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Sample records for hts-squid nde system

  1. Robot-arm-based NDE of hydrogen fuel tank using a 3D-movable HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukade, Y; Hayashi, K; Tanaka, S [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tanabe, K, E-mail: hatukade@eco.tut.ac.j [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Shinonome 1-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we constructed a robot-arm-based SQUID-NDE system utilizing a novel HTS-SQUID gradiometer with ramp-edge Josephson junctions for hydrogen fuel tank inspection, and developed an automatic 3D-scanning program. A cylindrical hydrogen fuel tank with a double-layer structure, in which a 3mm-thick Al liner was reinforced by a 3mm-thick carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) cover, was prepared. The tank had a 10-mm-long through crack in the Al liner made by pressure cycle test. To inspect the tank using the SQUID-NDE system, we adopted a low-frequency eddy current technique that enables to excite deep part in the Al liner. By applying an excitation field of 7.5 {mu}T at 0.4 to 10 kHz to the tank from a double-D coil, the tank was scanned by the system while moving the HTS-SQUID gradiometer along curved surface of the tank in magnetically unshielded environment. Magnetic responses from the deep-lying crack in the tank were successfully detected by the system.

  2. Development of Contaminant Detection System using HTS SQUIDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, T.; Tanaka, S.; Narita, Y.; Ariyoshi, S. [National University Corporation, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohash (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Advance Food Technology Co., Ltd., Toyohashi (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    In terms of food safety, mixture of contaminants in food is a serious problem for not only consumers but also manufacturers. In general, the target size of the metallic contaminant to be removed is 0.5 mm. However, it is a difficult task for manufacturers to achieve this target, because of lower system sensitivity. Therefore, we developed a food contaminant detection system based on high-Tc RF superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), which are highly sensitive magnetic sensors. This study aims to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the system and detect a 0.5 mm diameter steel ball. Using a real time digital signal processing technique along with analog band-pass filters, we improved the SNR of the system. Owing to the improved SNR, a steel ball with a diameter as small as 0.3 mm, with stand-off distance of 117 mm was successfully detected. These results suggest that the proposed system is a promising candidate for the detection of metallic contaminants in food products.

  3. DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (∂Bz/∂x, ∂Bz/∂y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

  4. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, C P; Binks, R A; Lam, S H K; Du, J; Tilbrook, D L; Mitchell, E E; MacFarlane, J C; Lee, J B; Turner, R; Downey, M; Maddever, A

    2002-01-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods.

  5. HTS SQUID application for measuring the magnetic properties of AISI type 316L(N) steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.G. E-mail: dgpark@nanum.kaeri.re.kr; Kim, D.W.; Hong, J.H.; Timofeev, V.P.; Kim, C.G

    2000-06-02

    A portable RF HTS SQUID-based susceptometer was used for small-size magnetized sample testing in weak DC (up to 200 A/m) and AC (up to 4 A/m) magnetic fields. The system resolution for the magnetic moment is of the order of 1.6x10{sup -10} A m{sup 2}. The measured DC susceptibility of a tested sample of Gd{sub 88}La{sub 12} agrees well with the value obtained by using a commercial liquid helium susceptometer. The measured volume susceptibility of AISI type 316L(N) steel increases after fatigue due to the microcrack induced by cyclic stress.

  6. Observation of Magnetic Signals from Earthquake Faulting Using High-resolution HTS-SQUID Magnetometer: Feasibility of Super-early Warning of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Y.; Okubo, K.; Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Tanabe, K.; Onishi, N.; Furukawa, H.; Isogami, S.; Takeuchi, N.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic changes associated with earthquakes have been investigated previously. Our research group has also employed the magnetometers for seismomagnetic observations since March 2004. Our observation site happened to be situated at an epicentral distance of 26 km from the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake ofM7.2, NE Japan. In this earthquake, we have reported successful observation of "co-faulting" Earth's magnetic field changes (Okubo et al., 2011 EPSL). Magnetic fields began to change almost simultaneously with the onset of the earthquake rupture and grew before the first P wave arrival. Such magnetic signals are most probably generated by the changing stress field due to earthquake rupturing, i.e. the piezomagnetic effect. On the other hand, this observation result suggested that the geomagnetic variation signal accompanying fault movement, whose sources are the piezomagnetic effects, is very small. The observed change of geomagnetic field might be approximately less than several hundred pico-tesla. Therefore, to obtain more observation data of "co-faulting" magnetic field change, development of a higher-sensitive magnetometer system is very important. Then, our research group tried to develop the HTS-SQUID (high-temperature-superconductor based superconducting-quantum-interference-device) magnetometer systems for high-resolution observation of Earth's magnetic field. Since March 2012 we have introduced long-term precise geomagnetic observations using the HTS-SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.1 (mark I) at Iwaki observation site (IWK) in Fukushima, Japan. Additionally, since October 2014, we have also introduced the new HTS- SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.2 (mark II). The sampling interval of the magnetometers is 0.02 sec (50Hz). The system clock has been synchronized by use of GPS signals. A high-resolution accelerometer is also installed at observation point. In this study, we show the observation results of geomagnetic field changes associated

  7. Detection of low cycle fatigue in type 316 stainless steel using HTS-squid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.G.; Kim, D.W.; Hong, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea); Timofeev, V.P. [Verkin Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Eng, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    A portable RF HTS squid-based susceptometer was applied to the measurement of fatigue behavior for type 316L(N) stainless steel containing 0.04% to 0.15% nitrogen content. Strain-controlled low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted at RT and 600 C in air an atmosphere, and the magnetic moments were measured after the fatigue test using HTS SQUID. The magnetic moment of an as-received sample is higher than that of a fatigued sample in all the temperature ranges irrespective of the nitrogen content. The fatigue life decreased with an increasing test temperature up to 500 C, but increased at 600 C. The change of magnetic moments by LCF test is attributed to the stress induced micro defects. (orig.)

  8. Measurement of the magnetic moment in a cold worked 304 stainless steel using HTS SQUID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung P.O. Box 105, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dwkim1@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, D.W.; Angani, C.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung P.O. Box 105, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Timofeev, V.P. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave, Kharkov 61103 (Ukraine); Cheong, Y.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung P.O. Box 105, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The magnetic properties of stainless steel have been investigated using a radio frequency (RF) high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device)-based susceptometer. The nuclear grade 304 stainless steel is nonmagnetic at a normal condition but it changes to a partially ferromagnetic state associated with martensitic transformation under a plastic deformation. The magnetic moment of the 304 stainless steels was increased with an increasing cold work rate, and decreased with an increasing annealing temperature. The change of mechanical properties such as yield strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) are also analyzed in terms of deformation-induced martensitic transformation.

  9. NDE for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program addresses the need for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods for quality assessment and defect evaluation of thermal protection systems (TPS),...

  10. NDE for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program addresses the need for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods for quality assessment and defect evaluation of thermal protection systems (TPS). Novel...

  11. Automated NDE Flaw Mapping System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Aircraft Aging and Durability Project (AADP) aims to ensure the safety of both commercial and military aviation aircraft. Non-destructive evaluation (NDE)...

  12. Automated NDE Flaw Mapping System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The prevailing approach to non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of aircraft components is to set an inspection schedule based on what is generally known about the...

  13. Reproducibility of HTS-SQUID magnetocardiography in an unshielded clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, U; Schrey, F; Haueisen, J; Dörrer, L; Schreiber, J; Liehr, M; Schwarz, G; Solbrig, O; Figulla, H R; Seidel, P

    2001-07-01

    A new technology has been developed which measures the magnetic field of the human heart (magnetocardiogram, MCG) by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) sensors. These sensors can be operated at the temperature of liquid nitrogen without electromagnetic shielding. We tested the reproducibility of HTS-MCG measurements in healthy volunteers. Unshielded HTS-MCG measurements were performed in 18 healthy volunteers in left precordial position in two separate sessions in a clinical environment. The heart cycles of 10 min were averaged, smoothed, the baselines were adjusted, and the data were standardized to the respective areas under the curves (AUC) of the absolute values of the QRST amplitudes. The QRS complexes and the ST-T intervals were used to assess the reproducibility of the two measurements. Ratios (R(QRS), R(STT)) were calculated by dividing the AUC of the first measurement by the ones of the second measurement. The linear correlation coefficients (CORR(QRS), CORR(STT)) of the time intervals of the two measurements were calculated, too. The HTS-MCG signal was completely concealed by the high noise level in the raw data. The averaging and smoothing algorithms unmasked the QRS complex and the ST segment. A high reproducibility was found for the QRS complex (R(QRS)=1.2+/-0.3, CORR(QRS)=0.96+/-0.06). Similarly to the shape of the ECG it was characterized by three bends, the Q, R, and S waves. In the ST-T interval, the reproducibility was considerably lower (R(STT)=0.9+/-0.2, CORR(STT)=0.66+/-0.28). In contrast to the shape of the ECG, a baseline deflection after the T wave which may belong to U wave activity was found in a number of volunteers. HTS-MCG devices can be operated in a clinical environment without shielding. Whereas the reproducibility was found to be high for the depolarization interval, it was considerably lower for the ST segment and for the T wave. Therefore, before clinically applying HTS-MCG systems to the detection of repolarization

  14. Stable High-T {sub c} rf SQUID NDE system operating in noisy environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, D.F. [Superconducting Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: he.dongfeng@nims.go.jp; Yoshizawa, M. [Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Itozaki, H. [Superconducting Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    A high-T {sub c} rf SQUID NDE system was developed for stable, long time operation in a noisy environment. To reduce the influence of high frequency electromagnetic interference (EMI), a carefully designed metal shielding made of 0.1 mm thick metal foil was used. With the metal shielding, the SQUID could still operate well when a cellular phone was used nearby although the cellular phone could produce very strong EMI noises. To reduce the influence of the line interference or low frequency noises, a compensation method was used in the SQUID-based NDE system. With the compensation, the low frequency and the line interference could be reduced well. Using this SQUID-based NDE system, we successfully performed the NDE measurements in a noisy environment.

  15. Investigation of inductively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for NDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng Huan; Croxford, Anthony J; Wilcox, Paul D

    2013-06-01

    Inductive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such an inductively coupled transducer system in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface is based on electromagnetic coupling between three coils; one of the coils is physically connected to the transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit, where they are connected to the transmit and receive channels of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as a three-port network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. The developed transmission line model is a function of the physical parameters of the electromagnetic system, such as the number of turns and diameter of each coil, and their separation. This model provides immediate predictions of electrical input impedance and pulse-echo response. The model has been validated experimentally and a sensitivity analysis of the input parameters performed. This has enabled optimization of the various parameters. Inductively coupled transducer systems have been built for both bulk and guided wave examples. By using chirped excitation and baseline subtraction, inspection distance of up to 700 mm is achieved in single-shot, guided-wave pulse-echo mode measurements with a 5 mm separation between the probing coils and transducer coil on an aluminum plate structure. In the bulk wave example, a delamination in an 8.9-mm-thick carbon fiber composite specimen is successfully identified from the changes in the arrival time of a reflected pulse.

  16. Time-Domain Terahertz Computed Axial Tomography NDE System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimdars, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified the need for advanced non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to characterize aging and durability in aircraft materials to improve the safety of the nation's airline fleet. 3D THz tomography can play a major role in detection and characterization of flaws and degradation in aircraft materials, including Kevlar-based composites and Kevlar and Zylon fabric covers for soft-shell fan containment where aging and durability issues are critical. A prototype computed tomography (CT) time-domain (TD) THz imaging system has been used to generate 3D images of several test objects including a TUFI tile (a thermal protection system tile used on the Space Shuttle and possibly the Orion or similar capsules). This TUFI tile had simulated impact damage that was located and the depth of damage determined. The CT motion control gan try was designed and constructed, and then integrated with a T-Ray 4000 control unit and motion controller to create a complete CT TD-THz imaging system prototype. A data collection software script was developed that takes multiple z-axis slices in sequence and saves the data for batch processing. The data collection software was integrated with the ability to batch process the slice data with the CT TD-THz image reconstruction software. The time required to take a single CT slice was decreased from six minutes to approximately one minute by replacing the 320 ps, 100-Hz waveform acquisition system with an 80 ps, 1,000-Hz waveform acquisition system. The TD-THZ computed tomography system was built from pre-existing commercial off-the-shelf subsystems. A CT motion control gantry was constructed from COTS components that can handle larger samples. The motion control gantry allows inspection of sample sizes of up to approximately one cubic foot (.0.03 cubic meters). The system reduced to practice a CT-TDTHz system incorporating a COTS 80- ps/l-kHz waveform scanner. The incorporation of this scanner in the system allows acquisition of 3D

  17. Pressure tube replication techniques using the advanced NDE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, A.; Jarron, D.; Travers, J.; Hanley, K. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: andrew.isherwood@opg.com

    2006-07-01

    Periodic and in-service inspections of fuel channels are essential for the proper assessment of the structural integrity of these vital components. The arrival of new delivery devices for fuel channel inspections has driven new tooling for gathering and analyzing NDE data. The Advanced Non-Destructive Examination (ANDE) Replication System has been designed to compliment the ANDE Inspection System by providing a two plate replica system. These plates deliver a compound that makes a positive 3D mould of known ID flaws to gather information for flaw assessment. The two plate system, and the ability to retrieve and recharge the moulds in the reactor vault allows for gathering defect information with minimal critical path time. The ANDE Replication System was built on the foundation of CIGAR experience by a solid design team familiar with 3D CAD and manufacturing techniques. The tooling and controls went through a series of integration stages in the laboratory and then later with the Universal Delivery Machine (UDM) before being used on reactor starting in 2003. Once the inspection phase of an outage has been completed, the analysis team provides a list of flaw candidates that require 'root radius' information to complete the flaw assessment. This is a measure of how sharp the corners are in the defect. This data is used as part of the stress calculation that ultimately determines how many shutdown cycles that the reactor can have before that flaw must be re-inspected. The inspection tool is then swapped out of the delivery machine in the reactor vault using the versatile connectorized umbilical. The replication tool is loaded on the machine, charged with replica compound on each of the two plates, and then sent to the target channel(s). On channel, the operators use the same console as the ANDE Inspection System, but have a separate control system with a graphical display of the tool that shows its position in the channel with respect to the E-face. The axial

  18. Directed Design of Experiments (DOE) for Determining Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the issues that people who specialize in Non destructive evaluation (NDE) have with determining the statistics of the probability of detection. There is discussion of the use of the binominal distribution, and the probability of hit. The presentation then reviews the concepts of Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection of Inspection Systems (DOEPOD). Several cases are reviewed, and discussed. The concept of false calls is also reviewed.

  19. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) Manual v.1.2 The capability of an inspection system is established by applications of various methodologies to determine the probability of detection (POD). One accepted metric of an adequate inspection system is that there is 95% confidence that the POD is greater than 90% (90/95 POD). Design of experiments for validating probability of detection capability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems (DOEPOD) is a methodology that is implemented via software to serve as a diagnostic tool providing detailed analysis of POD test data, guidance on establishing data distribution requirements, and resolving test issues. DOEPOD demands utilization of observance of occurrences. The DOEPOD capability has been developed to provide an efficient and accurate methodology that yields observed POD and confidence bounds for both Hit-Miss or signal amplitude testing. DOEPOD does not assume prescribed POD logarithmic or similar functions with assumed adequacy over a wide range of flaw sizes and inspection system technologies, so that multi-parameter curve fitting or model optimization approaches to generate a POD curve are not required. DOEPOD applications for supporting inspector qualifications is included.

  20. Robotic Inspection System for Non-Destructive Evaluation (nde) of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, L. D.; Pierce, S. G.; Hayward, G.

    2009-03-01

    The demand for remote inspection of pipework in the processing cells of nuclear plant provides significant challenges of access, navigation, inspection technique and data communication. Such processing cells typically contain several kilometres of densely packed pipework whose actual physical layout may be poorly documented. Access to these pipes is typically afforded through the radiation shield via a small removable concrete plug which may be several meters from the actual inspection site, thus considerably complicating practical inspection. The current research focuses on the robotic deployment of multiple NDE payloads for weld inspection along non-ferritic steel pipework (thus precluding use of magnetic traction options). A fully wireless robotic inspection platform has been developed that is capable of travelling along the outside of a pipe at any orientation, while avoiding obstacles such as pipe hangers and delivering a variety of NDE payloads. An eddy current array system provides rapid imaging capabilities for surface breaking defects while an on-board camera, in addition to assisting with navigation tasks, also allows real time image processing to identify potential defects. All sensor data can be processed by the embedded microcontroller or transmitted wirelessly back to the point of access for post-processing analysis.

  1. Position-Controlled Data Acquisition Embedded System for Magnetic NDE of Bridge Stay Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouven Christen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a custom-tailored sensing and data acquisition embedded system, designed to be integrated in a new magnetic NDE inspection device under development at Empa, a device intended for routine testing of large diameter bridge stay cables. The data acquisition (DAQ system fulfills the speed and resolution requirements of the application and is able to continuously capture and store up to 2 GB of data at a sampling rate of 27 kS/s, with 12-bit resolution. This paper describes the DAQ system in detail, including both hardware and software implementation, as well as the key design challenges nd the techniques employed to meet the specifications. Experimental results showing the performance of the system are also presented.

  2. Development of a Remotely Operated NDE System for Inspection of Hanford's Double Shell Waste Tank Knuckle Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Harris, Robert V.; Riechers, Douglas M.; Samuel, Todd J.; Schuster, George J.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Roberts, R. A.

    2001-09-28

    This report documents work performed at the PNNL in FY01 to support development of a Remotely Operated NDE (RONDE) system capable of inspecting the knuckle region of Hanford's DSTs. The development effort utilized commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology wherever possible and provided a transport and scanning device for implementing the SAFT and T-SAFT techniques.

  3. Wireless Self-powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Burkett; Hagen Schempf

    2006-01-31

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design of the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main NDE and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules and their arrangement, still allow the robot to configure itself to perform any-angle (up to 90 deg) turns in any orientation (incl. vertical), and enable the live launching and

  4. CIVA workstation for NDE: mixing of NDE techniques and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoist, P.; Besnard, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Bayon, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Reacteurs Experimentaux; Boutaine, J.L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Applications et de la Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants

    1994-12-31

    In order to compare the capabilities of different NDE techniques, or to use complementary inspection methods, the same components are examined with different procedures. It is then very useful to have a single evaluation tool allowing direct comparison of the methods: CIVA is an open system for processing NDE data; it is adapted to a standard work station (UNIX, C, MOTIF) and can read different supports on which the digitized data are stored. It includes a large library of signal and image processing methods accessible and adapted to NDE data (filtering, deconvolution, 2D and 3D spatial correlations...). Different CIVA application examples are described: brazing inspection (neutronography, ultrasonic), tube inspection (eddy current, ultrasonic), aluminium welds examination (UT and radiography). Modelling and experimental results are compared. 16 fig., 7 ref.

  5. Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie Mellon University

    2008-09-30

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design, field-trial and Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) sensor evaluation program for the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The resulting robot-train system with CAD renderings of the individual modules. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules

  6. Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie Mellon University

    2008-09-30

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design, field-trial and Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) sensor evaluation program for the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The resulting robot-train system with CAD renderings of the individual modules. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules

  7. Scanning high-Tc SQUID imaging system for magnetocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Chang; Wu, Tsung-Yeh; Horng, Herng-Er; Wu, Chau-Chung; Yang, S. Y.; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Wu, Chiu-Hsien; Jeng, J. T.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, Kuen-Lin; Chen, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    A scanning magnetocardiography (MCG) system constructed from SQUID sensors offers potential to basic or clinical research in biomagnetism. In this work, we study a first order scanning electronic high-Tc (HTS) SQUID MCG system for biomagnetic signals. The scanning MCG system was equipped with an x-y translation bed powered by step motors. Using noise cancellation and μ-metal shielding, we reduced the noise level substantially. The established scanning HTS MCG system was used to study the magnetophysiology of hypercholesterolaemic (HC) rabbits. The MCG data of HC rabbits were analysed. The MCG contour map of HC rabbits provides experimental models for the interpretation of human cardiac patterns.

  8. The radio-frequency HTS SQUID for magnetic microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Khvostov, S S; Garbuz, A S; Shnyrkov, V I

    2003-01-01

    The spectral density of magnetic flux noise S subPHI sup 1 sup / sup 2 (f) for HTS RF SQUIDs with a pumping frequency of 390-457 Mhz within triple-layer permalloy and superconducting shields are investigated. The superconducting interferometers of 100 centre dot 100 mm, are fabricated by the thin film technology with ramp-edge type Josephson junctions YBaCuO-PrBaCuO-YBaCuO. It is shown that with a cooled preamplifier the energy resolution of SQUIDs makes up to 4 centre dot 10 sup - sup 3 sup 0 J/Hz at 'white' noise (at frequencies above 1 kHz) and is mainly defined by inherent noise of the HTS interferometer and the shields. At low frequencies the noises related to exterior fields that penetrate directly into the shields, are dominant. At frequencies above 1 kHz, the ferromagnetic antenna of the SQUID microscope increases the intrinsic noise of the magnetometer up to 8 centre dot 10 sup - sup 3 sup 0 J/Hz.

  9. Steam generator tubing NDE performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, G. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States); Welty, C.S. Jr. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator (SG) non-destructive examination (NDE) is a fundamental element in the broader SG in-service inspection (ISI) process, a cornerstone in the management of PWR steam generators. Based on objective performance measures (tube leak forced outages and SG-related capacity factor loss), ISI performance has shown a continually improving trend over the years. Performance of the NDE element is a function of the fundamental capability of the technique, and the ability of the analysis portion of the process in field implementation of the technique. The technology continues to improve in several areas, e.g. system sensitivity, data collection rates, probe/coil design, and data analysis software. With these improvements comes the attendant requirement for qualification of the technique on the damage form(s) to which it will be applied, and for training and qualification of the data analysis element of the ISI process on the field implementation of the technique. The introduction of data transfer via fiber optic line allows for remote data acquisition and analysis, thus improving the efficiency of analysis for a limited pool of data analysts. This paper provides an overview of the current status of SG NDE, and identifies several important issues to be addressed.

  10. Real-time B-scan ultrasonic imaging using a digital phased array system for NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunki-Jacobs, Robert; Thomas, Lewis

    A demonstration is presented of the ability to produce real-time images of metals on the basis of a phased-array ultrasound system. Attention is given to the critical role played by a beam-former. It is established that the present imaging system's resolution approaches the theoretical capabilities of the given aperture size and wavelength.

  11. Composite NDE using full-field pulse-echo ultrasonic propagation imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Chan; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Park, Jongwoon

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel ultrasonic propagation imaging system, called a full-field pulse-echo ultrasonic propagation imaging (FF PE UPI) system is presented. The coincided laser beams for ultrasonic sensing and generation are scanned and pulse-echo mode laser ultrasounds are captured. This procedure makes it possible to generate full-field ultrasound in through-the-thickness direction as large as the scan area. The system nondestructively inspected targets with two-axis translation stages. Various structural inspection results in the form of full-field ultrasonic wave propagation videos are introduced, which are an aluminum honeycomb sandwich, ailerons and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) honeycomb sandwich structures including various defects.

  12. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of Nde Systems (doepod)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, E. R.

    2008-02-01

    The capability of an inspection system is established by applications of various methodologies to determine the probability of detection (POD). One accepted metric of an adequate inspection system is that there is 95% confidence that the POD is greater than 90% (90/95 POD). Directed design of experiments for probability of detection (DOEPOD) has been developed to provide an efficient and accurate methodology that yields observed POD and confidence bounds for both Hit-Miss or signal amplitude testing. Specifically, DOEPOD demands utilization of observance of occurrences. Directed DOEPOD does not assume prescribed POD logarithmic or similar functions with assumed adequacy over a wide range of flaw sizes and inspection system technologies, so that multi-parameter curve fitting or model optimization approaches to generate a POD curve are not required.

