetization M_0 on a superconducting (SC) substrate. At 4{\\pi}M_0> 1. Here \\lambda_L is the London penetration length. For 4{\\pi}M_0 > H_{c1} and l_{N} in excess of about 35 {\\lambda}_{L}, the domains are connected by SC vortices. We argue that pinning of vortices by magnetic domains in FM/SC multilayers can provide high critical currents.

  12. TiO2 Nanotubes on Transparent Substrates: Control of Film Microstructure and Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matus Zelny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of semiconductor thin films on transparent and or flexible substrates is a highly desirable process to enable photonic, catalytic, and sensing technologies. A promising approach to fabricate nanostructured TiO2 films on transparent substrates is self-ordering by anodizing of thin metal films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO. Here, we report pulsed direct current (DC magnetron sputtering for the deposition of titanium thin films on conductive glass substrates at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 450 °C. We describe in detail the influence that deposition temperature has on mechanical, adhesion and microstructural properties of titanium film, as well as on the corresponding TiO2 nanotube array obtained after anodization and annealing. Finally, we measure the photoelectrochemical water splitting activity of different TiO2 nanotube samples showing that the film deposited at 150 °C has much higher activity correlating well with the lower crystallite size and the higher degree of self-organization observed in comparison with the nanotubes obtained at different temperatures. Importantly, the film showing higher water splitting activity does not have the best adhesion on glass substrate, highlighting an important trade-off for future optimization.

  13. Size- and phase-dependent mechanical properties of ultrathin Si films on polyimide substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlich, Franziska F.; Spolenak, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin Si films in the nanometer range are extensively used for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Their mechanical properties have a high impact on the durability of the devices during lifetime. Here, fragmentation and buckling of 8–103 nm thin amorphous and polycrystalline (poly-) Si films on polyimide substrates have been studied by in situ light microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and resistance measurements. Generally, a smaller film thickness and a compressive residual stress delays the fracture of the film. The fracture strength of poly-Si films is larger compared to that of amorphous Si films while the adhesion to the substrate is better for amorphous Si compared to poly-Si. The onset delamination as a function of film thickness differs for the two phases and is described by two different models. Thin-film models for fracture toughness (amorphous Si: K 1C  = 1.49 ± 0.22, poly-Si: K 1C  = 3.36 ± 1.37) are applied, discussed, and found to be consistent with literature values.

  14. Laser micromachining of indium tin oxide films on polymer substrates by laser-induced delamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, David A; Dreier, Adam L

    2009-01-01

    A Q-switched neodymium : yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd : YAG) laser was used to ablate indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films from polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Film damage and partial removal with no evidence of a melt zone was observed above 1.7 J cm -2 . Above the film removal threshold (3.3 J cm -2 ) the entire film thickness was removed without substrate damage, suggesting that ablation was a result of delamination of the film in the solid phase. Measurements of ablated fragment velocities near the ablation threshold were consistent with calculations of velocities caused by stress-induced delamination of the ITO film, except for a high velocity component at higher fluences. Nanosecond time-resolved shadowgraph photography revealed that the high velocity component was a shock wave induced by the rapid compression of ambient air when the film delaminated.

  15. Structural, optical and electrical characteristics of ITO thin films deposited by sputtering on different polyester substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.

    2008-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and different polyester substrates; namely polyarylate (PA), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephtalate (PET). The influence of the substrate on the structural, optical and electrical characteristics of the ITO layers was investigated. The sputtered films exhibited crystallization in the (2 2 2) orientation, with higher mean crystallite size and lower structural distortion onto PET than onto PA, PC or glass substrates. ITO films deposited onto PET showed also higher band gap energy, higher carrier concentration and lower resistivity than the ITO layers onto the other tested substrates. These optical and electrical characteristics have been related to the structural distortion that was found dependent on the specific polyester substrate

  16. Effect of substrate porosity on photoluminescence properties of ZnS films prepared on porous Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Feng; Li, Qing-Shan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Lv, Lei; Qi, Hong-Xia

    2007-05-01

    ZnS films were deposited on porous Si (PS) substrates with different porosities by pulsed laser deposition. The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to study the effect of substrate porosity on luminescence properties of ZnS/porous Si composites. After deposition of ZnS films, the red photoluminescence peak of porous Si shows a slight blueshift compared with as-prepared porous Si samples. With an increase of the porosity, a green emission at about 550 nm was observed which may be ascribed to the defect-center luminescence of ZnS films, and the photoluminescence of ZnS/porous Si composites is very close to white light. Good crystal structures of the samples were observed by x-ray diffraction, showing that ZnS films were grown in preferred orientation. Due to the roughness of porous Si surface, some cracks appear in ZnS films, which could be seen from scanning electron microscope images.

  17. Realisation and study of poly-phthalocyanine thin films grafted on solid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huc, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop thin films of phthalocyanines covalently grafted to solid substrates. These thin films are formed of successive monomolecular layers of macrocycles, deposited on the substrate by a 'Merrifield' sequential method. These phthalocyanines have in their centre a metallic ion (such as ruthenium) which ensures the bonding of phthalocyanines on the substrate and the assembling of monolayers consecutive together. The deposition of these monolayers is provided by a succession of two spontaneous exchange ligands reactions between the labile groups L initially bound to ruthenium and to those present on the substrate (preliminary functionalized). The repetition of these two steps allows to consider the controlled formation of phthalocyanines multilayers by self-assembling. The main substrates used are the silicon oxide and the gold. Their different characteristics have imposed the development of separate functionalization and characterization methods. The results obtained with these two substrates are separately described. A second method of construction of successive monolayers of phthalocyanines is described involving a chemical coupling between an amine function carried out by the substrate and an aldehyde function present on the ligands bound on ruthenium. (author) [fr

  18. Enhanced Self-Organized Dewetting of Ultrathin Polymer Blend Film for Large-Area Fabrication of SERS Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Xu, Lin; Xu, Yabo; Huang, Gang; Zhao, Xueyu; Lai, Yuqing; Shi, Tongfei

    2016-12-06

    We study the enhanced dewetting of ultrathin Polystyrene (PS)/Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend films in a mixed solution, and reveal the dewetting can act as a simple and effective method to fabricate large-area surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. A bilayer structure consisting of under PMMA layer and upper PS layer forms due to vertical phase separation of immiscible PS/PMMA during the spin-coating process. The thicker layer of the bilayer structure dominates the dewetting structures of PS/PMMA blend films. The diameter and diameter distribution of droplets, and the average separation spacing between the droplets can be precisely controlled via the change of blend ratio and film thickness. The dewetting structure of 8 nm PS/PMMA (1:1 wt%) blend film is proved to successfully fabricate large-area (3.5 cm × 3.5 cm) universal SERS substrate via deposited a silver layer on the dewetting structure. The SERS substrate shows good SERS-signal reproducibility (RSD dewetting of polymer blend films broadens the application of dewetting of polymer films, especially in the nanotechnology, and may open a new approach for the fabrication of large-area SERS substrate to promote the application of SERS substrate in the rapid sensitive detection of trace molecules.

  19. Gas barrier properties of titanium oxynitride films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, L.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lschang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Lin, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, 106 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2008-03-30

    Titanium oxynitride (TiN{sub x}O{sub y}) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by means of a reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system in which the power density and substrate bias were the varied parameters. Experimental results show that the deposited TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films exhibited an amorphous or a columnar structure with fine crystalline dependent on power density. The deposition rate increases significantly in conjunction as the power density increases from 2 W/cm{sup 2} to 7 W/cm{sup 2}. The maximum deposition rate occurs, as the substrate bias is -40 V at a certain power densities chosen in this study. The film's roughness slightly decreases with increasing substrate bias. The TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films deposited at power densities above 4 W/cm{sup 2} show a steady Ti:N:O ratio of about 1:1:0.8. The water vapor and oxygen transmission rates of the TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films reach values as low as 0.98 g/m{sup 2}-day-atm and 0.60 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-day-atm which are about 6 and 47 times lower than those of the uncoated PET substrate, respectively. These transmission rates are comparable to those of DLC, carbon-based and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier films. Therefore, TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films are potential candidates to be used as a gas permeation barrier for PET substrate.

  20. Film processing characteristics of nano gold suitable for conductive application on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ashish; Mandal, Saumen; Katiyar, Monica; Mohapatra, Yashowanta N.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of large number of studies and wide use of thiol encapsulated gold nanoparticles, the mechanism of their transformation to thin gold films for conductive applications is not as yet well understood. In order to understand and optimize the process of conversion of nanoparticle based ink for printing on plastic substrates, we synthesize and study thiolated Au nanoparticles, with average size of 2 nm, but with differing carbon chain length viz. butane (Au-C4), hexane (Au-C6) and octane (Au-C8). The link between the properties of Au nanoparticle and its transformation from nonconductive gold nanoparticle ink to conductive gold film is studied using a variety of techniques such as thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. A combined study of the shape of solution TGA and differential thermal analysis indicates occurrence of two distinct processes corresponding to disentanglement and debonding of thiol chains preceding the sintering of nanoparticles. The lowest sintering temperature is observed to be approximately 155 °C for chain length C4, and hence Au-C4 on polyethylene terephthalate substrates is studied in detail. Though XRD peaks of thick drop-cast films on polyethylene terephthalate substrate show increasing peak intensity with annealing temperature as expected, for spin coated thin films, in contrast, the peak intensity decreases with increase in annealing temperature. Electrical conductivity of the thin films is comparable to bulk gold after conversion, but decreases with increase in annealing temperature demonstrating the usefulness of insights obtained in the study for optimization of annealing schedules. - Highlights: ► Sintering of alkanethiol capped Au nanoparticles is chainlength dependent. ► Sintering temperature depends on thiol debonding. ► Butanethiol capped Au nanoparticles are the most suitable for flexible substrates.

  1. ITO films with enhanced electrical properties deposited on unheated ZnO-coated polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Lavareda, G.; Fortunato, E.; Alves, H.; Goncalves, A.; Varela, J.; Nascimento, R.; Amaral, A.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited by radio frequency (rf)-plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation (rf-PERTE) at room temperature on intrinsic ZnO/polymer substrates to enhance their electrical and structural properties. The polymer substrate used is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The thickness of the ZnO films varied in the range 50-150 nm. The average thickness of the ITO films is of about 170 nm. Results show that ITO deposited on bare PET substrates exhibit: an average visible transmittance of about 85% and an electrical resistivity of 5.6 x 10 -2 Ω cm. ITO on ZnO/PET substrates show the optical quality practically preserved and the resistivity decreased to a minimum value of 1.9x10 -3 Ω cm for ZnO layers 125 nm thick. The electrical properties of ITO on ZnO/PET are largely improved by the increase in carrier mobility

  2. Properties of HTS YBCO thin films deposited on tilted NdGaO{sub 3} substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurgaliev, T. [Laboratory of Superconductivity and Cryoelectronics, Institute of Electronics BAS, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: timur@ie.bas.bg; Donchev, T. [Laboratory of Superconductivity and Cryoelectronics, Institute of Electronics BAS, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mateev, E. [Laboratory of Superconductivity and Cryoelectronics, Institute of Electronics BAS, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Miteva, S. [Laboratory of Superconductivity and Cryoelectronics, Institute of Electronics BAS, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mozhaev, P.B. [Institute of Physics and Technology RAS, Nakhimovsky Ave. 36, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mozhaeva, J.E. [Institute of Physics and Technology RAS, Nakhimovsky Ave. 36, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-03-15

    Thin YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films were fabricated by 2-opposed DC magnetron sputtering onto NdGaO{sub 3} substrates, tilted from standard (1 1 0) orientation by 0-26 deg , and their surface morphology and electrical characteristics were investigated. Normal state resistivity (at 295 K) and microwave surface resistance (at 77 K and {approx}8 GHz) of the films demonstrated anisotropy, introduced by the tilted substrate, and some improvement of the superconducting parameters of the films was observed at small tilt angles ({theta} {approx} 1.5-3 deg ). The increase of the microwave surface resistance at high tilt angles for the current tracks, perpendicular to the steps of the substrate, was described in the framework of a simple model, which takes into account the complex conductivity of the film and the weak links between the film terraces.

  3. Effect of substrate temperature and post annealing temperature on ZnO:Zn PLD thin film properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasabeldaim, E.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Kroon, R. E.; Coetsee, E.; Swart, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) substrate temperature and post-annealing temperature are effective methods to control the film optical and structural properties. The structure, morphology and optical properties of the deposited and post-annealed PLD ZnO:Zn films were studied. The films were deposited at different substrate temperatures of 50 °C, 200 °C and 400 °C. The films deposited at the substrate temperature of 50 °C and 200 °C were post-annealed in air at 400 °C and 600 °C for two hours. The films all had a highly preferential orientation with the hexagonal c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. The stress was found to be compressive stress with values -3.289 GPa, -4.864 GPa and -4.425 GPa for the film deposited at 50 °C, 200 °C and 400 °C, respectively. After post-annealing treatments, the stress of the films was almost completely released and stress-free films were obtained. The crystallite sizes were 19 nm, 25 nm and 39 nm, while the average particles sizes were 95 nm, 85 nm and 129 nm for the film deposited at 50 °C, 200 °C and 400 °C respectively. The crystallite sizes and particles sizes seemed to increase with the increase in the substrate temperature. Contrary to this, the change in crystallite sizes were inversely proportional to the particles size when increasing the post-annealing temperatures. Deconvoluted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peaks of the O1s binding energy region revealed that the films deposited at different substrate temperatures contained oxygen-related defects. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the films all emitted ultra-violet emission around 379 nm. The film deposited at 50 °C emitted a broad green emission centered at ∼524 nm. By increasing the substrate temperature up to 200 °C and 400 °C a new orange emission around 621 nm and 634 nm as well as a weak emission around 416 nm and 500 nm were observed, respectively. After post-annealing treatments, new bands over the visible region (blue, green

  4. High Tc screen-printed YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films - Effect of the substrate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Simons, Rainee N.; Farrell, D. E.

    1988-08-01

    Thick films of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) have been deposited on highly polished alumina, magnesia spinel, nickel aluminum titanate (Ni-Al-Ti), and barium tetratitanate (Ba-Ti) substrates by the screen printing technique. Properties of the films were found to be highly sensitive to the choice of the substrate material. The film on Ba-Ti turned green after firing, due to a reaction with the substrate and were insulating. A film on Ni-Al-Ti had a Tc (onset) of about 95 K and lost 90 percent of its resistance by about 75 K. However, even at 4 K it was not fully superconducting, possibly due to a reaction between the film and the substrate and interdiffusion of the reaction products. The film on alumina had Tc (onset) of about 96 K, Tc (zero) of about 66 K, and Delta Tc of about 10 K. The best film was obtained on spinel and had Tc (onset) of about 94 K, zero resistance at 81 K, and a transition width of about 7 K.

  5. Influence of substrate temperature on structural, morphological and electrical properties of PbSe film deposited by radio frequency sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Wenran, E-mail: fengwenran@bipt.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China); Wang, Xiaoyang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Fei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China); Liu, Wan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhou, Hai; Wang, Shuo; Li, Haoran [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Special Elastomer Composite Materials, Beijing 102617 (China)

    2015-03-02

    PbSe films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from PbSe slices target under different substrate temperatures (from room temperature to 300 °C). The effect of substrate temperature on structural properties of PbSe thin film was investigated. The surface morphology and the crystal structure of film were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry, respectively. It was found that the grain shape changed with substrate temperature. When the substrate temperature was below 250 °C, most of the crystal grains were spherical in shape. For temperatures above 250 °C, the grains transformed to triangle or prismatic ones. Meanwhile, with increasing substrate temperature, the preferential orientation of the film changed from (200) to (220). To figure out the intrinsic mechanisms for this behavior, the texture coefficient, as well as the comparison between surface energy and elastic strain energy was performed. At lower temperature, the film growth was determined by surface energy, which was replaced by strain energy at higher temperature. Therefore, the diversity of crystal structure and morphology of the films at different substrate temperatures occurred. Moreover, the electrical properties of the p-type PbSe films are also quite dependent on substrate temperature. With substrate temperature increased, the electrical resistivity decreased from 1.88 to 0.14 Ω cm, while the carrier concentration increased from 1.74 × 10{sup 18} to 4.08 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} as the mobility was enhanced from 0.54 to 2.21 cm{sup 2}/Vs. - Highlights: • PbSe thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Substrate temperature determines crystal structure of PbSe films. • Transformation behaviors of PbSe films were explained by energy calculations.

  6. Non-conventional photocathodes based on Cu thin films deposited on Y substrate by sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrone, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics and University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); D’Elia, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gontad, F., E-mail: francisco.gontad@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics and University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Di Giulio, M.; Maruccio, G. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cola, A. [National Council Research, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Stankova, N.E. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D.G. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Broitman, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Copper (Cu) thin films were deposited on yttrium (Y) substrate by sputtering. During the deposition, a small central area of the Y substrate was shielded to avoid the film deposition and was successively used to study its photoemissive properties. This configuration has two advantages: the cathode presents (i) the quantum efficiency and the work function of Y and (ii) high electrical compatibility when inserted into the conventional radio-frequency gun built with Cu bulk. The photocathode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine surface morphology. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy studies were performed to compare the structure and surface properties of the deposited film. The measured electrical resistivity value of the Cu film was similar to that of high purity Cu bulk. Film to substrate adhesion was also evaluated using the Daimler–Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test method. Finally, the photoelectron performance in terms of quantum efficiency was obtained in a high vacuum photodiode cell before and after laser cleaning procedures. A comparison with the results obtained with a twin sample prepared by pulsed laser deposition is presented and discussed.

  7. Dewetting and deposition of thin films with insoluble surfactants from curved silicone hydrogel substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamla, M Saad; Balemans, Caroline; Fuller, Gerald G

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stabilizing effect of insoluble surfactant monolayers on thin aqueous films. We first describe an experimental platform that enables the formation of aqueous films laden with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers on curved silicone hydrogel (SiHy) substrates. We show that these surfactant layers extend the lifetime of the aqueous films. The films eventually "dewet" by the nucleation and growth of dry areas and the onset of this dewetting can be controlled by the surface rheology of the DPPC layer. We thus demonstrate that increasing the interfacial rheology of the DPPC layer leads to stable films that delay dewetting. We also show that dewetting can be exploited to controllably pattern the underlying curved SiHy substrates with DPPC layers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulsed laser deposition of transparent conductive oxide thin films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, G.; Socol, M.; Stefan, N.; Axente, E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Craciun, D.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, C. N.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stanculescu, A.; Visan, D.; Sava, V.; Galca, A. C.; Luculescu, C. R.; Craciun, V.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of target-substrate distance during pulsed laser deposition of indium zinc oxide (IZO), indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates was investigated. It was found that the properties of such flexible transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/PET electrodes critically depend on this parameter. The TCO films that were deposited at distances of 6 and 8 cm exhibited an optical transmittance higher than 90% in the visible range and electrical resistivities around 5 × 10-4 Ω cm. In addition to these excellent electrical and optical characteristics the films grown at 8 cm distance were homogenous, smooth, adherent, and without cracks or any other extended defects, being suitable for opto-electronic device applications.

  9. Influence of substrate temperature on the optical and electrical properties magnetron sputtering ITO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khripunov, G.S.; Yurchenko, G.V.

    1999-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties of ITO films obtained at substrate temperature from 200 degree C to 500 degree C by magnetron sputtering of target 95% In 2 O 3 - 5% SnO 2 were studied. It was shown that the ITO film obtained at the substrate temperature 300 i N have optimum combination of the optical and electrical characteristics: resistivity 2.1 centre dot 10 -4 Ω cm, transmittance in visible spectral range about 88% at the thickness film 0.61 μ, factor of quality reaches 8.2 centre dot 10 -2 Ω 1

  10. Orthorhombic polar Nd-doped BiFeO3 thin film on MgO substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontyev, I N; Janolin, P-E; Dkhil, B; Yuzyuk, Yu I; El-Marssi, M; Chernyshov, D; Dmitriev, V; Golovko, Yu I; Mukhortov, V M

    2011-01-01

    A Nd-doped BiFeO 3 thin film deposited on MgO substrate was studied by synchrotron diffraction. The ferroelectric nature of the film is proven by in-plane remanent polarization measurement. The highest possible symmetry of the film is determined to be orthorhombic, within the Fm2m space group. Such a structure is rotated by 45 0 with respect to the substrate and is consistent with tilts of oxygen octahedra doubling the unit cell. This polar structure presents a rather unusual strain-accommodation mechanism. (fast track communication)

  11. Room temperature growth of biaxially aligned yttria-stabilized zirconia films on glass substrates by pulsed-laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Li Peng; Mazumder, J

    2003-01-01

    Room temperature deposition of biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films on amorphous glass substrates was successfully achieved by conventional pulsed-laser deposition. The influence of the surrounding gases, their pressure and the deposition time on the structure of the films was studied. A columnar growth process was revealed based on the experimental results. The grown biaxial texture appears as a kind of substrate independence, which makes it possible to fabricate in-plane aligned YSZ films on various substrates.

  12. Improvement of the rotational characteristics in the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid bearing using ring shaped magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, Kozo; Sugiyama, Ryo; Takagi, Shogo; Ohashi, Shunsuke, E-mail: k145676@kansai-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We have developed the HTS-permanent magnet hybrid bearing system. •Three dimensional numerical analysis is undertaken to get the effective hybrid configuration. •Repulsive force and pinning force are combined effectively. •The hybrid system shows better levitation characteristics than the non-hybrid one. •In the mechanical resonance state, vibration of the rotor in the hybrid system is small. -- Abstract: We have developed the hybrid magnetic bearing using permanent magnets and the high-T{sub c} bulk superconductor (HTSC). Pinning force of the HTSC is used for the levitation and the guidance. Repulsive force of the permanent magnets is introduced to increase the load weight of the magnetic bearing. In this system, the stator side permanent magnet has the ring type structure so that both pinning force and repulsive force are used effectively. In this paper, influence of the hybrid system on dynamic characteristics of the rotor is studied. The rotor which is supported by the hybrid magnetic bearing is rotated. Then, vibration and the gradient angle of the rotor are measured until the rotor reaches to the end of the resonance state. Three dimensional numerical analysis of the flux which penetrates on the surface of the HTSC is undertaken. The relation between the dynamic characteristics and the flux is considered, and that of the hybrid system is compared with the non-hybrid one. In the hybrid system, the flux is changed by the influences of the stator side permanent magnet. Vibration and the gradient angle of the hybrid system are shown to be smaller than that of the non-hybrid one.

  13. Improvement of the rotational characteristics in the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid bearing using ring shaped magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, Kozo; Sugiyama, Ryo; Takagi, Shogo; Ohashi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We have developed the HTS-permanent magnet hybrid bearing system. •Three dimensional numerical analysis is undertaken to get the effective hybrid configuration. •Repulsive force and pinning force are combined effectively. •The hybrid system shows better levitation characteristics than the non-hybrid one. •In the mechanical resonance state, vibration of the rotor in the hybrid system is small. -- Abstract: We have developed the hybrid magnetic bearing using permanent magnets and the high-T c bulk superconductor (HTSC). Pinning force of the HTSC is used for the levitation and the guidance. Repulsive force of the permanent magnets is introduced to increase the load weight of the magnetic bearing. In this system, the stator side permanent magnet has the ring type structure so that both pinning force and repulsive force are used effectively. In this paper, influence of the hybrid system on dynamic characteristics of the rotor is studied. The rotor which is supported by the hybrid magnetic bearing is rotated. Then, vibration and the gradient angle of the rotor are measured until the rotor reaches to the end of the resonance state. Three dimensional numerical analysis of the flux which penetrates on the surface of the HTSC is undertaken. The relation between the dynamic characteristics and the flux is considered, and that of the hybrid system is compared with the non-hybrid one. In the hybrid system, the flux is changed by the influences of the stator side permanent magnet. Vibration and the gradient angle of the hybrid system are shown to be smaller than that of the non-hybrid one

  14. Excimer laser sintering of indium tin oxide nanoparticles for fabricating thin films of variable thickness on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taesoon; Kim, Dongsik

    2015-01-01

    Technology to fabricate electrically-conducting, transparent thin-film patterns on flexible substrates has possible applications in flexible electronics. In this work, a pulsed-laser sintering process applicable to indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film fabrication on a substrate without thermal damage to the substrate was developed. A nanosecond pulsed laser was used to minimize thermal penetration into the substrate and to control the thickness of the sintered layer. ITO nanoparticles (NPs) of ~ 20 nm diameter were used to lower the process temperature by exploiting their low melting point. ITO thin film patterns were fabricated by first spin coating the NPs onto a surface, then sintering them using a KrF excimer laser. The sintered films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrical resistivity and transparency of the film were measured by varying the process parameters. A single laser pulse could generate the polycrystalline structure (average grain size ~ 200 nm), reducing the electrical resistivity of the film by a factor of ~ 1000. The sintering process led to a minimum resistivity of 1.1 × 10 −4 Ω·m without losing the transparency of the film. The thickness of the sintered layer could be varied up to 150 nm by adjusting the laser fluence. Because the estimated thermal penetration depth in the ITO film was less than 200 nm, no thermal damage was observed in the substrate. This work suggests that the proposed process, combined with various particle deposition methods, can be an effective tool to form thin-film ITO patterns on flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Excimer laser sintering can fabricate ITO thin films on flexible substrates. • The laser pulse can form a polycrystalline structure without thermal damage. • The laser sintering process can reduce the electrical resistivity substantially. • The thickness of the sintered layer can be varied effectively

  15. Excimer laser sintering of indium tin oxide nanoparticles for fabricating thin films of variable thickness on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Taesoon; Kim, Dongsik, E-mail: dskim87@postech.ac.kr

    2015-03-02

    Technology to fabricate electrically-conducting, transparent thin-film patterns on flexible substrates has possible applications in flexible electronics. In this work, a pulsed-laser sintering process applicable to indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film fabrication on a substrate without thermal damage to the substrate was developed. A nanosecond pulsed laser was used to minimize thermal penetration into the substrate and to control the thickness of the sintered layer. ITO nanoparticles (NPs) of ~ 20 nm diameter were used to lower the process temperature by exploiting their low melting point. ITO thin film patterns were fabricated by first spin coating the NPs onto a surface, then sintering them using a KrF excimer laser. The sintered films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrical resistivity and transparency of the film were measured by varying the process parameters. A single laser pulse could generate the polycrystalline structure (average grain size ~ 200 nm), reducing the electrical resistivity of the film by a factor of ~ 1000. The sintering process led to a minimum resistivity of 1.1 × 10{sup −4} Ω·m without losing the transparency of the film. The thickness of the sintered layer could be varied up to 150 nm by adjusting the laser fluence. Because the estimated thermal penetration depth in the ITO film was less than 200 nm, no thermal damage was observed in the substrate. This work suggests that the proposed process, combined with various particle deposition methods, can be an effective tool to form thin-film ITO patterns on flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Excimer laser sintering can fabricate ITO thin films on flexible substrates. • The laser pulse can form a polycrystalline structure without thermal damage. • The laser sintering process can reduce the electrical resistivity substantially. • The thickness of the sintered layer can be varied effectively.

  16. Deposition of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on patterned substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    In this work we study the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of copper films on blanket and patterned substrates at high filament temperatures. A vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor was used in which the chemical reactions were assisted by a tungsten filament heated at 650 degrees C. Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) vapors were used, directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a liquid injection system using N2 as carrier gas. Copper thin films grown also by thermal and hot-wire CVD. The substrates used were oxidized silicon wafers on which trenches with dimensions of the order of 500 nm were formed and subsequently covered with LPCVD W. HWCVD copper thin films grown at filament temperature of 650 degrees C showed higher growth rates compared to the thermally ones. They also exhibited higher resistivities than thermal and HWCVD films grown at lower filament temperatures. Thermally grown Cu films have very uniform deposition leading to full coverage of the patterned substrates while the HWCVD films exhibited a tendency to vertical growth, thereby creating gaps and incomplete step coverage.

