WorldWideScience

Sample records for hts-stainless steel stack

  1. Quench characteristics of Ag/AuBi2223 HTS-stainless steel stack used for the hybrid current leads of the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mosawi, M K; Beduz, C; Yang, Y; Ballarino, A

    2008-01-01

    The quench characteristics of Ag/Au sheathed Bi2223 tapes have been investigated in an adiabatic condition and in a configuration similar to that used in hybrid high temperature superconducting current leads, namely the 13000A leads used for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A specialised rig was designed and constructed to provide a carefully controlled environment. The samples were prepared from HTS tape soldered onto a stainless steel substrate with a number of temperature sensors at various positions along the length of tape. One end of the lead (cold end) was maintained at 6K using G-M cryo-cooler whereas the temperature of the other end (warm end) can be varied and maintained at temperatures up to 100K. The thermal runaway currents (quench currents) at various warm end temperatures (in the range of 40-100K) were determined. The temperature evolutions at various locations along the tape were recorded at different top end temperatures and currents. The effect of the stainless steel mechanical reinforceme...

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of the stacking fault energy of austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtze, S.; Kuokkala, V.-T.; Oikari, A.; Talonen, J.; Haenninen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The stacking fault energies (SFE) of 10 austenitic steels were determined in the temperature range 50 ≤ T ≤ 600 K by thermodynamic modeling of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Al-Si-Cu-C-N system using a modified Olson and Cohen modeling approach (Olson GB, Cohen M. Metall Trans 1976;7A:1897 ). The applied model accounts for each element's contribution to the Gibbs energy, the first-order excess free energies, magnetic contributions and the effect of interstitial nitrogen. Experimental SFE values from X-ray diffraction measurements were used for comparison. The effect of SFE on deformation mechanisms was also studied by electron backscatter diffraction.

  3. LAB3 Cosmic Ray Test Stand Analysis of Steel Stack Supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cease, H.

    1998-01-01

    A cosmic ray test stand is being constructed at Lab 3. The stand consists of two stacks of steel plates one resting on top of the other. The top stack is composed of 6 plates of steel making an overall stack size of 34.5-inch x 40-inch x 99-inch. The bottom stack also has 6 layers of plate making an overall size of approximately 49.5-inch x 82-inch x 99-inch. The bottom stack is supported with three support legs. See drawing 3823.000ME-900428 for the individual plate orientation. The minimum support leg size and necessary welds between plates are determined.

  4. Microstructure changes in the low stacking fault energy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodak, K.; Kuc, D.; Niewielski, G.; Hetmanczyk, M.

    1999-01-01

    A Cr-Ni austenitic steel (type 304) was investigated using TEM. It is shown that some structural parameters (dislocations density within the subgrains and the subgrains size) change with temperature and strain rate after hot temperature deformation. The subgrain microstructure was characterized quantitatively for different characteristics. (author)

  5. Diffusion of Nickel into Ferritic Steel Interconnects of Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolysis Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Sebastian; Chen, Ming; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2013-01-01

    diffusion of nickel from the Ni/YSZ electrode or the contact layer into the interconnect plate. Such diffusion can cause austenization of the ferritic structure and could possibly alter corrosion properties of the steel. Whereas this process has already been recognized by SOFC stack developers, only...... a limited number of studies have been devoted to the phenomenon. Here, diffusion of Ni into ferritic Crofer 22 APU steel is studied in a wet hydrogen atmosphere after 250 hours of exposure at 800 °C using Ni-plated (~ 10 micron thick coatings) sheet steel samples as a model system. Even after...... this relatively short time all the metallic nickel in the coating has reacted and formed solid solutions with iron and chromium. Diffusion of Ni into the steel causes formation of the austenite FCC phase. The microstructure and composition of the oxide scale formed on the sample surface after 250 hours is similar...

  6. Influence of Stacking Fault Energy (SFE) on the deformation mode of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Van Renterghem, W.; Al Mazouzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The sensibility to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of stainless steels in light water reactor (LWR) can be caused by the localisation of deformation that takes place in these materials. Dislocation channelling and twinning modes of deformation can induce localised plasticity leading to failure. Stacking fault energy (SFE) plays an important role in every process of plastic deformation behaviour, especially in twinning and dislocation channelling. In order to correlate localised deformation with stacking fault energy, this parameter has been experimentally determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) using both dislocation node and multiple ribbons methods after compression in three different model alloys. Detailed deformation behaviour of three fabricated alloys with different stacking fault energy before and after tensile tests at temperatures from -150 deg C to 300 deg C, will be shown and discussed based on mechanical test and TEM observation. (authors)

  7. Effect of stacking fault energy on the neutron radiation induced defect accumulation in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoqiang; Al Mazouzi Abderrahim

    2009-01-01

    Current knowledge highlights the radiation induced segregation (RIS) and the radiation hardening as the two main effects on irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Stacking fault energy is considered as a key parameter of materials, which can influence IASCC of stainless steels in nuclear light water reactor (LWR), because it plays an important role in every process of plastic deformation, work hardening and creep behaviour. The study of the impact of SFE variations on the plastic deformation and SCC behaviour of irradiated and unirradiated austenitic steels will contribute to the understanding of IASCC mechanism. The objectives of this work, as a task within the FP6-European Project PERFECT, are to investigate the influence of the SFE on IASCC susceptibility of stainless steels, to correlation n-irradiation induced defect production, accumulation and mechanical deformation behaviour with SFE by using the state of the art experimental tools such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in simulated LWR conditions

  8. Stacking fault energy of C-alloyed steels: The effect of magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Song; Li, Ruihuan; Kádas, Krisztina; Zhang, Hualei; Tian, Yanzhong; Kwon, Se Kyun; Kokko, Kalevi; Hu, Qing-Miao; Hertzman, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to study the effect of C on the stacking fault energy (SFE) of paramagnetic γ-Fe and Fe−Cr−Ni austenitic steel. In these systems, the local magnetic structure is very sensitive to the volume in both fcc and hcp structures, which emphasizes the importance of the magnetovolume coupling effect on the SFE. The presence of C atom suppresses the local magnetic moments of Fe atoms in the first coordination shell of C. Compared to the hypothetical nonmagnetic case, paramagnetism significantly reduces the effect of C on the SFE. In the scenario of C being depleted from the stacking fault structure or twin boundaries, e.g., due to elevated temperature, where the chemical effect of C is dissipated, we calculate the C-induced volume expansion effect on the SFE. The volume induced change in the SFE corresponds to more than ∼ 50% of the total C effect on the SFE obtained assuming uniform C distribution.

  9. High Temperature Oxidation of Ferritic Steels for Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Sebastian; Chen, Ming; Bentzen, Janet Jonna

    2013-01-01

    atmospheres at 800°C. Four commercially available alloys: Crofer 22 APU, Crofer 22 H, AL29-4, E-Brite were characterized in humidified hydrogen. One alloy, Crofer 22 APU was also characterized in pure oxygen both in the as-prepared state and after application of a protective coating. Best corrosion resistance......Oxidation rates of ferritic steels used as interconnector plates in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks are of concern as they may be determining for the life time of the technology. In this study oxidation experiments were carried out for up to 1000 hours in hydrogen-side and oxygen-side simulated...... in humidified hydrogen atmosphere was observed for Crofer 22 APU and Crofer 22 H alloys. Corrosion rates for Crofer 22 APU measured in humidified hydrogen are similar to the corrosion rates measured in air. Both coatings of plasma sprayed LSM and dual layer coatings (Co3O4/LSM-Co3O4) applied by wet spraying...

  10. Deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic steel: The synergy of stacking fault energy and chemical driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moallemi, M., E-mail: m.moallemi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fould Institute of Technology, Fouladshahr, Isfahan, 8491663763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, A.; Baghbadorani, H. Samaei; Nezhadfar, P. Dastranjy [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the correlation of stacking fault energy's synergy and driving force in the formation of deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic stainless steel. The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetic induction techniques. The kinetics of the martensite formation versus applied strain was evaluated through the sigmoidal model. It was shown that the volume fraction of ά-martensite is closely related to the driving force/SFE ratio of the alloy. The results also showed that the martensite content is similar in both XRD and magnetic methods and the applied sigmoidal model was consistent with the obtained experimental data.

  11. Testing of Ni-plated ferritic steel interconnect in SOFC stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dinesen, A.R.; Korcakova, L.

    2006-01-01

    heating to 1,030 °C. During this time, 20–70 μm thick surface layers of austenitic steel were formed, which were covered by a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the anode side and by a layer of mixed Cr-Fe-Ni-spinels over a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the cathode side. The microstructure and composition...... of the protective scale on the cathode side was susceptible to pitting-type corrosion patterns, which may limit the life expectancy to less than 2,000 hours for the 200 μm thick interconnect tested. The initial area-specific resistances (ASR) at the interconnect/cathode current collector interface...

  12. On the measurement of the stacking-fault energies of face centered cubic metal and austenitic stainless steels by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.F.A.

    1985-01-01

    An X-rays diffraction method was applied to measure the Stacking-Fault Energies (SFE) of the AISI 304, AISI 316, AISI 347 and DIN-WERKSTOFF 1.4970 Austenitic Stainless Steels. The SFE determination plays an important role in the research of the mechanical behaviour of the Metal and Alloys, their deformation mechanisms, stability of microstructure amd electronic configuration. The method is based on the relationship between the SFE and the ratio of the Mean Square Strain to the Stacking-Fault probability. The Mean Square Strain was evaluated by Fourier Analysis of X-rays Diffraction profiles, corrected to reduce instrumental effects, followed by the application of the Warren-Averbach method to the Fourier Coefficients. The Stacking-Fault probabilities were derived from the changes of peak separations between cold-worked and annealed specimens. (author) [pt

  13. Influence of addition elements on the stacking-fault energy and mechanical properties of an austenitic Fe-Mn-C steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumay, A.; Chateau, J.-P.; Allain, S.; Migot, S.; Bouaziz, O.

    2008-01-01

    We present a thermochemical model of the stacking-fault energy (SFE) in the Fe-Mn-C system with few percent of Cu, Cr, Al and Si in addition. Aluminium strongly increases the SFE, contrary to chromium, while the effect of silicon is more complex. Copper also increases the SFE, but strongly decreases the Neel temperature. The SFE is the relevant parameter that controls mechanical twinning, which is known to be at the origin of the excellent mechanical properties of these steels. Using this model, copper containing Fe-Mn-C grades were elaborated with SFE below 18 mJ/m 2 , in the range where ε-martensite platelets form instead of microtwins during plastic deformation. This substitution of deformation modes, confirmed by X-ray diffraction, does not significantly damage the mechanical properties, as long as the SFE is greater than 12 mJ/m 2 , which avoids the formation of α'-martensite

  14. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deligne, Mumford and Artin [DM, Ar2]) and consider algebraic stacks, then we can cons- truct the 'moduli ... the moduli scheme and the moduli stack of vector bundles. First I will give ... 1–31. © Printed in India. 1 ...... Cultura, Spain. References.

  15. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  16. Is there a relationship between the stacking fault character and the activated mode of plasticity of Fe-Mn-based austenitic steels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrissi, H.; Ryelandt, L.; Veron, M.; Schryvers, D.; Jacques, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    By changing the testing temperature, an austenitic Fe-Mn-Al-Si alloy presents either ε-martensite transformation or mechanical twinning during straining. In order to understand the nucleation and growth mechanisms involved in both phenomena, defects and particularly stacking faults, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. It is observed that the character of the stacking faults also changes (from extrinsic to intrinsic) together with the temperature and the activated mode of plasticity.

  17. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  18. Routes to a commercially viable PEM fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.; Foster, S.E.; Hodgson, D.; Marrett, A.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the results of a project to design and build a 10 kW{sub e} proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, including membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), bipolar plates and stack hardware. The aim was to prove the design concept and to demonstrate functionality by operating the stack at >1 kW{sub e}/L and 500 W/kg for 200 hours operation. The project was extended to include the assembly and testing of two additional 1 kW{sub e} PEMFC stacks based on coated metal components. Low equivalent weight perfluorinated ionomer ion exchange membranes were prepared and were found to give a superior electrochemical performance to commercial materials. A technique to etch various stainless steel grades and control processes was successfully developed and optimised. Coatings for stainless steel and titanium were successfully developed and met the required performance criteria. All PEMFC stack components were selected and designed to enable subsequent commercial manufacture.

  19. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  20. Stack gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-04-12

    Hot stack gases transfer contained heat to a gravity flow of pebbles treated with a catalyst, cooled stacked gases and a sulfuric acid mist is withdrawn from the unit, and heat picked up by the pebbles is transferred to air for combustion or other process. The sulfuric acid (or sulfur, depending on the catalyst) is withdrawn in a recovery unit.

  1. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  2. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  3. Stacking the Equiangular Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A.; Azabi, Y. O.; Rahman, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an algorithm that adapts the mature Stack and Draw (SaD) methodology for fabricating the exotic Equiangular Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber. (ES-PCF) The principle of Steiner chains and circle packing is exploited to obtain a non-hexagonal design using a stacking procedure based on Hexagonal Close Packing. The optical properties of the proposed structure are promising for SuperContinuum Generation. This approach could make accessible not only the equiangular spiral but also other qua...

  4. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  5. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  6. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  7. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  8. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  9. Development and preliminary experimental study on micro-stacked insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Chengyan; Yuan Weiqun; Zhang Dongdong; Yan Ping; Wang Jue

    2009-01-01

    High gradient insulating technology is one of the key technologies in new type dielectric wall accelerator(DWA). High gradient insulator, namely micro-stacked insulator, was developed and preliminary experimental study was done. Based on the finite element and particle simulating method, surface electric field distribution and electron movement track of micro-stacked insulator were numerated, and then the optimized design proposal was put forward. Using high temperature laminated method, we developed micro-stacked insulator samples which uses exhaustive fluorinated ethylene propylene(FEP) as dielectric layer and stainless steel as metal layer. Preliminary experiment of vacuum surface flashover in nanosecond pulse voltage was done and micro-stacked insulator exhibited favorable vacuum surface flashover performance with flashover field strength of near 180 kV/cm. (authors)

  10. OpenStack cloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Locati, Fabio Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.

  11. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  12. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  13. MEAN STACK WEB DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Nghi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to provide a universal website using JavaScript as the main programming language. It also shows the basic parts anyone need to create a web application. The thesis creates a simple CMS using MEAN stack. MEAN is a collection of JavaScript based technologies used to develop web application. It is an acronym for MongoDB, Express, AngularJS and Node.js. It also allows non-technical users to easily update and manage a website’s content. But the application also lets o...

  14. Die-stacking architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the ""memory wall"" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to design

  15. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  16. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  17. Thermoacoustic design using stem of goose down stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farikhah, Irna; Ristanto, Sigit; Idrus, Hadiyati; Kaltsum, Ummi; Faisal, Affandi; Setiawan, Ihsan; Setio Utomo, Agung Bambang

    2012-09-01

    Many refrigerators using CFC as a refrigerant are seen as the cause of the depletion of ozone. Hence, thermoacoustic was chosen as an alternative refrigerator that safe for environment. There are many variable that influenced the optimization of thermoacoustic design. One of them is thermal conductivity of material of stack. The Stack material must have a low thermal conductivity. In this research we used organic stack made of stem of goose down. It has superior thermal insulating. It means that they have the lowest thermal conductivity. The system uses no refrigerant or compressor, and the only mechanical moving part is the loudspeaker connected to a signal generator that produces the acoustic. The working fluid is air and the material of resonator is stainless steel. A series test on the laboratory found that there is a decrease of 5°C in temperature for about 2 minutes.

  18. Electrically Conductive and Protective Coating for Planar SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2017-12-04

    Ferritic stainless steels are preferred interconnect materials for intermediate temperature SOFCs because of their resistance to oxidation, high formability and low cost. However, their protective oxide layer produces Cr-containing volatile species at SOFC operating temperatures and conditions, which can cause cathode poisoning. Electrically conducting spinel coatings have been developed to prevent cathode poisoning and to maintain an electrically conductive pathway through SOFC stacks. However, this coating is not compatible with the formation of stable, hermetic seals between the interconnect frame component and the ceramic cell. Thus, a new aluminizing process has been developed by PNNL to enable durable sealing, prevent Cr evaporation, and maintain electrical insulation between stack repeat units. Hence, two different types of coating need to have stable operation of SOFC stacks. This paper will focus on the electrically conductive coating process. Moreover, an advanced coating process, compatible with a non-electrically conductive coating will be

  19. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  20. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  1. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  2. Tables of formulae for calculating the mechanics of stacks in gas-graphite reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This collection of formulae only gives, for nuclear graphite stacks. The mechanical effects due to the strains, thermal or not, of steel structures supporting or surrounding graphite blocks. Equations have been established by mean of experiments made at Chinon with large pile models. Thus, it is possible to calculate displacement, strain and stress in the EDF type stacks of horizontal triangular block lattice. (authors) [fr

  3. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  4. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  5. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  6. Time-predictable Stack Caching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar

    completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...... addresses, provides an opportunity to predict and tighten the WCET of accesses to data in caches. In this thesis, we introduce the time-predictable stack cache design and implementation within a time-predictable processor. We introduce several optimizations to our design for tightening the WCET while...... keeping the timepredictability of the design intact. Moreover, we provide a solution for reducing the cost of context switching in a system using the stack cache. In design of these caches, we use custom hardware and compiler support for delivering time-predictable stack data accesses. Furthermore...

  7. An impact analysis of a micro wind system. [windpower for recovering magnesium from stack dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, R. P.; Robinette, S. L.; Mason, R. M.; Schaffer, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    A process for the recovery of steel mill stack dust has been developed and is being used to recover secondary metals by a small company in Georgia. The process is energy intensive and wind generators were studied as a means of supplying energy for part of the recovery process. Some of the results of this study will be presented.

  8. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  9. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  10. V-stack piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Emil V.; Clark, Robert L.

    2001-07-01

    Aeroelastic control of wings by means of a distributed, trailing-edge control surface is of interest with regards to maneuvers, gust alleviation, and flutter suppression. The use of high energy density, piezoelectric materials as motors provides an appealing solution to this problem. A comparative analysis of the state of the art actuators is currently being conducted. A new piezoelectric actuator design is presented. This actuator meets the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation in both stroke and force. It is compact, simple, sturdy, and leverages stroke geometrically with minimum force penalties while displaying linearity over a wide range of stroke. The V-Stack Piezoelectric Actuator, consists of a base, a lever, two piezoelectric stacks, and a pre-tensioning element. The work is performed alternately by the two stacks, placed on both sides of the lever. Pre-tensioning can be readily applied using a torque wrench, obviating the need for elastic elements and this is for the benefit of the stiffness of the actuator. The characteristics of the actuator are easily modified by changing the base or the stacks. A prototype was constructed and tested experimentally to validate the theoretical model.

  11. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  12. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  13. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  14. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  15. Helping Students Design HyperCard Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students to design HyperCard stacks. Highlights include introducing HyperCard, developing storyboards, introducing design concepts and scripts, presenting stacks, evaluating storyboards, and continuing projects. A sidebar presents a HyperCard stack evaluation form. (AEF)

  16. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  17. Docker on OpenStack

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Nitin; Moreira, Belmiro

    2014-01-01

    Project Specification CERN is establishing a large scale private cloud based on OpenStack as part of the expansion of the computing infrastructure for storing the data coming out of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. As the data coming out of the detectors is increasing continuously that needs to be stored in the data center, we need more physical resources (more money) and since Virtual machines takes lot of CPU and memory overhead and minutes for creating the images, booting u...

  18. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative 'all modes' failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  19. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  20. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation....... An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  2. Annex I.G. Demolition of the G1 stack at Marcoule by toppling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The G1 stack at Marcoule was constructed during the first half of 1956 as a ventilation outlet for the G1 reactor, which is cooled by air. After the G1 reactor was decommissioned, the G1 stack served as a ventilation outlet for two new nuclear facilities on the site. Being no longer in compliance with regulations and having many inadequacies and uncertainties in terms of the prestressed concrete, the stack posed a potential damage risk in extreme wind or in the event of an earthquake. In 1994 it was decided that a new stack would be built to act as an outlet for the existing nuclear facilities, and that the old one would be demolished. The G1 stack was 100 m in height, 10 m in diameter and constructed with 24 vertically stacked concrete rings consisting of nine prefabricated sections, each 3.6 m in height. It was capped by a metal deflector (about 6 m in height and weighing 50 t). The inside consisted of nine semicircular tubes constructed of steel sheet metal weighing 120 t. The base of the stack consisted of the foundation, a plate and a base plate which were constructed at the site. The barrel sections were prefabricated. Construction lasted from January 1956 to June 1956. At the base, the cylindrical portion of the stack widened to form three feet extending to a depth of 7.5 m. The base plate of the stack was formed onsite to the height of 16.7 m and then prestressed using cables. A repair carried out in 1964 included adding a concrete lining of the initial rings of the cylinder up to a level of 22.1 m. Additional prestressing with the base plate and repair of the horizontal and vertical prestressing of the barrel were also carried out, leaving only 22 rings and 43 visible cables. The total mass of the stack was 2170 t, including: - Concrete: cylinder 800 t, base plate 1200 t; - Steel: internal structures 120 t, deflector 50 t. The main radiological risk was the presence of traces of tritium. The radioactive inventory for the entire stack was estimated in 2000

  3. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  4. The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.

  5. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro López García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum’s Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015  [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  6. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    López García, Álvaro; Fernández del Castillo, Enol; Orviz Fernández, Pablo

    In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum's Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015) [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  7. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  8. California dreaming?[PEM stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.

    2002-06-01

    Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF PLY STACKING SEQUENCE OF COMPOSITE DRIVE SHAFT USING PARTICLE SWARM ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANNAKESHAVA K. R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to optimize ply stacking sequence of single piece E-Glass/Epoxy and Boron /Epoxy composite drive shafts using Particle swarm algorithm (PSA. PSA is a population based evolutionary stochastic optimization technique which is a resent heuristic search method, where mechanics are inspired by swarming or collaborative behavior of biological population. PSA programme is developed to optimize the ply stacking sequence with an objective of weight minimization by considering design constraints as torque transmission capacity, fundamental natural frequency, lateral vibration and torsional buckling strength having number of laminates, ply thickness and stacking sequence as design variables. The weight savings of the E-Glass/epoxy and Boron /Epoxy shaft from PAS were 51% and 85 % of the steel shaft respectively. The optimum results of PSA obtained are compared with results of genetic algorithm (GA results and found that PSA yields better results than GA.

  10. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  11. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  12. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  13. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  14. Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, James

    2014-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.

  15. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  16. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  17. Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.

  18. The impact of stack geometry and mean pressure on cold end temperature of stack in thermoacoustic refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantha, Channarong

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.

  19. Five stacks over the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Following the departure of Communism, Hungary adopted the most ambitious privatisation programme of all the eastern European countries. Within a year the state electricity company, MVM, and the oil and gas company, MOL, were prepared for sale and a consequent injection of foreign capital. Control of prices by central government inhibited investment initially but a new legal framework put in place in 1995 introduced a pricing regime more attractive to external investors. Particular interest was shown in the 2,200MW mixed heavy oil and natural gas power plant at Dunamenti on the Danube, characterised by its five stacks of varying height which reflect the changing technology employed at the plant. The bid was won by Tractabel of Belgium who have been highly successful in improving plant efficiency. However, the impact of privatisation is now being felt in uncertainty over fuel supply. Removing such uncertainty in order to maintain existing investment and provide the additional 4000MW of generating capacity needed to keep pace with demand, is a major problem which the incoming government faces. (UK)

  20. Stacking fault density as engineering criterion for resistance to radiation swelling of alloys' FCC- and BCC-lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltov, Yu.V.; Ageev, V.S.; Kolesnikov, Yu.G.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental data on influence of Mn, Cr, Ni, P, B, Ce alloying in austenitic and simultaneously Nb, V, B alloying in ferritic steels and also heat treatment on stacking fault density (SFD) are represented. In all cases besides influence of Cr in austenitic steel the increase of SFD is shown. The decrease of radiation swelling of industrial steels at the increase of their SFD, measured by X-rays, was studied. The tendency of increase of relative radiation swelling change at SFD increase at relative fluence rise is verified. It is shown that SFD may be a perspective proximate characteristics of choice of radiation-resistant steel melts within one steel quality. 14 refs.; 4 figs. (author)

  1. Prototype particulate stack sampler with single-cut nozzle and microcomputer calculating/display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eler, J.C.; Littlefield, L.G.; Tillery, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype particulate stack sampler (PPSS) has been developed to improve on the existing EPA Method 5 sampling apparatus. Its primary features are (1) higher sampling rate (56 1/min); (2) display (on demand) of all required variables and calculated values by a microcomputer-based calculating and display system; (3) continuous stack gas moisture determination; (4) a virtual impactor nozzle with 3 μm mass median diameter cutpoint which collects fine and coarse particle fractions on separate glass fiber filters; (5) a variable-area inlet to maintain isokinetic sampling conditions; and (6) conversion to stainless steel components from the glass specified by EPA Method 5. The basic sampling techniques of EPA Method 5 have been retained; however, versatility in the form of optional in-stack filters and general modernization of the stack sampler have been provided in the prototype design. Laboratory testing with monodisperse dye aerosols has shown the present variable inlet, virtual impactor nozzle to have a collection efficiency which is less than 77% and significant wall losses. This is primarily due to lack of symmetry in this rectangular jet impactor and short transition lengths dictated by physical design constraints (required passage of the nozzle through a 7.6 cm (3 in) diameter stack port). Electronic components have shown acceptable service in laboratory testing although no field testing of the prototype under a broad range of temperature, humidity, and SO 2 concentration has been undertaken

  2. Development and characterization of a novel air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell stack for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yufeng; He, Hong; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Shibo; Yuan, Zhenyu; Deng, Huichao

    2010-01-01

    An air-breathing 10-cell micro direct methanol fuel cell (µDMFC) stack with four anode feeding patterns is designed, fabricated and tested. For a better understanding of the operational characteristics of both the single cell and the stack, a two-dimensional numerical model is established and calculated. Employing micro-stamping technology, the current collectors of each single cell are microfabricated on the stainless steel plate with a thickness of 300 µm. The single µDMFC is first tested under various operating parameters. On the basis of the simulation and experimental observation of the single cell performance, the µDMFC stack performance is thoroughly analyzed with different anode feeding patterns. The results indicate that the µDMFC stack with pattern B can ensure the uniform performance of each single cell and generate the highest power output. With pattern B, further experiments are carried out to investigate the influence of the anode flow rate on the stack performance. As a result, the µDMFC stack achieves the best performance with the maximum power density of about 24.75 mW cm −2 at 5.0 ml min −1 . Finally, the stack is successfully applied to two electronic devices of different rated power

  3. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  4. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  5. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  6. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  7. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  8. Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.

  9. The stack on software and sovereignty

    CERN Document Server

    Bratton, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.

  10. Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.

  11. Exploring online evolution of network stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Network stacks today follow a one-size-fits-all philosophy. They are mostly kept unmodified due to often prohibitive costs of engineering, deploying and administrating customisation of the networking software, with the Internet stack architecture still largely being based on designs and assumptions made for the ARPANET 40 years ago. We venture that heterogeneous and rapidly changing networks of the future require, in order to be successful, run-time self-adaptation mechanisms at different tim...

  12. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures.......Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...

  13. StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Han; Xu, Tao; Li, Hongsheng; Zhang, Shaoting; Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success in various tasks, they still face challenges in generating high quality images. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGAN) aiming at generating high-resolution photo-realistic images. First, we propose a two-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v1, for text-to-image synthesis. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on given...

  14. Tailoring plasticity of austenitic stainless steels for nuclear applications: Review of mechanisms controlling plasticity of austenitic steels below 400 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meric de Bellefon, G., E-mail: mericdebelle@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Duysen, J.C. van [EDF R& D (France); University of Tennessee-Knoxville (United States); Unité Matériaux et Transformation (UMET) CNRS, Université de Lille (France)

    2016-07-15

    AISI 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels were invented in the early 1900s and are still trusted by materials and mechanical engineers in numerous sectors because of their good combination of strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance, and thanks to decades of experience and data. This article is part of an effort focusing on tailoring the plasticity of both types of steels to nuclear applications. It provides a synthetic and comprehensive review of the plasticity mechanisms in austenitic steels during tensile tests below 400 °C. In particular, formation of twins, extended stacking faults, and martensite, as well as irradiation effects and grain rotation are discussed in details. - Highlights: • This article is part of an effort to tailor the plasticity of 304L and 316L steels for nuclear applications. • It reviews mechanisms controlling plasticity of austenitic steels during tensile tests. • Formation of twins, extended stacking faults, and martensite, grain rotation, and irradiation effects are discussed.

  15. Analysis of the effect of dissimilar welding in a high pressure flare stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi Ezwan Mahmoud; Mohd Harun; Zaifol Samsu; Norasiah Kasim; Zaiton Selamat; Alahuddin, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    A flare stack is an elevated vertical stack found in a natural gas processing plant, used primarily for combusting waste gases released by pressure relief valves. The materials used for our high pressure flare tip are carbon steel (CS) type A516 Gr. 55 for its lower portion, and stainless steel (SS) 310 for its upper portion. Both were combined into a single unit by arc welding (dissimilar welding), with SS310 as a base metal. After 5 years of operations, few mechanical deformations were observed on the flare stack, along with corrosion deposit on the CS portion of the flare. Detailed analysis shows the presence of toe and shrinkage cracks, along with spheroidization of pearlite in the CS. These are caused by factors such as mismatched welding and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the metals. These factors helped exacerbate crack initiation and propagation. Based on the evidence collected, it is recommended that the CS A516 be replaced with SS310. (author)

  16. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  17. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  18. Principles for Instructional Stack Development in HyperCard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneaney, John E.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about obtaining and using HyperCard stacks that introduce users to principles of stack development. The HyperCard stacks described are available for downloading free of charge from a server at Indiana University South Bend. Specific directions are given for stack use, with advice for beginners. A…

  19. EmuStack: An OpenStack-Based DTN Network Emulation Platform (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of computing and network virtualization technology, the networking research community shows great interest in network emulation. Compared with network simulation, network emulation can provide more relevant and comprehensive details. In this paper, EmuStack, a large-scale real-time emulation platform for Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, is proposed. EmuStack aims at empowering network emulation to become as simple as network simulation. Based on OpenStack, distributed synchronous emulation modules are developed to enable EmuStack to implement synchronous and dynamic, precise, and real-time network emulation. Meanwhile, the lightweight approach of using Docker container technology and network namespaces allows EmuStack to support a (up to hundreds of nodes large-scale topology with only several physical nodes. In addition, EmuStack integrates the Linux Traffic Control (TC tools with OpenStack for managing and emulating the virtual link characteristics which include variable bandwidth, delay, loss, jitter, reordering, and duplication. Finally, experiences with our initial implementation suggest the ability to run and debug experimental network protocol in real time. EmuStack environment would bring qualitative change in network research works.