  13. A scaleable integrated sensing and control system for NDE, monitoring, and control of medium to very large composite smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jerry; Rhoades, Valerie; Arner, Radford; Clem, Timothy; Cuneo, Adam

    2007-04-01

    NDE measurements, monitoring, and control of smart and adaptive composite structures requires that the central knowledge system have an awareness of the entire structure. Achieving this goal necessitates the implementation of an integrated network of significant numbers of sensors. Additionally, in order to temporally coordinate the data from specially distributed sensors, the data must be time relevant. Early adoption precludes development of sensor technology specifically for this application, instead it will depend on the ability to utilize legacy systems. Partially supported by the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Advanced Technology Development Program (NIST-ATP), a scalable integrated system has been developed to implement monitoring of structural integrity and the control of adaptive/intelligent structures. The project, called SHIELD (Structural Health Identification and Electronic Life Determination), was jointly undertaken by: Caterpillar, N.A. Tech., Motorola, and Microstrain. SHIELD is capable of operation with composite structures, metallic structures, or hybrid structures. SHIELD consists of a real-time processing core on a Motorola MPC5200 using a C language based real-time operating system (RTOS). The RTOS kernel was customized to include a virtual backplane which makes the system completely scalable. This architecture provides for multiple processes to be operating simultaneously. They may be embedded as multiple threads on the core hardware or as separate independent processors connected to the core using a software driver called a NAT-Network Integrator (NATNI). NATNI's can be created for any communications application. In it's current embodiment, NATNI's have been created for CAN bus, TCP/IP (Ethernet) - both wired and 802.11 b and g, and serial communications using RS485 and RS232. Since SHIELD uses standard C language, it is easy to port any monitoring or control algorithm, thus providing for legacy

  14. Review of progress in quantitative NDE. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This booklet is composed of abstracts from papers submitted at a meeting on quantitative NDE. A multitude of topics are discussed including analysis of composite materials, NMR uses, x-ray instruments and techniques, manufacturing uses, neural networks, eddy currents, stress measurements, magnetic materials, adhesive bonds, signal processing, NDE of mechanical structures, tomography,defect sizing, NDE of plastics and ceramics, new techniques, optical and electromagnetic techniques, and nonlinear techniques. (GHH)

  15. NDE Acoustic Microscopy Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to develop advanced, more effective high-resolution micro-NDE materials characterization methods using scanning acoustic microscopy. The laboratory's...

  16. NASA DOEPOD NDE Capabilities Data Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    This data book contains the Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) analyses of the nondestructive inspection data presented in the NTIAC, Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book. DOEPOD is designed as a decision support system to validate inspection system, personnel, and protocol demonstrating 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes, a90/95. Although 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes is often stated as an inspection requirement in inspection documents, including NASA Standards, NASA critical aerospace applications have historically only accepted 0.978 POD or better with a 95% one-sided lower confidence bound exceeding 0.90 at critical flaw sizes, a90/95.

  17. Ultrasonic wavefield imaging: Research tool or emerging NDE method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic wavefield imaging refers to acquiring full waveform data over a region of interest for waves generated by a stationary source. Although various implementations of wavefield imaging have existed for many years, the widespread availability of laser Doppler vibrometers that can acquire signals in the high kHz and low MHz range has resulted in a rapid expansion of fundamental research utilizing full wavefield data. In addition, inspection methods based upon wavefield imaging have been proposed for standalone nondestructive evaluation (NDE) with most of these methods coming from the structural health monitoring (SHM) community and based upon guided waves. If transducers are already embedded in or mounted on the structure as part of an SHM system, then a wavefield-based inspection can potentially take place with very little required disassembly. A frequently-proposed paradigm for wavefield NDE is its application as a follow-up inspection method using embedded SHM transducers as guided wave sources if the in situ SHM system generates an alarm. Discussed here is the broad role of wavefield imaging as it relates to ultrasonic NDE, both as a research tool and as an emerging NDE method. Examples of current research are presented based upon both guided and bulk wavefield imaging in metals and composites, drawing primarily from the author's work. Progress towards wavefield NDE is discussed in the context of defect detection and characterization capabilities, scan times, data quality, and required data analysis. Recent research efforts are summarized that can potentially enable wavefield NDE.

  18. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) research progress in 1988: Proceedings from the ninth annual EPRI NDE information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Dau, G.J.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Welty, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety analysis through rapidly developing Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now underway. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R and D personnel, and utility representatives. As the tenth in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Ninth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Charlotte, North Carolina, on November 15--16, 1988. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-5490-SR was issued in June 1988. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components -- pipe, pressure vessel, and steam generator and boiler tubes. In addition, Part 5 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer.

  19. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    materials. Through the results obtained from this integrated materials behavior and NDE study, new insight will be gained into the best nondestructive creep and microstructure monitoring methods for the particular mechanisms identified in these materials. The proposed project includes collaboration with a national laboratory partner and the results will also serve as a foundation to guide the efforts of scientists in the DOE laboratory, university, and industrial communities concerned with the technological challenges of monitoring creep and microstructural evolution in materials planned to be used in Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems.

  20. NDE applications in microelectronic industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, N.; Oppermann, M.; Krueger, P.; Roellig, M.; Wolter, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    New concepts in assembly technology boost our daily life in an unknown way. High end semiconductor industry today deals with functional structures down to a few nanometers. ITRS roadmap predicts an ongoing decrease of the "DRAM half pitch" over the next decade. Packaging of course is not intended to realize pitches at the nanometer scale, but has to face the challenges of integrating such semiconductor devices with smallest pitch and high pin counts into systems. Advanced techniques of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) with resolutions in volume better than 1 micrometer vixen size are urgently needed for the safety and reliability of electronic systems, especially those that are used in long living applications. The development speed of integrated circuits is still very high and is not expected to decrease in the next future. The integration density of microelectronic devices is increasing, the dimensions become smaller and the number of I/O's is getting higher. The development of new types of packages must be done with respect to reliability issues. Potential damage sources must be identified and finally avoided in the new packages. In power electronics production the condition monitoring receives a lot of interest to avoid electrical shortcuts, dead solder joints and interface cracking. It is also desired to detect and characterize very small defects like transportation phenomenon or Kirkendall voids. For this purpose, imaging technologies with resolutions in the sub-micron range are required.

  1. NASA NDE Applications for Mobile MEMS Devices and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.; Barclay, R. O.

    2008-01-01

    NASA would like new devices and sensors for performing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace vehicles. These devices must be small in size/volume, mass, and power consumption. The devices must be autonomous and mobile so they can access the internal structures of aircraft and spacecraft and adequately monitor the structural health of these craft. The platforms must be mobile in order to transport NDE sensors for evaluating structural integrity and determining whether further investigations will be required. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is crucial to the development of the mobile platforms and sensor systems. This paper presents NASA s needs for micro mobile platforms and MEMS sensors that will enable NDE to be performed on aerospace vehicles.

  2. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Martin

    2010-01-01

    These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

  3. NDE Technology Development Program for Non-Visual Volumetric Inspection Technology; Sensor Effectiveness Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Traci L.; Larche, Michael R.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Glass, Samuel W.

    2017-08-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, hosted and administered Sensor Effectiveness Testing that allowed four different participants to demonstrate the NDE volumetric inspection technologies that were previously demonstrated during the Technology Screening session. This document provides a Sensor Effectiveness Testing report for the final part of Phase I of a three-phase NDE Technology Development Program designed to identify and mature a system or set of non-visual volumetric NDE technologies for Hanford DST primary liner bottom inspection. Phase I of the program will baseline the performance of current or emerging non-visual volumetric NDE technologies for their ability to detect and characterize primary liner bottom flaws, and identify candidate technologies for adaptation and maturation for Phase II of the program.

  4. NDE Studies on CRDMs Removed From Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, Steven R.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Schuster, George J.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Abrefah, John

    2005-12-31

    Studies being conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington are focused on assessing the effectiveness of NDE inspections of control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the effectiveness of ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments, and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies. In describing two CRDM assemblies removed from service, decontaminated, and then used in a series of NDE measurements, this paper will address the following questions: 1) What did each technique detect?, 2) What did each technique miss?, 3) How accurately did each technique characterize the detected flaws? Two CRDM assemblies including the CRDM nozzle, the J-groove weld, buttering, and a portion of the ferritic head material were selected for this study. One contained suspected PWSCC, based on in-service inspection data; the other contained evidence suggesting through-wall leakage, but this was unconfirmed. The selected NDE measurements follow standard industry techniques for conducting in-service inspections of CRDM nozzles and the crown of the J-groove welds and buttering. In addition, laboratory based NDE methods will be employed to conduct inspections of the CRDM assemblies, with particular emphasis on inspecting the J-groove weld and buttering. This paper will also describe the NDE methods used and discus the NDE results. Future work will involve using the results from these NDE studies to guide the development of a destructive characterization plan to reveal the crack morphology, to be compared with NDE responses.

  5. NDE for the 21st century: industry 4.0 requires NDE 4.0 (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert G.

    2017-04-01

    Industry 4.0 stands for the fourth industrial revolution that is ongoing at present. Industry 4.0 is a terminology preferred used in Europe to characterize the integration of production and communication technologies, the so called "smart factory". The first industrial revolution was the mechanization of work. The second was mass production and the assembly line. While the third revolution was the computer integrated manufacturing. Industry 4.0 encompasses the complete networking of all industrial areas. Lowering costs and efficient in-time production will be possible also for low numbers of very unique parts for example by additive manufacturing (3D printing). A significant aspect is also quality and maintainability of these sometimes unique structures and components. NDE has to follow these trends, not only by adapting NDE techniques to the new technologies, but also introducing the capability of cyber systems into the inspection and maintenance processes. The requirements and challenges for this new technological area will be discussed. Chances for applications of new technologies and systems for NDE will be demonstrated online.

  6. Through the looking glass: The future for NDE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-02-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is a mature industry, with global equipment sales fast moving towards 2B. per year. The use of conventional NDT will grow in developing countries and in developed countries the challenges will include those associated with maintaining aging infrastructure. For some systems the future will move to structural health monitoring (SHM) and for others into integration of online measurements in manufacturing. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is a multi-disciplinary area of endeavor that has its origins in materials science and NDT. It seeks to provide an adequate science base for NDT to become a quantitative science. It was seen to be necessary to better detect, size and type defects, improve the reliability of inspection, and probability of detection (POD). There is particular interest in estimating the potential defects could have on performance or potential for loss of structural integrity, under various loading or stressor conditions, and ultimately implement risk-based reliability assessments. NDE must be seen more as a part of the wide field of engineering, as an interdisciplinary endeavor, that brings together the expertise of materials science and metrology, together with the underlying physics for inspection methods, as well as statistics, computers, robotics and software. The adoption of advanced manufacturing, will require new metrology tools and methods to provide data for assessing new materials including powder metals, as used in additive manufacturing, and various composites. The lessons from the past proceedings of this conference series include that the problems faced today are harder than was expected during the first decade of quantitative NDE research. Even with new types of transducers and much improved A/D and powerful computers new approaches and more basic measurement physics being understood, new insights are needed to provide the data needed to solve many real-world NDE problems, to understand and measure early

  7. NDE for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Reinforced Carbon-Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Rauser, Richard W.; Jacobson, nathan S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter s thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using NDE methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3 mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used since they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally-cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with x-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating. The results of that study are briefly reviewed in this article as well. Additionally, a short discussion on the future role of simulation to aid in these studies is provided.

  8. Platform for Postprocessing Waveform-Based NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don

    2008-01-01

    Taking advantage of the similarities that exist among all waveform-based non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods, a common software platform has been developed containing multiple- signal and image-processing techniques for waveforms and images. The NASA NDE Signal and Image Processing software has been developed using the latest versions of LabVIEW, and its associated Advanced Signal Processing and Vision Toolkits. The software is useable on a PC with Windows XP and Windows Vista. The software has been designed with a commercial grade interface in which two main windows, Waveform Window and Image Window, are displayed if the user chooses a waveform file to display. Within these two main windows, most actions are chosen through logically conceived run-time menus. The Waveform Window has plots for both the raw time-domain waves and their frequency- domain transformations (fast Fourier transform and power spectral density). The Image Window shows the C-scan image formed from information of the time-domain waveform (such as peak amplitude) or its frequency-domain transformation at each scan location. The user also has the ability to open an image, or series of images, or a simple set of X-Y paired data set in text format. Each of the Waveform and Image Windows contains menus from which to perform many user actions. An option exists to use raw waves obtained directly from scan, or waves after deconvolution if system wave response is provided. Two types of deconvolution, time-based subtraction or inverse-filter, can be performed to arrive at a deconvolved wave set. Additionally, the menu on the Waveform Window allows preprocessing of waveforms prior to image formation, scaling and display of waveforms, formation of different types of images (including non-standard types such as velocity), gating of portions of waves prior to image formation, and several other miscellaneous and specialized operations. The menu available on the Image Window allows many further image

  9. Ultrasonic Phased-Array Characterization for NDE Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, John J.; Tennis, Richard F.; Pickens, Keith S.

    1995-01-01

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) recently fabricated and delivered the 100-channel Ultrasonic Phased-Array Testbed System (UPATS) for NASA's Langley Research Center. NASA prepared the specifications and provided the funding to develop UPATS in order to provide a tool for the improvement of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and characterization of materials. UPATS incorporates state-of-the-art phased-array concepts such as beam steering, focusing, apodization, and phase-sensitive detection which make it possible to develop more sophisticated testing methodologies. It also can be used to investigate fundamental ultrasonic propagation and detection phenomena such as refraction, diffraction, scattering, and beam broadening.

  10. Forward propagation of parametric uncertainties through models of NDE inspection scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Matthew; Sabbagh, Harold; Aldrin, John; Knopp, Jeremy; Pilchak, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Forward uncertainty propagation has been a topic of interest to NDE researchers for several years. To this point, the purpose has been to gain an understanding of the uncertainties that can be seen in signals from NDE sensors given uncertainties in the geometric and material parameters of the problem. However, a complex analysis of an inspection scenario with high variability has not been performed. Furthermore, these methods have not seen direct practical application in the areas of model assisted probability of detection or inverse problems. In this paper, uncertainty due to spatial heterogeneity in material systems that undergo NDE inspection will be discussed. Propagation of this uncertainty through forward models of inspection scenarios will be outlined and the mechanisms for representing the spatial heterogeneity will be explained in detail. Examples will be provided that illustrate the effect of high variability in uncertainty propagation in the context of forward modeling.

  11. On-Line NDE for Advanced Reactor Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, N.; Inanc, F.; Thompson, R. B.; Junker, W. R.; Ruddy, F. H.; Beatty, J. M.; Arlia, N. G.

    2003-03-01

    This expository paper introduces the concept of on-line sensor methodologies for monitoring the integrity of components in next generation power systems, and explains general benefits of the approach, while describing early conceptual developments of suitable NDE methodologies. The paper first explains the philosophy behind this approach (i.e. the design-for-inspectability concept). Specifically, we describe where and how decades of accumulated knowledge and experience in nuclear power system maintenance are utilized in Generation IV power system designs, as the designs are being actively developed, in order to advance their safety and economy. Second, we explain that Generation IV reactor design features call for the replacement of the current outage-based maintenance by on-line inspection and monitoring. Third, the model-based approach toward design and performance optimization of on-line sensor systems, using electromagnetic, ultrasonic, and radiation detectors, will be explained. Fourth, general types of NDE inspections that are considered amenable to on-line health monitoring will be listed. Fifth, we will describe specific modeling developments to be used for radiography, EMAT UT, and EC detector design studies.

  12. Dual-frequency eddy-current NDE based on high-T{sub c} rf SQUID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, D.F.; Yoshizawa, M

    2002-12-15

    We developed a dual-frequency eddy-current NDE system based on High-T{sub c} RF superconducting quantum interference devices. This method could be used to decrease the unwanted signals caused by the variance of lift-off, to estimate the depth of crack flaw or to detect the thickness of metal structures by choosing appropriate excitation frequencies.

  13. Manufacturing and NDE of Large Composite Aerospace Structures at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ann

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for transportation to orbit calls for new vehicles built with new materials technology. The goals of this new launch system development are to improve safety, dramatically reduce cost to orbit, and improve vehicle turn around time. Planned Space Shuttle upgrades include new reusable liquid propellant boosters to replace the solid propellant boosters. These boosters are to have wings and return to the launch site for a horizontal landing on an airport runway. New single and two stages to orbit concepts are being investigated. To reduce weight and improve performance composite materials are proposed for fuel and oxidizer tanks, fuel feedlines, valve bodies, aerostructures, turbomachinery components. For large composite structures new methods of fabrication are being proposed and developed. Containment of cryogenic fuel or oxidizer requires emphases on composite material densification and chemical compatibility. Ceramic matrix and fiber composites for hot rotating turbomachinery have been developed with new fabrication processes. The new requirements on the materials for launcher components are requiring development of new manufacturing and inspection methods. This talk will examine new and proposed manufacturing methods to fabricate the revolutionary components. New NDE methods under consideration include alternative X-ray methods, X-ray laminagraphy, advanced CT, Thermography, new ultrasonic methods, and imbedded sensors. The sizes, complexity, use environment, and contamination restrictions will challenge the inspection process. In flight self-diagnosis and rapid depot inspection are also goals of the NDE development.

  14. Model assisted qualification of NDE techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballisat, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul; Smith, Robert; Hallam, David

    2017-02-01

    The costly and time consuming nature of empirical trials typically performed for NDE technique qualification is a major barrier to the introduction of NDE techniques into service. The use of computational models has been proposed as a method by which the process of qualification can be accelerated. However, given the number of possible parameters present in an inspection, the number of combinations of parameter values scales to a power law and running simulations at all of these points rapidly becomes infeasible. Given that many NDE inspections result in a single valued scalar quantity, such as a phase or amplitude, using suitable sampling and interpolation methods significantly reduces the number of simulations that have to be performed. This paper presents initial results of applying Latin Hypercube Designs and M ultivariate Adaptive Regression Splines to the inspection of a fastener hole using an oblique ultrasonic shear wave inspection. It is demonstrated that an accurate mapping of the response of the inspection for the variations considered can be achieved by sampling only a small percentage of the parameter space of variations and that the required percentage decreases as the number of parameters and the number of possible sample points increases. It is then shown how the outcome of this process can be used to assess the reliability of the inspection through commonly used metrics such as probability of detection, thereby providing an alternative methodology to the current practice of performing empirical probability of detection trials.

  15. Final report on the development of a disturbanceless NDE compact cooling device; Abschlussbericht zur Entwicklung einer stoerarmen maschinellen NDE-Kompaktkuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.

    2002-08-13

    The project comprised the following aspects: 1. Development of a disturbance-free, mechanized compact cooling system for a NDE measuring system on the basis of a commercial SL200-10 split stirling cooling system of AEG Infrarotmodule GmbH, Heilbronn; 2. Support of the development work at the HTSL/Hall magnetometer of Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena; 3. Measurements of HTSL/Hall magnetometer samples and thermal characterisation. [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurden die folgenden Aufgabenstellungen behandelt: 1. Entwicklung einer stoerarmen, maschinellen Kompaktkuehlung fuer ein NDE-Messsystem auf der Basis eines kommerziellen Split-Stirlingkuehlers SL200-10 der Firma AEG Infrarotmodule GmbH, Heilbronn, 2. Unterstuetzung der Entwicklungsarbeiten am HTSL/Hall-Magnetometer, die bei der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet in Jena durchgefuehrt wurden, 3. Messungen an HTSL/Hall-Magnetometer-Proben zu deren thermischer Charakterisierung. (orig.)

  16. Nondestructive evaluation research progress in 1989: Proceedings from the tenth annual EPRI NDE information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Behravesh, M.M.; Gehl, S.M.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Welty, C.S. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety available through rapidity developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor (LWR) inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now under way. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R D personnel, and utility representatives. As the eleventh in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Tenth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Palo Alto, California, on November 14-15, 1989. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-6075-SR was issued in May 1989. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components -- pipe and nozzle, pressure vessel, and boilers and steam generators. In addition, Part 5 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  17. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  18. Practical constraints on real time Bayesian filtering for NDE applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summan, R.; Pierce, S.; Dobie, G.; Hensman, J.; MacLeod, C.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of Bayesian positional filtering algorithms applied to mobile robots for Non-Destructive Evaluation is presented using multiple positional sensing data - a real time, on-robot implementation of an Extended Kalman and Particle filter was used to control a robot performing representative raster scanning of a sample. Both absolute and relative positioning were employed - the absolute being an indoor acoustic GPS system that required careful calibration. The performance of the tracking algorithms are compared in terms of computational cost and the accuracy of trajectory estimates. It is demonstrated that for real time NDE scanning, the Extended Kalman Filter is a more sensible choice given the high computational overhead for the Particle filter.

  19. Composite Flywheels Assessed Analytically by NDE and FEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    2000-01-01

    As an alternative to expensive and short-lived lead-acid batteries, composite flywheels are being developed to provide an uninterruptible power supply for advanced aerospace and industrial applications. Flywheels can help prevent irregularities in voltage caused by power spikes, sags, surges, burnout, and blackouts. Other applications include load-leveling systems for wind and solar power facilities, where energy output fluctuates with weather. Advanced composite materials are being considered for these components because they are significantly lighter than typical metallic alloys and have high specific strength and stiffness. However, much more research is needed before these materials can be fully utilized, because there is insufficient data concerning their fatigue characteristics and nonlinear behavior, especially at elevated temperatures. Moreover, these advanced types of structural composites pose greater challenges for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques than are encountered with typical monolithic engineering metals. This is particularly true for ceramic polymer and metal matrix composites, where structural properties are tailored during the processing stages. Current efforts involving the NDE group at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field are focused on evaluating many important structural components, including the flywheel system. Glenn's in-house analytical and experimental capabilities are being applied to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans to help assess the damage and defects of high-temperature structural composite materials. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used extensively to model the effects of static and dynamic loading on aerospace propulsion components. This technique allows the use of complicated loading schemes by breaking the complex part geometry into many smaller, geometrically simple elements.

  20. Advanced Eddy current NDE steam generator tubing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtiari, S.

    1999-03-29

    As part of a multifaceted project on steam generator integrity funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out research on the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). A particular area of interest is the impact of advanced eddy current (EC) NDE technology. This paper presents an overview of work that supports this effort in the areas of numerical electromagnetic (EM) modeling, data analysis, signal processing, and visualization of EC inspection results. Finite-element modeling has been utilized to study conventional and emerging EC probe designs. This research is aimed at determining probe responses to flaw morphologies of current interest. Application of signal processing and automated data analysis algorithms has also been addressed. Efforts have focused on assessment of frequency and spatial domain filters and implementation of more effective data analysis and display methods. Data analysis studies have dealt with implementation of linear and nonlinear multivariate models to relate EC inspection parameters to steam generator tubing defect size and structural integrity. Various signal enhancement and visualization schemes are also being evaluated and will serve as integral parts of computer-aided data analysis algorithms. Results from this research will ultimately be substantiated through testing on laboratory-grown and in-service-degraded tubes.

  1. Studying the nonlinearity in Sonic IR NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuye; Obeidat, Omar; Han, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-01

    Sonic IR Imaging combines pulsed ultrasound excitation and infrared imaging to detect defects in materials. The sound pulse causes rubbing due to non--unison motion between faces of defects, and infrared sensors image the temperature map over the target to identify defects. It works in various materials, including metal/metal alloy, ceramics, and composite materials. Its biggest advantage is that it's a fast, wide area NDE technique. It takes only a fraction of a second or a few seconds, depending on the thermal properties of the target, for one test over a few square feet. However, due to the nonlinearity in the coupling between the ultrasound transducer and the target, the repeatability has been an issue, which affects its application. In this paper, we present our study on this issue in Sonic IR.

  2. On-orbit NDE: A novel approach to tube weld inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Kerry; Hughes, Greg

    1994-01-01

    The challenge of fabrication and repair of structures in space must be met if we are to utilize and maintain long-duration space facilities. Welding techniques have been demonstrated to provide the most reliable means to accomplish this task. Over the past few years, methods have been developed to perform orbital tube welding employing space-based welding technology pioneered by the former Soviet Union. Welding can result in the formation of defects, which threaten the structural integrity of the welded joint. Implementation of welding on-orbit, therefore, must also include methods to evaluate the quality and integrity of the welded joints. To achieve this goal, the development of an on-orbit tube weld inspection system, utilizing alternating current field measurement (ACFM) technology, has been under taken. This paper describes the development of the ACFM on-orbit tube weld inspection tool. Topics discussed include: requirements for on-orbit NDE, basic theory of ACFM, its advantages over other NDE methods for on-orbit applications, and the ACFM NDE system design. System operation and trial inspection results are also discussed. Future work with this technology is also considered.

  3. Reliably Detectable Flaw Size for NDE Methods that Use Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2017-01-01

    Probability of detection (POD) analysis is used in assessing reliably detectable flaw size in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). MIL-HDBK-1823 and associated mh1823 POD software gives most common methods of POD analysis. In this paper, POD analysis is applied to an NDE method, such as eddy current testing, where calibration is used. NDE calibration standards have known size artificial flaws such as electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches and flat bottom hole (FBH) reflectors which are used to set instrument sensitivity for detection of real flaws. Real flaws such as cracks and crack-like flaws are desired to be detected using these NDE methods. A reliably detectable crack size is required for safe life analysis of fracture critical parts. Therefore, it is important to correlate signal responses from real flaws with signal responses form artificial flaws used in calibration process to determine reliably detectable flaw size.