  17. Competitive concurrence of surface wrinkling and dewetting of liquid crystalline polymer films on non-wettable substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung E; Choi, Gwan H; Yi, Gi-Ra; Yoo, Pil J

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric thin films coated on non-wettable substrates undergo film-instabilities, which are usually manifested as surface deformation in the form of dewetting or wrinkling. The former takes place in fluidic films, whereas the latter occurs in solid films. Therefore, there have rarely been reports of systems involving simultaneous deformations of dewetting and wrinkling. In this study, we propose polymeric thin films of liquid crystalline (LC) mesogens prepared on a non-wettable Si substrate and apply a treatment of plasma irradiation to form a thin polymerized layer at the surface. The resulting compressive stress generated in the surface region drives the formation of wrinkles, while at the same time, dipolar attraction between LC molecules induces competitive cohesive dewetting. Intriguing surface structures were obtained whereby dewetting-like hole arrays are nested inside the randomly propagated wrinkles. The structural features are readily controlled by the degree of surface cross-linking, hydrophilicity of the substrates, and the LC film thickness. In particular, dewetting of LC mesogens is observed to be restricted to occur at the trough regions of wrinkles, exhibiting the typical behavior of geometrically confined dewetting. Finally, wrinkling-dewetting mixed structures are separated from the substrate in the form of free standing films to demonstrate the potential applicability as membranes.

  18. INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE ON STRUCTURAL, ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ITO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY RF MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    OpenAIRE

    BO HE; LEI ZHAO; JING XU; HUAIZHONG XING; SHAOLIN XUE; MENG JIANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using ceramic target to find the optimal condition for fabricating optoelectronic devices. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films prepared at various substrate temperatures were investigated. The results indicate the grain size increases with substrate temperature increases. As the substrate temperature grew up, the resistivity of ITO films grea...

  19. Structural colors of the SiO2/polyethyleneimine thin films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yanrong; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Qiubao; Fan, Qinguo; Shao, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The SiO 2 /polyethyleneimine (PEI) films with structural colors on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates were fabricated by an electrostatic self-assembly method. The morphology of the films was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that there was no distinguishable multilayered structure found of SiO 2 /PEI films. The optical behaviors of the films were investigated through the color photos captured by a digital camera and the color measurement by a multi-angle spectrophotometer. Different hue and brightness were observed at various viewing angles. The structural colors were dependent on the SiO 2 particle size and the number of assembly cycles. The mechanism of the structural colors generated from the assembled films was elucidated. The morphological structures and the optical properties proved that the SiO 2 /PEI film fabricated on PET substrate formed a homogeneous inorganic/organic SiO 2 /PEI composite layer, and the structural colors were originated from single thin film interference. - Highlights: • SiO 2 /PEI thin films were electrostatic self-assembled on PET substrates. • The surface morphology and optical behavior of the film were investigated. • The structural colors varied with various SiO 2 particle sizes and assembly cycles. • Different hue and lightness of SiO 2 /PEI film were observed at various viewing angles. • Structural color of the SiO 2 /PEI film originated from single thin film interference

  20. Preparation and Surface Analysis of PPY/SDBS Films on Aluminum Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete C. Scienza

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole films were generated on high purity aluminum substrates under anodic polarization from aqueous electrolytes comprised of pyrrole and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate. The methods employed to characterize the polymer films included scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared and X-photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. PPY/SDBS films revealed nodular morphology with occasional appearing of "dendrites", high level of protonation, excess of counter-anions ([S]/[N] > [N+]/[N] and high degrees of disorder.

  1. Characteristics of Schottky-barrier source/drain metal-oxide-polycrystalline thin-film transistors on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seung-Min; Cho, Won-Ju; Jung, Jong-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) Schottky-barrier thin-film transistors (SB-TFTs) with Pt-silicided source /drain junctions were fabricated on glass substrates, and the electrical characteristics were examined. The amorphous silicon films on glass substrates were converted into high-quality poly-Si by using excimer laser annealing (ELA) and solid phase crystallization (SPC) methods. The crystallinity of poly-Si was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The silicidation process was optimized by measuring the electrical characteristics of the Pt-silicided Schottky diodes. The performances of Pt-silicided SB-TFTs using poly-Si films on glass substrates and crystallized by using ELA and SPC were demonstrated. The SB-TFTs using the ELA poly-Si film demonstrated better electrical performances such as higher mobility (22.4 cm 2 /Vs) and on/off current ratio (3 x 10 6 ) and lower subthreshold swing value (120 mV/dec) than the SPC poly-Si films.

  2. Effect of substrate temperature and deposition rate on the morphology and optical properties of Ti films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einollahzadeh-Samadi, M.; Dariani, R.S., E-mail: dariani@alzahra.ac.ir

    2013-09-01

    Titanium films are deposited on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering process. Influences imposed by sputtering rate and substrate temperature on surface morphology and optical properties of the deposited Ti films are investigated. We observed that all the sputtered films exhibit uniform and compact surface morphology without peeling and cracking. Morphology of the films is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties of the films are investigated using UV–vis spectroscopy. The morphological studies indicate that by increasing the substrate temperature from room temperature to 250 °C and/or decreasing sputtering rate from 660 Å/min to 540 Å/min the surface roughness decreased from 73.4 to 31.0 nm and the grain size increases from 50.76 nm to 163.93 nm. An important effect of the root mean square (RMS) surface roughness and grain size is modification of the films optical properties. In fact, an enhancement of refractive index n for the Ti films deposited at high substrate temperature and/or high deposition rate is observed, that is attributed to reduction of RMS roughness. This effect is attributed to increment of fractional volume which leads to an increase in density of deposited film. Thus, by controlling the sputtering conditions one can reach to the desired morphological and optical properties.

  3. Formation of thin DLC films on SiO2/Si substrate using FCVAD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bootkul, D.; Intarasiri, S.; Aramwit, C.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on SiO 2 /Si substrate are attractive for novel sensitive and selective chemical sensors. According to the almost never ending of size reduction, a nm-thickness layer of the film is greatly required. However, formation of such a very thin DLC film on SiO 2 /Si substrate is challenging. In this experiment, DLC films were formed using our in-house Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition (FCVAD) facility by varying the bias voltage of 0 V, −250 V and −450 V with the arc voltage of 350 V, 450 V, 550 V, 650 V and 750 V for 10 min. Raman spectroscopy was applied for characterization of the film qualities and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was applied for cross sectional analysis. Results showed that films of thickness ranging from 10–50 nm were easily acquired depending on deposition conditions. Deconvolution of Raman spectra of these samples revealed that, when fixing the substrate bias but increasing the arc voltage from 350 to 750 V, the ratio between D-peak and G-peak intensity, namely I D /I G ratio, tended to reduce up to the arc voltage of 450 V, then increased up to the arc voltage of 650 V and finally decreased again. On the other hand, when fixing the arc voltage, the I D /I G ratio tended to decrease continuously as the increasing of bias voltage. It can be concluded that the bonding structure would evolve from a graphitic-like structure to a diamond-like structure as the substrate bias increases. Additionally, the sp 3 site should be maximized at the arc voltage ∼450 V for fixed bias voltage. It is expected that, at −450 V bias and 450 V arc, sp 3 fractions could be higher than 60%. However, in some cases, e.g. at low arc voltages, voids formed between the film and the amorphous SiO 2 substrate. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of the C edge across the DLC indicated that the thicker DLC film had uniform chemistry and structure, whereas the thin DLC film showed changes in the edge shape

  4. Preparation of a Non-Polar ZnO Film on a Single-Crystal NdGaO3 Substrate by the RF Sputtering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaba, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Sakuma, M.; Abe, T.; Imai, Y.; Kawasaki, K.; Nakagawa, A.; Niikura, I.; Kashiwaba, Y.; Osada, H.

    2018-04-01

    Preparation of non-polar ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films on single-crystal NdGaO3 (NGO) (001) substrates was successfully achieved by the radio frequency (RF) sputtering method. Orientation, deposition rate, and surface roughness of ZnO films strongly depend on the working pressure. Characteristics of ZnO films deposited on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates were compared with those of ZnO films deposited on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates. An x-ray diffraction peak of the ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) plane was observed on ZnO films deposited on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates under working pressure of less than 0.5 Pa. On the other hand, uniaxially oriented ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates were observed under working pressure of 0.1 Pa. The mechanism by which the diffraction angle of the ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) plane on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was shifted is discussed on the basis of anisotropic stress of lattice mismatch. The deposition rate of ZnO films decreased with an increase in working pressure, and the deposition rate on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was larger than that on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates. Root mean square (RMS) roughness of ZnO films increased with an increase in working pressure, and RMS roughness of ZnO films on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was smaller than that of ZnO films on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates even though the film thickness on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was greater than that on sapphire substrates. It is thought that a single-crystal NGO (001) substrate is useful for deposition of non-polar ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films.

  5. Electrical contacts on polyimide substrates for flexible thin film photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J

    2003-05-01

    Both frontal and back electrical contacts have been developed onto polyimide sheets (Kapton KJ[reg]) as alternative substrates to the conventional glasses, for application in lightweight and flexible thin film photovoltaic devices. Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by r.f.-magnetron sputtering as the frontal electrical contact. On the other hand, Mo, Cr and Ni layers have been prepared by e-gun evaporation for the back electrical connections. ITO films deposited onto polyimide have shown similar optical transmittance and higher electrical conductivity than onto glass substrates. The transmittance decreases and the conductivity increases after heating at 400 sign C in vacuum atmosphere. Mo, Cr and Ni layers deposited onto polyimide showed similar structure and electrical conductivity than onto conventional glasses. The properties of Mo and Cr layers remained unchanged after heating at 400 sign C in selenium atmosphere.

  6. Out-of-substrate plane orientation control of thin YBa2Cu3O x films on NdGaO3 tilted-axes substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, Peter B.; Mozhaeva, Julia E.; Bdikin, Igor K.; Kotelyanskii, Iosif M.; Lusanov, Valery A.; Hansen, Jorn Bindslev; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Kholkin, Andrey L.

    2006-01-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (YBCO)/CeO 2 /NdGaO 3 were prepared on tilted-axes NdGaO 3 substrates using laser ablation technique. Morphology, crystal structure and electrical properties of the obtained films were characterized. The seeding mechanisms are affected by the tilt angle, resulting in superior YBCO films on NdGaO 3 substrates in an intermediate range of tilt angles of 6-14 o . The introduction of CeO 2 layer leads to change of the YBCO film orientation: at low deposition rate c-oriented films are formed, while at high deposition rates the film grows with c-axis tilted along the [1 1 0] NdGaO 3 direction. Bi-epitaxial films and structures were prepared by removal of part of the CeO 2 layer using ion-beam milling

  7. Internal friction study of microplasticity of aluminum thin films on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Y.; Tanahashi, K.; Asano, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    Internal friction in aluminum thin films 0.2 to 2.0 {mu}m thick on silicon substrates has been investigated between 180 and 360 K as a function of strain amplitude by means of a free-decay method of flexural vibration. According to the constitutive equation, the internal friction in the film alone can be evaluated separately from the data on the film/substrate composite. The amplitude-dependent part of internal friction in aluminum films is found in the strain range approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that for bulk aluminum. On the basis of the microplasticity theory, the amplitude-dependent internal friction can be converted into the plastic strain as a function of the effective stress on dislocation motion. The mechanical responses thus obtained for aluminum films show that the plastic strain of the order of 10-9 in creases nonlinearly with increasing stress. These curves tend to shift to a higher stress with decreasing film thickness and also with decreasing temperature, both indicating a suppression of the microplastic deformation. At all temperatures examined, the microflow stress at a constant level of the plastic strain varies inversely with the film thickness, which qualitatively agrees with the variation in macroscopic yield stress. 36 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Substrate temperature effects on the structure and properties of ZnMnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, H.; Duque, J. S.; Orozco, S.

    2017-01-01

    ZnMnO thin films were grown on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Pulsed Nd:YAG laser was operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm and 100 mJ. ZnMnO thin films were deposited at the vacuum pressure of 10-5 Torr and with substrate temperature from room temperature to 600 °C. The effects of substrate temperature on the structural and Optical properties of ZnMnO thin films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Uv-vis spectroscopy. From XRD data of the samples, it can be showed that temperature substrate does not change the orientation of ZnMnO thin films. All the films prepared have a hexagonal wurtzite structure, with a dominant (002) peak around 2θ=34.44° and grow mainly along the c-axis orientation. The substrate temperature improved the crystallinity of the deposited films. Uv-vis analysis showed that, the thin films exhibit high transmittance and low absorbance in the visible region. It was found that the energy band to 300 ° C is 3.2 eV, whereas for other temperatures the values were lower. Raman reveals the crystal quality of ZnMnO thin films.

  9. Growth and structural investigations of epitaxial hexagonal YMnO3 thin films deposited on wurtzite GaN(001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.R.; Chang, Kai-Chieh; Mohammad, Feroz A.; Porter, Lisa M.; Salvador, Paul A.; DiMaio, Jeffrey; Davis, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Epitaxial hexagonal YMnO 3 (h-YMnO 3 ) films having sharp (00l) X-ray diffraction peaks were grown above 700 deg. C in 5 mTorr O 2 via pulsed laser deposition both on as-received wurtzite GaN/AlN/6H-SiC(001) (w-GaN) substrates as well as on w-GaN surfaces that were etched in 50% HF solution. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an interfacial layer between film and the unetched substrate; this layer was absent in those samples wherein an etched substrate was used. However, the substrate treatment did not affect the epitaxial arrangement between the h-YMnO 3 film and w-GaN substrate. The epitaxial relationships of the h-YMnO 3 films with the w-GaN(001) substrate was determined via X-ray diffraction to be (001) YMnO 3 -parallel (001) GaN : [11-bar0] YMnO 3 -parallel [110] GaN ; in other words, the basal planes of the film and the substrate are aligned parallel to one another, as are the most densely packed directions in planes of the film and the substrate. Interestingly, this arrangement has a larger lattice mismatch than if the principal axes of the unit cells were aligned

  10. Preparation of metastable bcc permalloy epitaxial thin films on GaAs(011)B3 single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Higuchi, Jumpei; Yabuhara, Osamu; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    Permalloy (Py) single-crystal films with bcc structure were obtained on GaAs(011) B3 single-crystal substrates by ultra high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The film growth and the detailed film structures were investigated by refection high energy electron diffraction and pole figure X-ray diffraction. bcc-Py films epitaxially grow on the substrates in the orientation relationship of Py(011)[011-bar] bcc || GaAs(011)[011-bar] B3 . The lattice constant of bcc-Py film is determined to be a = 0.291 nm. With increasing the film thickness, parts of the bcc crystal transform into more stable fcc structure by atomic displacement parallel to the bcc{011} close-packed planes. The resulting film thus consists of a mixture of bcc and fcc crystals. The phase transformation mechanism is discussed based on the experimental results. The in-plane magnetization properties reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bcc-Py crystal are observed for the Py films grown on GaAs(011) B3 substrates.

  11. Influence of Different Substrates on Laser Induced Damage Thresholds at 1064 nm of Ta2O5 Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xu; Jian-Yong, Ma; Yun-Xia, Jin; Hong-Bo, He; Jian-Da, Shao; Zheng-Xiu, Fan

    2008-01-01

    Ta 2 O 5 films are prepared on Si, BK7, fused silica, antireflection (AR) and high reflector (HR) substrates by electron beam evaporation method, respectively. Both the optical property and laser induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) at 1064 nm of Ta 2 O 5 films on different substrates are investigated before and after annealing at 673K for 12 h. It is shown that annealing increases the refractive index and decreases the extinction index, and improves the O/Ta ratio of the Ta 2 O 5 films from 2.42 to 2.50. Moreover, the results show that the LIDTs of the Ta 2 O 5 films are mainly correlated with three parameters: substrate property, substoichiometry defect in the films and impurity defect at the interface between the substrate and the films. Details of the laser induced damage models in different cases are discussed

  12. Radio frequency sputter deposition of high-quality conductive and transparent ZnO:Al films on polymer substrates for thin film solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: susanamaria.fernandez@ciemat.es; Martinez-Steele, A.; Gandia, J.J. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica (GRIFO), Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala. Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-31

    Thick aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 100 {sup o}C to room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, varying the deposition parameters such as radio frequency power and working pressure. Structural, optical and electrical properties were analyzed using an x-ray diffractometer, a spectrophotometer and a four-point probe, respectively. Films were polycrystalline showing a strong preferred c-axis orientation (002). The best optical and electrical results were achieved using a substrate temperature of 100 {sup o}C. Furthermore, high transmittances close to 80% in the visible wavelength range were obtained for those films deposited at the lowest Argon pressure used of 0.2 Pa. In addition, resistivities as low as 1.1 x 10{sup -3} {omega} cm were reached deposited at a RF power of 75 W. Finally, a comparison of the properties of the films deposited on polymer and glass substrates was performed, obtaining values of the figure of merit for the films on polymer comparable to those obtained on glass substrates, 17,700 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} vs 14,900 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively.

  13. Radio frequency sputter deposition of high-quality conductive and transparent ZnO:Al films on polymer substrates for thin film solar cells applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.; Martinez-Steele, A.; Gandia, J.J.; Naranjo, F.B.

    2009-01-01

    Thick aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 100 o C to room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, varying the deposition parameters such as radio frequency power and working pressure. Structural, optical and electrical properties were analyzed using an x-ray diffractometer, a spectrophotometer and a four-point probe, respectively. Films were polycrystalline showing a strong preferred c-axis orientation (002). The best optical and electrical results were achieved using a substrate temperature of 100 o C. Furthermore, high transmittances close to 80% in the visible wavelength range were obtained for those films deposited at the lowest Argon pressure used of 0.2 Pa. In addition, resistivities as low as 1.1 x 10 -3 Ω cm were reached deposited at a RF power of 75 W. Finally, a comparison of the properties of the films deposited on polymer and glass substrates was performed, obtaining values of the figure of merit for the films on polymer comparable to those obtained on glass substrates, 17,700 Ω -1 cm -1 vs 14,900 Ω -1 cm -1 , respectively

  14. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jesse D [Fairfield, CA; Theiss, Steven D [Woodbury, MN; Carey, Paul G [Mountain View, CA; Smith, Patrick M [San Ramon, CA; Wickbold, Paul [Walnut Creek, CA

    2006-09-26

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  15. Fabrication of SrGe2 thin films on Ge (100), (110), and (111) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, T.; Toko, K.; Takabe, R.; Saitoh, N.; Yoshizawa, N.; Suemasu, T.

    2018-01-01

    Semiconductor strontium digermanide (SrGe2) has a large absorption coefficient in the near-infrared light region and is expected to be useful for multijunction solar cells. This study firstly demonstrates the formation of SrGe2 thin films via a reactive deposition epitaxy on Ge substrates. The growth morphology of SrGe2 dramatically changed depending on the growth temperature (300-700 °C) and the crystal orientation of the Ge substrate. We succeeded in obtaining single-oriented SrGe2 using a Ge (110) substrate at 500 °C. Development on Si or glass substrates will lead to the application of SrGe2 to high-efficiency thin-film solar cells.

  16. Preparation and structural properties of YBCO films grown on GaN/c-sapphire hexagonal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chromik, S., E-mail: stefan.chromik@savba.sk [Institute of Electrical Engineering, SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Gierlowski, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Spankova, M.; Dobrocka, E.; Vavra, I.; Strbik, V.; Lalinsky, T.; Sojkova, M. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Liday, J.; Vogrincic, P. [Department of Microelectronics, Slovak Technical University, Ilkovicova 3, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia); Espinos, J.P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Avda Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Epitaxial YBCO thin films have been grown on hexagonal GaN/c-sapphire substrates using DC magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition. An MgO buffer layer has been inserted between the substrate and the YBCO film as a diffusion barrier. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates a c-axis oriented growth of the YBCO films. {Phi}-scan shows surprisingly twelve maxima. Transmission electron microscopy analyses confirm an epitaxial growth of the YBCO blocks with a superposition of three a-b YBCO planes rotated by 120 deg. to each other. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal no surface contamination with Ga even if a maximum substrate temperature of 700 deg. C is applied.

  17. Influence of titanium-substrate roughness on Ca–P–O thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananda Sagari, A.R., E-mail: arsagari@gmail.com [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Malm, Jari [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Rahkila, Paavo [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Hongqiang, Ma [Department of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 35 (L), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Putkonen, Matti [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, FI-01511 Vantaa (Finland); Karppinen, Maarit [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J.; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-03-01

    Amorphous Ca–P–O films were deposited on titanium substrates using atomic layer deposition, while maintaining a uniform Ca/P pulsing ratio of 6/1 with varying number of atomic layer deposition cycles starting from 10 up to 208. Prior to film deposition the titanium substrates were mechanically abraded using SiC abrasive paper of 600, 1200, 2000 grit size and polished with 3 μm diamond paste to obtain surface roughness R{sub rms} values of 0.31 μm, 0.26 μm, 0.16 μm, and 0.10 μm, respectively. The composition and film thickness of as-deposited amorphous films were studied using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. The results showed that uniform films could be deposited on rough metal surfaces with a clear dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films. The in vitro cell-culture studies using MC3T3 mouse osteoblast showed a greater coverage of cells on the surface polished with diamond paste in comparison to rougher surfaces after 24 h culture. No statistically significant difference was observed between Ca–P–O coated and un-coated Ti surfaces for the measured roughness value. The deposited 50 nm thick films did not dissolve during the cell culture experiment. - Highlights: ► Atomic layer deposition of Ca–P–O films on abraded Ti substrate ► Surface analysis using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis ► Dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films ► An increase in Ca/P atomic ratio with decreasing roughness ► Mouse osteoblast showed greater coverage of cells in polished surface.

  18. Structural and morphological characterizations of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agouram, S.; Zuniga Perez, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Universitat de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Burjassot (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    ZnO films were grown on GaAs(100), GaAs(111)A and GaAs(111)B substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and tertiarybutanol (t-butanol) were used as Zn and O precursors, respectively. The influence of the growth temperature and GaAs substrate orientation on the crystalline orientation and morphology of the ZnO grown films has been analysed. Crystallinity of grown films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD); thickness and morphology of ZnO films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM results reveal significant differences between morphologies depending on growth temperature but not significant differences were detected on the texture of grown films. (orig.)

  19. Direct synthesis of multi-layer graphene film on various substrates by microwave plasma at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jae [Plasma Technology Research Center, 814-2 Osickdo-dong (SGFEZ), Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byung Wook; Kim, Tae Yoo; Lee, Jung Woo [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Research Center (AMPRC), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yong Ho; Choi, Yong Sup [Plasma Technology Research Center, 814-2 Osickdo-dong (SGFEZ), Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Il, E-mail: physein01@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Research Center (AMPRC), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Su Jeong, E-mail: suhsj@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Advanced Materials and Process Research Center (AMPRC), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    We introduce a possible route for vertically standing multi-layer graphene films (VMGs) on various substrates at low temperature by electron cyclone resonance microwave plasma. VMG films on various substrates, including copper sheet, glass and silicon oxide wafer, were analyzed by studying their structural, electrical, and optical properties. The density and temperature of plasma were measured using Cylindrical Langmuir probe analysis. The morphologies and microstructures of multi-layer graphene were characterized using field emission scattering electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectra measurement. The VMGs on different substrates at the same experimental conditions synthesized the wrinkled VMGs with different heights. In addition, the transmittance and electrical resistance were measured using ultra-violet visible near-infrared spectroscopy and 4 probe point surface resistance measurement. The VMGs on glass substrate obtained a transmittance of 68.8% and sheet resistance of 796 Ω/square, whereas the VMGs on SiO{sub 2} wafer substrate showed good sheet resistance of 395 Ω/square and 278 Ω/square. The results presented herein demonstrate a simple method of synthesizing of VMGs on various substrates at low temperature for mass production, in which the VMGs can be used in a wide range of application fields for energy storage, catalysis, and field emission due to their unique orientation. - Highlights: • We present for synthesis method of graphene at low temperature on various substrates. • We grow the graphene films at low temperature under of 432 °C. • Structural information of graphene films were studied upon Raman spectroscopy. • Inter-layer spacing of vertically standing graphene relies on synthesis time. • We measured a transmittance and a resistance for graphene films on difference substrate.

  20. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  1. Fabrication of single-phase ε-GaSe films on Si(100) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Zeng, Jia-Xian; Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Liao, Sen-Mao [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Ma, Wei-Yang [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kuo-Jen [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, No.15, Shi Qi Zi, Gaoping Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-02

    Single-phase ε-gallium selenide (GaSe) films were fabricated on Si(100) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using dual-source precursors: triethylgallium (TEG) and hydrogen selenide (H{sub 2}Se) with the flow ratio of [H{sub 2}Se]/[TEG] being maintained at 1.2. In particular, an arsine (AsH{sub 3}) flow was introduced to the Si substrate before the film deposition to induce an arsenic (As)-passivation effect on the substrate. The crystalline structure of GaSe films prepared was analyzed using X-ray diffraction and the surface morphology of them was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the film quality could be improved by the As-passivation effect. The optical properties of the films were studied by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. PL spectra obtained with different distributions and intensities favored for resolving the superior material quality of the films produced on the substrate with As-passivation compared to those produced on the substrate without As-passivation. The former was dominated by the excitonic emissions for the whole temperature range of 20–300 K examined, while the latter was initially dominated by the defect-related emission at 1.907 eV for a low-temperature range ≦ 80 K and then became dominated by the weak excitonic emission band instead. The ε modification of GaSe films prepared was further recognized by the Raman scattering measurements conducted at room temperature. - Highlights: • Gallium selenide (GaSe) layered structures are fabricated on Si(100) substrate. • Metal–organic chemical vapor deposition is used for film fabrication. • Arsenic-passivation effects of Si substrate on the GaSe film quality are analyzed. • Photoluminescence measurements of GaSe polycrystals are reported.

  2. Improved high-frequency soft magnetic properties of FeCo films on organic ferroelectric PVDF substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dong; Wang, Zhen; Han, Xuemeng; Li, Yue; Guo, Xiaobin; Zuo, Yalu; Xi, Li, E-mail: xili@lzu.edu.cn

    2015-02-01

    FeCo films with various thicknesses were fabricated by direct-current magnetron sputtering on corning glass and organic ferroelectric PVDF substrates at the same time with 5 nm Ru seed layer and 5 nm Ta protective layer. The in-plane uniaxial anisotropy field of FeCo on glass substrate increases from 24 to 36 Oe with the increase of FeCo film thickness from 5 to 100 nm. However, a large in-plane anisotropy field of FeCo on PVDF substrate increases with FeCo thickness from 5 to 20 nm and gradually decreases with the FeCo thickness further increasing. Atomic force microscope images of FeCo on glass show quite smooth surface with root-mean-square roughness around 0.5 nm and have none visible granules on the surface for all samples. While, AFM images of FeCo on PVDF show quite rough surface with RMS roughness around 25 nm and have visible granules with the smallest granules appearing at the FeCo thickness of 20 nm. The permeability spectra show the typical ferromagnetic resonance phenomenon and can be well fitted by the LLG equation with the obtained experimental parameters. The ferromagnetic resonance frequency can reach 7.0 GHz for the 20 nm FeCo film on PVDF. Moreover, the quality factor of this sample can respectively reach 26, 12 and 7 at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 GHz, indicating the potential real 3G application for high-frequency devices. - Highlights: 1.Magnetic and morphological properties of FeCo films on PVDF substrates are studied. 2.The large anisotropy field of FeCo films on PVDF is obtained. 3.Improved high frequency properties of FeCo films on flexible substrates are obtained. 4.The origin of improved high frequency properties of FeCo films on PVDF is studied.