  20. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  2. Controlling DC permeability in cast steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, Aaran; Gerada, Chris; Brown, Neil; Clare, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Annealing (at multiple cooling rates) and quenching (with tempering) was performed on specimens of cast steel of varying composition. The aim was to devise a method for selecting the steel with the highest permeability, from any given range of steels, and then increasing the permeability by heat treatment. Metallographic samples were imaged using optical microscopy to show the effect of the applied heat treatments on the microstructure. Commonly cast steels can have DC permeability altered by the careful selection of a heat treatment. Increases of up to 381% were achieved by annealing using a cooling rate of 6.0 °C/min. Annealing was found to cause the carbon present in the steel to migrate from grain boundaries and from within ferrite crystals into adjacent pearlite crystals. The migration of the carbon resulted in less carbon at grain boundaries and within ferrite crystals reducing the number of pinning sites between magnetic domains. This gives rise to a higher permeability. Quenching then tempering was found to cause the formation of small ferrite crystals with the carbon content of the steel predominately held in the martensitic crystal structures. The results show that with any given range of steel compositions the highest baseline DC permeability will be found with the steel that has the highest iron content and the lowest carbon content. For the samples tested in this paper a cooling rate of 4.5 °C/min resulted in the relative permeability of the sample with the highest baseline permeability, AS4, increasing from 783 to 1479 at 0.5 T. This paper shows how heat treatments commonly applied to hypoeutectoid cast steels, to improve their mechanical performance, can be used to also enhance electromagnetic properties of these alloys. The use of cast steels allows the creation of DC components for electrical machines not possible by the widely used method of stacking of electrical grade sheet steels. - Highlights: • A range of structural steels had their

  3. Controlling DC permeability in cast steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Aaran, E-mail: aaran.sumner@nottingham.ac.uk [University of Nottingham, Nottingham University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England (United Kingdom); Gerada, Chris, E-mail: chris.gerada@nottingham.ac.uk [Electrical Machines, University of Nottingham, Tower Building, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England (United Kingdom); Brown, Neil, E-mail: neil.brown@cummins.com [Advanced Electrical Machines Research and Technology at Cummins Power Generation, Peterborough PE2 6FZ, England (United Kingdom); Clare, Adam, E-mail: adam.clare@nottingham.ac.uk [Advanced Manufacturing, University of Nottingham, University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    Annealing (at multiple cooling rates) and quenching (with tempering) was performed on specimens of cast steel of varying composition. The aim was to devise a method for selecting the steel with the highest permeability, from any given range of steels, and then increasing the permeability by heat treatment. Metallographic samples were imaged using optical microscopy to show the effect of the applied heat treatments on the microstructure. Commonly cast steels can have DC permeability altered by the careful selection of a heat treatment. Increases of up to 381% were achieved by annealing using a cooling rate of 6.0 °C/min. Annealing was found to cause the carbon present in the steel to migrate from grain boundaries and from within ferrite crystals into adjacent pearlite crystals. The migration of the carbon resulted in less carbon at grain boundaries and within ferrite crystals reducing the number of pinning sites between magnetic domains. This gives rise to a higher permeability. Quenching then tempering was found to cause the formation of small ferrite crystals with the carbon content of the steel predominately held in the martensitic crystal structures. The results show that with any given range of steel compositions the highest baseline DC permeability will be found with the steel that has the highest iron content and the lowest carbon content. For the samples tested in this paper a cooling rate of 4.5 °C/min resulted in the relative permeability of the sample with the highest baseline permeability, AS4, increasing from 783 to 1479 at 0.5 T. This paper shows how heat treatments commonly applied to hypoeutectoid cast steels, to improve their mechanical performance, can be used to also enhance electromagnetic properties of these alloys. The use of cast steels allows the creation of DC components for electrical machines not possible by the widely used method of stacking of electrical grade sheet steels. - Highlights: • A range of structural steels had their

  4. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Even in our globalized world the notion of national economies remain incredibly strong, just as a considerable part of the literature on transnational governance and globalization continue to rely on a zero-sum perspective concerning the relationship between the national and the transnational. De...... of the European steel industry....

  5. Martensitic transformation induced by irradiation and deformation in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the peculiarities of martensite γ → α , (γ → ε → α , ) transformation in the steels with a low stacking fault energy (12Cr18Ni10T, Cr15AG14) irradiated by neutrons, α-particles and electrons (pulse and stationary) and then deformed with the various strain rates in the temperature range - 20 - 1000 C are considered. It is established by the electron-microscope research that the phase γ → α ' transition in irradiated and deformed steels is observed on the definite stage of evolution of the dislocation structure (after the cell formation) and the martensite formation preferentially occurs on a stacking fault aggregation. The regularities of the irradiation by high energy particles effect on the formation parameters and martensite α , -phase accumulation kinetics ones and also their role in forming of the strength and ductile properties in steels are analysed. (A.A.D.)

  6. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  7. Development of an Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Proyag; Hammacher, Jens; Pease, Mark; Gurung, Sitanshu; Goettert, Jost

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic is a field of considerable interest. While significant research has been carried out to develop microfluidic components, very little has been done to integrate the components into a complete working system. We present a flexible modular system platform that addresses the requirements of a complete microfluidic system. A microfluidic stack system is demonstrated with the layers of the stack being modular for specific functions. The stack and accompanying infrastructure provides an attractive platform for users to transition their design concepts into a working microfluidic system quickly with very little effort. The concept is demonstrated by using the system to carry out a chemilumiscence experiment. Details regarding the fabrication, assembly and experimental methods are presented

  8. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...

  9. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  10. Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)

  11. Low-temperature creep of austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Walsh, R. P.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic deformation under constant load (creep) in austenitic stainless steels has been measured at temperatures ranging from 4 K to room temperature. Low-temperature creep data taken from past and unreported austenitic stainless steel studies are analyzed and reviewed. Creep at cryogenic temperatures of common austenitic steels, such as AISI 304, 310 316, and nitrogen-strengthened steels, such as 304HN and 3116LN, are included. Analyses suggests that logarithmic creep (creep strain dependent on the log of test time) best describe austenitic stainless steel behavior in the secondary creep stage and that the slope of creep strain versus log time is dependent on the applied stress/yield strength ratio. The role of cold work, strain-induced martensitic transformations, and stacking fault energy on low-temperature creep behavior is discussed. The engineering significance of creep on cryogenic structures is discussed in terms of the total creep strain under constant load over their operational lifetime at allowable stress levels.

  12. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  13. Stack Monitoring System At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamrul Faizad Omar; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current Stack Monitoring System at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) building. A stack monitoring system is a continuous air monitor placed at the reactor top for monitoring the presence of radioactive gaseous in the effluent air from the RTP building. The system consists of four detectors that provide the reading for background, particulate, Iodine and Noble gas. There is a plan to replace the current system due to frequent fault of the system, thus thorough understanding of the current system is required. Overview of the whole system will be explained in this paper. Some current results would be displayed and moving forward brief plan would be mentioned. (author)

  14. Seismic (SSE) evaluation for the 291Z stack at the Hanford Site -- Addition of environmental monitoring penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this 291Z stack analysis is to determine the structural effects of chipping additional holes into the stacks concrete walls. The proposed holes are for new environmental monitoring sample probes to be installed at three different elevations. The approximate elevations proposed at this time are 50 ft, 135 ft and 175 ft. There will be four holes required at each of the elevations to support two sample probes extending across the diameter of the stack. A structural sensitivity study has been completed to assess the effect of the proposed holes on the baseline seismic qualification of the stack completed by URS/John A. Blume ampersand Associates, Engineers, San Francisco, California (URS/Blume) in August, 1988. Results of the sensitivity study indicate that the stack would still have adequate structural moment capacity if the new holes were drilled cutting the vertical strength reinforcing steel, or if existing penetrations added since original construction have inadvertently cut vertical rebars. For current and future modifications, no vertical rebar should be cut. A limited number of horizontal rebar, no more than 2, may be cut at the new hole locations without significantly influencing the stack structural shear capacity. New penetrations in the 291Z stack should not be located below elevation 47 ft., 4 in. due to rebar layout and the fact that maximum seismic structural loads occur below this elevation. No vertical rebar should be cut when chipping the new penetrations in the stack concrete wall for the environmental monitoring equipment. Wind load qualification was reviewed. Seismic loads govern over wind loads for all structural load cases; therefore no additional wind analyses are required

  15. Characterization of friction stir welded joint of low nickel austenitic stainless steel and modified ferritic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Mounarik; Das, Hrishikesh; Ahn, Eun Yeong; Hong, Sung Tae; Kim, Moon-Jo; Han, Heung Nam; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar stainless steels, low nickel austenitic stainless steel and 409M ferritic stainless steel, is experimentally investigated. Process responses during FSW and the microstructures of the resultant dissimilar joints are evaluated. Material flow in the stir zone is investigated in detail by elemental mapping. Elemental mapping of the dissimilar joints clearly indicates that the material flow pattern during FSW depends on the process parameter combination. Dynamic recrystallization and recovery are also observed in the dissimilar joints. Among the two different stainless steels selected in the present study, the ferritic stainless steels shows more severe dynamic recrystallization, resulting in a very fine microstructure, probably due to the higher stacking fault energy.

  16. Determination of the stacking fault energies of face centured cubic metals and alloys by X-rays diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.F.A.; Padilha, A.F.; Imakuma, K.

    1988-03-01

    An X-rays diffraction method was applied to measure the Stacking Fault Energies (SFE) of the AISI 304, AISI 316, AISI 347 and DIN-WERKSTOFF 1.4970 Austenitic Stainless Steels. The SFE determination plays an important role in the research of the mecanichal behaviour of the Metal and Alloys, their deformation mechanisms, stability of micro-structure and electronic configuration. The method is based on the relationship between the SFE and the ratio of the Mean Square Strains to the Stacking-Fault probability. The Mean Square Strain was evaluated by Fourier Analysis of X-rays Diffaction profiles, corrected to reduce instrumental effects, followed by the application of the Warren-Averbach method to the Fourier Coefficients. The Stacking-Fault probabilities were derived from the changes of peak separations between cold-worked and annealed specimens. (author) [pt

  17. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  18. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Malá, Zdeňka; Pantůčková, Pavla; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 3-18 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  19. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  20. Scaling the CERN OpenStack cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.; Bompastor, B.; Bukowiec, S.; Castro Leon, J.; Denis, M. K.; van Eldik, J.; Fermin Lobo, M.; Fernandez Alvarez, L.; Fernandez Rodriguez, D.; Marino, A.; Moreira, B.; Noel, B.; Oulevey, T.; Takase, W.; Wiebalck, A.; Zilli, S.

    2015-12-01

    CERN has been running a production OpenStack cloud since July 2013 to support physics computing and infrastructure services for the site. In the past year, CERN Cloud Infrastructure has seen a constant increase in nodes, virtual machines, users and projects. This paper will present what has been done in order to make the CERN cloud infrastructure scale out.

  1. Stacking non-BPS D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Caceres, Elena; Goldstein, Kevin; Lowe, David A. . lowe@het.brown.edu

    2001-08-01

    We present a candidate supergravity solution for a stacked configuration of stable non-BPS D-branes in Type II string theory compactified on T 4 /Z 2 . This gives a supergravity description of nonabelian tachyon condensation on the brane woldvolume. (author)

  2. Trace interpolation by slant-stack migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, M.

    1990-01-01

    The slant-stack migration formula based on the radon transform is studied with respect to the depth steep Δz of wavefield extrapolation. It can be viewed as a generalized trace-interpolation procedure including wave extrapolation with an arbitrary step Δz. For Δz > 0 the formula yields the familiar plane-wave decomposition, while for Δz > 0 it provides a robust tool for migration transformation of spatially under sampled wavefields. Using the stationary phase method, it is shown that the slant-stack migration formula degenerates into the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral in the far-field approximation. Consequently, even a narrow slant-stack gather applied before the diffraction stack can significantly improve the representation of noisy data in the wavefield extrapolation process. The theory is applied to synthetic and field data to perform trace interpolation and dip reject filtration. The data examples presented prove that the radon interpolator works well in the dip range, including waves with mutual stepouts smaller than half the dominant period

  3. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-35 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  4. 40 CFR 61.53 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.53 Section 61.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Mercury ore processing facility. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under...

  5. 40 CFR 61.33 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.33 Section 61.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, each owner or operator...

  6. OpenStack cloud computing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook full of practical and applicable recipes that will enable you to use the full capabilities of OpenStack like never before.This book is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments with familiarity of cloud computing platforms. Knowledge of virtualization and managing linux environments is expected.

  7. Toward advising SME's on stacked funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, Kirsten; van Teeffelen, Lex; de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses new funding issues faced by SMEs. Over a period of nine months, the authors conducted a preliminary study into the problems surrounding stacked funding faced by SMEs and their financial advisers. The study includes a short literature review, the outcomes of three round table

  8. Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of

  9. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  10. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.

  11. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks

  12. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  13. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  14. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  15. Development of on-site PAFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.

  16. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  17. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  18. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  19. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  20. 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the operation of a 30 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. This prototype stack has been developed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, as a proof-of-concept for a low pressure cathode air cooled HTPEM stack. The membranes used are Celtec...

  1. Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-11-08

    The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth's climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.

  2. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt Rachel M; Lisiecki Lorraine E

    2016-01-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal componen...

  3. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  4. Extended Life PZT Stack Test Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Jones, C.

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric stacks are being sought to be used as actuators for precision positioning and deployment of mechanisms in future planetary missions. Beside the requirement for very high operation reliability, these actuators are required for operation at space environments that are considered harsh compared to normal terrestrial conditions.These environmental conditions include low and high temperatures and vacuum or high pressure. Additionally, the stacks are subjected to high stress and in some applications need to operate with a very long lifetime durability.Many of these requirements are beyond the current industry design margins for nominal terrestrial applications. In order to investigate some of the properties that will indicate the durability of such actuators and their limitations we have developed a new type of test fixture that can be easily integrated in various test chambers for simulating environmental conditions, can provide access for multiple measurements while being exposed to adjustable stress levels. We designed and built two test fixtures and these fixtures were made to be adjustable for testing stacks with different dimensions and can be easily used in small or large numbers. The properties that were measured using these fixtures include impedance, capacitance, dielectric loss factor, leakage current, displacement, breakdown voltage, and lifetime performance. The fixtures characteristics and the test capabilities are presented in this paper.

  5. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Modeling of Ni Diffusion Induced Austenite Formation in Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Molin, Sebastian; Zhang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steel interconnect plates are widely used in planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or electrolysis cell (SOEC) stacks. During stack production and operation, nickel from the Ni/YSZ fuel electrode or from the Ni contact component diffuses into the IC plate, causing transformation...... of the ferritic phase into an austenitic phase in the interface region. This is accompanied with changes in volume and in mechanical and corrosion properties of the IC plates. In this work, kinetic modeling of the inter-diffusion between Ni and FeCr based ferritic stainless steel was conducted, using the CALPHAD...

  7. Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444

  8. Prototype steel-concrete LEP dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic field needed in the LEP dipole magnets was rather low, of a fraction of tesla. This lead to the conception of a novel yoke structure consisting of stacks of 1.5 mm thick low-carbon steel laminations spaced by 4.1 mm with the spaces filled with concrete. The excitation coils were also very simple: aluminium bars insulated by polyester boxes in this prototype, by glass-epoxy in the final magnets. For details see LEP-Note 118,1978 and LEP-Note 233 1980. See also 8111529,7908528X.

  9. Hydrogen Production Performance of a 10-Cell Planar Solid-Oxide Electrolysis Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Steve Herring; J. Hartvigsen

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900 C. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (∼140 (micro)m thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1-0.6), gas flow rates (1000-4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 100 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate

  10. Influence of laser shock peening on irradiation defects in austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiaofeng; Su, Qing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chenfei; Lu, Yongfeng; Nastasi, Michael; Cui, Bai

    2017-06-01

    The laser shock peening process can generate a dislocation network, stacking faults, and deformation twins in the near surface of austenitic stainless steels by the interaction of laser-driven shock waves with metals. In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) irradiation studies suggest that these dislocations and incoherent twin boundaries can serve as effective sinks for the annihilation of irradiation defects. As a result, the irradiation resistance is improved as the density of irradiation defects in laser-peened stainless steels is much lower than that in untreated steels. After heating to 300 °C, a portion of the dislocations and stacking faults are annealed out while the deformation twins remain stable, which still provides improved irradiation resistance. These findings have important implications on the role of laser shock peening on the lifetime extension of austenitic stainless steel components in nuclear reactor environments.

  11. High Temperature Oxidation of Steel in an Oxygen-enriched Low NOX Furnace Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, D.; Grandmaison, E.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Matovic, M.D. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Barnes, K.R. [KB Technical Services, Inc (formerly) Stelco Inc, Research Manager, Stelco Inc., P.O. Box 2030, Hamilton, ON L8N 3T1 (Canada); Nelson, B.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Senior Researcher, Dofasco Inc., P.O. Box 2460, Hamilton, ON L8N 3J5 (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Steel scaling tests have been performed in a research furnace utilizing an oxygen-enriched, low NOX, burner. This work was performed in conjunction with a study of the combustion characteristics for the Canadian Gas Research Institute (CGRI) low NOX burner. The furnace (a facility of the Centre for Advanced Gas Combustion Technology (CAGCT)) was fired with the burner mounted in a sidewall configuration similar to the geometry encountered in steel reheat furnaces. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations ({approx}0.8% - {approx}4.3%) and oxygen enrichment levels (0-90%) at 1100C. Steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. Within the tests for each grade, stack oxygen concentration had the largest effect on the scaling properties while oxygen enrichment level had only a small effect.

  12. Effect of Aluminum Alloying on the Hot Deformation Behavior of Nano-bainite Bearing Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. N.; Dai, L. Q.; Chu, C. H.; Zhang, F. C.; Wang, L. W.; Xiao, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Interest in using aluminum in nano-bainite steel, especially for high-carbon bearing steel, is gradually growing. In this study, GCr15SiMo and GCr15SiMoAl steels are introduced to investigate the effect of Al alloying on the hot deformation behavior of bearing steel. Results show that the addition of Al not only notably increases the flow stress of steel due to the strong strengthening effect of Al on austenite phase, but also accelerates the strain-softening rates for its increasing effect on stacking fault energy. Al alloying also increases the activation energy of deformation. Two constitutive equations with an accuracy of higher than 0.99 are proposed. The constructed processing maps show the expanded instability regions for GCr15SiMoAl steel as compared with GCr15SiMo steel. This finding is consistent with the occurrence of cracking on the GCr15SiMoAl specimens, revealing that Al alloying reduces the high-temperature plasticity of the bearing steel. On the contrary, GCr15SiMoAl steel possesses smaller grain size than GCr15SiMo steel, manifesting the positive effect of Al on bearing steel. Attention should be focused on the hot working process of bearing steel with Al.

  13. Development of a new dual phase steel with laminated microstructural morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidi, N., E-mail: navidsae@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 4156–83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, 3619995161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Toroghinejad, M.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 4156–83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The development of dual phase steels to meet the current world demands, for the purpose of decreasing the fuel consumption with increasing the strength to weight ratio, requires certain microstructural modifications. In the present research, a new morphology of DP steel, known as Laminated–DP steel, as well as its unique production method has been introduced. The new process developed involved properly selecting low carbon steels, stacking them in a laminated manner and performing a roll bonding process followed by short austenitization treatment. The martensite volume fraction was designed and obtained to be 24%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed for microstructural examination. Moreover, deformation and tensile behavior of the newly developed steel were studied and compared with those of some ordinary DP steel (ODP). Room temperature uniaxial tensile tests also revealed mechanical properties comparable with those of the commercial DP600 steel, a kind of structural automotive steel. - Highlights: • A new method for producing dual phase steels was introduced. • Employing a new thermo-mechanical process a laminated microstructure was obtained. • Mechanical properties of the new laminated DP steel were studied. • Tensile properties of the new DP steel were comparable with those of the commercial DP600 steel.

  14. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running......The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  15. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  16. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  17. Tailoring plasticity of austenitic stainless steels for nuclear applications: Review of mechanisms controlling plasticity of austenitic steels below 400 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meric de Bellefon, G.; van Duysen, J. C.

    2016-07-01

    AISI 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels were invented in the early 1900s and are still trusted by materials and mechanical engineers in numerous sectors because of their good combination of strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance, and thanks to decades of experience and data. This article is part of an effort focusing on tailoring the plasticity of both types of steels to nuclear applications. It provides a synthetic and comprehensive review of the plasticity mechanisms in austenitic steels during tensile tests below 400 °C. In particular, formation of twins, extended stacking faults, and martensite, as well as irradiation effects and grain rotation are discussed in details.

  18. NSF tandem stack support structure deflection characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-12-01

    Results are reported of load tests carried out on the glass legs of the insulating stack of the 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator now under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The tests to investigate the vulnerability of the legs when subjected to tensile stresses were designed to; establish the angle of rotation of the pads from which the stresses in the glass legs may be calculated, proof-test the structure and at the same time reveal any asymmetry in pad rotations or deflections, and to confirm the validity of the computer design analysis. (UK)

  19. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  20. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  1. Displacive phase transformations and generalized stacking faults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav; Ostapovets, Andriy; Duparc, O. H.; Khalfallah, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 490-492 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ab-initio calculations * close-packed structures * generalized stacking faults * homogeneous deformation * lattice deformation * many-body potentials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  2. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  3. Control of heteroepitaxial stacking by substrate miscut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, S.W.; Flynn, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    We report studies of fcc epitaxial crystals, grown on Nb(110), in which the Nb surface offers a template for selection between the two alternative stackings, ABCA hor-ellipsis and ACBA hor-ellipsis of the fcc close-packed planes. The Nb templates were grown epitaxially about 500 Angstrom thick on sapphire (11 bar 20), and the fcc material studied was Cu 3 Au. From symmetry it is not possible for the perfect bcc (110) surface to cause any such selection, which is here attributed instead to vicinal miscut: the logarithm of the stacking ratio must be even in miscut along [001] and odd in miscut along [1 bar 10]. We find that the measured selectivity is small for miscuts less than about 0.5 degree, but approaches a factor 10 3 for miscuts along [1 bar 10] greater than about 1 degree. A mechanism for the selection process is discussed in terms of fingered mesostructures that grow on Nb(110) in this regime, as observed first by Zhou, Bonham, and Flynn. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  5. Measurement of lead compound in stack gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y; Hori, M; Tanikawa, N

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and particle-size distribution of lead compounds in the exhaust gas from various stationary sources are examined. The stationary sources concern lead production from battery scraps, lead smelting of cable mold, steel production from iron scraps, plastic combustion furnace, and a heavy oil boiler. A lead concentration of 0.2-100 mg/cu m in exhaust gas is detected. Furthermore, exhaust gas lead compounds are affected by the raw materials used.

  6. Description of gasket failure in a 7 cell PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husar, Attila; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Parc Tecnologic de Barcelona, Edifici U, C. Llorens i Artigas, 4-6, 2a Planta, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kunusch, Cristian [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP (Argentina)

    2007-06-10

    This article presents the data and the description of a fuel cell stack that failed due to gasket degradation. The fuel cell under study is a 7 cell stack. The unexpected change in several variables such as temperature, pressure and voltage indicated the possible failure of the stack. The stack was monitored over a 6 h period in which data was collected and consequently analyzed to conclude that the fuel cell stack failed due to a crossover leak on the anode inlet port located on the cathode side gasket of cell 2. This stack failure analysis revealed a series of indicators that could be used by a super visional controller in order to initiate a shutdown procedure. (author)

  7. Simple Stacking Methods for Silicon Micro Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmario Scotti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two simple methods, with parallel and serial gas flows, for the stacking of microfabricated silicon fuel cells with integrated current collectors, flow fields and gas diffusion layers. The gas diffusion layer is implemented using black silicon. In the two stacking methods proposed in this work, the fluidic apertures and gas flow topology are rotationally symmetric and enable us to stack fuel cells without an increase in the number of electrical or fluidic ports or interconnects. Thanks to this simplicity and the structural compactness of each cell, the obtained stacks are very thin (~1.6 mm for a two-cell stack. We have fabricated two-cell stacks with two different gas flow topologies and obtained an open-circuit voltage (OCV of 1.6 V and a power density of 63 mW·cm−2, proving the viability of the design.

  8. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  9. Stacked Heterogeneous Neural Networks for Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Leon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid model for time series forecasting is proposed. It is a stacked neural network, containing one normal multilayer perceptron with bipolar sigmoid activation functions, and the other with an exponential activation function in the output layer. As shown by the case studies, the proposed stacked hybrid neural model performs well on a variety of benchmark time series. The combination of weights of the two stack components that leads to optimal performance is also studied.

  10. Turbostratic stacked CVD graphene for high-performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-03-01

    We have fabricated turbostratic stacked graphene with high-transport properties by the repeated transfer of CVD monolayer graphene. The turbostratic stacked CVD graphene exhibited higher carrier mobility and conductivity than CVD monolayer graphene. The electron mobility for the three-layer turbostratic stacked CVD graphene surpassed 10,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is five times greater than that for CVD monolayer graphene. The results indicate that the high performance is derived from maintenance of the linear band dispersion, suppression of the carrier scattering, and parallel conduction. Therefore, turbostratic stacked CVD graphene is a superior material for high-performance devices.

  11. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  12. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  13. Durable solid oxide electrolysis cells and stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Chen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this project was to make a substantial contribution to development of a cost competitive electrolysis technology based on solid oxide cells. The strategy was to address what had been identified as the key issues in previous research projects. Accordingly five lines of work were carried out in the here reported project: 1) Cell and stack element testing and post test characterization to identify major degradation mechanisms under electrolysis operation. 2) Development of interconnects and coatings to allow stable electrolysis operation at approx850 deg. C or above. 3) Development of seals with reduced Si emission. 4) Development of durable SOEC cathodes. 5) Modeling. Good progress has been made on several of the planned activities. The outcome and most important achievements of the current project are listed for the five lines of the work. (LN)

  14. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00529764; The ATLAS collaboration; Stewart, Graeme; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  15. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Stewart, Graeme A.; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  16. Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B

    2018-04-10

    Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.

  17. Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.

  18. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  19. Methods of forging steel

    OpenAIRE

    Pečoler, Primož

    2014-01-01

    The following work presents processes of steel forming, challenges when forging steel, forming machines suitable for forging and which choice of machine is most suitable for forging. We can separate steel forming to free forging and drop forging. Free forging can be divided to hand forging and machine forging. The correct choice of furnaces is also very important. We must reach correct temperature in the furnace for raw steel to melt with less scalings. In diploma I mentioned some machine...

  20. Prospects of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannykh, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of world steel production is considered as well as the development strategy of metallurgy industry in the Russian Federation through to 2020. The main factors determining the conservation of steel as perspective material for industry are given: energy expenses on production, the well-proven recirculation technology, the capability of changing steel properties in wide range, temperature range of operation. The conclusion is made that in the immediate future steel will not lose its importance [ru

  1. Effects of combustible stacking in large compartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of fire in case of various distributions of combustible materials in a large compartment. Large compartments often represent a challenge for structural fire safety, because of lack of prescriptive rules to follow and difficulties of taking into account the effect...... of non uniform distribution of the combustible materials and fire propagation. These aspects are discussed in this paper with reference to an industrial steel building, taken as case study. Fires triggered by the burning of wooden pallets stored in the premises have been investigated with respect...

  2. Trends in steel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Dual phase steels, composite products, and microalloyed steels are making inroads in the automotive industry applications for bumpers, automotive parts, bodies, mechanical parts, suspension and steering equipment and truck bumpers. New steels are also used to support solar mirrors and cells, in corrosive environments in the oil and gas industry, fusion reactors, and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants

  3. Influence of laser shock peening on irradiation defects in austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Qiaofeng [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Su, Qing [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Wang, Fei [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Zhang, Chenfei; Lu, Yongfeng [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Nastasi, Michael [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Cui, Bai, E-mail: bcui3@unl.edu [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The laser shock peening process can generate a dislocation network, stacking faults, and deformation twins in the near surface of austenitic stainless steels by the interaction of laser-driven shock waves with metals. In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) irradiation studies suggest that these dislocations and incoherent twin boundaries can serve as effective sinks for the annihilation of irradiation defects. As a result, the irradiation resistance is improved as the density of irradiation defects in laser-peened stainless steels is much lower than that in untreated steels. After heating to 300 °C, a portion of the dislocations and stacking faults are annealed out while the deformation twins remain stable, which still provides improved irradiation resistance. These findings have important implications on the role of laser shock peening on the lifetime extension of austenitic stainless steel components in nuclear reactor environments. - Highlights: •Laser shock peening generates a dislocation network, stacking faults and deformation twins in stainless steels. •Dislocations and incoherent twin boundaries serve as effective sinks for the annihilation of irradiation defects. •Incoherent twin boundaries remain as stable and effective defect sinks at 300 °C.

  4. A dual shared stack for FSLM in Erika Enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, S.M.N.; Afshar, S.; Gai, P.; Behnam, M.; Bril, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the flexible spin-lock model (FSLM) has been introduced, unifying spin-based and suspension-based resource sharing protocols for real-time multi-core platforms. Unlike the multiprocessor stack resource policy (MSRP), FSLM doesn’t allow tasks on a core to share a single stack, however. In

  5. Long Josephson Junction Stack Coupled to a Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Groenbech-Jensen, N.

    2007-01-01

    A stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions are modeled as a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. One boundary of the stack is coupled electrically to a resonant cavity. With one fluxon in each Josephson junction, the inter-junction fluxon forces are repulsive. We look at a possible...... transition, induced by the cavity, to a bunched state....

  6. Efficient Context Switching for the Stack Cache: Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Naji, Amine

    2015-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  7. Analysis of preemption costs for the stack cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Amine; Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian

    2018-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  8. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  9. A Software Managed Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In a real-time system, the use of a scratchpad memory can mitigate the difficulties related to analyzing data caches, whose behavior is inherently hard to predict. We propose to use a scratchpad memory for stack allocated data. While statically allocating stack frames for individual functions...

  10. High-Density Stacked Ru Nanocrystals for Nonvolatile Memory Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Mao; Zhi-Gang, Zhang; Li-Yang, Pan; Jun, Xu; Pei-Yi, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Stacked ruthenium (Ru) nanocrystals (NCs) are formed by rapid thermal annealing for the whole gate stacks and embedded in memory structure, which is compatible with conventional CMOS technology. Ru NCs with high density (3 × 10 12 cm −2 ), small size (2–4 nm) and good uniformity both in aerial distribution and morphology are formed. Attributed to the higher surface trap density, a memory window of 5.2 V is obtained with stacked Ru NCs in comparison to that of 3.5 V with single-layer samples. The stacked Ru NCs device also exhibits much better retention performance because of Coulomb blockade and vertical uniformity between stacked Ru NCs

  11. Study of tapping process of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites/AA7075 stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Alessio; Mehtedi, Mohamad El; Forcellese, Archimede; Nardinocchi, Alessia; Simoncini, Michela

    2018-05-01

    The present investigation aims at studying the tapping process of a three-layer stack constituted by two CFRP layers and a core plate in AA7075 aluminum alloy. The CFRP laminates were obtained by a pre-impregnated woven sample made up of T700 carbon fibers and a thermoset epoxy matrix. Tapping experiments were performed on a 5-axis machining center instrumented with a dynamometer to measure thrust force generated during process. A high-speed steel tool, coated with nanocomposite TiAlN, was used. According to the tool manufacturer recommendations, rotational speed and feed rate were 800 rpm and 1000 mm/min, respectively. Similar thrust force time history responses were obtained by tapping different holes, even though the vertical force increases with number of threaded holes. Furthermore, a quantitative evaluation of delamination at the periphery of entry holes was carried out. The delamination at the entry hole strongly increases with number of threaded holes.

  12. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  13. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  14. Reflector imaging by diffraction stacking with stacking velocity analysis; Jugo sokudo kaiseki wo tomonau sanran jugoho ni yoru hanshamen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J; Rokugawa, S; Kato, Y [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning seismic reflection survey for geometrical arrangement between pits, the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis is compared with the CDP (common depth point horizontal stacking method). The advantages of the CDP supposedly include the following. Since it presumes an average velocity field, it can determine velocities having stacking effects. The method presumes stratification and, since such enables the division of huge quantities of observed data into smaller groups, more data can be calculated in a shorter time period. The method has disadvantages, attributable to its presuming an average velocity field, that accuracy in processing is lower when the velocity field contrast is higher, that accuracy in processing is low unless stratification is employed, and that velocities obtained from stacking velocity analysis are affected by dipped structures. Such shortcomings may be remedied in the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis. Possibilities are that, as far as the horizontal reflection plane is concerned, it may yield stack records higher in S/N ratio than the CDP. Findings relative to dipped reflection planes will be introduced at the presentation. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Development of a 1 kW Class SOFC Stack using Doped Lanthanum Gallate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akikusa, J.; Adachi, K.; Yamada, T.; Akbay, T.; Murakami, N.; Chitose, N.; Hoshino, K.; Hosoi, K.; Yoshida, H.; Sasaki, T.; Inagaki, T.; Ishihara, T.; Takita, Y.