  4. Assessment of NDE Methods to Detect Lack of Fusion in HDPE Butt Fusion Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-07-31

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, were conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provided information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch (30.5-cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes, both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Some of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test. The fusion parameters, nondestructive and destructive evaluation results have been correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. There was no single NDE method that detected all of the lack-of-fusion flaws but a combination of NDE methods did detect most of the flaws.

  5. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cuta, Judith M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qiao, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doctor, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS®) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  6. Global NDE Best Practice for Technology Improvement, Outage Management, Foreign Material Exclusion and Dose Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, S. W.; Mohr, F.

    2010-07-01

    Non Destructive Examination (NDE) is a critical element of both Boiling Water and Pressurized Water Reactor outages. Frequently this includes critical path activity so both the utility and the inspection vendor are under intense pressure to perform the work quickly. Concurrent with AREVA's new global organization of NDE resources, AREVA NDE SOLUTIONS, efforts have intensified for global application of lessons learned and best practices. These best practices include new developments as well as continuous improvements to well established tools and NDE techniques. Advancements range from steam generator robots, advanced steam generator deposit characterization sensors and method, new phased array approaches for PWR and BWR reactor vessel examination, new sensors and approaches for RPV head examinations, plus advanced internals examination robots and methods. In addition to specialized tools and techniques, best practice includes numerous management innovations. AREVA's multi-disciplined integrated nuclear worker strategy helps to minimize the total number of personnel deployed to multi-task outages. Specific design and on-site practice has been implemented to minimize or eliminate foreign material from the reactor system and vigorous pursuit of dose management practices keeps our nuclear worker dose as low as reasonably achievable. The industry is moving to much more conservative nuclear worker dose limits. While this is proving to be an issue with many vendors, AREVA has had an internal policy of <2R since 2006. Globalizing the organization also helps AREVA manage peaks and unplanned emergency inspections from an enlarged pool of globally qualified inspection personnel and tools. (Author)

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Cracked Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Rauser, Richard W.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter's thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3 mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used since they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally-cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with x-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating.

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Cracked Reinforced Carbon-Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Rauser, Richard W.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter's thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 C and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used because they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with X-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating.

  9. Application of Hilbert-Huang Transform for Improved Defect Detection in Terahertz NDE of Shuttle Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    Terahertz NDE is being examined as a method to inspect the adhesive bond-line of Space Shuttle tiles for defects. Terahertz signals are generated and detected, using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. Shuttle tile samples were manufactured with defects that included repair regions unbond regions, and other conditions that occur in Shuttle structures. These samples were inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scanned a tile and generated a data set of RF signals. The signals were post processed to generate C-scan type images that are typically seen in ultrasonic NDE. To improve defect visualization the Hilbert-Huang Transform, a transform that decomposes a signal into oscillating components called intrinsic mode functions, was applied to test signals identified as being in and out of the defect regions and then on a complete data set. As expected with this transform, the results showed that the decomposed low-order modes correspond to signal noise while the high-order modes correspond to low frequency oscillations in the signal and mid-order modes correspond to local signal oscillations. The local oscillations compare well with various reflection interfaces and the defect locations in the original signal.

  10. Quantitative NDE of Composite Structures at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Howell, Patricia A.; Johnston, Patrick H.; Burke, Eric R.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.; Seebo, Jeffery P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composite materials continues to increase in the aerospace community due to the potential benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and manufacturability. Ongoing work at NASA involves the use of the large-scale composite structures for spacecraft (payload shrouds, cryotanks, crew modules, etc). NASA is also working to enable the use and certification of composites in aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). The rapid, in situ characterization of a wide range of the composite materials and structures has become a critical concern for the industry. In many applications it is necessary to monitor changes in these materials over a long time. The quantitative characterization of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking are of particular interest. The research approaches of NASA's Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch include investigation of conventional, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods, infrared thermography and x-ray computed tomography techniques. The use of simulation tools for optimizing and developing these methods is also an active area of research. This paper will focus on current research activities related to large area NDE for rapidly characterizing aerospace composites.

  11. Positioning challenges in reconfigurable semi-autonomous robotic NDE inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. Gareth; Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; Mackenzie, Liam; Hensman, James; Worden, Keith; Hayward, Gordon

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes work conducted into mobile, wireless, semi-autonomous NDE inspection robots developed at The University of Strathclyde as part of the UK Research Centre for Non Destructive Evaluation (RCNDE). The inspection vehicles can incorporate a number of different NDE payloads including ultrasonic, eddy current, visual and magnetic based payloads, and have been developed to try and improve NDE inspection techniques in challenging inspection areas (for example oil, gas, and nuclear structures). A significant research challenge remains in the accurate positioning and guidance of such vehicles for real inspection tasks. Employing both relative and absolute position measurements, we discuss a number of approaches to position estimation including Kalman and particle filtering. Using probabilistic approaches enables a common mathematical framework to be employed for both positioning and data fusion from different NDE sensors. In this fashion the uncertainties in both position and defect identification and classification can be dealt with using a consistent approach. A number of practical constraints and considerations to different precision positioning techniques are discussed, along with NDE applications and the potential for improved inspection capabilities by utilising the inherent reconfigurable capabilities of the inspection vehicles.

  12. 3. European-American workshop on reliability of NDE and demining. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This proceeding contains 43 lectures and three posters relating to the following main topics: 1. Understanding reliability, validation and structuring the Reliability Formula; 2. Special considerations for demining reliability; 3. Essential quality characteristics for NDE; 4. NDE reliability in risk and life cycle management; 5. Modelling of NDE processes; 6. Approaches for modular validation and modelling results for NDE and demining; 7. Statistical test design ad analysis; 8. Human factors. (MM)

  13. Preview of the NASA NNWG NDE Sample Preparation Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presents a step-by-step how-to fabrication documentation of every kind of sample that is fabricated for MSFC by UA Huntsville, including photos and illustrations. The tabulation of what kind of samples are being fabricated for what NDE method, detailed instructions/documentation of the inclusion/creation of defects, detailed specifications for materials, processes, and equipment, case histories and/or experiences with the different fabrication methods and defect inclusion techniques, discussion of pitfalls and difficulties associated with sample fabrication and defect inclusion techniques, and a discussion of why certain fabrication techniques are needed as related to the specific NDE methods are included in this presentation.

  14. Eddy current NDE performance demonstrations using simulation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice, L. [EDF - CEIDRE, 2 rue Ampere, 93206 Saint-Denis Cedex 1 (France); Costan, V.; Guillot, E.; Thomas, P. [EDF - R and D, THEMIS, 1, avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)

    2013-01-25

    To carry out performance demonstrations of the Eddy-Current NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, EDF studies the possibility of using simulation tools as an alternative to measurements on steam generator tube mocks-up. This paper focuses on the strategy led by EDF to assess and use code{sub C}armel3D and Civa, on the case of Eddy-Current NDE on wears problem which may appear in the U-shape region of steam generator tubes due to the rubbing of anti-vibration bars.

  15. Platform for Post-Processing Waveform-Based NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.

    2010-01-01

    Signal- and image-processing methods are commonly needed to extract information from the waves, improve resolution of, and highlight defects in an image. Since some similarity exists for all waveform-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, it would seem that a common software platform containing multiple signal- and image-processing techniques to process the waveforms and images makes sense where multiple techniques, scientists, engineers, and organizations are involved. NDE Wave & Image Processor Version 2.0 software provides a single, integrated signal- and image-processing and analysis environment for total NDE data processing and analysis. It brings some of the most useful algorithms developed for NDE over the past 20 years into a commercial-grade product. The software can import signal/spectroscopic data, image data, and image series data. This software offers the user hundreds of basic and advanced signal- and image-processing capabilities including esoteric 1D and 2D wavelet-based de-noising, de-trending, and filtering. Batch processing is included for signal- and image-processing capability so that an optimized sequence of processing operations can be applied to entire folders of signals, spectra, and images. Additionally, an extensive interactive model-based curve-fitting facility has been included to allow fitting of spectroscopy data such as from Raman spectroscopy. An extensive joint-time frequency module is included for analysis of non-stationary or transient data such as that from acoustic emission, vibration, or earthquake data.

  16. Rocket center Peenemünde — Personal memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Konrad; Stuhlinger, Ernst

    Von Braun built his first rockets as a young teenager. At 14, he started making plans for rockets for human travel to the Moon and Mars. The German Army began a rocket program in 1929. Two years later, Colonel (later General) Becker contacted von Braun who experimented with rockets in Berlin, gave him a contract in 1932, and, jointly with the Air Force, in 1936 built the rocket center Peenemünde where von Braun and his team developed the A-4 (V-2) rocket under Army auspices, while the Air Force developed the V-1 (buzz bomb), wire-guided bombs, and rocket planes. Albert Speer, impressed by the work of the rocketeers, allowed a modest growth of the Peenemünde project; this brought Dannenberg to the von Braun team in 1940. Hitler did not believe in rockets; he ignored the A-4 project until 1942 when he began to support it, expecting that it could turn the fortunes of war for him. He drastically increased the Peenemünde work force and allowed the transfer of soldiers from the front to Peenemünde; that was when Stuhlinger, in 1943, came to Peenemünde as a Pfc.-Ph.D. Later that year, Himmler wrenched the authority over A-4 production out of the Army's hands, put it under his command, and forced production of the immature rocket at Mittelwerk, and its military deployment against targets in France, Belgium, and England. Throughout the development of the A-4 rocket, von Braun was the undisputed leader of the project. Although still immature by the end of the war, the A-4 had proceeded to a status which made it the first successful long-range precision rocket, the prototype for a large number of military rockets built by numerous nations after the war, and for space rockets that launched satellites and traveled to the Moon and the planets.

  17. Technical Letter Report - Preliminary Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hall, Thomas E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-05-29

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a multi-year program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide engineering studies and assessments of issues related to the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for the reliable inspection of nuclear power plant components. As part of this program, there is a subtask 2D that was set up to address an assessment of issues related to the NDE of high density polyethylene (HDPE) butt fusion joints. This work is being driven by the nuclear industry wanting to employ HDPE materials in nuclear power plant systems. This being a new material for use in nuclear applications, there are a number of issues related to its use and potential problems that may evolve. The industry is pursuing ASME Code Case N-755 entitled “Use of Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe for Section III, Division 1, Construction and Section XI Repair/Replacement Activities” that contains the requirements for nuclear power plant applications of HDPE. This Code Case requires that inspections be performed after the fusion joint is made by visually examining the bead that is formed and conducting a pressure test of the joint. These tests are only effective in general if gross through-wall flaws exist in the fusion joint. The NRC wants to know whether a volumetric inspection can be conducted on the fusion joint that will reliably detect lack-of-fusion conditions that may be produced during joint fusing. The NRC has requested that the work that PNNL is conducting be provided to assist them in resolving this inspection issue of whether effective volumetric NDE can be conducted to detect lack of fusion (LOF) in the butt HDPE joints. PNNL had 24 HDPE pipe specimens manufactured of 3408 material to contain LOF conditions that could be used to assess the effectiveness of NDE in detecting the LOF. Basic ultrasonic material properties were measured and used to guide the use of phased arrays and time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) work that

  18. Preparing the NDE engineers of the future: Education, training, and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen D.

    2017-02-01

    As quantitative NDE has matured and entered the mainstream, it has created an industry need for engineers who can select, evaluate, and qualify NDE techniques to satisfy quantitative engineering requirements. NDE as a field is cross-disciplinary with major NDE techniques relying on a broad spectrum of physics disciplines including fluid mechanics, electromagnetics, mechanical waves, and high energy physics. An NDE engineer needs broad and deep understanding of the measurement physics across modalities, a general engineering background, and familiarity with shop-floor practices and tools. While there are a wide range of certification and training programs worldwide for NDE technicians, there are few programs aimed at engineers. At the same time, substantial demographic shifts are underway with many experienced NDE engineers and technicians nearing retirement, and with new generations coming from much more diverse backgrounds. There is a need for more and better education opportunities for NDE engineers. Both teaching and learning NDE engineering are inherently challenging because of the breadth and depth of knowledge required. At the same time, sustaining the field in a more diverse era will require broadening participation of previously underrepresented groups. The QNDE 2016 conference in Atlanta, GA included a session on NDE education, training, and diversity. This paper summarizes the outcomes and discussion from this session.

  19. Benchmarking of Computational Models for NDE and SHM of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin; Leckey, Cara; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Juarez, Peter; Timucin, Dogan; Schuet, Stefan; Hafiychuk, Halyna

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave phenomena constitute the leading physical mechanism for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) of solid composite materials such as carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. Computational models of ultrasonic guided-wave excitation, propagation, scattering, and detection in quasi-isotropic laminates can be extremely valuable in designing practically realizable NDE and SHM hardware and software with desired accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and coverage. This paper presents comparisons of guided-wave simulations for CFRP composites implemented using three different simulation codes: two commercial finite-element analysis packages, COMSOL and ABAQUS, and a custom code implementing the Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT). Comparisons are also made to experimental laser Doppler vibrometry data and theoretical dispersion curves.

  20. Development of high-energy neutron imaging for use in NDE applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, F; Hall, J; Logan, C; Schmid, G

    1999-06-01

    We are currently developing a high-energy (10 - 15 MeV) neutron imaging system for use in NDE applications. Our goal is to develop an imaging system capable of detecting cubic-mm-scale voids or other structural defects in heavily-shielded low-Z materials within thick sealed objects. The system will be relatively compact (suitable for use in a small laboratory) and capable of acquiring tomographic image data sets. The design of a prototype imaging detector and multi-axis staging system will be discussed and selected results from recent imaging experiments will be presented. The development of an intense, accelerator-driven neutron source suitable for use with the imaging system will also be discussed. Keywords: neutron imaging, neutron radiography, computed tomography, non-destructive inspection, neutron sources

  1. NDE Software Developed at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Donald J.; Martin, Richard E.; Rauser, Richard W.; Nichols, Charles; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has developed several important Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) related software packages for different projects in the last 10 years. Three of the software packages have been created with commercial-grade user interfaces and are available to United States entities for download on the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office server (https://sr.grc.nasa.gov/). This article provides brief overviews of the software packages.

  2. Probability of detection models for eddy current NDE methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, S.N.

    1993-04-30

    The development of probability of detection (POD) models for a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is motivated by a desire to quantify the variability introduced during the process of testing. Sources of variability involved in eddy current methods of NDE include those caused by variations in liftoff, material properties, probe canting angle, scan format, surface roughness and measurement noise. This thesis presents a comprehensive POD model for eddy current NDE. Eddy current methods of nondestructive testing are used widely in industry to inspect a variety of nonferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. The development of a comprehensive POD model is therefore of significant importance. The model incorporates several sources of variability characterized by a multivariate Gaussian distribution and employs finite element analysis to predict the signal distribution. The method of mixtures is then used for estimating optimal threshold values. The research demonstrates the use of a finite element model within a probabilistic framework to the spread in the measured signal for eddy current nondestructive methods. Using the signal distributions for various flaw sizes the POD curves for varying defect parameters have been computed. In contrast to experimental POD models, the cost of generating such curves is very low and complex defect shapes can be handled very easily. The results are also operator independent.

  3. 40-in. OMS Kevlar(Registered Trademark) COPV S/N 007 Stress Rupture Test NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Greene, Nate; Forth, Scott; Leifeste, Mark; Gallus, Tim; Yoder, Tommy; Keddy, Chris; Mandaras, Eric; Wincheski, Buzz; Williams, Philip; Russell, Richard; Eldridge, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines pretest nondestructive evaluation (NDE), including external/internal visual inspection, raman spectroscopy, laser shearography, and laser profilometry; real-time NDE including eddy current, acoustic emission (AE), and real-time portable raman spectroscopy; and AE application to carbon/epoxy composite overwrapped pressure vessels.

  4. 垫圈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cryocooler Based HTS SQUID Photoscanning System;Detecting Out-of-balance Conditions with MEMS technology;Development maintenance plans using RCM principles;Development of a low-cost piezo film-based knock scissor;Development of the Vibration Control System “G-Fall Balancer” for a Drum type Washer/Dryer……

  5. Recent advancements in the electromechanical (E/M) impedance method for structural health monitoring and NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Rogers, Craig A.

    1998-07-01

    The emerging electro-mechanical impedance technology has high potential for in-situ health monitoring and NDE of structural systems and complex machinery. At first, the fundamental principles of the electro-mechanical impedance method are briefly reviewed and ways for practical implementation are highlighted. The equations of piezo- electric material response are given, and the coupled electro-mechanical impedance of a piezo-electric wafer transducer as affixed to the monitored structure is discussed. Due to the high frequency operation of this NDE method, wave propagation phenomena are identified as the primary coupling method between the structural substrate and the piezo-electric wafer transducer. Attention is then focused on several recent advancements that have extended the electro-mechanical impedance method into new areas of applications and/or have developed its underlying principles. US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory used the electro-mechanical impedance method to monitor damage development in composite overlaid civil infrastructure specimens under full-scale static testing. A simplified E/M impedance measuring technique was employed at the Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain, to detect damage in GFRP composite specimens. The development of miniaturized `bare-bones' impedance analyzer equipment that could be easily packaged into transponder-size dimensions is being studied at the University of South Carolina. US Army Research Laboratory developed novel piezo-composite film transducers for embedment into composite structures. Disbond gauges for monitoring the structural joints of adhesively bonded rotor blades have been studies in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of South Carolina. These recent developments accentuate the importance and benefits of using the electro-mechanical impedance method for on-line health monitoring and damage detection in a variety of applications. Further investigation of the electro

  6. Assessment of NDE for key indicators of aging cables in nuclear power plants - Interim status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Ramuhalli, P.; Fifield, L. S.; Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Suter, J. D.; Jones, A. M.; Good, M. S.; Pardini, A. F.; Hartman, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. Currently the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation is the elongation-at-break (EAB). This, however, is an ex-situ measurement and requires removal of a sample for laboratory investigation. A reliable nondestructive examination (NDE) in-situ approach is desirable to objectively determine the suitability of the cable for service. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none of these tests are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. Nevertheless, the complete collection of test possibilities offers a powerful range of tools to assure the integrity of critical cables. Licensees and regulators have settled on a practical program to justify continued operation based on condition monitoring of a lead sample set of cables where test data is tracked in a database and the required test data are continually adjusted based on plant and fleet-wide experience. As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program sponsored

  7. A robust approach to optimal matched filter design in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Hayward, Gordon

    2017-02-01

    The matched filter was demonstrated to be a powerful yet efficient technique to enhance defect detection and imaging in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of coarse grain materials, provided that the filter was properly designed and optimized. In the literature, in order to accurately approximate the defect echoes, the design utilized the real excitation signals, which made it time consuming and less straightforward to implement in practice. In this paper, we present a more robust and flexible approach to optimal matched filter design using the simulated excitation signals, and the control parameters are chosen and optimized based on the real scenario of array transducer, transmitter-receiver system response, and the test sample, as a result, the filter response is optimized and depends on the material characteristics. Experiments on industrial samples are conducted and the results confirm the great benefits of the method.

  8. Advanced reflector characterization with ultrasonic phased arrays in NDE applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Paul D; Holmes, Caroline; Drinkwater, Bruce W

    2007-08-01

    Ultrasonic arrays are increasingly widely used in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their greater flexibility and potentially superior performance compared to conventional monolithic probes. The characterization of small defects remains a challenge for NDE and is of great importance for determining the impact of a defect on the integrity of a structure. In this paper, a technique for characterizing reflectors with subwavelength dimensions is described. This is achieved by post-processing the complete data set of time traces obtained from an ultrasonic array using two algorithms. The first algorithm is used to obtain information about reflector orientation and the second algorithm is used to distinguish between point-like reflectors that reflect uniformly in all directions and specular reflectors that have distinct orientations. Experimental results are presented using a commercial 64-element, 5-MHZ array on two aluminum test specimens that contain a number of machined slots and side-drilled holes. The results show that the orientation of 1-mm-long slots can be determined to within a few degrees and that the signals from 1-mm-long slots can be distinguished from that from a 1-mm-diameter circular hole. Techniques for quantifying both the orientation and the specularity of measured signals are presented and the effect of processing parameters on the accuracy of results is discussed.

  9. Simulation of Phase Effects in Imaging for Mesoscale NDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufderheide, III, M B; Barty, A; Martz, Jr., H E

    2004-08-26

    High energy density experiments, such as those planned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), use mesoscale targets with the goals of studying high energy density physics, inertial confinement fusion, and the support of national security needs. Mesoscale targets are typically several millimeters in size and have complex micrometer-sized structures composed of high-density metals and low-density foams and ices. These targets are designed with exacting tolerances that are difficult to achieve at present. Deviation from these tolerances can result in compromise of experimental goals and thus it is necessary to determine as-built properties of these targets using NDE techniques. Radiography and computed tomography are being used to investigate these targets, but the mix between phase and absorption information is difficult to separate, making interpretation of results difficult. We have recently improved the HADES radiographic simulation code to include phase in simulations, as an aid for doing NDE on mesoscale targets. In this paper we report on how we extended HADES to incorporate phase effects, and compare simulations with a variety of experimental test results.

  10. Quantitative NDE thermography for fault diagnosis of ball bearings with micro-foreign substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Tae [Div. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju NationalUniversity, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Dong Pyo [Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering, Chonbuk National Univerity, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    In this study, a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method is proposed for ball bearings contaminated with micro foreign substances, which were inserted into a ball bearing to create a defective specimen. The non-contact quantitative infrared thermographic technique was applied for NDE condition monitoring. Passive thermographic experiments were conducted to perform early fault diagnosis, for bearings operated at optimized torque status under a dynamic load condition. The temperature profiles for normal and defective specimens were quantitatively compared, and the thermographic data analyzed. Based on the NDE results, the temperature characteristics and abnormal fault detection of the ball bearing were quantitatively analyzed according to the rise in temperature.

  11. Comparison of normal and phase stepping shearographic NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andhee, A.; Gryzagoridis, J.; Findeis, D.

    2005-05-01

    The paper presents results of non-destructive testing of composite main rotor helicopter blade calibration specimens using the laser based optical NDE technique known as Shearography. The tests were performed initially using the already well established near real-time non-destructive technique of Shearography, with the specimens perturbed during testing for a few seconds using the hot air from a domestic hair dryer. Subsequent to modification of the shearing device utilized in the shearographic setup, phase stepping of one of the sheared images to be captured by the CCD camera was enabled and identical tests were performed on the composite main rotor helicopter blade specimens. Considerable enhancement of the images manifesting or depicting the defects on the specimens is noted suggesting that phase stepping is a desirable enhancement technique to the traditional Shearographic setup.

  12. Entering the Era of "Super" NDE Instruments, Followed by Progressive Miniaturization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ideal NDE data acquisition and analysis tool would be a versatile and precise device capable of providing support for a large number of inspections using numerous...

  13. Composite Stress Rupture NDE Research and Development Project (Kevlar[R] and Carbon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to develop and demonstrate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques capable of assessing stress rupture related strength degradation for carbon composite pressure vessels, either in a structural health monitoring (SHM) or periodic inspection mode.

  14. Siserände üldsuunad / Tiit Tammaru, Hill Kulu, Inga Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammaru, Tiit, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Siserände suundade analüüs kinnitas uurimuse hüpoteese, et 1990. aastatel valitses asustushierarhia tasemete vaheline linnastumine ja linnaregioonidesisene eeslinnastumine. Graafik. Tabelid. Skeem. Diagrammid. Kaardid. Lisa lk. 27

  15. Siserände üldsuunad / Tiit Tammaru, Hill Kulu, Inga Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammaru, Tiit, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Siserände suundade analüüs kinnitas uurimuse hüpoteese, et 1990. aastatel valitses asustushierarhia tasemete vaheline linnastumine ja linnaregioonidesisene eeslinnastumine. Graafik. Tabelid. Skeem. Diagrammid. Kaardid. Lisa lk. 27

  16. Spatially Coherent Optical Velocimeter Array for Rapid Guided-wave NDE Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The pace and progress of new sensor technology development continues to lag far behind the broad ranging potential offered by guided wave NDE. In response to NASA...

  17. Novel Ultra-Miniature Flexible Videoscope for On-Orbit NDE Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional videoscopes for NDE suffer many shortcomings, including large diameter, limited flexibility, inadequate image quality, high cost and lack of 3D imaging...

  18. NDE of copper canisters for long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel from the Swedish nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2003-07-01

    Sweden has been intensively developing methods for long term storage of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants for twenty-five years. A dedicated research program has been initiated and conducted by the Swedish company SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuels and Waste Management Co.). After the interim storage SKB plans to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel in copper canisters that will be placed at a deep repository located in bedrock. The canisters filled with fuel rods will be sealed by an electron beam weld. This paper presents three complementary NDE techniques used for assessing the sealing weld in copper canisters, radiography, ultrasound, and eddy current. A powerful X-ray source and a digital detector are used for the radiography. An ultrasonic array system consisting of a phased ultrasonic array and a multi-channel electronics is used for the ultrasonic examination. The array system enables electronic focusing and rapid electronic scanning eliminating the use of a complicated mechanical scanner. A specially designed eddy current probe capable of detecting small voids at the depth up to 4 mm in copper is used for the eddy current inspection. Presently, all the NDE techniques are verified in SKB's Canister Laboratory where full scale canisters are welded and examined.