  3. Synthesis of LSM films deposited by dip-coating on YSZ substrate; Sintese de filmes de LSM depositados por dip-coating em substratos de YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Leandro da; Souza, Mariana M.V.M., E-mail: mmattos@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Ribeiro, Nielson F.P. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica. Nucleo de Catalise

    2010-07-01

    The dip-coating process was used to deposit films of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.}3MnO{sub 3} (LSM) used as cathode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In this study we evaluated the relationship between the deposition parameters such as speed of withdrawal and number of deposited layers of LSM film on a substrate of 8% YSZ commercial, and structural properties, such as thickness and formation of cracks. The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With parameters set the film had good adhesion to the substrate with a thickness around 10 {mu}m, showing possible adherence problems when more than one layer is deposited on the substrate. (author)

  4. Examining Wetting and Dewetting Processes in Thin-films on Crystalline Substrates at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihath, Sahar

    Controlling the wetting and dewetting of ultra-thin films on solid substrates is important for a variety of technological and fundamental research applications. These applications include film deposition for semiconductor manufacturing, the growth of nanowires through nanoparticle-based catalysis sites, to making ordered arrays of nanoscale particles for electronic and optical devices. However, despite the importance of these processes, the underlying mechanisms by which a film wets a surface or dewets from it is still often unclear and widely debated. In this dissertation we examine wetting and dewetting processes in three materials systems that are relevant for device applications with the ultimate goal of understanding what mechanisms drive the wetting (or dewetting) process in each case. First, we examine the formation of wetting layers between nanoparticle films and highly conductive GaAs substrates for spintronic applications. In this case, the formation of a wetting layer is important for nanoparticle adhesion on the substrate surface. Wetting layers can be made by annealing these systems, which causes elemental diffusion from nanoparticles into the substrate, thereby adhesion between the nanoparticles and the substrate. Here we investigate the feasibility of forming a wetting layer underneath nanoparticles post-annealing in a system of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on a (100) GaAs substrate by studying the interface structure and composition via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). Electron Energy-Loss fine structures of the Fe-L 3,2 and O-K absorption edges were quantitatively analyzed to gain insight about the compositional gradient of the interface between the nanoparticles and the GaAs substrate. Additionally, real-space density functional theory calculations of the dynamical form factor was performed to confirm the

  5. Nonlinear Analysis of Actuation Performance of Shape Memory Alloy Composite Film Based on Silicon Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical model of the shape memory alloy (SMA composite film with silicon (Si substrate was established by the method of mechanics of composite materials. The coupled action between the SMA film and Si substrate under thermal loads was analyzed by combining static equilibrium equations, geometric equations, and physical equations. The material nonlinearity of SMA and the geometric nonlinearity of bending deformation were both considered. By simulating and analyzing the actuation performance of the SMA composite film during one cooling-heating thermal cycle, it is found that the final cooling temperature, boundary condition, and the thickness of SMA film have significant effects on the actuation performance of the SMA composite film. Besides, the maximum deflection of the SMA composite film is affected obviously by the geometric nonlinearity of bending deformation when the thickness of SMA film is very large.

  6. Coupling of the orthorhombic distortion to the depression of the Tc's due to Zn2+ doping in the ''RE-123'' HTSC's: A (d + s)-wave picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, I.M.; Thongruang, R.; Charoenthai, N.

    1999-01-01

    The depressions of the T c 's of the 123 REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 HTSC's due to the substitution of Zn 2+ ions into the Cu(2) layer are studied. The orthorhombic distortion which occurs in the 123 ceramics is assumed to induce a modification to the spin-fluctuation (SF) mediated pairing interaction which in turn causes the order parameters of these HTSC's to be of mixed (d + s)-wave symmetry. It is shown that part of the rapid depression of the T c 's caused by Zn 2+ substitution into the CuO 2 is due to a reduction of the SF-mediated pairing interaction. The differences in the rates of suppression of T c due to Zn 2+ doping in the different RE-123 HTSC's are shown to be due to the changes in the orthorhombicity which depend on the size of the rare earth ions

  7. Coupling of the Orthorhombic Distortion to the Depression of the Tc'S due to Zn2+ Doping in the "RE-123" Htsc's:. a (d+s)-WAVE Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, I. M.; Charoenthai, N.; Thongruang, R.

    The depressions of the Tc's of the "123" REBa2Cu3O7 HTSC's due to the substitution of Zn2+ ions into the Cu(2) layer are studied. The orthorhombic distortion which occurs in the "123" ceramics is assumed to induce a modification to the spin-fluctuation (SF) mediated pairing interaction which inturn causes the order parameters of these HTSC's to be of mixed (d+s)-wave symmetry. It is shown that part of the rapid depression of the Tc's caused by Zn2+ substitution into the CuO2 is due to a reduction of the SF-mediated pairing interaction. The differences in the rates of suppression of Tc due to Zn2+ doping in the different "RE-123" HTSC's are shown to be due to the changes in the orthorhombicity which depend on the size of the rare earth ions.

  8. Morphology evolution of thin Ni film on MgO(100) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.; Xu, Y.H.; Naramoto, H.; Wei, P.; Kitazawa, S.; Narumi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Thin Ni films with various thicknesses were deposited onto the MgO(100) single crystal substrate at 400 deg. C. The morphology measured by atomic force microscope shows an apparent correlation with the thickness. The initial 10 A film is composed of small round Ni islands. In the 25 A film, pinholes with narrow size distribution occur, which show local periodic distribution in some regions when the thickness of the film reaches 75 A. The driving force for such a structure is attributed to the elastic strain energy. When the film is about 100 A thick, the pinholes begin to disappear, due to filling by the late-coming atoms and covering of upper islands. (author)

  9. Influence of substrate type on transport properties of superconducting FeSe0.5Te0.5 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Feifei; Shi, Zhixiang; Iida, Kazumasa; Langer, Marco; Hänisch, Jens; Hühne, Ruben; Schultz, Ludwig; Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro; Sala, Alberto; Putti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    FeSe 0.5 Te 0.5 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on CaF 2 , LaAlO 3 and MgO substrates and structurally and electro-magnetically characterized in order to study the influence of the substrate on their transport properties. The in-plane lattice mismatch between FeSe 0.5 Te 0.5 bulk and the substrate shows no influence on the lattice parameters of the films, whereas the type of substrate affects the crystalline quality of the films and, therefore, the superconducting properties. The film on MgO showed an extra peak in the angular dependence of critical current density J c (θ) at θ = 180° (H||c), which arises from c-axis defects as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In contrast, no J c (θ) peaks for H||c were observed in films on CaF 2 and LaAlO 3 . J c (θ) can be scaled successfully for both films without c-axis correlated defects by the anisotropic Ginzburg–Landau approach with appropriate anisotropy ratio γ J . The scaling parameter γ J is decreasing with decreasing temperature, which is different from what we observed in FeSe 0.5 Te 0.5 films on Fe-buffered MgO substrates. (paper)

  10. Optical and morphological characterizations of pyronin dye-poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films formed on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meral, Kadem; Arik, Mustafa; Onganer, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of pyronin dye mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on glass substrate were prepared by using spin-coating technique. The optical and morphological properties of the thin films were studied by UV-Vis., steady-state fluorescence spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thin films on glass substrate were fabricated at various [PVA]/[dye] (P/D) ratios. Hence, the monomeric and H-aggregates thin films of pyronin dye mixed with PVA were formed as a function of the dye and PVA concentration. It was determined that while the monomeric thin films showed strong fluorescence, the formation of H-aggregates in the thin film caused to decreasing the fluorescence intensity. AFM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the thin film was drastically varied with changing the optical property of the thin film such as monomeric and H-aggregates thin films.

  11. Optical and morphological characterizations of pyronin dye-poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films formed on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meral, Kadem, E-mail: kademm@atauni.edu.tr; Arik, Mustafa, E-mail: marik@tatauni.edu.tr; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail: yonganer@atauni.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Thin films of pyronin dye mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on glass substrate were prepared by using spin-coating technique. The optical and morphological properties of the thin films were studied by UV-Vis., steady-state fluorescence spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thin films on glass substrate were fabricated at various [PVA]/[dye] (P/D) ratios. Hence, the monomeric and H-aggregates thin films of pyronin dye mixed with PVA were formed as a function of the dye and PVA concentration. It was determined that while the monomeric thin films showed strong fluorescence, the formation of H-aggregates in the thin film caused to decreasing the fluorescence intensity. AFM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the thin film was drastically varied with changing the optical property of the thin film such as monomeric and H-aggregates thin films.

  12. Dynamics of ultrathin metal films on amorphous substrates under fast thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favazza, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the growth/decay rate of surface perturbations of an ultrathin metal film on an amorphous substrate (SiO 2 ). The formulation combines the approach of Mullins [W. W. Mullins, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 77 (1959)] for bulk surfaces, in which curvature-driven mass transport and surface deformation can occur by surface/volume diffusion and evaporation-condensation processes, with that of Spencer et al. [B. J. Spencer, P. W. Voorhees, and S. H. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 26 (1991)] to describe solid-state transport in thin films under epitaxial strain. Modifications of the Mullins model to account for thin-film boundary conditions result in qualitatively different dispersion relationships especially in the limit as kh o o is the unperturbed film height. The model is applied to study the relative rate of solid-state mass transport as compared to that of liquid phase dewetting in a thin film subjected to a fast thermal pulse. Specifically, we have recently shown that multiple cycles of nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser melting and resolidification of ultrathin metal films on amorphous substrates can lead to the formation of various types of spatially ordered nanostructures [J. Trice, D. Thomas, C. Favazza, R. Sureshkumar, and R. Kalyanaraman, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235439 (2007)]. The pattern formation has been attributed to the dewetting of the thin film by a hydrodynamic instability. In such experiments the film is in the solid state during a substantial fraction of each thermal cycle. However, results of a linear stability analysis based on the aforementioned model suggest that solid-state mass transport has a negligible effect on morphological changes of the surface. Further, a qualitative analysis of the effect of thermoelastic stress, induced by the rapid temperature changes in the film-substrate bilayer, suggests that stress relaxation does not appreciably contribute to surface deformation. Hence, surface deformation caused by liquid

  13. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Zinc Sulfide Thin Films on Silicon: The influence of substrate orientation and preparation on thin film morphology and texture

    OpenAIRE

    Heimdal, Carl Philip J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of orientation and preparation of silicon substrates on the growth morphology and crystalline structure of ZnS thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD). ZnS thin films were grown on silicon (100) and (111), on HF-treated and untreated silicon (100) as well as substrates coated with Al, Ge and Au. The ZnS films showed entirely different morphologies for ZnS f...

  14. Pulsed laser deposition of SiC thin films at medium substrate temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katharria, Y.S.; Kumar, Sandeep; Choudhary, R.J.; Prakash, Ram; Singh, F.; Lalla, N.P.; Phase, D.M.; Kanjilal, D.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic studies of thin silicon carbide (SiC) films deposited on Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature, 370 deg. C and 480 deg. C are carried out. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the formation of SiC bonds in the films at these temperatures along with some graphitic carbon clusters. Fourier transform infrared analysis also confirmed the formation of SiC nanocrystallites in the films. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction were used to study the structural properties of nanocrystallites formed in the films. Surface morphological analysis using atomic force microscopy revealed the growth of smooth films

  15. Enhancement of c-axis texture of AlN films by substrate implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.H.; Yeh, J.M.; Hwang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Highly oriented AlN films are successfully deposited on B + implanted Si(1 1 1) substrates in a radio frequency inductively coupled plasma (RF/ICP) system. The implanted energy and dose used for the B + implanted Si(1 1 1) substrates are 200 keV and 10 15 cm -2 , respectively. The c-axis texture of AlN films can be affected by RF gun power and ion implantation. Experimental results show that the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of AlN(0 0 2) in the X-ray rocking curve measurements decreases with increasing RF gun power. The optimum condition is at 500 W, where the FWHM of the AlN films deposited on Si(1 1 1) with and without B + implantation are 2.77 and 3.17, respectively. In average, the FWHM of the AlN films on B + implanted Si(1 1 1) are less than those on Si(1 1 1) by a factor of ∼10%. The enhancement of c-axis of AlN films due to B + implantation is attributed to the reduction of AlN grains. Raman spectra also suggest that ion implantation plays a role in reducing the tensile stress in AlN films deposited on B + implanted Si(1 1 1)

  16. Effect of Substrate Morphology on Growth and Field Emission Properties of Carbon Nanotube Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vikram

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCarbon nanotube (CNT films were grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process on four types of Si substrates: (i mirror polished, (ii catalyst patterned, (iii mechanically polished having pits of varying size and shape, and (iv electrochemically etched. Iron thin film was used as catalytic material and acetylene and ammonia as the precursors. Morphological and structural characteristics of the films were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopes, respectively. CNT films of different morphology such as vertically aligned, randomly oriented flowers, or honey-comb like, depending on the morphology of the Si substrates, were obtained. CNTs had sharp tip and bamboo-like internal structure irrespective of growth morphology of the films. Comparative field emission measurements showed that patterned CNT films and that with randomly oriented morphology had superior emission characteristics with threshold field as low as ~2.0 V/μm. The defective (bamboo-structure structures of CNTs have been suggested for the enhanced emission performance of randomly oriented nanotube samples.

  17. Growth and BZO-doping of the nanostructured YBCO thin films on buffered metal substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huhtinen, H.; Irjala, M.; Paturi, P.

    2010-01-01

    The growth of the nanostructured YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) films is investigated for the first time on biaxially textured NiW substrates used in coated conductor technology. The optimization process of superconducting layers is made in wide magnetic field and temperature range in order to understand...... the vortex pinning structure and mechanism in our films prepared from nanostructured material. Structural analysis shows that growth mechanism in YBCO films grown on NiW is completely different when compared to YBCO on STO. Films on NiW are much rougher, there is huge in-plane variation of YBCO crystals...... and moreover out-of-plane long range lattice ordering is greatly reduced. Magnetic measurements demonstrate that jc in films grown on NiW is higher in high magnetic fields and low temperatures. This effect is connected to the amount of pinning centres observed in films on metal substrates which are effective...

  18. Structural investigation of ZnO:Al films deposited on the Si substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.Y.; Yang, J.R.; Cheng, S.L.; Shiojiri, M.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO:Al films 400 nm thick were prepared on (100) Si substrates by magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that in the initial stage of the deposition, an amorphous silicon oxide layer about 4 nm thick formed from damage to the Si substrate due to sputtered particle bombardment and the incorporation of Si atoms with oxygen. Subsequently, a crystalline Si (Zn) layer about 30 nm thick grew on the silicon oxide layer by co-deposition of Si atoms sputtered away from the substrate with Zn atoms from the target. Finally, a ZnO:Al film with columnar grains was deposited on the Si (Zn) layer. The sputtered particle bombardment greatly influenced the structure of the object films. The (0001) lattice fringes of the ZnO:Al film were observed in high-resolution TEM images, and the forbidden 0001 reflection spots in electron diffraction patterns were attributed to double diffraction. Therefore, the appearance of the forbidden reflection did not imply any ordering of Al atoms and/or O vacancies in the ZnO:Al film. - Highlights: • ZnO:Al films were deposited on (100) Si substrate using magnetron sputtering. • An amorphous silicon oxide layer with a thickness of 4 nm was formed on Si substrate. • Crystalline Si (Zn) layer about 30 nm thick grew on amorphous silicon oxide layer. • ZnO:Al film comprising columnar grains was deposited on the Si(Zn) layer. • Lattice image of the ZnO:Al film has been interpreted

  19. Microstructure of Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films, grown on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nukaga, Yuri; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: nukaga@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films with hcp structure were prepared on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 {sup 0}C by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The microstructure is investigated by employing X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The film consists of two types of domains whose c-axes are rotated around the film normal by 90{sup 0} each other. Stacking faults are observed for the film along the Co[0001] direction. An atomically sharp boundary is recognized between the film and the substrate, where some misfit dislocations are introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. Dislocations are also observed in the film up to 15 nm thickness from the interface. Presence of such stacking faults and misfit dislocations seem to relieve the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the film are in agreement within 0.5% and 0.1%, respectively, with those of the bulk hcp-Co crystal, suggesting the strain in the film is very small.

  20. Microstructure of Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films, grown on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukaga, Yuri; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films with hcp structure were prepared on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 0 C by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The microstructure is investigated by employing X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The film consists of two types of domains whose c-axes are rotated around the film normal by 90 0 each other. Stacking faults are observed for the film along the Co[0001] direction. An atomically sharp boundary is recognized between the film and the substrate, where some misfit dislocations are introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. Dislocations are also observed in the film up to 15 nm thickness from the interface. Presence of such stacking faults and misfit dislocations seem to relieve the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the film are in agreement within 0.5% and 0.1%, respectively, with those of the bulk hcp-Co crystal, suggesting the strain in the film is very small.

  1. Effect of sputtering parameters and substrate composition on the structure of tantalum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallmann, Lubica, E-mail: lubica.hallmann@zzm.uzh.c [Clinic of Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Material Science, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zürich (Switzerland); Ulmer, Peter [Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    The crystallographic properties of tantalum films deposited as a bioactive coating on Co–Cr–Mo and Ti–Al–Nb alloys have been investigated. The desired tough and ductile alpha phase of tantalum has been obtained by DC magnetron sputtering on Co–Cr–Mo and Ti–Al–Nb substrates. The thickness of the tantalum layer was between 20 and 600 nm. The crystallographic structure of tantalum thin film was dependent on the sputtering parameters such as DC power, bias voltage and gas impurities. Oxygen is an important factor for the stabilization of the tantalum alpha phase on Co–Cr–Mo substrate. The crystallographic structure and texture of tantalum thin films was found to be additionally dependent on the substrate composition. For Ti–Al–Nb substrate, oxygen content was not an important factor for the stabilization of the alpha phase. The observed shift of X-ray diffraction peaks to lower 2(θ) is an indication of stress evolving during the sputtering process and was dependent on bias voltage and oxygen content of the carrier gas.

  2. Effect of substrate on excess electrical conductivity in thin superconducting lead films above the transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwini Kumar, P K

    1976-03-01

    Measurements were made on Pb films grown directly on to glass and Pb films grown on glass precoated with LiF to investigate the effect of the substrate on thermodynamic fluctuations of Cooper pairs. A change in the substrate appears to alter the strength of the pair breaking mechanism. 17 references.

  3. Investigation of growth, structural and electronic properties of V2O3 thin films on selected substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nateprov, Alexei

    2006-08-01

    The present work is devoted to the experimental study of the MI transition in V 2 O 3 thin films, grown on different substrates. The main goal of the work was to develop a technology of growth of V 2 O 3 thin films on substrates with different electrical and structural properties (diamond and LiNbO 3 ), designed for specific applications. The structural and electrical properties of the obtained films were characterized in detail with a special focus on their potential applications. The MIT of V 2 O 3 was investigated by SAW using first directly deposited V 2 O 3 thin film onto a LiNbO 3 substrate. (orig.)

  4. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Stavarache, Ionel

    2017-07-21

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling of nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. It is reported here the significant progress introduced by synthesis procedure to the in-situ structuring of Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films by heating the substrate at low temperature, 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency of 850 %. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the efort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.

  5. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavarache, Ionel; Maraloiu, Valentin Adrian; Negrila, Catalin; Prepelita, Petronela; Gruia, Ion; Iordache, Gheorghe

    2017-10-01

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. This article reports on a significant progress given by structuring Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films by heating the substrate at 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency with peak value reaching 850% at -1 V and about 1000 nm. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the effort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.

  6. Large-grain polycrystalline silicon film by sequential lateral solidification on a plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Chung, Choong-Heui; Yun, Sun Jin; Moon, Jaehyun; Park, Dong-Jin; Kim, Dae-Won; Lim, Jung Wook; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    A large-grain polycrystalline silicon film was obtained on a plastic substrate by sequential lateral solidification. With various combinations of sputtering powers and Ar working gas pressures, the conditions for producing dense amorphous silicon (a-Si) and SiO 2 films were optimized. The successful crystallization of the a-Si film is attributed to the production of a dense a-Si film that has low argon content and can endure high-intensity laser irradiation

  7. F-doped SnO2 thin films grown on flexible substrates at low temperatures by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Auyeung, R.C.Y.; Pique, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO 2 :F) films were deposited on polyethersulfone plastic substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The electrical and optical properties of the SnO 2 :F films were investigated as a function of deposition conditions such as substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure during deposition. High quality SnO 2 :F films were achieved under an optimum oxygen pressure range (7.4-8 Pa) at relatively low growth temperatures (25-150 deg. C). As-deposited films exhibited low electrical resistivities of 1-7 mΩ-cm, high optical transmittance of 80-90% in the visible range, and optical band-gap energies of 3.87-3.96 eV. Atomic force microscopy measurements revealed a reduced root mean square surface roughness of the SnO 2 :F films compared to that of the bare substrates indicating planarization of the underlying substrate.

  8. Evolution de films de cuivre sur un substrat de cordiérite au cours de traitements thermiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guille, Jean-Louis; Gondolf, Marc

    1993-04-01

    Copper films were applied on low sintering temperature cordierite substrates either by sputtering or screen printing. Their behaviour during thermal treatments was studied as a function of various parameters : deposition technique, thickness, firing atmosphere, physical state of the substrate (green or sintered). Films were most often broken during the treatment. In the case of screen printed films the effects of an oxydation-reduction cycle of copper are pointed out. Des films de cuivre ont été déposés sur un substrat de cordiérite à basse température de frittage par deux techniques, pulvérisation cathodique et sérigraphie. On étudie leur comportement au cours de traitements thermiques en fonction de différents paramètres : technique de déposition, épaisseur, atmosphère de traitement, état physique du substrat (cru ou fritté). On constate le plus souvent une fragmentation du film. Dans le cas des films sérigraphiés on met en évidence les effets dus à l'oxydation et à la réduction du cuivre.

  9. Three-dimensional growth simulation: A study of substrate oriented films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, A; Martin, N; Carpentier, L

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are developed to simulate the growth of three-dimensional columnar microstructure in thin films. We are studying in particular oriented microstructure like those produced with the Glancing Angle Deposition technique (GLAD). Some geometrical characteristics of the particles flux, the organization of defect sites on the substrate surface and the atomic surface diffusion are mainly investigated in order to predict the growth processes and the resulting features of the films. This study reports on simulations of thin film growth exhibiting an oblique and zigzag columnar microstructure. Column angle evolution and density are investigated versus incidence angle α or period number n and compared with experimental measurements.

  10. Orthorhombic polar Nd-doped BiFeO{sub 3} thin film on MgO substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontyev, I N; Janolin, P-E; Dkhil, B [Laboratoire Structures, Proprietes et Modelisation des Solides, UMR CNRS-Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Yuzyuk, Yu I [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Zorge 5, Rostov-on-Don 344090 (Russian Federation); El-Marssi, M [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Chernyshov, D; Dmitriev, V [Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, Boite Postale 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Golovko, Yu I; Mukhortov, V M, E-mail: i.leontiev@rambler.ru [Southern Scientific Center RAS, Rostov-on-Don, 344006 (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-24

    A Nd-doped BiFeO{sub 3} thin film deposited on MgO substrate was studied by synchrotron diffraction. The ferroelectric nature of the film is proven by in-plane remanent polarization measurement. The highest possible symmetry of the film is determined to be orthorhombic, within the Fm2m space group. Such a structure is rotated by 45{sup 0} with respect to the substrate and is consistent with tilts of oxygen octahedra doubling the unit cell. This polar structure presents a rather unusual strain-accommodation mechanism. (fast track communication)

  11. The effect of substrate on thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies in atomic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2014-01-01

    Glasses have a wide range of technological applications. The recent discovery of ultrastable glasses that are obtained by depositing the vapor of a glass-forming liquid onto the surface of a cold substrate has sparked renewed interest in the effects of confinements on physicochemical properties of liquids and glasses. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of substrate on thin films of a model glass-forming liquid, the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones system, and compute profiles of several thermodynamic and kinetic properties across the film. We observe that the substrate can induce large oscillations in profiles of thermodynamic properties such as density, composition, and stress, and we establish a correlation between the oscillations in total density and the oscillations in normal stress. We also demonstrate that the kinetic properties of an atomic film can be readily tuned by changing the strength of interactions between the substrate and the liquid. Most notably, we show that a weakly attractive substrate can induce the emergence of a highly mobile region in its vicinity. In this highly mobile region, structural relaxation is several times faster than in the bulk, and the exploration of the potential energy landscape is also more efficient. In the subsurface region near a strongly attractive substrate, however, the dynamics is decelerated and the sampling of the potential energy landscape becomes less efficient than the bulk. We explain these two distinct behaviors by establishing a correlation between the oscillations in kinetic properties and the oscillations in lateral stress. Our findings offer interesting opportunities for designing better substrates for the vapor deposition process or developing alternative procedures for situations where vapor deposition is not feasible

  12. The effect of substrate on thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies in atomic thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2014-07-14

    Glasses have a wide range of technological applications. The recent discovery of ultrastable glasses that are obtained by depositing the vapor of a glass-forming liquid onto the surface of a cold substrate has sparked renewed interest in the effects of confinements on physicochemical properties of liquids and glasses. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of substrate on thin films of a model glass-forming liquid, the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones system, and compute profiles of several thermodynamic and kinetic properties across the film. We observe that the substrate can induce large oscillations in profiles of thermodynamic properties such as density, composition, and stress, and we establish a correlation between the oscillations in total density and the oscillations in normal stress. We also demonstrate that the kinetic properties of an atomic film can be readily tuned by changing the strength of interactions between the substrate and the liquid. Most notably, we show that a weakly attractive substrate can induce the emergence of a highly mobile region in its vicinity. In this highly mobile region, structural relaxation is several times faster than in the bulk, and the exploration of the potential energy landscape is also more efficient. In the subsurface region near a strongly attractive substrate, however, the dynamics is decelerated and the sampling of the potential energy landscape becomes less efficient than the bulk. We explain these two distinct behaviors by establishing a correlation between the oscillations in kinetic properties and the oscillations in lateral stress. Our findings offer interesting opportunities for designing better substrates for the vapor deposition process or developing alternative procedures for situations where vapor deposition is not feasible.

  13. The effect of substrate on thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies in atomic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G., E-mail: pdebene@exchange.princeton.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Glasses have a wide range of technological applications. The recent discovery of ultrastable glasses that are obtained by depositing the vapor of a glass-forming liquid onto the surface of a cold substrate has sparked renewed interest in the effects of confinements on physicochemical properties of liquids and glasses. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of substrate on thin films of a model glass-forming liquid, the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones system, and compute profiles of several thermodynamic and kinetic properties across the film. We observe that the substrate can induce large oscillations in profiles of thermodynamic properties such as density, composition, and stress, and we establish a correlation between the oscillations in total density and the oscillations in normal stress. We also demonstrate that the kinetic properties of an atomic film can be readily tuned by changing the strength of interactions between the substrate and the liquid. Most notably, we show that a weakly attractive substrate can induce the emergence of a highly mobile region in its vicinity. In this highly mobile region, structural relaxation is several times faster than in the bulk, and the exploration of the potential energy landscape is also more efficient. In the subsurface region near a strongly attractive substrate, however, the dynamics is decelerated and the sampling of the potential energy landscape becomes less efficient than the bulk. We explain these two distinct behaviors by establishing a correlation between the oscillations in kinetic properties and the oscillations in lateral stress. Our findings offer interesting opportunities for designing better substrates for the vapor deposition process or developing alternative procedures for situations where vapor deposition is not feasible.

  14. The crystal structure and twinning of neodymium gallium perovskite single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubizskii, S.B.; Vasylechko, L.O.; Savytskii, D.I.; Matkovskii, A.O.; Syvorotka, I.M.