    2002-06-01

    The performance of lanthanum gallate based SOFC has been investigated as a high-energy conversion device. A planar type SOFC which could operate at temperatures below 800 {sup o}C has been jointly developed. As an electrolyte material, lanthanum gallate (LaGaO{sub 3}) with substitutions of Sr for the La site and Mg and Co for the Ga site (LSGMC) was used. The synthesis technique for large-sized cell production has been established, and the performance of a self- supported diameter 154 mm cell with 200 {mu}m electrolyte thickness is investigated. The output power of 50 W has been obtained with a conversion efficiency [LHV] of 45 % for a single cell. In addition, a metallic separator made of stainless steel was chosen and tested successfully for a seal-less stack. The output power of 1 kW by means of the stack of 18 cells has been achieved for the first time utilizing lanthanum gallate. Moreover, NiO-SDC composite powders were prepared by the spray pyrolysis method and used for the anode on 100 {mu}m thickness LSGMC electrolyte with a combination of samarium cobaltite for the cathode. The power density of as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V terminal voltage was achieved at 800{sup o}C. (author)

  16. Stacking metal nano-patterns and fabrication of moth-eye structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) can be used as a tool for three-dimensional nanoscale fabrication. In particular, complex metal pattern structures in polymer material are demanded as plasmonic effect devices and metamaterials. To fabricate of metallic color filter, we used silver ink and NIL techniques. Metallic color filter was composed of stacking of nanoscale silver disc patterns and polymer layers, thus, controlling of polymer layer thickness is necessary. To control of thickness of polymer layer, we used spin-coating of UV-curable polymer and NIL. As a result, ten stacking layers with 1000 nm layer thickness was obtained and red color was observed. Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) is the most effective technique for mass fabrication of antireflection structure (ARS) films. For the use of ARS films in mobile phones and tablet PCs, which are touch-screen devices, it is important to protect the films from fingerprints and dust. In addition, as the nanoscale ARS that is touched by the hand is fragile, it is very important to obtain a high abrasion resistance. To solve these problems, a UV-curable epoxy resin has been developed that exhibits antifouling properties and high hardness. The high abrasion resistance ARS films are shown to withstand a load of 250 g/cm2 in the steel wool scratch test, and the reflectance is less than 0.4%.

  17. Deformation induced martensite in an AISI 301LN stainless steel: characterization and influence on pitting corrosion resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu,Hamilton Ferreira Gomes de; Carvalho,Sheyla Santana de; Lima Neto,Pedro de; Santos,Ricardo Pires dos; Freire,Válder Nogueira; Silva,Paulo Maria de Oliveira; Tavares,Sérgio Souto Maior

    2007-01-01

    In austenitic stainless steels, plastic deformation can induce martensite formation. The induced martensite is related to the austenite (gamma) instability at temperatures close or below room temperature. The metastability of austenite stainless steels increases with the decreasing of stacking fault energy (SFE). In this work, the deformation induced martensite was analyzed by X ray diffraction, electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), magnetic methods and atomic force microscope (AFM) in sa...

  18. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  19. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  20. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment explores new hardware and software platforms that, in the future, may be more suited to its data intensive workloads. One such alternative hardware platform is the ARM architecture, which is designed to be extremely power efficient and is found in most smartphones and tablets. CERN openlab recently installed a small cluster of ARM 64-bit evaluation prototype servers. Each server is based on a single-socket ARM 64-bit system on a chip, with 32 Cortex-A57 cores. In total, each server has 128 GB RAM connected with four fast memory channels. This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto these new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the "external" packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adj...

  1. Testing system for a fuel cells stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Stefanescu, Ioan; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen and electricity together represent one of the most promising ways to realize sustainable energy, whilst fuel cells provide the most efficient conversion devices for converting hydrogen and possibly other fuels into electricity. Thus, the development of fuel cell technology is currently being actively pursued worldwide. Due to its simple operation and other fair characteristics, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is especially suitable as a replacement for the internal combustion engine. The PEMFC is also being developed for decentralized electricity and heat generation in buildings and mobile applications. Starting with 2001 the Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT - Rm. Valcea developed research activities supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research within the National Research Program in order to bridge the gap to European competencies in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells. The paper deals with the testing system designed and developed in ICIT Rm. Valcea as a flexible and versatile tool allowing a large scale of parameter settings and measurements on a single cell or on a fuel cells stack onto a wind range of output power values. (authors)

  2. Weyl magnons in noncoplanar stacked kagome antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    Weyl nodes have been experimentally realized in photonic, electronic, and phononic crystals. However, magnonic Weyl nodes are yet to be seen experimentally. In this paper, we propose Weyl magnon nodes in noncoplanar stacked frustrated kagome antiferromagnets, naturally available in various real materials. Most crucially, the Weyl nodes in the current system occur at the lowest excitation and possess a topological thermal Hall effect, therefore they are experimentally accessible at low temperatures due to the population effect of bosonic quasiparticles. In stark contrast to other magnetic systems, the current Weyl nodes do not rely on time-reversal symmetry breaking by the magnetic order. Rather, they result from explicit macroscopically broken time reversal symmetry by the scalar spin chirality of noncoplanar spin textures and can be generalized to chiral spin liquid states. Moreover, the scalar spin chirality gives a real space Berry curvature which is not available in previously studied magnetic Weyl systems. We show the existence of magnon arc surface states connecting projected Weyl magnon nodes on the surface Brillouin zone. We also uncover the first realization of triply-degenerate nodal magnon point in the noncollinear regime with zero scalar spin chirality.

  3. Lithiation-induced shuffling of atomic stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2014-09-10

    In rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, understanding the atomic-scale mechanism of Li-induced structural evolution occurring at the host electrode materials provides essential knowledge for design of new high performance electrodes. Here, we report a new crystalline-crystalline phase transition mechanism in single-crystal Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires upon lithiation. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observed that stacks of atomic planes in an intermediate hexagonal (h-)LiZnSb phase are "shuffled" to accommodate the geometrical confinement stress arising from lamellar nanodomains intercalated by lithium ions. Such atomic rearrangement arises from the anisotropic lithium diffusion and is accompanied by appearance of partial dislocations. This transient structure mediates further phase transition from h-LiZnSb to cubic (c-)Li2ZnSb, which is associated with a nearly "zero-strain" coherent interface viewed along the [001]h/[111]c directions. This study provides new mechanistic insights into complex electrochemically driven crystalline-crystalline phase transitions in lithium-ion battery electrodes and represents a noble example of atomic-level structural and interfacial rearrangements.

  4. Captioning Transformer with Stacked Attention Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Image captioning is a challenging task. Meanwhile, it is important for the machine to understand the meaning of an image better. In recent years, the image captioning usually use the long-short-term-memory (LSTM as the decoder to generate the sentence, and these models show excellent performance. Although the LSTM can memorize dependencies, the LSTM structure has complicated and inherently sequential across time problems. To address these issues, recent works have shown benefits of the Transformer for machine translation. Inspired by their success, we develop a Captioning Transformer (CT model with stacked attention modules. We attempt to introduce the Transformer to the image captioning task. The CT model contains only attention modules without the dependencies of the time. It not only can memorize dependencies between the sequence but also can be trained in parallel. Moreover, we propose the multi-level supervision to make the Transformer achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on the challenging MSCOCO dataset and the proposed Captioning Transformer achieves competitive performance compared with some state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Efficiency of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Bosma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a feedforward control of optimal oxygen excess ratio that maximize net power (improve efficiency of a NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack (FCS system. Net powers profile as a function of oxygen excess ratio for some points of operation are analyzed by using FCS model. The relationships between stack current and the corresponding control input voltage that gives an optimal oxygen excess ratio are used to design a feedforward control scheme. The results of this scheme are compared to the results of a feedforward control using a constant oxygen excess ratio. Simulation results show that optimal oxygen excess ratio improves fuel cell performance compared to the results of constant oxygen excess ratio. The same procedures are performed experimentally for the FCS system. The behaviour of the net power of the fuel cell stack with respect to the variation of oxygen excess ratio is analyzed to obtain optimal values. Data of stack current and the corresponding voltage input to the compressor that gives optimal values of oxygen excess ratio are used to develop a feedforward control. Feedforward control based on constant and optimal oxygen excess ratio control, are implemented in the NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack system by using LabVIEW. Implementation results shows that optimal oxygen excess ratio control improves the fuel cell performance compared to the constant oxygen excess ratio control.

  6. Reliability analysis and initial requirements for FC systems and stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, K.; Fontell, E.; Virtanen, S.

    In the year 2000 Wärtsilä Corporation started an R&D program to develop SOFC systems for CHP applications. The program aims to bring to the market highly efficient, clean and cost competitive fuel cell systems with rated power output in the range of 50-250 kW for distributed generation and marine applications. In the program Wärtsilä focuses on system integration and development. System reliability and availability are key issues determining the competitiveness of the SOFC technology. In Wärtsilä, methods have been implemented for analysing the system in respect to reliability and safety as well as for defining reliability requirements for system components. A fault tree representation is used as the basis for reliability prediction analysis. A dynamic simulation technique has been developed to allow for non-static properties in the fault tree logic modelling. Special emphasis has been placed on reliability analysis of the fuel cell stacks in the system. A method for assessing reliability and critical failure predictability requirements for fuel cell stacks in a system consisting of several stacks has been developed. The method is based on a qualitative model of the stack configuration where each stack can be in a functional, partially failed or critically failed state, each of the states having different failure rates and effects on the system behaviour. The main purpose of the method is to understand the effect of stack reliability, critical failure predictability and operating strategy on the system reliability and availability. An example configuration, consisting of 5 × 5 stacks (series of 5 sets of 5 parallel stacks) is analysed in respect to stack reliability requirements as a function of predictability of critical failures and Weibull shape factor of failure rate distributions.

  7. Mixed Mechanism of Lubrication by Lipid Bilayer Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boţan, Alexandru; Joly, Laurent; Fillot, Nicolas; Loison, Claire

    2015-11-10

    Although the key role of lipid bilayer stacks in biological lubrication is generally accepted, the mechanisms underlying their extreme efficiency remain elusive. In this article, we report molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayer stacks undergoing load and shear. When the hydration level is reduced, the velocity accommodation mechanism changes from viscous shear in hydration water to interlayer sliding in the bilayers. This enables stacks of hydrated lipid bilayers to act as efficient boundary lubricants for various hydration conditions, structures, and mechanical loads. We also propose an estimation for the friction coefficient; thanks to the strong hydration forces between lipid bilayers, the high local viscosity is not in contradiction with low friction coefficients.

  8. Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo

    2014-04-29

    Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

  9. Study and Development of an OpenStack solution

    OpenAIRE

    Jorba Brosa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Estudi i desenvolupament d'una solució de virtualització amb Openstack. Es farà un especial èmfasi en la part de seguretat. Deployment of a solution based in OpenStack for the creation of an Infrastructure service cloud. Implementación de una solución basada en OpenStack para la creación de una infrastructura de servicios cloud. Implementació d'una solució basada en OpenStack per la creació d'una infrastructura de serveis cloud.

  10. Loop Entropy Assists Tertiary Order: Loopy Stabilization of Stacking Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Aalberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The free energy of an RNA fold is a combination of favorable base pairing and stacking interactions competing with entropic costs of forming loops. Here we show how loop entropy, surprisingly, can promote tertiary order. A general formula for the free energy of forming multibranch and other RNA loops is derived with a polymer-physics based theory. We also derive a formula for the free energy of coaxial stacking in the context of a loop. Simulations support the analytic formulas. The effects of stacking of unpaired bases are also studied with simulations.

  11. Consolidity: Stack-based systems change pathway theory elaborated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elaborated analysis for investigating the stack-based layering processes during the systems change pathway. The system change pathway is defined as the path resulting from the combinations of all successive changes induced on the system when subjected to varying environments, activities, events, or any excessive internal or external influences and happenings “on and above” its normal stands, situations or set-points during its course of life. The analysis is essentially based on the important overall system paradigm of “Time driven-event driven-parameters change”. Based on this paradigm, it is considered that any affected activity, event or varying environment is intelligently self-recorded inside the system through an incremental consolidity-scaled change in system parameters of the stack-based layering types. Various joint stack-based mathematical and graphical approaches supported by representable case studies are suggested for the identification, extraction, and processing of various stack-based systems changes layering of different classifications and categorizations. Moreover, some selected real life illustrative applications are provided to demonstrate the (infinite stack-based identification and recognition of the change pathway process in the areas of geology, archeology, life sciences, ecology, environmental science, engineering, materials, medicine, biology, sociology, humanities, and other important fields. These case studies and selected applications revealed that there are general similarities of the stack-based layering structures and formations among all the various research fields. Such general similarities clearly demonstrate the global concept of the “fractals-general stacking behavior” of real life systems during their change pathways. Therefore, it is recommended that concentrated efforts should be expedited toward building generic modular stack-based systems or blocks for the mathematical

  12. Static analysis of worst-case stack cache behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a stack cache in a real-time system can aid predictability by avoiding interference that heap memory traffic causes on the data cache. While loads and stores are guaranteed cache hits, explicit operations are responsible for managing the stack cache. The behavior of these operations can......-graph, the worst-case bounds can be efficiently yet precisely determined. Our evaluation using the MiBench benchmark suite shows that only 37% and 21% of potential stack cache operations actually store to and load from memory, respectively. Analysis times are modest, on average running between 0.46s and 1.30s per...

  13. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  14. Fuel flow distribution in SOFC stacks revealed by impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation. An oper......As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation...... utilizations. The fuel flow distribution provides important information about the operating limits of the stack when high electrical efficiency is required....

  15. Stacking by electroinjection with discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Zak K

    2002-08-01

    The work presented here demonstrates that electroinjection can be performed using discontinuous buffers, which can result in better stacking than that obtained by hydrodynamic injection. The sample can be concentrated at the tip of the capillary leaving practically the whole capillary for sample separation. This results in several advantages, such as better sample concentration, higher plate number and shorter time of stacking. However, sample introduction by electromigration is suited for samples free or low in salt content. Samples, which are high in salt content, are better introduced by the hydrodynamic injection for stacking by the discontinuous buffers. Different simple methods to introduce the discontinuity in the buffer for electroinjection are discussed.

  16. Production and Reliability Oriented SOFC Cell and Stack Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauth, Martin; Lawlor, Vincent; Cartellieri, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an innovative development methodology for a production and reliability oriented SOFC cell and stack design aiming at improving the stacks robustness, manufacturability, efficiency and cost. Multi-physics models allowed a probabilistic approach to consider statistical variations...... in production, material and operating parameters for the optimization phase. A methodology for 3D description of spatial distribution of material properties based on a random field models was developed and validated by experiments. Homogenized material models on multiple levels of the SOFC stack were...... and output parameters and to perform a sensitivity analysis were developed and implemented. The capabilities of the methodology is illustrated on two practical cases....

  17. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting...... allowing for overcritical current densities to be considered. The method presented here allowed for a computational speedup factor of up to 2 orders of magnitude when compared to full 2-D simulations taking into account the actual structure of the stacks without compromising accuracy....

  18. Optimized stacked RADFETs for milli-rad dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, B.; Lane, B.; Mohammadzadeh, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper details the improvements in the design of stacked RADFETs for increased radiation sensitivity. The issues of high read-out voltage has been shown to be a draw-back. It is the body (bulk)effect factor that is responsible for the increased overall stack Threshold voltage (V T ), which is greater than the sum of the individual devices V T . From extensive process and device simulation and resultant circuit simulation, modified stack structures have been proposed and designed. New and exciting result of lower initial (pre-irradiation) output voltage as well as increased radiation sensitivity will be presented. (author)

  19. Ablation of film stacks in solar cell fabrication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-04-02

    A dielectric film stack of a solar cell is ablated using a laser. The dielectric film stack includes a layer that is absorptive in a wavelength of operation of the laser source. The laser source, which fires laser pulses at a pulse repetition rate, is configured to ablate the film stack to expose an underlying layer of material. The laser source may be configured to fire a burst of two laser pulses or a single temporally asymmetric laser pulse within a single pulse repetition to achieve complete ablation in a single step.

  20. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A.; Audiffred, M.; Heine, T.; Niehaus, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  1. Fast principal component analysis for stacking seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bai, Min

    2018-04-01

    Stacking seismic data plays an indispensable role in many steps of the seismic data processing and imaging workflow. Optimal stacking of seismic data can help mitigate seismic noise and enhance the principal components to a great extent. Traditional average-based seismic stacking methods cannot obtain optimal performance when the ambient noise is extremely strong. We propose a principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for stacking seismic data without being sensitive to noise level. Considering the computational bottleneck of the classic PCA algorithm in processing massive seismic data, we propose an efficient PCA algorithm to make the proposed method readily applicable for industrial applications. Two numerically designed examples and one real seismic data are used to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  2. Sample Stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis : Principles, advantages and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.L.; Bocek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The principles of stacking procedures are described and their properties are discussed, including the fundamentals of the behavior of zone boundaries and the consequences of the self-correcting properties of boundaries in moving boundary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis.

  3. DBaaS with OpenStack Trove

    CERN Document Server

    Giardini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the Trove component for OpenStack, understand if it can be used with the CERN infrastructure and report the benefits and disadvantages of this software. Currently, databases for CERN projects are provided by a DbaaS software developed inside the IT-DB group. This solution works well with the actual infrastructure but it is not easy to maintain. With the migration of the CERN infrastructure to OpenStack the Database group started to evaluate the Trove component. Instead of mantaining an own DbaaS service it can be interesting to migrate everything to OpenStack and replace the actual DbaaS software with Trove. This way both virtual machines and databases will be managed by OpenStack itself.

  4. Simulation of magnetization and levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anischenko, I. V.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Mineev, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work it is presented a computational model of a magnetic levitation system based on stacks of high-temperature second generation superconducting tapes (HTS) GdBa2Cu3O7-x. Calculated magnetic field and the current distributions in the system for different stacks geometries in the zero-field cooling mode are also presented. The magnetization curves of the stacks in the external field of a permanent NdFeB magnet and the levitation force dependence on the gap between the magnet and the HTS tapes stack were obtained. A model of the magnetic system, oriented to levitation application, is given. Results of modeling were compared with the experimental data.

  5. Sport stacking activities in school children's motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.

  6. Stacking faults and microstructural parameters in non-mulberry silk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rameters like crystal size (〈N〉), lattice strain (g) and stacking faults in polymer materials ... metal oxide compounds, but may be inadequate for describing diffraction patterns .... Further, with these model parameters for individual Bragg reflec-.

  7. Steel: Price and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Steel prices remain at historically elevated levels. The rapid growth of steel production and demand in China is widely considered as a major cause of the increases in both steel prices and the prices of steelmaking inputs...

  8. Heuristic Solution Approaches to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    This paper introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks and presents a three different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks is concerned with finding the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries in ...... are developed for the problem and used with each of the heuristics. Finally some computational results are given along with lower bounds on the objective value....

  9. Heuristic Solution Approaches to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks and presents a three different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks is concerned with finding the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries in ...... are developed for the problem and used with each of the heuristics. Finally some computational results are given along with lower bounds on the objective value....

  10. Modeling of a Stacked Power Module for Parasitic Inductance Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    ARL-TR-8138 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Modeling of a Stacked Power Module for Parasitic Inductance Extraction by...not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8138 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Modeling of a Stacked Power Module for... Power Module for Parasitic Inductance Extraction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven Kaplan

  11. Field-induced stacking transition of biofunctionalized trilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masato Nakano, C. [Flintridge Preparatory School, La Canada, California 91011 (United States); Sajib, Md Symon Jahan; Samieegohar, Mohammadreza; Wei, Tao [Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Trilayer graphene (TLG) is attracting a lot of attention as their stacking structures (i.e., rhombohedral vs. Bernal) drastically affect electronic and optical properties. Based on full-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we here predict electric field-induced rhombohedral-to-Bernal transition of TLG tethered with proteins. Furthermore, our simulations show that protein's electrophoretic mobility and diffusivity are enhanced on TLG surface. This phenomenon of controllable TLG stacking transition will contribute to various applications including biosensing.

  12. Reexamination of the ISABELLE box car stacking scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Box car stacking of ISABELLE after acceleration of the fundamental frequency in the AGS is reviewed with the present ISABELLE parameters and examined with regard to longitudinal impedence requirements. The scheme results in an impedance tolerance of Z/n less than or equal to 30 Ω compared to Z/n less than or equal to 5 Ω obtained for rf stacking. However, to meet the claimed luminosity, the AGS performance demands are increased above those assumed in the ISABELLE proposal

  13. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Center Stack Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Avasarala, S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Dudek, L.; Fan, H.; Hatcher, H.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Titus, P.; Woolley, R.; Zhan, H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the NSTX Center Stack Upgrade project is to expand the NSTX operational space and thereby the physics basis for next-step ST facilities. The plasma aspect ratio (ratio of plasma major to minor radius) of the upgrade is increased to 1.5 from the original value of 1.26, which increases the cross sectional area of the center stack by a factor of ∼ 3 and makes possible higher levels of performance and pulse duration.

  14. LOFT diesel generator ''A'' exhaust stack seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    A stress analysis of the LOFT Diesel Generator ''A'' Exhaust Stack was performed to determine its reaction to Safe-Shutdown Earthquake loads. The exhaust stack silencer and supporting foundation was found to be inadequate for the postulated seismic accelerations. Lateral support is required to prevent overturning of the silencer pedestal and reinforcement of the 4'' x 0.5'' silencer base straps is necessary. Basic requirements for this additional support are discussed

  15. Measurements of proton energy spectra using a radiochromic film stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ellison, D. M.; Steidle, Jeffrey; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Fiksel, G.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The energy spectrum of protons accelerated from the rear-side of a thin foil illuminated with ultra-intense laser light from the OMEGA EP laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was measured using a stack of radiochromic film (RCF). The film stack consisted of four layers of Gafchromic HD-V2 film and four layers of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 film. Aluminum foils of various thicknesses were placed between each piece of RCF in the stack. This arrangement allowed protons with energies of 30 MeV to reach the back layer of RCF in the stack. The stack was placed in the detector plane of a Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) spectrometer. Each piece of film in the stack was scanned using a commercially available flat-bed scanner (Epson 10000XL). The resulting optical density was converted into proton fluence using an absolute calibration of the RCF obtained at the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator laboratory. In these calibration measurements, the sensitivity of the radiochromic film was measured using monoenergetic protons produced by the accelerator. Details of the analysis procedure and the resulting proton energy spectra will be presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  16. New approach for dynamic flow management within the PEMFC stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Mihai; Culcer, Mihai; Carcadea, Elena; Stefanescu, Ioan; Iliescu, Mariana; Enache, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    An adequate gas and water flow management is a key issue to reach and maintain a higher output power for a PEM fuel cell stack. One of the main aspects which could limit the performance of a PEM fuel cell stack is the weak capability for a non-uniform water distribution management within the fuel cell. The produced water could become a handicap to attain the best working performance by blocking the catalytic surfaces and by preventing the mass transport process. Usually, the excess water is removed in one cell, comparatively to others from the stack and taking into account that all the cells are supplied in parallel from a common air admission pipe, a limitation of gas flow rate within that cell is created. Consequently, this constraint will reduce further the water removal speed. This feedback process will generate finally a drastic decrease of the fuel cell stack performance. A new practical solution to this water and gas non-uniformity of distributions problem is to use a sequential purge procedure of several fuel cell groups inside the stack which could guarantee a right management of water. An experimental setup has been built based on four fuel cell stack. Every fuel cell was connected to a single removal pipe via a solenoid valve. A computer-controlled hardware and software system has been designed and built, in order to generate a given opening-closing sequence for the automatic valve system. (authors)

  17. Iridium Interfacial Stack - IrIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David

    2012-01-01

    Iridium Interfacial Stack (IrIS) is the sputter deposition of high-purity tantalum silicide (TaSi2-400 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm)/iridium (Ir-200 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm) in an ultra-high vacuum system followed by a 600 C anneal in nitrogen for 30 minutes. IrIS simultaneously acts as both a bond metal and a diffusion barrier. This bondable metallization that also acts as a diffusion barrier can prevent oxygen from air and gold from the wire-bond from infiltrating silicon carbide (SiC) monolithically integrated circuits (ICs) operating above 500 C in air for over 1,000 hours. This TaSi2/Pt/Ir/Pt metallization is easily bonded for electrical connection to off-chip circuitry and does not require extra anneals or masking steps. There are two ways that IrIS can be used in SiC ICs for applications above 500 C: it can be put directly on a SiC ohmic contact metal, such as Ti, or be used as a bond metal residing on top of an interconnect metal. For simplicity, only the use as a bond metal is discussed. The layer thickness ratio of TaSi2 to the first Pt layer deposited thereon should be 2:1. This will allow Si from the TaSi2 to react with the Pt to form Pt2Si during the 600 C anneal carried out after all layers have been deposited. The Ir layer does not readily form a silicide at 600 C, and thereby prevents the Si from migrating into the top-most Pt layer during future anneals and high-temperature IC operation. The second (i.e., top-most) deposited Pt layer needs to be about 200 nm to enable easy wire bonding. The thickness of 200 nm for Ir was chosen for initial experiments; further optimization of the Ir layer thickness may be possible via further experimentation. Ir itself is not easily wire-bonded because of its hardness and much higher melting point than Pt. Below the iridium layer, the TaSi2 and Pt react and form desired Pt2Si during the post-deposition anneal while above the iridium layer remains pure Pt as desired to facilitate easy and strong wire-bonding to the Si

  18. Modeling of Ni Diffusion Induced Austenite Formation in Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Alimadadi, Hossein; Molin, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steel interconnect plates are widely used in planar solid oxide fuel cell and electrolysis cell stacks. During stack production and operation, nickel from the Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia fuel electrode or from the Ni contact component layer diffuses into the interconnect plate......, causing transformation of the ferritic phase into an austenitic phase in the interface region. This is accompanied with changes in volume, and in mechanical and corrosion properties of the interconnect plates. In this work, kinetic modeling of the inter-diffusion between Ni and FeCr based ferritic...

  19. The reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Przyborska, M.; Wasiak, J.; Wieczorkowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper the fundamental steels using in the construction of pressure vessel water reactor are discussed. The properties of these steels as well as the influence of neutron irradiation on its degradation in the time of exploitation are also done. (authors)

  20. Steel Industry Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  1. Thermal stress analysis of a planar SOFC stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Tsung-Ting; Chyou, Yau-Pin; Chiang, Lieh-Kwang

    The aim of this study is, by using finite element analysis (FEA), to characterize the thermal stress distribution in a planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack during various stages. The temperature profiles generated by an integrated thermo-electrochemical model were applied to calculate the thermal stress distributions in a multiple-cell SOFC stack by using a three-dimensional (3D) FEA model. The constructed 3D FEA model consists of the complete components used in a practical SOFC stack, including positive electrode-electrolyte-negative electrode (PEN) assembly, interconnect, nickel mesh, and gas-tight glass-ceramic seals. Incorporation of the glass-ceramic sealant, which was never considered in previous studies, into the 3D FEA model would produce more realistic results in thermal stress analysis and enhance the reliability of predicting potential failure locations in an SOFC stack. The effects of stack support condition, viscous behavior of the glass-ceramic sealant, temperature gradient, and thermal expansion mismatch between components were characterized. Modeling results indicated that a change in the support condition at the bottom frame of the SOFC stack would not cause significant changes in thermal stress distribution. Thermal stress distribution did not differ significantly in each unit cell of the multiple-cell stack due to a comparable in-plane temperature profile. By considering the viscous characteristics of the glass-ceramic sealant at temperatures above the glass-transition temperature, relaxation of thermal stresses in the PEN was predicted. The thermal expansion behavior of the metallic interconnect/frame had a greater influence on the thermal stress distribution in the PEN than did that of the glass-ceramic sealant due to the domination of interconnect/frame in the volume of a planar SOFC assembly.

  2. Precipitation Effect on Mechanical Properties and Phase Stability of High Manganese Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Cheoljun; Kim, Rosa; Lee, Un-Hae; Kim, Jongryoul

    2017-09-01

    High manganese (Mn) steels are attractive for automotive applications due to their excellent tensile strength and superior elongation. However, the relatively low yield strength of Mn steels compared to other advanced high-strength steels is a critical problem limiting their use in structural parts. In order to increase the yield strength, the precipitation hardening effect of Mn steels was investigated by the addition of carbide-forming elements. Changes in the austenite phase stability were also evaluated in terms of stacking fault energy (SFE). As a result, fine V(C,N) precipitates were found to increase the yield strength effectively but to lower the SFE by the consumption of matrix carbons. For achieving precipitation hardening without sacrificing austenite stability, the soluble carbon content was discussed.

  3. Maturing of SOFC cell and stack production technology and preparation for demonstration of SOFC stacks. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-07-01

    The TOFC/Riso pilot plant production facility for the manufacture of anode-supported cells has been further up-scaled with an automated continuous spraying process and an extra sintering capacity resulting in production capacity exceeding 15,000 standard cells (12x12 cm2) in 2006 with a success rate of about 85% in the cell production. All processing steps such as tape-casting, spraying, screen-printing and atmospheric air sintering in the cell production have been selected on condition that up-scaling and cost effective, flexible, industrial mass production are feasible. The standard cell size is currently being increased to 18x18 cm2, and 150 cells of this size have been produced in 2006 for our further stack development. To improve quality and lower production cost, a new screen printing line is under establishment. TOFC's stack design is an ultra compact multilayer assembly of cells (including contact layers), metallic interconnects, spacer frames and glass seals. The compactness ensures minimized material consumption and low cost. Standard stacks with cross flow configuration contains 75 cells (12x12cm2) delivering about 1.2 kW at optimal operation conditions with pre-reformed NG as fuel. Stable performance has been demonstrated for 500-1000 hours. Significantly improved materials, especially concerning the metallic interconnect and the coatings have been introduced during the last year. Small stacks (5-10 cells) exhibit no detectable stack degradation using our latest cells and stack materials during test periods of 500-1000 hours. Larger stacks (50-75 cells) suffer from mal-distribution of gas and air inside the stacks, gas leakage, gas cross-over, pressure drop, and a certain loss of internal electrical contact during operation cycles. Measures have been taken to find solutions during the following development work. The stack production facilities have been improved and up-scaled. In 2006, 5 standard stacks have been assembled and burned in based on

  4. Validation of a HT-PEMFC stack for CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasupathi, S.; Ulleberg, Oe. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Bujlo, P. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Electrotechnical Institute Wroclaw Division (Poland); Scholta, J. [Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cell systems are very attractive for stationary co-generation applications as they can produce heat and electricity efficiently in a decentralized and environmentally friendly manner. PEMFC stacks operating at temperatures above 120 C, specifically in the range of 140-180 C, are ideal for co-generation purposes. In this study, preliminary results from a HTPEMFC stack designed for CHP applications is presented and discussed. A short, five-cell, HT-PEMFC stack was assembled with Celtec- P-2100 MEAs and validated in terms of electrical performance. The stack was operated with hydrogen and air at 160 C and the utilization curves for anode and cathode were recorded for a wide range of gas utilization at a current density of 0.52 A/cm{sup 2}. The current voltage characteristic was measured at optimal utilization values at 160 C. A 1kW stack is assembled and is currently being validated for its performance under various operating conditions for use in CHP applications. (orig.)