  19. Smart Sensor System for NDE or Corrosion in Aging Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Marzwell, N.; Osegueda, R.; Ferregut, C.

    1998-01-01

    The extension of the operation life of military and civilian aircraft rather than replacing them with new ones is increasing the probability of aircraft component failure as a result of aging. Aircraft that already have endured a long srvice life of more than 40 years are now being considered for another 40 years of service.

  20. Advancements in NDE for utilities and the petrochemical industry through electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M. O.; Stevens, Donald M.; Schlader, Daniel M.; Tilley, Richard M.

    1998-03-01

    The ultrasonic testing (UT) method continues to broaden in its effectiveness and capabilities for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Much of this expansion can be attributed to advancements in specific techniques of the method. The utilization of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) in dedicated ultrasonic systems has provided McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), formerly Babcock & Wilcox, with significant advantages over conventional ultrasonics. In recent years, through significant R&D, MTI has been instrumental in bringing about considerable advancements in the maturing EMAT technology. Progress in electronic design, magnet configurations, and sensor concepts has greatly improved system capabilities while reducing cost and equipment size. These improvements, coupled with the inherent advantages of utilizing the non-contact EMAT technique, have combined to make this technology a viable option for many commercial system inspection applications. MTI has recently completed the development and commercialization of an EMAT-based UT scanner for boiler tube thickness measurements. MTI is currently developing an automated EMAT scanner, based on phased array technology, for complete volumetric inspection of circumferential girth welds associated with pipelines (intended primarily for offshore applications). Additional benefits of phased array technology for providing materials characterization are currently being researched.

  1. NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James

    2008-01-01

    The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

  2. Materials and NDE aspects in the RPV operating conditions behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupa, Nathalie [EDF, CEIDRE, 2 rue Ampere, F- 93206 Saint-Denis (France); Churier-Bossennec, Henriette [Electricite de France, SEPTEN, 12 - 14 av. Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bezdikian, Georges [EDF CAPE, 1 place Pleyel, 93282 St Denis Cedex (France)

    2006-09-15

    The demonstration of the in-service resistance of the PWR vessels is based on the toughness evaluation of the materials constituting the vessels. The objective is indeed to compare the toughness to the solicitations applied on a crack, resulting from the different loading potentially experienced by the component. This article aims at presenting the in-service inspections - NDE aspects - as well as the toughness assessment method, closely linked with different materials aspects. The potential defects in the welded, cladded shells of the PWR vessels are only fabrication flaws. To date every core zone vessel has been entirely examined by a non destructive process. The implemented Ultrasonic Techniques are qualified according to the RSEM code since 1999. Thus, EDF has a reliable and exhaustive knowledge of the manufacturing defects to be found under the cladding of the PWR vessel core zones. The toughness of the materials is determined according to an indirect method. It is based on a codified lower bound curve associating the minimum K{sub IC} to a reference temperature, the RT{sub NDT}. RT{sub NDT} is characteristic for a material and integrates the evolutions due to neutronic bombardment through specific irradiation formulae. The Pressure Vessel Surveillance Program allows to verify that the formulae are conservative. The PVSP results and an analysis of the toughness assessment are presented in this paper. (authors)

  3. Does the arousal system contribute to near death experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kevin R; Mattingly, Michelle; Lee, Sherman A; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2006-04-11

    The neurophysiologic basis of near death experience (NDE) is unknown. Clinical observations suggest that REM state intrusion contributes to NDE. Support for the hypothesis follows five lines of evidence: REM intrusion during wakefulness is a frequent normal occurrence, REM intrusion underlies other clinical conditions, NDE elements can be explained by REM intrusion, cardiorespiratory afferents evoke REM intrusion, and persons with an NDE may have an arousal system predisposing to REM intrusion. To investigate a predisposition to REM intrusion, the life-time prevalence of REM intrusion was studied in 55 NDE subjects and compared with that in age/gender-matched control subjects. Sleep paralysis as well as sleep-related visual and auditory hallucinations were substantially more common in subjects with an NDE. These findings anticipate that under circumstances of peril, an NDE is more likely in those with previous REM intrusion. REM intrusion could promote subjective aspects of NDE and often associated syncope. Suppression of an activated locus ceruleus could be central to an arousal system predisposed to REM intrusion and NDE.

  4. Evaluation of sonic IR for NDE at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W O

    2001-02-01

    Sonic IR was evaluated as an NDE technique at LLNL using a commercial ThermoSoniX system from Indigo Systems Corp. The main effort was to detect small cracks in aluminum oxide, a dense stiff ceramic. Test coupons were made containing 0.2-mm cracks by surface grinding, 1-mm cracks by compression with a Vickers bit, and 4-mm cracks by 3-point bending. Only the 3-point bend cracks produced thermal images. Several parts shattered during testing, perhaps by being forced at resonance by the 20-kHz acoustic probe. Tests on damaged carbon composite coupons produced thermal images that were in excellent agreement with ultrasonic inspection. The composite results also showed some dependence on contact location of the acoustic probe, and on the method of support. Tests on glass with surface damage produced weak images at the pits. Tests on metal ballistic targets produced thermal images at the impact sites. Modal analyses suggest that the input frequency should be matched to the desired response, and also that forced resonance damaged some parts.

  5. Development of a nonlinear ultrasonic NDE technique for detection of kissing bonds in composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Jonathan; Croxford, Anthony; Potter, Jack; Blanloeuil, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The development of low-cost bonded assembly of composite aerospace structures ideally requires an NDE method to detect the presence of poor quality, weak bonds or kissing bonds. Such interfaces can introduce nonlinearity as a result of contact nonlinearity where an ultrasonic wave is distorted when it interacts with the interface. In general, the nonlinear elastic behaviour of these interfaces will generate harmonics but they can be lost among the harmonics generated by other nonlinearities present in the experimental system. The technique developed in this research is a non-collinear method; this involves the interaction of two ultrasonic beams, and it allows the removal of virtually all system nonlinearity except for that produced in the region where the two beams overlap. The frequencies of the two beams and the angle between are varied during the experiment. By measuring the nonlinear mixing response as these two parameters are swept through a `fingerprint' of the nonlinear properties in the interaction region can be obtained. This fingerprint has been shown to contain information about the bulk material and the interface status. Work is ongoing to understand which features in the fingerprints reliably correlate with particular material or interface properties. To build this understanding a greatly simplified kissing bond, a compression loaded aluminium-aluminium interface, has been tested. Modelling of the nonlinear behaviour of the aluminium interface has also been conducted.

  6. Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Detection and Characterization of Degradation Precursors, Technical Progress Report for FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, P.; Meyer, R.M.; Fricke, J.M.; Prowant, M.S.; Coble, J.B.; Griffin, J.W.; Pitman, S.G.; Dahl, M.E.; Kafentzis, T.A.; Roosendaal, T.J.

    2012-09-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) technology in detecting material degradation precursors by initiating and growing cracks in selected materials and using NDE methods to measure crack precursors prior to the onset of cracking. Nuclear reactor components are subject to stresses over time that are not precisely known and that make the life expectancy of components difficult to determine. To prevent future issues with the operation of these plants because of unforeseen failure of components, NDE technology is needed that can be used to identify and quantify precursors to macroscopic degradation of materials. Some of the NDE methods being researched as possible solutions to the precursor detection problem are magnetic Barkhausen noise, nonlinear ultrasonics, acoustic emission, eddy current measurements, and guided wave technology. In FY12, the objective was to complete preliminary assessment of advanced NDE techniques for sensitivity to degradation precursors, using prototypical degradation mechanisms in laboratory-scale measurements. This present document reports on the deliverable that meets the following milestone: M3LW-12OR0402143 – Report detailing an initial demonstration on samples from the crack-initiation tests will be provided (demonstrating acceleration of the work).

  7. Computerized fracture critical and specialized bridge inspection program with NDE applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1998-03-01

    Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented a Fracture Critical & Specialized Inspection Program in 1987. The program has a strong emphasis on Nondestructive Testing (NDT). The program is also completely computerized, using laptop computers to gather field data, digital cameras for pictures, and testing equipment with download features. Final inspection reports with detailed information can be delivered within days of the inspection. The program requires an experienced inspection team and qualified personnel. Individuals performing testing must be licensed ASNT (American Society for Nondestructive Testing) Level III and must be licensed Certified Weld Inspectors (American Welding Society). Several critical steps have been developed to assure that each inspection identifies all possible deficiencies that may be possible on a Fracture Critical or Unique Bridge. They include; review of all existing plans and maintenance history; identification of fracture critical members, identification of critical connection details, welds, & fatigue prone details, development of visual and NDE inspection plan; field inspection procedures; and a detailed formal report. The program has found several bridges with critical fatigue conditions which have resulted in replacement or major rehabilitation. In addition, remote monitoring systems have been installed on structures with serious cracking to monitor for changing conditions.

  8. An NDE Approach for Characterizing Quality Problems in Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Sutter, James K.; Bodis, James R.; Leonhardt, Todd A.; Crane, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials are periodically identified appearing optically uniform but containing a higher than normal level of global nonuniformity as indicated from preliminary ultrasonic scanning. One such panel was thoroughly examined by nondestructive (NDE) and destructive methods to quantitatively characterize the nonuniformity. The NDE analysis of the panel was complicated by the fact that the panel was not uniformly thick. Mapping of ultrasonic velocity across a region of the panel in conjunction with an error analysis was necessary to (1) characterize properly the porosity gradient that was discovered during destructive analyses and (2) account for the thickness variation effects. Based on this study, a plan for future NDE characterization of PMC's is presented to the PMC community.

  9. Normalization and sound zone determination in pulse thermographic NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripragash, Letchuman; Sundaresan, Mannur

    2017-02-01

    Thermographic nondestructive evaluation is quick and effective in detecting damage particularly for composite structures. Pulse thermographic nondestructive evaluation (TNDE) technique can potentially provide information on defect dimensions, such as the depth at which the defect is located. However, there are a number of extraneous variables that affect the signal obtained during these tests, such as non-uniformity in the heat pulse applied and differences in the emissivity of the surfaces from specimen to specimen. In addition, the identification of defect free areas in the image is a challenge. As in other NDE procedures calibration specimens would be of help, but calibration specimens corresponding to complex damage states in composite materials are difficult to fabricate. Results from validated numerical simulations can complement calibration specimens. However, the thermo-mechanical properties of the test object as well as the amount of heat energy absorbed in the field tests are not readily available for such models. This paper presents an extension of the thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR) procedure in which the temperature and the time scales are respectively normalized with equilibrium temperature and the break time. A benefit of such normalization is the ability to directly measure the defect depth as a fraction of plate thickness. In order to implement this normalization procedure, sound zone profile definition is required. A new approach for determining sound zone profile has been developed. Finally, determination of sound zone is affected by non-uniform heating, and a method of minimizing the effects of non-uniform heating is proposed. The performance of these new approaches on actual experimental results are presented.

  10. Advanced defect detection algorithm using clustering in ultrasonic NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongzhang, Rui; Gachagan, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    A range of materials used in industry exhibit scattering properties which limits ultrasonic NDE. Many algorithms have been proposed to enhance defect detection ability, such as the well-known Split Spectrum Processing (SSP) technique. Scattering noise usually cannot be fully removed and the remaining noise can be easily confused with real feature signals, hence becoming artefacts during the image interpretation stage. This paper presents an advanced algorithm to further reduce the influence of artefacts remaining in A-scan data after processing using a conventional defect detection algorithm. The raw A-scan data can be acquired from either traditional single transducer or phased array configurations. The proposed algorithm uses the concept of unsupervised machine learning to cluster segmental defect signals from pre-processed A-scans into different classes. The distinction and similarity between each class and the ensemble of randomly selected noise segments can be observed by applying a classification algorithm. Each class will then be labelled as `legitimate reflector' or `artefacts' based on this observation and the expected probability of defection (PoD) and probability of false alarm (PFA) determined. To facilitate data collection and validate the proposed algorithm, a 5MHz linear array transducer is used to collect A-scans from both austenitic steel and Inconel samples. Each pulse-echo A-scan is pre-processed using SSP and the subsequent application of the proposed clustering algorithm has provided an additional reduction to PFA while maintaining PoD for both samples compared with SSP results alone.

  11. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, Dennis C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing

  12. Structural assessment of metal foam using combined NDE and FEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Young, Philippe G.; Rauser, Richard W.

    2005-05-01

    Metal foams are expected to find use in structural applications where weight is of particular concern, such as space vehicles, rotorcraft blades, car bodies or portable electronic devices. The obvious structural application of metal foam is for light weight sandwich panels, made up of thin solid face sheets and a metallic foam core. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by a light weight foam core. The resulting high-stiffness structure is lighter than that constructed only out of the solid metal material. Since the face sheets carry the applied in-plane and bending loads, the sandwich architecture is a viable engineering concept. However, the metal foam core must resist transverse shear loads and compressive loads while remaining integral with the face sheets. Challenges relating to the fabrication and testing of these metal foam panels remain due to some mechanical properties falling short of their theoretical potential. Theoretical mechanical properties are based on an idealized foam microstructure and assumed cell geometry. But the actual testing is performed on as fabricated foam microstructure. Hence in this study, a high fidelity finite element analysis is conducted on as fabricated metal foam microstructures, to compare the calculated mechanical properties with the idealized theory. The high fidelity geometric models for the FEA are generated using series of 2D CT scans of the foam structure to reconstruct the 3D metal foam geometry. The metal foam material is an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. Tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties are deduced from the FEA model and compared with the theoretical values. The combined NDE/FEA provided insight in the variability of the mechanical properties compared to idealized theory.

  13. A circular aperture array for ultrasonic tomography and quantitative NDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.A.

    1998-08-01

    The main topics of this thesis are ultrasonic tomography and ultrasonic determination of elastic stiffness constants. Both issues are based on a synthetic array with transducer elements distributed uniformly along a circular aperture, i.e., a circular aperture array. The issues are treated both theoretically and experimentally by broadband pulse techniques. Ultrasonic tomography, UCT, from a circular aperture is a relatively new imaging technique in Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) to acquire cross sectional images in bulk materials. A filtered back-projection algorithm is used to reconstruct images in four different experiments and results of attenuation, velocity and reflection tomograms in Plexiglas of AlSi-alloy cylinders are presented. Two kinds of ultrasonic tomography are introduced: bistatic and monostatic imaging. Both techniques are verified experimentally by Plexiglas cylinders. Different reconstruction artifacts are discussed and theoretical resolution constraints are discussed for various configurations of the circular aperture array. The monostatic technique is used in volumetric imaging. In the experimental verification artificial and real discontinuities in a cylindrical AlSi-alloy are compared with similar discontinuities in a Plexiglas specimen. Finally, some limitations to UCT are discussed. The circular aperture array is used to determine five independent elastic stiffness constants of a unidirectional glass/PET (Poly Ethylene Teraphtalate) laminate. Energy flux propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic waves are considered and velocity surfaces are calculated for different planes of interest. Relations between elastic stiffness constants and engineering constants (i.e., Young`s moduli, shear moduli and Poisson`s ratios) are discussed for an orthotropic composite. Six micromechanical theories are reviewed, and expressions predicting the elastic engineering constants are evaluated. The micromechanical predicted elastic stiffness constants for the

  14. Additive Manufacturing (AM) Activities and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) at GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Justin S.

    2017-01-01

    NASA personnel will be meeting with a delegation from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) at Langley Research Center on 2217 through 3217. The purpose of the meeting is a technical interchange between NASA and JAXA to discuss Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Additive Manufacturing (AM) parts and the HALT process (relates to accelerated life testing). The visitors will be a small group of Japanese citizens. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been asked to participate in the meeting, either in person or via teleconference. This presentation covers NDE efforts at GSFC and provides a cursory overview of AM and lab capabilities.

  15. NDE of Fiber Reinforced Foam Composite Structures for Future Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, james; Roth, Don; Hopkins, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the complexities of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber reinforced foam composite structures to be used for aerospace vehicles in the future.Various views of fiber reinforced foam materials are shown and described. Conventional methods of NDE for composites are reviewed such as Micro-computed X-Ray Tomography, Thermography, Shearography, and Phased Array Ultrasonics (PAUT). These meth0ods appear to work well on the face sheet and face sheet ot core bond, they do not provide adequate coverage for the webs. There is a need for additional methods that will examine the webs and web to foam core bond.

  16. Further development of image processing algorithms to improve detectability of defects in Sonic IR NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-01

    Sonic Infrared imaging (SIR) technology is a relatively new NDE technique that has received significant acceptance in the NDE community. SIR NDE is a super-fast, wide range NDE method. The technology uses short pulses of ultrasonic excitation together with infrared imaging to detect defects in the structures under inspection. Defects become visible to the IR camera when the temperature in the crack vicinity increases due to various heating mechanisms in the specimen. Defect detection is highly affected by noise levels as well as mode patterns in the image. Mode patterns result from the superposition of sonic waves interfering within the specimen during the application of sound pulse. Mode patterns can be a serious concern, especially in composite structures. Mode patterns can either mimic real defects in the specimen, or alternatively, hide defects if they overlap. In last year's QNDE, we have presented algorithms to improve defects detectability in severe noise. In this paper, we will present our development of algorithms on defect extraction targeting specifically to mode patterns in SIR images.

  17. Similarities and differences in bare concrete deck deterioration curves from multi NDE technology surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Gucunski, Nenad; Dinh, Kien

    2016-04-01

    Reinforced concrete decks are in most cases the fastest deteriorating components of a bridge due to the multitude of influencing factors: direct traffic loading and environmental effects, maintenance activities (salting), etc. Among many deterioration types, corrosion-induced deterioration is the most common problem in reinforced concrete decks. The study concentrates on the condition assessment of bridge decks using complementary NDE techniques. The assessment has three main components: assessment of corrosive environment and corrosion processes, and assessment with respect to the deck delamination. The study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE) to detect and characterize delamination, ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the corrosive environment and detect delamination, and electrical resistivity (ER) to estimate the corrosion rate by measuring concrete resistivity. The ability of the NDE methods to objectively characterize deterioration progression is illustrated by the results from NDE surveys of 10 bridges of different ages in New Jersey during a period of one year. The deterioration progression is illustrated by condition maps and condition indices. As demonstrated in the paper, multiple deterioration models are developed utilizing the proposed methodology, which shows high potential for development of more realistic deterioration and life cycle cost models for bridge decks.

  18. Neutron radiography and other NDE tests of main rotor helicopter blades

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, FC

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available leading to aircraft structural failures, are addressed by various NDE techniques. In a combined investigation by means of visual inspection, X-ray radiography and shearography on helicopter main rotor blades, neutron radiography (NRad) at SAFARI-1 research...

  19. Uncertainties in NDE Reliability and Assessing the Impact on RI-ISI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, Steven R.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-08-01

    A major thrust in the past 20 years has been to upgrade nondestructive examinations (NDE) for use in inservice inspection (ISI) programs to more effectively manage degradation at operating nuclear power plants. Risk-informed ISI (RI-ISI) is one of the outcomes of this work, and this approach relies heavily on the reliability of NDE, when properly applied, to detect sources of expected degradation. There have been a number of improvements in the reliability of NDE, specifically in ultrasonic testing (UT), through training of examiners, and improved equipment and procedure development. However, the most significant improvements in UT were derived by moving from prescriptive requirements to performance based requirements. Even with these substantial improvements, NDE contains significant uncertainties and RI-ISI programs need to address and accommodate this factor. As part of the work that PNNL is conducting for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, we are examining the impact of these uncertainties on the effectiveness of RI-ISI programs.

  20. Kurumlar-Arası Sistem Kullanımının İşletme Performansı Üzerindeki Etkisinde Tedarik Zinciri İşbirliğinin Aracılık Rolünün Analizi: Türk İnşaat Sektöründe Bir Uygulama(The Analysis of The Mediation Role of Supply Chain Collaboration on The Effect of Inter-Organizational System Usage to Firm Performance: An Application in Turkish Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz YILMAZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Genel olarak kurumlar-arası sistemler (KS olarak bilinen internet tabanlı teknolojiler, işletmeleri tedarik zincirlerindeki ortaklar ile bütünleştirirler ve işletmelere süreçlerini optimize edebilme fırsatı verirler. Bu çalışmada, işletmelerin kendi başarıları yerine tedarik zincirinin bütünününde elde edilebilecek başarıyı hedef alarak, kurumlar-arası sistemlerin işletme performansına olan etkisinde tedarik zinciri işbirliğinin aracılık rolü hakkında daha fazla bilgi sahibi olabilmek için Türk inşaat sektöründe yapılan bir uygulama çalışmasını konu edinmektedir. Türk inşaat sektöründe yapılan bu çalışmadan 138 tane kullanılabilir anket elde edilmiştir ve çalışma analizleri bu anketlerin verilerine göre yapısal eşitlik modellemesi (Lisrel ile kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları, KS kullanımı işletme performansına etki ederken tedarik zinciri işbirliğinin tam bir aracılık rolü üstlendiğini desteklemektedir. Çalışma, bu nedenle tedarik zinciri işbirliğinin kullanımında ve yönetilmesinde ortaklaşa yapılan çalışmaların önemini vurgulamaktadır. Araştırmanın sonunda ise ileride yapılabilecek çalışmalar için öneriler sunulmuştur Internet based technologies, particularly inter-organizational systems (IOS, integrates firms with their supply chain members and give them the opportunity to optimize their processes. So, by working together, firms achieve greater successes than working alone. This study aims this holistic success instead of individual, so in order to have more information about this issue, it examines the mediation role of supply chain collaboration while inter-organizational systems affect the firm performance. Data are collected from national construction sector and 138 usable responses were taken. The statistical methods used include confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling (i.e. LISREL. According to

  1. Neural-Net Based Optical NDE Method for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper answers some performance and calibration questions about a non-destructive-evaluation (NDE) procedure that uses artificial neural networks to detect structural damage or other changes from sub-sampled characteristic patterns. The method shows increasing sensitivity as the number of sub-samples increases from 108 to 6912. The sensitivity of this robust NDE method is not affected by noisy excitations of the first vibration mode. A calibration procedure is proposed and demonstrated where the output of a trained net can be correlated with the outputs of the point sensors used for vibration testing. The calibration procedure is based on controlled changes of fastener torques. A heterodyne interferometer is used as a displacement sensor for a demonstration of the challenges to be handled in using standard point sensors for calibration.

  2. Schnelles semi-quantitatives Screening auf Antibiotikarückstände in Fleisch

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurde der ursprünglich für den Antibiotika-Nachweis in Milch entwickelte Biosensor MCR3 für das Screening von Fleischproben auf Hemmstoffrückstände in Fleisch evaluiert, adaptiert, validiert und mit hemmstoffhaltigen Proben aus der Routinepraxis erfolgreich getestet. Die orientierende Evaluierung der Antikörper-basierten Einzelnachweise zeigte, dass in Pufferlösung alle implementierten Antibiotika (Penicillin G, Cloxacillin, Nafcillin, Cephapirin, Ceftiofur, Gentamicin, Ne...

  3. A Comparison of NDE Methods for Inspection of Composite Ceramic Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    NDE modalities under present study include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through-transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non...methods under evaluation include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through- transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non-contact scanning...include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through-transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non-contact scanning microwaves, 4)-air

  4. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. NDE of friction stir welds, nonlinear acoustics, ultrasonic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz (ed.); Lingvall, Fredrik; Wennerstroem, Erik; Ping Wu [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Materials Science (Sweden). Signals and Systems

    2004-01-01

    This report contains results concerning advanced ultrasound for the inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in years 2002/2003. After a short introduction a review of the NDE techniques that have been applied to the assessment of friction stir welds (FSW) is presented. The review is based on the results reported by the specialists from the USA, mostly from the aerospace industry. A separate chapter is devoted to the extended experimental and theoretical research concerning potential of nonlinear waves in NDE applications. Further studies concerning nonlinear propagation of acoustic and elastic waves (classical nonlinearity) are reported. Also a preliminary investigation of the nonlinear ultrasonic detection of contacts and interfaces (non-classical nonlinearity) is included. Report on the continuation of previous work concerning computer simulation of nonlinear propagations of ultrasonic beams in water and in immersed solids is also presented. Finally, results of an investigation concerning a new method of synthetic aperture imaging (SAI) and its comparison to the traditional phased array (PA) imaging and to the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) are presented. A new spatial-temporal filtering method is presented that is a generalization of the previously proposed filter. Spatial resolution of the proposed method is investigated and compared experimentally to that of classical SAFT and PA imaging. Performance of the proposed method for flat targets is also investigated.