    1994-01-01

    By means of X-ray structure analysis, the crystal structure of neodymium gallium perovskite (NGP) single crystals (NdGaO 3 ) being used as a substrate for HTSC film epitaxy has been refined and the position of atoms has been determined. The possibility of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x film epitaxy on the plane (110) of NGP crystal as well as its advantages and pitfalls are analysed from structural data. The twinning types in the NGP crystal were established. The twinning structure of NGP substrates is found to be stable up to a temperature of 1173 K, as differentiated from the LaGaO 3 and LaAlO 3 substrates. It is intimated that the twinning in the NGP substrates oriented as (001) can result in creation of 90 degrees twin bonds in a film, and in the case of (110)-oriented plates it is possible to ignore the twinning presence in substrate completely. (author)

  15. Study on Buckling of Stiff Thin Films on Soft Substrates as Functional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng

    In engineering, buckling is mechanical instability of walls or columns under compression and usually is a problem that engineers try to prevent. In everyday life buckles (wrinkles) on different substrates are ubiquitous -- from human skin to a rotten apple they are a commonly observed phenomenon. It seems that buckles with macroscopic wavelengths are not technologically useful; over the past decade or so, however, thanks to the widespread availability of soft polymers and silicone materials micro-buckles with wavelengths in submicron to micron scale have received increasing attention because it is useful for generating well-ordered periodic microstructures spontaneously without conventional lithographic techniques. This thesis investigates the buckling behavior of thin stiff films on soft polymeric substrates and explores a variety of applications, ranging from optical gratings, optical masks, energy harvest to energy storage. A laser scanning technique is proposed to detect micro-strain induced by thermomechanical loads and a periodic buckling microstructure is employed as a diffraction grating with broad wavelength tunability, which is spontaneously generated from a metallic thin film on polymer substrates. A mechanical strategy is also presented for quantitatively buckling nanoribbons of piezoelectric material on polymer substrates involving the combined use of lithographically patterning surface adhesion sites and transfer printing technique. The precisely engineered buckling configurations provide a route to energy harvesters with extremely high levels of stretchability. This stiff-thin-film/polymer hybrid structure is further employed into electrochemical field to circumvent the electrochemically-driven stress issue in silicon-anode-based lithium ion batteries. It shows that the initial flat silicon-nanoribbon-anode on a polymer substrate tends to buckle to mitigate the lithiation-induced stress so as to avoid the pulverization of silicon anode. Spontaneously

  16. Pattern interpolation in thin films of lamellar, symmetric copolymers on nano-patterned substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detcheverry, Francois; Nagpal, Umang; Liu, Guoliang; Nealey, Paul; de Pablo, Juan

    2009-03-01

    A molecular model of block copolymer systems is used to conduct a systematic study of the morphologies that arise when thin films of symmetric, lamellar forming block copolymer materials are deposited on nanopatterned surfaces. Over 500 distinct cases are considered. It is found that, in general, three distinct morphologies can arise depending on the strength of the substrate-polymer interactions, the film thickness, and the period of the substrate pattern. The relative stability of those morphologies is determined by direct calculation of the free energy differences. The dynamic propensity of those morphologies to emerge is examined by careful analysis of simulated trajectories. The results of this systematic study are used to interpret recent experimental data for films of polystyrene-PMMA copolymers on chemically nanopatterned surfaces.

  17. Low energy electron irradiation induced carbon etching: Triggering carbon film reacting with oxygen from SiO{sub 2} substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wang, Chao, E-mail: cwang367@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn; Diao, Dongfeng, E-mail: cwang367@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-08-01

    We report low-energy (50–200 eV) electron irradiation induced etching of thin carbon films on a SiO{sub 2} substrate. The etching mechanism was interpreted that electron irradiation stimulated the dissociation of the carbon film and SiO{sub 2}, and then triggered the carbon film reacting with oxygen from the SiO{sub 2} substrate. A requirement for triggering the etching of the carbon film is that the incident electron penetrates through the whole carbon film, which is related to both irradiation energy and film thickness. This study provides a convenient electron-assisted etching with the precursor substrate, which sheds light on an efficient pathway to the fabrication of nanodevices and nanosurfaces.

  18. Preparation and characterization of electrochemically deposited carbon nitride films on silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xingbin; Xu Tao; Chen Gang; Yang Shengrong; Liu Huiwen; Xue Qunji

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nitride films (CN x films) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by the electrolysis of methanol-urea solution at high voltage, atmospheric pressure, and low temperature. The microstructure and morphology of the resulting CN x films were analysed by means of Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy. The tribological properties of the CN x films were examined on an UMT-2MT friction and wear test rig. The Raman spectrum showed two characteristic bands: a graphite G band and a disordered D band of carbon, which suggested the presence of an amorphous carbon matrix. XPS and FTIR measurements suggested the existence of both single and double carbon-nitride bonds in the film and the hydrogenation of the carbon nitride phase. The XRD spectrum showed various peaks of different d values, which could confirm the existence of the polycrystalline carbon nitride phase. The hydrogenated CN x films were compact and uniform, with a root mean square roughness of about 18 nm. The films showed excellent friction-reduction and wear-resistance, with the friction coefficient in the stable phase being about 0.08. In addition, the growth mechanism of the CN x films in liquid phase electro-deposition was discussed as well. It was assumed that the molecules of CH 3 OH and CO(NH 2 ) 2 were polarized under high electric field, and the CN x film was formed on the substrate through the reaction of the -CH 3 and -NH 2 groups on the cathode

  19. Experimental study on tensile bifurcation of nanoscale Cu film bonded to polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men, Yutao; Wang, Shibin; Jia, Haikun; Wu, Zhiliang; Li, Linan; Zhang, Chunqiu

    2013-01-01

    Cu films are widely used in flexible electronic products. Tensile mechanical properties of the film determine product performance. In this paper, tensile experiments of sputtered Cu films on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate were carried out under an optical microscope. In the experiments, three changes took place under tension: uniform deformation, microcrack initiation and propagation, and microcrack saturation. The elastic modulus of the Cu film is 120 GPa and is independent of film thickness since the film is formed to be continuous in the nanoscale range. Film thickness is an important parameter to decide the tensile properties. The critical fracture strain, the interfacial bonding strength, and the crack spacing after saturation are related to film thickness. The critical strain and the interfacial bonding strength of the nanoscale Cu film tend to ascend then to descend as film thickness increases. The microcrack spacing is in direct proportion to film thickness after the microcrack saturates. The optimum thickness of the sputtered Cu films on the PET substrate is about 500 nm. - Highlights: • The elastic modulus of the Cu films is 120 GPa and does not change with thickness. • The optimal thickness of the Cu films is about 500 nm. • The critical strain tends to ascend then to descend as film thickness increases. • The interfacial strength changes in accordance with the critical strain. • Microcrack spacing is proportional to film thickness after the microcrack saturates

  20. Effects of vacuum processing erbium dideuteride/ditritide films deposited on chromium underlays on copper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provo, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Thin films of erbium dideuteride/ditritide were experimentally produced on chromium underlays deposited on copper substrates. The chromium underlay is required to prevent erbium occluder/copper substrate alloying which inhibits hydriding. Data taken has shown that vacuum processing affects the erbium/chromium/copper interaction. With an in situ process in which underlay/occluder films are vacuum deposited onto copper substrates and hydrided with no air exposure between these steps, data indicates a minimum of 1500A of chromium is required for optimum hydriding. If films are vacuum deposited as above and air-exposed before hydriding, a minimum of 3000A of chromium was shown to be required for equivalent hydriding. Data suggests that the activation step (600 0 C for 1 hour) required for hydriding the film of the second type is responsible for the difference observed. Such underlay thickness parameters are important, with regard to heat transfer considerations in thin hydride targets used for neutron generation

  1. Heteroepitaxial Growth of Ferromagnetic MnSb(0001) Films on Ge/Si(111) Virtual Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Christopher W; Dobbie, Andrew; Myronov, Maksym; Hase, Thomas P A; Wilkins, Stuart B; Walker, Marc; Mudd, James J; Maskery, Ian; Lees, Martin R; McConville, Christopher F; Leadley, David R; Bell, Gavin R

    2013-11-06

    Molecular beam epitaxial growth of ferromagnetic MnSb(0001) has been achieved on high quality, fully relaxed Ge(111)/Si(111) virtual substrates grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. The epilayers were characterized using reflection high energy electron diffraction, synchrotron hard X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and magnetometry. The surface reconstructions, magnetic properties, crystalline quality, and strain relaxation behavior of the MnSb films are similar to those of MnSb grown on GaAs(111). In contrast to GaAs substrates, segregation of substrate atoms through the MnSb film does not occur, and alternative polymorphs of MnSb are absent.

  2. Interfacial Effects on the Spherulitic Morphology of Isotactic Polystyrene Thin Films on Liquid Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of interfaces on the morphology of flat spherulites of isotactic polystyrene (iPS grown in thin films on liquid substrates was investigated. Amorphous iPS thin films spin-cast from a solution were annealed for cold crystallization on glycerol and silicone oil (nonsolvents for iPS. The number density of grown spherulites was revealed to be higher on the glycerol substrate than on the silicone oil substrate. This implies that the primary nucleation rate of crystallization is greater at the iPS/glycerol interface than at the iPS/silicone oil interface. The results may be consistent with the previous findings that concern the molecular interaction between atactic polystyrene and nonsolvents at the interface. In some cases, holes were formed in the thin films during the cold crystallization due to dewetting, which also significantly affect the spherulite morphology via, for example, transcrystallization.

  3. F2-laser patterning of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.Y.; Li, J.; Herman, P.R.; Lilge, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the controlled micromachining of 100 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates with a vacuum-ultraviolet 157 nm F 2 laser. Partial to complete film removal was observed over a wide fluence window from 0.49 J/cm 2 to an optimized single pulse fluence of 4.5 J/cm 2 for complete film removal. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show little substrate or collateral damage by the laser pulse which conserved the stoichiometry, optical transparency and electrical conductivity of ITO coating adjacent to the trenches. At higher fluence, a parallel micron sized channel can be etched in the glass substrate. The high photon energy and top-hat beam homogenized optical system of the F 2 laser opens new means for direct structuring of electrodes and microchannels in biological microfluidic systems or in optoelectronics. (orig.)

  4. Substrate effects on photoluminescence and low temperature phase transition of methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee, S. A.; Harriman, T. A.; Han, G. S.; Lee, J.-K.; Lucca, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the effects of substrates on the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra and phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films. Structural characterization at room temperature with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy indicated that while the chemical structure of films deposited on glass and quartz was similar, the glass substrate induced strain in the perovskite films and suppressed the grain growth. The luminescence response and phase transition of the perovskite thin films were studied by PL spectroscopy. The induced strain was found to affect both the room temperature and low temperature PL spectra of the hybrid perovskite films. In addition, it was found that the effects of the glass substrate inhibited a tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition such that it occurred at lower temperatures.

  5. Epitaxial growth of manganese oxide films on MgAl2O4 (001) substrates and the possible mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lizhu; Wu, Shuxiang; Zhou, Wenqi; Li, Shuwei

    2014-03-01

    Three types of manganese oxide films were grown on MgAl2O4 (001) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) under different growth rates and substrate temperatures. The structural characteristics and chemical compositions of the films were investigated by using in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), ex-situ X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). At a lower substrate temperature (730 K), the epitaxial film tends to form mixed phases with a coexistence of Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 in order to relieve the mismatch-strain. However, at a higher substrate temperature (750 K), all of the films crystallize into Mn3O4; the critical thickness of the film grown under a lower growth rate (7 Å/min) is much larger than that under a high growth rate (10 Å/min). When the film reaches a certain critical thickness, the surface will become fairly rough, and another oriented phase Mn3O4 would crystallize on such a surface.

  6. Adhesion strength of Ni film on Ti substrate characterized by three-point bend test, peel test and theoretic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, F.Z.; Liu, P.; Jia, S.G.; Tian, B.H.; Su, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Electroplating was employed to fabricate the Ni film on the Ti substrate. Adhesion strength of Ni film on Ti substrate was determined using the three-point bend technique that was proposed in standard mechanics test. The experimental results demonstrate that the interface fracture energies obviously increase with the roughness of Ti substrates, and are independence with the thickness of Ni films. Moreover, the adhesion strength of Ni film on Ti substrate was also measured by peel test, and was evaluated by Miedema model of experiential electron theory. The intrinsic interface fracture energy measured by three-point bend test is reasonable agreement with that obtained by theoretical calculation of Miedema model, and is roughly comparable to that by peel test

  7. Photoconductive ZnO Films Printed on Flexible Substrates by Inkjet and Aerosol Jet Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarski, D. J.; Kreit, E.; Heckman, E. M.; Flesburg, E.; Haseman, M.; Aga, R. S.; Selim, F. A.

    2018-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have remarkable versatility in sensor applications. Here, we report simple ink synthesis and printing methods to deposit ZnO photodetectors on a variety of flexible and transparent substrates, including polyimide (Kapton), polyethylene terephthalate, cyclic olefin copolymer (TOPAS), and quartz. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the dependence of the film orientation on the substrate type and sintering method, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption measurements revealed a band edge near 380 nm. van der Pauw technique was used to measure the resistivity of undoped ZnO and indium/gallium-codoped ZnO (IGZO) films. IGZO films showed lower resistivity and larger average grain size compared with undoped ZnO films due to addition of In3+ and Ga3+, which act as donors. A 365-nm light-emitting diode was used to photoirradiate the films to study their photoconductive response as a function of light intensity at 300 K. The results revealed that ZnO films printed by aerosol jet and inkjet techniques exhibited five orders of magnitude photoconductivity, indicating that such films are viable options for use in flexible photodetectors.

  8. Effect of substrate temperatures on the optical properties of evaporated Sc2O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guanghui; Jin Yunxia; He Hongbo; Fan Zhengxiu

    2010-01-01

    Scandium oxide (Sc 2 O 3 ) films were deposited by electron beam evaporation with substrate temperatures varying from 50 to 350 o C. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, spectrometer, and optical profilograph were employed to investigate the structural and optical properties of the films. The refractive index and extinction coefficient were calculated from the transmittance and reflectance spectra, and then the energy band gaps were deduced and discussed. Laser induced damage threshold of the films were also characterized. Optical and structural properties of Sc 2 O 3 films were found to be sensitive to substrate temperature.

  9. Effect of sapphire substrate nitridation on the elimination of rotation domains in ZnO epitaxial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Minju; Du Xiaolong; Mei Zengxia; Zeng Zhaoquan; Zheng Hao; Wang Yong; Jia Jinfeng; Zhang Ze; Xue Qikun

    2004-01-01

    The rotation domain structures in ZnO films grown on sapphire substrates under different pre-treatment conditions have been investigated by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex situ x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that by appropriate nitridation treatment, forming a thin AlN film on the substrate, the rotation domains in ZnO films could be completely suppressed, and a full width at half maximum of only 180 arcsec was observed in the (0 0 0 2) reflection of XRD rocking curves. The mechanisms for the elimination of rotation domains in the ZnO films are discussed

  10. Transparent conducting properties of anatase Ti0.94Nb0.06O2 polycrystalline films on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitosugi, T.; Ueda, A.; Nakao, S.; Yamada, N.; Furubayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Konuma, S.; Shimada, T.; Hasegawa, T.

    2008-01-01

    We report on transparent conducting properties of anatase Ti 0.94 Nb 0.06 O 2 (TNO) polycrystalline films on glass substrate, and discuss the role of grain crystallinity and grain boundary on resistivity. Thin films of TNO were deposited using pulsed laser deposition at substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 350 deg. C, with subsequent H 2 -annealing at 500 deg. C. Polycrystalline TNO films showed resistivity of 4.5 x 10 -4 Ω cm and 1.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm for films prepared at substrate temperature of room temperature and 250 deg. C, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron microscopy reveal that grain crystallinity and grain boundary play key roles in conductive films

  11. Properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by rf reactive magnetron sputtering on biased substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezar, Sawsen, E-mail: snezar@cdta.dz [Equipe Plasma & Applications, Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout 1956, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Laboratoire des phénomènes de transfert, génie chimique, Faculté de Génie des procèdes, USTHB, BP 32 El-alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, Nadia [Equipe Plasma & Applications, Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout 1956, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Sali, Samira [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique (CRTSE Algiers) (Algeria); Faiz, Mohammed; Mekki, Mogtaba [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Laoufi, Nadia Aïcha [Laboratoire des phénomènes de transfert, génie chimique, Faculté de Génie des procèdes, USTHB, BP 32 El-alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Tabet, Nouar [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Doha (Qatar)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on negatively biased substrates by rf magnetron sputtering technique. • The bias favors the formation of TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase. • The roughness of the films increases and the grain size decreases as the bias voltage is varied between (0 and −100 V). • XPS reveals the presence of adsorbed humidity of the surface and Ti{sup 4+} oxidation state in the as prepared samples. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} thin films are of paramount importance due to their pervasive applications. In contrast to previous published works where the substrate was heated at high temperatures to obtain TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase, we show in this study that it is possible to deposit crystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films on biased and unbiased substrate at room temperature using reactive rf magnetron sputtering. The bias voltage was varied from 0 V to −100 V. The deposited films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average crystallite size was estimated using x-ray diffraction. The results showed that the application of negative bias affects the surface roughness of the films and favors the formation of the rutile phase. The root mean square roughness (R{sub rms}), the average grain size and the optical band gap of the films decreased as the substrate bias voltage was varied from 0 to −100 V. The UV–visible transmittance spectra showed that the films were transparent in the visible range and absorb strongly in the UV range. This study shows that biasing the substrate could be a promising and effective alternative to deposit TiO{sub 2} crystallized thin films of engineered properties at room temperature.

  12. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films on Ti substrate fabricated using pulsed-laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Jiang, J C; Liu, J; Collins, G; Chen, C L; Lin, B; Giurgiutiu, V; Guo, R Y; Bhalla, A; Meletis, E I

    2010-09-01

    We report on the fabrication of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films on titanium substrates using pulsed laser deposition and their microstructures and properties. Electron microscopy studies reveal that BaTiO3 films are composed of crystalline assemblage of nanopillars with average cross sections from 100 nm to 200 nm. The BaTiO3 films have good interface structures and strong adhesion with respect to Ti substrates by forming a rutile TiO2 intermediate layer with a gradient microstructure. The room temperature ferroelectric polarization measurements show that the as-deposited BTO films possess nearly the same spontaneous polarization as the bulk BTO ceramics indicating formation of ferroelectric domains in the films. Successful fabrication of such ferroelectric films on Ti has significant importance for the development of new applications such as structural health monitoring spanning from aerospace to civil infrastructure. The work can be extended to integrate other ferroelectric oxide films with various promising properties to monitor the structural health of materials.

  13. Significant effect of substrate temperature on the phase structure, optical and electrical properties of RF sputtered CIGS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhou; Yan Yong; Li Shasha; Zhang Yanxia; Yan Chuanpeng; Liu Lian; Zhang Yong [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Suspension Technology and Maglev Vehicle, Ministry of Education, Superconductivity and New energy R and D Center (SNERDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhao Yong, E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Suspension Technology and Maglev Vehicle, Ministry of Education, Superconductivity and New energy R and D Center (SNERDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phase exist in the RF sputtered CIGS films as it deposited at 150 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CIGS films deposited beyond 350 Degree-Sign C show (1 1 2) prefer orientation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E{sub g} of the CIGS films increased with the increase of substrate temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductivity of the films is affected by 'variable range hopping' mechanism. - Abstract: This work studied the effect of substrate temperature on the phase structure, optical and electrical properties of the one-step radio frequency sputtered Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that all the deposited CIGS films are chalcopyrite phase with polycrystalline structure. The films deposited beyond the substrate temperature of 350 Degree-Sign C show (1 1 2) prefer orientation. Raman spectra reveal that the 150 Degree-Sign C deposited CIGS film coexists with Cu{sub 2-x}Se phase and the 500 Degree-Sign C deposited film contains ordered defect compound (ODC) phase. With the increase of substrate temperature, energy band gap of the CIGS film increase from 0.99 to 1.27 eV. Films deposited at higher temperature exhibit larger electrical conductivity. Conductivity of the CIGS films is dominated by 'variable range hopping' mechanism. The disorder in our CIGS the films is associated with the formation of intrinsic defects such as V{sub Se} and In{sub Cu} for their low formation energy.

  14. Effect of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO2/Ag/CuAlO2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dohyun; No, Young Soo; Kim, Su Youn; Cho, Woon Jo; Kwack, Kae Dal; Kim, Tae Whan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: The CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films were grown on glass substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Effects of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the phase of the CuAlO 2 layer was amorphous. Atomic force microscopy images showed that Ag films with a thickness of a few nanometers had island structures. The morphology Ag films with a thickness of 8 nm was uniform. The morphology of the Ag films inserted in the CuAlO 2 films significantly affected the optical transmittance and the resistivity of the CuAlO 2 films deposited on glass substrates. The maximum transmittance of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films with a thickness of 8 nm was 89.16%. The resistivity of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films with an Ag film thickness of 18 nm was as small as about 2.8 x 10 -5 Ω cm. The resistivity of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films was decreased as a result of the thermal annealing treatment. These results indicate that CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates hold promise for potential applications as TCO films in solar cells. - Abstract: Effects of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates were investigated. Atomic force microscopy images showed that Ag films with a thickness of a few nanometers had island structures. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the phase of the CuAlO 2 layer was amorphous. The resistivity of the 40 nm-CuAlO 2 /18 nm-Ag/40 nm-CuAlO 2 multilayer films was 2.8 x 10 -5 Ω cm, and the transmittance of the multilayer films with an Ag film thickness of 8 nm was approximately 89.16%. These results indicate that CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates hold promise for potential applications as

  15. Optimum angle of incidence for monochromatic interference in transparent films on absorbing substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.H.; Sand, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Angles of incidence for s- and p-polarized light have been computed and confirmed experimentally for which monochromatic interference in transparent thin films on absorbing substrates results in optimum interference fringe contrast (visibility=1). Under these angles of incidence and with polarized light, film thickness determinations which are not possible at normal incidence or with unpolarized light can be carried out by use of thin-film interference

  16. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuezhang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wei Qiuping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yu Zhiming, E-mail: zhiming@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nucleation density was increased to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp{sup 3}-bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  17. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuezhang; Wei Qiuping; Yu Zhiming; Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. ► The nucleation density was increased to 10 11 cm −2 . ► Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. ► Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp 3 -bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10 11 cm −2 , and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  18. Single crystalline metal films as substrates for graphene growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, Patrick; Henss, Ann-Kathrin; Wintterlin, Joost [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Weinl, Michael; Schreck, Matthias [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Speck, Florian; Ostler, Markus [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz (Germany); Seyller, Thomas [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Single crystalline metal films deposited on YSZ-buffered Si(111) wafers were investigated with respect to their suitability as substrates for epitaxial graphene. Graphene was grown by CVD of ethylene on Ru(0001), Ir(111), and Ni(111) films in UHV. For analysis a variety of surface science methods were used. By an initial annealing step the surface quality of the films was strongly improved. The temperature treatments of the metal films caused a pattern of slip lines, formed by thermal stress in the films, which, however, did not affect the graphene quality and even prevented wrinkle formation. Graphene was successfully grown on all three types of metal films in a quality comparable to graphene grown on bulk single crystals of the same metals. In the case of the Ni(111) films the originally obtained domain structure of rotational graphene phases could be transformed into a single domain by annealing. This healing process is based on the control of the equilibrium between graphene and dissolved carbon in the film. For the system graphene/Ni(111) the metal, after graphene growth, could be removed from underneath the epitaxial graphene layer by a pure gas phase reaction, using the reaction of CO with Ni to give gaseous Ni(CO){sub 4}. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Mechanical properties of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin films on compliant substrates for flexible optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, D.W., E-mail: DWM172@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Waddingham, R.; Flewitt, A.J. [University of Cambridge, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA,United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Sierros, K.A. [West Virginia University, Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bowen, J. [Open University, Department of Engineering and Innovation, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Kukureka, S.N. [University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-02

    Amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin films were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates and their mechanical flexibility investigated using uniaxial tensile and buckling tests coupled with in situ optical microscopy. The uniaxial fragmentation test demonstrated that the crack onset strain of the IGZO/PEN was ~ 2.9%, which is slightly higher than that of IGZO/PET. Also, uniaxial tensile crack density analysis suggests that the saturated crack spacing of the film is strongly dependent on the mechanical properties of the underlying polymer substrate. Buckling test results suggest that the crack onset strain (equal to ~ 1.2%, of the IGZO/polymer samples flexed in compression to ~ 5.7 mm concave radius of curvature) is higher than that of the samples flexed with the film being in tension (convex bending) regardless whether the substrate is PEN or PET. The saturated crack density of a-IGZO film under the compression buckling mode is smaller than that of the film under the tensile buckling mode. This could be attributed to the fact that the tensile stress encouraged this crack formation originating from surface defects in the coating. It could also be due to the buckling delamination of the thin coating from the substrate at a lower strain than that at which a crack initiates during flexing in compression. These results provide useful information on the mechanical reliability of a-IGZO films for the development of flexible electronics. - Highlights: • Mechanical flexibility of IGZO thin films investigated by uniaxial tensile and buckling tests • Uniaxial fragmentation gives crack onset strain for IGZO/PEN of 2.9% (higher than for IGZO/PET.) • Saturated crack spacing strongly dependent on mechanical properties of polymer substrate • Crack onset strain in concave bending higher than in convex bending for both substrates.

  20. Mechanical properties of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin films on compliant substrates for flexible optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, D.W.; Waddingham, R.; Flewitt, A.J.; Sierros, K.A.; Bowen, J.; Kukureka, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin films were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates and their mechanical flexibility investigated using uniaxial tensile and buckling tests coupled with in situ optical microscopy. The uniaxial fragmentation test demonstrated that the crack onset strain of the IGZO/PEN was ~ 2.9%, which is slightly higher than that of IGZO/PET. Also, uniaxial tensile crack density analysis suggests that the saturated crack spacing of the film is strongly dependent on the mechanical properties of the underlying polymer substrate. Buckling test results suggest that the crack onset strain (equal to ~ 1.2%, of the IGZO/polymer samples flexed in compression to ~ 5.7 mm concave radius of curvature) is higher than that of the samples flexed with the film being in tension (convex bending) regardless whether the substrate is PEN or PET. The saturated crack density of a-IGZO film under the compression buckling mode is smaller than that of the film under the tensile buckling mode. This could be attributed to the fact that the tensile stress encouraged this crack formation originating from surface defects in the coating. It could also be due to the buckling delamination of the thin coating from the substrate at a lower strain than that at which a crack initiates during flexing in compression. These results provide useful information on the mechanical reliability of a-IGZO films for the development of flexible electronics. - Highlights: • Mechanical flexibility of IGZO thin films investigated by uniaxial tensile and buckling tests • Uniaxial fragmentation gives crack onset strain for IGZO/PEN of 2.9% (higher than for IGZO/PET.) • Saturated crack spacing strongly dependent on mechanical properties of polymer substrate • Crack onset strain in concave bending higher than in convex bending for both substrates

  1. Temperature, Crystalline Phase and Influence of Substrate Properties in Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticle Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Michael; Gao, Zhongwei; Bansal, Shalu; Chang, Chih-Hung; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2018-02-02

    Intense Pulsed Light sintering (IPL) uses pulsed, visible light to sinter nanoparticles (NPs) into films used in functional devices. While IPL of chalcogenide NPs is demonstrated, there is limited work on prediction of crystalline phase of the film and the impact of optical properties of the substrate. Here we characterize and model the evolution of film temperature and crystalline phase during IPL of chalcogenide copper sulfide NP films on glass. Recrystallization of the film to crystalline covellite and digenite phases occurs at 126 °C and 155 °C respectively within 2-7 seconds. Post-IPL films exhibit p-type behavior, lower resistivity (~10 -3 -10 -4  Ω-cm), similar visible transmission and lower near-infrared transmission as compared to the as-deposited film. A thermal model is experimentally validated, and extended by combining it with a thermodynamic approach for crystal phase prediction and via incorporating the influence of film transmittivity and optical properties of the substrate on heating during IPL. The model is used to show the need to a-priori control IPL parameters to concurrently account for both the thermal and optical properties of the film and substrate in order to obtain a desired crystalline phase during IPL of such thin films on paper and polycarbonate substrates.