  5. Optimization of hole generation in Ti/CFRP stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Y. N.; Pashkov, A. E.; Chashhin, N. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article aims to describe methods for improving the surface quality and hole accuracy in Ti/CFRP stacks by optimizing cutting methods and drill geometry. The research is based on the fundamentals of machine building, theory of probability, mathematical statistics, and experiment planning and manufacturing process optimization theories. Statistical processing of experiment data was carried out by means of Statistica 6 and Microsoft Excel 2010. Surface geometry in Ti stacks was analyzed using a Taylor Hobson Form Talysurf i200 Series Profilometer, and in CFRP stacks - using a Bruker ContourGT-Kl Optical Microscope. Hole shapes and sizes were analyzed using a Carl Zeiss CONTURA G2 Measuring machine, temperatures in cutting zones were recorded with a FLIR SC7000 Series Infrared Camera. Models of multivariate analysis of variance were developed. They show effects of drilling modes on surface quality and accuracy of holes in Ti/CFRP stacks. The task of multicriteria drilling process optimization was solved. Optimal cutting technologies which improve performance were developed. Methods for assessing thermal tool and material expansion effects on the accuracy of holes in Ti/CFRP/Ti stacks were developed.

  6. Effect of flow parameters on flare stack generator noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinn, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The SoundPLAN Computer Noise Model was used to determine the general effect of flare noise in a community adjacent to a petrochemical plant. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of process flow conditions and the pulsating flame on the flare stack generator noise from both a refinery flare and process flare. Flaring under normal plant operations, the flaring of fuel gas and the flaring of hydrogen were the three conditions that were tested. It was shown that the steam flow rate was the determining factor in the flare stack generated noise. Variations in the water seal level in the flare line surge tank increased or decreased the gas flowrate, which resulted in a pulsating flame. The period and amplitude of the pulsating noise from the flare stacks was determined by measuring several parameters. Flare stack noise oscillations were found to be greater for the process flare than for the refinery flare stack. It was suggested that minimizing the amount of steam fed to the flare and improving the burner design would minimize noise. 2 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Charge transfer in pi-stacked systems including DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Charge migration in DNA is a subject of intense current study motivated by long-range detection of DNA damage and the potential application of DNA as a molecular wire in nanoscale electronic devices. A key structural element, which makes DNA a medium for long-range charge transfer, is the array of stacked base pairs in the interior of the double helix. The overlapping pi-orbitals of the nucleobases provide a pathway for motion of charge carriers generated on the stack. This 'pi-pathway' resembles the columnarly stacked macrocyclic cores in discotic materials such as triphenylenes. The structure of these pi-stacked systems is highly disordered with dynamic fluctuations occurring on picosecond to nanosecond time scales. Theoretical calculations, concerning the effects of structural disorder and nucleobase sequence in DNA, on the dynamics of charge carriers are presented. Electronic couplings and localization energies of charge carriers were calculated using density functional theory (DFT). Results for columnarly stacked triphenylenes and DNA nucleobases are compared. The results are used to provide insight into the factors that control the mobility of charge carriers. Further, experimental results on the site-selective oxidation of guanine nucleobases in DNA (hot spots for DNA damage) are analyzed on basis of the theoretical results

  8. Generalized diffraction-stack migration and filtering of coherent noise

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2014-01-27

    We reformulate the equation of reverse-time migration so that it can be interpreted as summing data along a series of hyperbola-like curves, each one representing a different type of event such as a reflection or multiple. This is a generalization of the familiar diffraction-stack migration algorithm where the migration image at a point is computed by the sum of trace amplitudes along an appropriate hyperbola-like curve. Instead of summing along the curve associated with the primary reflection, the sum is over all scattering events and so this method is named generalized diffraction-stack migration. This formulation leads to filters that can be applied to the generalized diffraction-stack migration operator to mitigate coherent migration artefacts due to, e.g., crosstalk and aliasing. Results with both synthetic and field data show that generalized diffraction-stack migration images have fewer artefacts than those computed by the standard reverse-time migration algorithm. The main drawback is that generalized diffraction-stack migration is much more memory intensive and I/O limited than the standard reverse-time migration method. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  9. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  10. Heterogeneous multi-layered IF steel with simultaneous high strength and good ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yuhui; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Yonghong; Huang, Tianlin; Wu, Guilin

    2017-07-01

    Multi-layered IF steel samples were designed and fabricated by hot compression followed by cold forging of an alternating stack of cold-rolled and annealed IF steel sheets, with an aim to improve the strength of the material without losing much ductility. A very good combination of strength and ductility was achieved by proper annealing after deformation. Microstructural analysis by electron back-scatter diffraction revealed that the good combination of strength and ductility is related to a characteristic hierarchical structure that is characterized by layered and lamella structures with different length scales.

  11. Method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, and device provided with such a thin film barrier stack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, such as, for instance, an OLED, wherein the thin film barrier stack forms a barrier to at least moisture and oxygen, wherein the stack is built up from a combination of org. and inorg. layers, characterized in that a

  12. The operation and monitoring of sewage disposal by stack injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.A. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A system that uses turbine exhaust to evaporate sewage, was described. The Alyeska Pipeline Service developed the system for isolated pump stations located in permafrost areas. The pumps moving the crude oil in the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were driven by simple cycle gas turbine engines which produce large amounts of waste heat. The waste heat was used to evaporate the sewage effluent, effectively destroying all pathogens in it. The process, known as `stack injection`, was recently upgraded to increase efficiency and safety. Stack injection was being used at five pump stations. Methods used to control operation of the stack injection system, and field data used to redesign the system were reviewed. 3 figs., 3 refs.

  13. Multipole Stack for the 800 MeV PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The 800 MeV PS Booster had seen first beam in its 4 superposed rings in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. In the strive for ever higher beam intensities, the need for additional multipole lenses became evident. After detailed studies, the manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974. Each stack consists of 4 superposed multipoles and each multipole has 4 concentric shells. From the innermost to the outermost shell, Type A contains octupole, skew-octupole, sextupole, skew-sextupole. Type B contains skew-octupole, skew-sextupole, vertical dipole, horizontal dipole. Completion of installation in 1976 opened the way to higher beam intensities. M. Battiaz is seen here with a multipole stack and its many electrical connections.

  14. Fluxons in long and annular intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    CERN Document Server

    Clauss, T; Moessle, M; Müller, A; Weber, A; Kölle, D; Kleiner, R

    2002-01-01

    A promising approach towards a THz oscillator based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconductors is based on the collective motion of Josephson fluxons, which are predicted to form various configurations ranging from a triangular to a quadratic lattice. Not only for this reason, but certainly also for the sake of basic physics, several experimental and theoretical investigations have been done on the subject of collective fluxon dynamics in stacked intrinsic Josephson junctions. In this paper we will present some experimental results on the fluxon dynamics of long intrinsic Josephson junction stacks made of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8. The stacks were formed either in an open or in an annular geometry, and clear resonant fluxon modes were observed. Experiments discussed include measurements of current-voltage characteristics in external magnetic fields and in external microwave fields.

  15. Frictional forces in an SOFC stack with sliding seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T; Oishi, N; Namikawa, T; Yamazaki, Y [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    The detrimental thermal stresses in planar SOFC stacks can be reduced using sliding seals. In the proposal planar stack the electrolyte film is sandwiched by YSZ support rings to release the thermal stresses. In order to estimate the strength of the support ring, the frictional forces between heat resistant alloy and YSZ were measured at 900{degree}C. The coefficient of friction between Hastelloy X and YSZ increased when they were measured lifter 144h heating. However, the coefficient of friction between HA-214 and YSZ did not increase. The measurement and a calculation of the stresses in the support rings led the result that a thickness of 0.6mm was necessary for 200mm diameter support rings under a stack pressure of 0.1kgcm{sup -2}. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The Stack-Size of Combinatorial Tries Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus E. Nebel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we consider a generalized class of extended binary trees in which leaves are distinguished in order to represent the location of a key within a trie of the same structure. We prove an exact asymptotic equivalent to the average stack-size of trees with α internal nodes and β leaves corresponding to keys; we assume that all trees with the same parameters α and β have the same probability. The assumption of that uniform model is motivated for example by the usage of tries for the compression of blockcodes. Furthermore, we will prove asymptotics for the r-th moments of the stack-size and we will show that a normalized stack-size possesses a theta distribution in the limit.

  17. Stacking and discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Z K

    2000-08-01

    Discontinuous buffers for capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) can be used under less rigid conditions compared to those for isotachophoresis for stacking. They can be prepared simply by modifying the sample itself, either by addition of small inorganic ions, low conductivity diluents, or both, and also by adjusting its pH, meanwhile injecting a large volume on the capillary. Zwitterionic and organic-based buffers such as triethanolamine and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) are well suited for stacking due to their low conductivity, provided the buffer is discontinuous as demonstrated here. A simple mechanism based on discontinuous buffers is described to explain many of the observed stacking types in CZE, pointing out the many similarities to transient isotachophoresis.

  18. Continued SOFC cell and stack technology and improved production methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandel, M.; Brodersen, K.; Phair, J. (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Within this project significant results are obtained on a number of very diverse areas ranging from development of cell production, metallic creep in interconnect to assembling and test of stacks with foot print larger than 500 cm2. Out of 38 milestones 28 have been fulfilled and 10 have been partly fulfilled. This project has focused on three main areas: 1) The continued cell development and optimization of manufacturing processes aiming at production of large foot-print cells, improving cell performance and development environmentally more benign production methods. 2) Stack technology - especially stacks with large foot print and improving the stack design with respect to flow geometry and gas leakages. 3) Development of stack components with emphasis on sealing (for 2G as well as 3G), interconnect (coat, architecture and creep) and test development. Production of cells with a foot print larger than 500 cm2 is very difficult due to the brittleness of the cells and great effort has been put into this topic. Eight cells were successfully produced making it possible to assemble and test a real stack thereby giving valuable results on the prospects of stacks with large foot print. However, the yield rate is very low and a significant development to increase this yield lies ahead. Several lessons were learned on the stack level regarding 'large foot print' stacks. Modelling studies showed that the width of the cell primarily is limited by production and handling of the cell whereas the length (in the flow direction) is limited by e.g. pressure drop and necessary manifolding. The optimal cell size in the flow direction was calculated to be between approx20 cm and < 30 cm. From an economical point of view the production yield is crucial and stacks with large foot print cell area are only feasible if the cell production yield is significantly enhanced. Co-casting has been pursued as a production technique due to the possibilities in large scale production

  19. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-14

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides of the membrane, little is known about membrane resistance when the membrane is placed between solutions of different concentrations, such as in a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack. Ionic resistance measurements obtained using Selemion CMV and AMV that separated sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions of different concentrations were greater than those measured using only the high-concentration solution. Measured RED stack resistances showed good agreement with resistances calculated using an equivalent series resistance model, where the membranes accounted for 46% of the total stack resistance. The high area resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling and optimizing membranes used in RED systems.

  20. Tables of formulae for calculating the mechanics of stacks in gas-graphite reactors; Formulaire pour le calcul de la mecanique des empilements des reacteurs graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-07-01

    This collection of formulae only gives, for nuclear graphite stacks. The mechanical effects due to the strains, thermal or not, of steel structures supporting or surrounding graphite blocks. Equations have been established by mean of experiments made at Chinon with large pile models. Thus, it is possible to calculate displacement, strain and stress in the EDF type stacks of horizontal triangular block lattice. (authors) [French] Le domaine de ce formulaire est strictement limite aux effets mecaniques, pour les empilements, des deformations, thermiques ou autres, des structures metalliques de soutien (aire - support et corset). On propose un ensemble de relations qui ont ete etablies a la suite des essais de CHINON sur des maquettes de grande taille. Ces relations permettent le calcul des mouvements, des deformations et des contraintes dans les empilements du type EDF, a reseau horizontal triangulaire regulier. (auteurs)

  1. Simulations Of Transverse Stacking In The NSLS-II Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliller, R. III; Shaftan, T.

    2011-01-01

    The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The linac needs to deliver 15 nC in 80 - 150 bunches to the booster every minute to achieve current stability goals in the storage ring. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. We have developed a scheme to transversely stack two bunch trains in the NSLS-II booster in order to alleviate the charge requirements on the linac. This scheme has been outlined previously. In this paper we show particle tracking simulations of the tracking scheme. We show simulations of the booster ramp with a stacked beam for a variety of lattice errors and injected beam parameters. In all cases the performance of the proposed stacking method is sufficient to reduce the required charge from the linac. For this reason the injection system of the NSLS-II booster is being designed to include this feature. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The injectors must provide 7.5nC in bunch trains 80-150 bunches long every minute for top off operation of the storage ring. Top off then requires that the linac deliver 15nC of charge once losses in the injector chain are taken into consideration. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. For this reason we have developed a method to transversely stack two bunch trains in the booster while maintaining the charge transport efficiency. This stacking scheme has been discussed previously. In this paper we show the simulations of the booster ramp with a single bunch train in the booster. Then we give a brief overview of the stacking scheme. Following, we show the results of stacking two bunch trains in the booster with varying beam emittances and train separations. The behavior of the beam through the ramp is examined showing that it is possible to stack two bunch trains in the booster.

  2. A Simple Semantics and Static Analysis for Stack Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Banerjee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Java virtual machine and the .NET common language runtime feature an access control mechanism specified operationally in terms of run-time stack inspection. We give a denotational semantics in "eager" form, and show that it is equivalent to the "lazy" semantics using stack inspection. We give a static analysis of safety, i.e., the absence of security errors, that is simpler than previous proposals. We identify several program transformations that can be used to remove run-time checks. We give complete, detailed proofs for safety of the analysis and for the transformations, exploiting compositionality of the eager semantics.

  3. Experimental 1 kW 20 cell PEFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F N; Marmy, C A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ruge, M [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A 20-cell PEFC stack was designed and built. Resin impregnated graphite was used as bipolar plate material. The air cooling of the stack was optimized by introducing high surface structures into the open space of the cooling plates. At {eta} (H{sub 2} LHV) = 0.5 a power of 880 W was obtained under conditions of low gas-pressures of 1.15 bar{sub a}. The auxiliary power for process air supply and cooling at 880 W power is less than 7% of the power output, indicating that the described system may be operated at a high efficiency. (author) 5 figs., 2 refs.

  4. Hardware Evaluation of the Horizontal Exercise Fixture with Weight Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Nate; Leach, Mark; Fincke, Renita; Sharp, Carwyn

    2009-01-01

    HEF with weight stack seems to be a very sturdy and reliable exercise device that should function well in a bed rest training setting. A few improvements should be made to both the hardware and software to improve usage efficiency, but largely, this evaluation has demonstrated HEF's robustness. The hardware offers loading to muscles, bones, and joints, potentially sufficient to mitigate the loss of muscle mass and bone mineral density during long-duration bed rest campaigns. With some minor modifications, the HEF with weight stack equipment provides the best currently available means of performing squat, heel raise, prone row, bench press, and hip flexion/extension exercise in a supine orientation.

  5. Interrelation of Entropic Contributors to π -Stacking in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, Maria A.; Lantushenko, Anastasia O.; Evstigneev, Vladislav P.; Golovchenko, Igor V.; Mykhina, Yulia V.; Savin, Valery V.; Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2016-08-01

    The recently published most complete set of thermodynamical data on self- and hetero-complexation of aromatic molecules measured under comparable experimental conditions were analyzed. The main aim of this study is to get insights into contribution of various entropic factors to π -stacking in aqueous solution. It was found that the experimental entropy change on π -stacking is determined by counterbalancing effects of two principal factors, i.e., the hydrophobic interaction (positive contribution) and the loss of degrees of freedom (negative contribution) modulated by the electrostatic contribution. Other factors, including the mixing entropy contribution, were shown to be less important.

  6. Inter-layered clay stacks in Jurassic shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, K.; Krinsley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy in the backscattered electron mode is used together with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to show that Lower Jurassic shales from the North Sea Basin contain large numbers of clay mineral stacks up to 150 microns in size. Polished shale sections are examined to determine the size, shape orientation, textural relationships, and internal compositional variations of the clays. Preliminary evidence that the clay stacks are authigenic, and may have formed at shallow burial depths during early diagenesis, is presented.

  7. Band engineering in transition metal dichalcogenides: Stacked versus lateral heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2016-01-01

    We calculate a large difference in the band alignments for transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterojunctions when arranged in the stacked layer or lateral (in-plane) geometries, using direct supercell calculations. The stacked case follows the unpinned limit of the electron affinity rule, whereas the lateral geometry follows the strongly pinned limit of alignment of charge neutrality levels. TMDs therefore provide one of the few clear tests of band alignment models, whereas three-dimensional semiconductors give less stringent tests because of accidental chemical trends in their properties.

  8. Implementing cloud storage with OpenStack Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Rajana, Kris; Varma, Sreedhar

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial-based book has a step-by-step approach for each topic, ensuring it is thoroughly covered and easy to follow. If you are an IT administrator who wants to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Whether your job is to build, manage, or use OpenStack Swift, this book is an ideal way to move your career ahead. Only basic Linux and server technology skills are expected, to take advantage of this book.

  9. Seismic data enhancement with Common Reflection Surface (CRS) stack method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykulov, M.; Brink, H.J.; Gajewski, D.; Yoon, Mi-Kyung [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik

    2008-10-23

    We present the results of partial stacking of prestack seismic reflection data based on the kinematic wavefield attributes computed during the automatic CRS stack. The resulting CRS supergathers are more regularised and have better signal to noise ratio compared to original CMP gathers. The improved data can be used in any conventional processing tool instead of the original data, providing enhanced images of better quality. The CRS supergather method is especially suited for low fold seismic reflection data. Application of the new method to synthetic and real low fold data shows a clear improvement of seismograms as well as time and depth-migrated sections. (orig.)

  10. Harry Stack Sullivan Colloquium: George Herbert Mead and Harry Stack Sullivan: an unfinished synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, L S

    1978-05-01

    HOW DO YOU create a new self? However he may phrase this question, it is a central theoretical and practical concern of the therapist every time he confronts a client who comes to him for help. What are the processes out of which the human self emerges? However he may phrase the question, it is a central concern of the social psychologist. The obvious convergence of interests indicated by these two questions should occasion no surprise among students of Sullivan and Mead. What perhaps should be surprising is that an effective synthesis of their theories has progressed no further than it has to date. My remarks today are based on the conviction that a more adequate psychiatric theory and practice and a more complete social psychological theory and research program depend on such a synthesis. Behavioral scientists concerned with the development of a truly interactionist social psychology are, I believe, generally agreed that George Herbert Mead (1863-1931), philosopher and social psychologist, and Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949), psychiatrist and social psychologist, have laid conceptual foundations upon which such a discipline can be erected. Now a vast assortment of activities is tagged as social psychology and its boundaries are, indeed, difficult to draw. However, for our present purposes we can define its focus as the study of the processes and products of inter- and intrapersonal and inter- and intragoup interaction, let the boundaries fall where they will.

  11. Structural amorphous steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.P.; Liu, C.T.; Porter, W.D.; Thompson, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist's dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed

  12. Massive particle formation in a type 316 stainless steel during creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.G.; Harries, D.R.

    1976-10-01

    Extremely large grain boundary particles have previously been observed in type 316 steel after creeping for short times at 625 0 C. These features have been identified as consisting of numerous plates of M 23 C 6 carbides precipitated on partial dislocations and stacking faults emitted from high angle grain boundaries. No wholesale phase transformation to produce large intermetallic particles occurs in longer term tests, and the large particles do not, of themselves, appear to weaken the boundaries and cause cracking. (author)

  13. End view of steel-concrete prototype yoke for LEP dipoles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic field needed in the LEP dipole magnets was rather low, of a fraction of tesla. This lead to the conception of a novel yoke structure consisting of stacks of 1.5 mm thick low-carbon steel laminations spaced by 4.1 mm with the spaces filled with concrete. For details see LEP-Note 118,1978 and LEP-Note 233,1980. See also 7908528X, 8111710X, 8111529.

  14. Performance Steel Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    system components to be built. Figure la shows the machine design . PSC-2012 Page 94 Glue Application Sheet Transfer Feed Elevator Figure la...Department of Defense such as cleats, ejection chutes , control arms, muzzle brakes, mortar components, clevises, tow bar clamps, ammo conveyor elements...Foundry and the members of Steel Founders’ Society of America. Abstract Weapon system designers and builders need advanced steel casting technology

  15. Life after Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  16. From the components to the stack. Developing and designing 5kW HT-PEFC stacks; Von der Komponente zum Stack. Entwicklung und Auslegung von HT-PEFC-Stacks der 5 kW-Klasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendzulla, Anne

    2010-12-22

    The aim of the present project is to develop a stack design for a 5-kW HTPEFC system. First, the state of the art of potential materials and process designs will be discussed for each component. Then, using this as a basis, three potential stack designs with typical attributes will be developed and assessed in terms of practicality with the aid of a specially derived evaluation method. Two stack designs classified as promising will be discussed in detail, constructed and then characterized using short stack tests. Comparing the stack designs reveals that both designs are fundamentally suitable for application in a HT-PEFC system with on-board supply. However, some of the performance data differ significantly for the two stack designs. The preferred stack design for application in a HT-PEFC system is characterized by robust operating behaviour and reproducible high-level performance data. Moreover, in compact constructions (120 W/l at 60 W/kg), the stack design allows flexible cooling with thermal oil or air, which can be adapted to suit specific applications. Furthermore, a defined temperature gradient can be set during operation, allowing the CO tolerance to be increased by up to 10 mV. The short stack design developed within the scope of the present work therefore represents an ideal basis for developing a 5-kW HT-PEFC system. Topics for further research activities include improving the performance by reducing weight and/or volume, as well as optimizing the heat management. The results achieved within the framework of this work clearly show that HTPEFC stacks have the potential to play a decisive role in increasing efficiency in the future, particularly when combined with an on-board supply system. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines Stackkonzeptes fuer ein 5 kW-HT-PEFC System. Dazu wird zunaechst fuer jede Komponente der Stand der Technik moeglicher Materialien und Prozesskonzepte diskutiert. Darauf aufbauend werden drei

  17. Enhancement of stack ventilation in hot and humid climate using a combination of roof solar collector and vertical stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusoff, Wardah Fatimah Mohammad; Salleh, Elias [Department of Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Adam, Nor Mariah [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sapian, Abdul Razak [Department of Architecture, Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yusof Sulaiman, Mohamad [Solar Energy Research Institute, 3rd Floor, Tun Sri Lanang Library Building, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In the hot and humid climate, stack ventilation is inefficient due to small temperature difference between the inside and outside of naturally ventilated buildings. Hence, solar induced ventilation is a feasible alternative in enhancing the stack ventilation. This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of a proposed solar induced ventilation strategy, which combines a roof solar collector and a vertical stack, in enhancing the stack ventilation performance in the hot and humid climate. The methodology selected for the investigation is physical experimental modelling which was carried out in the actual environment. The results are presented and discussed in terms of two performance variables: air temperature and air velocity. The findings indicate that the proposed strategy is able to enhance the stack ventilation, both in semi-clear sky and overcast sky conditions. The highest air temperature difference between the air inside the stack and the ambient air (T{sub i}-T{sub o}) is achieved in the semi-clear sky condition, which is about 9.9 C (45.8 C-35.9 C). Meanwhile, in the overcast sky condition, the highest air temperature difference (T{sub i}-T{sub o}) is 6.2 C (39.3 C-33.1 C). The experimental results also indicate good agreement with the theoretical results for the glass temperature, the air temperature in the roof solar collector's channel and the absorber temperature. The findings also show that wind has significant effect to the induced air velocity by the proposed strategy. (author)

  18. Dynamic stack testing and HiL simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolf, G. [GRandalytics, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The applications for fuel cell and stack deployment have changed rapidly over the years, from stationary backup supplies to highly dynamic automotive power systems. As a result, testing must keep up in order to ensure mature products of high quality. A new breed of stack test stations has been designed, based on a newly developed single cell, high dynamic hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulator in order to meet the growing demand of realistic fuel cell testing scenarios for aviation and automotive industries. The paper described and illustrated the test station architecture and outline of communication nodes. The paper also described the voltage monitor and presented schematics of voltage monitoring modules. The basic requirements of the architecture that were presented included low latency; flexible communication with simulation targets and other data input/output nodes; scalability to various stack sizes; and, safety and reliability. It was concluded that first tests with the voltage monitoring system not only confirmed the design, high throughput and signal quality, but also suggested another application, namely a stack impedance spectrometer for each individual cell. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  19. The glass sphinx: a massive stacked glass structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, F.P.; Heijden, van der T.; Schreurs, P.; Bos, F.; Louter, C.; Nijsse, R.; Veer, F.

    The refurbishment of the Meuse river boulevard in Venlo instigated Scheuten Glass to donate a giant-sized, 6 metre high version of the stacked glass statue the Sphinx, which had originally been made as a 80 cm sculpture to commemorate the city's 650th anniversary back in 1993. Many hurdles had to be

  20. The Gulf War on Computer: A Review of "Iraq Stack."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Dick

    1993-01-01

    Reviews a HyperCard stack designed for use in schools and at home. Describes the program as primarily a database of information on Iraq, Kuwait, and the Gulf War. Contends that the program is pedagogically weak and of marginal use in the classroom. (CFR)

  1. The Memory Stack: New Technologies Harness Talking for Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Maureen T.

    In this paper, an elementary school teacher describes her experiences with the Memory Stack--a HyperCard based tool that can accommodate a voice recording, a graphic image, and a written text on the same card--which she designed to help her second and third grade students integrate their oral language fluency into the process of learning how to…

  2. Multipole stack for the 4 rings of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV) saw first beam in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. The strive for ever higher intensities required the addition of multipoles. Manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974, for installation in 1976. For details, see 7511120X.

  3. Seismic fragility of ventilation stack of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, S.S.; Yugai, T.Z.; Kalinkin, I.V.; Vizir, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Fragility study of safety related elements is necessary step in seismic PSA of nuclear power plant (NPP). In present work fragility was analyzed after the example of the ventilation stack of NPP. Ventilation stack, considered in present work, is a separately erected construction with height of 100 m made of cast-in-place reinforced concrete. In accordance with IAEA terminology fragility of element is defined as conditional probability of its failure at given level of seismic loading. Failure of a ventilation stack was considered as development of the plastic hinge in some section of a shaft. Seismic ground acceleration a, which corresponds to failure, could be defined as limit seismic acceleration of ventilation stack [a]. Limit seismic acceleration [a] was considered as random value. Sources of its variation are connected with stochastic nature of factors determining it (properties of construction materials, soils etc.), and also with uncertainties of existing analytical techniques. Random value [a] was assumed to be distributed lognormally. Median m[a] and logarithmically standard deviation β of this distribution were defined by 'scaling method' developed by R.P. Kennedy et al. Using this values fragility curves were plotted for different levels of confidence probability. (author)

  4. Remote control flare stack igniter for combustible gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Device has been designed and developed for igniting nonrecoverable combustible gases and sustaining combustion of gases evolving from various gas vent stacks. Igniter is superior to existing systems because of simplicity of operation, low cost fabrication, installation, operational and maintainability features, and excellent reliability in all phases of required operations.

  5. Revisiting the Fundamentals and Capabilities of the Stack Compression Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, L.M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martin, P.A.F.

    2011-01-01

    performance by comparing the flow curves obtained from its utilisation with those determined by means of compressive testing carried out on solid cylinder specimens of the same material. Results show that mechanical testing of materials by means of the stack compression test is capable of meeting...... the increasing demand of accurate and reliable flow curves for sheet metals....

  6. Numerical simulations of flux flow in stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    2005-01-01

    We numerically investigate Josephson vortex flux flow states in stacked Josephson junctions, motivated by recent experiments trying to observe the vortices in a square vortex lattice when a magnetic field is applied to layered high-Tc superconductors of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox type. By extensive...

  7. 7. Data Structures: Lists, Queues, Stacks and Arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Algorithms - Data Structures: Lists, Queues, Stacks and Arrays. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 39-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. A Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Nielsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable computing platforms to allowfor static analysis of the worst-case execution time. Caches are important for good performance, but data caches arehard to analyze for the worst-case execution time. Stack allocated data has different properties related...

  9. Nanostructured Anodic Multilayer Dielectric Stacked Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R; Kannadassan, D; Baghini, Maryam Shojaei; Mallick, P S

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor using anodization technique. High capacitance density of > 3.5 fF/μm2, low quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance of dielectric stack required for high performance MIM capacitor.

  10. Piezoelectric stack actuator parameter extraction with hysteresis compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Mangeot, Charles; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) is a type of rotary motor that transforms the linear motion of piezoelectric stack actuators into a precise rotational motion. The very high stiffness of the actuators employed make this type of motor suited for open-loop control, but the inherent hysteresis...

  11. An Exact Method for the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks (DTSPMS) is a pickup and delivery problem in which all pickups must be completed before any deliveries can be made. The problem originates from a real-life application where a 40 foot container (configured as 3 columns of 11 rows) is used...

  12. An Exact Method for the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ehrgott, Matthias

    The double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks (DTSPMS) is a pickup and delivery problem in which all pickups must be completed before any deliveries can be made. The problem originates from a real-life application where a 40 foot container (configured as 3 columns of 11 rows) is used...

  13. Calculated stacking-fault energies of elemental metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengaard, N. M.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1993-01-01

    -sphere approximations. The results are in excellent agreement with recent layer Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's-function calculations where stacking-fault energies for Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, and Au were found by means of the the so-called force theorem. We find that the self-consistent fault energies for all the metals...

  14. Precise stacking and bonding technology for RDDS structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, T; Toge, N.; Suzuki, T.

    2000-01-01

    The X-band accelerating structures called RDDS1 (Rounded Dumped Detuned Structure) for the linear collider have been developed. The main body of RDDS1 was successfully fabricated in Japan (KEK, IHI). We established basic fabrication techniques through the development of prototype structures including RDDS1. The precise stacking and bonding technologies for RDDS structure are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Study on the polarity, solubility, and stacking characteristics of asphaltenes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Long-li

    2014-07-01

    The structure and transformation of fused aromatic ring system in asphaltenes play an important role in the character of asphaltenes, and in step affect the properties of heavy oils. Polarity, solubility and structural characteristics of asphaltenes derived from Tahe atmospheric residue (THAR) and Tuo-826 heavy crude oil (Tuo-826) were analyzed for study of their internal relationship. A fractionation method was used to separate the asphaltenes into four sub-fractions, based on their solubility in the mixed solvent, for the study of different structural and physical-chemical properties, such as polarity, solubility, morphology, stacking characteristics, and mean structural parameters. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation can present the intuitive morphology of asphaltene molecules, and shows that the structure of asphaltenes is in local order as well as long range disorder. The analysis results showed that n-heptane asphaltenes of THAR and Tuo-826 had larger dipole moment values, larger fused aromatic ring systems, larger mean number of stacking layers, and less interlayer spacing between stacking layers than the corresponding n-pentane asphaltenes. The sub-fractions that were inclined to precipitate from the mixture of n-heptane and tetrahydrofuran had larger polarity and less solubility. From the first sub-fraction to the fourth sub-fraction, polarity, mean stacking numbers, and average layer size from the TEM images follow a gradual decrease. The structural parameters derived from TEM images could reflect the largest fused aromatic ring system in asphaltene molecule, yet the parameters derived from 1H NMR data reflected the mean message of poly-aromatic ring systems. The structural parameters derived from TEM images were more consistent with the polarity variation of sub-fractions than those derived from 1H NMR data, which indicates that the largest fused aromatic ring system will play a more important role in the stacking characteristics of

  16. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes from palm oil on stacking and non-stacking substrate by thermal-CVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaiah, M.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Azhan, H.; Fadzlinatul, M. Y.; Salifairus, M. J.; Asli, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    Palm oil has been used as the carbon source to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on silicon substrates using the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Meanwhile, silicon has been applied using two techniques, which are stacked technique and non-stacked technique. The CNTs were grown at the constant time of 30 minutes with various synthesis temperatures of 750 °C, 850 °C and 950 °C. The CNTs were characterized using micro-Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was found that the density, growth rate, diameter and length of the CNTs produced were affected by the synthesis temperature. Moreover, the structure slightly changes were observed between CNTs obtained in SS and NSS. The synthesize temperature of 750 °C was considered as the suitable temperature for the production of CNTs due to low ID/IG ratio, which for stacked is 0.89 and non-stacked are 0.90. The possible explanation for the different morphology of the produced CNTs was also discussed.