  5. Automated metrology and NDE measurements for increased throughput in aerospace component manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Charles N.; Pierce, S. Gareth; Morozov, Maxim; Summan, Rahul; Dobie, Gordon; McCubbin, Paul; McCubbin, Coreen; Dearie, Scott; Munro, Gavin

    2015-03-01

    Composite materials, particularly Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP), find extensive use in construction of modern airframe structures. Quality and conformance checks can be a serious limitation on production throughput in aerospace manufacturing. Traditionally Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and metrology measurements are undertaken at different stages of a product manufacture cycle using specific dedicated equipment and personnel. However, since both processes involve direct interaction with the component's surface, an opportunity exists to combine these to potentially reduce overall cycle time. In addition when considering moves towards automation of both inspection processes, it is clear that measured metrology data is an essential input parameter to the automated NDE workflow. The authors present the findings of a proof of concept combined sub-scale NDE and Metrology demonstrator cell for aerospace components. Permitting a maximum part area size of 3 × 1 m2, KUKA KR5 6 degree of freedom robotic manipulators were utilised to deploy two inspection payloads. Firstly automated non-contact photogrammetric metrology measurement was employed to inspect the structure for conformance of dimension in relation to reference designs (available from CAD). Secondly automated phased array technology was deployed to inspect and produce ultrasonic thickness mapping of components of nominal 20mm thickness. Parameters such as overall cycle time, part dimensional accuracy, robotic path accuracy and data registration are assessed in the paper to highlight both the current state of the art performance available and the future direction of required research focus.

  6. Structural Analysis of Composite Flywheels: an Integrated NDE and FEM Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George; Trudell, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    A structural assessment by integrating finite-element methods (FEM) and a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of two flywheel rotor assemblies is presented. Composite rotor A is pancake-like with a solid hub design, and composite rotor B is cylindrical with a hollow hub design. Detailed analyses under combined centrifugal and interference-fit loading are performed. Two- and three-dimensional stress analyses and two-dimensional fracture mechanics analyses are conducted. A comparison of the structural analysis results obtained with those extracted via NDE findings is reported. Contact effects due to press-fit conditions are evaluated. Stress results generated from the finite-element analyses were corroborated with the analytical solution. Cracks due to rotational loading up to 48,000 rpm for rotor A and 34,000 rpm for rotor B were successfully imaged with NDE and predicted with FEM and fracture mechanics analyses. A procedure that extends current structural analysis to a life prediction tool is also defined.

  7. Analysis of filler--fibre interaction in fly ash filled short fibre-epoxy composites using ultrasonic NDE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Kulkarni; D Anuradha; C R L Murthy; Kishore

    2002-04-01

    Size and aspect ratio are believed to influence the rheology or the flow in the mixture and in turn the mechanical performance of the composites. Fillers and fibres when used in combination are expected to complement each other's performance resulting in better properties for the composite. They also reduce the extent of matrix polymer required in the system. Composites involving fillers and fibres individually and in combination are studied for the level defect population using NDE and the mechanical performance under compression correlated with such an analysis. It was found that inclusion filler-fibre combination besides yielding better physical properties like density also yielded improved mechanical properties like strength and modulus. These properties showed an improvement of about 30-40% as compared to the ones where a single reinforcement either ash or fibre was used. Further, they exhibited uniform distribution of defects whose population was least compared to the situation where only one component (either filler or fibre) as reinforcement was tried.

  8. Siserände suundumused 20. sajandil = Trends of internal migration during the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century / Alis Tammur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammur, Alis

    2008-01-01

    Siserände suundadest Eestis alates 1920ndatest aastatest kuni 2007. aastani. Kaart: Linnadesse tulnud endise alalise elukoha järgi, 1922-1934. Graafik: Siserände vanusjaotus. Tabel: Linnade ja maa-asulate vahelised rändesuunad 2000-2007

  9. Siserände suundumused 20. sajandil = Trends of internal migration during the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century / Alis Tammur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammur, Alis

    2008-01-01

    Siserände suundadest Eestis alates 1920ndatest aastatest kuni 2007. aastani. Kaart: Linnadesse tulnud endise alalise elukoha järgi, 1922-1934. Graafik: Siserände vanusjaotus. Tabel: Linnade ja maa-asulate vahelised rändesuunad 2000-2007

  10. NDE Process Development Specification for SRB Composite Nose Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suits, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Shuttle Upgrade program is a continuing improvement process to enable the Space Shuttle to be an effective space transportation vehicle for the next few decades. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), as a component of that system, is currently undergoing such an improvement. Advanced materials, such as composites, have given us a chance to improve performance and to reduce weight. The SRB Composite Nose Cap (CNC) program aims to replace the current aluminum nose cap, which is coated with a Thermal Protection System and poses a possible debris hazard, with a lighter, stronger, CNC. For the next 2 years, this program will evaluate the design, material selection, properties, and verification of the CNC. This particular process specification cites the methods and techniques for verifying the integrity of such a nose cap with nondestructive evaluation.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of structural ceramics by photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was utilized to detect surface and subsurface defects in structural ceramic materials. A computerized PAM data acquisition, color imaging and analysis system was developed and used. Subsurface simulated cylindrical holes can be detected to about 1 mm below the interrograting surface. Simulated tight surface cracks of 96 microns length and 48 microns depth can be detected in these materials under optimum conditions.

  12. Instrumentation, Monitoring and NDE for New Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Good, Morris S.; Waltar, Alan E.

    2007-07-28

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has been proposed as a viable system in which to close the fuel cycle in a manner consistent with markedly expanding the global role of nuclear power while significantly reducing proliferation risks. A key part of this system relies on the development of actinide transmutation, which can only be effectively accomplished in a fast-spectrum reactor. The fundamental physics for fast reactors is well established. However, to achieve higher standards of safety and reliability, operate with longer intervals between outages, and achieve high operating capacity factors, new instrumentation and on-line monitoring capabilities will be required--during both fabrication and operation. Since the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) reactors were operational in the USA, there have been major advances in instrumentation, not the least being the move to digital systems. Some specific capabilities have been developed outside the USA, but new or at least re-established capabilities will be required. In many cases the only available information is in reports and papers. New and improved sensors and instrumentation will be required. Advanced instrumentation has been developed for high-temperature/high-flux conditions in some cases, but most of the original researchers and manufacturers are retired or no longer in business.

  13. Advances in the application of holography for NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The basic methodology of holographic interferometry in nondestructive testing (NDT) applications are described. Applications to crack detection in ceramic materials, including a crack 50 microns deep in a turbine blade, are discussed in detail. The theoretical principles of holographic interferometry are explained, and a general description of a holographic interferometric recording system is given. A nondestructive interferometric technique for measuring the gradual erosion of calcareous stones exposed to acid rain is also presented. Detailed line drawings illustrating the hologram recording and interferometric fringe pattern analysis elements in an interferometric holographic NDT device are provided.

  14. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF NDE METHODS ON INSPECTION OF HDPE BUTT FUSION PIPING JOINTS FOR LACK OF FUSION WITH VALIDATION FROM MECHANICAL TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-07-22

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high speed tensile impact test and the bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12 inch (30.5 cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack of fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time of flight diffraction (TOFD), phased array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Several of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the following techniques: high speed tensile test, bend test, and focused immersion ultrasound on a joint section removed from the pipe coupled with slicing through the joint and examining the revealed surfaces. The fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results will be correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. This is an initial limited study which will aid in identifying key future work.

  15. Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion with Validation from Mechanical Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Moran, Traci L.; Watts, Michael W.

    2010-12-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-in. IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer-diameter weld beads were removed for the microwave inspection. In two of the four pipes, both the outer and inner weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. The pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the side-bend test by cutting portions of the fusion joint into slices that were planed and bent. The last step in this limited study will be to correlate the fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. The results of the correlation will be used in identifying any future work that is needed.

  16. Investigation of Fiber Waviness in a Thick Glass Composite Beam Using THz NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Fiber waviness in laminated composite material is introduced during manufacture because of uneven curing, resin shrinkage, or ply buckling caused by bending the composite lay-up into its final shape prior to curing. The resulting waviness has a detrimental effect on mechanical properties, therefore this condition is important to detect and characterize. Ultrasonic characterization methods are difficult to interpret because elastic wave propagation is highly dependent on ply orientation and material stresses. By comparison, the pulsed terahertz response of the composite is shown to provide clear indications of the fiber waviness. Pulsed Terahertz NDE is an electromagnetic inspection method that operates in the frequency range between 300 GHz and 3 THz. Its propagation is influenced by refractive index variations and interfaces. This work applies pulsed Terahertz NDE to the inspection of a thick composite beam with fiber waviness. The sample is a laminated glass composite material approximately 15mm thick with a 90-degree bend. Terahertz response from the planar section, away from the bend, is indicative of a homogeneous material with no major reflections from internal plies, while the multiple reflections at the bend area correspond to the fiber waviness. Results of these measurements are presented for the planar and bend areas.

  17. Composite Materials NDE Using Enhanced Leaky Lamb Wave Dispersion Data Acquisition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mal, Ajit; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu

    1999-01-01

    The leaky Lamb wave (LLW) technique is approaching a maturity level that is making it an attractive quantitative NDE tool for composites and bonded joints. Since it was first observed in 1982, the phenomenon has been studied extensively, particularly in composite materials. The wave is induced by oblique insonification using a pitch-catch arrangement and the plate wave modes are detected by identifying minima in the reflected spectra to obtain the dispersion data. The wave behavior in multi-orientation laminates has been well documented and corroborated experimentally with high accuracy. The sensitivity of the wave to the elastic constants of the material and to the boundary conditions led to the capability to measure the elastic properties of bonded joints. Recently, the authors significantly enhanced the LLW method's capability by increasing the speed of the data acquisition, the number of modes that can be identified and the accuracy of the data inversion. In spite of the theoretical and experimental progress, methods that employ oblique insonification of composites are still not being applied as standard industrial NDE methods. The authors investigated the issues that are hampering the transition of the LLW to industrial applications and identified 4 key issues. The current capability of the method and the nature of these issues are described in this paper.

  18. Infrastructure anchor bolt inspection program with NDE applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1996-11-01

    In 1990, Wisconsin Department of Transportation found a high mast light pole with two of six anchor bolts failed. This failure along with published reports from Michigan DOT about anchor bolt failures on cantilever sign structures, raised concern about the quality and condition of anchor bolts on the Wisconsin DOT system. Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining material type, cut or rolled threads, and type of coating for anchor bolts. Inspection emphasis are on "hands on" and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on visual conditions of anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating failed anchor bolts and critical cracks before failure of an entire structure.

  19. THE TIMAR SYSTEM IN THE SERBIAN LANDS FROM 1450 TO 1550: WITH A SPECIAL SURVEY ON THE TIMAR SYSTEM IN THE SANJAK OF SMEDEREVO / 1450’DEN 1550’YE KADAR SIRP TOPRAKLARINDA TIMAR SİSTEMİ: SEMENDİRE SANCAĞI’NDA TIMAR SİSTEMİ ÜZERİNDE ÖZEL BİR ANKET İLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema MILJKOVIĆ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Relying on the Ottoman census books for various Ottoman provinces, which had been part of the medieval Serbian states, this paper presents a survey of timar organization in the Serbian lands during the first century of Ottoman rule and argues that while Christian sipahis were an integral part of the sipahi organization during the early period of Ottoman rule, their numbers gradually declined. The article pays special attention to the issue of the Christian sipahis. Since a range of census books had been preserved for the sanjak of Smederevo, this province was chosen as the case study to explain the most important issues regarding the functioning of the timar system. Osmanlı Devleti’nin Sırbistan topraklarındaki çeşitli sancaklara ait sayım defterlerine dayanarak yapılan bu çalışma, Osmanlı Devleti’nin Sırbistan topraklarındaki hakimiyetinin ilk yüzyılında uyguladığı tımar sistemini inceleyerek, Osmanlı idaresinin ilk döneminde Hıristiyan sipahilerin, sipahi sisteminin önemli bir kısmını teşkil ettiğini ancak zamanla Hıristiyan sipahi sayısının azaldığını tespit etmektedir. Makale Semendire Sancağı’nda uygulanan tımar sistemini örnek alarak, Hıristiyan sipahileri ve Sırbistan’daki tımar sisteminin işleyişini açıklamaktadır

  20. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-4, Operation of Magnetic Particle Test Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fourth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the specific technique variables and options which are available to the test technician, provides instructions for selecting and operating the appropriate test equipment, describes physical criteria for detectable discontinuities,…

  1. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II. Module 32-3, Fundamentals of Magnetic Particle Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This third in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II explains the principles of magnets and magnetic fields and how they are applied in magnetic particle testing, describes the theory and methods of magnetizing test specimens, describes the test equipment used, discusses the principles and…

  2. Peatused teekonnal läände : [luuletused] / James Wright ; tõlk. Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wright, James

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Peatused teekonnal läände ; Kaks kassiahastust ; Kaubamaja kassa juures ; Vastuseks kuuldusele et vanim lõbumaja Wheelingis, Lääne-Virginias, on kinni pandud ; Hiline november põllul ; Sappho järgi mugandatud moraaliluuletus ; Sajandi ood ; Jah, aga. Elu- ja loomeloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 535

  3. Peatused teekonnal läände : [luuletused] / James Wright ; tõlk. Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wright, James

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Peatused teekonnal läände ; Kaks kassiahastust ; Kaubamaja kassa juures ; Vastuseks kuuldusele et vanim lõbumaja Wheelingis, Lääne-Virginias, on kinni pandud ; Hiline november põllul ; Sappho järgi mugandatud moraaliluuletus ; Sajandi ood ; Jah, aga. Elu- ja loomeloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 535

  4. Impulse Response Estimation for Spatial Resolution Enhancement in Ultrasonic NDE Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A

    2004-06-25

    This report describes a signal processing algorithm and MATLAB software for improving spatial resolution in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) imaging of materials. Given a measured reflection signal and an associated reference signal, the algorithm produces an optimal least-squares estimate of the impulse response of the material under test. This estimated impulse response, when used in place of the raw reflection signal, enhances the spatial resolution of the ultrasonic measurements by removing distortion caused by the limited-bandwidth transducers and the materials under test. The theory behind the processing algorithms is briefly presented, while the reader is referred to the bibliography for details. The main focus of the report is to describe how to use the MATLAB software. Two processing examples using actual ultrasonic measurements are provided for tutorial purposes.

  5. Comparison of results from different NDE techniques from ceramic matrix composites with varying porosity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Imelda; Ojard, Greg; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are attractive materials for use in advanced turbine engines. Due to the nature of available processing techniques, however, the amount and distribution of porosity in CMC's can vary greatly. This can be particularly true in parts with complex geometries. It is therefore important to characterize the porosity with non-destructive techniques and understand its effect on properties. A series of CMC samples were fabricated with varying levels of porosity and analyzed with different NDE techniques. The results were categorized and analyzed with respect to ease of interpretation and degree to which they could be quantified and used in models to determine the effects of defects. The results were also correlated with microstructural examination and mechanical properties.

  6. Three-dimensional NDE of VHTR core components via simulation-based testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzina, Bojan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Kunerth, Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-30

    A next generation, simulation-driven-and-enabled testing platform is developed for the 3D detection and characterization of defects and damage in nuclear graphite and composite structures in Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs). The proposed work addresses the critical need for the development of high-fidelity Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) technologies for as-manufactured and replaceable in-service VHTR components. Centered around the novel use of elastic (sonic and ultrasonic) waves, this project deploys a robust, non-iterative inverse solution for the 3D defect reconstruction together with a non-contact, laser-based approach to the measurement of experimental waveforms in VHTR core components. In particular, this research (1) deploys three-dimensional Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry (3D SLDV) as a means to accurately and remotely measure 3D displacement waveforms over the accessible surface of a VHTR core component excited by mechanical vibratory source; (2) implements a powerful new inverse technique, based on the concept of Topological Sensitivity (TS), for non-iterative elastic waveform tomography of internal defects - that permits robust 3D detection, reconstruction and characterization of discrete damage (e.g. holes and fractures) in nuclear graphite from limited-aperture NDE measurements; (3) implements state-of-the art computational (finite element) model that caters for accurately simulating elastic wave propagation in 3D blocks of nuclear graphite; (4) integrates the SLDV testing methodology with the TS imaging algorithm into a non-contact, high-fidelity NDE platform for the 3D reconstruction and characterization of defects and damage in VHTR core components; and (5) applies the proposed methodology to VHTR core component samples (both two- and three-dimensional) with a priori induced, discrete damage in the form of holes and fractures. Overall, the newly established SLDV-TS testing platform represents a next-generation NDE tool that surpasses

  7. Develop algorithms to improve detectability of defects in Sonic IR imaging NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan

    2016-02-01

    Sonic Infrared (IR) technology is relative new in the NDE family. It is a fast, wide area imaging method. It combines ultrasound excitation and infrared imaging while the former to apply ultrasound energy thus induce friction heating in defects and the latter to capture the IR emission from the target. This technology can detect both surface and subsurface defects such as cracks and disbands/delaminations in various materials, metal/metal alloy or composites. However, certain defects may results in only very small IR signature be buried in noise or heating patterns. In such cases, to effectively extract the defect signals becomes critical in identifying the defects. In this paper, we will present algorithms which are developed to improve the detectability of defects in Sonic IR.

  8. Bulk ultrasonic NDE of metallic components at high temperature using magnetostrictive transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Antony Jacob; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Kumar, Anish; Rao, B. Purnachandra; Jayakumar, Tammana

    2017-02-01

    Online ultrasonic NDE at high-temperature is of much interest to the power, process and automotive industries in view of possible savings in downtime. This paper describes a novel approach to developing ultrasonic transducers capable of high-temperature in-situ operation using the principle of magnetostriction. Preliminary design from previous research by the authors [1] is extended for operation at 1 MHz, and at elevated temperatures by amorphous metallic strips as the magnetostrictive core. Ultrasonic signals in pulse-echo mode are experimentally obtained from the ultrasonic transducer thus developed, in a simulated high-temperature environment of 350 °C for 10 hours. Advantages and challenges for practical deployment of this approach are discussed.

  9. Processing and Probability Analysis of Pulsed Terahertz NDE of Corrosion under Shuttle Tile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Ely, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines data processing and probability analysis of pulsed terahertz NDE scans of corrosion defects under a Shuttle tile. Pulsed terahertz data collected from an aluminum plate with fabricated corrosion defects and covered with a Shuttle tile is presented. The corrosion defects imaged were fabricated by electrochemically etching areas of various diameter and depth in the plate. In this work, the aluminum plate echo signal is located in the terahertz time-of-flight data and a threshold is applied to produce a binary image of sample features. Feature location and area are examined and identified as corrosion through comparison with the known defect layout. The results are tabulated with hit, miss, or false call information for a probability of detection analysis that is used to identify an optimal processing threshold.

  10. 提高高温超导磁力仪动态范围的补偿方法%Compensation method for improving dynamic range of HTS SQUID magnetometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 刘光达; 安战锋; 王君

    2011-01-01

    A compensation method to improve the dynamic range of the high-temperature superconducting quantum interference device(HTS SQUID) magnetometer was proposed to deal with the problem of its narrow dynamic range and the locking difficulty without shielding.With the concept of shift compensation,a compensating magnetic field was formed around the probe of the magnetometer by a compensation coil to counteract most of the magnetic field to be measured,keeping the remained magnetic field within the dynamic range of the magnetometer,and the measured magnetic field was obtained by operational process of the counteracted magnetic field value and the value measured by the magnetometer.The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can improve the dynamic range of the magnetometer significantly without the penalty of sensitivity reduction.Its normal was realized even at the environment of serious interference and greatly changing magnetic field,meeting the demands of the geophysical magnet prospecting.%针对高温超导磁力仪动态范围小,在无屏蔽环境下难以正常锁定的问题,提出一种提高其动态范围的补偿方法。采用分档补偿的思想,利用补偿线圈在仪器探头处产生补偿磁场以抵消外界大部分待测磁场,使得抵消后剩余的磁场始终保持在磁力仪动态范围之内,将抵消的磁场值与磁力仪测量值进行运算处理得到待测磁场值。测试结果表明,该方法可在不降低灵敏度的前提下大幅度提高高温超导磁力仪的动态范围,使其在干扰和磁场变化大的无屏蔽环境下也能正常锁定工作,满足地球物理磁法勘探工作的要求。

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, K.L.; Ramuhali, P.; Brenchley, D.L.; Coble, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Konnick, R.; Ray, S.

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary [partial] The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. A workshop was held to gather subject matter experts to develop the NDE R&D Roadmap for Cables. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, and NDE instrumentation development from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), universities, commercial NDE service vendors and cable manufacturers, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  12. TREATMENT EFFECTS OF TAI CHI EXERCISE IN A PATIENT WITH MAJOR DEPRESSION USING MISMATCH NEGATIVITY (MMN) AND EARLY NEGATIVE DIFFERENCE (NDE)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenchao; Sawada, Masayuki; IKESHITA, Katsumi; Negoro, Hideki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether Tai Chi exercise had treatment effects for major depression using objective measures. We used mismatch negativity (MMN) and early negative difference (Nde), one of event-related potentials (ERPs) as objective measures. We administered 24-style Tai Chi exercise twice a week during 3 months to a patient with major depression. Consequently, not only depressive symptoms but also small MMN and Nde amplitudes improved accompanying 24-style Tai Chi exercise. Theref...

  13. Lamb-Wave Embedded NDE with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Thin-Wall Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2004-02-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are inexpensive, non-intrusive, unobtrusive devices that can be surface-mounted on existing structures or inserted between the layers of new composite structures. The PWAS can be used in both active and passive modes. PWAS generate and detect Lamb waves and enable the development of embedded NDE concepts. This paper will present two embedded NDE concepts based on the PWAS technology and Lamb waves approach. The first concept utilizes traveling Lamb waves and could be described as embedded ultrasonics. It is shown that embedded PWAS are able to reproduce most of the conventional ultrasonic techniques, such as pitch-catch, pulse-echo, and phased array. Several experiments using Lamb waves traveling in thin-wall structures are presented.

  14. A Simple Electromagnetic Analysis of Magnetic NDE Using a Double Rectangular Coil an a Hall Effect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bettaieb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simple analysis and measurement in eddy current NDE are presented. A Hall probe is associated to a double Printed Circuit Board PCB. The configurations examined involve the coil in air and the coil above aluminum plates, either with or without cracks of various depths. The agreement between experimental and theoretical results is very good, showing that a very simple model accurately describes the electromagnetic fields.

  15. ¿Cómo y dónde evalúa el cerebro las consecuencias de nuestras decisiones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pardo-Vázquez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Para aprender de la experiencia y ajustar nuestro comportamiento necesitamos evaluar las consecuencias de nuestra conducta. ¿Cómo y dónde tiene lugar esta evaluación en el cerebro? Recientemente hemos descrito que la información necesaria para alcanzar una decisión y evaluar sus consecuencias está representada en la corteza premotora ventral.

  16. State of the Art Assessment of NDE Techniques for Aging Cable Management in Nuclear Power Plants FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tedeschi, Jonathan R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-08

    This milestone report presents an update on the state-of-the-art review and research being conducted to identify key indicators of in-containment cable aging at nuclear power plants (NPPs), and devise in-situ measurement techniques that are sensitive to these key indicators. The motivation for this study stems from the need to address open questions related to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aging cables for degradation detection and estimation of condition-based remaining service life. These questions arise within the context of a second round of license extension for NPPs that would extend the operating license to 60 and 80 years. Within the introduction, a review of recently published U.S. and international research and guidance for cable aging management programs including NDE technologies is provided. As with any “state-of-the-art” report, the observations are deemed accurate as of the publication date but cannot anticipate evolution of the technology. Moreover, readers are advised that research and development of cable NDE technology is an ongoing issue of global concern.