  2. A direct method to measure the fracture toughness of indium tin oxide thin films on flexible polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Rwei-Ching; Tsai, Fa-Ta; Tu, Chin-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a straightforward method to measure the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates. A 200 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film is deposited on a 188 μm thick terephthalate (PET) substrate by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering machine. Using nanoindentation to induce brittle fracture on the ITO thin films, the energy release is calculated from integrating the resulting load–depth curve. An approach that directly measures the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates is proposed. A comparison shows that the results of the proposed method agree well with those of other reports. Furthermore, in order to improve the toughness of the ITO thin films, a copper interlayer is added between the ITO thin film and PET substrate. It shows that the fracture toughness of the ITO thin film deposited on the copper interlayer is higher than that of the one without the interlayer, which agrees well with the critical load tested by micro scratch. Further observations on optical and electric performances are also discussed in this work. - Highlights: • A straightforward method to measure the film's toughness • Directly using the load-depth curve of nanoindentation • The toughness is consistent with the critical load tested by micro scratch. • Interlayers can improve the film's toughness. • Optical and electric performances are also discussed

  3. Influence of substrate on structural, morphological and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reaction magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 films have been prepared by DC reaction magnetron sputtering technique on different substrates (glass, SiO2, platinum electrode-Pt, Silicon-Si. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that all TiO2 films were grown along the preferred orientation of (110 plane. Samples on Si and Pt substrates are almost monophasic rutile, however, samples on glass and SiO2 substrates accompanied by a weak anatase structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images revealed uniform grain distribution except for films on Pt substrates. Photoluminescence (PL spectra showed obvious intrinsic emission band, but films on glass was accompanied by a distinct defect luminescence region. Raman spectroscopy suggested that all samples moved to high wavenumbers and films on glass moved obviously.

  4. Effect of substrate temperature on the structure, electrical and optical properties of Mo doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guifeng; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hui; Wang, He; Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoqiang [Key Lab. for New Type of Functional Materials in Hebei Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Gao, Jianbo [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Zhao, Yanmin; Zhang, Chao [No. 18TH Research Institute, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tao, Junguang, E-mail: taojunguang@163.com [Key Lab. for New Type of Functional Materials in Hebei Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • MZO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering from ZnO target and DC magnetron sputtering from Mo target. • All films are polycrystalline with preferential c-axis growth. • The various properties of films fabricated at varied substrate temperature have been studied. • The valence of the Mo ions in the ZnO matrix is mixture of +5 and +6. - Abstract: Mo-doped ZnO (MZO) transparent conductive thin films were prepared on glass substrate under various substrate temperature from 50 °C to 200 °C. The microstructural, electrical and optical properties of the MZO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect and UV–vis spectrophotometer. Based on XRD measurements, all films are polycrystalline with preferential c-axis growth. The lowest resistivity was obtained to be 2.8 × 10{sup −3} Ω·cm. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement, the valence of the Mo ions in the ZnO matrix is a mixture of +5 and +6. In addition, the transmittance of the film is ∼80% throughout the visible light region. Our results indicate that the MZO films are suitable for potential transparent optoelectronic applications.

  5. Epitaxial growth of fcc-CoxNi100-x thin films on MgO(110) single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Sato, Yoichi; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Co x Ni 100-x (x=100, 80, 20, 0 at. %) epitaxial thin films were prepared on MgO(110) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 deg. C by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The growth mechanism is discussed based on lattice strain and crystallographic defects. CoNi(110) single-crystal films with a fcc structure are obtained for all compositions. Co x Ni 100-x film growth follows the Volmer-Weber mode. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the Co x Ni 100-x films are in agreement within ±0.5% with the values of the respective bulk Co x Ni 100-x crystals, suggesting that the strain in the film is very small. High-resolution cross-sectional transmission microscopy shows that an atomically sharp boundary is formed between a Co(110) fcc film and a MgO(110) substrate, where periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. The presence of such periodical misfit dislocations relieves the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate.

  6. Characteristics of surface acoustic waves in (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, ShuYi; Xu, Jing; Xie, YingCai; Lan, XiaoDong

    2018-02-01

    (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structure is promising for high frequency acoustic wave devices. The propagation characteristics of SAWs, including the Rayleigh waves along [0001] direction and Love waves along [1ī00] direction, are investigated by using 3 dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM). The phase velocity ( v p), electromechanical coupling coefficient ( k 2), temperature coefficient of frequency ( TCF) and reflection coefficient ( r) of Rayleigh wave and Love wave devices are theoretically analyzed. Furthermore, the influences of ZnO films with different crystal orientation on SAW properties are also investigated. The results show that the 1st Rayleigh wave has an exceedingly large k 2 of 4.95% in (90°, 90°, 0°) (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate associated with a phase velocity of 5300 m/s; and the 0th Love wave in (0°, 90°, 0°) (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate has a maximum k 2 of 3.86% associated with a phase velocity of 3400 m/s. And (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structures can be used to design temperature-compensated and wide-band SAW devices. All of the results indicate that the performances of SAW devices can be optimized by suitably selecting ZnO films with different thickness and crystal orientations deposited on R-sapphire substrates.

  7. Preparation of Superhydrophobic Film on Ti Substrate and Its Anticorrosion Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Tang, Wenchuan; Huang, Luyao; Zhang, Dawei; Du, Cuiwei; Yu, Gaohong; Chen, Ming; Chowwanonthapunya, Thee

    2017-06-08

    Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post modification of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol were performed on the surface of the pretreated substrate. The surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and corrosion resistance of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), water contact angle measurements, and electrochemical tests, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of the deposition time in the silver nitrate solution on the hydrophobicity of the specimen surface was investigated. The result showed that with the increase of deposition time, the hydrophobic property enhanced gradually. The surface deposited for 7 h exhibited an optimum hydrophobic effect, which was characterized with a large water contact angle (WCA) of 154°, and the surface was rather rough and covered by a relatively uniform layer of micro-nano silver particles. The excellent hydrophobicity was attributed to a rough stratified microstructure along with the low surface energy. The electrochemical measurements showed that the existence of the superhydrophobic film can effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti samples.

  8. Preparation of Superhydrophobic Film on Ti Substrate and Its Anticorrosion Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post modification of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol were performed on the surface of the pretreated substrate. The surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and corrosion resistance of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS, water contact angle measurements, and electrochemical tests, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of the deposition time in the silver nitrate solution on the hydrophobicity of the specimen surface was investigated. The result showed that with the increase of deposition time, the hydrophobic property enhanced gradually. The surface deposited for 7 h exhibited an optimum hydrophobic effect, which was characterized with a large water contact angle (WCA of 154°, and the surface was rather rough and covered by a relatively uniform layer of micro-nano silver particles. The excellent hydrophobicity was attributed to a rough stratified microstructure along with the low surface energy. The electrochemical measurements showed that the existence of the superhydrophobic film can effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti samples.

  9. Preparation of Superhydrophobic Film on Ti Substrate and Its Anticorrosion Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Tang, Wenchuan; Huang, Luyao; Zhang, Dawei; Du, Cuiwei; Yu, Gaohong; Chen, Ming; Chowwanonthapunya, Thee

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post modification of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol were performed on the surface of the pretreated substrate. The surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and corrosion resistance of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), water contact angle measurements, and electrochemical tests, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of the deposition time in the silver nitrate solution on the hydrophobicity of the specimen surface was investigated. The result showed that with the increase of deposition time, the hydrophobic property enhanced gradually. The surface deposited for 7 h exhibited an optimum hydrophobic effect, which was characterized with a large water contact angle (WCA) of 154°, and the surface was rather rough and covered by a relatively uniform layer of micro-nano silver particles. The excellent hydrophobicity was attributed to a rough stratified microstructure along with the low surface energy. The electrochemical measurements showed that the existence of the superhydrophobic film can effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti samples. PMID:28772987

  10. CVD of alternated microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films on WC-TIC-CO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Raonei Alves; Contin, Andre; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Barquete, Danilo Maciel

    2010-01-01

    CVD Diamond coating of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools has been an alternative to increase tool lifetime. Experiments have shown that residual stresses produced during films growth on WC-TiC-Co substrates significantly increases with increasing film thickness up to 20 μm and usually leads to film delamination. In this work alternated micro- and nanocrystalline CVD diamond films have been used to relax interface stresses and to increase diamond coatings performance. WC-TiC-Co substrates have been submitted to a boronizing thermal diffusion treatment prior to CVD diamond films growth. After reactive heat treatment samples were submitted to chemical etching in acid and alkaline solution. The diamond films deposition was performed using HFCVD reactor with different gas concentrations for microcrystalline (MCD) and nano-crystalline (NCD) films growth. As a result, we present the improvement of diamond films adherence on WC-TiC-Co, evaluated by indentation and machining tests. Samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for qualitative analysis of diamond films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was used for phases identification after boronizing process. Diamond film compressive residual stresses were analyzed by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy (RSS). (author)

  11. Ultrathin film, high specific power InP solar cells on flexible plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, K.-T.; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Wang Hongyu; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrathin-film, single-crystal InP Schottky-type solar cells mounted on flexible plastic substrates. The lightly p-doped InP cell is grown epitaxially on an InP substrate via gas source molecular beam epitaxy. The InP substrate is removed via selective chemical wet-etching after the epitaxial layers are cold-welded to a 25 μm thick Kapton sheet, followed by the deposition of an indium tin oxide top contact that forms the Schottky barrier with InP. The power conversion efficiency under 1 sun is 10.2±1.0%, and its specific power is 2.0±0.2 kW/kg. The ultrathin-film solar cells can tolerate both tensile and compressive stress by bending over a <1 cm radius without damage.

  12. Influence of Substrate Temperature on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Ito Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Jing; Xing, Huaizhong; Xue, Shaolin; Jiang, Meng

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we investigated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using ceramic target to find the optimal condition for fabricating optoelectronic devices. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films prepared at various substrate temperatures were investigated. The results indicate the grain size increases with substrate temperature increases. As the substrate temperature grew up, the resistivity of ITO films greatly decreased. The ITO film possesses high quality in terms of electrode functions, when substrate temperature is 480°C. The resistivity is as low as 9.42 × 10-5 Ω•cm, while the carrier concentration and mobility are as high as 3.461 × 1021 atom/cm3 and 19.1 cm2/Vṡs, respectively. The average transmittance of the film is about 95% in the visible region. The novel ITO/np-Silicon frame, which prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at 480°C substrate temperature, can be used not only for low-cost solar cell, but also for high quantum efficiency of UV and visible lights enhanced photodetector for various applications.

  13. Role of the substrate on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films grown by ion-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Pilar; Prieto, José Emilio; Gargallo-Caballero, Raquel; Marco, José Francisco; Figuera, Juan de la

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The magnetic anisotropy of magnetite thin films is controlled by the substrate induced microstructure. • Single-crystal oxide substrates induce fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy • MgO and SrTiO_3 substrates show the same magnetic behavior despite its different mismatch with Fe_3O_4 films. • Silicon and glass substrates induce in-plane magnetic isotropy and uniaxial anisotropy, respectively. - Abstract: Magnetite (Fe_3O_4) thin films were deposited on MgO (0 0 1), SrTiO_3 (0 0 1), LaAlO_3 (0 0 1) single crystal substrates as well on as silicon and amorphous glass in order to study the effect of the substrate on their magnetic properties, mainly the magnetic anisotropy. We have performed a structural, morphological and compositional characterization by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering ion channeling in oxygen resonance mode. The magnetic anisotropy has been investigated by vectorial magneto-optical Kerr effect. The results indicate that the magnetic anisotropy is especially influenced by the substrate-induced microstructure. In-plane isotropy and uniaxial anisotropy behavior have been observed on silicon and glass substrates, respectively. The transition between both behaviors depends on grain size. For LaAlO_3 substrates, in which the lattice mismatch between the Fe_3O_4 films and the substrate is significant, a weak in-plane fourfold magnetic anisotropy is induced. However when magnetite is deposited on MgO (0 0 1) and SrTiO_3 (0 0 1) substrates, a well-defined fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy is observed with easy axes along [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] directions. The magnetic properties on these two latter substrates are similar in terms of magnetic anisotropy and coercive fields.

  14. Effects of RF plasma treatment on spray-pyrolyzed copper oxide films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, Rozen Grace B.; Martinez, Melanie M.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of radio-frequency (RF) argon (Ar) plasma treatment on the structural, morphological, electrical and compositional properties of the spray-pyrolyzed p-type copper oxide films on n-type (100) silicon (Si) substrates were investigated. The films were successfully synthesized using 0.3 M copper acetate monohydrate sprayed on precut Si substrates maintained at 350 °C. X-ray diffraction revealed cupric oxide (CuO) with a monoclinic structure. An apparent improvement in crystallinity was realized after Ar plasma treatment, attributed to the removal of residues contaminating the surface. Scanning electron microscope images showed agglomerated monoclinic grains and revealed a reduction in size upon plasma exposure induced by the sputtering effect. The current-voltage characteristics of CuO/Si showed a rectifying behavior after Ar plasma exposure with an increase in turn-on voltage. Four-point probe measurements revealed a decrease in sheet resistance after plasma irradiation. Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses also showed O-H and C-O bands on the films. This work was able to produce CuO thin films via spray pyrolysis on Si substrates and enhancement in their properties by applying postdeposition Ar plasma treatment.

  15. Dynamics of ultrathin metal films on amorphous substrates under fast thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2007-11-01

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the growth/decay rate of surface perturbations of an ultrathin metal film on an amorphous substrate (SiO2). The formulation combines the approach of Mullins [W. W. Mullins, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 77 (1959)] for bulk surfaces, in which curvature-driven mass transport and surface deformation can occur by surface/volume diffusion and evaporation-condensation processes, with that of Spencer etal . [B. J. Spencer, P. W. Voorhees, and S. H. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 26 (1991)] to describe solid-state transport in thin films under epitaxial strain. Modifications of the Mullins model to account for thin-film boundary conditions result in qualitatively different dispersion relationships especially in the limit as kho≪1, where k is the wavenumber of the perturbation and ho is the unperturbed film height. The model is applied to study the relative rate of solid-state mass transport as compared to that of liquid phase dewetting in a thin film subjected to a fast thermal pulse. Specifically, we have recently shown that multiple cycles of nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser melting and resolidification of ultrathin metal films on amorphous substrates can lead to the formation of various types of spatially ordered nanostructures [J. Trice, D. Thomas, C. Favazza, R. Sureshkumar, and R. Kalyanaraman, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235439 (2007)]. The pattern formation has been attributed to the dewetting of the thin film by a hydrodynamic instability. In such experiments the film is in the solid state during a substantial fraction of each thermal cycle. However, results of a linear stability analysis based on the aforementioned model suggest that solid-state mass transport has a negligible effect on morphological changes of the surface. Further, a qualitative analysis of the effect of thermoelastic stress, induced by the rapid temperature changes in the film-substrate bilayer, suggests that stress relaxation does not appreciably contribute to surface

  16. Tensile and fatigue behaviors of printed Ag thin films on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Gi-Dong; Won, Sejeong; Lee, Soon-Bok

    2012-01-01

    Flexible electronics using nanoparticle (NP) printing has been highlighted as a key technology enabling eco-friendly, low-cost, and large-area fabrication. For NP-based printing to be used as a successive alternative to photolithography and vacuum deposition, stretchability and long term reliability must be considered. This paper reports the stretchability and fatigue behavior of 100 nm thick NP-based silver thin films printed on polyethylene-terephthalate substrate and compares it to films deposited by electron-beam evaporation. NP-based films show stretchability and fatigue life comparable to evaporated films with intergranular fracture as the dominant failure mechanism.

  17. Tensile and fatigue behaviors of printed Ag thin films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Gi-Dong; Won, Sejeong; Lee, Soon-Bok

    2012-11-01

    Flexible electronics using nanoparticle (NP) printing has been highlighted as a key technology enabling eco-friendly, low-cost, and large-area fabrication. For NP-based printing to be used as a successive alternative to photolithography and vacuum deposition, stretchability and long term reliability must be considered. This paper reports the stretchability and fatigue behavior of 100 nm thick NP-based silver thin films printed on polyethylene-terephthalate substrate and compares it to films deposited by electron-beam evaporation. NP-based films show stretchability and fatigue life comparable to evaporated films with intergranular fracture as the dominant failure mechanism.

  18. Channelling study of La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} films on different substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilágyi, E., E-mail: szilagyi.edit@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O.Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Kótai, E. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O.Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Rata, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Németh, Z.; Vankó, G. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O.Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-08-01

    The cobalt oxide system LaCoO{sub 3} and its Sr-doped child compounds have been intensively studied for decades due to their intriguing magnetic and electronic properties. Preparing thin La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (LSCO) films on different substrates allows for studies with a new type of perturbation, as the films are subject to substrate-dependent epitaxial strain. By choosing a proper substrate for a thin film grow, not only compressing but also tensile strain can be applied. The consequences for the fundamental physical properties are dramatic: while compressed films are metallic, as the bulk material, films under tensile strain become insulating. The goal of this work is to determine the strain tensor in LSCO films prepared on LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition using RBS/channelling methods. Apart from the composition and defect structure of the samples, the depth dependence of the strain tensor, the cell parameters, and the volume of the unit cell are also determined. Asymmetric behaviour of the strained cell parameters is found on both substrates. This asymmetry is rather weak in the case of LSCO film grown on LaAlO{sub 3}, while stronger on SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. The strain is more effective at the interface, some relaxation can be observed near to the surface.

  19. Correlation between substrate bias, growth process and structural properties of phosphorus incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aiping; Zhu Jiaqi; Han Jiecai; Wu Huaping; Jia Zechun

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the growth process and structural properties of phosphorus incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:P) films which are deposited at different substrate biases by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique with PH 3 as the dopant source. The films are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, residual stress measurement, UV/VIS/NIR absorption spectroscopy and temperature-dependent conductivity measurement. The atomic fraction of phosphorus in the films as a function of substrate bias is obtained by XPS analysis. The optimum bias for phosphorus incorporation is about -80 V. Raman spectra show that the amorphous structures of all samples with atomic-scaled smooth surface are not remarkably changed when PH 3 is implanted, but some small graphitic crystallites are formed. Moreover, phosphorus impurities and higher-energetic impinging ions are favorable for the clustering of sp 2 sites dispersed in sp 3 skeleton and increase the level of structural ordering for ta-C:P films, which further releases the compressive stress and enhances the conductivity of the films. Our analysis establishes an interrelationship between microstructure, stress state, electrical properties, and substrate bias, which helps to understand the deposition mechanism of ta-C:P films

  20. Preparation of SrCoOx thin films on LaAlO3 substrate and their reversible redox process at moderate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Xie, X. N.; Wang, H. R.; Yu, Q. X.; Zhu, H.

    2015-10-01

    Using magnetron sputtering and annealing techniques, we have prepared SrCoOx films on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates. Distinctly different structures of the films have been found on the two substrates. It is suggested that positive lattice mismatch between film and substrate promotes SrCoO2.5 films with an orthorhombic structure grown on SrTiO3 substrate, whereas negative lattice mismatch from LaAlO3 substrate is in favor of increasing the valence state of Co and thus the growth of oxygen-rich SrCoOx with a tetragonal structure. In addition to the structural characterization, magnetic and electrical measurements confirm that the oxygen content x is between 2.75 and 2.88 for the latter. Reversibility of the topotactic phase transformation between SrCoO2.5 and the oxygen-rich SrCoOx films has also been studied by changing the oxygen pressure during annealing process. Even in the presence of a negative lattice mismatch, the results reveal that the tetragonal SrCoOx films on LaAlO3 substrate retain high oxygen mobility identified before in cubic SrCoOx films.

  1. Improvement of the characteristics of chemical bath deposition-cadmium sulfide films deposited on an O{sub 2} plasma-treated polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Donggun [Department of Electronic Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyeong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300, Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Sunwon, Kyeonggi-do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Woochang, E-mail: wcsong@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Samcheok-si, Gangwon-do 245-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    We prepared cadmium sulfide (CdS) films on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. To improve the adhesion between the CdS film and the PET substrate, the substrate was pre-treated with an O{sub 2} plasma by an inductively coupled plasma. The surface characterizations of the pre-treated PET substrate were analyzed by a contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that that O{sub 2} plasma-treated PET films had more hydrophilic surface. The hydrophilic property of the substrate is one of the important factors when a film is prepared by CBD. The structural and the optical properties of the CdS films, deposited on PET substrates, were analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The CdS films were formed on a compact and granular structure. The optical transmittance was also improved. Therefore, the O{sub 2} plasma treatment of a PET surface is an effective method of preparing CdS films deposited on substrates by CBD. - Highlights: • Chemical bath deposition of CdS film for flexible solar cells • O{sub 2} plasma treatment improved adhesion between the CdS and polymer substrate • Identification of best fabrication condition of CdS window layers for flexible solar cells.

  2. Structural features of anodic oxide films formed on aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoh, Hidetaka; Uchibori, Kota; Ono, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    The structural features of anodic oxide films formed on an aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the first anodization in neutral solution, the growth of a barrier-type film was partially suppressed in the contact area between the spheres and the underlying aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of ordered dimple arrays in an anodic oxide film. After the subsequent second anodization in acid solution at a voltage lower than that of the first anodization, nanopores were generated only within each dimple. The nanoporous region could be removed selectively by post-chemical etching using the difference in structural dimensions between the porous region and the surrounding barrier region. The mechanism of anodic oxide growth on the aluminum substrate coated with microspheres through multistep anodization is discussed.

  3. Structural features of anodic oxide films formed on aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asoh, Hidetaka [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)], E-mail: asoh@cc.kogakuin.ac.jp; Uchibori, Kota; Ono, Sachiko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The structural features of anodic oxide films formed on an aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the first anodization in neutral solution, the growth of a barrier-type film was partially suppressed in the contact area between the spheres and the underlying aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of ordered dimple arrays in an anodic oxide film. After the subsequent second anodization in acid solution at a voltage lower than that of the first anodization, nanopores were generated only within each dimple. The nanoporous region could be removed selectively by post-chemical etching using the difference in structural dimensions between the porous region and the surrounding barrier region. The mechanism of anodic oxide growth on the aluminum substrate coated with microspheres through multistep anodization is discussed.

  4. Effect of substrate temperature on corrosion performance of nitrogen doped amorphous carbon thin films in NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, N.W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, E., E-mail: MEJLiu@ntu.edu.s [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) thin films were deposited on p-Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering at varying substrate temperature from room temperature (RT) to 300 {sup o}C. The bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the a-C:N films were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch testing. The corrosion behavior of the a-C:N films was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test in a 0.6 M NaCl solution. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of the films depended on the sp{sup 3}-bonded cross-link structure that was significantly affected by the substrate temperature.

  5. Effect of substrate temperature on corrosion performance of nitrogen doped amorphous carbon thin films in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) thin films were deposited on p-Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering at varying substrate temperature from room temperature (RT) to 300 o C. The bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the a-C:N films were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch testing. The corrosion behavior of the a-C:N films was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test in a 0.6 M NaCl solution. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of the films depended on the sp 3 -bonded cross-link structure that was significantly affected by the substrate temperature.

  6. Preparation of metastable bcc permalloy epitaxial thin films on GaAs(011){sub B3} single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Higuchi, Jumpei; Yabuhara, Osamu [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan); Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2011-09-30

    Permalloy (Py) single-crystal films with bcc structure were obtained on GaAs(011){sub B3} single-crystal substrates by ultra high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The film growth and the detailed film structures were investigated by refection high energy electron diffraction and pole figure X-ray diffraction. bcc-Py films epitaxially grow on the substrates in the orientation relationship of Py(011)[011-bar]{sub bcc} || GaAs(011)[011-bar]{sub B3}. The lattice constant of bcc-Py film is determined to be a = 0.291 nm. With increasing the film thickness, parts of the bcc crystal transform into more stable fcc structure by atomic displacement parallel to the bcc{l_brace}011{r_brace} close-packed planes. The resulting film thus consists of a mixture of bcc and fcc crystals. The phase transformation mechanism is discussed based on the experimental results. The in-plane magnetization properties reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bcc-Py crystal are observed for the Py films grown on GaAs(011){sub B3} substrates.

  7. Realization of hexagonal barium ferrite thick films on Si substrates using a screen printing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yajie; Smith, Ian; Geiler, Anton L; Vittoria, Carmine; Harris, Vincent G; Zagorodnii, Volodymyr; Celinski, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Hexagonal barium ferrite thick films (50-200 μm) have been deposited on Si and Al 2 O 3 /Si substrates using a screen printing technique. X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and magnetometry were used to characterize and correlate the ferrite films' microstructure and magnetic properties. The experiments indicated that an Al 2 O 3 underlayer was effective in preventing silicon diffusion into the barium ferrite films during a final sintering treatment at temperatures above 1100 deg. C. A two-stage sintering process allowed a reasonable tradeoff between mechanical and magnetic properties. This work reveals the feasibility of fabrication of thick ferrite films on large substrates (up to 25 mm in diameter) for future planar microwave devices compatible with semiconductor integrated circuits processing

  8. Fabrication of Si3N4 thin films on phynox alloy substrates for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankernath, V.; Naidu, K. Lakshun; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam; Padmanabhan, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Thin films of Si3N4 are deposited on Phynox alloy substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The thickness of the films was varied between 80-150 nm by increasing the duration of deposition from 1 to 3 h at a fixed power density and working pressure. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the Si3N4 films had crystallized inspite of the substrates not being heated during deposition. This was confirmed using selected area electron diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy also. It is postulated that a low lattice misfit between Si3N4 and Phynox provides energetically favourable conditions for ambient temperature crystallization. The hardness of the films is of the order of 6 to 9 GPa.

  9. Superhydrophobic Ag decorated ZnO nanostructured thin film as effective surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Sonia, S.; Poongodi, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Masuda, Yoshitake; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is an attempt to overcome the challenges in the fabrication of super hydrophobic silver decorated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure thin films via thermal evaporation process. The ZnO nanowire thin films are prepared without any surface modification and show super hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 163°. Silver is further deposited onto the ZnO nanowire to obtain nanoworm morphology. Silver decorated ZnO (Ag@ZnO) thin films are used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The formation of randomly arranged nanowire and silver decorated nanoworm structure is confirmed using FESEM, HR-TEM and AFM analysis. Crystallinity and existence of Ag on ZnO are confirmed using XRD and XPS studies. A detailed growth mechanism is discussed for the formation of the nanowires from nanobeads based on various deposition times. The prepared SERS substrate reveals a reproducible enhancement of 3.082 × 107 M for Rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) for 10-10 molar concentration per liter. A higher order of SERS spectra is obtained for a contact angle of 155°. Thus the obtained thin films show the superhydrophobic nature with a highly enhanced Raman spectrum and act as SERS substrates. The present nanoworm morphology shows a new pathway for the construction of semiconductor thin films for plasmonic studies and challenges the orderly arranged ZnO nanorods, wires and other nano structure substrates used in SERS studies.

  10. Effect of substrate temperature on the optical parameters of thermally evaporated Ge-Se-Te thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pankaj, E-mail: pks_phy@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, H.P. 173215 India (India); Katyal, S.C. [Department of Physics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, H.P. 173215 India (India)

    2009-05-01

    Thin films of Ge{sub 10}Se{sub 90-x}Te{sub x} (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50) glassy alloys were deposited at three substrate temperatures (303 K, 363 K and 423 K) using conventional thermal evaporation technique at base pressure of {approx} 10{sup -4} Pa. X-ray diffraction results show that films deposited at 303 K are of amorphous nature while films deposited at 363 K and 423 K are of polycrystalline nature. The optical parameters, refractive index and optical gap have been derived from the transmission spectra (using UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer) of the thin films in the spectral region 400-1500 nm. This has been observed that refractive index values remain almost constant while the optical gap is found to decrease considerably with the increase of substrate temperature. The decrease in optical gap is explained on the basis of change in nature of films, from amorphous to polycrystalline state, with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical gap has also been observed to decrease with the increase of Te content.

  11. Dewetting and deposition of thin films with insoluble surfactants from curved silicone hydrogel substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhamla, M.S.; Balemans, C.; Fuller, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the stabilizing effect of insoluble surfactant monolayers on thin aqueous films. We first describe an experimental platform that enables the formation of aqueous films laden with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers on curved silicone hydrogel (SiHy) substrates. We show

  12. Characterization of the adhesion of thin film by Cross-Sectional Nanoindentation. Analysis of the substrate edge chipping and the film delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Eric; Roy, Sébastien; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne

    2011-07-01

    Cross-Sectional Nanoindentation (CSN) is a recent method for adhesion measurement of nanoscale thin films in Ultra-Large Scale Integrated circuits. In the case of ductile thin films, the motion of the substrate chip implies significant plastic deformation of the film and complex geometry of delaminated areas. This article recalls first the experimental procedure and the two main features observed in this test performed on various plane copper films deposited on silicon: the critical force producing silicon edge chipping increases linearly with the distance of the indenter to the interface; on the section the delaminated length of the film ( a-b) is proportional to the residual silicon chip displacement u and the ratio S=u/(a-b) depends on the manufacturing process of the film, and is so related to its adhesion to the substrate. One proposes a simple analysis of the silicon edge chipping. Then a model of pull-off of an elastic-strain hardening plastic film is developed, which suggests an explanation for the delamination process. Application of the model to experimental results starting from films plastic properties deduced from nanoindentation measurements provides plausible results. Some improvements for performing the CSN test are proposed in order to make easier its interpretation.