  17. Clean steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels

  18. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  19. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  20. Cold formability of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, G.; Leclerq, G.; Moliexe, F.; Namdar, R.; Roesch, L.; Sanz, G.

    1977-01-01

    This work was essentially aimed to the study of the following three questions. Is it possible to assess the cold formability of steels using simple material properties as criteria. What values of mechanical properties can one expect to reach in cold formed parts. Are there simple ways of characterizing the speroidization treatments carried out on steels before cold forming operations. The present report describes the results obtained during this investigation. It is logically divided into three separate parts. Experimental study of cold formability in wire drawing. Influence of metallurgical variables on mechanical properties of high carbon cold drawn wires. Contribution to the study of characterization methods of cold forming steels subjected to a spheroidization heat treatment

  1. Optical transceiver ICs based on 3D die-stacking of opto-electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, P.; Raz, O.; Smalbrugge, B.E.; Plassche, van de K.L.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Wafer scale fabrication of the 3D stacked transceivers is discussed. Uniform open eye patterns at 10 Gb/s/channel of both 3D stacked transmitter and receiver ICs indicates that the interconnection technology is robust.

  2. National steel tries wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudak, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, National Steel felt the need to take the next step to make its Detroit-based division, Great Lakes Steel, more competitive in the world flat-rolled steel market. In 1988, Great Lakes Steel started flowing natural gas through the first fully litigated bypass (Competitive Sourcing Option) of a local distribution company. In 1989, the second connection with the new supply route for gas transportation, Panhandle Eastern had started flowing and the LDC, Michigan Consolidated Gas Co. (MichCon) had pulled out their piping previously serving the plants. Since we had been able to structure a fully reliable supply route, storage and balancing program for gas in the face of such strong opposition by the LDC, the author felt it was time to attack the next singularly sourced major commodity, electricity. Electricity, at this major integrated steel plant, represented approximately 7% of plant cost yearly. Yet being monopolized, Great Lakes Division (GLD) could not multiple source this commodity like it does with its other 93% of costs, except for labor (25% of the 93%). Multiple sourcing is done to bring competitive pressure to suppliers and to diversify supplies and protect plant operation in the event of failure by one supplier. This paper describes National Steel's strategy to reduce the cost of power, at the minimum of capital costs, the most expedient way possible, that does not sacrifice any major long-term potential cost improvements. The results show that competitively priced power is available across the mid-west, at prices well below many state regulated electric utilities, for at least 5 to 15 years, but with major obstacles in obtaining transmission access

  3. Volatilization from PCA steel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagrman, D.L.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    The mobilizations of key components from Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA) steel alloy have been measured with laboratory-scale experiments. The experiments indicate most of the mobilization from PCA steel is due to oxide formation and spalling but that the spalled particles are large enough to settle rapidly. Based on the experiments, models for the volatization of iron, manganese, and cobalt from PCA steel in steam and molybdenum from PCA steel in air have been derived.

  4. Fatigue damage of steel components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster, Søren; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials......Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials...

  5. Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme-Smith, Christopher Neil; Ooi, Shgh Woei; Bhadeshia, Harshad K. D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Two novel nanocrystalline steels were designed to withstand elevated temperatures without catastrophic microstructural changes. In the most successful alloy, a large quantity of nickel was added to stabilize austenite and allow a reduction in the carbon content. A 50 kg cast of the novel alloy was produced and used to verify the formation of nanocrystalline bainite. Synchrotron X-ray diffractometry using in situ heating showed that austenite was able to survive more than 1 hour at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature. This is the first reported nanocrystalline steel with high-temperature capability.

  6. Joining uranium to steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, M.A.

    1976-05-01

    A method has been devised which will allow the joining of uranium to steel by fusion welding through the use of an intermediate material. Uranium-0.5 titanium was joined to AISI 304L stainless steel by using a vanadium insert. Also, a method is now available for selecting possible filler metals when two entirely dissimilar metals need to be joined. This method allows a quantitative ranking to be made of the possible filler metals and thus the most likely candidate can be selected

  7. Electronic structure of the rotation twin stacking fault in β-ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrup, J.E.; Cohen, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structure of the rotation twin stacking fault in β-ZnS is calculated with the self-consistent pseudopotential method. The stacking fault creates a potential barrier of approx.0.07 eV and induces the localization of stacking-fault resonances near the top of the valence band. Stacking-fault states are also predicted to exist in the various gaps in the projected valence-band structure

  8. Nitrogen-alloyed martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, H.

    1988-01-01

    A report is presented on initial results with pressure-nitrided martensitic steels. In heat-resistant steels, thermal stability and toughness are raised by nitrogen. In cold work steel, there is a more favourable corrosion behaviour. (orig./MM) [de

  9. Advanced automobile steels subjected to plate rolling at 773 K or 1373 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torganchuk, Vladimir; Belyakov, Andrey; Kaibyshev, Rustam

    2017-12-01

    The high manganese steels exhibiting the effects of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) demonstrate an excellent combination of enhanced formability, strength and ductility. Such unique mechanical properties make high-manganese steel the most attractive material for various applications, including the segment of advanced automobile steels. The strain hardening in such steels can be achieved through martensitic transformation, when the stacking fault energy (SFE) is about 10 mJ m-2, and/or twinning, when SFE is about 20 to 50 mJ m-2. The actual mechanical properties of high-Mn steels could vary, depending on the conditions of thermo-mechanical processing. In the present study, the effect of rolling temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 18% Mn steels was clarified. The steels hot rolled at 1373 K were characterized by uniform almost equiaxed grains with near random crystallographic orientations that resulted in relatively low yield strengths of 300-360 MPa, followed by pronounced strain hardening that led to the total elongation above 60%. In contrast, the steels warm rolled at 773 K were characterized by flattened grains with a strong rolling texture and high yield strengths of 850-950 MPa combined with a total elongation of about 30%.

  10. Physically Connected Stacked Patch Antenna Design with 100% Bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    Typically, stacked patch antennas are parasitically coupled and provide larger bandwidth than a single patch antenna. Here, we show a stacked patch antenna design where square patches with semi-circular cutouts are physically connected to each other. This arrangement provides 100% bandwidth from 23.9–72.2 GHz with consistent high gain (5 dBi or more) across the entire bandwidth. In another variation, a single patch loaded with a superstrate provides 83.5% bandwidth from 25.6–62.3 GHz. The mechanism of bandwidth enhancement is explained through electromagnetic simulations. Measured reflection coefficient, radiation patterns and gain results confirm the extremely wideband performance of the design.

  11. Flow-induced plastic collapse of stacked fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D C; Scarton, H A

    1985-03-01

    Flow-induced plastic collapse of stacked fuel plate assemblies was first noted in experimental reactors such as the ORNL High Flux Reactor Assembly and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The ETR assembly is a stack of 19 thin flat rectangular fuel plates separated by narrow channels through which a coolant flows to remove the heat generated by fission of the fuel within the plates. The uranium alloyed plates have been noted to buckle laterally and plastically collapse at the system design coolant flow rate of 10.7 m/s, thus restricting the coolant flow through adjacent channels. A methodology and criterion are developed for predicting the plastic collapse of ETR fuel plates. The criterion is compared to some experimental results and the Miller critical velocity theory.

  12. Spam comments prediction using stacking with ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Arif; On, Byung-Won; Lee, Ingyu; Ashraf, Imran; Choi, Gyu Sang

    2018-01-01

    Illusive comments of product or services are misleading for people in decision making. The current methodologies to predict deceptive comments are concerned for feature designing with single training model. Indigenous features have ability to show some linguistic phenomena but are hard to reveal the latent semantic meaning of the comments. We propose a prediction model on general features of documents using stacking with ensemble learning. Term Frequency/Inverse Document Frequency (TF/IDF) features are inputs to stacking of Random Forest and Gradient Boosted Trees and the outputs of the base learners are encapsulated with decision tree to make final training of the model. The results exhibits that our approach gives the accuracy of 92.19% which outperform the state-of-the-art method.

  13. Queue and stack sorting algorithm optimization and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingzhu; Wang, Xiaobao

    2018-04-01

    Sorting algorithm is one of the basic operation of a variety of software development, in data structures course specializes in all kinds of sort algorithm. The performance of the sorting algorithm is directly related to the efficiency of the software. A lot of excellent scientific research queue is constantly optimizing algorithm, algorithm efficiency better as far as possible, the author here further research queue combined with stacks of sorting algorithms, the algorithm is mainly used for alternating operation queue and stack storage properties, Thus avoiding the need for a large number of exchange or mobile operations in the traditional sort. Before the existing basis to continue research, improvement and optimization, the focus on the optimization of the time complexity of the proposed optimization and improvement, The experimental results show that the improved effectively, at the same time and the time complexity and space complexity of the algorithm, the stability study corresponding research. The improvement and optimization algorithm, improves the practicability.

  14. Stack monitor for the Proof-of-Breeding Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This stack monitor system is a coordinated arrangement of hardware and software to monitor four hot cells (8 stacks) during the fuel dissection for the Proof-of-Breeding Project. The cell monitors, which are located in fan lofts, contain a microprocessor, radiation detectors, air flow sensors, and air flow control equipment. Design criteria included maximizing microprocessor control while minimizing the hardware complexity. The monitors have been programmed to produce concentration and total activity release data based on several detector measurements and flow rates. Although each monitor can function independently, a microcomputer can also be used to control each cell monitor including reprogramming if necessary. All programming is software, as opposed to firmware, with machine language for compactness in the cell monitors and Basic language for adaptability in the microcomputer controller

  15. The Effect of NPP's Stack Height to Radiation Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandi, Liliana Yetta; Rohman, Budi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of dose calculation for accidents is to analyze the capability of NPP to maintain the safety of public and workers in case an accident occurs on the Plant in a site. This paper calculates the Loss of Coolant Accident in PWR plant. The calculation results shows that no risks of serious radiation exposure are given to the neighboring public even if such a large accident occurred, and the effect of stack height can be predicted by analysis of the calculation results. The whole dose is calculated for some location (100 m, 300 m, 500 m, 700 m, 900 m, 1500 m, and 2000 m) with three difference stack height i.e. 0 m, 40 m and 100 m. The result of the whole dose calculation is under permitted criteria for whole dose : 0.25 Sv and thyroid dose : 3.0 Sv. The calculation of radiation dose in this paper use EEDCDQ code

  16. Parametric Sensitivity Tests- European PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    performed based on test procedures proposed by a European project, Stack-Test. The sensitivity of a Nafion-based low temperature PEMFC stack’s performance to parametric changes was the main objective of the tests. Four crucial parameters for fuel cell operation were chosen; relative humidity, temperature......As fuel cells are increasingly commercialized for various applications, harmonized and industry-relevant test procedures are necessary to benchmark tests and to ensure comparability of stack performance results from different parties. This paper reports the results of parametric sensitivity tests......, pressure, and stoichiometry at varying current density. Furthermore, procedures for polarization curve recording were also tested both in ascending and descending current directions....

  17. Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A novel full piezoelectric multilayer stacked hybrid actuation/transduction system. The system demonstrates significantly-enhanced electromechanical performance by utilizing the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer stacked negative and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that for this system, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The system consists of at least 2 layers which include electromechanically active components. The layers are arranged such that when electric power is applied, one layer contracts in a transverse direction while the second layer expands in a transverse direction which is perpendicular to the transverse direction of the first layer. An alternate embodiment includes a third layer. In this embodiment, the outer two layers contract in parallel transverse directions while the middle layer expands in a transverse direction which is perpendicular to the transverse direction of the outer layers.

  18. Remote Sensing Image Classification Based on Stacked Denoising Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Focused on the issue that conventional remote sensing image classification methods have run into the bottlenecks in accuracy, a new remote sensing image classification method inspired by deep learning is proposed, which is based on Stacked Denoising Autoencoder. First, the deep network model is built through the stacked layers of Denoising Autoencoder. Then, with noised input, the unsupervised Greedy layer-wise training algorithm is used to train each layer in turn for more robust expressing, characteristics are obtained in supervised learning by Back Propagation (BP neural network, and the whole network is optimized by error back propagation. Finally, Gaofen-1 satellite (GF-1 remote sensing data are used for evaluation, and the total accuracy and kappa accuracy reach 95.7% and 0.955, respectively, which are higher than that of the Support Vector Machine and Back Propagation neural network. The experiment results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of remote sensing image classification.

  19. Radar Target Recognition Based on Stacked Denoising Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feixiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is a key step in radar target recognition. The quality of the extracted features determines the performance of target recognition. However, obtaining the deep nature of the data is difficult using the traditional method. The autoencoder can learn features by making use of data and can obtain feature expressions at different levels of data. To eliminate the influence of noise, the method of radar target recognition based on stacked denoising sparse autoencoder is proposed in this paper. This method can extract features directly and efficiently by setting different hidden layers and numbers of iterations. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to the K-nearest neighbor method and the traditional stacked autoencoder.

  20. Physically Connected Stacked Patch Antenna Design with 100% Bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    Typically, stacked patch antennas are parasitically coupled and provide larger bandwidth than a single patch antenna. Here, we show a stacked patch antenna design where square patches with semi-circular cutouts are physically connected to each other. This arrangement provides 100% bandwidth from 23.9–72.2 GHz with consistent high gain (5 dBi or more) across the entire bandwidth. In another variation, a single patch loaded with a superstrate provides 83.5% bandwidth from 25.6–62.3 GHz. The mechanism of bandwidth enhancement is explained through electromagnetic simulations. Measured reflection coefficient, radiation patterns and gain results confirm the extremely wideband performance of the design.

  1. STACKING ON COMMON REFLECTION SURFACE WITH MULTIPARAMETER TRAVELTIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes V. Luis A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly seismic images are displayed in time domain because the model in depth can be known only in well logs. To produce seismic sections, pre and post stack processing approaches use time or depth velocity models whereas the common reflection method does not, instead it requires a set of parameters established for the first layer. A set of synthetic data of an anticline model, with sources and receivers placed on a flat topography, was used to observe the performance of this method. As result, a better reflector recovering compared against conventional processing sequence was observed.
    The procedure was extended to real data, using a dataset acquired on a zone characterized by mild topography and quiet environment reflectors in the Eastern Colombia planes, observing an enhanced and a better continuity of the reflectors in the CRS stacked section.

  2. Rain Sensor with Stacked Light Waveguide Having Tilted Air Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sensor to detect rain drop on and above waveguide utilizing light deflection and scattering was realized, keeping wide sensing coverage and sensitivity to detect mist accumulation. Proposed sensor structure under stacked light wave guide consisted of light blocking fixture surrounding photodetector and adjacent light source. Tilted air gap between stacked light waveguide and light blocking fixture played major role to increase sensitivity and to enhance linearity. This sensor structure eliminated complex collimating optics, while keeping wide sensing coverage using simple geometry. Detection algorithm based on time-to-intensity transformation process was used to convert raining intensity into countable raining process. Experimental result inside simulated rain chamber showed distinct different response between light rain and normal rain. Application as automobile rain sensor is expected.

  3. Temperature and flow distribution in planar SOFC stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Østenstad

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stack requires the solution of the mass balances of the chemical species, the energy balances, the charge balance and the channel flow equations in order to compute the species concentrations, the temperature distributions, the current density and the channel flows. The unit cell geometry can be taken into account by combining detailed modeling of a unit cell with a homogenized model of a whole stack. In this study the effect of the asymmetric temperature distribution on the channel flows in a conventional cross-flow design has been investigated. The bidirectional cross-flow design is introduced, for which we can show more directional temperature and flow distributions.

  4. 40 CFR 63.7296 - What emission limitations must I meet for battery stacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for battery stacks? 63.7296 Section 63.7296 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission Limitations and Work Practice Standards § 63.7296 What emission limitations must I meet for battery stacks? You must not discharge to the atmosphere any emissions from any...

  5. Investigation of Ruthenium Dissolution in Advanced Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cells Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Firdosy, S.; Koel, B. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed review of the Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cell (DMFC) stack and investigates the Ruthenium that was found at the exit of the stack. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) Pathways for Cell Degradation; 3) Cell Duration Testing; 4) Duration Testing, MEA Analysis; and 5) Stack Degradation Analysis.

  6. Study of Deformation Phenomena in TRIP/TWIP Steels by Acoustic Emission and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderov, M. L.; Segel, C.; Weidner, A.; Biermann, H.; Vinogradov, A. Yu.

    2018-04-01

    Modern metastable steels with TRIP/TWIP effects have a unique set of physical-mechanical properties. They combine both high-strength and high-plasticity characteristics, which is governed by processes activated during deformation, namely, twinning, the formation of stacking faults, and martensitic transformations. To study the behavior of these phenomena in CrMnNi TRIP/TWIP steels and stainless CrNiMo steel, which does not have these effects in the temperature range under study, we used the method of acoustic emission and modern methods of signal processing, including the cluster analysis of spectral-density functions. The results of this study have been compared with a detailed microstructural analysis performed with a scanning electron microscope using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).

  7. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  8. Exact Solutions to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Archetti, Claudia; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    In the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks (DTSPMS) a set of orders is given, each one requiring transportation of one item from a customer in a pickup region to a customer in a delivery region. The vehicle available for the transportation in each region carries a container....... We present different modelling approaches to solving the DTSPMS to optimality and use the solutions obtained to evaluate the quality of previously obtained heuristic solutions....

  9. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  10. Basic design parameters for the new PRR-1 stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopando, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of work done to establish the basic design parameters of the new stack of the Philippine Research Reactor-1 (PRR-1). The work was undertaken to assure that the radioactive air emissions of the PRR-1, under both accident and normal operating conditions, will comply with modern safety practices. The work was done during June and July 1994. (author). 6 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs

  11. Nature and magnitude of aromatic stacking of nucleic acid bases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šponer, Jiří; Riley, K.E.; Hobza, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 19 (2008), s. 2595-2610 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400550510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : quantum chemical calculations * base-stacking * DNA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.064, year: 2008

  12. Automated allocation and configuration of dual stack IP networks

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Wilfried; Vanbrabant, Bart; Hughes, Danny; Joosen, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The manual configuration and management of a modern network infrastructure is an increasingly complex task. This complexity is caused by factors including heterogeneity, a high degree of change and dependencies between configuration parameters. Due to increasing complexity, manual configuration has become time consuming and error prone. This paper proposes an automatic configuration tool for dual stack IP networks that addresses these issues by using high level abstractions to model the netwo...

  13. Correlation and Stacking of Relative Paleointensity and Oxygen Isotope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurcock, P. C.; Channell, J. E.; Lee, D.

    2012-12-01

    The transformation of a depth-series into a time-series is routinely implemented in the geological sciences. This transformation often involves correlation of a depth-series to an astronomically calibrated time-series. Eyeball tie-points with linear interpolation are still regularly used, although these have the disadvantages of being non-repeatable and not based on firm correlation criteria. Two automated correlation methods are compared: the simulated annealing algorithm (Huybers and Wunsch, 2004) and the Match protocol (Lisiecki and Lisiecki, 2002). Simulated annealing seeks to minimize energy (cross-correlation) as "temperature" is slowly decreased. The Match protocol divides records into intervals, applies penalty functions that constrain accumulation rates, and minimizes the sum of the squares of the differences between two series while maintaining the data sequence in each series. Paired relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope records, such as those from IODP Site U1308 and/or reference stacks such as LR04 and PISO, are warped using known warping functions, and then the un-warped and warped time-series are correlated to evaluate the efficiency of the correlation methods. Correlations are performed in tandem to simultaneously optimize RPI and oxygen isotope data. Noise spectra are introduced at differing levels to determine correlation efficiency as noise levels change. A third potential method, known as dynamic time warping, involves minimizing the sum of distances between correlated point pairs across the whole series. A "cost matrix" between the two series is analyzed to find a least-cost path through the matrix. This least-cost path is used to nonlinearly map the time/depth of one record onto the depth/time of another. Dynamic time warping can be expanded to more than two dimensions and used to stack multiple time-series. This procedure can improve on arithmetic stacks, which often lose coherent high-frequency content during the stacking process.

  14. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stacks with Advent TPS Meas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neophytides Stylianos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High power/high energy applications are expected to greatly benefit from high temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs. In this work, a combinatorial approach is presented, in which separately developed and evaluated MEAs, design and engineering are employed to result in reliable and effective stacks operating above 180°C and having the characteristics well matched to applications including auxiliary power, micro combined heat and power, and telecommunication satellites.

  15. Review of the stack discharge active particle contamination problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, H M

    1948-03-22

    Quantities of the order of ten million to 100 million radioactive particles per month were emitted from the stacks over a period of several months. High activity in the range 0.1 to 3..mu..c was probably confined to large carrier particles of corrosion debris from iron ductwork in the separations plant ventilation air system. This report discusses chemical, physical and radiochemical properties of the particles, and possible biological and health effects of exposure to them. (ACR)

  16. Mathematical modeling of a V-stack piezoelectric aileron actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical modeling of aileron actuation that uses piezo V-shaped stacks. The aim of the actuation is the increasing of flutter speed in the context of a control law, in order to widen the flight envelope. In this way the main advantage of such a piezo actuator, the bandwidth is exploited. The mathematical model is obtained based on free body diagrams, and the numerical simulations allow a preliminary sizing of the actuator.

  17. Structure of a stacked anthraquinone–DNA complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luchi, Daniela; Usón, Isabel; Wright, Glenford; Gouyette, Catherine; Subirana, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of the telomeric sequence d(UBrAGG) interacting with an anthraquinone derivative has been solved by MAD. In all previously studied complexes of intercalating drugs, the drug is usually sandwiched between two DNA base pairs. Instead, the present structure looks like a crystal of stacked anthraquinone molecules in which isolated base pairs are intercalated. Unusual base pairs are present in the structure, such as G·G and A·UBr reverse Watson–Crick base pairs. PMID:20823516

  18. Energy level alignment in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Sehati, P.; Braun, S.; Fahlman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the energy level alignment and molecular orientation at the interfaces in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks. We deduced a standing orientation for pentacene grown on Au while we conclude a flat lying geometry for PTCDA grown onto pentacene. We propose that the rough surface of polycrystalline Au induces the standing geometry in pentacene. It is further shown that in situ deposition of PTCDA on pentacene can influence the orientati...

  19. Integrated fuel cell stack shunt current prevention arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Robert P. (Cheshire, CT); Nowak, Michael P. (Bolton, CT)

    1992-01-01

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cells juxtaposed with one another in the stack and each including a pair of plate-shaped anode and cathode electrodes that face one another, and a quantity of liquid electrolyte present at least between the electrodes. A separator plate is interposed between each two successive electrodes of adjacent ones of the fuel cells and is unified therewith into an integral separator plate. Each integral separator plate is provided with a circumferentially complete barrier that prevents flow of shunt currents onto and on an outer peripheral surface of the separator plate. This barrier consists of electrolyte-nonwettable barrier members that are accommodated, prior to the formation of the integral separator plate, in corresponding edge recesses situated at the interfaces between the electrodes and the separator plate proper. Each barrier member extends over the entire length of the associated marginal portion and is flush with the outer periphery of the integral separator plate. This barrier also prevents cell-to-cell migration of any electrolyte that may be present at the outer periphery of the integral separator plate while the latter is incorporated in the fuel cell stack.

  20. Multibands tunneling in AAA-stacked trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redouani, Ilham; Jellal, Ahmed; Bahaoui, Abdelhadi; Bahlouli, Hocine

    2018-04-01

    We study the electronic transport through np and npn junctions for AAA-stacked trilayer graphene. Two kinds of gates are considered where the first is a single gate and the second is a double gate. After obtaining the solutions for the energy spectrum, we use the transfer matrix method to determine the three transmission probabilities for each individual cone τ = 0 , ± 1 . We show that the quasiparticles in AAA-stacked trilayer graphene are not only chiral but also labeled by an additional cone index τ. The obtained bands are composed of three Dirac cones that depend on the chirality indexes. We show that there is perfect transmission for normal or near normal incidence, which is a manifestation of the Klein tunneling effect. We analyze also the corresponding total conductance, which is defined as the sum of the conductance channels in each individual cone. Our results are numerically discussed and compared with those obtained for ABA- and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene.

  1. Guns, Germs and Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Guns, Germs and Steel - A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 years. Suri Venkatachalam. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 84-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Underwater welding of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental basis to understand the behavior of wet underwater welding of steel is introduced. Both the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy concepts are discussed. Modifications of welding consumables and practice are suggested. This chapter promotes further contributions of meatllurgical research to improve and promote wet underwater welding. (orig.)

  3. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  4. SOFC - Manufacture of stacks for test and demonstration related activities, stack and system tests and identification of end user requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Joachim; Primdahl, S.; Boegh Elmose, H.; Weineisen, H.; Richter, A.

    2008-11-15

    The aim of the project was to solve the technical challenges in relation to stack functionality in connection with operation of multi stack assemblies under realistic operating conditions. It was the intention to make a targeted effort with the aim of developing a high performance stack technology suitable for both small and large units. An important part of the project was the testing of stack assemblies up to 10 kW power range with relevant fuel and realistic operation condition in the test facility at HC OErstedvaerket. The manufacturing of stacks in the project was as planned a number of stacks (70 kW) for use in demonstration projects both for single stacks and for multi stack assemblies. The start up of the work on the SOFC test facility at HC OErstedsvaerket (HCV) was delayed due to a late delivery of the unit from the PSO 6385 project. A number of unforeseen events during the project have meant that the SOFC test facility at HCV has not until now been ready for performing tests. The experience gained from the operation of a 20 kW Alpha unit in a co-operation between TOFC and Waertsilae now provides an important contribution to the future multi stack assemblies. The work on identification of end user requirements has resulted in a number of different development priorities for the m-CHP and the Distributed Generation market segments. (au)

  5. On choice of tempered steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, A.A.; Pan'shin, I.F.; Rakhmanov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a graphical method for choosing structural steels, a change in the propagation work of a crack and in the critical temperature of brittleness of 40, 40Kh, 40KhN, and 40KhNM steels, was examined depending on the hardness after hardening and tempering. A diagram enabling to choose the grade of steel for making an article of known dimensions according to the preset values of its mechanical properties has been plotted. The developed selection scheme takes into account the hardenability of steels and the influence of the hardness after thermal treatment on the cold-shortness of steel

  6. Measurements of the LHCb software stack on the ARM architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartik, S Vijay; Couturier, Ben; Clemencic, Marco; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-01-01

    The ARM architecture is a power-efficient design that is used in most processors in mobile devices all around the world today since they provide reasonable compute performance per watt. The current LHCb software stack is designed (and thus expected) to build and run on machines with the x86/x86 6 4 architecture. This paper outlines the process of measuring the performance of the LHCb software stack on the ARM architecture – specifically, the ARMv7 architecture on Cortex-A9 processors from NVIDIA and on full-fledged ARM servers with chipsets from Calxeda – and makes comparisons with the performance on x86 6 4 architectures on the Intel Xeon L5520/X5650 and AMD Opteron 6272. The paper emphasises the aspects of performance per core with respect to the power drawn by the compute nodes for the given performance – this ensures a fair real-world comparison with much more 'powerful' Intel/AMD processors. The comparisons of these real workloads in the context of LHCb are also complemented with the standard synthetic benchmarks HEPSPEC and Coremark. The pitfalls and solutions for the non-trivial task of porting the source code to build for the ARMv7 instruction set are presented. The specific changes in the build process needed for ARM-specific portions of the software stack are described, to serve as pointers for further attempts taken up by other groups in this direction. Cases where architecture-specific tweaks at the assembler lever (both in ROOT and the LHCb software stack) were needed for a successful compile are detailed – these cases are good indicators of where/how the software stack as well as the build system can be made more portable and multi-arch friendly. The experience gained from the tasks described in this paper are intended to i) assist in making an informed choice about ARM-based server solutions as a feasible low-power alternative to the current compute nodes, and ii) revisit the software design and build system for portability and

  7. Challenges in Special Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, G.

    2018-02-01

    Special bar quality [SBQ] is a long steel product where an assured quality is delivered by the steel mill to its customer. The bars have enhanced tolerance to higher stress application and it is demanded for specialised component making. The SBQ bars are sought for component making processing units such as closed die hot forging, hot extrusion, cold forging, machining, heat treatment, welding operations. The final component quality of the secondary processing units depends on the quality maintained at the steel maker end along with quality maintained at the fabricator end. Thus, quality control is ensured at every unit process stages. The various market segments catered to by SBQ steel segment is ever growing and is reviewed. Steel mills need adequate infrastructure and technological capability to make these higher quality steels. Some of the critical stages of processing SBQ and the critical quality maintenance parameters at the steel mill in the manufacture has been brought out.

  8. Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Digges, Thomas

    1966-01-01

    .... Chemical compositions, heat treatments, and some properties and uses are presented for structural steels, tool steels, stainless and heat-resisting steels, precipitation-hardenable stainless steels...

  9. Dose assessment for potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site: NESHAP compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the assessment results for the registered stacks on the Hanford Site for potential emissions, i.e. emissions with no control devices in place. Further, the document will identify those stacks requiring continuous monitoring, i.e. the effective dose equivalent from potential emissions >0.1 mrem/yr. The stack assessment of potential emissions was performed on 84 registered stacks on the Hanford Site. These emission sources represent individual point sources presently registered under Washington Administrative code 246-247 with the Washington Department of Health. The methods used in assessing the potential emissions from the stacks are described

  10. Modelling and Evaluation of Heating Strategies for High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on two different cathode air cooled high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stacks; a 30 cell 400W prototype stack using two bipolar plates per cell, and a 65 cell 1 kW commercial stack using one bipolar plate per cell. The work seeks to examine the use of different...... model to simulate the temperature development of a fuel cell stack during heating can be used for assistance in system and control design. The heating strategies analyzed and tested reduced the startup time of one of the fuel cell stacks from 1 h to about 6 min....

  11. Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance (SOCTESQA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auer, C.; Lang, M.; Couturier, K.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU-funded project “SOCTESQA” partners from Europe and Singapore are working together to develop uniform and industry wide test procedures and protocols for solid oxide cells and stacks SOC cell/stack assembly. New application fields which are based on the operation of the SOC cell/stack as......In the EU-funded project “SOCTESQA” partners from Europe and Singapore are working together to develop uniform and industry wide test procedures and protocols for solid oxide cells and stacks SOC cell/stack assembly. New application fields which are based on the operation of the SOC cell...

  12. Theory and experiment on electromagnetic-wave-propagation velocities in stacked superconducting tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Ustinov, A. V.; Kohlstedt, H.

    1994-01-01

    Characteristic velocities of the electromagnetic waves propagating in vertically stacked Josephson transmission are theoretically discussed. An equation for solving n velocities of the waves in an n Josephson-junction stack is derived. The solutions of two- and threefold stacks are especially...... focused on. Furthermore, under the assumption that all parameters of the layers are equal, analytic solutions for a generic N-fold stack are presented. The velocities of the waves in two- and three-junction stacks by Nb-Al-AlOx-Nb systems are experimentally obtained by measuring the cavity resonance...