  17. Bond strength evaluation in adhesive joints using NDE and DIC methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Anish

    Adhesive bonding of graphite epoxy composite laminates to itself or traditional metal alloys in modern aerospace and aircraft structural applications offers an excellent opportunity to use the most efficient and intelligent combination of materials available thus providing an attractive package for efficient structural designs. However, one of the major issues of adhesive bonding is the occasional formation of interfacial defects such as kissing or weak bonds in the bondline interface. Also, there are shortcomings of existing non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to non-destructively detect/characterize these interfacial defects and reliably predicting the bond shear strength. As a result, adhesive bonding technology is still not solely implemented in primary structures of an aircraft. Therefore, there is a greater demand for a novel NDE tool that can meet the existing aerospace requirement for adhesive bondline characterization. This research implemented a novel Acoustography ultrasonic imaging and digital image correlation (DIC) technique to detect and characterize interfacial defects in the bondline and determine bond shear strength in adhesively bonded composite-metal joints. Adhesively bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminate and 2024-T3 Aluminum single lap shear panels subjected to various implanted kissing/weak bond defects were the primary focus of this study. Kissing/weak bonds were prepared by controlled surface contamination in the composite bonding surface and also by improperly mixing the adhesive constituent. SEM analyses were also conducted to understand the surface morphology of substrates and their interaction with the contaminants. Morphological changes were observed in the microscopic scale and the chemical analysis confirmed the stability of the contaminant at or very close to the interface. In addition, it was also demonstrated that contaminants migrated during the curing of the adhesive from CFRP substrate which caused a

  18. Ensemble of classifiers for confidence-rated classification of NDE signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Portia; Safdarnejad, Seyed; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2016-02-01

    Ensemble of classifiers in general, aims to improve classification accuracy by combining results from multiple weak hypotheses into a single strong classifier through weighted majority voting. Improved versions of ensemble of classifiers generate self-rated confidence scores which estimate the reliability of each of its prediction and boost the classifier using these confidence-rated predictions. However, such a confidence metric is based only on the rate of correct classification. In existing works, although ensemble of classifiers has been widely used in computational intelligence, the effect of all factors of unreliability on the confidence of classification is highly overlooked. With relevance to NDE, classification results are affected by inherent ambiguity of classifica-tion, non-discriminative features, inadequate training samples and noise due to measurement. In this paper, we extend the existing ensemble classification by maximizing confidence of every classification decision in addition to minimizing the classification error. Initial results of the approach on data from eddy current inspection show improvement in classification performance of defect and non-defect indications.

  19. La investigación en arquitectura ¿Hacia dónde debemos enfocarla?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto González Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En medio de este momento histórico convulso, en que la crisis financiera planetaria ocupa todo nuestros esfuerzos, sería bueno pensar, aprovechando la catarsis[...] ¿Y la arquitectura?, ¿y la investigación en arquitectura?, ¿y la propuesta arquitectónica?, ¿hacia dónde debe enfocarse?, ¿qué debemos investigar más?, ¿qué debemos proponer más? En este sentido queremos destacar los experimentos formales y técnicos que llevaron a Carlos González Lobo a la conclusión de sus diversos sistemas constructivos están ligados a una ¿visión personal¿ de entender el oficio del arquitecto, y que tiene que ver con la investigación sistemática ligada a la ¿necesidad¿ de ¿su¿ realidad social inmediata y para un grupo de mayoritario de población pobre que construye de manera desordenada, caótica y sin ninguna posibilidad estética de valor.

  20. Material property relationships for pipeline steels and the potential for application of NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Lucinda; Bond, Leonard J.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry in the USA has an extensive infrastructure of pipelines, 70% of which were installed prior to 1980, and almost half were installed during the 1950s and 1960s. Ideally the mechanical properties (i.e. yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and fracture toughness) of a steel pipe must be known in order to respond to detected defects in an appropriate manner. Neither current in-ditch methods nor the ILI inspection data have yet determined and map the desired mechanical properties with adequate confidence. In the quest to obtain the mechanical properties of a steel pipe using a nondestructive method, it is important to understand that there are many inter-related variables. This paper reports a literature review and an analysis of a sample set of data. There is promise for correlating the results of NDE measurement modalities to the information required to develop relationships between those measurements and the mechanical measurements desired for pipelines to ensure proper response to defects which are of significant threat.

  1. Incorporation of composite defects from ultrasonic NDE into CAD and FE models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingol, Onur Rauf; Schiefelbein, Bryan; Grandin, Robert J.; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh

    2017-02-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites are widely used in aerospace industry due to their combined properties of high strength and low weight. However, owing to their complex structure, it is difficult to assess the impact of manufacturing defects and service damage on their residual life. While, ultrasonic testing (UT) is the preferred NDE method to identify the presence of defects in composites, there are no reasonable ways to model the damage and evaluate the structural integrity of composites. We have developed an automated framework to incorporate flaws and known composite damage automatically into a finite element analysis (FEA) model of composites, ultimately aiding in accessing the residual life of composites and make informed decisions regarding repairs. The framework can be used to generate a layer-by-layer 3D structural CAD model of the composite laminates replicating their manufacturing process. Outlines of structural defects, such as delaminations, are automatically detected from UT of the laminate and are incorporated into the CAD model between the appropriate layers. In addition, the framework allows for direct structural analysis of the resulting 3D CAD models with defects by automatically applying the appropriate boundary conditions. In this paper, we show a working proof-of-concept for the composite model builder with capabilities of incorporating delaminations between laminate layers and automatically preparing the CAD model for structural analysis using a FEA software.

  2. Assessment of NDE Technologies for Detection and Characterization of Stress Corrosion Cracking in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bond, Leonard J.; Montgomery, Robert O.

    2012-12-31

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in light water reactors (LWRs) has been a persistent form of degradation in the nuclear industry. Examples of SCC can be found for a range of materials in boiling and pressurized water reactor environments, including carbon steels, stainless steels, and nickel-base stainless alloys. The evolution of SCC is often characterized by a long initiation stage followed by a phase of more rapid crack growth to failure. This provides a relatively short window of opportunity to detect the start of observable SCC, and it is conceivable that SCC could progress from initiation to failure between subsequent examinations when managed by applying periodic in-service inspection techniques. Implementation of advanced aging management paradigms in the current fleet of LWRs will require adaptation of existing measurement technologies and development of new technologies to perform on-line measurements during reactor operation to ensure timely detection of material degradation and to support the implementation of advanced diagnostics and prognostics. This paper considers several non-destructive examination (NDE) technologies with known sensitivity to detection of indicators for SCC initiation and/or propagation, and assesses these technologies with respect to their ability to detect and accurately characterize the significance of an SCC flaw. Potential strategies to improve SCC inspection or monitoring performance are offered to benefit management of SCC degradation in LWRs.

  3. In-Situ NDE Characterization of Kevlar and Carbon Composite Micromechanics for Improved COPV Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2009-01-01

    This project is a subtask of a multi-center project to advance the state-of-the-art by developing NDE techniques that are capable of evaluating stress rupture (SR) degradation in Kevlar/epoxy (K/Ep) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), and damage progression in carbon/epoxy (C/Ep) COPVs. In this subtask, acoustic emission (AE) data acquired during intermittent load hold tensile testing of K/Ep and C/Ep composite tow materials-of-construction used in COPV fabrication were analyzed to monitor progressive damage during the approach to tensile failure. Insight into the progressive damage of composite tow was gained by monitoring AE event rate, energy, source location, and frequency. Source location based on arrival time data was used to discern between significant AE attributable to microstructural damage and spurious AE attributable to background and grip noise. One of the significant findings was the observation of increasing violation of the Kaiser effect (Felicity ratio < 1.0) with damage accumulation.

  4. Advanced model of eddy-current NDE inverse problem with sparse grid algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Murphy, R. Kim; Bernacchi, William

    2017-02-01

    In model-based inverse problem, some unknown parameters need to be estimated. These parameters are used not only to characterize the physical properties of cracks, but also to describe the position of the probes (such as lift off and angles) in the calibration. After considering the effect of the position of the probes in the inverse problem, the accuracy of the inverse result will be improved. With increasing the number of the parameters in the inverse problems, the burden of calculations will increase exponentially in the traditional full grid method. The sparse grid algorithm, which was introduced by Sergey A. Smolyak, was used in our work. With this algorithm, we obtain a powerful interpolation method that requires significantly fewer support nodes than conventional interpolation on a full grid. In this work, we combined sparse grid toolbox TASMANIAN, which is produced by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and professional eddy-current NDE software, VIC-3D R◯, to solve a specific inverse problem. An advanced model based on our previous one is used to estimate length and depth of the crack, lift off and two angles of the position of probes. Considering the calibration process, pseudorandom noise is considered in the model and statistical behavior is discussed.

  5. Adaptive grating interferometric sensor for NDE metrology in high energy electromagnetic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgalenko, George; Altintepe, Kadir; Bodnar, Michael; Prokop, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    CCD cameras and CMOS devices are the major electronic components of industrial metrology, which are vulnerable to high level electromagnetic exposure. Typical sources of exposure of electronics to ionizing radiation are the Van Allen radiation belts for satellites, nuclear reactors in power plants for sensors and control circuits, particle accelerators for control electronics particularly particle detector devices, residual radiation from isotopes in chip packaging materials, cosmic radiation for spacecraft and highaltitude aircraft, and nuclear explosions for potentially all military and civilian electronics. A total dose 5 ×103 rad was delivered to silicon-based devices in seconds to minutes caused long-term degradation. We demonstrated adaptive grating, 3D image sensor for NDE metrology which is non vulnerable for high level X-Ray1 and 3 × 106 rad gamma radiation exposure. Sensor is based on adaptive holographic grating generated by 632.8 nm He-Ne laser - in doped electro optic Bismuth Titanate (BTO) monocrystal. Mathematical algorithm of bipolar model conductivity in BTO crystal has been applied for experimental analyses. Applications of proposed sensor for airspace, military, nuclear and civil engineering industries have been discussed.

  6. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter

    2014-02-01

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software.

  7. FEM enhanced signal processing approach for pattern recognition in the SQUID based NDE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarreshtedari, F; Jahed, N M S; Hosseni, N; Pourhashemi, A; Fardmanesh, M [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Banzet, Marko; Schubert, Juergen, E-mail: fardmanesh@sharif.ed [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Bio and Nanosystems, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    An efficient Non-Destructive Evaluation algorithm has been developed in order to extract the required information for pattern recognition of defects in the conductive samples. Using high-Tc gradiometer RF-SQUIDs in unshielded environments and incorporating an automated two dimensional non-magnetic scanning robot, samples with different intentional defects have been tested. We have used a developed noise cancellation approach for the improvement of the effectiveness of the used inverse-problem technique. In this approach we have used a well examined Finite Element Method (FEM) to apply a noise reduction filtering on the obtained raw magnetic image data before incorporating the signal processing analysis. By applying this noise cancellation filter and incorporating three different signal processing algorithms and comparing the results of the predicted images by the pattern of the intentionally made defects, we have investigated the ability of these methods for pattern recognition of unknown defects.

  8. Review of NDE Methods for Detection and Monitoring of Atmospheric SCC in Welded Canisters for the Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanson, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-14

    Dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for used nuclear fuel (UNF) were originally envisioned for storage periods of short duration (~ a few decades). However, uncertainty challenges the opening of a permanent repository for UNF implying that UNF will need to remain in dry storage for much longer durations than originally envisioned (possibly for centuries). Thus, aging degradation of DCSSs becomes an issue that may not have been sufficiently considered in the design phase and that can challenge the efficacy of very long-term storage of UNF. A particular aging degradation concern is atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of DCSSs located in marine environments. In this report, several nondestructive (NDE) methods are evaluated with respect to their potential for effective monitoring of atmospheric SCC in welded canisters of DCSSs. Several of the methods are selected for evaluation based on their usage for in-service inspection applications in the nuclear power industry. The technologies considered include bulk ultrasonic techniques, acoustic emission, visual techniques, eddy current, and guided ultrasonic waves.

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

    2012-09-14

    The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

  10. The effect of variation in phased array element performance for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, David; Russell, Jonathan; Lowe, Michael

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation into the effects of phased array element performance on ultrasonic beam integrity. This investigation has been performed using an array beam model based on Huygens' principle to independently investigate the effects of element sensitivity and phase, and non-functioning elements via Monte Carlo simulation. The purpose of this work is to allow a new method of array calibration for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) to be adopted that focuses on probe integrity rather than beam integrity. This approach is better suited to component inspections that utilise Full Matrix Capture (FMC) to record data as the calibration routine is uncoupled from the beams that the array is required to produce. For this approach to be adopted specifications must be placed on element performance that guarantee beam quality without carrying out any beam forming. The principal result of this investigation is that the dominant outcome following variations in array element performance is the introduction of beam artefacts such as main beam broadening, raising of the noise floor of the ultrasonic field, and the enlargement or creation of side lobes. Specifications for practical allowable limits of element sensitivity, element phase, and the number of non-functioning elements have been suggested based on a minimum amplitude difference between beam artefacts and the main beam peak of 8 dB. Simulation at a number of centre frequencies has led to a recommendation that the product of transducer bandwidth and maximum phase error should be kept below 0.051 and 0.035 for focused and plane beams respectively. Element sensitivity should be within 50% of mean value of the aperture, and no more than 9% of the elements should be non-functioning.

  11. Early detection of critical material degradation by means of electromagnetic multi-parametric NDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szielasko, Klaus; Tschuncky, Ralf; Rabung, Madalina; Altpeter, Iris; Dobmann, Gerd [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Seiler, Georg; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Boller, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany and Saarland University, Chair of NDT and Quality Assurance, Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2014-02-18

    With an increasing number of power plants operated in excess of their original design service life an early recognition of critical material degradation in components will gain importance. Many years of reactor safety research allowed for the identification and development of electromagnetic NDE methods which detect precursors of imminent damage with high sensitivity, at elevated temperatures and in a radiation environment. Regarding low-alloy heat-resistant steel grade WB 36 (1.6368, 15NiCuMoNb5), effects of thermal and thermo-mechanical aging on mechanical-technological properties and several micromagnetic parameters have been thoroughly studied. In particular knowledge regarding the process of copper precipitation and its acceleration under thermo-mechanical load has been enhanced. Whilst the Cu-rich WB 36 steel is an excellent model material to study and understand aging effects related to neutron radiation without the challenge of handling radioactive specimens in a hot cell, actually neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel materials were investigated as well. The neutron fluence experienced and the resulting shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature were determined electromagnetically, and it was shown that weld and base material can be distinguished from the cladded side of the RPV wall. Low-cycle fatigue of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 347 (1.4550, X6CrNiNb18-10) has been characterized with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) at temperatures of up to 300 °C. Time-of-flight and amplitude of the transmitted ultrasound signal were evaluated against the number of load cycles applied and observed as an indication of the imminent material failure significantly earlier than monitoring stresses or strains.

  12. A combined NDE/FEA approach to evaluate the structural response of a metal foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Raj, Sai V.; Rauser, Richard W.

    2007-04-01

    Metal foams are expected to find use in structural applications where weight is of particular concern, such as space vehicles, rotorcraft blades, car bodies or portable electronic devices. The obvious structural application of metal foam is for light weight sandwich panels, made up of thin solid face sheets and a metallic foam core. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by a light weight metal foam core. The resulting high-stiffness structure is lighter than that constructed only out of the solid metal material. Since the face sheets carry the applied in-plane and bending loads, the sandwich architecture is a viable engineering concept. However, the metal foam core must resist transverse shear loads and compressive loads while remaining integral with the face sheets. Challenges relating to the fabrication and testing of these metal foam panels remain due to some mechanical properties falling short of their theoretical potential. Theoretical mechanical properties are based on an idealized foam microstructure and assumed cell geometry. But the actual testing is performed on as fabricated foam microstructure. Hence in this study, a detailed three dimensional foam structure is generated using series of 2D Computer Tomography (CT) scans. The series of the 2D images are assembled to construct a high precision solid model capturing all the fine details within the metal foam as detected by the CT scanning technique. Moreover, a finite element analysis is then performed on as fabricated metal foam microstructures, to calculate the foam mechanical properties with the idealized theory. The metal foam material is an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. Tensile and compressive mechanical properties are deduced from the FEA model and compared with the theoretical values for three different foam densities. The combined NDE/FEA provided insight in the variability of

  13. TERME DISTRICT DURING THE TANZIMAT PERIOD (TANZİMAT DÖNEMİ’NDE TERME KAZASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim SERBESTOĞLU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Özet Bu makalenin amacı Tanzimat Dönemi’nde yaşanan değişimin taşraya yansımasını Terme kazası üzerinden ortaya koymaktır. Tanzimat reformlarının uygulanması sürecinde Terme Kaza Meclisinde yerel güç odaklarının iktidar kavgaları yaşanmıştır. Bu kavgalar ekonomik güce sahip olma çabalarını ve yerel muhalefeti susturma girişimlerini beraberinde getirmiştir. Bununla birlikte tarımsal kalkınma ve küçük ölçekli sanayinin geliştirilmesi süreçleri de Tanzimat’ın kalkınma hamleleri olarak görülmüştür. Abstract This study examines the impact of Tanzimat reforms on the Ottoman periphery in general and in Terme District in particular. Terme, which was one of the districts of Canik Sanjak, had fertile lands. The article presents that the Tanzimat reforms triggered a power struggle among the local power centers in Terme Council for the control of local economy and led to attempts to silence the local dissidents. Despite this struggle, there were visible economic developments in both agriculture and small industry during the Tanzimat Period.

  14. Early detection of critical material degradation by means of electromagnetic multi-parametric NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szielasko, Klaus; Tschuncky, Ralf; Rabung, Madalina; Seiler, Georg; Altpeter, Iris; Dobmann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Boller, Christian

    2014-02-01

    With an increasing number of power plants operated in excess of their original design service life an early recognition of critical material degradation in components will gain importance. Many years of reactor safety research allowed for the identification and development of electromagnetic NDE methods which detect precursors of imminent damage with high sensitivity, at elevated temperatures and in a radiation environment. Regarding low-alloy heat-resistant steel grade WB 36 (1.6368, 15NiCuMoNb5), effects of thermal and thermo-mechanical aging on mechanical-technological properties and several micromagnetic parameters have been thoroughly studied. In particular knowledge regarding the process of copper precipitation and its acceleration under thermo-mechanical load has been enhanced. Whilst the Cu-rich WB 36 steel is an excellent model material to study and understand aging effects related to neutron radiation without the challenge of handling radioactive specimens in a hot cell, actually neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel materials were investigated as well. The neutron fluence experienced and the resulting shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature were determined electromagnetically, and it was shown that weld and base material can be distinguished from the cladded side of the RPV wall. Low-cycle fatigue of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 347 (1.4550, X6CrNiNb18-10) has been characterized with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) at temperatures of up to 300 °C. Time-of-flight and amplitude of the transmitted ultrasound signal were evaluated against the number of load cycles applied and observed as an indication of the imminent material failure significantly earlier than monitoring stresses or strains.

  15. Structural Anomalies Detected in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Combined Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis (NDE and FEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2003-01-01

    Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object and then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. The rapid prototyping technique builds high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer-aided design files. This fundamental technique for interpreting and interacting with large data sets is being used here via Velocity2 (an integrated image-processing software, ref. 1) using computed tomography (CT) data to produce a prototype three-dimensional test specimen model for analyses. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center proposes to use these capabilities to conduct a combined nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) to screen pretest and posttest structural anomalies in structural components. A tensile specimen made of silicon nitrite (Si3N4) ceramic matrix composite was considered to evaluate structural durability and deformity. Ceramic matrix composites are being sought as candidate materials to replace nickel-base superalloys for turbine engine applications. They have the unique characteristics of being able to withstand higher operating temperatures and harsh combustion environments. In addition, their low densities relative to metals help reduce component mass (ref. 2). Detailed three-dimensional volume rendering of the tensile test specimen was successfully carried out with Velocity2 (ref. 1) using two-dimensional images that were generated via computed tomography. Subsequent, three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed, and the results obtained were compared with those predicted by NDE-based calculations and experimental tests. It was shown that Velocity2 software can be used to render a three-dimensional object from a series of CT scan images with a minimum level of complexity. The analytical results (ref. 3) show that the high-stress regions correlated well with the damage sites identified by the CT scans

  16. A Destructive Validation of NDE Responses of Service-Induced PWSCC Found in North Anna 2 Control Rod Drive Nozzle 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Schuster, George J.; Harris, Robert V.; Crawford, Susan L.; Seffens, Rob J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Moyer, C.

    2009-07-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington focused on assessing the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for inspecting control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of NDE methods as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments, and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies.

  17. Evaluation of creep-fatigue crack growth for large-scale FBR reactor vessel and NDE assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Seok Hun; Yoo, Bong

    2001-03-01

    Creep fatigue crack growth contributes to the failure of FRB reactor vessels in high temperature condition. In the design stage of reactor vessel, crack growth evaluation is very important to ensure the structural safety and setup the in-service inspection strategy. In this study, creep-fatigue crack growth evaluation has been performed for the semi-elliptical surface cracks subjected to thermal loading. The thermal stress analysis of a large-scale FBR reactor vessel has been carried out for the load conditions. The distributions of axial, radial, hoop, and Von Mises stresses were obtained for the loading conditions. At the maximum point of the axial and hoop stress, the longitudinal and circumferential surface cracks (i.e. PTS crack, NDE short crack and shallow long crack) were postulated. Using the maximum and minimum values of stresses, the creep-fatigue crack growth of the proposed cracks was simulated. The crack growth rate of circumferential cracks becomes greater than that of longitudinal cracks. The total crack growth of the largest PTS crack is very small after 427 cycles. The structural integrity of a large-scale reactor can be maintained for the plant life. The crack depth growth of the shallow long crack is faster than that of the NDE short crack. In the ISI of the large-scale FBR reactor vessel, the ultrasonic inspection is beneficial to detect the shallow circumferential cracks.

  18. Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2014, Waste Tanks 26, 27, 28 and 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Vandekamp, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-29

    Ultrasonic nondestructive examinations (NDE) were performed on waste storage tanks 26, 27, 28 and 33 at the Savannah River Site as a part of the “In-Service Inspection (ISI) Program for High Level Waste Tanks.” No reportable conditions were identified during these inspections. The results indicate that the implemented corrosion control program continues to effectively mitigate corrosion in the SRS waste tanks. Ultrasonic inspection (UT) is used to detect general wall thinning, pitting and interface attack, as well as vertically oriented cracks through inspection of an 8.5 inch wide strip extending over the accessible height of the primary tank wall and accessible knuckle regions. Welds were also inspected in tanks 27, 28 and 33 with no reportable indications. In a Type III/IIIA primary tank, a complete vertical strip includes scans of five plates (including knuckles) so five “plate/strips” would be completed at each vertical strip location. In FY 2014, a combined total of 79 plate/strips were examined for thickness mapping and crack detection, equating to over 45,000 square inches of area inspected on the primary tank wall. Of the 79 plate/strips examined in FY 2014 all but three have average thicknesses that remain at or above the construction minimum thickness which is nominal thickness minus 0.010 inches. There were no service induced reportable thicknesses or cracking encountered. A total of 2 pits were documented in 2014 with the deepest being 0.032 inches deep. One pit was detected in Tank 27 and one in Tank 33. No pitting was identified in Tanks 26 or 28. The maximum depth of any pit encountered in FY 2014 is 5% of nominal thickness, which is less than the minimum reportable criteria of 25% through-wall for pitting. In Tank 26 two vertical strips were inspected, as required by the ISI Program, due to tank conditions being outside normal chemistry controls for more than 3 months. Tank 28 had an area of localized thinning on the exterior wall of the

  19. KONYA'DA GEÇİŞ DÖNEMLERİNDE YAPILAN YÖRESEL MUTFAK UYGULAMALARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule ÇÖLBAY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yeme içme, bir milletin kültürel kodlarını içinde barındırmaktadır. Bugün yeryüzünde, sosyal, kültürel, dini ve ekonomik yönden birbirinden farklı; çeşitli coğrafi ve iklim özelliklerinde yaşayan çok sayıda topluluk bulunmaktadır. Her toplumun sayılan bu farklılıklarından dolayı çok sayıda değişik beslenme alışkanlıkları görülmektedir. Beslenme alışkanlıklarındaki bu farklılıklar tarihi süreç içerisinde önemli değişiklere sahne olmuştur. Bu tarihi süreci izlemek için geçmişten bize kalan kaynaklar enderdir. Bu çalışma, kendine has kültür ve iletişim sistemi olan “Yöresel Yemek” kavramının geliştirilmesi için; Konya İline ait yöresel yemek kültürünün yeniden ele alınarak gün yüzüne çıkması amacıyla Konyalı ailelerin büyüklerinden araştırmacıların yüz yüze görüşme tekniği kullanılarak elde edilen bilgilerin derlenmesiyle hazırlanmıştır. The way of eating and drinking inholds cultural codes of a nation. There exist many societies today which live in various geographical conditions and climates, and they are all different from one another in terms of social, cultural, religious, and economical aspects. Due to the aforementioned differences of societies, it is seen that each society has many different eating habits. These differences in eating habits have held significant changes over time in history. Resources remaining from the past are very rare for us to examine this historical process. This study has been prepared by compiling the data gathered from the elderly in families in Konya using face-to-face interview methods carried out by the researchers with the aim of revealing the local cuisine culture of Konya by reconsidering it to develop the “local food” concept which is a unique culture and communication system.