  13. Effect of substrate temperature on the structure of amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon films grown with a pulsed supersonic methane plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoseeva, Yu. V., E-mail: fedoseeva@niic.nsc.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pozdnyakov, G.A. [Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Okotrub, A.V.; Kanygin, M.A. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nastaushev, Yu. V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Vilkov, O.Y. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Bulusheva, L.G. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A deposition of supersonic methane plasma flow on silicon substrate produces amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon (CO{sub x}H{sub y}) film. • The thickness, composition, and wettability of the film depend on the substrate temperature. • A rise of the substrate temperature from 500 to 700 °C promotes the sp{sup 3}-hybridization carbon formation. - Abstract: Since amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon (CO{sub x}H{sub y}) films are promising engineering materials a study of the structure and composition of the films depending on the conditions of synthesis is important for controlling of their physicochemical properties. Here, we used the methods of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy to reveal changes in the chemical connectivity of CO{sub x}H{sub y} films grown on silicon substrates heated to 300, 500, and 700 °C using a supersonic flow of methane plasma. It was found that the CO{sub x}H{sub y} films, deposited at 300 and 500 °C, were mainly composed of the sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon areas with various oxygen species. A rise of the substrate temperature caused an increase of the portion of tetrahedral carbon atoms as well as carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. With growth of the substrate temperature, the film thickness reduced monotonically from 400 to 180 nm, while the film adhesion improved substantially. The films, deposited at lower temperatures, showed high hydrophilicity due to porosity and presence of oxygenated groups both at the surface and in the bulk.

  14. Thickness dependent properties of CMR Manganite thin films on lattice mismatched substrates: Distinguishing Strain and Interface Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anthony, III; Kolagani, Rajeswari; Bacharova, Ellisaveta; Yong, Grace; Smolyaninova, Vera; Schaefer, David; Mundle, Rajeh

    2007-03-01

    Epitaxial thin films of CMR manganite materials have been known to show thickness dependent electrical and magnetic properties on lattice mismatched substrates. Below a critical thickness, insulator-metal transition is suppressed. These effects have been largely attributed to the role of bi-axial lattice mismatch strain. Our recent results of epitaxial thin films of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO) on two substrates with varying degrees of compressive lattice mismatch indicate that, in addition to the effect of lattice mismatch strain, the thickness dependence of the properties are influenced by other factors possibly related to the nature of the film substrate interface and defects such as twin boundaries. We have compared the properties of LCMO films on (100) oriented LaAlO3 and (001) oriented NdCaAlO4 both of which induce compressive bi-axial strain. Interestingly, the suppression of the insulator-metal transition is less in films on NCAO which has a larger lattice mismatch. We will present results correlating the electrical and magneto transport properties with the structure and morphology of the films.

  15. Formation of thin DLC films on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate using FCVAD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootkul, D. [Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Thailand Centre of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Centre of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Aramwit, C.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP), Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP), Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Centre of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate are attractive for novel sensitive and selective chemical sensors. According to the almost never ending of size reduction, a nm-thickness layer of the film is greatly required. However, formation of such a very thin DLC film on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate is challenging. In this experiment, DLC films were formed using our in-house Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition (FCVAD) facility by varying the bias voltage of 0 V, −250 V and −450 V with the arc voltage of 350 V, 450 V, 550 V, 650 V and 750 V for 10 min. Raman spectroscopy was applied for characterization of the film qualities and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was applied for cross sectional analysis. Results showed that films of thickness ranging from 10–50 nm were easily acquired depending on deposition conditions. Deconvolution of Raman spectra of these samples revealed that, when fixing the substrate bias but increasing the arc voltage from 350 to 750 V, the ratio between D-peak and G-peak intensity, namely I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio, tended to reduce up to the arc voltage of 450 V, then increased up to the arc voltage of 650 V and finally decreased again. On the other hand, when fixing the arc voltage, the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio tended to decrease continuously as the increasing of bias voltage. It can be concluded that the bonding structure would evolve from a graphitic-like structure to a diamond-like structure as the substrate bias increases. Additionally, the sp{sup 3} site should be maximized at the arc voltage ∼450 V for fixed bias voltage. It is expected that, at −450 V bias and 450 V arc, sp{sup 3} fractions could be higher than 60%. However, in some cases, e.g. at low arc voltages, voids formed between the film and the amorphous SiO{sub 2} substrate. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of the C edge across the DLC indicated that the thicker DLC film had uniform chemistry and structure, whereas the thin DLC

  16. The peculiarity of the formation of zinc films on a glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaev, V. V., E-mail: tvaza@mail.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Petrodvorets, Universitetskii pr. 26 (Russian Federation); Saint Petersburg Mining University, Russia, 199106, St. Petersburg, V.O., 21-st line, 2 (Russian Federation); Polishchuk, V. A., E-mail: vpvova2010@yandex.ru [St. Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics, 197101, Russia, St. Petersburg, Kronverksky Pr., 49 (Russian Federation); Borisov, E. N., E-mail: enbor@bk.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Petrodvorets, Universitetskii pr. 26 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    Thin Nanocrystalline films of the zinc have been fabricated by thermal spraying on the glass substrate. Morphologies and structure of the films had been investigated by the methods X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It is found that the surface of the films has a different types of the nanocrystals zinc. Were detected intergrowths of two or more the nanocrystals, hexagonal shape. Using the theory of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of a new phase, had been evaluated the geometrical and thermodynamic parameters nanocrystals zinc.

  17. Low temperature ITO thin film deposition on PES substrate using pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.; Li, J.Y.; Yen, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using pulse magnetron sputtering (PMS) to deposit transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film onto flexible polyethersulfone (PES) plastic substrates. The thin film microstructure, optoelectronic and residual stress were analyzed using the modulating PMS power, work pressure, pulse frequency, duty cycle and cycle time process parameters. The residual stress of the thin film was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with the Sony equation. The experimental results show that PMS has a lower process temperature, higher deposition rate and lower resistivity compared with the radio frequency process at the same output power. The duty cycle increase produces the optimum optoelectronic characteristics. When the pressure, power, duty cycle and sputter time are increased, the thin film stress will also increase, causing flexural distortion in the PES plastic substrate. When the deposition thickness reaches 1.5 μm, ITO thin film will appear with a distinct split. Under 5 mtorr work pressure, 60 W power, 33 μs duty time and 2 μs pulse reverse time at duty cycle 95%, thin film with an optimized electrical 3.0 x 10 -4 Ω-cm, RMS surface roughness of 0.85 nm and visible region optical transmittance will be achieved with acquisition of over 85%

  18. Enhancement in (BHmax of PLD-made isotropic Nd-Fe-B thick film magnets deposited on Si substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increase in Nd contents of a PLD-made isotropic Nd-Fe-B thick-film magnet enabled us to enhance the thickness of the film magnet deposited on a Si substrate because the linear expansion coefficient of Nd is an intermediate value between Nd2Fe14B and Si. The large amount of Nd, however, degraded the residual magnetic polarization and (BHmax. In the study, we reduced the Nd contents of each Nd-Fe-B film by inserting a Nd or a Nd-rich Nd-Fe-B buffer layer between a Nd-Fe-B film and a Si substrate in order to suppress the mechanical destruction together with the improvement in magnetic properties. It was found that the mechanical property of a Nd-Fe-B film comprising the Nd-Fe-B buffer layer in the thickness range from 10 to 60 μm was superior than that of a sample with the Nd buffer layer. Resultantly, an average (BHmax value of Nd-Fe-B films with each Nd-Fe-B buffer layer deposited on Si substrates could be enhanced by approximately 15 kJ/m3 compared to that of non-buffer-layered films.

  19. Room-temperature epitaxial growth of high-quality m-plane InGaN films on ZnO substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomoto, Kazuma; Ueno, Kohei [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Atsushi [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo (Japan); Ohta, Jitsuo [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki (Japan); Oshima, Masaharu [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST-CREST), Tokyo (Japan); Fujioka, Hiroshi [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST-CREST), Tokyo (Japan); Amanai, Hidetaka; Nagao, Satoru; Horie, Hideyoshi [Mitsubishi Chemical Group, Science and Technology Research Center, Higashi-Mamiana, Ushiku-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    The authors have grown high-quality m -plane In{sub 0.36}Ga{sub 0.64}N (1 anti 100) films on ZnO (1 anti 100) substrates at room temperature (RT) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and have investigated their structural properties. m-plane InGaN films grown on ZnO substrates at RT possess atomically flat surfaces with stepped and terraced structures, indicating that the film growth proceeds in a two-dimensional mode. X-ray diffraction measurements have revealed that the m-plane InGaN films grow without phase separation reactions at RT. The full-width at half-maximum values of the 1 anti 100 X-ray rocking curves of films with X-ray incident azimuths perpendicular to the c- and a-axis are 88 arcsec and 78 arcsec, respectively. Reciprocal space-mapping has revealed that a 50 nm thick m-plane In{sub 0.36}Ga{sub 0.64}N film grows coherently on the ZnO substrate, which can probably explain the low defect density that is observed in the film. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Room-temperature epitaxial growth of high-quality m-plane InGaN films on ZnO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomoto, Kazuma; Ueno, Kohei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Oshima, Masaharu; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Amanai, Hidetaka; Nagao, Satoru; Horie, Hideyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The authors have grown high-quality m -plane In 0.36 Ga 0.64 N (1 anti 100) films on ZnO (1 anti 100) substrates at room temperature (RT) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and have investigated their structural properties. m-plane InGaN films grown on ZnO substrates at RT possess atomically flat surfaces with stepped and terraced structures, indicating that the film growth proceeds in a two-dimensional mode. X-ray diffraction measurements have revealed that the m-plane InGaN films grow without phase separation reactions at RT. The full-width at half-maximum values of the 1 anti 100 X-ray rocking curves of films with X-ray incident azimuths perpendicular to the c- and a-axis are 88 arcsec and 78 arcsec, respectively. Reciprocal space-mapping has revealed that a 50 nm thick m-plane In 0.36 Ga 0.64 N film grows coherently on the ZnO substrate, which can probably explain the low defect density that is observed in the film. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Substrates effect on Zn1-xMnxO thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elanchezhiyan, J.; Bhuvana, K.P.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Balasubramanian, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have presented the surface effect of the substrates on Mn doped ZnO (Zn 1-x Mn x O) thin films grown on Si(1 0 0) and sapphire [i.e. Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1)] by RF magnetron sputtering. These grown films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to know its structural, optical and magnetic properties. All these properties have been found to be strongly influenced by the substrate surface on which the films have been deposited. The XRD results show that the Mn doped ZnO films deposited on Si(1 0 0) exhibit a polycrystalline nature whereas the films on sapphire substrate have only (0 0 2) preferential orientations indicating that the films are single crystalline. The studies of room temperature PL spectra reveal that the Zn 1-x Mn x O/Si(1 0 0) system is under severe compressive strain while the strain is almost relaxed in Zn 1-x Mn x O/Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1) system. It has been observed from VSM studies that Zn 1-x Mn x O/Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1) system shows ferromagnetic nature while the paramagnetic behaviour observed in Zn 1-x Mn x O/Si(1 0 0) system

  2. Thickness-controlled direct growth of nanographene and nanographite film on non-catalytic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Yang, Liu; Hu, Zhiting; Zhang, Jiazhen; Huang, Chunlai; Sun, Liaoxin; Wang, Lin; Wei, Dacheng; Chen, Gang; Lu, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been broadly employed for large-scale production of high-quality graphene. However, a following transfer process to targeted substrates is needed, which is incompatible with current silicon technology. We here report a new CVD approach to form nanographene and nanographite films with accurate thickness control directly on non-catalytic substrates such as silicon dioxide and quartz at 800 °C. The growth time is as short as a few seconds. The approach includes using 9-bis(diethylamino)silylanthracene as the carbon source and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) controlling system. The structure of the formed nanographene and nanographite films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The nanographite film exhibits a transmittance higher than 80% at 550 nm and a sheet electrical resistance of 2000 ohms per square at room temperature. A negative temperature-dependence of the resistance of the nanographite film is also observed. Moreover, the thickness of the films can be precisely controlled via the deposition cycles using an ALD system, which promotes great application potential for optoelectronic and thermoelectronic-devices.

  3. Direct nanofabrication and transmission electron microscopy on a suite of easy-to-prepare ultrathin film substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, Daniel B.; Zin, Melvin T.; Ma, Hong; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Baneyx, Francois; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    A high-yield, easy to master method for preparing electron transparent metal, oxide, and carbon ultrathin film substrates suitable for direct nano/micro-fabrication and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is presented. To demonstrate the versatility of these substrates for fabrication processes, we use e-beam lithography, self-assembled colloidal and protein templates, and microcontact printing to create patterned masks for subsequent electrodeposition of two dimensional and three dimensional structures. The electrodeposited structures range in scale from a few nanometers to a few micrometers in characteristic dimensions. Because fabrication occurs directly on ultrathin films, TEM analysis of the resulting materials and buried interfaces is straightforward without any destructive sample preparation. We show that all the normal TEM analytical methods (imaging, diffraction, electron and X-ray spectroscopies) are compatible with the fabricated structures and the thin film substrates. These electron transparent substrates have largely rendered the need for TEM sample preparation on fabricated structures obsolete in our lab

  4. The effect of substrate orientation on the kinetics and thermodynamics of initial oxide-film growth on metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, Friederike

    2007-11-19

    This thesis addresses the effect of the parent metal-substrate orientation on the thermodynamics and kinetics of ultra-thin oxide-film growth on bare metals upon their exposure to oxygen gas at low temperatures (up to 650 K). A model description has been developed to predict the thermodynamically stable microstructure of a thin oxide film grown on its bare metal substrate as function of the oxidation conditions and the substrate orientation. For Mg and Ni, the critical oxide-film thickness is less than 1 oxide monolayer and therefore the initial development of an amorphous oxide phase on these metal substrates is unlikely. Finally, for Cu and densely packed Cr and Fe metal surfaces, oxide overgrowth is predicted to proceed by the direct formation and growth of a crystalline oxide phase. Further, polished Al single-crystals with {l_brace}111{r_brace}, {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} surface orientations were introduced in an ultra-high vacuum system for specimen processing and analysis. After surface cleaning and annealing, the bare Al substrates have been oxidized by exposure to pure oxygen gas. During the oxidation, the oxide-film growth kinetics has been established by real-time in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. After the oxidation, the oxide-film microstructures were investigated by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Finally, high-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis was applied to study the microstructure and morphology of the grown oxide films on an atomic scale. (orig.)

  5. Substrate bias effects on composition and coercivity of CoCrTa/Cr thin films on canasite and glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Sui, X.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    CoCrTa/Cr thin films were prepared by rf diode sputtering onto canasite and glass substrates at various bias voltages from two targets of different compositions (Co82.8Cr14.6Ta2.6 and Co86Cr12Ta2). While Auger depth profile analysis indicates that there is some broadening at the CoCrTa-Cr interface, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy reveals that changes in alloy composition due to the resputtering processes are even more prominent. For both targets, as the substrate bias increases the Co content in the films declines, and the magnetization decreases. The maximum film coercivity appears to correlate to the final film composition. By investigating the results from both targets, it is concluded that the coercivity reaches a maximum when the film composition is in the neighborhood of Co84Cr13Ta3. Thus, to optimize the coercivity different bias voltages are required for each target. Excessive substrate bias, however, leads to films with low magnetization and coercivity.

  6. Nucleation and growth microstructural study of ti films on 304 SS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Almeida Vieira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Coating of steel surfaces with titanium films has been studied with the objective to protect them against corrosion, and to create an intermediate film for CVD diamond and TiN film deposition. In this work, the nucleation, growth mechanisms and microstructural formation of the titanium films deposited on 304 stainless steel (304 SS substrate are presented and discussed. The titanium films of variable thickness were obtained by vapour phase deposition produced by electron beam. The surfaces of these samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The cross sections of these samples were observed by using an atomic force microscope. The Ti film-304 SS interfaces were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that titanium films have a columnar growth. The Ti film-304 SS interface had a residual compression stress at room temperature due to the inter-diffusion process.

  7. Magnetism of coherent Co and Ni thin films on Cu(111) and Au(111) substrates: An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelený, Martin, E-mail: zeleny@fme.vutbr.cz; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2017-02-15

    We present an ab initio study of structural and magnetic properties of coherent Co and Ni thin films on Cu(111) and Au(111) substrates with thicknesses of up to 6 monolayers. All studied films on Cu(111) substrates prefer structures close their ground state (hcp for Co and fcc for Ni), whereas only the hcp stacking sequence has been found for both films on Au(111) substrates. All studied films exhibit instability of the first monolayer with respect to decomposition into 2-monolayer- or 3-monolayer-high islands, which is in agreement with experimental findings. All studied films are also ferromagnetic, nevertheless the Ni/Cu(111) films reduce their magnetic moments in the layer adjacent to the substrate due to a stronger Cu–Ni interaction at the interface. The magnetic anisotropy of a Co film does not depend on the film thickness: all the studied Co/Au(111) films exhibit a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, whereas all the Co/Cu(111) films prefer in-plane magnetization. On the other hand, both Ni films change their preference for in-plane orientation of their easy axis to out-of-plane orientation at a critical thickness of 2 monolayers, however, the magnetic anisotropy energies for films thicker than 1 monolayer are smaller than 1 meV/Ni atom. These behaviors of magnetic anisotropy do not depend on the structure of the studied films. - Highlights: • All films exhibit instability of the first monolayer and prefer grow in islands. • The Cu–Ni interaction is responsible for reduced Ni magnetic moments in Ni/Cu(111) films. • The Co/Au(111) and Co/Cu(111) films show different orientations of magnetic anisotropy. • The Ni films exhibit in-plane magnetization only for single monolayer. • Behaviors of magnetic anisotropy do not depend on the structure of the studied films.

  8. Distinct crystallinity and orientations of hydroxyapatite thin films deposited on C- and A-plane sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Housei; Ueno, Yuko

    2014-10-01

    We report how the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) films deposited on sapphire substrates depend on the crystallographic planes. Both solid-phase crystallization of amorphous HAp films and crystallization during sputter deposition at elevated temperatures were examined. The low-temperature epitaxial phase on C-plane sapphire substrates has c-axis orientated HAp crystals regardless of the crystallization route, whereas the preferred orientation switches to the (310) direction at higher temperatures. Only the symmetric stretching mode (ν1) of PO43- units appears in the Raman scattering spectra, confirming well-ordered crystalline domains. In contrast, HAp crystals grown on A-plane sapphire substrates are always oriented toward random orientations. Exhibiting all vibrational modes (ν1, ν3, and ν4) of PO43- units in the Raman scattering spectra reflects random orientation, violating the Raman selection rule. If we assume that Raman intensities of PO43- units represent the crystallinity of HAp films, crystallization terminating the surface with the C-plane is hindered by the presence of excess H2O and OH species in the film, whereas crystallization at random orientations on the A-plane sapphire is rather promoted by these species. Such contrasting behaviors between C-plane and A-plane substrates will reflect surface-plane dependent creation of crystalline seeds and eventually determine the orientation of resulting HAp films.

  9. Laser deposition of SmCo thin film and coating on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allocca, L; Bonavolonta, C; Valentino, M; Giardini, A; Lopizzo, T; Morone, A; Verrastro, M F; Viggiano, V

    2008-01-01

    Thin films and coatings of permanent magnetic materials are very important for different electronic and micromechanical applications. This paper deals with the fabrication, using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, of good quality magnetic SmCo thin films on polycarbonate, steel, silicon and amorphous quartz substrates, for low cost electronic applications like radio frequency identification (RFID) antennas and electromechanical devices for fuel feeding control in the automotive. X-ray fluorescence and magnetic scanning measurements using giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors have been performed to study the functional magnetic properties of the deposited thin films.

  10. Strain transfer through film-substrate interface and surface curvature evolution during a tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Han, Meidong; Goudeau, Philippe; Bourhis, Eric Le; Renault, Pierre-Olivier; Wang, Shibin; Li, Lin-an

    2018-03-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests on polyimide-supported thin metal films are performed to respectively study the macroscopic strain transfer through an interface and the surface curvature evolution. With a dual digital image correlation (DIC) system, the strains of the film and the substrate can be simultaneously measured in situ during the tensile test. For the true strains below 2% (far beyond the films' elastic limit), a complete longitudinal strain transfer is present irrespective of the film thickness, residual stresses and microstructure. By means of an optical surface profiler, the three-dimensional (3D) topography of film surface can be obtained during straining. As expected, the profile of the specimen center remains almost flat in the tensile direction. Nevertheless, a relatively significant curvature evolution (of the same order with the initial curvature induced by residual stresses) is observed along the transverse direction as a result of a Poisson's ratio mismatch between the film and the substrate. Furthermore, finite element method (FEM) has been performed to simulate the curvature evolution considering the geometric nonlinearity and the perfect strain transfer at the interface, which agrees well with the experimental results.

  11. Piezoelectric characterization of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films deposited on metal foil substrates by dip coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotaka; Hamamura, Tomohiro; Nishi, Takahito; Tan, Goon; Umegaki, Toshihito; Kanno, Isaku

    2017-10-01

    We fabricated the piezoelectric bimorphs composed of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films on metal foil substrates. To efficiently inexpensively manufacture piezoelectric bimorphs with high flexibility, 1.2-µm-thick PZT thin films were directly deposited on both surfaces of 10- and 20-µm-thick bare stainless-steel (SS) foil substrates by dip coating with a sol-gel solution. We confirmed that the PZT thin films deposited on the SS foil substrates at 500 °C or above have polycrystalline perovskite structures and the measured relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss were 323-420 and 0.12-0.17, respectively. The PZT bimorphs were demonstrated by comparing the displacements of the cantilever specimens driven by single- and double-side PZT thin films on the SS foil substrates under the same applied voltage. We characterized the piezoelectric properties of the PZT bimorphs and the calculated their piezoelectric coefficient |e 31,f| to be 0.3-0.7 C/m2.

  12. Flexibility of the Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Film Deposited Onto the Plastic Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Kai Lu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize the RF magnetron sputtering system to deposit the indium tin oxide (ITO conductive transparent film with low resistivity and high light transmittance to the polyethylene tetephthalate (PET plastic substrate and measure the film’s bending property and reliability at different tensile/compressive strain bending curvatures as well as the flexibility after cycling bending. The results show that the critical curvatures corresponded to the significant increase in the resistance of the 150 nm-thick ITO film deposited onto the PET substrate under tensile and compressive stress areO 14.1 mm and 5.4 mm, respectively. By observing the film’s surface crack and morphology, we can further discover that the critical curvature of the crack generated when the film is bent is quite consistent with the critical curvature at which the conductivity property degrades, and the film can withstand a higher compressive strain bending. In addition, the resistance and adhesion behavior of the film almost is unchanged after cycling bent for 1000 times with the curvature below the critical curvature.

  13. Cyclic testing of thin Ni films on a pre-tensile compliant substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, He [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 135 Yaguan Rd, Jinnan, 300350 Tianjin (China); Département Physique et Mécanique d es Matériaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS–Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, Futuroscope, 86962 (France); Renault, Pierre-Olivier, E-mail: pierre.olivier.renault@univ-poitiers.fr [Département Physique et Mécanique d es Matériaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS–Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, Futuroscope, 86962 (France); Bourhis, Eric Le [Département Physique et Mécanique d es Matériaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS–Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, Futuroscope, 86962 (France); Wang, Shibin [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, 135 Yaguan Rd, Jinnan, 300350 Tianjin (China); Goudeau, Philippe [Département Physique et Mécanique d es Matériaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS–Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, Futuroscope, 86962 (France)

    2017-05-17

    A novel experimental approach to study the cyclic plastic deformation of thin metallic films is presented. 300 nm thick Ni films are deposited on both sides of a pre-tensile soft substrate which allows to deform the films alternately in tension and compression (approximately from +2.7 GPa down to −2 GPa) relative to the as-deposited residual stress state. Nanocrystalline thin films' intrinsic elastic strains (or stresses) and true strains have been measured step by step during two loading/unloading cycles thanks to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and digital image correlation (DIC) techniques respectively. From the first cyclic deformation, a significant Bauschinger effect is evidenced in the films, however, little or no cyclic hardening is observed during the two cyclic tests.

  14. Interlayer interactions in absorption and reflection spectra of bismuth HTSC crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchinin, S.P.; Yaremko, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The HTSC reflection and absorption optic spectra peculiarities are analysed in the paper on the basis of bismuth and thallium. The approach suggested takes into account the complex character of crystals structure, possible localization of excitations in the isolated layers and further excitations exchange due to the interlayer interaction between cuprate (Cu O) and quasi-degenerate bismuth layers (Bi O/3pO). The expressions for the excitation and intensity energies of the corresponding transitions are obtained. It is shown that only part of excitations whose number is determined by the number of layers in the unit cell will be manifest in optical reflection and absorption spectra. The experimental results on spectral dependence of crystal reflection coefficients are analysed

  15. Overview and applicability of residual stress estimation of film-substrate structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Tsung-Lin; Yang, Shin-Yueh; Chiang, Kuo-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Residual stresses arising from thermal mismatch in layered structures rank among the major causes of mechanical failures in light-emitting diodes, integrated circuits, electronic packages, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. Applying analytical solutions to predict or calculate residual stresses' magnitude and distribution in multilayer film-substrate system has been widely adopted by many researchers. These researches are based on multilayer theories of film-substrate systems, such as Suhir's formula, Stoney's equation, and extend Stoney's equations. To discuss and distinguish the characteristics of these approaches, finite element analysis numerical solutions and multilayer theory analytical solutions are compared and analyzed. This encompasses the theories' application spectrum as well as their prediction capability. In addition, this work not only discusses the theories' property and workability but also demonstrate the feasibility of the finite element method (FEM) and bilayer theories in experiment. The experimental result demonstrates that FEM is a reliable approach in predicting the mechanical behavior of multilayer structures. Hence, when calculating or predicting thin film stress using the aforementioned theories, the methodology proposed in this research can be employed to effectively validate the feasibility of these theories.

  16. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou Chongwu

    2011-01-01

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ DC /σ Op , for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ TE . Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  17. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-06-17

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ(DC)/σ(Op), for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ(TE). Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of thin film zirconia electrolyte on non-conducting NiO-YSZ substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Debasish; Basu, Rajendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Eight (8) mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), an electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), has been deposited onto porous non-conducting NiO-YSZ substrate using electrophoretic deposition technique (EPD) from a stable non-aqueous suspension of YSZ. Normally, EPD cannot be performed on a non-conducting substrate, but, in this present study, YSZ particulate film has been successfully deposited on a non-conducting NiO-YSZ substrate following two different EPD approaches:(a) using a conducting metallic plate on the reverse side of the porous NiO-YSZ anode substrate and (b) using a conducting polymer coated NiO-YSZ substrate. The deposited films are then formed dense coatings of 5-15 μm after sintering at 1400℃ for 6 h in air. Surface and cross-sectional morphologies of green and sintered films deposited by different EPD approaches are investigated using SEM. La 0.65 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSM), a cathode for SOFC, is then screen-printed onto the electrolyte layer of such sintered half cells (anode+electrolyte) prepared by both the above approaches to construct SOFC single cells. A maximum output power density of 0.37 W.cm -2 is obtained using single cells prepared by conducting metallic plate assisted EPD compared to that of 0.73 W.cm -2 for polymer coated at 800℃ using H 2 as fuel and O 2 as oxidant. (author)

  19. Reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide thick films and alumina substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarco, J.A.; Ilushechkin, A.; Yamashita, T.; Bhargava, A.; Barry, J.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The structure and composition of reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide (BSCCO) thick films and alumina substrates have been characterized using a combination of electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sr and Ca are found to be the most reactive cations with alumina. Sr 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 is formed between the alumina substrates and BSCCO thick films prepared from paste with composition close to Bi-2212 (and Bi-2212+10 wt.% Ag). For paste with composition close to Bi(Pb)-2223 +20 wt.% Ag, a new phase with f.c.c. structure, lattice parameter about a=24.5 A and approximate composition Al 3 Sr 2 CaBi 2 CuO x has been identified in the interface region. Understanding and control of these reactions is essential for growth of high quality BSCCO thick films on alumina. (orig.)