  13. The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J.

    2012-02-15

    For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a

  14. High-strength shape memory steels alloyed with nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullakko, K.; Jakovenko, P.T.; Gavriljuk, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    Since shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si systems was observed, increasing attention has been paid to iron based shape memory alloys due to their great technological potential. Properties of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys have been improved by alloying with Cr, Ni, Co and C. A significant improvement on shape memory, mechanical and corrosion properties is attained by introducing nitrogen in Fe-Mn-Si based systems. By increasing the nitrogen content, strength of the matrix increases and the stacking fault energy decreases, which promote the formation of stress induced martensite and decrease permanent slip. The present authors have shown that nitrogen alloyed shape memory steels exhibit recoverable strains of 2.5--4.2% and recovery stresses of 330 MPa. In some cases, stresses over 700 MPa were attained at room temperature after cooling a constrained sample. Yield strengths of these steels can be as high as 1,100 MPa and tensile strengths over 1,500 MPa with elongations of 30%. In the present study, effect of nitrogen alloying on shape memory and mechanical properties of Fe-Mn-Si, Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni and Fe-Mn-Cr-Ni-V alloys is studied. Nitrogen alloying is shown to exhibit a beneficial effect on shape memory properties and strength of these steels

  15. Cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviors of Hadfield manganese steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, F.C., E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Long, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Lv, B. [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2014-01-03

    The cyclic deformation characteristics and fatigue behaviors of Hadfield manganese steel have been investigated by means of its ability to memorize strain and stress history. Detailed studies were performed on the strain-controlled low cycle fatigue (LCF) and stress-controlled high cycle fatigue (HCF). Initial cyclic hardening to saturation or peak stress followed by softening to fracture occurred in LCF. Internal stress made the dominant contribution to the fatigue crack propagation until failure. Effective stress evolution revealed the existence of C–Mn clusters with short-range ordering in Hadfield manganese steel and demonstrated that the interaction between C atoms in the C–Mn cluster and dislocation was essential for its cyclic hardening. The developing/developed dislocation cells and stacking faults were the main cyclic deformation microstructures on the fractured sample surface in LCF and HCF, which manifested that fatigue failure behavior of Hadfield manganese steel was induced by plastic deformation during strain-controlled or stress-controlled testing.

  16. Deformation induced martensite in AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, N.; Solomon, I.

    2010-01-01

    The forming process leads to a considerable differentiation of the strain field within the billet, and finally causes the non-uniform distribution of the total strain, microstructure and properties of the material over the product cross-section. This paper focus on the influence of stress states on the deformation-induced a martensitic transformation in AISI Type 316 austenitic stainless steel. The formation of deformation-induced martensite is related to the austenite (g) instability at temperatures close or below room temperature. The structural transformation susceptibility is correlated to the stacking fault energy (SFE), which is a function not only of the chemical composition, but also of the testing temperature. Austenitic stainless steels possess high plasticity and can be easily cold formed. However, during cold processing the hardening phenomena always occurs. Nevertheless, the deformation-induced martensite transformation may enhance the rate of work-hardening and it may or may not be in favour of further material processing. Due to their high corrosion resistance and versatile mechanical properties the austenitic stainless steels are used in pressing of heat exchanger plates. However, this corrosion resistance is influenced by the amount of martensite formed during processing. In order to establish the links between total plastic strain, and martensitic transformation, the experimental tests were followed by numerical simulation. (Author) 21 refs.

  17. User Driven Image Stacking for ODI Data and Beyond via a Highly Customizable Web Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, S.; Gopu, A.; Young, M. D.; Kotulla, R.

    2015-09-01

    While some astronomical archives have begun serving standard calibrated data products, the process of producing stacked images remains a challenge left to the end-user. The benefits of astronomical image stacking are well established, and dither patterns are recommended for almost all observing targets. Some archives automatically produce stacks of limited scientific usefulness without any fine-grained user or operator configurability. In this paper, we present PPA Stack, a web based stacking framework within the ODI - Portal, Pipeline, and Archive system. PPA Stack offers a web user interface with built-in heuristics (based on pointing, filter, and other metadata information) to pre-sort images into a set of likely stacks while still allowing the user or operator complete control over the images and parameters for each of the stacks they wish to produce. The user interface, designed using AngularJS, provides multiple views of the input dataset and parameters, all of which are synchronized in real time. A backend consisting of a Python application optimized for ODI data, wrapped around the SWarp software, handles the execution of stacking workflow jobs on Indiana University's Big Red II supercomputer, and the subsequent ingestion of the combined images back into the PPA archive. PPA Stack is designed to enable seamless integration of other stacking applications in the future, so users can select the most appropriate option for their science.

  18. Stacking-dependent electronic property of trilayer graphene epitaxially grown on Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Yande; Xiao, Wende, E-mail: wdxiao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn; Chen, Hui; Wang, Dongfei; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hong-Jun, E-mail: wdxiao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-28

    The growth, atomic structure, and electronic property of trilayer graphene (TLG) on Ru(0001) were studied by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in combined with tight-binding approximation (TBA) calculations. TLG on Ru(0001) shows a flat surface with a hexagonal lattice due to the screening effect of the bottom two layers and the AB-stacking in the top two layers. The coexistence of AA- and AB-stacking in the bottom two layers leads to three different stacking orders of TLG, namely, ABA-, ABC-, and ABB-stacking. STS measurements combined with TBA calculations reveal that the density of states of TLG with ABC- and ABB-stacking is characterized by one and two sharp peaks near to the Fermi level, respectively, in contrast to the V-shaped feature of TLG with ABA-stacking. Our work demonstrates that TLG on Ru(0001) might be an ideal platform for exploring stacking-dependent electronic properties of graphene.

  19. Steel for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A steel contains, in percent by weight, the following constituents: carbon from 0.13 to 0.18, silicon from 0.17 to 0.37, manganese from 0.30 to 0.60, chromium from 1.7 to 2.4, nickel from 1.0 to 1.5, molybdenum from 0.5 to 0.7, vanadium from 0.05 to 0.12, aluminium from 0.01 to 0.035, nitrogen from 0.05 to 0.012, copper from 0.11 to 0.20, arsenic from 0.0035 to 0.0055, iron and impurities, the balance. This steel is preferable for use in the manufacture of nuclear reactors. 1 table

  20. Advances in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Jayakumar, T.; Saibaba, Saroja; Sivaprasad, P.V.; Shankar, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book covers a broad spectrum of topics spanning the entire life cycle of stainless steel-from alloy design and characterization to engineering design, fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, quality assurance of components, in-service performance assessment, life prediction and finally failure analysis of materials and components. The contents provide useful feedback for further developments aimed at effective utilization of this class of materials. The book comprises articles that bring out contemporary developments in stainless steels and is thematically classified into the following sections. 1. Component design, modelling and structural integrity, 2. Manufacturing technology, 3. Property evaluation, 4. Alloy development and applications, 5. NDE methods, 6. Corrosion and surface modification. The book commences with articles on component design and structural integrity, thus opening up the areas of challenge for researchers and academia. The articles in the book relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.G.; Fly, G.W.; Baker, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Steel Containment Buckling program is in its fourth phase of work directed at the evaluation of the effects of the structural failure mode of steel containments when the membrane stresses are compressive. The structural failure mode for this state of stress is instability or buckling. The program to date has investigated: (1) the effect on overall buckling capacity of the ASME area replacement method for reinforcing around circular penetrations; (2) a set of benchmark experiments on ring-stiffened shells having reinforced and framed penetrations; (3) large and small scale experiments on knuckle region buckling from internal pressure and post-buckling behavior to failure for vessel heads having torispherical geometries; and (4) buckling under time-dependent loadings (dynamic buckling). The first two investigations are complete, the knuckle buckling experimental efforts are complete with data analysis and reporting in progress, and the dynamic buckling experimental and analytical work is in progress

  2. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear steel containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require a dynamic capacity reduction factor to be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are suggested

  3. Reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use

  4. Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaoudi, R

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels in performed in support of the RVP integrity assessment. Its main objectives are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate the applied methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  5. Steele Richardson Olszewski syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashree S Gokhale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease and its plus syndromes are an important cause of morbidity in the geriatric age group. Its plus syndromes show a myriad of clinical features characterized by progressive symptoms. Here we present a 65-year-old woman with progressive "Parkinsonian-like features," i.e., mask-like face, slowness of all movements and tendency to fall, and difficulty in eye movements, leading to the diagnosis of Steele Richardson Olszewski Syndrome or progressive supranuclear palsy.

  6. Steels and welding nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessa, M.; Milella, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This ENEA Data-Base regards mechanical properties, chemical composition and heat treatments of nuclear pressure vessel materials: type A533-B, A302-B, A508 steel plates and forgings, submerged arc welds and HAZ before and after nuclear irradiation. Irradiation experiments were generally performed in high flux material test reactors. Data were collected from international available literature about water nuclear reactors pressure vessel materials embrittlement

  7. Microseismic event location by master-event waveform stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Dahm, T.

    2016-12-01

    Waveform stacking location methods are nowadays extensively used to monitor induced seismicity monitoring assoiciated with several underground industrial activities such as Mining, Oil&Gas production and Geothermal energy exploitation. In the last decade a significant effort has been spent to develop or improve methodologies able to perform automated seismological analysis for weak events at a local scale. This effort was accompanied by the improvement of monitoring systems, resulting in an increasing number of large microseismicity catalogs. The analysis of microseismicity is challenging, because of the large number of recorded events often characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio. A significant limitation of the traditional location approaches is that automated picking is often done on each seismogram individually, making little or no use of the coherency information between stations. In order to improve the performance of the traditional location methods, in the last year, alternative approaches have been proposed. These methods exploits the coherence of the waveforms recorded at different stations and do not require any automated picking procedure. The main advantage of this methods relies on their robustness even when the recorded waveforms are very noisy. On the other hand, like any other location method, the location performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the available velocity model. When dealing with inaccurate velocity models, in fact, location results can be affected by large errors. Here we will introduce a new automated waveform stacking location method which is less dependent on the knowledge of the velocity model and presents several benefits, which improve the location accuracy: 1) it accounts for phase delays due to local site effects, e.g. surface topography or variable sediment thickness 2) theoretical velocity model are only used to estimate travel times within the source volume, and not along the whole source-sensor path. We

  8. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  9. Stacking fault tetrahedra formation in the neighbourhood of grain boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Samaras, M; Van Swygenhoven, H; Victoria, M

    2003-01-01

    Large scale molecular dynamics computer simulations are performed to study the role of the grain boundary (GB) during the cascade evolution in irradiated nanocrystalline Ni. At all primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies in cascades near GBs, the damage produced after cooling down is vacancy dominated. Truncated stacking fault tetrahedra (TSFTs) are easily formed at 10 keV and higher PKA energies. At the higher energies a complex partial dislocation network forms, consisting of TSFTs. The GB acts as an interstitial sink without undergoing major structural changes.

  10. Nanocomposite Materials of Alternately Stacked C60 Monolayer and Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ishikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized the novel nanocomposite consisting alternately of a stacked single graphene sheet and a C60 monolayer by using the graphite intercalation technique in which alkylamine molecules help intercalate large C60 molecules into the graphite. Moreover, it is found that the intercalated C60 molecules can rotate in between single graphene sheets by using C13 NMR measurements. This preparation method provides a general way for intercalating huge fullerene molecules into graphite, which will lead to promising materials with novel mechanical, physical, and electrical properties.

  11. Nanocomposite Materials of Alternately Stacked C60 Monolayer and Graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Miura, K.; Kamiya, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; Suzuki, M.; Kuwahara, D.; Sasaki, N.

    2010-01-01

    We synthesized the novel nanocomposite consisting alternately of a stacked single graphene sheet and a C 60 monolayer by using the graphite intercalation technique in which alkylamine molecules help intercalate large C 60 molecules into the graphite. Moreover, it is found that the intercalated C 60 molecules can rotate in between single graphene sheets by using C 13 NMR measurements. This preparation method provides a general way for intercalating huge fullerene molecules into graphite, which will lead to promising materials with novel mechanical, physical, and electrical properties.

  12. Radiation Induced Removal of Stacking Faults in Quenched Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergenlid, U

    1965-12-15

    The effect of neutron irradiation on specimens of quenched aluminium containing Frank sessile dislocation loops has been studied by means of electron microscopy. The Frank loops were found to trans. form into perfect loops at doses less than 10{sup 17} nvt. A possible reason for the removal of the stacking faults is the displacement of a number of atoms at the faults, leading to the passage of a Shockley partial. Unfaulting induced by stress fields from dislocations, released during the irradiation, can also be important.

  13. CSNS computing environment Based on OpenStack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yakang; Qi, Fazhi; Chen, Gang; Wang, Yanming; Hong, Jianshu

    2017-10-01

    Cloud computing can allow for more flexible configuration of IT resources and optimized hardware utilization, it also can provide computing service according to the real need. We are applying this computing mode to the China Spallation Neutron Source(CSNS) computing environment. So, firstly, CSNS experiment and its computing scenarios and requirements are introduced in this paper. Secondly, the design and practice of cloud computing platform based on OpenStack are mainly demonstrated from the aspects of cloud computing system framework, network, storage and so on. Thirdly, some improvments to openstack we made are discussed further. Finally, current status of CSNS cloud computing environment are summarized in the ending of this paper.

  14. Holographic shell model: Stack data structure inside black holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Aharon

    2014-03-01

    Rather than tiling the black hole horizon by Planck area patches, we suggest that bits of information inhabit, universally and holographically, the entire black core interior, a bit per a light sheet unit interval of order Planck area difference. The number of distinguishable (tagged by a binary code) configurations, counted within the context of a discrete holographic shell model, is given by the Catalan series. The area entropy formula is recovered, including Cardy's universal logarithmic correction, and the equipartition of mass per degree of freedom is proven. The black hole information storage resembles, in the count procedure, the so-called stack data structure.

  15. CaPiTo: protocol stacks for services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    CaPiTo allows the modelling of service-oriented applications using process algebras at three levels of abstraction. The abstract level focuses on the key functionality of the services; the plug-in level shows how to obtain security using standardised protocol stacks; finally, the concrete level...... allows to consider how security is obtained using asymmetric and symmetric cryptographic primitives. The CaPiTo approach therefore caters for a variety of developers that need to cooperate on designing and implementing service-oriented applications. We show how to formally analyse CaPiTo specifications...

  16. Report on radiation exposure of lead-scintillator stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    A stack of lead and scintillator was placed in a neutral beam obtained from targeting 800 GeV protons. Small pieces of film containing radiochromic dye were placed adjacent to the layers of scintillator for the purpose of measuring the radiation dose to the scintillator. Our motivation was to calibrate the radiation dose obtainable in this manner for future tests of scintillator for SSC experiments and to relate dose to flux to check absolute normalization for calculations. We also observed several other radiation effects which should be considered for both damage and compensation in a calorimeter

  17. Heteroplasmon hybridization in stacked complementary plasmo-photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Choi, Bongseok

    2015-03-11

    We constructed plasmo-photonic crystals in which efficient light-trapping, plasmonic resonances couple with photonic guided resonances of large density of states and high-quality factor. We have numerically and experimentally shown that heteroplasmon hybrid modes emerge in stacked complementary (SC) plasmo-photonic crystals. The resonant electromagnetic-field distributions evidence that the two hybrid modes originate from two different heteroplasmons, exhibiting a large energy splitting of 300 meV. We further revealed a series of plasmo-photonic modes in the SC crystals.

  18. Introduction of a stack-phantom for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, C.; Schnell, P.O.; Jacobsson, H.; Engelin, L.; Danielsson, A.M.; Johansson, L.; Larsson, S.A.; Pagani, M.; Stone-Elander, S.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We have previously developed a new flexible phantom system for SPECT, i.e. 'the stack phantom' (Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 27, No.2, 131-139, 2000). The unique feature of this phantom system is that it allows studies with, as well as without major degrading impacts from photon attenuation and Compton scattering. The specific aim of this work was to further develop the system with special reference to PET. Material and methods: The principle of the phantom concept is discrete sampling of 3D objects by a series of equidistant 2D planes. The 2D planes are a digitised set of 2D sections, representing the radioactivity distribution in the object of interest. Using a grey scale related to the radioactivity concentration, selected images are printed by radioactive ink on thin paper sheets and stacked into the 3D structure with low-density or with tissue equivalent material in between. Using positron emitting radionuclides, the paper sheets alone may not be sufficiently thick to avoid annihilation losses due to escaping positrons. In order to investigate the amount of additional material needed, a spot of radioactivity ( 18 F) was printed out and subsequently covered by adding thin plastic films (0.055mm) on both sides of the paper. Short PET scans (ECAT 921) were performed and the count-rate was registered after each additional layer of plastic cover. A first prototype, a cylindrical cold-spot phantom was constructed on the basis of these results. Nine identical sheets were printed out and first mounted in between 4 mm plates of polystyrene (density 1.04 g/cm 3 ). After a PET-scan, the paper sheets were re-mounted in between a low-density material (Divinycell, H30, density 0.03 g/cm 3 ) before repeating the PET scan. Results: For 18 F, the number of registered annihilation photons increased with increasing number of plastic sheets from 70% for the pure paper sheet to about 100% with 0.5 mm plastic cover on each side. PET of the low-density stacked cold spot phantom

  19. Improved DNA clamps by stacking to adjacent nucleobases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatthalla, M.I.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Three or four aromatic rings interconnected by acetylene bridges form a stiff conjugated system with sufficient conformational freedom to make it useful to link together the two strands of a DNA clamp. Upon targeting a ssDNA, the conformational flexibility allows better stacking of the linker...... to the underlying non-planar base triplet in the formed triplex. This type of triplexes has a substantially higher thermal melting temperature which can be further improved by inserting locked nucleic acids (LNAs) in the Hoogsteen part of the clamp. An extremely high sensitivity to mismatches is observed...

  20. Verification of the Wind Response of a Stack Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Makovička

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with verification analysis of the wind response of a power plant stack structure. Over a period two weeks the actual history of the dynamic response of the structure, and the direction and intensity of the actual wind load was measured, reported and processed with the use of a computer. The resulting data was used to verify the design stage data of the structure, with the natural frequencies and modes assumed by the design and with the dominant effect of other sources on the site. In conclusion the standard requirements are compared with the actual results of measurements and their expansion to the design load.

  1. Radiation Induced Removal of Stacking Faults in Quenched Aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergenlid, U.

    1965-12-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on specimens of quenched aluminium containing Frank sessile dislocation loops has been studied by means of electron microscopy. The Frank loops were found to trans. form into perfect loops at doses less than 10 17 nvt. A possible reason for the removal of the stacking faults is the displacement of a number of atoms at the faults, leading to the passage of a Shockley partial. Unfaulting induced by stress fields from dislocations, released during the irradiation, can also be important

  2. Pressurized Operation of a Planar Solid Oxide Cell Stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Sun, Xiufu; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    , pressurized SOEC based electrolyzers can become more efficient both energy- and cost-wise than PEM and Alkaline systems. Pressurization of SOFCs can significantly increase the cell power density and reduce the size of auxiliary components. In the present study, a SOC stack was successfully operated......Solid oxide cells (SOCs) can be operated either as fuel cells (SOFC) to convert fuels to electricity or as electrolyzers (SOEC) to convert electricity to fuels such as hydrogen or methane. Pressurized operation of SOCs provide several benefits on both cell and system level. If successfully matured...

  3. Stacking fault-mediated ultrastrong nanocrystalline Ti thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Cui, J. C.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we prepared nanocrystalline (NC) Ti thin films with abundant stacking faults (SFs), which were created via partial dislocations emitted from grain boundaries and which were insensitive to grain sizes. By employing the nanoindentation test, we investigated the effects of SFs and grain sizes on the strength of NC Ti films at room temperature. The high density of SFs significantly strengthens NC Ti films, via dislocation-SF interactions associated with the reported highest Hall-Petch slope of ˜20 GPa nm1/2, to an ultrahigh strength of ˜4.4 GPa, approaching ˜50% of its ideal strength.

  4. Magnetoband structures of AB-stacked zigzag nanographite ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.P.; Chiu, C.W.; Shyu, F.L.; Chen, R.B.; Lin, M.F

    2002-12-30

    Magnetoband structures of AB-stacked zigzag nanographite ribbons are studied by the tight-binding model. The magnetic field changes band width, energy space, and energy dispersions (the produce of Landau subbands and Landau levels). It causes many zero energy points. Such points and corresponding localized states are studied in detail. There are certain important differences between localized states and edge states. Oscillation period of Landau subbands are determined by these points. The interribbon interactions also affect magnetoband structures, such as energy dispersions, band width, oscillation period of Landau subbands, and flux dependence of Hofstadter butterflies.

  5. Numerical model for stack gas diffusion in terrain with buildings. Variations in air flow and gas concentration with additional building near stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sada, Koichi; Michioka, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoichi; Komiyama, Sumito; Numata, Kunio

    2009-01-01

    A numerical simulation method for predicting atmospheric flow and stack gas diffusion using a calculation domain of several km around a stack under complex terrain conditions containing buildings has been developed. The turbulence closure technique using a modified k-ε-type model without a hydrostatic approximation was used for flow calculation, and some of the calculation grids near the ground were treated as buildings using a terrain-following coordinate system. Stack gas diffusion was predicted using the Lagrangian particle model, that is, the stack gas was represented by trajectories of released particles. The developed numerical model was applied to a virtual terrain and building conditions in this study prior to the applications of a numerical model for real terrain and building conditions. The height of the additional building (H a ), located about 200 m leeward from the stack, was varied (i.e., H a =0, 20, 30 and 50 m), and its effects on airflow and the concentration of stack gas at a released height of 75 m were calculated. Furthermore, effective stack height, which was used in the safety analysis of atmospheric diffusion for nuclear facilities in Japan, was evaluated from the calculated ground-level concentration of stack gas. The cavity region behind the additional building was calculated, and turbulence near the cavity was observed to decrease when the additional building was present. According to these flow variations with the additional building, tracer gas tended to diffuse to the ground surface rapidly with the additional building at the leeward position of the cavity, and the ground-level stack gas concentration along the plume axis also increased with the height of the additional building. However, the variations in effective stack height with the height of the additional building were relatively small and ranged within several m in this study. (author)

  6. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  7. The difference in thermal and mechanical stabilities of austenite between carbon- and nitrogen-added metastable austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumura, Takuro; Nakada, Nobuo; Tsuchiyama, Toshihiro; Takaki, Setsuo; Koyano, Tamotsu; Adachi, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of carbon and nitrogen addition on the stability of austenite, athermal and deformation-induced α′-martensitic transformation behaviors were investigated using type 304-metastable austenitic stainless steels containing 0.1 mass% carbon or nitrogen. The difference in the development of the deformation microstructure in particular is discussed in terms of the stacking-fault energy (SFE). Since carbon-added steel has a lower SFE than that of nitrogen-added steel, deformation twins and ε-martensite were preferentially formed in the carbon-added steel, whereas a dislocation cell structure developed in the nitrogen-added steel. Crystallographic analysis using the electron backscatter diffraction method revealed that the difference in the deformation microstructure has a significant influence on the growth behavior of deformation-induced α′-martensite, that is, the interface of the deformation twins and ε-martensite suppresses the growth of α′-martensite, whereas dislocation cell boundaries are not effective. As a result, the mechanical stability of carbon-added steel is slightly higher than that of nitrogen-added steel, although the thermal stabilization effect of carbon is much lower than that of nitrogen

  8. Hydrogen effects in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on stainless steels have been reviewed and are summarized in this paper. Discussion covers hydrogen solution and transport in stainless steels as well as the effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture under various loading conditions. Damage is caused also by helium that arises from decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. Austenitic, ferritic, martensite, and precipitation-hardenable stainless steels are included in the discussion. 200 references

  9. End plate for e.g. solid oxide fuel cell stack, sets thermal expansion coefficient of material to predetermined value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    .05-0.3 mm. USE - End plate for solid oxide fuel cell stack (claimed). Can also be used in polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack and direct methanol fuel cell stack. ADVANTAGE - The robustness of the end plate is improved. The structure of the end plate is simplified. The risk of delamination of the stack...

  10. Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothmann, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces

  11. Stacking fault tetrahedron induced plasticity in copper single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liang, E-mail: lz592@uowmail.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Lu, Cheng, E-mail: chenglu@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Tieu, Kiet; Su, Lihong; Zhao, Xing [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Pei, Linqing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Stacking fault tetrahedron (SFT) is the most common type of vacancy clustered defects in fcc metals and alloys, and can play an important role in the mechanical properties of metallic materials. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to investigate the incipience of plasticity and the underlying atomic mechanisms in copper single crystals with SFT. Different deformation mechanisms of SFT were reported due to the crystal orientations and loading directions (compression and tension). The results showed that the incipient plasticity in crystals with SFT resulted from the heterogeneous dislocation nucleation from SFT, so the stress required for plastic deformation was less than that needed for perfect single crystals. Three crystal orientations ([1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1]) were specified in this study because they can represent most of the typical deformation mechanisms of SFT. MD simulations revealed that the structural transformation of SFT was frequent under the applied loading; a metastable SFT structure and the collapse of SFT were usually observed. The structural transformation resulted in a different reduction of yield stress in compression and tension, and also caused a decreased or reversed compression/tension asymmetry. Compressive stress can result in the unfaulting of Frank loop in some crystal orientations. According to the elastic theory of dislocation, the process of unfaulting was closely related to the size of the dislocation loop and the stacking fault energy.

  12. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F μ factor. The calculated value of F μ exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F μ value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', R w or F μ for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

  13. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  14. Correlated lateral phase separations in stacks of lipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Takuma, E-mail: hoshino-takuma@ed.tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Komura, Shigeyuki, E-mail: komura@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Andelman, David, E-mail: andelman@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-28

    Motivated by the experimental study of Tayebi et al. [Nat. Mater. 11, 1074 (2012)] on phase separation of stacked multi-component lipid bilayers, we propose a model composed of stacked two-dimensional Ising spins. We study both its static and dynamical features using Monte Carlo simulations with Kawasaki spin exchange dynamics that conserves the order parameter. We show that at thermodynamical equilibrium, due to strong inter-layer correlations, the system forms a continuous columnar structure for any finite interaction across adjacent layers. Furthermore, the phase separation shows a faster dynamics as the inter-layer interaction is increased. This temporal behavior is mainly due to an effective deeper temperature quench because of the larger value of the critical temperature, T{sub c}, for larger inter-layer interaction. When the temperature ratio, T/T{sub c}, is kept fixed, the temporal growth exponent does not increase and even slightly decreases as a function of the increased inter-layer interaction.

  15. Migration velocity analysis using pre-stack wave fields

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-08-25

    Using both image and data domains to perform velocity inversion can help us resolve the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model, usually in that order. This translates to integrating migration velocity analysis into full waveform inversion. The migration velocity analysis part of the inversion often requires computing extended images, which is expensive when using conventional methods. As a result, we use pre-stack wavefield (the double-square-root formulation) extrapolation, which includes the extended information (subsurface offsets) naturally, to make the process far more efficient and stable. The combination of the forward and adjoint pre-stack wavefields provides us with update options that can be easily conditioned to improve convergence. We specifically use a modified differential semblance operator to split the extended image into a residual part for classic differential semblance operator updates and the image (Born) modelling part, which provides reflections for higher resolution information. In our implementation, we invert for the velocity and the image simultaneously through a dual objective function. Applications to synthetic examples demonstrate the features of the approach.

  16. Dynamic Strain Aging Phenomena and Tensile Response of Medium-Mn TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Daniel M.; Van Aken, David C.

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic strain aging (DSA) and rapid work hardening are typical behaviors observed in medium-Mn transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel. Three alloys with manganese ranging from 10.2 to 13.8 wt pct with calculated room temperature stacking fault energies varying from - 2.1 to 0.7 mJ/m2 were investigated. Significant serrations were observed in the stress-strain behavior for two of the steels and the addition of 4.6 wt pct chromium was effective in significantly reducing the occurrence of DSA. Addition of chromium to the alloy reduced DSA by precipitation of M23(C,N)6 during batch annealing at 873 K (600 °C) for 20 hours. Three distinct DSA mechanisms were identified: one related to manganese ordering in stacking faults associated with ɛ-martensite and austenite interface, with activation energies for the onset and termination of DSA being 145 and 277 kJ/mol. A second mechanism was associated with carbon diffusion in γ-austenite where Mn-C bonding added to the total binding energy, and activation energies of 88 and 155 kJ/mol were measured for the onset and termination of DSA. A third mechanism was attributed to dislocation pinning and unpinning by nitrogen in α-ferrite with activation energies of 64 and 123 kJ/mol being identified. Tensile behaviors of the three medium manganese steels were studied in both the hot band and batch annealed after cold working conditions. Ultimate tensile strengths ranged from 1310 to 1404 MPa with total elongation of 24.1 to 34.1 pct. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the transformation response of the steels using interrupted tensile tests at room temperature. All three of the processed steels showed evidence of two-stage TRIP where γ-austenite first transformed to ɛ-martensite, and subsequently transformed to α-martensite.

  17. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are expected to change the landscape of power generation over the next ten years. For this to be realized one of the most significant challenges to be met for stationary systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay is desired. This project conducted fundamental studies on the durability of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and fuel cell stack systems with the expectation that knowledge gained from this project will be applied toward the design and manufacture of MEAs and stack systems to meet DOE’s 2010 stationary fuel cell stack systems targets. The focus of this project was PEM fuel cell durability – understanding the issues that limit MEA and fuel cell system lifetime, developing mitigation strategies to address the lifetime issues and demonstration of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies by system testing. To that end, several discoveries were made that contributed to the fundamental understanding of MEA degradation mechanisms. (1) The classically held belief that membrane degradation is solely due to end-group “unzipping” is incorrect; there are other functional groups present in the ionomer that are susceptible to chemical attack. (2) The rate of membrane degradation can be greatly slowed or possibly eliminated through the use of additives that scavenge peroxide or peroxyl radicals. (3) Characterization of GDL using dry gases is incorrect due to the fact that fuel cells operate utilizing humidified gases. The proper characterization method involves using wet gas streams and measuring capillary pressure as demonstrated in this project. (4) Not all Platinum on carbon catalysts are created equally – the major factor impacting catalyst durability is the type of carbon used as the support. (5) System operating conditions have a significant impact of lifetime – the lifetime was increased by an order of magnitude by changing the load profile while all other variables remain

  18. Electron microscopy and plastic deformation of industrial austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Barry

    1976-01-01

    The different mechanisms of plastic deformation observed in austenitic stainless steels are described and the role of transmission electron microscopy in the elucidation of the mechanisms is presented. At temperatures below 0,5Tm, different variants of dislocation glide are competitive: slip of perfect and partial dislocations, mechanical twinning and strain-induced phase transformations. The predominance of one or other of these mechanisms can be rationalized in terms of the temperature and composition dependence of the stacking fault energy and the thermodynamic stability of the austenite. At temperatures above 0,5Tm dislocation climb and diffusion of point defects become increasingly important and at these temperatures recovery, recrystallization and precipitation can also occur during deformation [fr

  19. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  20. Radiation damage and life-time evaluation of RBMK graphite stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, P A; Chugunov, O K; Manevsky, V N; Karpukhin, V I [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation). Reactor Material Div.

    1996-08-01

    At the present time there are 11 NPP units with RBMK reactors in operation in Russia, with the oldest now in operation 22 years. Design life-time of the RBMK-1000 reactor is 30 years. This paper addresses the evaluation of RBMK graphite stack life-time. It is the practice in Russia to evaluate the reliability of the channel reactor graphite stack using at least three criteria: degradation of physical-mechanical properties of graphite, preservation of the graphite brick integrity, and degradation of the graphite stack as a structure. Stack life-time evaluation by different criteria indicates that the most realistic approach may be realized on the basis of the criteria of brick cracking and degradation of the graphite stack as a structure. The RBMK reactor graphite stack life-time depends on its temperature and for different units it may be different. (author). 2 refs, 10 figs.

  1. Steels for nuclear power. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohusova, O.; Brumovsky, M.; Cukr, B.; Hatle, Z.; Protiva, K.; Stefec, R.; Urban, A.; Zidek, M.