  20. Hiina draakon kutsub luksusbrände külla. Hiinlased armastavad üha enam luksust / Fredy-Edwin Esse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Draakoniaasta on hiinlaste jaoks väga heaendeline ning toob kaasa senisest enam sünde ja abielusid. Seetõttu prognoosib uuringufirma McKinsey ja Co luksuskaupade jaemüüjatele müüginumbrite olulist tõusu

  1. Research and Evaluation of Advanced Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Methods for Addressing the Challenges of Inspecting Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel (CASS) Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2009-07-01

    This Conference paper is for submission to the 7th International Conference on NDE in Relation to Structural Integrity for Nuclear and Pressurized Components, in Yokohama, Japan Specifically, this paper is being presented at this Conference on May 12-14, 2009.

  2. The Evaluation of a Squid-Based Non-Contact Magnetic Nde Technique for Application to the Inspection of Offshore Steel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanson, S.

    1988-12-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Conventional methods of Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) for the detection of surface-breaking defects in steel structures require intimate contact with the test site. This is a serious limitation in offshore inspection where the structure may be covered with tenacious marine contamination up to 0.5m thick. A method of magnetic examination to detect surface-breaking defects at distances, from a steel specimen, in excess of 10cm is reported. A persistent mode superconducting solenoid generates a DC magnetic field perpendicular to the specimen surface. The spatial distortion of this field by surface defects is detected using a SQUID coupled to a novel planar gradiometer, coaxial with the solenoid. DC operation means detection is unaffected by electrically conductive surface coatings. A point defect is represented by an equivalent magnetic dipole and a long defect by a line dipole with a uniformly distributed magnetic moment. Mathematical models for the response of a gradiometer to magnetic dipole sources are used to design a suitable planar gradiometer. Theoretical and experimental data demonstrate the superior performance of this design compared with a conventional second order gradiometer of the type available commercially. The construction of a system for acquisition and computer processing of data from the examination of steel specimens is discussed. Extensive tests were conducted on flat steel plates containing ideal surface defects and good agreement is found with the defect models. The major limitation on defect resolution is a background field associated with the magnetised steel plate. Background components of low spatial frequency are reduced by balancing the gradiometer, further improvement in resolution is achieved by applying band pass digital filters to the SQUID output. A SQUID system offers considerable promise for remote detection of surface defects in plane steel

  3. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging of EB weld, theory of harmonic imaging of welds, NDE of cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, T.; Lingvall, F.; Ping Wu [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science

    2001-07-01

    The objective of task presented in the first chapter, ultrasonic imaging of EB weld is to investigate imaging methods capable of improving ultrasonic imaging of defects in EB-welds. Algorithms based on ideas from ultrasonic tomography were examined as the first step. After a concise review of literature in the field of tomography the attention is focused on synthetic focusing and particularly on using linear phased array systems for imaging. Synthetic focusing is a technique where the focusing is performed by software after gathering the ultrasonic data. General principles of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) - a synthetic focusing technique especially suitable for linear ultrasonic arrays are presented. Problems related to the application of SAFT to ultrasonic transducers with large apertures are identified and the solution is proposed. It appears that when the probe becomes larger (i.e., cannot be regarded as a point source) the ultrasonic pulses that it generates will be smeared by its spatial impulse response (SIR). This impairs the spatial resolution achieved for the finite aperture probes comparing to the point source. Thus, a proper application of synthetic focusing requires taking into account the spatially varying probe's SIR. The SIR has to be calculated (measured) in the interesting points of space and than deconvoluted. A technique for deconvoluting the SIR based on Wiener filter is proposed and illustrated by experimental results. Some preliminary results from immersion testing of copper blocks using the ALLIN system in our lab facility are presented. Nonlinear propagation of plane waves in fluids based on the Burgers equation is investigated in the second chapter. The presented method is basically adopted from the existing literature although some modification has been made to adapt to our situation. The solution has been re-derived and two alternative forms feasible for computer calculation are given and some numerical results are

  4. Reconsidering Ampere’s Double Layer Representation for Magnetic Field, Evaluation in a NDE Dection of a zero volume crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Poloujadoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has two different objectives. The first one is to  show that Ampere’s double layer method, which is equivalent  to one of the Maxwell equations, leads to the integration of a  simple closed form expression, thus avoiding the need to solve  complicated partial differential equations. The second aim is  to study the case of a zero volume defect in a NDE problem by  a perturbation method and the introduction of a double layer.  The combination of these two techniques leads to a very fast  solution of the problem. A practical example including

  5. Las aplicaciones interactivas multimedia en España: ¿hacia dónde evoluciona el mercado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Nati Ramajo Hernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El despegue del sector multimedia en nuestro país (entendiendo como tal las aplicaciones interactivas multimedia ha sido espectacular en los últimos tiempos. El número de títulos publicados en CD-ROM, al igual que el número de productores, ha aumentado considerablemente. Pero, ¿cómo es esa nueva industria?, ¿qué productos ofrece?, ¿hacia dónde evoluciona el mercado? El presente trabajo pretende hacer un repaso a la breve historia de las aplicaciones interactivas multimedia en España hasta llegar al momento actual, analizando por el camino la tipología de los productos y concluyendo con los nuevos formatos que están cambiando el mercado.

  6. A Recommended Methodology for Quantifying NDE/NDI Based on Aircraft Engine Experience (Le Projet de Methodologie Pour l’Evaluation du Controle Non- Destructif Fonde sur l’Experience Acquise sur les moteurs d’Avions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    A Recommended Methodology for Quantifying NDE/NDI Based on Aircraft Engine Experience--Translation(Le Projet de Methodologie Pour l’Evaluation du Controle Non-Destructif Fonde sur l’Experience Acquise sur les moteurs d’Avions)

  7. Välismaalaste seaduses sätestatud töö- ja ettevõtlusrände regulatsiooni väärkasutamine Eestis ja äriseadustiku muudatuste mõju töö- ja ettevõtlusrände regulatsiooni väärkasutamisele : [magistritöö] / Laura Sofia Annus ; Tartu Üliko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annus, Laura Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Välismaalase mõistest ja tähtajalise elamisloa regulatsioonist, ettevõtte asutamise regulatsioonist, töö- ja ettevõtlusrände regulatsiooni mitte-eesmärgipärasest kasutamisest ja lahendustest selle peatamiseks

  8. Välismaalaste seaduses sätestatud töö- ja ettevõtlusrände regulatsiooni väärkasutamine Eestis ja äriseadustiku muudatuste mõju töö- ja ettevõtlusrände regulatsiooni väärkasutamisele : [magistritöö] / Laura Sofia Annus ; Tartu Üliko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annus, Laura Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Välismaalase mõistest ja tähtajalise elamisloa regulatsioonist, ettevõtte asutamise regulatsioonist, töö- ja ettevõtlusrände regulatsiooni mitte-eesmärgipärasest kasutamisest ja lahendustest selle peatamiseks

  9. ¿De dónde vienen las relaciones sociales? Un estudio de las redes personales en el área de Toulouse (Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Grossetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las ideas fundamentales del análisis estructural es que, a fin de comprender las estructuras sociales, es necesario partir de las relaciones. Sin embargo, ¿de dónde vienen las relaciones? Un estudio de las redes personales en el área de Toulouse (Francia nos permite demostrar la importancia de los círculos sociales en la génesis de las relaciones diádicas.

  10. Finite Elements, Design Optimization, and Nondestructive Evaluation: A Review in Magnetics, and Future Directions in GPU-based, Element-by-Element Coupled Optimization and NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    Element Coupled Optimization and NDE S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole1, Victor U. Karthik1, Sivamayam Sivasuthan1, Arunasalam Rahunanthan2, Ravi S...Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Toledo , Toledo , OH 43606-3390, USA. 3. The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Paramsothy Jayakumar; Ravi Thyagarajan; Arunasalam Rahunanthan; Sivamayam Sivasuthan; Victor Karthik 5d

  11. SAKARYA İLİNDE 17 AGUSTOS 1999 DEPREMiNDE HASAR GÖREN Y APlLAR ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih İLÇİ

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Doğal afetler aras ı nda , yapılara en büyük zararı depremler venniş ti r. Bunun için, her an deprem olacakmış gibi h az ı r olun ınalıdır. Ya p ı yapma fikri( daha y e ni ohışına aşan1asında i ken , inşaat sektörü ile ilgili tünı meslek grupları s ürekli bir ko o rd in asy on n ç i nde çalışnıalıdır. Bu ko ordi ne l i çalışnıa neticesinde; 17 Ağustos 1999 d epremini n türrı ol ums uz sonuçlan iyi bir şekilde anl aşılıp, dcpreme karşı nas ı l dayanıklı yapı yapabili rim. Fikri benimsenmelidir.

  12. System Engineering Concept Demonstration, Trade Studies. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Windows. Sun is also planning to provide an Open Look toolkit called the NeWS Development Environment ( NDE ), which is based on the NeWS window system. 3...Designs." COMPSAC Proceedings 1981: 735-43. [WIL761 Wilcox , T.R., A.M. Davis, and M.H. Tindall. "The Design and Implementation of a Table Driven

  13. Thermal NDE of thick GRP panels by means of a Pulse Modulated Lock-In Thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitarresi G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development and implementation of an infrared thermal NDE procedure for the evaluation of subsurface defects. The approach is called Pulse-Modulated Lock-In Thermography (PMLT and is based on the analysis of the frequency response of the measured temperature and comparison with the carrier frequencies launched by the external heat delivering source. The heat deposited on the object is in particular modulated as a train of square waves. This is easily achieved by periodically shuttering the heat source. The temperature is then sampled throughout the deposition of a few square waves. A lock-in algorithm is then implemented able to selectively filter out components at the main carrier frequencies of the heating signal and evaluate the phase information. Defected areas at different depths can be marked based on phase contrast, by using data from a single experiment as in Pulsed-Phase Thermography. An artificially defected thick GRP panel typical of naval monolithic hull structures, is investigated to validate the proposed technique. Experimental data have confirmed the potentials of PMLT as a flexible IR NDT approach, and its ability to be implemented by means of low cost heating and IR equipments.

  14. Durability Analysis and Experimental Validation of Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC Performance Using Combined Digital Image Correlation and NDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul-Aziz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the failure mechanism or to predict the spallation life of environmental barrier coatings (EBC on fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites, the fracture strength of EBC and the process of the crack growth in EBC layers need to be experimentally determined under standard or simulated engine operating conditions. The current work considers a multi layered barium strontium aluminum silicate (BSAS-based EBC-coated, melt infiltrated silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (MI SiC/SiC specimen that was tensile tested at room temperature. Numerous tests were performed under tensile loading conditions, and the specimen was loaded until failure under pre-determined stress levels. The specimen was examined with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, computed tomography (CT scan, and digital image correlation (DIC camera. Observation from the computed tomography scanning, the SEM, and the optical microscopy did not offer conclusive information concerning the cracks that spawned during the tests. However, inspection with the DIC camera offered some indication that cracks had developed and allowed their detection and the location of their initiation site. Thus, this study provides detailed discussion of the results obtained from the experimental investigation and the nondestructive evaluation (NDE, and it also includes assessment of the stress response predicted by analytical modeling and their impact on EBC durability and crack growth formation under complex loading settings.

  15. An advanced low-cost workstation for NDE of high-risk components, experiences and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ona, R.; Cabrera, E.; Aldea, J.; Ortega, J. [Tecnatom, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Mechanized inspection by means of ultrasonic techniques is widely used when high levels of reliability are required. For such inspections it is necessary that automatic data acquisition, processing and display systems be available. This paper describes the main characteristics of the SUMIAD 3 system. The system is designed on the basis of low cost elements (PC technology), in a way ensuring coverage of the different phases of Inspection, Preparation, Execution and Evaluation.

  16. Qualification of AUT for offshore pipelaying and the role of NDE reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerli, O. [Det Norske Veritas, Hovik (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    Automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) systems are now commonly used for the fitness-for-purpose control of pipe girth welds during offshore pipelaying, replacing the traditional radiography workmanship control, which is applicable only for welds subjected to small strains and low fatigue loads during installation and service. These AUT systems employ either fixed or phased array probes to give a zonal coverage of the girth welds, supplemented by the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique, and volumetric channels for geometry and porosity mapping. Defect acceptance criteria are often based on an engineering critical assessment (ECA). This ECA may be performed according to BS 7910:1999 [2] (with supplements) or similar standards, which give allowable defect sizes depending on material properties and loading conditions during installation and operation. It is required that non-allowable defects are detected with a sufficiently high probability of detection (POD), and that the probability of undersizing of defects is sufficiently low. Thereby, a sufficiently high combined probability, that non-allowable defects are not accepted (i.e. rejected), may be reached. This yields, taking the uncertainties of an AUT system into account, acceptable defect sizes. In order to establish AUT performance data (POD depending on AUT threshold / sensitivity settings, - or allowing setting of the threshold; - and sizing uncertainties) AUT systems are subject to qualification. Such qualification also serves the purpose of determining the limits of operational conditions of an AUT system due to temperature or other influences. The corresponding qualification trials involve a sufficient number of relevant weld defects, to ensure statistical significance; but results from previous qualification trials on similar weld configurations are actively used to reduce qualification extent, - and thus qualification costs. Requirements to offshore pipe girth weld AUT systems and their qualification

  17. Täter- und Opfergeschichten. Schuld in Alois Hotschnigs Prosawerken «Aus», «Leonardos Hände» und «Ludwigs Zimmer»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Gösweiner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The assumption this article is based on is that guilt is perhaps the most important theme in Alois Hotschnig’s writing. This article therefore aims at analyzing Hotschnig’s focus on the theme of guilt in his novels. Three examples of Hotschnig’s prose work serve as case studies: his debut Aus, and the two novels Leonardos Hände, and Ludwigs Zimmer. Since guilt seems to be a very important topic in the Austrian literary tradition, this article also tries to establish whether and how Hotschnig takes up this grand Austrian tradition of writing about guilt.

  18. Research Initiatives for Materials State Sensing (RIMSS) Task Order 0020: High Frequency Eddy Current NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    coatings using eddy current techniques”, AIP Conference Proceedings , Vol. 1430, 2012, pp 441. 7. F. M. Smits, “Measurement of sheet resistivities with... Conference 2014: 27 October - 30 October, Charleston, SC, USA. “High-Frequency Eddy Current System for Analyzing Wet Conductive Coatings during...Processing”. 3. QNDE 2014 (ORAL PRESENTATION), 41st Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation: Conference Boise Centre

  19. Nondestructive Characterization of Low Velocity Impact Damage in Transparent Laminate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    by defects and/or damage. Ultrasonic testing was conducted using a 64-element 10-MHz linear phased array transducer. A total of 32 active...criterion for transparent materials used in protective systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Damage, characterization, transparent, ultrasound, NDE 16. SECURITY...inclusions, secondary phases , etc.) and interlayer defects in the laminates (disbonds, delaminations, etc.) can reduce material properties but may

  20. BELIEFS AND PRACTICES OF QASHQAI TURKS WITHIN THE CIRCLE OF BIRTH KAŞKAY TÜRKLERİNDE DOĞUM ÇEVRESİNDE GELİŞEN İNANÇ VE PRATİKLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KARAASLAN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, which deals with the birth traditions of The Qashqai, and beliefs and practices in this aspect, the data gained through approximately two-month studies in the field of Iran are used. During the field of study, based on the use of techniques such as participated observation and question and answer, Qashqai people, both have urban live and haven’t plucked their ties with nomadism in appropriately with their current social tissues, have been discussed with. These rituals and beliefs formed within the frame of birth are examined through the perspectives such as their functions, whether they have an equivalent in the ancient Turkish culture or not and their comparison of aspects similar to the other communities of the world of the Turks. Kaşkayların doğum gelenekleri ve bu çerçevedeki inanç ve pratiklerinin ele alındığı bu çalışmada İran sahasında yaklaşık iki ay süresince yapılmış olan saha çalışmasında elde edilen veriler kullanılmıştır. Katılımlı gözlem ve soru cevap gibi tekniklerin kullanılması sureti ile yapılan saha çalışması sırasında Kaşkayların şu anki sosyal dokusuna uygun olarak hem uzun süredir şehir hayatı yaşayan hem göçerlikle bağlantılarını tam olarak koparmamış Kaşkaylarla görüşülmüştür. Doğum çevresinde teşekkül etmiş bu ritüel ve inançlar; işlevleri, kadim Türk kültüründe bir karşılıklarının olup olmadığı ve Türk dünyasının diğer toplulukları ile benzeyen yönlerinin mukayesesi gibi bakış açılarıyla irdelenmiştir.

  1. Application of Air-Coupled Ultrasound in NDE of Composite Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Peters, John J.; Polis, Daniel L.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the use of air-coupled ultrasound for inspecting flight-like composite components for NASA's next Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Air-coupled ultrasonic scan has the advantage of being non-contact and hence non-contaminating. Engineered flaws in solid laminates and honeycomb sandwiches are detected and imaged. Relatively thick inserts made of both composite and metal in the honeycomb panels are inspected using air-coupled through-transmission ultrasonic scans; unbond conditions are detected. In preparation for scanning large components with air-coupled ultrasound, the instrument is taken out of the laboratory and integrated with a gantry system.

  2. ¿Dónde vas a parar, Sancho?: gramaticalización, lexicalización y pragmatización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernández Martín

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es determinar la relación diacrónica existente entre la perífrasis verbal ir a + infinitivo, la locución ir a parar y dos frases hechas: Dónde vamos a parar y Dónde va a parar. Para ello, ofrecemos un marco teórico en el que, por un lado, explicamos nuestros conceptos de gramaticalización, lexicalización y pragmatización y, por otro lado, establecemos las bases de lo que entendemos por perífrasis verbal, locución verbal y acto de habla. A continuación, mostramos ejemplos extraídos de distintos textos de la historia del español, con especial atención a los Siglos de Oro, y procedemos a su interpretación. La principal conclusión es que a lo largo de la historia de estas construcciones se da, en este orden, un proceso de gramaticalización, uno de lexicalización y dos paralelos de pragmatización.

  3. Internet kullanicilarinin demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorlari tercihleri arasindaki ilişki üzerine bir araştirma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren AYRANCI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde milyarlarca insan interneti farklı amaçlar için kullanmaktadır. Web arama motorları internet kullanıcıları arasında, ihtiyaç duyulan bilgiyi bulmak için çok popülerdir. Bu makale, internet kullanıcılarının bazı demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri arasında bir ilişkinin olup olmadığını anlamak için yapılan bir araştırmayı içermektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre demografik özelliklerin çoğu önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri ile bir takım bağlantılara sahiptir.

  4. Internet kullanicilarinin demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorlari tercihleri arasindaki ilişki üzerine bir araştirma

    OpenAIRE

    Evren AYRANCI

    2010-01-01

    Günümüzde milyarlarca insan interneti farklı amaçlar için kullanmaktadır. Web arama motorları internet kullanıcıları arasında, ihtiyaç duyulan bilgiyi bulmak için çok popülerdir. Bu makale, internet kullanıcılarının bazı demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri arasında bir ilişkinin olup olmadığını anlamak için yapılan bir araştırmayı içermektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre demografik özelliklerin çoğu önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri ile bir takım bağla...

  5. Die Quantenwelt - unbestimmt und nichtlokal?: Interpretation verschränkter Zustände

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Helmut

    2004-07-01

    Das aufblühende Gebiet der Quanteninformationsverarbeitung belebt die alte Frage, wie das Phänomen der quantenphysikalischen Verschränktheit zu interpretieren sei. Besonders das berühmte Gedankenexperiment von Einstein, Podolsky und Rosen rückt wieder in das Zentrum der Aufmerksamkeit, seit Laborexperimente an verschränkten Quantensystemen durchgeführt werden, deren Teile räumlich weit von einander entfernt sind. Kann ein Teil eines solchen verschränkten Systems mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit spüren, dass an einem weit entfernten anderen Teil gemessen wird? Hinter dieser Frage steckt die Vorstellung, es gebe einen nichtlokalen Mechanismus in der Natur. Diese Vorstellung erweist sich jedoch als keineswegs zwingend und sogar als irreführend, wenn man akzeptiert, dass die Werte von Beobachtungsgrößen in Quantenzuständen objektiv unbestimmt sind. Sie entstehen erst dort, wo wirklich gemessen wird.

  6. A novel ultrasonic NDE for shrink fit welded structures using interface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaesun; Park, Junpil; Cho, Younho

    2016-05-01

    Reactor vessel inspection is a critical part of safety maintenance in a nuclear power plant. The inspection of shrink fit welded structures in a reactor nozzle can be a challenging task due to the complicated geometry. Nozzle inspection using pseudo interface waves allows us to inspect the nozzle from outside of the nuclear reactor. In this study, layered concentric pipes were manufactured with perfect shrink fit conditions using stainless steel 316. The displacement distributions were calculated with boundary conditions for a shrink fit welded structure. A multi-transducer guided wave phased array system was employed to monitor the welding quality of the nozzle end at a distance from a fixed position. The complicated geometry of a shrink fit welded structure can be overcome by using the pseudo interface waves in identifying the location and size of defects. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting weld delamination and defects.

  7. Sensor-property-NDE relationships of polymeric composites processed through resin infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, U. K.; Mohamed, H.; Fotedar, K.; Haque, A.; Mahfuz, H.; Jeelani, S.

    1998-04-01

    Liquid molding manufacturing techniques including vacuum assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM) and resin transfer molding (RTM) offer low cost alternatives for producing composites. The cure characteristics of these composites are monitored by dielectric tool mount sensors in an RTM process, however embedded inter-digitated electrode sensors (IDEX) are becoming popular in the VARIM process. The IDEX sensors remain an integral part of the composite after cure. In this paper, first the response of the dielectric IDEX sensors to various resin systems in neat resin stage as well as in the resin matrix composite is presented. The paper then investigates the mechanical performance of the composites containing IDEX sensors for various loading situations involving interlaminar shear strength, low velocity impact and high strain rate testing. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation conducted is also presented.