  20. Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhinong; Li Yuqiong; Xia Fan; Zhao Zhiwei; Xue Wei

    2009-01-01

    The optical, electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by ion beam assisted deposition at room temperature were investigated. The properties of ITO films can be improved by introducing a buffer layer of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) between the ITO film and the PET substrate. ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET have better crystallinity, lower electrical resistivity, and improved resistance stability under bending than those deposited on bare PET. The average transmittance and the resistivity of ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET are 85% and 0.90 x 10 -3 Ω cm, respectively, and when the films are bent, the resistance remains almost constant until a bending radius of 1 cm and it increases slowly under a given bending radius with an increase of the bending cycles. The improved resistance stability of ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET is mainly attributed to the perfect adhesion of ITO films induced by the SiO 2 buffer layer.

  1. Production of TiO2 films with bactericidal properties deposited on paper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa, A.J.T.; Vasconcelos, J.S.; Vasconcelos, A.C.S.; Vasconcelos, N.S.L.S.; Rangel, J.H.G.; Oliveira, M.M.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranha (UFMA), MA (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J. A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to obtain anatase-phase titanium oxide films deposited on paper substrates, using the polymeric precursor (Pechini) method. The oxide was mixed with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution and deposited on a paper substrate. The samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), to check their surface phase. Bactericidal assays using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria for the anatase TiO2 film deposited on paper substrate indicated that the method was efficient, since the bacteria were eliminated after a given exposure time. However, the method proved to be more efficient when exposing samples contaminated with E. coli to UV irradiation for 30 and 45 min and then to sunlight for 90 min, since this resulted in the elimination of all the bacteria. (author)

  2. Production of TiO2 films with bactericidal properties deposited on paper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, A.J.T.; Vasconcelos, J.S.; Vasconcelos, A.C.S.; Vasconcelos, N.S.L.S.; Rangel, J.H.G.; Oliveira, M.M.O.; Longo, E.; Varela, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to obtain anatase-phase titanium oxide films deposited on paper substrates, using the polymeric precursor (Pechini) method. The oxide was mixed with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution and deposited on a paper substrate. The samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), to check their surface phase. Bactericidal assays using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria for the anatase TiO2 film deposited on paper substrate indicated that the method was efficient, since the bacteria were eliminated after a given exposure time. However, the method proved to be more efficient when exposing samples contaminated with E. coli to UV irradiation for 30 and 45 min and then to sunlight for 90 min, since this resulted in the elimination of all the bacteria. (author)

  3. In situ differential reflectance spectroscopy of thin crystalline films of PTCDA on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, Holger; Nitsche, Robert; Dienel, Thomas; Leo, Karl; Fritz, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    We report an investigation of the excitonic properties of thin crystalline films of the archetypal organic semiconductor PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride) grown on poly- and single crystalline surfaces. A sensitive setup capable of measuring the optical properties of ultrathin organic molecular crystals via differential reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is presented. This tool allows to carry out measurements in situ, i.e., during the actual film growth, and over a wide spectral range, even on single crystalline surfaces with high symmetry or metallic surfaces, where widely used techniques like reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) or fluorescence excitation spectroscopy fail. The spectra obtained by DRS resemble mainly the absorption of the films if transparent substrates are used, which simplifies the analysis. In the case of mono- to multilayer films of PTCDA on single crystalline muscovite mica(0001) and Au(111) substrates, the formation of the solid state absorption from monomer to dimer and further to crystal-like absorption spectra can be monitored

  4. A comparative study of Co thin film deposited on GaAs (1 0 0) and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.; Brajpuriya, R.; Tripathi, S.; Jain, D.; Dubey, R.; Shripathi, T.; Chaudhari, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The structural, magnetic and transport properties of Co/GaAs (1 0 0) and Co/glass thin films have been investigated. The structural measurements reveal the crystalline nature of Co thin film grown on GaAs, while microcrystalline nature in case of glass substrate. The film grown on GaAs shows higher coercivity (49.0 G), lower saturation magnetization (3.65 x 10 -4 ) and resistivity (8 μΩ cm) values as compared to that on glass substrate (22 G, 4.77 x 10 -4 and 18 μΩ cm). The grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity and photoemission spectroscopy results show the interaction between Co and GaAs at the interface, while the Co layer grown on glass remains unaffected. These observed results are discussed and interpreted in terms of different growth morphologies and structures of as grown Co thin film on both substrates

  5. Improved stability of titanium based boron-doped chemical vapor deposited diamond thin-film electrode by modifying titanium substrate surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, P.Y.; Lin, F.Y.; Shih, H.C.; Ralchenko, V.G.; Varnin, V.P.; Pleskov, Yu.V.; Hsu, S.F.; Chou, S.S.; Hsu, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    The film quality and electrochemical properties of BDD (boron-doped diamond) thin films grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique on titanium substrates that had been subjected to a range of pre-treatment processes were evaluated. The pre-roughened Ti-substrates are shown to support more adherent BDD films. It is evident that acid-etching the Ti-substrate involves surface hydrogenation that enhances nucleation and formation of diamond thereon. The prepared BDD film exhibits wide potential window and electrochemical reversibility. It also demonstrated a better long-term electrochemical stability based on the low variation in voltametric background current upon the exposing of the electrodes to repeated cycles of electrochemical metal deposition/stripping process

  6. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  7. Active vacuum brazing of CNT films to metal substrates for superior electron field emission performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Rémi; Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Shorubalko, Ivan; Furrer, Roman; Hack, Erwin; Elsener, Hansrudolf; Gröning, Oliver; Greenwood, Paul; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Teo, Kenneth; Leinenbach, Christian; Gröning, Pierangelo

    2015-02-01

    The joining of macroscopic films of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to titanium substrates is demonstrated by active vacuum brazing at 820 °C with a Ag-Cu-Ti alloy and at 880 °C with a Cu-Sn-Ti-Zr alloy. The brazing methodology was elaborated in order to enable the production of highly electrically and thermally conductive CNT/metal substrate contacts. The interfacial electrical resistances of the joints were measured to be as low as 0.35 Ω. The improved interfacial transport properties in the brazed films lead to superior electron field-emission properties when compared to the as-grown films. An emission current of 150 μA was drawn from the brazed nanotubes at an applied electric field of 0.6 V μm-1. The improvement in electron field-emission is mainly attributed to the reduction of the contact resistance between the nanotubes and the substrate. The joints have high re-melting temperatures up to the solidus temperatures of the alloys; far greater than what is achievable with standard solders, thus expanding the application potential of CNT films to high-current and high-power applications where substantial frictional or resistive heating is expected.

  8. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of annealing temperature on the structural–microstructural and electrical characteristics of thallium bearing HTSC films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique · K K Verma R S Tiwari O N Srivastava · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. In order to get good quality reproducible films of Tl : HTSC system, we ...

  9. Polarity control of GaN epitaxial films grown on LiGaO2(001) substrates and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulin; Wang, Wenliang; Li, Xiaochan; Li, Yuan; Huang, Liegen; Li, Guoqiang

    2017-08-16

    The polarity of GaN epitaxial films grown on LiGaO 2 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition has been well controlled. It is experimentally proved that the GaN epitaxial films grown on nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates reveal Ga-polarity, while the GaN epitaxial films grown on non-nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates show N-polarity. The growth mechanisms for these two cases are systematically studied by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Theoretical calculation presents that the adsorption of a Ga atom preferentially occurs at the center of three N atoms stacked on the nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates, which leads to the formation of Ga-polarity GaN. Whereas the adsorption of a Ga atom preferentially deposits at the top of a N atom stacked on the non-nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates, which results in the formation of N-polarity GaN. This work of controlling the polarity of GaN epitaxial films is of paramount importance for the fabrication of group-III nitride devices for various applications.

  10. Influence of substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of hot wall deposited SnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkirov, S.A.; Gremenok, V.F.; Ivanov, V.A.; Shevtsova, V.V.; Gladyshev, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Tin monosulfide SnS raises an interest as a promising material for photovoltaics. The influence of the substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of SnS thin films with [111] texture obtained by hot wall vacuum deposition on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide substrates is reported. The lattice parameters for layers grown on different substrates were determined by X-ray diffraction and their deviations from the data reported in the literature for single α-SnS crystals were discussed. The change in the degree of preferred orientation of the films depending on the substrate material is observed. The direct nature of the optical transitions with the optical band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV is reported. - Highlights: • SnS thin films were hot wall deposited on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide. • Physical properties of the films were studied with respect to the substrate type. • The SnS lattice parameter deviations were observed and the explanation was given. • The direct optical transitions with the band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV were observed

  11. Anatase thin film with diverse epitaxial relationship grown on yttrium stabilized zirconia substrate by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, Takahira; Ogawa, Tomoyuki; Kamei, Masayuki; Wada, Yoshiki; Mitsuhashi, Takefumi; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    An anatase epitaxial thin film with diverse epitaxial relationship, YSZ (001) // anatase (001), YSZ (010) // anatase (110), was grown on a single crystalline yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (001) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (004) reflection of this anatase epitaxial film was 0.4deg, and the photoluminescence of this anatase epitaxial film showed visible emission with broad spectral width and large Stokes shift at room temperature. These results indicate that this anatase epitaxial film possessed almost equal crystalline quality compared with that grown under identical growth conditions on single crystalline SrTiO 3 substrate. (author)

  12. Superconductive properties, interaction mechanisms, materials preparation and electronic transport in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saemann-Ischenko, G.

    1993-01-01

    The final report is composed of eight chapters dealing with the following aspects: I. Mixed state, critical currents, anisotropy, intrinsic and extrinsic pinning. II. Microwave properties and far-infrared reflectivity of epitactic HTSC films. III. Hall effect at the states of normal conductivity and superconductivity, magnetoresistance, superconducting fluctuation phenomena. IV. Effects of the nuclear and the electronic energy loss. V. Scanning electron microscopy. VI. p- and n-doped high-Tc superconductors: Charge symmetry and magnetism. VII. Preparation methods. VIII. Electrochemical examinations of HTSC films and HTSC monocrystals at low temperatures. (orig./MM) [de

  13. Structural features of epitaxial NiFe2O4 thin films grown on different substrates by direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R.; Loukya, B.; Li, N.; Gupta, A.

    2012-04-01

    NiFe2O4 (NFO) thin films are grown on four different substrates, i.e., Lead Zinc Niobate-Lead Titanate (PZN-PT), Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PMN-PT), MgAl2O4 (MAO) and SrTiO3 (STO), by a direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition technique (DLI-CVD) under optimum growth conditions where relatively high growth rate (˜20 nm/min), smooth surface morphology and high saturation magnetization values in the range of 260-290 emu/ cm3 are obtained. The NFO films with correct stoichiometry (Ni:Fe=1:2) grow epitaxially on all four substrates, as confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. While the films on PMN-PT and PZN-PT substrates are partially strained, essentially complete strain relaxation occurs for films grown on MAO and STO. The formations of threading dislocations along with dark diffused contrast areas related to antiphase domains having a different cation ordering are observed on all four substrates. These crystal defects are correlated with lattice mismatch between the film and substrate and result in changes in magnetic properties of the films. Atomic resolution HAADF imaging and EDX line profiles show formation of a sharp interface between the film and the substrate with no inter-diffusion of Pb or other elements across the interface. Antiphase domains are observed to originate at the film-substrate interface.

  14. Direct in Situ Conversion of Metals into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Strategy for the Rapid Growth of MOF Films on Metal Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hoon; Hwang, Sunhyun; Kim, Keonmok; Kim, CheolGi; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2016-11-30

    The fabrication of metal-organic framework (MOF) films on conducting substrates has demonstrated great potential in applications such as electronic conduction and sensing. For these applications, direct contact of the film to the conducting substrate without a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is a desired step that must be achieved prior to the use of MOF films. In this report, we propose an in situ strategy for the rapid one-step conversion of Cu metal into HKUST-1 films on conducting Cu substrates. The Cu substrate acts both as a conducting substrate and a source of Cu 2+ ions during the synthesis of HKUST-1. This synthesis is possible because of the simultaneous reaction of an oxidizing agent and a deprotonating agent, in which the former agent dissolves the metal substrate to form Cu 2+ ions while the latter agent deprotonates the ligand. Using this strategy, the HKUST-1 film could not only be rapidly synthesized within 5 min but also be directly attached to the Cu substrate. Based on microscopic studies, we propose a plausible mechanism for the growth reaction. Furthermore, we show the versatility of this in situ conversion methodology, applying it to ZIF-8, which comprises Zn 2+ ions and imidazole-based ligands. Using an I 2 -filled HKUST-1 film, we further demonstrate that the direct contact of the MOF film to the conducting substrate makes the material more suitable for use as a sensor or electronic conductor.

  15. A study of graphene films synthesized on nickel substrates: existence and origin of small-base-area peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahng, Yung Ho; Choe, Minhyeok; Jo, Gunho; Park, Woojin; Yoon, Jongwon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Lee, Byoung Hun; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Sangchul; Cho, Chun Hum

    2011-01-01

    Large-area graphene films, synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, have the potential to be used as electrodes. However, the electrical properties of CVD-synthesized graphene films fall short of the best results obtained for graphene films prepared by other methods. Therefore, it is important to understand the reason why these electrical properties are inferior to improve the applicability of CVD-grown graphene films. Here, we show that CVD-grown graphene films on nickel substrates contain many small-base-area (SBA) peaks that scatter conducting electrons, thereby decreasing the Hall mobility of charges in the films. These SBA peaks were induced by small peaks on the nickel surface and are likely composed of amorphous carbon. The formation of these SBA peaks on graphene films was successfully suppressed by controlling the surface morphology of the nickel substrate. These findings may be useful for the development of a CVD synthesis method that is capable of producing better quality graphene films with large areas.

  16. Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of pyrolytically deposited nitrogen-doped zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golshahi, S., E-mail: golshahi@iaurasht.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rozati, S.M. [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, 41335-1914 Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Botelho do Rego, A.M. [Centro de Quimica-Fisica Molecular and IN, Technical University of Lisbon, IST 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Wang, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Elangovan, E.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hall-effect measurement introduces the optimum temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C for fabricating p-type high quality ZnO films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved the nitrogen presence at the surface of doped ZnO thin films at all substrate temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films prepared at lower substrate temperature (300 Degree-Sign C and 350 Degree-Sign C) own wider band gaps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface roughness strongly is affected by substrate temperature variations. - Abstract: The effect of substrate temperature (T{sub s}) on the properties of pyrolytically deposited nitrogen (N) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films was investigated. The T{sub s} was varied from 300 Degree-Sign C to 500 Degree-Sign C, with a step of 50 Degree-Sign C. The positive sign of Hall coefficient confirmed the p-type conductivity in the films deposited at 450 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the ZnO structure with a dominant peak from (1 0 0) crystal plane, irrespective of the variation in T{sub s}. The presence of N in the ZnO structure was evidenced through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The obtained high N concentration reveals that the 450 Degree-Sign C is the optimal T{sub s}. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis showed that the surface roughness was increased with the increasing T{sub s} until 400 Degree-Sign C but then decreased. It is found that the transmittance of the deposited films is increased with the increasing T{sub s}. The optical band gap calculated from the absorption edge showed that the films deposited with T{sub s} of 300 Degree-Sign C and 350 Degree-Sign C possess higher values than those deposited at higher T{sub s}.

  17. Effect of substrate temperature on the properties of pyrolytically deposited nitrogen-doped zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golshahi, S.; Rozati, S.M.; Botelho do Rego, A.M.; Wang, J.; Elangovan, E.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hall-effect measurement introduces the optimum temperature of 450 °C for fabricating p-type high quality ZnO films. ► X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved the nitrogen presence at the surface of doped ZnO thin films at all substrate temperatures. ► Films prepared at lower substrate temperature (300 °C and 350 °C) own wider band gaps. ► Surface roughness strongly is affected by substrate temperature variations. - Abstract: The effect of substrate temperature (T s ) on the properties of pyrolytically deposited nitrogen (N) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films was investigated. The T s was varied from 300 °C to 500 °C, with a step of 50 °C. The positive sign of Hall coefficient confirmed the p-type conductivity in the films deposited at 450 °C and 500 °C. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the ZnO structure with a dominant peak from (1 0 0) crystal plane, irrespective of the variation in T s . The presence of N in the ZnO structure was evidenced through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The obtained high N concentration reveals that the 450 °C is the optimal T s . Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis showed that the surface roughness was increased with the increasing T s until 400 °C but then decreased. It is found that the transmittance of the deposited films is increased with the increasing T s . The optical band gap calculated from the absorption edge showed that the films deposited with T s of 300 °C and 350 °C possess higher values than those deposited at higher T s .

  18. Development of wear resistant zirconium oxide thin films on stainless steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, I.K.; Mujahid, M.; Zhang, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals specifically with the development of zirconium oxide thin film coatings on the stainless steel orthodontic bracket system by sputtering technique. Thin films of zirconium oxide have been deposited on injection molded stainless steel substrates using sputtering under controlled temperature and environment conditions. The deposited films, 1.5 μm in thickness, were found to have a predominantly tetragonal structure with grain size of about 5 nm. The grain size was found to increase only slightly with increasing heat treatment time at 650 C. It has been shown that thin-film zirconia coatings with stable structure and good adhesion along with very low friction coefficient could be produced. (orig.)

  19. Development of wear resistant zirconium oxide thin films on stainless steel substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Then, I.K.; Mujahid, M. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); Zhang, B. [Dou Yee Technologies Pte Ltd, Bedok Industrial Park C (Singapore)

    2005-07-01

    The present work deals specifically with the development of zirconium oxide thin film coatings on the stainless steel orthodontic bracket system by sputtering technique. Thin films of zirconium oxide have been deposited on injection molded stainless steel substrates using sputtering under controlled temperature and environment conditions. The deposited films, 1.5 {mu}m in thickness, were found to have a predominantly tetragonal structure with grain size of about 5 nm. The grain size was found to increase only slightly with increasing heat treatment time at 650 C. It has been shown that thin-film zirconia coatings with stable structure and good adhesion along with very low friction coefficient could be produced. (orig.)

  20. Structure and magnetic properties of Co2FeSi film deposited on Si/SiO2 substrate with Cr buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Payel; Basumatary, Himalay; Raja, M. Manivel

    2018-05-01

    Co2FeSi thin films of 25 nm thickness with 50 nm thick Cr buffer layer was deposited on thermally oxidized Si substrates. Structural and magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of annealing temperature and substrate temperatures. While the coercivity increases with increase in annealing temperature, it is found to decrease with increase in substrate temperature. A minimum coercivity of 18 Oe has been obtained for the film deposited at 550°C substrate temperature. This was attributed to the formation of L12 phase as observed from the GIXRD studies. The films with a good combination of soft magnetic properties and L21 crystal structure are suitable for spintronic applications.

  1. The path integral model of D-pairing for HTSC, heavy fermion superconductors, and superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusov, P.N.; Brusova, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    A model of d-pairing for superconducting and superfluid Fermi-systems has been formulated within the path integration technique. By path integration over open-quote fastclose quotes and open-quotes slowclose quotes Fermi-fields, the action functional (which determines all properties of model system) has been obtained. This functional could be used for the determination of different superconducting (superfluid) states, for calculation of the transition temperatures for these states, and for the calculation of the collective mode spectrum for HTSC, as well as for heavy fermion superconductors

  2. Reactive sputtering of TiN films at large substrate to target distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musil, J.; Kadlec, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of the present status of the magnetron ion sputter plating of thin CiN films. Thus different possibilities of extracting high ion currents 1 s from the magnetron discharge to substrates located not only at standard target to substrate distances d S-T of about 50 mm but also at larger distances d S-T are discussed in detail. Special attention is devoted to magnetron sputtering systems with enhanced ionization, to plasma confinement in the magnetron sputtering systems and to the discharge characteristics of an unbalanced magnetron (UM). It is shown that a UM can be operated in the regime of a double-site-sustained discharge (DSSD) and in this case large 1 s can be extracted to substrates located in large D S-T of about 200 mm and even at high pressures p = 5 Pa. A physical comparison of the conventional magnetron (CM), UM and DSSD is also given. Considerable attention is also devoted to the effect of ion bombardment on properties of TiN films created in the sputtering system using DSSD. (author)

  3. Warpage Analysis of Electroplated Cu Films on Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Packaging Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolgyu Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a warpage analysis method that predicts the warpage behavior of electroplated Cu films on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP packaging substrates. The analysis method is performed using the following sequence: fabricate specimens for scanning 3D contours, transform 3D data into curvatures, compute the built-in stress of the film using a stress-curvature analytic model, and verify it through comparisons of the finite element method (FEM simulations with the measured data. The curvature is used to describe the deflection and warpage modes and orientations of the specimen. Two primary factors that affect the warpage behavior of the electroplated Cu film on FRP substrate specimens are investigated. The first factor is the built-in stress in a Cu film that explains the room temperature warpage of the specimen under no thermal process. The second factor is the misfit of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE between the Cu and FRP layer, which is a dominant factor during the temperature change. The calculated residual stress, and predicted curvatures using FEM simulation throughout the reflow process temperature range between 25 and 180 °C are proven to be accurate by the comparison of the FEM simulations and experiment measurements.

  4. CdTe polycrystalline films on Ni foil substrates by screen printing and their photoelectric performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Huizhen; Ma, Jinwen; Mu, Yannan; Su, Shi; Lv, Pin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Liying; Li, Xue; Liu, Li; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The sintered CdTe polycrystalline films by a simple screen printing. • The flexible Ni foil was chose as substrates to reduce the weight of the electrode. • The compact CdTe film was obtained at 550 °C sintering temperature. • The photoelectric activity of the CdTe polycrystalline films was excellent. - Abstract: CdTe polycrystalline films were prepared on flexible Ni foil substrates by sequential screen printing and sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere for the first time. The effect of temperature on the quality of the screen-printed film was investigated in our work. The high-quality CdTe films were obtained after sintering at 550 °C for 2 h. The properties of the sintered CdTe films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and UV–visible spectroscopy. The high-quality CdTe films have the photocurrent was 2.04 mA/cm 2 , which is higher than that of samples prepared at other temperatures. Furthermore, CdCl 2 treatment reduced the band gap of the CdTe film due to the larger grain size. The photocurrent of photoelectrode based on high crystalline CdTe polycrystalline films after CdCl 2 treatment improved to 2.97 mA/cm 2 , indicating a potential application in photovoltaic devices

  5. Gold Incorporated Mesoporous Silica Thin Film Model Surface as a Robust SERS and Catalytically Active Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandakumari Chandrasekharan Sunil Sekhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-small gold nanoparticles incorporated in mesoporous silica thin films with accessible pore channels perpendicular to the substrate are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The simple and easy spin coating technique is applied here to make homogeneous thin films. The surface characterization using FESEM shows crack-free films with a perpendicular pore arrangement. The applicability of these thin films as catalysts as well as a robust SERS active substrate for model catalysis study is tested. Compared to bare silica film our gold incorporated silica, GSM-23F gave an enhancement factor of 103 for RhB with a laser source 633 nm. The reduction reaction of p-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride from our thin films shows a decrease in peak intensity corresponding to –NO2 group as time proceeds, confirming the catalytic activity. Such model surfaces can potentially bridge the material gap between a real catalytic system and surface science studies.

  6. Growth, microstructure, and field-emission properties of synthesized diamond film on adamantane-coated silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Rajanish N.; Chang Li

    2010-01-01

    Diamond nucleation on unscratched Si surface is great importance for its growth, and detailed understanding of this process is therefore desired for many applications. The pretreatment of the substrate surface may influence the initial growth period. In this study, diamond films have been synthesized on adamantane-coated crystalline silicon {100} substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from a gaseous mixture of methane and hydrogen gases without the application of a bias voltage to the substrates. Prior to adamantane coating, the Si substrates were not pretreated such as abraded/scratched. The substrate temperature was ∼530 deg. C during diamond deposition. The deposited films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These measurements provide definitive evidence for high-crystalline quality diamond film, which is synthesized on a SiC rather than clean Si substrate. Characterization through atomic force microscope allows establishing fine quality criteria of the film according to the grain size of nanodiamond along with SiC. The diamond films exhibit a low-threshold (55 V/μm) and high current-density (1.6 mA/cm 2 ) field-emission (FE) display. The possible mechanism of formation of diamond films and their FE properties have been demonstrated.

  7. Effect of the substrate temperature on the microstructure and texture of Mg90Zr10 (at.%) films deposited by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, Gerardo; Landais, Stephan; Adeva, Paloma

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure of Mg 90 Zr 10 (at.%) films obtained by sputtering onto copper substrate at three different temperatures (180, 320 and 350 deg. C) has been studied. Films exhibited an intense (0 0 0 1) basal plane fibre texture with the fibre axis parallel to the growth direction. Their microstructure consisted of columnar grains growing from the copper substrate to the free surface which is typical of the zone II of the Movchan and Demchishin zone model developed for PVD materials. Nevertheless, the microstructure of films was dependent on the substrate temperature. The grain diameter increased as the substrate temperature was increased. Moreover, the dislocation density inside the grains as well as that piled-up forming sub-grain boundaries decreased as the deposition temperature increased. Although the film growth in zone II is controlled by surface diffusion the larger surface mobility of the atoms as the substrate temperature increased led to changes in the solubility of zirconium. At low substrate temperatures all zirconium was in solid solution. However, at 350 deg. C the formation of small zirconium particles occurred at grain boundaries

  8. Influence of substrate bias on the structure and properties of (Ti, Al)N films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.H.; Tay, B.K.; Lau, S.P.; Shi, X.

    2001-01-01

    (Ti, Al)N films were deposited by an off-plane, double-bend, filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique in N 2 atmosphere at room temperature. The (Ti, Al)N films deposited are atomically smooth. The influence of substrate negative bias at the wide range (0-1000 V) on the deposition rate, surface morphology, crystal structure, internal stress, and mechanical properties of (Ti, Al)N films were systematically studied. Increasing substrate bias results in the decrease of deposition rate and the increase of surface roughness monotonically. At the bias of 0 V, (Ti, Al)N films are amorphous, and the internal stress, hardness, and Young's modulus for the deposited films are fairly low. With increasing substrate bias to 200 V, single-phase face-centered cubic-type nanocrystalline (Ti, Al)N films can be obtained, and the internal stress, hardness, and Young's modulus increase to the maximum of 7 GPa, 28 GPa, and 240 GPa, respectively. Further increase of substrate bias results in the decrease of intensity and the broadening of x-ray diffraction lines, and the gradual decrease of internal stress, hardness, and Young's modulus in (Ti, Al)N films

  9. Nanostructuration of self-assembled poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) block copolymer thin films in a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalakain, Inaki; Ramos, Jose Angel; Fernandez, Raquel; Etxeberria, Haritz; Mondragon, Inaki, E-mail: inaki.mondragon@ehu.e

    2011-01-03

    Highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) is a useful substrate to visualize epitaxial formation due to its crystallographic structure. The morphology of a poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) block copolymer thin film on a HOPG substrate was investigated by atomic force microscopy. Block copolymer domains generated a morphology with triangular regularity. This arrangement was induced by the HOPG substrate structure due to van der Waals attraction between the HOPG {pi}-conjugated system and aromatic ring of polystyrene domains. However, increasing the film thickness, the substrate effect on the surface morphology decreased. As a consequence, film surfaces showed the coexistence of different structures such as highly aligned cylinders and perforated lamellae. When film thickness exceeded a threshold value, the substrate did not have effect in the surface arrangements and the surface showed a similar morphology to that existing in bulk.