    1976-01-01

    The principles are listed of nuclear reactor operation and the reactors are classified by neutron energy, fuel and moderator designs, purpose and type of moderator. The trend and the development of light-water reactor applications are described. The fundamental operating parameters of the WWER type reactors are indicated. The effect is discussed of neutron radiation on reactor structural materials. The characteristics are described of steel corrosion due to the contact of the steel with steam or sodium in the primary coolant circuit. The reasons for stress corrosion are given and the effects of radiation on corrosion are listed. The requirements and criteria are given for the choice of low-alloy steel for the manufacture of pressure vessels, volume compensators, steam generators, cooling conduits and containment. A survey is given of most frequently used steels for pressure vessels and of the mechanical and structural properties thereof. The basic requirements for the properties of steel used in the primary coolant circuit are as follows: sufficient strength in operating temperature, toughness, good weldability, resistance to corrosion and low brittleness following neutron irradiation. The materials are listed used for the components of light-water and breeder reactors. The production of corrosion-resistant steels is discussed with a view to raw materials, technology, steel-making processes, melting processes, induction furnace steel-making, and to selected special problems of the chemical composition of steels. The effects are mainly discussed of lead, bismuth and tin as well as of some other elements on hot working of high-alloy steels and on their structure. The problems of corrosion-resistant steel welding and of pressure vessel cladding are summed up. Also discussed is the question of the concept and safeguards of the safety of nuclear installation operation and a list is presented of most commonly used nondestructive materials testing methods. The current

  2. Improved solid oxide fuel cell stacks: Power density, durability and modularity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund Frandsen, H.; Kiebach, W.R.; Hoeegh, J. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents the work performed within the project PSO2009-1-10207 during the period from 01-04-2009 - 31-06-2010. The report is divided into three parts covering the three work packages: Stack components; Stacks and durability; and Large SOFC systems: modularity and scalability. The project contains 38 milestones and all milestones in the project have been either fully or partly fulfilled. Two major achievements within this project concern the robustness towards dynamic operations and implementation of cells with more active cathodes: Within this project tools to evaluate and test SOFC stacks with respect to robustness during dynamic operations has been developed. From stack tests performed under dynamic conditions it was observed that the effect on degradation and failure seemed to be very little. The thermo-mechanical models developed in this project in combination with the dynamic stack model was used in combination to understand why. The results clearly showed that the hardest stress field applied to the cells arises from the steady state operating point rather than from the dynamic conditions. This is a very promising result concerning the fact that especially small CHP units in a commercial system will experience dynamic conditions from load cycling and thermal cycling. A new type of cell with a more active cathode has been formulated and introduced into the TOFC stacks in this project. The aim was to improve the effect of the stack by 25 %. However, compared to a standard stack with the ''old'' cells, the stack effect was increased by 44% - from a cross flow stack with standard 2G cells to a cross flow stack with 2.5G cells. The new type of cells also show an excellent stability towards moisture in the cathode feed, and a stack with 2.5G cells has been tested for 12.000 hrs with a degradation rate of 30 mOMEGAcm2/1000 hr. (Author)

  3. Slip-stacking Dynamics for High-Power Proton Beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Slip-stacking is a particle accelerator configuration used to store two particle beams with different momenta in the same ring. The two beams are longitudinally focused by two radiofrequency (RF) cavities with a small frequency difference between them. Each beam is synchronized to one RF cavity and perturbed by the other RF cavity. Fermilab uses slip-stacking in the Recycler so as to double the power of the 120 GeV proton beam in the Main Injector. This dissertation investigates the dynamics of slip-stacking beams analytically, numerically and experimentally. In the analytic analysis, I find the general trajectory of stable slip-stacking particles and identify the slip-stacking parametric resonances. In the numerical analysis, I characterize the stable phase-space area and model the particle losses. In particular, I evaluate the impact of upgrading the Fermilab Booster cycle-rate from 15 Hz to 20 Hz as part of the Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II). The experimental analysis is used to verify my approach to simulating slip-stacking loss. I design a study for measuring losses from the longitudinal single-particle dynamics of slip-stacking as a function of RF cavity voltage and RF frequency separation. I further propose the installation of a harmonic RF cavity and study the dynamics of this novel slip-stacking configuration. I show the harmonic RF cavity cancels out parametric resonances in slip-stacking, reduces emittance growth during slip-stacking, and dramatically enhances the stable phase-space area. The harmonic cavity is expected to reduce slip-stacking losses to far exceed PIP-II requirements. These results raise the possibility of extending slip-stacking beyond the PIP-II era.

  4. 296-B-5 Stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-02-01

    The B Plant Administration Manual requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-5 at B Plant. The sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-5 is functional and performing satisfactorily. This document is an annual assessment report of the systems associated with the 296-B-5 stack

  5. Dynamic Model of the High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system co...... elements for start-up, heat conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection, and heating of the inlet gases in the manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....

  6. Optimal Stack Layout in a Sea Container Terminal with Automated Lifting Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, D.; Gupta, A.; Parhi, S.; de Koster, M.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContainer terminal performance is largely determined by its design decisions, which include the number and type of quay cranes (QCs), stack cranes (SCs), transport vehicles, vehicle travel path, and stack layout. The terminal design process is complex because it is affected by factors such as topological constraints, stochastic interactions among the quayside, vehicle transport and stackside operations. Further, the orientation of the stack layout (parallel or perpendicular to the...

  7. Stacking fault growth of FCC crystal: The Monte-Carlo simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Jianmin; Ming Naiben

    1988-03-01

    The Monte-Carlo method has been used to simulate the growth of the FCC (111) crystal surface, on which is presented the outcrop of a stacking fault. The comparison of the growth rates has been made between the stacking fault containing surface and the perfect surface. The successive growth stages have been simulated. It is concluded that the outcrop of stacking fault on the crystal surface can act as a self-perpetuating step generating source. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  8. An Overview of the Effects of Alloying Elements on the Properties of Lightweight Fe-(15-35) Mn-(5-12) Al-(0.3-1.2) C Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Wei, Yinghui; Hou, Lifeng

    2018-04-01

    In this review, the influences of alloying elements on the phase constitution, density, and stacking fault energy of Fe-(15-35) Mn-(5-12) Al-(0.3-1.2) C lightweight steel are discussed. The mechanical properties of austenite single-phase and austenite-ferrite dual-phase Fe-Mn-Al-C steels processed by different procedures are also statistically analyzed. The austenite single-phase steel was found to possess superior strength and plasticity. Three reasonable explanations for the mechanism of plastic deformation are presented, namely, shear band-induced plasticity, microband-induced plasticity, and slip band refinement-induced plasticity.

  9. Steel designers' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenc, Branko; Tinyou, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The Revised 7th Edition of Steel Designers' Handbook is an invaluable tool for all practising structural, civil and mechanical engineers as well as engineering students at university and TAFE in Australia and New Zealand. It has been prepared in response to changes in the design Standard AS 4100, the structural Design Actions Standards, AS /ANZ 1170, other processing Standards such as welding and coatings, updated research as well as feedback from users. This edition is based on Australian Standard (AS) 4100: 1998 and subsequent amendments. The worked numerical examples in the book have been e

  10. TEM studies of plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stróz, D; Psoda, M

    2010-03-01

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and X-ray phase analysis were used to study the structure of a layer formed during nitriding the AISI 316L stainless steel at temperature 440 degrees C. It was found that the applied treatment led to the formation of 6-microm-thick layer of the S-phase. There is no evidence of CrN precipitation. The X-ray diffraction experiments proved that the occurred austenite lattice expansion - due to nitrogen atoms - depended on the crystallographic direction. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the layer consisted of a single cubic phase that contained a lot of defects such as dislocations, stacking faults, slip bands and twins. The high-resolution electron microscopy observations were applied to study the defect formation due to the nitriding process. It was shown that the presence of great number of stacking faults leads to formation of nanotwins. Weak, forbidden {100} reflections were still another characteristic feature of the S-phase. These were not detected in the X-ray spectra of the phase. Basing on the high-resolution electron microscopy studies it can be suggested that the short-range ordering of the nitrogen atoms in the octahedral sites inside the f.c.c. matrix lattice takes place and gives rise to appearance of these spots. It is suggested that the cubic lattice undergoes not only expansion but also slight rombohedral distortion that explains differences in the lattice expansion for different crystallographic directions.

  11. Continued maturing of SOFC cell production technology and development and demonstration of SOFC stacks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objective of the 6385 project was to develop stack materials, components and stack technology including industrial relevant manufacturing methods for cells components and stacks. Furthermore, the project should include testing and demonstration of the stacks under relevant operating conditions. A production of 6.829 cells, twenty 75-cell stacks and a number of small stacks was achieved. Major improvements were also made in the manufacturing methods and in stack design. Two test and demonstration activities were included in the project. The first test unit was established at H.C. OErsted power plant at the Copenhagen waterfront in order to perform test of SOFC stacks. The unit will be used for tests in other projects. The second demonstration unit is the alpha prototype demonstration in a system running on natural gas in Finland. The alpha prototype demonstration system with 24 TOFC (Topsoe Fuel Cell) stacks was established and started running in October 2007 and operational experience was gained in the period from October 2007 to February 2008. (auther)

  12. Testing and Evaluation of an Advanced High Performance Planar SOFC Stack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elangovan, S

    1999-01-01

    .... SOFCo has conducted several programs which synergistically address this objective: an internally funded program focusing on stack development and system integration for pipeline natural gas (PNG...

  13. Crystallite size effects in stacking faulted nickel hydroxide and its electrochemical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    β-Nickel hydroxide comprises a long range periodic arrangement of atoms with a stacking sequence of AC AC AC-having an ideal composition Ni(OH) 2 . Variation in the preparative conditions can lead to the changes in the stacking sequence (AC AC BA CB AC AC or AC AC AB AC AC). This type of variation in stacking sequence can result in the formation of stacking fault in nickel hydroxide. The stability of the stacking fault depends on the free energy content of the sample. Stacking faults in nickel hydroxide is essential for better electrochemical activity. Also there are reports correlating particle size to the better electrochemical activity. Here we present the effect of crystallite size on the stacking faulted nickel hydroxide samples. The electrochemical performance of stacking faulted nickel hydroxide with small crystallite size exchanges 0.8e/Ni, while the samples with larger crystallite size exchange 0.4e/Ni. Hence a right combination of crystallite size and stacking fault content has to be controlled for good electrochemical activity of nickel hydroxide

  14. Stack Parameters Effect on the Performance of Anharmonic Resonator Thermoacoustic Heat Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Nouh, Mostafa A.

    2014-01-01

    A thermoacoustic heat engine (TAHE) converts heat into acoustic power with no moving parts. It exhibits several advantages over traditional engines, such as simple design, stable functionality, and environment-friendly working gas. In order to further improve the performance of TAHE, stack parameters need to be optimized. Stack\\'s position, length and plate spacing are the three main parameters that have been investigated in this study. Stack\\'s position dictates both the efficiency and the maximum produced acoustic power of the heat engine. Positioning the stack closer to the pressure anti-node might ensure high efficiency on the expense of the maximum produced acoustic power. It is noticed that the TAHE efficiency can further be improved by spacing the plates of the stack at a value of 2.4 of the thermal penetration depth, δk . Changes in the stack length will not affect the efficiency much as long as the temperature gradient across the stack, as a ratio of the critical temperature gradient ψ is more than 1. Upon interpreting the effect of these variations, attempts are made towards reaching the engine\\'s most powerful operating point.

  15. Rozšíření modulů OpenStack pro platformu Ansible

    OpenAIRE

    Šamalík, Adam

    2016-01-01

    OpenStack je cloudová platforma s distribuovanou architekturou, jejíž instalace je velice komplexní. V této práci navrhnu Ansible Playbook (automatický instalační skript), který OpenStack nainstaluje. OpenStack is a cloud platform with distributed architecture that is very complex to deploy. In this thesis, I will design an Ansible playbok (automatic deployment script) to deploy a custom OpenStack architecture. C

  16. Power sources involving ~ 300W PEMFC fuel cell stacks cooled by different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two constructions of ~300W PEMFC stacks, cooled by different media, were analysed. An open-cathode ~300W PEMFC stack cooled by air (Horizon, Singapore and a PEMFC F-42 stack cooled by a liquid medium (Schunk, Germany were chosen for all of the investigations described in this paper. The potential for the design and construction of power sources involving fuel cells, as well as of a hybrid system (fuel cell-lithium battery for mobile and stationary applications, is presented and discussed. The impact of certain experimental parameters on PEMFC stack performance is analysed and discussed.

  17. Very Weak Signals (VWS detected by stacking method according to different astronomical periodicities (HiCum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Ruymbeke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A stacking method to detect very weak signals is introduced in this paper. This method is to stack observed data in different well known periodicities according to the astronomical clock since majority geophysical observations are time based. We validated this method by applying it in four different cases. Interactions behind the observed parameters become obviously after it is stacked in two diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periodical waves. Amplitude and phase variations will be also measurable when a sliding windows stacking is used. This could be an important reference to find precursors before some earthquakes and volcanic events, corresponding to attenuations of medium patterns.

  18. Review of measurement techniques for stack monitoring of long-lived alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of the promulgation of new guidelines by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 190) for releases of long-lived, alpha-emitting substances, the stack-monitoring requirements for measuring long-lived alpha particles may change in terms of both monitored isotopes and the detection levels. This paper briefly reviews stack-monitoring requirements for long-lived alpha-emitting particles. It also examines the currently deployed alpha-particulate, stack-monitoring systems and discusses prototype systems that may be applicable to stack monitoring

  19. Element stacking method for topology optimization with material-dependent boundary and loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Park, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new topology optimization scheme, called the element stacking method, is developed to better handle design optimization involving material-dependent boundary conditions and selection of elements of different types. If these problems are solved by existing standard approaches, complicated finite...... element models or topology optimization reformulation may be necessary. The key idea of the proposed method is to stack multiple elements on the same discretization pixel and select a single or no element. In this method, stacked elements on the same pixel have the same coordinates but may have...... independent degrees of freedom. Some test problems are considered to check the effectiveness of the proposed stacking method....

  20. The industrial ecology of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  1. Stainless steels low temperature nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, T.; Darbeida, A.; Von Stebut, J.; Michel, H.; Lebrun, J.P.; Hertz, D.

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen ions implantation of 316L stainless steel leads to monophasic diffusion layers, which are constituted of a solid solution (γ N ) fcc, metastable, nitrogen sur-saturated, and without order. This article shows that for 316L stainless steels,these layers improve the tribological properties without degradation of the corrosion resistance. (A.B.). 13 refs. 6 figs

  2. Metadynamic recrystallization in C steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    EN24 and EN2 steels, a drop from 4000 s to 6 s for similar temperature rise was observed. Metadynamic ... carbon–manganese or silicon–manganese steels, but stops after a reduction at ... growth by strain-induced grain boundary migration;.

  3. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP

  4. A Tale of Wootz Steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    manufacture of steel in south India by a crucible process at ... indicates that the production of wootz steel was almost on an industrial scale in ... in an Age of Design marked by ... The Russian Anasoff also studied the process of manufacturing.

  5. Irradiation creep in ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeulen, W.; Bremaecker, A. de; Burbure, S. de; Huet, J.J.; Asbroeck, P. van

    Pressurized and non-pressurized capsules of several ferritic steels have been irradiated in Rapsodie between 400 and 500 0 C up to 3.7 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV). Results of the diameter measurements are presented and show that the total in-pile deformation is lower than for austenitic steels

  6. Steel structures for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In the guide the requirements concerning design and fabrication of steel structures for nuclear facilities and documents to be submitted to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are presented. Furthermore, regulations concerning inspection of steel structures during construction of nuclear facilities and during their operation are set forth

  7. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  8. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    θ-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The θ-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  9. Topological chiral phonons in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xifang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Lifa

    2018-06-01

    Since chiral phonons were found in an asymmetric two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, there has been growing interest in the study of phonon chirality, which were experimentally verified very recently in monolayer tungsten diselenide (2018 Science 359 579). In this work, we find chiral phonons with nontrivial topology in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices. At the Brillouin-zone corners, (), circularly polarized phonons and nonzero phonon Berry curvature are observed. Moreover, we find that the phonon chirality remain robust with changing sublattice mass ratio and interlayer coupling. The chiral phonons at the valleys are demonstrated in doubler-layer sodium chloride along the [1 1 1] direction. We believe that the findings on topological chiral phonons in triangle lattices will give guidance in the study of chiral phonons in real materials and promote the phononic applications.

  10. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YOUNG, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability. Further, requiring an alarm to actuate upon CAM failure is not necessary to maintain the availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability. However, if CAM failures were only detected by the 92-day functional tests required in the Authorization Basis (AB), CAM availability would be much less than that credited in the safety analysis. Therefore it is recommended that the current surveillance practice of daily simple system checks, 30-day source checks and 92-day functional tests be continued in order to maintain CAM availability

  11. Barrier inhomogeneities at vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Wenwu; Li, Song-Lin; Xu, Yong; Aparecido-Ferreira, Alex; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Sun, Huabin; Nakaharai, Shu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2014-01-21

    The integration of graphene and other atomically flat, two-dimensional materials has attracted much interest and been materialized very recently. An in-depth understanding of transport mechanisms in such heterostructures is essential. In this study, vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructure transistors were manufactured to elucidate the mechanism of electron injection at the interface. The temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics was investigated from 300 to 90 K. In a careful analysis of current-voltage characteristics, an unusual decrease in the effective Schottky barrier height and increase in the ideality factor were observed with decreasing temperature. A model of thermionic emission with a Gaussian distribution of barriers was able to precisely interpret the conduction mechanism. Furthermore, mapping of the effective Schottky barrier height is unmasked as a function of temperature and gate voltage. The results offer significant insight for the development of future layer-integration technology based on graphene-based heterostructures.

  12. Optimization Design of Bipolar Plate Flow Field in PEM Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; He, Kanghao; Li, Peilong; Yang, Lei; Deng, Li; Jiang, Fei; Yao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    A new design of bipolar plate flow field in proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack was presented to develop a high-performance transfer efficiency of the two-phase flow. Two different flow fields were studied by using numerical simulations and the performance of the flow fields was presented. the hydrodynamic properties include pressure gap between inlet and outlet, the Reynold’s number of the two types were compared based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Computer aided optimization software was implemented in the design of experiments of the preferable flow field. The design of experiments (DOE) for the favorable concept was carried out to study the hydrodynamic properties when changing the design parameters of the bipolar plate.

  13. Sodium-Induced Reordering of Atomic Stacks in Black Phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2017-01-12

    While theoretical simulations predict contradictory results about how the intercalation of foreign metal atoms affects the order of atomic layers in black phosphorus (BP), no direct experimental visualization work has yet clarified this ambiguity. By in situ electrochemical sodiation of BP inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and first-principles calculations, we found that sodium intercalation induces a relative glide of/ ⟨010⟩ {001}, resulting in reordering of atomic stacks from AB to AC in BP. The observed local amorphization in our experiments is triggered by lattice constraints. We predict that intercalation of sodium or other metal atoms introduces n-type carriers in BP. This potentially opens a new field for two-dimensional electronics based on BP.

  14. Multi-channel temperature measurement system for automotive battery stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Radoslaw; Wojtkowski, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    A multi-channel temperature measurement system for monitoring of automotive battery stack is presented in the paper. The presented system is a complete battery temperature measuring system for hybrid / electric vehicles that incorporates multi-channel temperature measurements with digital temperature sensors communicating through 1-Wire buses, individual 1-Wire bus for each sensor for parallel computing (parallel measurements instead of sequential), FPGA device which collects data from sensors and translates it for CAN bus frames. CAN bus is incorporated for communication with car Battery Management System and uses additional CAN bus controller which communicates with FPGA device through SPI bus. The described system can parallel measure up to 12 temperatures but can be easily extended in the future in case of additional needs. The structure of the system as well as particular devices are described in the paper. Selected results of experimental investigations which show proper operation of the system are presented as well.

  15. The Beam Characteristics of High Power Diode Laser Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Fu, Yueming; Lu, Hui; Cui, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Direct diode lasers have some of the most attractive features of any laser. They are very efficient, compact, wavelength versatile, low cost, and highly reliable. However, the full utilization of direct diode lasers has yet to be realized. However, the poor quality of diode laser beam itself, directly affect its application ranges, in order to better use of diode laser stack, need a proper correction of optical system, which requires accurate understanding of the diode laser beam characteristics. Diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. Therefore diode laser cladding will open a new field of repairing for the damaged machinery parts which must contribute to recycling of the used machines and saving of cost.

  16. Development of Thread-compatible Open Source Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Lukas; Mars, Nidhal; Schappacher, Manuel; Sikora, Axel

    2017-07-01

    The Thread protocol is a recent development based on 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4), but with extensions regarding a more media independent approach, which - additionally - also promises true interoperability. To evaluate and analyse the operation of a Thread network a given open source 6LoWPAN stack for embedded devices (emb::6) has been extended in order to comply with the Thread specification. The implementation covers Mesh Link Establishment (MLE) and network layer functionality as well as 6LoWPAN mesh under routing mechanism based on MAC short addresses. The development has been verified on a virtualization platform and allows dynamical establishment of network topologies based on Thread’s partitioning algorithm.

  17. Strontium titanate/silicon-based terahertz photonic crystal multilayer stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, J.Z.; Jim, K.L.; Tsang, Y.H.; Chan, H.L.W.; Leung, C.W.; Yang, J.; Gong, X.J.; Chen, L.Q.; Gao, F.

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional photonic crystal working in the terahertz (THz) range was designed and implemented. To facilitate the design, the transmission properties of strontium titanate crystals were characterized by THz-time-domain spectroscopy. Relatively high refractive index (∝18.5) and transmission ratio (0.08) were observed between 0.2 to 1 THz. A stacked structure of (Si d Si /STO d STO ) N /Si d Si was then designed, with transmission spectra calculated by the transfer matrix method. The effects of the filling ratio (d STO /(d Si +d STO )), periodicity (d Si +d STO ) and the number of repeats N on the transmission of PC were investigated. The effect of introducing a defect layer was also studied. Based on these, Si/STO multilayers with STO defect thickness of 125 μm and 200 μm were measured. The shift of the defect mode was observed and compared with the calculations. (orig.)

  18. Engineering the hypersonic phononic band gap of hybrid Bragg stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dirk; Liaqat, Faroha; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; El Hassouani, Youssef; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Tremel, Wolfgang; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Fytas, George

    2012-06-13

    We report on the full control of phononic band diagrams for periodic stacks of alternating layers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and porous silica combining Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. These structures exhibit large and robust on-axis band gaps determined by the longitudinal sound velocities, densities, and spacing ratio. A facile tuning of the gap width is realized at oblique incidence utilizing the vector nature of the elastic wave propagation. Off-axis propagation involves sagittal waves in the individual layers, allowing access to shear moduli at nanoscale. The full theoretical description discerns the most important features of the hypersonic one-dimensional crystals forward to a detailed understanding, a precondition to engineer dispersion relations in such structures.

  19. Coupled generative adversarial stacked Auto-encoder: CoGASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiasari, Mohammad Ahangar; Moirangthem, Dennis Singh; Lee, Minho

    2018-04-01

    Coupled Generative Adversarial Network (CoGAN) was recently introduced in order to model a joint distribution of a multi modal dataset. The CoGAN model lacks the capability to handle noisy data as well as it is computationally expensive and inefficient for practical applications such as cross-domain image transformation. In this paper, we propose a new method, named the Coupled Generative Adversarial Stacked Auto-encoder (CoGASA), to directly transfer data from one domain to another domain with robustness to noise in the input data as well to as reduce the computation time. We evaluate the proposed model using MNIST and the Large-scale CelebFaces Attributes (CelebA) datasets, and the results demonstrate a highly competitive performance. Our proposed models can easily transfer images into the target domain with minimal effort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sodium-Induced Reordering of Atomic Stacks in Black Phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Liu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Bingchao; Nie, Anmin; Huang, Wei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Mashayek, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    While theoretical simulations predict contradictory results about how the intercalation of foreign metal atoms affects the order of atomic layers in black phosphorus (BP), no direct experimental visualization work has yet clarified this ambiguity. By in situ electrochemical sodiation of BP inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and first-principles calculations, we found that sodium intercalation induces a relative glide of/ ⟨010⟩ {001}, resulting in reordering of atomic stacks from AB to AC in BP. The observed local amorphization in our experiments is triggered by lattice constraints. We predict that intercalation of sodium or other metal atoms introduces n-type carriers in BP. This potentially opens a new field for two-dimensional electronics based on BP.

  1. Radioisotopic composition of yellowcake: an estimation of stack release rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.; Kisieleski, W.E.; Rayno, D.R.; Sabau, C.S.

    1979-12-01

    Uranium concentrate (yellowcake) composites from four mills (Anaconda, Kerr-McGee, Highland, and Uravan) were analyzed for U-238, U-235, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210. The ratio of specific activities of U-238 to U-234 in the composites suggested that secular radioactive equilibrium exists in the ore. The average activity ratios in the yellowcake were determined to be 2.7 x 10 -3 (Th-230/U-238), 5 x 10 -4 (Ra-226/U-238) and 2 x 10 -4 (Pb-210/U-238). Based on earlier EPA measurements of the release rates from the stacks, the amount of yellowcake released was determined to be 0.1% of the amount processed

  2. Network Intrusion Detection through Stacking Dilated Convolutional Autoencoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection is one of the most important parts for cyber security to protect computer systems against malicious attacks. With the emergence of numerous sophisticated and new attacks, however, network intrusion detection techniques are facing several significant challenges. The overall objective of this study is to learn useful feature representations automatically and efficiently from large amounts of unlabeled raw network traffic data by using deep learning approaches. We propose a novel network intrusion model by stacking dilated convolutional autoencoders and evaluate our method on two new intrusion detection datasets. Several experiments were carried out to check the effectiveness of our approach. The comparative experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model can achieve considerably high performance which meets the demand of high accuracy and adaptability of network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs. It is quite potential and promising to apply our model in the large-scale and real-world network environments.

  3. Driving down defect density in composite EUV patterning film stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Luciana; Petrillo, Karen; De Silva, Anuja; Arnold, John; Felix, Nelson; Johnson, Richard; Murray, Cody; Hubbard, Alex; Durrant, Danielle; Hontake, Koichi; Huli, Lior; Lemley, Corey; Hetzer, Dave; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Matsunaga, Koichi

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology is one of the leading candidates for enabling the next generation devices, for 7nm node and beyond. As the technology matures, further improvement is required in the area of blanket film defectivity, pattern defectivity, CD uniformity, and LWR/LER. As EUV pitch scaling approaches sub 20 nm, new techniques and methods must be developed to reduce the overall defectivity, mitigate pattern collapse and eliminate film related defect. IBM Corporation and Tokyo Electron Limited (TELTM) are continuously collaborating to develop manufacturing quality processes for EUVL. In this paper, we review key defectivity learning required to enable 7nm node and beyond technology. We will describe ongoing progress in addressing these challenges through track-based processes (coating, developer, baking), highlighting the limitations of common defect detection strategies and outlining methodologies necessary for accurate characterization and mitigation of blanket defectivity in EUV patterning stacks. We will further discuss defects related to pattern collapse and thinning of underlayer films.

  4. An exact algorithm for optimal MAE stack filter design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellamonica, Domingos; Silva, Paulo J S; Humes, Carlos; Hirata, Nina S T; Barrera, Junior

    2007-02-01

    We propose a new algorithm for optimal MAE stack filter design. It is based on three main ingredients. First, we show that the dual of the integer programming formulation of the filter design problem is a minimum cost network flow problem. Next, we present a decomposition principle that can be used to break this dual problem into smaller subproblems. Finally, we propose a specialization of the network Simplex algorithm based on column generation to solve these smaller subproblems. Using our method, we were able to efficiently solve instances of the filter problem with window size up to 25 pixels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest dimension for which this problem was ever solved exactly.

  5. In-stack condensible particulate matter measurement and permitting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corio, L.A.; Sherwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the results of recent epidemiological studies and assessments of the causes of visibility degradation, EPA is proposing to regulate PM2.5 emissions. PM can be classified as either filterable or condensible PM. Condensible PM includes sulfates, such as sulfuric acid. Sulfates typically account for at least half of the total dry fine PM mass in the atmosphere. Power plant SO x -based emissions make a significant contribution to ambient fine PM levels in the eastern US. Although much of this mass is derived from secondary chemical reactions in the atmosphere, a portion of this sulfate is emitted directly from stacks as condensible PM. The potential condensible PM fraction associated with coal-burning boiler emissions is somewhat uncertain. The characterization of PM emissions from these sources has been, until recently, based on in-stack filterable PM measurements only. To determine the relative magnitude of condensible PM emissions and better understand condensible PM measurement issues, a review and analysis of actual EPA Method 202 results and state-developed hybrid condensible PM methods were conducted. A review of available Method 202 results for several coal-burning boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 60% of the total PM10. A review of recent results for state-developed measurement methods for condensible PM for numerous coal-burning boilers indicated that condensible PM accounted for, on average, approximately 49% of total PM. Caution should be exercised in the use of these results because of the seemingly unresolved issue of artifact formation, which may bias the Method 202 and state-developed methods results on the high side. Condensible PM10 measurement results and issues, and potential ramifications of including condensible PM10 emissions in the PSD permit review process are discussed. Selected power plants in Maryland are discussed as examples

  6. Connections: Superplasticity, Damascus Steels, Laminated Steels, and Carbon Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given of the connections that evolved from the initial development of a family of superplastic plain carbon steels that came to be known as Ultra-High Carbon Steels (UHCS). It was observed that their very high carbon contents were similar, if not identical, to those of Damascus steels. There followed a series of attempts to rediscover how the famous patterns found on Damascus steels blades were formed. At the same time, in order to improve the toughness at room temperature of the newly-developed UHCS, laminated composites were made of alternating layers of UHCS and mild steel (and subsequently other steels and other metals). This led to a study of ancient laminated composites, the motives for their manufacture, and the plausibility of some of the claims relating to the number of layers in the final blades. One apparently ancient laminated composite, recovered in 1837 from the great pyramid of Giza which was constructed in about 2750 B.C., stimulated a carbon dating study of ancient steels. The modern interest in "Bladesmithing" has connections back to many of these ancient weapons.

  7. Ceria based protective coatings for steel interconnects prepared by spray pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, Dagmara; Molin, Sebastian; Chen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Stainless steels can be used in solid oxide fuel/electrolysis stacks as interconnects. For successful long term operation they require protective coatings, that lower the corrosion rate and block chemical reactions between the interconnect and adjacent layers of the oxygen or the hydrogen electrode....... One of the promising coating materials for the hydrogen side is ceria. Using standard sintering techniques, ceria sinters at around 1400°C which even for a very short exposure would destroy the interconnect. Therefore in this paper a low temperature deposition method, i.e. spray pyrolysis, is used...

  8. Effect of the wave shocking treatment on the structure and strengthening of austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, V.M.; Chernogorova, O.P.; Drozdova, E.I.; Afanas'ev, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The structure and hardening of austenitic manganese steels after shock wave treatment are studied. It is shown that the treatment results in the structure where an elementary cell size decreases with a pressure increase. The strain hardening resulted from shock wave loading can be estimated using a Hall-Petch equation. It is established that at similar degree of residual strains the shock wave loading compared to cold rolling gives rise to higher strengthening which value grows as austenite stacking fault energy decreases [ru

  9. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  10. Image transfer by cascaded stack of photonic crystal and air layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, C.; Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate image transfer by a cascaded stack consisting of two and three triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs separated by air. The quality of the image transfered by the stack is sensitive to the air/photonic crystal interface termination and the frequency. Depending on the frequency and

  11. ejIP: A TCP/IP Stack for Embedded Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    present the design and implementation of a network stack written entirely in Java. This implementation serves as an example how to implement system functions in a safe language and gives evidence that Java can be used for operating system related functionality. The described TCP/IP stack ejIP has already...

  12. Optimal Stack Layout in a Sea Container Terminal with Automated Lifting Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); A. Gupta (Akash); S. Parhi (Sampanna); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContainer terminal performance is largely determined by its design decisions, which include the number and type of quay cranes (QCs), stack cranes (SCs), transport vehicles, vehicle travel path, and stack layout. The terminal design process is complex because it is affected by factors

  13. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  14. 40 CFR 63.307 - Standards for bypass/bleeder stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for bypass/bleeder stacks. 63.307 Section 63.307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.307 Standards for bypass/bleeder stacks. (a)(1) Except as otherwise...