  10. A study of size dependent structure, morphology and luminescence behavior of CdS films on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Diksha; Singh, Ragini Raj; Sharma, Madhulika; Gupta, D.K.; Lalla, N.P.; Pandey, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Size tunable cadmium sulfide (CdS) films deposited by a dip coating technique on silicon (100) and indium tin oxide/glass substrates have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The structural characterization indicated growth of an oriented phase of cadmium sulfide. Transmission electron microscopy used to calculate the particle size indicated narrow size dispersion. The tendency of nanocrystalline CdS films to form ordered clusters of CdS quantum dots on silicon (100) substrate has been revealed by morphological studies using atomic force microscopy. The photoluminescence emission spectroscopy of the cadmium sulfide films has also been investigated. It is shown that the nanocrystalline CdS exhibit intense photoluminescence as compared to the large grained polycrystalline CdS films. The effect of quantum confinement also manifested as a blue shift of photoluminescence emission. It is shown that the observed photoluminescence behavior of CdS is substantially enhanced when the nanocrystallites are assembled on silicon (100) substrate

  11. Microstructural studies of La10.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) films on different (110) substrates deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Y Y; Jones, I P; Chakalov, R I; Muirhead, C M; Palai, R; Huhtinen, H

    2008-01-01

    La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 (LCMO) films grown on (110) surfaces of various (pseudo-) cubic substrates, SrTiO 3 (STO), LaAlO 3 (LAO) and La 0.3 Sr 0.7 Al 0.5 Ta 0.35 O 3 (LSAT), were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (110) LSAT substrate and LCMO film have the smallest lattice mismatch. (110) LAO substrate induces compressive strain while (110) STO induces tensile strain in the LCMO film. In all cases, the (010) 0 plane (long axis) of LCMO is parallel to the substrate surface. In the case of LSAT, the [001] 0 is parallel to [011] LSAT while the films on the other 2 substrates have [100] 0 // to the [011] substrates. Films grown on STO and LAO show an easy magnetisation when the applied magnetic field is in plane along the long-axis of the LCMO. In the case of LSAT, there is no in-plane anisotropy. The films on STO and LAO have twins as the dominant defects. The film on LSAT has less twining. High resolution TEM shows that LCMO on (110) LSAT (the least lattice mismatch) possesses a perfect interface with no misfit dislocations in the area of examination. The LCMO films on (110) LAO and (110) STO have nearly perfect interfaces with atomic sharpness but with misfit dislocations. The different in-plane crystal directions and strain distributions in the films may account for the different magnetisation behaviours of the LCMO films on the different (011) substrates.

  12. Influence of substrate temperature and silver-doping on the structural and optical properties of TiO_2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Evaporation of titanium together with activated oxygen is used to grow TiO_2 films and simultaneously with silver to grow Ag–TiO_2 films (5 at.% Ag) onto sapphire substrates at three different substrate temperatures: − 190, 30, and 200 °C. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope investigations. The properties of TiO_2 films varied with the substrate temperature. Amorphous, transparent TiO_2 films were grown at − 190 °C and opaque, polycrystalline films at 200 °C, respectively. Surprisingly, at room temperature black, amorphous TiO_2 films are obtained which transform at 350 °C into a mixture of the anatase and brookite polymorph. In the amorphous state of the TiO_2 films a predefined rutile arrangement is suggested by Raman investigations, and the contraction of the lattice constant c of anatase phases (tetragonal, space group I 4_1/amd) depending on the substrate temperature is experimentally observed. The silver-doped TiO_2 films deposited at − 190 and 30 °C contain Ag-particles with 2 nm in size inside the TiO_2 matrix, which after annealing segregate under increasing particle sizes. The silver-doping stabilizes the anatase polymorph and yields to reduced titanium species in the films especially during deposition at 30 °C. The Ag–TiO_2 films deposited at − 190 °C are transparent up to 350 °C. In the undoped as well as silver-doped TiO_2 films the rutile polymorph is directly formed at 200 °C as main phase. - Highlights: • At room temperature black, amorphous TiO_2 films are obtained. • A predefined rutile arrangement is suggested in amorphous TiO_2 films. • Annealed TiO_2 films crystallize to a mixture of the anatase and brookite polymorph. • In TiO_2 and Ag-doped TiO_2 films the rutile polymorph is directly formed at 200 °C. • Ag-doped TiO_2 films stabilize the anatase polymorph and reduced titanium

  13. Pulsed laser deposition of semiconductor-ITO composite films on electric-field-applied substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narazaki, Aiko; Sato, Tadatake; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2002-01-01

    The DC electric-field effect on the crystallinity of II-VI semiconductor in composite systems has been investigated for CdS-ITO films fabricated via alternative pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of CdS and indium tin oxide (ITO) on electric-field-applied substrates. The alternative laser ablation was performed under irradiation of ArF excimer laser in mixture gas of helium and oxygen. The application of electric-field facilitated the preferential crystal-growth of CdS in nanometer scale at low pressure, whereas all the films grown without the field were amorphous. There is a large difference in the crystallization between the films grown on field-applied and heated substrates; the latter showed the crystal-growth with random orientations. This difference indicates that the existence of electric-field has an influence on the transformation from amorphous to crystalline phase of CdS. The driving force for the field-induced crystallization is also discussed in the light of the Joule heat

  14. Influence of substrate bias voltage on structure and properties of the CrAlN films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yanhong; Ji, Li; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Hongxuan; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-02-01

    The CrAlN films were deposited on silicon and stainless steel substrates by unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. The influence of substrate bias on deposition rate, composition, structure, morphology and properties of the CrAlN films was investigated. The results showed that, with the increase of the substrate bias voltage, the deposition rate decreased accompanied by a change of the preferred orientation of the CrAlN film from (2 2 0) to (2 0 0). The grain size and the average surface roughness of the CrAlN films declined as the bias voltage increases above -100 V. The morphology of the films changed from obviously columnar to dense glass-like structure with the increase of the bias voltage from -50 to -250 V. Meanwhile, the films deposited at moderate bias voltage had better mechanical and tribological properties, while the films deposited at higher bias voltage showed better corrosion resistance. It was found that the corrosion resistance improvement was not only attributed to the low pinhole density of the film, but also to chemical composition of films.

  15. Effects of substrate temperature and Cu underlayer thickness on the formation of SmCo5(0001) epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    SmCo 5 (0001) epitaxial thin films were prepared on Cu(111) underlayers heteroepitaxially grown on Al 2 O 3 (0001) single-crystal substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The effects of substrate temperature and Cu underlayer thickness on the crystallographic properties of SmCo 5 (0001) epitaxial films were investigated. The Cu atoms of underlayer diffuse into the SmCo 5 film and substitute the Co sites in SmCo 5 structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Co,Cu) 5 . The ordered phase formation is enhanced with increasing the substrate temperature and with increasing the Cu underlayer thickness. The Cu atom diffusion into the SmCo 5 film is assisting the formation of Sm(Co,Cu) 5 ordered phase.

  16. Investigation of growth, structural and electronic properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films on selected substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nateprov, Alexei

    2006-08-15

    The present work is devoted to the experimental study of the MI transition in V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films, grown on different substrates. The main goal of the work was to develop a technology of growth of V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films on substrates with different electrical and structural properties (diamond and LiNbO{sub 3}), designed for specific applications. The structural and electrical properties of the obtained films were characterized in detail with a special focus on their potential applications. The MIT of V{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated by SAW using first directly deposited V{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film onto a LiNbO{sub 3} substrate. (orig.)

  17. Effect of shear strain on the deflection of a clamped magnetostrictive film-substrate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Zhenghui; Ming Li; Bo Zou; Xia Luo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of in-plane shear strain of a clamped bimorph on the deflection produced by magnetization of the film is investigated. The deflection is found by minimizing the Gibbs free energy with respect to four parameters, strains and curvatures along x and y directions at the interface, by assuming that the curvature in the y direction varies as a function of aspect ratio w/l along x. A set of standard linear equations of four parameters are obtained and the deflection is expressed in terms of the four parameters by solving the equations using Cramer rules. The inconsistencies pointed out by previous authors are also reviewed. For actuators made of thick and short clamped film-substrate system, the in-plane shear deformation should not be omitted. The present calculation model can give a relatively simple and accurate prediction of deflection for thick and short specimens of aspect ratio w/l<10, which supports the results obtained by finite element modeling. - Highlights: → We model the deflection of a thick magnetostrictive film-substrate cantilever plate. → Total stress along z from magnetic field is not zero without external force. → Effect of in-plane shear strain in calculating deflection examined. → Analytical solution of deflection obtained by assuming a curvature function. → Shear strain for short cantilever film-substrate plate considered.

  18. Atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation investigation of polydimethylsiloxane elastomeric substrate compliancy for various sputtered thin film morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Debashis; Das, Soumen

    2018-03-01

    Crack free electrically continuous metal thin films over soft elastomeric substrates play an integral part in realization of modern day flexible bioelectronics and biosensors. Under nonoptimized deposition conditions, delamination, and/or cracking of the top film as well as the underlying soft substrate hinders optimal performance of these devices. Hence it is very important to understand and control not only the various deposition factors like power, time, or deposition pressure but also investigate the various interfacial physics playing a critical role in assuring thin film adhesion and substrate compliancy. In the present study, various nanomechanical information of the underlying substrate, namely, crack profile, average roughness, Young's modulus, and adhesion force were studied for uncracked and cracked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces along with pristine and conventional plasma treated PDMS samples as control. Quantification of the above parameters were done using three-dimensional surface profiler, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and atomic force microscopy techniques to elucidate the modulus range, average roughness, and adhesion force. Comparative analysis with control revealed remarkable similarity between increased modulus values, increased surface roughness, and reduced adhesion force accounting for reduced substrate compliancy and resulting in film cracking or buckling which are critical for development of various bioflexible devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 725-737, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The effect of substrate bias on titanium carbide/amorphous carbon nanocomposite films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xu; Liang, Hong; Wu, Zhenglong; Wu, Xiangying; Zhang, Huixing

    2013-01-01

    The titanium carbide/amorphous carbon nanocomposite films have been deposited on silicon substrate by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology, the effects of substrate bias on composition, structures and mechanical properties of the films are studied by scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nano-indentation. The results show that the Ti content, deposition rate and hardness at first increase and then decrease with increasing the substrate bias. Maximum hardness of the titanium carbide/amorphous carbon nanocomposite film is 51 Gpa prepared at −400 V. The hardness enhancement may be attributed to the compressive stress and the fraction of crystalline TiC phase due to ion bombardment

  20. Indigenous unit for bending and twisting tests of ultra-thin films on a flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Slavia Deeksha; Hazarika, Pratim; Prakasarao, Ch Surya; Kovendhan, M.; Kumar, R. Arockia; Joseph, D. Paul

    2018-04-01

    An indigenous unit is designed to test the stability of thin films deposited on to a flexible substrate by inducing a required number of bending and twisting under specific conditions. The unit is designed using aluminum and automated by sending pulse width modulated signals to servo motors using ATmega328 microcontroller. We have tested the unit by imparting stress on to a commercial ITO film deposited on a PET substrate. After a definite number of bending and twisting cycles, the electrical and surface properties are studied and the results are discussed.

  1. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of YVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition method with various substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyun Kyoung; Chung, Jong Won; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun [Pukyong National University, Dept. of Physics, Busan (Korea); Yi, Soung-Soo [Silla University, Dept. of Electronic Material Engineering, Busan (Korea); Kim, Jung Hwan [Dongeui University, Dept. of Physics, Busan (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    YVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} films have been deposited on different substrates using pulsed laser deposition method. The films were deposited on fused silica, MgO(100), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and Si(100) substrates. The crystallinity and surface morphology of the films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The films grown on the different substrates have different crystallinity and morphology. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of (200) peak are 0.20, 0.14, 0.12, and 0.18 for fused silica, MgO(100), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and Si(100), respectively. The crystallite size, estimated by using Scherrer's formula, of phosphors grown on fused silica, MgO(100), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and Si(100) was about 7.25, 10.08, 11.88, and 8.14 nm, respectively and it has a maximum at 11.88 nm for the thin film grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001). The photoluminescence and the cathodoluminescence spectra were measured at room temperature using a luminescence spectrometer and the emitted radiation was dominated by the red emission peak at 602 nm radiated from the transition of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 7/2}. YVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} films have maximum PL intensity for the films grown on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate and the brightness of the films were higher 1.3, 2.9, and 5.0 times in comparison with that of the YVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} films grown on MgO(100), fused silica, and Si (100) substrates, respectively. The crystallinity, surface morphology and luminescence spectra of thin-film phosphors were highly dependent on substrates. (orig.)

  2. Out-of-substrate plane orientation control of thin YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O {sub x} films on NdGaO{sub 3} tilted-axes substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozhaev, Peter B. [Institute of Physics and Technology RAS, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation) and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark)]. E-mail: pbmozh@nm.ru; Mozhaeva, Julia E. [Institute of Physics and Technology RAS, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Bdikin, Igor K. [Institute of Solid State Physics RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow distr., 142432 (Russian Federation); CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Kotelyanskii, Iosif M. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics RAS, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Lusanov, Valery A. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics RAS, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Hansen, Jorn Bindslev [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Jacobsen, Claus S. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Kholkin, Andrey L. [CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal)

    2006-02-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O {sub x}(YBCO)/CeO{sub 2}/NdGaO{sub 3} were prepared on tilted-axes NdGaO{sub 3} substrates using laser ablation technique. Morphology, crystal structure and electrical properties of the obtained films were characterized. The seeding mechanisms are affected by the tilt angle, resulting in superior YBCO films on NdGaO{sub 3} substrates in an intermediate range of tilt angles of 6-14{sup o}. The introduction of CeO{sub 2} layer leads to change of the YBCO film orientation: at low deposition rate c-oriented films are formed, while at high deposition rates the film grows with c-axis tilted along the [1 1 0] NdGaO{sub 3} direction. Bi-epitaxial films and structures were prepared by removal of part of the CeO{sub 2} layer using ion-beam milling.

  3. Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnO thin films on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca; Chen, X-Grant

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of superhydrophobic ZnO thin films surfaces by electrophoretic deposition process on aluminum substrates. • Effect of bath temperature on the physical and superhydrophobic properties of thin films. • The water contact angle of 155° ± 3 with roll off property has been observed on the film that was grown at bath temperatures of 50 °C. • The activation energy for electrophoretic deposition of SA-functionalized ZnO nanoparticle is calculated to be 0.50 eV. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic thin films have been fabricated on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using stearic acid (SA) functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles suspension in alcohols at varying bath temperatures. The deposited thin films have been characterized using both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy and it is found that the films contain low surface energy zinc stearate and ZnO nanoparticles. It is also observed that the atomic percentage of Zn and O, roughness and water contact angle of the thin films increase with the increase of the deposited bath temperature. Furthermore, the thin film deposited at 50 °C, having a roughness of 4.54 ± 0.23 μm, shows superhydrophobic properties providing a water contact angle of 155 ± 3° with rolling off properties. Also, the activation energy of electrophoretic deposition of stearic-acid-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles is calculated to be 0.5 eV.

  4. Heterogenous integration of a thin-film GaAs photodetector and a microfluidic device on a silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Fuchuan; Xiao, Jing; Udawala, Fidaali; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, heterogeneous integration of a III–V semiconductor thin-film photodetector (PD) with a microfluidic device is demonstrated on a SiO 2 –Si substrate. Thin-film format of optical devices provides an intimate integration of optical functions with microfluidic devices. As a demonstration of a multi-material and functional system, the biphasic flow structure in the polymeric microfluidic channels was co-integrated with a III–V semiconductor thin-film PD. The fluorescent drops formed in the microfluidic device are successfully detected with an integrated thin-film PD on a silicon substrate. The proposed three-dimensional integration structure is an alternative approach to combine optical functions with microfluidic functions on silicon-based electronic functions.

  5. Sol-gel prepared B2O3-SiO2 thin films for protection of copper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouda, M.; Ahmed, M.S.; Shahin, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Borosilicate coating has potential for applications in the field of electronics, e.g., as passivation layers. One of the main difficulties for applying these films by the conventional melting process is the extensive volatilization of B 2 O 3 from the melt. In this work transparent borosilicate films of 2OB 2 O3.8OSiO 2 (in mole %). Prepared by the sole gel method, were applied onto copper substrates by dip-coating technique. The transparency of these films was very sensitive to the humidity of the atmosphere during the coating process. Transparent films were obtained below 20% relative humidity at 20 celsius degree. High temperature oxidation tests, at about 585 celsius degree stream of air, showed that the sol-gel prepared 2OB 2 O 3 .8OSiO 2 thin films are protective coating for copper substrates under fairly severe temperature gradient and oxidizing atmosphere. It was found that the protective action of these films depends on the film thickness

  6. White light photoluminescence from ZnS films on porous Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Caifeng; Li Weibing; Li Qingshan; Hu Bo

    2010-01-01

    ZnS films were deposited on porous Si (PS) substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. White light emission is observed in photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and the white light is the combination of blue and green emission from ZnS and red emission from PS. The white PL spectra are broad, intense in a visible band ranging from 450 to 700 nm. The effects of the excitation wavelength, growth temperature of ZnS films, PS porosity and annealing temperature on the PL spectra of ZnS/PS were also investigated. (semiconductor materials)

  7. Substrate Dependence of the Freezing Dynamics of Supercooled Water Films: A High-Speed Optical Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, E; Rodriguez, L; Verdaguer, A

    2018-01-18

    The freezing of supercooled water films on different substrates was investigated using a high-speed camera coupled to an optical microscope, obtaining details of the freezing process not described in the literature before. We observed the two well known freezing stages (fast dendritic growth and slow freezing of the water liquid left after the dendritic growth), but we separated the process into different phenomena that were studied separately: two-dimensional dendrite growth on the substrate interface, vertical dendrite growth, formation and evolution of ice domains, trapping of air bubbles and freezing of the water film surface. We found all of these processes to be dependent on both the supercooling temperature and the substrate used. Ice dendrite (or ice front) growth during the first stage was found to be dependent on thermal properties of the substrate but could not be unequivocally related to them. Finally, for low supercooling, a direct relationship was observed between the morphology of the dendrites formed in the first stage, which depends on the substrate, and the roughness and the shape of the surface of the ice, when freezing of the film was completed. This opens the possibility of using surfaces and coatings to control ice morphology beyond anti-icing properties.

  8. Preparation of mesoporous silica films SBA-15 over different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, V.O.; Sousa, E.M.B. de; Macedo, W.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous materials have been target of frequent interest due to its wide application possibilities, for example development of gas sensors, catalysis, molecules transportation, pharmaceuticals release, synthesis of auto-organized nanostructures, among others. The possibilities of application are enhanced when such materials are disposed in the form of thin and ultrathin films. In this work the preparation of mesoporous SBA-15 silica films is explored by means of the dipcoating technique of a sol-gel on different substrates (glass slides, stainless steel, copper), using the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)- block-poly(ethylene glycol), known as P123, a block copolymer. Synthesis parameters surfactant concentration, aging time and temperature were investigated. In this work we present the morphological and structural characterization of the prepared films, which were obtained using atomic force microscopy and x-ray fluorescence and diffraction. (author)

  9. Sputter deposition of PZT piezoelectric films on thin glass substrates for adjustable x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Rudeger H T; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N; Reid, Paul B; Schwartz, Daniel A; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2013-05-10

    Piezoelectric PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) thin films deposited on thin glass substrates have been proposed for adjustable optics in future x-ray telescopes. The light weight of these x-ray optics enables large collecting areas, while the capability to correct mirror figure errors with the PZT thin film will allow much higher imaging resolution than possible with conventional lightweight optics. However, the low strain temperature and flexible nature of the thin glass complicate the use of chemical-solution deposition due to warping of the substrate at typical crystallization temperatures for the PZT. RF magnetron sputtering enabled preparation of PZT films with thicknesses up to 3 μm on Schott D263 glass substrates with much less deformation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the films crystallized with the perovskite phase and showed no indication of secondary phases. Films with 1 cm(2) electrodes exhibited relative permittivity values near 1100 and loss tangents below 0.05. In addition, the remanent polarization was 26 μC/cm(2) with coercive fields of 33 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient was as high as -6.1±0.6 C/m(2). To assess influence functions for the x-ray optics application, the piezoelectrically induced deflection of individual cells was measured and compared with finite-element-analysis calculations. The good agreement between the results suggests that actuation of PZT thin films can control mirror figure errors to a precision of about 5 nm, allowing sub-arcsecond imaging.

  10. Microwave sintering of Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, S., E-mail: fujii.s.ap@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8522 (Japan); Department of Information and Communication System Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Okinawa College, Nago, Okinawa 905-2192 (Japan); Kawamura, S.; Maitani, M. M.; Suzuki, E.; Wada, Y. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8522 (Japan); Mochizuki, D. [Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research, Center for Energy and Environmental Science, Shinshu University, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate were subjected to microwave sintering by use of a single-mode waveguide applicator. A two-step sintering process was employed. First, at low conductivities of the film, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum electric field and subjected to microwave irradiation. Second, when the conductivity of the film increased, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum magnetic field and again subjected to microwave irradiation. The microwave sintering process was completed within 1.5 min, which is significantly lower than the time required for the oven heating process. The resulting conductivity of the film, albeit only 30% of that of the bulk material, was seven times that of a film annealed at the same temperature in a furnace. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the nanoparticles underwent both grain necking and grain growth during microwave sintering. In addition, this sintering process was equivalent to the oven heating process performed at a 50 °C higher annealing temperature. An electromagnetic wave simulation and a heat transfer simulation of the microwave sintering process were performed to gain a thorough understanding of the process.

  11. Microwave sintering of Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fujii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate were subjected to microwave sintering by use of a single-mode waveguide applicator. A two-step sintering process was employed. First, at low conductivities of the film, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum electric field and subjected to microwave irradiation. Second, when the conductivity of the film increased, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum magnetic field and again subjected to microwave irradiation. The microwave sintering process was completed within 1.5 min, which is significantly lower than the time required for the oven heating process. The resulting conductivity of the film, albeit only 30% of that of the bulk material, was seven times that of a film annealed at the same temperature in a furnace. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the nanoparticles underwent both grain necking and grain growth during microwave sintering. In addition, this sintering process was equivalent to the oven heating process performed at a 50 °C higher annealing temperature. An electromagnetic wave simulation and a heat transfer simulation of the microwave sintering process were performed to gain a thorough understanding of the process.

  12. Postdeposition Annealing Effect on Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films Grown at Different Substrate Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Ahmed Nadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS thin films were deposited on top of Molybdenum (Mo coated soda lime glass (SLG substrates using a single target rf magnetron sputtering technique. The sputtering parameters such as base pressure, working pressure, rf power, argon (Ar gas flow rate, and deposition time were kept consistent throughout the experiment. The effect of different substrate temperatures, for example, room temperature (RT, 300°C, 350°C, 370°C, 400°C, and 450°C, was analyzed by studying their structural, electrical, and optical properties. As-sputtered films were then annealed at 460°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD measurement revealed the structure to be kesterite with peak of (112 plane in both annealed and as-sputtered CZTS thin films. The crystallinity of the films improved with the increasing substrate temperature until 370°C. Secondary phases of MoS2, CuxMoSx, CuxSnSx, CuxS, and Cu6MoSnS8 (hemusite were also observed in the annealed CZTS films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM shows crystallite size of deposited CZTS thin film to be proportionally related to deposition temperature. The highest surface roughness of 67.318 nm is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The conductivity type of the films was found to be p-type by Hall effect measurement system.

  13. Lattice dynamics and substrate-dependent transport properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2011-10-24

    Lattice dynamics, low-temperature electrical transport, and high-temperature thermoelectric properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3thin films on different substrates are reported. Pulsed laser deposition under optimized conditions yielded single-phase polycrystalline skutterudite films. Raman spectroscopy studies suggested that In and Yb dopants occupy the cage sites in the skutterudite lattice. Low-temperature electrical transport studies revealed the n-type semiconducting nature of the films with extrinsic and intrinsic conduction mechanisms, in sharp contrast to the degenerate nature reported for identical bulk samples. Calculations yielded a direct bandgap close to 50 meV with no evidence of an indirect gap. The carrier concentration of the films was identical to that reported for the bulk and increased with temperature beyond 250 K. The higher resistivity exhibited is attributed to the enhanced grain boundary scattering in films with a high concentration of grains. The maximum power factor of ∼0.68 W m−1 K−1 obtained at 660 K for the film on glass is found to be nearly four times smaller compared to that reported for the bulk. The observed difference in the power factors of the films on different substrates is explained on the basis of the diffusion of oxygen from the substrates and the formation of highly conducting CoSb2 phase upon the oxidation of CoSb3.

  14. Study on Optoelectronic Characteristics of Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Indium Tin Oxide/Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hwa; Chen, Mi; Chiou, Chin-Lung; Liu, Xing-Yang; Weng, Lin-Song; Koo, Horng-Show

    2013-05-01

    Transparent conductive oxides of Sn-doped ZnO (SZO) films with doping weight ratios of 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 wt % have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and PET flexible substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Resultant films of SZO on ITO/PET and PET flexible substrates are amorphous in phase. It is found that undoped and SZO films on ITO/PET is anomalously better than films on PET in optical transmittance in the range of longer wavelength, possibly due to the refraction index difference between SZO, ITO films, and PET substrates, Burstein-Moss effect and optical interference of SZO/ITO bilayer films and substrate materials, and furthermore resulting in the decrement of reflection. The lowest electrical resistivity (ρ) of 4.0 wt % SZO films on flexible substrates of PET and ITO/PET are 3.8×10-2 and ρ= 1.2×10-2 Ω.cm, respectively. It is found that electrical and optical properties of the resultant films are greatly dependent on various amount of Sn element doping effect and substrate material characteristics.

  15. Photo- and Electrochromic Properties of Activated Reactive Evaporated MoO3 Thin Films Grown on Flexible Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hari Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The molybdenum trioxide (MoO3 thin films were grown onto ITO-coated flexible Kapton substrates using plasma assisted activated reactive evaporation technique. The film depositions were carried out at constant glow power and oxygen partial pressures of 8 W and 1×10−3 Torr, respectively. The influence of substrate temperature on the microstructural and optical properties was investigated. The MoO3 thin films prepared at a substrate temperature of 523 K were found to be composed of uniformly distributed nanosized grains with an orthorhombic structure of α-MoO3. These nanocrystalline MoO3 thin films exhibited higher optical transmittance of about 80% in the visible region with an evaluated optical band gap of 3.29 eV. With the insertion of 12.5 mC/cm2, the films exhibited an optical modulation of 40% in the visible region with coloration efficiency of 22 cm2/C at the wavelength of 550 nm. The MoO3 films deposited at 523 K demonstrated better photochromic properties and showed highest color center concentration for the irradiation time of 30 minutes at 100 mW/cm2.

  16. Study of the oxygen and substrate bias effects on the defect structure of reactive sputter-deposited SnOx films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misheva, M.; Nancheva, N.; Docheva, P.; Hadjijska, P.; Djourelov, N.; Elenkov, D.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of oxygen and substrate bias on the defect structure of reactive sputter-deposited SnOx films were investigated. Samples were analysed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The oxygen played an important role in the film growth and surface morphology. TEM, TED and XRD showed that increasing of the oxygen partial pressure leads to the formation of films with different crystal phases. The void sizes also depended on oxygen partial pressure. The positron lifetimes and their relative intensities depended on the void concentration, the partial annealing of the vacancies and oxidation of SnO to SnOx. This investigation also showed that the mechanical strength of the films obtained at negative substrate bias is higher and the concentration of vacancy defects is smaller, than in the films, prepared without substrate bias. (author)

  17. Improvement of thermoelectric properties of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films grown on graphene substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Wan [Thin Film Materials Research Group, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun Hwan; Choi, Ji Woon; An, Ki-Seok; Lee, Young Kuk [Thin Film Materials Research Group, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Sang [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungjun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    A study of substrate effect on the thermoelectric (TE) properties of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (BT) and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (ST) thin films grown