  15. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on which, the structure of the air-cooled stack has been optimized by adding irregular cooling fins at the end of the stack. According to the simulation result, the temperature of the stack has been equally distributed, reducing the cooling density and saving energy. Finally, the 2 kW hydrogen-air air-cooled PEMFC stack is manufactured and tested by comparing the simulation data which is to find out its operating regulations in order to further optimize its structure.

  16. Regular control of monitors for effluents from nuclear power plant stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, L.

    1979-01-01

    The report describes a test procedure for emission monitoring devices for nuclear power plants. The follosing procedures are described, inspection, determination of the air flow through the stack, measurement and adjustment of the flow in the stack loop, measurement and adjustment of flow and density in the measuring loop, calibration of the gas detector, efficiency of sampling of methyliodide and aerosol. (K.K.)

  17. Methane Steam Reforming over an Ni-YSZ Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode in Stack Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, David; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of catalytic steam reforming of methane over an Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) have been investigated with the cell placed in a stack configuration. In order to decrease the degree of conversion, a single cell stack with reduced area was used. Measurements were...

  18. A microcontroller with 96% power-conversion efficiency using stacked voltage domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blutman, K.; Kapoor, A.; Majumdar, A.; Martinez, J.G.; Echeverri, J.; Sevat, L.; Van Der Wel, A.; Fatemi, H.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.; Makinwa, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS 40nm microcontroller where for the first time, stacked voltage domains are used. The system features an ARM Cortex M0+ processor, 4kB ROM, 16kB SRAM, peripherals, and an on-chip switched-capacitor voltage regulator (SCVR). By using voltage stacking the test chip achieves

  19. Model and Design of a Power Driver for Piezoelectric Stack Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaberge M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A power driver has been developed to control piezoelectric stack actuators used in automotive application. An FEM model of the actuator has been implemented starting from experimental characterization of the stack and mechanical and piezoelectric parameters. Experimental results are reported to show a correct piezoelectric actuator driving method and the possibility to obtain a sensorless positioning control.

  20. The double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks - Formulation and heuristic solution approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks and presents four different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The double TSP with multiple stacks is concerned with determining the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries in two separated networks...

  1. Lower power by voltage stacking : a fine-grained system design approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blutman, K.; Kapoor, A.; Martinez, J.G.; Fatemi, S.H.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2016-01-01

    Stacking voltage domains on top of each other is a design approach that is getting the attention of engineering communities due to the implicit high efficiency of the power delivery. Previous works have shown voltage stacking at the core level only. In this paper we present a more involved approach

  2. A stacking method and its applications to Lanzarote tide gauge records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Cadicheanu, Nicoleta

    2009-12-01

    A time-period analysis tool based on stacking is introduced in this paper. The original idea comes from the classical tidal analysis method. It is assumed that the period of each major tidal component is precisely determined based on the astronomical constants and it is unchangeable with time at a given point in the Earth. We sum the tidal records at a fixed tidal component center period T then take the mean of it. The stacking could significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) if a certain number of stacking circles is reached. The stacking results were fitted using a sinusoidal function, the amplitude and phase of the fitting curve is computed by the least squares methods. The advantage of the method is that: (1) an individual periodical signal could be isolated by stacking; (2) one can construct a linear Stacking-Spectrum (SSP) by changing the stacking period Ts; (3) the time-period distribution of the singularity component could be approximated by a Sliding-Stacking approach. The shortcoming of the method is that in order to isolate a low energy frequency or separate the nearby frequencies, we need a long enough series with high sampling rate. The method was tested with a numeric series and then it was applied to 1788 days Lanzarote tide gauge records as an example.

  3. Evaluation of electrodeposited Mn-Co protective coatings on Crofer 22 APU steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Interconnects used in Solid Oxide Cells stacks require protective coatings to lower their parabolic rate constant and block chromium evaporation (on the air side). In this work four different protective coatings on steel are evaluated for their high temperature corrosion resistance and electrical...... conductivity. A commercial electroplating process was used for the preparation of coatings with different Mn/Co ratios on Crofer 22 APU steel. Oxidation of samples was performed in air at 800°C for 1000 hours. Postmortem analysis of the coated samples was performed by scanning electron microscopy and x......-ray diffractomettry. Based on the results, influence of the Co/Mn ratio on the resulting corrosion properties are discussed. Parabolic rate constant of the coated samples is the lowest for the MnCo sample, whereas electrical resistance is the lowest for the Co sample, which has a corrosion rate similar to the not-coated...

  4. Defining the Post-Machined Sub-surface in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, N.; Sunil Kumar, B.; Kain, V.; Birbilis, N.; Joshi, S. S.; Sivaprasad, P. V.; Chai, G.; Durgaprasad, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels grades, with differences in chemistry, stacking fault energy, and thermal conductivity, were subjected to vertical milling. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization was able to differentiate (with machining speed/strain rate) between different post-machined sub-surfaces in SS 316L and Alloy A (a Cu containing austenitic stainless steel: Sanicroe 28™), but not in SS 304L. However, such differences (in the post-machined sub-surfaces) were revealed in surface roughness, sub-surface residual stresses and misorientations, and in the relative presence of sub-surface Cr2O3 films. It was shown, quantitatively, that higher machining speed reduced surface roughness and also reduced the effective depths of the affected sub-surface layers. A qualitative explanation on the sub-surface microstructural developments was provided based on the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The results herein represent a mechanistic understanding to rationalize the corrosion performance of widely adopted engineering alloys.

  5. Defining the Post-Machined Sub-surface in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, N.; Sunil Kumar, B.; Kain, V.; Birbilis, N.; Joshi, S. S.; Sivaprasad, P. V.; Chai, G.; Durgaprasad, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steels grades, with differences in chemistry, stacking fault energy, and thermal conductivity, were subjected to vertical milling. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization was able to differentiate (with machining speed/strain rate) between different post-machined sub-surfaces in SS 316L and Alloy A (a Cu containing austenitic stainless steel: Sanicroe 28™), but not in SS 304L. However, such differences (in the post-machined sub-surfaces) were revealed in surface roughness, sub-surface residual stresses and misorientations, and in the relative presence of sub-surface Cr2O3 films. It was shown, quantitatively, that higher machining speed reduced surface roughness and also reduced the effective depths of the affected sub-surface layers. A qualitative explanation on the sub-surface microstructural developments was provided based on the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The results herein represent a mechanistic understanding to rationalize the corrosion performance of widely adopted engineering alloys.

  6. Microstructural evolution and strain hardening behavior of the cold-drawn austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeom Yong; Jin, Won

    1998-01-01

    The strain induced α ' -martensite formation and the strain hardening behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steel during cold drawing have been investigated. The strain induced α ' -martensite nucleates mainly at the intersection of the mechanical twins rather than ε-martensite. It could be explained by the increase of stacking fault energy which arises from the heat generated during high speed drawing and, for AISI 304/Cu, the additional effect of Cu additions. The strain hardening behavior of austenitic stainless steel is strongly related to the microstructural evolution accompanied by strain induced α ' -martensite. The work hardening rates of cold-drawn 304 increased with increasing interstitial element(C,N) contents which affect the strength of the strain induced α ' -martensite

  7. Methods of making bainitic steel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Michael Paul; Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung; Zagula, Thomas Andrew; Langhorst, Benjamin Robert

    2018-01-16

    Methods of making bainitic steels may involve austenitizing a quantity of steel by exposing the quantity of steel to a first temperature. A composition of the quantity of steel may be configured to impede formation of non-bainite ferrite, pearlite, and Widmanstatten ferrite. The quantity of steel may be heat-treated to form bainite by exposing the quantity of steel to a second, lower temperature. The second, lower temperature may be stabilized by exposing the quantity of steel to the second, lower temperature in the presence of a thermal ballast.

  8. Stahlschüssel key to steel

    CERN Document Server

    Wegst, W S

    2016-01-01

    The Key to Steel (Stahlschlüssel/Stahlschluessel) cross reference book will help you to decode / decipher steel designations and find equivalent materials worldwide. The 2016 edition includes more than 70,000 standard designations and trade names from approximately 300 steelmakers and suppliers. Presentation is trilingual: English, French, and German. Materials covered include structural steels, tool steels, valve steels, high temperature steels and alloys, stainless and heat-resisting steels, and more. Standards and designations from 25 countries are cross-referenced.

  9. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  10. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions)

  11. Steel containment buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Baker, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two aspects of buckling of a free-standing nuclear containment building were investigated in a combined experimental and analytical program. In the first part of the study, the response of a scale model of a containment building to dynamic base excitation is investigated. A simple harmonic signal was used for preliminary studies followed by experiments with scaled earthquake signals as the excitation source. The experiments and accompanying analyses indicate that the scale model response to earthquake-type excitations is very complex and that current analytical methods may require that a dynamic capacity reduction factor be incorporated. The second part of the study quantified the effects of framing at large penetrations on the static buckling capacity of scale model containments. Results show little effect from the framing for the scale models constructed from the polycarbonate, Lexan. However, additional studies with a model constructed of the prototypic steel material are recommended. (orig.)

  12. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  13. Micropurity in stainless steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, Z.

    1981-01-01

    New technologies were developed by the Vitkovice research institutes in response to high requirements for the quality of high-alloy steels for nuclear power, viz., duplex technology with double vacuum degassing at the DH unit and oxidation vacuum degassing using the VAKUVIT equipment. The steel produced shows low contents of impurities and high micropurity. A study was conducted into changes in carbon content and the formation of titanium nitrides and carbonitrides in austenitic steels during their production, and optimum technological parameters were found for eliminating their formation in forgings. (author)

  14. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and : transverse mild steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams : exhibit earl...

  15. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and transverse mild : steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams exhibit early-...

  16. [The Steel factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Cortés, J R

    1997-01-01

    Mice bearing mutations at either of two loci, dominant White spotting(W) or Steel(Sl), exhibit development defects in hematopoietic, melanocytic and germ cells. Genetics studies have shown that the SI locus encodes the Steel factor (SF), which is the ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor c-kit, the product of the W locus. SF is synthesized in membrane-bound form and can be processed to produce a soluble form. Cell-cell interaction is important in the production of normal blood cells in vivo and in vitro and in the cellular expansion of leukemic cells. We discuss here how SF decreases the requirements in cell interaction for blast colony formation in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and the presence of membrane-bound SF possibly contributes to the density-dependent growth of the AML blasts. We explain that SF is mainly a survival factor for hematopoietic cells, of little proliferative effect, which maintains CD34+ hematopoietic cells in an undifferentiated state. These properties would potentially allow the maintenance of hematopoietic cells in culture for the purpose of marrow purging or gene therapy. The activation of the c-kit signal transduction pathway may play a significant role in the development of many types of non-hematological malignancies by disrupting normal cell-cell interactions and allowing the growth of cancer cell populations. In summary, the properties of the SF indicate it has a role for survival signals during the process of normal differentiation, AML proliferation and in the maintenance of many c-kit+ tumors.

  17. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  18. Technology leadership : a road map to commercially viable PEMFC stack technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This abstract discussed recent advances in stack technology by Ballard Power Systems. The technology department of this Canadian-owned company exhibited the capability of a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack design to demonstrate that cost reduction, freeze start capability from -20 degrees C and durability under an automotive dynamic operating cycle are comparable to that experienced by a fuel cell stack in an actual vehicle. A technology road map has been developed by the company to define a path to the commercial viability of the PEMFC stack by 2010. Key target parameters for cost reduction, durability, freeze start and stack power density were described in detail along with demonstrated historical capability and details of how the company will achieve its required targets. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Density Functional Study of Stacking Structures and Electronic Behaviors of AnE-PV Copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuan-Ding; Beenken, Wichard J D

    2016-10-10

    In this work, we report an in-depth investigation on the π-stacking and interdigitating structures of poly(p-anthracene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) copolymer with octyl and ethyl-hexyl side chains and the resulting electronic band structures using density functional theory calculations. We found that in the π-stacking direction, the preferred stacking structure, determined by the steric effect of the branched ethyl-hexyl side chains, is featured by the anthracene-ethynylene units stacking on the phenylene-vinylene units of the neighboring chains and vice versa. This stacking structure, combined with the interdigitating structure where the branched side chains of the laterally neighboring chains are isolated, defines the energetically favorable structure of the ordered copolymer phase, which provides a good compromise between light absorption and charge-carrier transport.

  20. OpenStack augstas pieejamības risinājumi

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiže, Toms

    2016-01-01

    Šis bakalaura darbs ir pētījums par OpenStack IaaS mākoņpakalpojumu platformu. Tā mērķis ir sniegt ieskatu augstas pieejamības pamatprincipos un OpenStack mākoņpakalpojumu platformas piedāvātajos augstas pieejamības nodrošināšanas risinājumos. Bakalaura darba gaitā ir veikta augsti pieejamas OpenStack trīs mezglu sistēmas uzstādīšana, izmantojot Galera Cluster datubāzu klasteri un HAProxy slodzes līdzsvarotāju. Tika pārbaudīta OpenStack augsta pieejamība, testējot OpenStack Glance komponentes...

  1. Behavior of a nuclear power plant ventilation stack for wind loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalapathy, V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes behavior of self supporting tall reinforced concrete (RC) ventilation stack of a nuclear power plant (NPP) for wind loads. Since the static and equivalent dynamic wind loads are inter-dependant on overall size of the stack, proper sizing of the stack geometry is important for reducing wind loads. The present study investigated the influence of engineered backfill soil on lateral response of ventilation stack. Ignoring backfill soil stiffness up to ground height does not allow to predict actual critical wind velocity causing across wind oscillation. The results show that proposed modification in the stack geometry modeled using 2D beam-spring elements is economical than that of single tapered geometry. Shaft diameter reduced in the proposed geometry indicates that there is a scope for overall space savings in the NPP layout. (author)

  2. A small mono-polar direct methanol fuel cell stack with passive operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. H.; Zhao, T. S.; Chen, R.; Xu, C.

    A passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack that consists of six unit cells was designed, fabricated, and tested. The stack was tested with different methanol concentrations under ambient conditions. It was found that the stack performance increased when the methanol concentration inside the fuel tank was increased from 2.0 to 6.0 M. The improved performance is primarily due to the increased cell temperature as a result of the exothermic reaction between the permeated methanol and oxygen on the cathode. Moreover, the increased cell temperature enhanced the water evaporation rate on the air-breathing cathode, which significantly reduced water flooding on the cathode and further improved the stack performance. This passive DMFC stack, providing 350 mW at 1.8 V, was successfully applied to power a seagull display kit. The seagull display kit can continuously run for about 4 h on a single charge of 25 cm 3 4.0-M methanol solution.

  3. Some important results from the air pollution distribution model STACKS (1988-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbrink, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is paid to the results of the study on the distribution of air pollutants by high chimney-stacks of electric power plants. An important product of the study is the integrated distribution model STACKS (Short Term Air-pollutant Concentrations Kema modelling System). The improvements and the extensions of STACKS are described in relation to the National Model, which has been used to estimate the environmental effects of individual chimney-stacks. The National Model shows unacceptable variations for high pollutant sources. Based on the results of STACKS revision of the National model has been taken into consideration. By means of the revised National Model a more realistic estimation of the environmental effects of electric power plants can be carried out

  4. Comprehensive first-principles study of stable stacking faults in hcp metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Binglun; Wu, Zhaoxuan; Curtin, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    The plastic deformation in hcp metals is complex, with the associated dislocation core structures and properties not well understood on many slip planes in most hcp metals. A first step in establishing the dislocation properties is to examine the stable stacking fault energy and its structure on relevant slip planes. However, this has been perplexing in the hcp structure due to additional in-plane displacements on both sides of the slip plane. Here, density functional theory guided by crystal symmetry analysis is used to study all relevant stable stacking faults in 6 hcp metals (Mg, Ti, Zr, Re, Zn, Cd). Specially, the stable stacking fault energy, position, and structure on the Basal, Prism I and II, Pyramidal I and II planes are determined using all-periodic supercells with full atomic relaxation. All metals show similar stacking fault position and structure as dictated by crystal symmetry, but the associated stacking fault energy, being governed by the atomic bonding, differs significantly among them. Stacking faults on all the slip planes except the Basal plane show substantial out-of-plane displacements while stacking faults on the Prism II, Pyramidal I and II planes show additional in-plane displacements, all extending to multiple atom layers. The in-plane displacements are not captured in the standard computational approach for stacking faults, and significant differences are shown in the energies of such stacking faults between the standard approach and fully-relaxed case. The existence of well-defined stable stacking fault on the Pyramidal planes suggests zonal dislocations are unlikely. Calculations on the equilibrium partial separation further suggests 〈c + a〉 dissociation into three partials on the Pyramidal I plane is unlikely and 〈c〉 dissociation on Prism planes is unlikely to be stable against climb-dissociation onto the Basal planes in these metals.

  5. Taxonomy of multi-focal nematode image stacks by a CNN based image fusion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Wang, Xueping; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2018-03-01

    In the biomedical field, digital multi-focal images are very important for documentation and communication of specimen data, because the morphological information for a transparent specimen can be captured in form of a stack of high-quality images. Given biomedical image stacks containing multi-focal images, how to efficiently extract effective features from all layers to classify the image stacks is still an open question. We present to use a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) image fusion based multilinear approach for the taxonomy of multi-focal image stacks. A deep CNN based image fusion technique is used to combine relevant information of multi-focal images within a given image stack into a single image, which is more informative and complete than any single image in the given stack. Besides, multi-focal images within a stack are fused along 3 orthogonal directions, and multiple features extracted from the fused images along different directions are combined by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Because multi-focal image stacks represent the effect of different factors - texture, shape, different instances within the same class and different classes of objects, we embed the deep CNN based image fusion method within a multilinear framework to propose an image fusion based multilinear classifier. The experimental results on nematode multi-focal image stacks demonstrated that the deep CNN image fusion based multilinear classifier can reach a higher classification rate (95.7%) than that by the previous multilinear based approach (88.7%), even we only use the texture feature instead of the combination of texture and shape features as in the previous work. The proposed deep CNN image fusion based multilinear approach shows great potential in building an automated nematode taxonomy system for nematologists. It is effective to classify multi-focal image stacks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Statistics of Stacked Strata on Experimental Shelf Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A. M.; Straub, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Continental margin deposits provide the most complete record on Earth of paleo-landscapes, but these records are complex and difficult to interpret. To a seismic geomorphologist or stratigrapher, mapped surfaces often present a static diachronous record of these landscapes through time. We present data that capture the dynamics of experimental shelf-margin landscapes at high-temporal resolution and define internal hierarchies within stacked channelized and weakly channelized deposits from the shelf to the slope. Motivated by observations from acoustically-imaged continental margins offshore Brunei and in the Gulf of Mexico, we use physical experiments to quantify stratal patterns of sub-aqueous slope channels and lobes that are linked to delta-top channels. The data presented here are from an experiment that was run for 26 hours of experimental run time. Overhead photographs and topographic scans captured flow dynamics and surface aggradation/degradation every ten minutes. Currents rich in sediment built a delta that prograded to the shelf-edge. These currents were designed to plunge at the shoreline and travel as turbidity currents beyond the delta and onto the continental slope. Pseudo-subsidence was imposed by a slight base-level rise that generated accommodation space and promoted the construction of stratigraphy on the delta-top. Compensational stacking is a term that is frequently applied to deposits that tend to fill in topographic lows in channelized and weakly channelized systems. The compensation index, a metric used to quantify the strength of compensation, is used here to characterize deposits at different temporal scales on the experimental landscape. The compensation timescale is the characteristic time at which the accumulated deposits begins to match the shape of basin-wide subsidence rates (uniform for these experiments). We will use the compensation indices along strike transects across the delta, proximal slope and distal slope to evaluate the

  7. Aging and Embrittlement of High Fluence Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, gary; Jiao, Zhijie; der ven, Anton Van; Bruemmer, Stephen; Edwards, Dan

    2012-12-31

    Irradiation of austenitic stainless steels results in the formation of dislocation loops, stacking fault tetrahedral, Ni-Si clusters and radiation-induced segregation (RIS). Of these features, it is the formation of precipitates which is most likely to impact the mechanical integrity at high dose. Unlike dislocation loops and RIS, precipitates exhibit an incubation period that can extend from 10 to 46 dpa, above which the cluster composition changes and a separate phase, (G-phase) forms. Both neutron and heavy ion irradiation showed that these clusters develop slowly and continue to evolve beyond 100 dpa. Overall, this work shows that the irradiated microstructure features produced by heavy ion irradiation are remarkably comparable in nature to those produced by neutron irradiation at much lower dose rates. The use of a temperature shift to account for the higher damage rate in heavy ion irradiation results in a fairly good match in the dislocation loop microstructure and the precipitate microstructure in austenitic stainless steels. Both irradiations also show segregation of the same elements and in the same directions, but to achieve comparable magnitudes, heavy ion irradiation must be conducted at a much higher temperature than that which produces a match with loops and precipitates. First-principles modeling has confirmed that the formation of Ni-Si precipitates under irradiation is likely caused by supersaturation of solute to defect sinks caused by highly correlated diffusion of Ni and Si. Thus, the formation and evolution of Ni-Si precipitates at high dose in austenitic stainless steels containing Si is inevitable.

  8. A novel hybrid joining methodology for composite to steel joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarh, Bastian

    This research has established a novel approach for designing, analyzing, and fabricating load bearing structural connections between resin infused composite materials and components made of steel or other metals or alloys. A design philosophy is proposed wherein overlapping joint sections comprised of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP's) and steel members are connected via a combination of adhesive bonding and integrally placed composite pins. A film adhesive is utilized, placed into the dry stack prior to resin infusion and is cured after infusion through either local heat elements or by placing the structure into an oven. The novel manner in which the composite pins are introduced consists of perforating the steel member with holes and placing pre-formed composite pins through them, also prior to resin infusion of the composite section. In this manner joints are co-molded structures such that secondary processing is eliminated. It is shown that such joints blend the structural benefits of adhesive and mechanically connected joints, and that the fabrication process is feasible for low-cost, large-scale production as applicable to the shipbuilding industry. Analysis procedures used for designing such joints are presented consisting of an adhesive joint design theory and a pin placement theory. These analysis tools are used in the design of specimens, specific designs are fabricated, and these evaluated through structural tests. Structural tests include quasi-static loading and low cycle fatigue evaluation. This research has thereby invented a novel philosophy on joints, created the manufacturing technique for fabricating such joints, established simple to apply analysis procedures used in the design of such joints (consisting of both an adhesive and a pin placement analysis), and has validated the methodology through specimen fabrication and testing.

  9. Austenitic stainless steel weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.; Emmons, J.S.; Michaels, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical techniques applied to ultrasonic waveforms obtained from inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds are described. Experimental results obtained from a variety of geometric and defect reflectors are presented. Specifically, frequency analyses parameters, such as simple moments of the power spectrum, cross-correlation techniques, and adaptive learning network analysis, all represent improvements over conventional time domain analysis of ultrasonic waveforms. Results for each of these methods are presented, and the overall inspection difficulties of austenitic stainless steel welds are discussed

  10. High-strength maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, S.V.; Shejn, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of data on technological and operation properties of maraging steels on Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr-Co-Mo bases is given. Their advantages and drawbacks are pointed out. The scheme of strengthening heat treatment is considered. The fields of the most effective application of maraging steels for instance, for products operating under conditions of low-cycle and shock cyclic loading are mentioned

  11. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  12. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  13. Intrinsic coincident linear polarimetry using stacked organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S Gupta; Awartani, O M; Sen, P; O'Connor, B T; Kudenov, M W

    2016-06-27

    Polarimetry has widespread applications within atmospheric sensing, telecommunications, biomedical imaging, and target detection. Several existing methods of imaging polarimetry trade off the sensor's spatial resolution for polarimetric resolution, and often have some form of spatial registration error. To mitigate these issues, we have developed a system using oriented polymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) that can preferentially absorb linearly polarized light. Additionally, the OPV cells can be made semitransparent, enabling multiple detectors to be cascaded along the same optical axis. Since each device performs a partial polarization measurement of the same incident beam, high temporal resolution is maintained with the potential for inherent spatial registration. In this paper, a Mueller matrix model of the stacked OPV design is provided. Based on this model, a calibration technique is developed and presented. This calibration technique and model are validated with experimental data, taken with a cascaded three cell OPV Stokes polarimeter, capable of measuring incident linear polarization states. Our results indicate polarization measurement error of 1.2% RMS and an average absolute radiometric accuracy of 2.2% for the demonstrated polarimeter.

  14. 3D stacked chips from emerging processes to heterogeneous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fettweis, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This book explains for readers how 3D chip stacks promise to increase the level of on-chip integration, and to design new heterogeneous semiconductor devices that combine chips of different integration technologies (incl. sensors) in a single package of the smallest possible size.  The authors focus on heterogeneous 3D integration, addressing some of the most important challenges in this emerging technology, including contactless, optics-based, and carbon-nanotube-based 3D integration, as well as signal-integrity and thermal management issues in copper-based 3D integration. Coverage also includes the 3D heterogeneous integration of power sources, photonic devices, and non-volatile memories based on new materials systems.   •Provides single-source reference to the latest research in 3D optoelectronic integration: process, devices, and systems; •Explains the use of wireless 3D integration to improve 3D IC reliability and yield; •Describes techniques for monitoring and mitigating thermal behavior in 3D I...

  15. Modelling and characterization of dielectric elastomer stack actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, Henry; Matysek, Marc; Mößinger, Holger; Schlaak, Helmut F

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to establish and evaluate an electrical and mechanical model for dielectric elastomer stack actuators. Based on the structure of an electrically interconnected actuator a simplified electrical and mechanical network is deduced. The electrical model results in a low-pass filter. The model is evaluated by measurements of the electrical impedance and contact, electrode and parallel resistances. Measurement results show good agreement of the model with the electrical behaviour of the real actuator over a wide frequency range, from below 0.1 Hz to above 10 kHz. The mechanical modelling is split into dynamic and static behaviour. The dynamic mechanical behaviour is modelled as a mechanical equivalent network using fractional elements. The static mechanical model uses the uniaxial compressive modulus of the actuator material to describe the static characteristic. The combination of static and dynamic models allows a realistic prediction of the static and dynamic deflection of the actuators under an applied electrical voltage. This electro-mechanical model has been validated in a frequency range of 4 Hz to 4 kHz. (paper)

  16. Graphite stack corrosion of BUGEY-1 reactor (synthesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.; Brie, M.

    1996-01-01

    The definitive shutdown date for the BUGEY-1 reactor was May 27th, 1994, after 12.18 full power equivalent years and this document briefly describes some of the feedback of experience from operation of this reactor. The radiolytic corrosion of graphite stack is the major problem for BUGEY-1 reactor, despite the inhibition of the reaction by small quantities of CH 4 added to the coolant gas. The mechanical behaviour of the pile is predicted using the ''INCA'' code (stress calculation), which uses the results of graphite weight loss variation determined using the ''USURE'' code. The weight loss of graphite is determined by annually taking core samples from the channel walls. The results of the last test programme undertaken after the definitive shutdown of BUGEY-1 have enabled an experimental graph to be established showing the evolution of the compression resistance (perpendicular and parallel direction to the extrusion axis) as a function of the weight loss. The numerous analyses, made on the samples carried out in the most sensitive regions, have allowed to verify that no brutal degradation of the mechanical properties of graphite happens for the high value of weight loss up to 40% (maximum weight loss reached locally). (author). 10 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Operating Deflection Shapes for the Space Shuttle Partial Stack Rollout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Kappus, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In November of 2003 a rollout test was performed to gain a better understanding of the dynamic environment for the Space Shuttle during transportation from the Vehicle Assembly Building to the launch pad. This was part of a study evaluating the methodology for including the rollout dynamic loads in the Space Shuttle fatigue life predictions. The rollout test was conducted with a partial stack consisting of the Crawler Transporter, Mobile Launch Platform, and the Solid Rocket Boosters with an interconnecting crossbeam. Instrumentation included over 100 accelerometers. Data was recorded for steady state speeds, start-ups and stops, and ambient wind excitations with the vehicle at idle. This paper will describe the operating deflection shape analysis performed using the measured acceleration response data. The response data for the steady state speed runs were dominated by harmonics of the forcing frequencies, which were proportional to the vehicle speed. Assuming a broadband excitation for the wind, analyses of the data sets with the vehicle at idle were used to estimate the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes. Comparisons of the measured modal properties with numerical predictions are presented.

  18. Stacked nickelocenes: synthesis, structural characterization, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtica, Sabrina; Prosenc, Marc Heinrich; Schmidt, Michael; Heck, Jürgen; Albrecht, Ole; Görlitz, Detlef; Reuter, Frank; Rentschler, Eva

    2010-02-15

    The disubstitution of 1,8-diiodonaphthalene (1) with cyclopentadienyl nucleophiles reveals 1,8-(dicyclopentadienyl)-naphthalene, which rapidly undergoes Diels-Alder reaction forming 1,8-(3a',4',7',7a'-tetrahydro-4',7'-methanoindene-7a',8'-diyl)-naphthalene (2). A subsequent retro-Diels-Alder reaction in the presence of sodium hydride yields the disodium salt of 1,8-(dicyclopentadiendiyl)-naphthalene 3. The disodium salt 3 was the starting material to obtain the paramagnetic bisnickelocene derivative 4, which structure was obtained by X-ray structure analysis, revealing two nickelocenes kept together in a stacked fashion by a 1,8-naphthalene clamp. An electronic interaction between the two nickel atoms is found as a result of cyclic voltammetry, indicating five different oxidation states +4, +3, +2, +1, and 0. The magnetic properties of 4 in solution were studied by variable temperature paramagnetic (1)H NMR spectroscopy and Evans method and revealed Curie behavior between 213 and 293 K. The magnetic susceptibility of a powdered sample of 4 was measured, and an antiferromagnetic interaction with an exchange coupling of J(12) = -31.49 cm(-1) is found. In accord with experimental data, broken symmetry density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed four antiferromagnetically coupled electrons resulting in an open shell singlet ground state.

  19. Stacking Ensemble Learning for Short-Term Electricity Consumption Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Divina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict short-term electric energy demand would provide several benefits, both at the economic and environmental level. For example, it would allow for an efficient use of resources in order to face the actual demand, reducing the costs associated to the production as well as the emission of CO 2 . To this aim, in this paper we propose a strategy based on ensemble learning in order to tackle the short-term load forecasting problem. In particular, our approach is based on a stacking ensemble learning scheme, where the predictions produced by three base learning methods are used by a top level method in order to produce final predictions. We tested the proposed scheme on a dataset reporting the energy consumption in Spain over more than nine years. The obtained experimental results show that an approach for short-term electricity consumption forecasting based on ensemble learning can help in combining predictions produced by weaker learning methods in order to obtain superior results. In particular, the system produces a lower error with respect to the existing state-of-the art techniques used on the same dataset. More importantly, this case study has shown that using an ensemble scheme can achieve very accurate predictions, and thus that it is a suitable approach for addressing the short-term load forecasting problem.

  20. Mechanical testing of adherence of stacked layers in tubular geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, L.A.; Schuring, E.W.; Van Delft, Y.C. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    For the development of new molecular separation technologies strong robust tubular membrane systems are required. The fragile membranes, however, need a strong defect free support such as a porous asymmetric ceramic tube. Mechanical failure of these ceramic membrane systems during manufacturing and operation is mainly caused by delamination of the stacked layers. Therefore development is focused on improving the adherence. As no standard mechanical test for tubular samples is available yet, a new tensile test was developed to facilitate the current research. The most important components in the new equipment is a test tool with a curvature matching that of the test sample and a sample casing that align and guide the test tool during the tensile test. With this tensile test the manufacturing procedure for the ECN standard tubular {alpha}-alumina support was optimized. Firing the asymmetric support at 1300C resulted in the highest mechanical strength for the support system with cohesive fracture in the support tube. With the test developed the process condition could be identified where the material of the support tube is the weakest link in the support system.