  8. İNSAN KAYNAKLARI YÖNETİMİNDE DAVRANIŞ BOYUTU VE BİR ÖRNEK OLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru YILDIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available İNSAN KAYNAKLARI YÖNETİMİNDE DAVRANIŞ BOYUTU VE BİR ÖRNEK OLAYÖzet: Makale, örgütsel davranış yönetimi kapsamına giren konuların insan kaynakları yönetimi uygulamalarında ne düzeyde değerlendirildiğini ortaya koymaktadır. İnsan kaynakları uygulamalarının, örgütte ne tür davranış değişiklikleri veya geliştirmeye uygun sonuçlar yarattığı, yazında önemli bir araştırma konusu olmuştur. İnsan kaynakları uygulamalarının sonuçlarını işgören davranışlarında beklenen değişiklik ile ölçmek kadar, bireysel iş performansı ve örgütsel performansla ilişkilerini ortaya koymak da önem taşımaktadır. Ancak bu konuda somut bir model geliştirilememesi, uygulamada davranışın ihmal edildiği algısı yaratmaktadır. Uygulamada bu nedenden kaynaklanan eksiklikler görülmektedir. Makalede otomotiv yan sanayiinde faaliyet gösteren bir işletmenin insan kaynakları uygulamalarında davranış boyutu incelenmiş olup sonuçlar, bu eksiklikleri ortaya koymaktadır.BEHAVIORAL ASPECT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND A CASEAbstract: This article states on which level the issues of organizational behavior management are evaluated in human resources management practices. The subject of what kind of behavioral changes or appropriate results to be developed created by human resources management practices is an important research topic in organizational behavior management literature. It is important to state the relations between the results of human resources management practices and individual or organizational performance as much as measuring whether these results realize expected changes on employees’ behavior or not. However, the absence of a concrete model in measuring creates perception of negligence of employees’ behavior in practice and caused deficiencies. The behavior dimension of the human resources management practices of an establishment in the automotive supply industry is also

  9. SANAYİ DÖNEMİ SÜRECİNDE FRANSA’DA DİN ANLAYIŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim BAYRAKTAR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SANAYİ DÖNEMİ SÜRECİNDE FRANSA’DA DİN ANLAYIŞIÖzet: Çalışmamızda, 18. yüzyıl Fransa’sında sanayileşme ile meydana gelen reformcu düşüncelerin gelişim yönü incelenmiştir. Zira Bilimsel bulguların bir sonucu olan sanayileşmenin yaygın ve etkin gücü, “Sanayi Devrimi” ile kendini göstermiştir. Temelde, makinenin insan hayatına girmesi olarak değerlendirilen Sanayi Devrimi, insanoğlunun artan bilimsel bulgularıyla, evreni mümkün olduğunca eksiksiz ve daha iyi kavrama girişimlerinde bulunmasıyla başlamıştır. Bu dönemin asıl sorunu, eski feodal kurumların(Kilise-Aristokrasi-Burjuvazi dinsel ve geleneksel dogmalarından ödün vermemeleri ve her konuyu tartışılır duruma getirmeleri olmuştur. Bu nedenle biz de, Fransa’da etkili olan filozoflardan Voltaire, J.J. Rousseau, Montesguieu, b’Holbach ve Diderot’ün görüşlerinden hareketle sanayi dönemi Fransa halkının nasıl bir düşünce ve inanç yapısına sahip olduğunu ortaya koymaya çalıştık.RELIGIONAL PERCEPTION IN FRANCE IN THE PROCESS OF INDUSTRY PERIODAbstract: In this study, it was examined that the development of reformist ideas occurred via industrialization in France of 18th century. Widespread and effective power of industrialization which a consequence of scientific findings had shown itself with ‘’industry revolution’’.Basicly industry revolution had been mentioned as machine joined into human living. This revolution started with the growing scientific findings and enterprises of human being for better understanding of the universe. The main problem of that period was that old-fashioned feodal associations (church-aristocracy-bourgeoisie used not to compensate from their both religious and conventional dogmas and they brought out every subject to discussable condition. So, we tried to explain how the idea and faith condition of french nation of industry period were and we benefited from the opinions of Voltaire

  10. TANK INSPECTION NDE RESULTS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2007INCLUDING WASTE TANKS 35, 36, 37, 38 AND 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J

    2007-09-27

    Ultrasonic (UT) nondestructive examinations (NDE) were performed on waste storage tanks 35, 36, 37, 38 and 15 at the Savannah River Site as a part of the 'In-Service Inspection (ISI) Program for High Level Waste Tanks.' 1 The inspections were performed from the annular space of the waste storage tanks. The inspections included thickness mapping and crack detection scans on specified areas of the tanks covering all present and historic interface levels and selected welds with particular emphasis on the vapor space regions. Including the tanks in this report, all of the 27 Type III tanks at SRS have been inspected in accordance with the ISI plan. Of the four Type III tanks examined this year, all had areas of reportable thickness in either the Primary or Secondary tank. All of these areas on the primary tank are attributed to fabrication artifacts. None of the four Type III tanks examined this year showed evidence of service induced thinning on the primary wall. All four tanks had secondary wall and/or floor plates where the remaining thickness measured below the 10% wall loss criteria. Tank 15, a Type II, non-stress relieved, waste tank was also inspected this fiscal year as part of the ISI program. The same examination techniques were used on Tank 15 as on the Type III tanks. Tank 15 has been out of service due to leakage from stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Inspections were performed to validate known corrosion models and determine if crack growth occurred since the previous examination five years ago. Several cracks were found to have increased in length perpendicular to the weld seam. In the areas of the 27 Type III tanks inspected to date, ten tanks have reportable thickness in the primary wall and 17 have reportable thickness in the secondary tank walls or floor. All of the reportable thickness areas in the primary walls are from fabrication artifacts. Incipient pitting has been detected in five of the 27 Type III primary tanks. No cracking was

  11. Frequency domain reflectometry NDE for aging cables in nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Jones, A. M.; Fifield, L. S.; Hartman, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. Although system tests verify cable function under normal loads, demonstration of some cable's ability to perform under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events is essential to assuring plant integrity. The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program that includes condition monitoring to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. One particularly promising test that is beginning to be used more and more by utilities is frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). FDR is a nondestructive electrical inspection technique used to detect and localize faults in power and communication system conductors along the length of a cable from a single connection point. FDR detects discontinuities in the electrical impedance that arise due to cable splices or similar changes along the path of the conductor pair. In addition, FDR has the potential to provide sensitivity to insulation degradation by detecting small changes in impedance between the cable conductors being examined. The technique is also sensitive to cable bends, the particular lay of the cable in tray, proximity to other cable, and other factors that

  12. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks for automated diagnostics using NDE methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-11-01

    The primary purpose of the current research was to develop an integrated approach by combining information compression methods and artificial neural networks for the monitoring of plant components using nondestructive examination data. Specifically, data from eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubing were utilized to evaluate this technology. The focus of the research was to develop and test various data compression methods (for eddy current data) and the performance of different neural network paradigms for defect classification and defect parameter estimation. Feedforward, fully-connected neural networks, that use the back-propagation algorithm for network training, were implemented for defect classification and defect parameter estimation using a modular network architecture. A large eddy current tube inspection database was acquired from the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL. These data were used to study the performance of artificial neural networks for defect type classification and for estimating defect parameters. A PC-based data preprocessing and display program was also developed as part of an expert system for data management and decision making. The results of the analysis showed that for effective (low-error) defect classification and estimation of parameters, it is necessary to identify proper feature vectors using different data representation methods. The integration of data compression and artificial neural networks for information processing was established as an effective technique for automation of diagnostics using nondestructive examination methods.

  13. NDE using sensor based approach to propulsion health monitoring of a turbine engine disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Woike, Mark R.; Abumeri, G.; Lekki, John D.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2009-03-01

    Rotor health monitoring and on-line damage detection have been increasingly gaining interest to manufacturers of aircraft engines, primarily to increase safety of operation and lower the high maintenance costs. But health monitoring in the presence of scatter in the loading conditions, crack size, disk geometry, and material property is rather challenging. However, detection factors that cause fractures and hidden internal cracks can be implemented via noninvasive types of health monitoring and or nondestructive evaluation techniques. These evaluations go further to inspect materials discontinuities and other anomalies that have grown to become critical defects that can lead to failure. To address the bulk of these concerning issues and understand the technical aspects leading to these outcomes, a combined analytical and experimental study is being thought. Results produced from the experiments such as blade tip displacement and other data collected from tests conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Rotordynamics Laboratory, a high precision spin rig, are evaluated, discussed and compared with data predicted from finite element analysis simulating the engine rotor disk spinning at various rotational speeds. Further computations using the progressive failure analysis (PFA) approach with GENOA code [6] to additionally assess the structural response, damage initiation, propagation, and failure criterion are also performed. This study presents an inclusive evaluation of an on-line health monitoring of a rotating disk and an examination for the capability of the in-house spin system in support of ongoing research under the NASA Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) program.

  14. Perceptions of Nebraska Teachers Regarding the Transition from STARS to NeSA and Its Perceived Influence on the Implementation of a Balanced Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isom, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to explore the perceptions of Nebraska teachers about their experiences in the transition from STARS to NeSA. The study explored their perceptions of the influence of the transition on implementation of a balanced assessment system. As defined by NDE, a balanced system included NeSA testing,…

  15. GRAFİK TASARIM SÜRECİNDE KULLANILAN AYGITLARIN RENK MODELLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Hilmi Polat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the programs of the departments providing design education, students mostly carry out computer assisted/computer-based studies, and computer-based devices are used during this process. There are differences between colour models and practices of computer-assisted/based devices and the colour theories and practices that students have tried and learned themselves in Basic Design, which is one of the introductory courses.Such colours as red, green or blue are just terms; however, they do not define spectral components of reflecting light of an object. The eyes and mind perceive the spectral information, which is the basis of colour perception. In publishing systems, there is no device that is capable of producing all colours that human eye can see. Every device operates in a certain colour range or certain colour universe that can be produced. Each sector having something to do with colours and using colours as a part of their business utilize colour models that suit them best.In this context, what does colour model mean? What is the purpose of a colour model? What is it used for? What are the types of colour models? What are their analogous and different sides? Why are there so many colour models that make colour reversal possible? What are the reasons for colours' not matching up with each other in design devices and what colour models do these devices use? Do colour models depend on devices or is there a colour model that does not depend on them? In this study, literature review method was used. The study is limited to the basic devices used in graphics design process and the software used with these devices.As a result of the study, it is understood that the purpose of a colour model is to facilitate colour specification through certain standards in a commonly acceptable way. It is seen that the colour model specifies the relationship between values and the colour universe defines the absolute meaning of these values as a colour. It is

  16. Detection and classification of defects in ultrasonic NDE signals using time-frequency representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qidwai, Uvais; Costa, Antonio H.; Chen, C. H.

    2000-05-01

    The ultrasonic wave, generated by a piezoelectric transducer coupled to the test specimen, propagates through the material and part of its energy is reflected when it encounters an non-homogeneity or discontinuity in its path, while the remainder is reflected by the back surface of the test specimen. Defect echo signals are masked by the characteristics of the measuring instruments, the propagation paths taken by the ultrasonic wave, and are corrupted by additive noise. This leads to difficulties in comparing and analyzing signals, particularly in automated defect identification systems employing different transducers. Further, the multi-component nature of material defects can add to the complexity of the defect identification criteria. With many one-dimensional (1-D) approaches, the multi-component defects can not be detected. Another drawback is that these techniques are not very robust for sharp ultrasonic peaks especially in a very hazardous environment. This paper proposes a technique based on the time-frequency representations (TFRs) of the real defect signals corresponding to artificially produced defects of various geometries in metals. Cohen's class (quadratic) TFRs with Gaussian kernels are then used to represent the signals in the time-frequency (TF) plane. Once the TFR is obtained, various image processing morphological techniques are applied to the TFR (e.g. region of interest masking, edge detection, and profile separation). Based on the results of these operations, a binary image is produced which, in turn, leads to a novel set of features. Using these new features, defects have not only been detected but also classified as flat-cut, angular-cut, and circular-drills. Moreover, with some modifications of the threshold levels of the TFR kernel design, our technique can be used in relatively hostile environments with SNRs as low as 0 dB. Another important characteristic of our approach is the detection of multiple defects. This consists of detection of

  17. Passive wireless ultrasonic transducer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, C. H.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-02-01

    Inductive coupling and capacitive coupling both offer simple solutions to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such system in the context of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications. Firstly, the physical principles and construction of an inductively coupled transducer system (ICTS) and a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) are introduced. Then the development of a transmission line model with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate for both systems is described. The models are validated experimentally. Several applications of CCTS are presented, such CCTS for the underwater and through-composite testing.

  18. II. ABDÜLHAMİD DÖNEMİNDE İLKÖĞRETİM OKULLARINDAKİ DERS KİTAPLARI ve TARİH ÖĞRETİMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu M. Nurdoğan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Central government is in a position that the transformation of the overall education system, curriculum and educational methods, both the format and contents of the course books studied by students had to be changed as part of the Western style reform movement during the period of Sultan Abdulhamid the Second. One could hardly expect that the course books written in line with the mentality shaped up since Tanzimat period to accommodate the content and style that is indifferent to the general education mentality based on political-militaryeconomic pragmatism principles in keeping with the period in question. In this respect the main issue of the study is to identify the ways in which the political economic goals are reflected in the course books of the period where such goals were primarily based on the strengthening of the patrimonial state mentality through the promotion of a sense of patriotism and the * Söz konusu çalışma, 25-27 Haziran 2014 tarihleri arasında Sakarya Üniversitesi’nde gerçekleştirilen Uluslararası Tarih Eğitimi Sempozyumu’nda sunulan bildirinin genişletilmiş halidir. ** Doç. Dr., Marmara Üniversitesi, Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi, İlköğretim Bölümü. E-posta: arzu.nurdogan@marmara.edu.tr development of industrial/agricultural economy through raising productive individuals. Considering the strong connection between the educational institutions and society, and politics and culture, the main goal of the present study is to establish how the political regime was being perceived in the primary school course books written during the reign of the Sultan Abdulhamid the Second (1876-1909, and how the ruler and an acceptable individual was being described in an age where the empire was being disintegrated and in a state of utter backwardness.

  19. AMASYA SERICULTURE IN OTTOMAN PERIOD OSMANLI DÖNEMİNDE AMASYA’DA İPEKÇİLİK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail KIVRIM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As an invaluable commercial good, Silk was the focus of attentionfor a long period of time throughout the history of world economy.Especially, in the 16th and 17th centuries silk was called as ‘White Gold’as an alternative of silver. Thus it became a significant element that playsa key role in the shaping of the history of world economy and politics.The leading city in the Ottoman silk production and weaving isBursa. This study aims to explain the importance of another silkproduction center in Ottoman, Amasya. The city was situated on thetrade route of Iran, it was a city of a shahzade, a prince, it was quite closeto the Balck-Sea trade ports and it offered suitable climatic conditions forsilk worms to be brought up, thanks to all these characteristics, Amasyabecame a city, whose silk was preferably in demand after Bursa.The city, which became very famous for its silk weaving in the 16thcentury, started to produce silk upon the banning of Iranian silk anddrew European traders’ attention in the 19th century. Throughout this Dünya iktisat tarihinde uzunca bir süre kendisinden sıklıkla sözettiren değerli bir ticari emtia olan ipek, özellikle 16. ve 17. yüzyıllardagümüşe alternatif olarak beyaz altın diye adlandırılmıştır. Böylece dünyaiktisat ve siyasi tarihine yön vermede önemli unsurlardan biri olmuştur.Osmanlı Devleti’nde ipek üretimi ve dokumacılığının yapıldığışehirlerin başında Bursa gelmektedir. Bu çalışma ile bir başka Osmanlışehri olan Amasya’nın da önemli bir ipek üretim merkezi olduğuaçıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Özellikle İran ticaret yolu üzerinde bulunması,şehzade sancağı merkezi olması, Karadeniz ticaret limanlarına yakınlığı,ikliminin ipekböceği yetiştirilmesine uygunluğu Amasya’yı Bursa’dansonra ipekleri için aranan bir şehir haline getirmiştir.16. yüzyılda ipek dokumaları ile ünlenen şehir, İran ipeğininyasaklanması ile ipek

  20. ÜNİVERSİTE ÖĞRENCİLERİNDE UYKU KALİTESİ VE YORGUNLUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Saygılı

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Çalışma Kırklareli üniversitesinde öğrenim gören öğrencilerde uyku kalitesi, yorgunluk vebunlarla ilişkili faktörleri belirlemek amacıyla tanımlayıcı olarak yapıldı. Çalışma 1-15 Nisan2011 tarihleri arasında Sağlık Yüksekokulu, Teknik Bilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu, SosyalBilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu, Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi, Sağlık Hizmetleri Meslek Yüksekokulu,İktisadi İdari Bilimler Fakültesi’nde öğrenim gören 558 öğrenci üzerinde yapıldı. Verileraraştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan sosyodemografik özellikleri sorgulama formu, PittsburghUyku Kalitesi İndeksi (PUKİ, Piper Yorgunluk Ölçeği (PYÖ ile toplandı. Öğrencilerin PUKİpuan ortalaması 6.9+2.4; PYÖ puan ortalaması ise 4.3+2.2’dir. Öğrencilerin %69.5’inin PUKİpuan ortalaması 5 ve altındadır. Teknik Bilimler MYO ve Sosyal Bilimler MYO öğrencilerininuyku kalitesi en kötü düzeyde iken, İktisadi İdari Bilimler Fakültesi ve Sağlık HizmetleriMYO’da öğrenim gören öğrencilerin uyku kalitesi en iyi düzeydedir. Kronik hastalığıolanlarda, sigara içenlerde, her gün aynı saatte yatmayanlarda uyku kalitesi kötüdür. TeknikBilimler MYO ve Sosyal Bilimler MYO öğrencilerinin yorgunluğu en fazla iken, SağlıkHizmetleri MYO ve Fen Edebiyat Fakültesinde öğrenim gören öğrencilerin yorgunluğu en azdüzeydedir. Sigara içenler ve şu anda bir işyerinde çalışanlar daha fazla yorgunlukdeneyimlemektedir. Bu sonuçlar doğrultusunda Teknik Bilimler MYO ve Sosyal Bilimler MYOöğrencilerinin uyku kalitelerini arttırmak ve yorgunluklarını azaltmak için girişimlerdebulunulması; öğrencilerin uyku kalitesini arttırmak için, kronik hastalığı olanların etkinşekilde tedavi edilmesi, sigaranın azaltılması/bırakılması, her gün aynı saatte yatmayayönelik girişimlerin planlanması önerilmektedir. Yine öğrencilerin yorgunluğunu azaltmakiçin sigara içilmemesine ve bir iş yerinde

  1. Concept of nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    The history of nondestructive evaluation, a recently evolved basic testing philosophy, and some application of NDE are examined with emphasis on aerospace applications. The discussion covers the definition of NDE, chronological development, NDE methods and systems, the use of NDE for process control, NDE for ceramics and composites, NDE for fracture control in glass, and science aspects of NDE. Specific examples of NDE applications are given.

  2. Fabrication and comparison of PMN-PT single crystal, PZT and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers for NDE applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Bok; Hsu, David K; Ahn, Bongyoung; Kim, Young-Gil; Barnard, Daniel J

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes fabrication and comparison of PMN-PT single crystal, PZT, and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers for NDE applications. As a front matching layer between test material (Austenite stainless steel, SUS316) and piezoelectric materials, alumina ceramics was selected. The appropriate acoustic impedance of the backing materials for each transducer was determined based on the results of KLM model simulation. Prototype ultrasonic transducers with the center frequencies of approximately 2.25 and 5MHz for contact measurement were fabricated and compared to each other. The PMN-PT single crystal ultrasonic transducer shows considerably improved performance in sensitivity over the PZT and PZT-based 1-3 composite ultrasonic transducers.

  3. KAYSERİ KENTİNDE SANAYİ ÇALIŞANLARININ KONUT/KONUT ALANI TALEBİ GÖSTERGELERİNİN BELİRLENMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    ONSEKİZ, Dilşen

    2008-01-01

    Sanayi çalışanlarının tercih ve davran özelliklerine görece, talep ettikleri konut/konut alanlarının nitelikleri farklılaşmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Kayseri kenti özelinde, sanayi çalışanlarının konut/konut alan talebinin oluşmasındaki bu davranışsal ve öznel değerlendirmelerin belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Bu çalışma aynı zamanda, kente özgü sanayi çalışan profilini gözönünde bulundurarak, sanayi çalışanlarının konut/konut alan talebi farklılaşmasını yaratan temel talep göstergelerini belirlem...

  4. İzmir Körfezi'nde Karides Uzatma Ağları ile Kalamar (Loligo vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 Avcılığı.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Gökçe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada İzmir Körfezi’nde kalamar (Loligo vulgaris avcılığında kullanılan, yıpranmış çatılı karides uzatma ağlarının av verimin incelenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Ekim-Kasım 2003 arasında ticari balıkçılık koşulları altında 11 av operasyonu gerçekleştirilmiştir. Uzatma ağları ile 23 tür yakalanmış ve bu türlerin ağırlık olarak %66 sını kalamarın oluşturduğu tespit edilmiştir. Yakalanan 288 birey içerinde ortalama kalamar ağırlığı ve manto boyu sırasıyla, 166.7±6.834 gr ve18.2±0.307 cm olarak tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, 26 adet/gün ve 4.13 kg/gün CPUE ile eskiyen karides uzatma ağları kalamar avcılığında etkili bir av aracı olarak İzmir Körfezi’nde kullanılmaya başlanmıştır

  5. Non-destructive testing (NDT) of metal cracks using a high Tc rf-SQUID and eddy current method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, D.F.; Fan, C.; Ruan, J.Z. [Midwest Superconductivity Inc., Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device to detect change in magnetic field. A non-destructive testing (NDT) device using high temperature SQUIDs and eddy current method will be much more sensitive than those currently used eddy current systems, yet much cheaper than one with low temperature SQUIDs. In this paper, we present our study of such a NDT device using a high temperature superconducting rf-SQUID as a gradiometer sensor. The result clearly demonstrates the expected sensitivity of the system, and indicates the feasibility of building a portable HTS SQUID NDT device with the help from cryocooler industry. Such a NDT device will have a significant impact on metal corrosion or crack detection technology.

  6. Osmanlı Devleti’nde Teknik Bir Yenilik: Skafander Makinesi A Technical Innovation In The Ottoman State: Scaphandre Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan ÖZGÜN

    2013-09-01

    üngeri farklı yöntemlerle topluyorlardı ve on dokuzuncu yüzyılın ortalarından itibaren sünger avcılığında yeni bir yöntem daha uygulanmaya başlandı. Bu, Osmanlı resmi kayıtları ve süngerciler tarafından çoğu zaman “makine” olarak adlandırılan skafander ile sünger avcılığı yöntemiydi. Skafander, gemideki hava pompasına bir hortumla bağlı ağır metal kasktan, botlardan ve tüm vücudu saran bir giysiden oluşuyordu. Skafander bir sünger avcısının deniz altında daha uzun kalması için tasarlanmış giysi veya cihazdı. Bu makineler sünger avcılarına su altında en az bir saat çalışmalarına izin veriyordu. Skafander sayesinde sünger avcıları, bu makineyi kullanmayan sünger avcılarına kıyasla, daha fazla sünger avlamaya ve daha fazla kazanç elde etmeye başladılar. Bir teknik yenilik olarak Osmanlı Devleti’nde skafanderin kullanımı, sünger avcıları arasında sancılı bir süreç başlattı. Bu yöntemin uygulanması sürecinde, sünger avcıları arasında sosyal ve ekonomik menfaatlere bağlı olarak olumsuz tepkiler de oluştu. Bu tepkiler ilk önce küçük bir kavga olarak başladı ancak zamanla ciddi isyan hareketlerine dönüştü. Ayrıca bu makinenin kullanımına bağlı olarak kazalar ve hastalıklar da meydana geliyordu. Bunlar arasında özellikle motor kazaları, eklem ve göğüs ağrıları, konuşma zorlukları, nefes darlığı, görme bozuklukları vardı. Bazı kazalar da ölümle sonuçlanıyordu. Osmanlı Devleti bu hastalıkları, kazaları ve biriken tepkileri göz önüne alarak zaman zaman skafanderin kullanımını yasakladı. Bu çalışma Osmanlı karasularında sünger avcılığında teknik bir yenilik olan skafanderin kullanımı sorununu incelemektedir. Bu çalışmada kullanılan veri ve bilgiler ağırlıklı olarak Osmanlı arşiv belgeleri, döneme ilişkin ticari raporlar, resmi istatistikler ve diğer yayınlardan elde edilmiştir.

  7. High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy system for nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    With increased demand for high resolution ultrasonic evaluation, computer based systems or work stations become essential. The ultrasonic spectroscopy method of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to develop a high resolution ultrasonic inspection system supported by modern signal processing, pattern recognition, and neural network technologies. The basic system which was completed consists of a 386/20 MHz PC (IBM AT compatible), a pulser/receiver, a digital oscilloscope with serial and parallel communications to the computer, an immersion tank with motor control of X-Y axis movement, and the supporting software package, IUNDE, for interactive ultrasonic evaluation. Although the hardware components are commercially available, the software development is entirely original. By integrating signal processing, pattern recognition, maximum entropy spectral analysis, and artificial neural network functions into the system, many NDE tasks can be performed. The high resolution graphics capability provides visualization of complex NDE problems. The phase 3 efforts involve intensive marketing of the software package and collaborative work with industrial sectors.

  8. Endüstriyel İşletmelerde Franchising Model Önerisi: Hazır Beton Sektöründe Bir Uygulama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Kazançoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endüstriyel pazarda faaliyet gösteren firmaların daha hızlı büyüyerek, yeni pazarlara açılmasında franchising sistemi bir yeni bir satış, dağıtım kanalı olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Bu araştırmada amaç,  hazır beton sektöründe faaliyet gösteren bir firmanın franchising sistemini bir iş modeli olarak benimseme kararında dikkat etmesi gereken unsurları ve karşılaşılan zorlukları incelemektedir. Örnek olay çalışması olarak ele alınan çalışmada,  BATIBETON A.Ş. firmasının yedi yöneticiyle BATIBETON markasının franchising uygulamalarına ilişkin görüşlerini öğrenmek amacıyla derinlemesine görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Bu görüşmeler sonucunda, franchising sisteminin hazır beton sektöründe bir model önerisi olarak uygulanıp/uygulanmayacağı değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan görüşmelerden elde edilen bulguların diğer endüstriyel işletmeler içinde geliştirilebilecek bir franchising iş modeli kararında etkili olabilecek faktörlerin anlaşılması yönünden uygulamaya katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.

  9. A microwave tomography system using a tunable mirror for beam steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayebi, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physic (United States); Tang, J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Paladhi, P. Roy; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Microwave tomography is a fast-growing technique in the fields of NDE and medical industry. This paper presents a new microwave tomography system which reduces the complexities of conventional microwave imaging systems by utilizing a reconfigurable mirror, a tunable reflectarray antenna. In order to build a tunable reflectarray with beam steering capabilities, the unit cell characteristics should dynamically alter. Modelling and experimental results of a single unit cell are presented in this work.

  10. Citation Errors in Library Literature Kütüphanecilik Literatüründe Atıf Hataları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serap Kurbanoğlu

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The issues of Turkish Librarianship from 1991 to 1995 were examined to study the accuracy of citations in library literature in Turkey. A total of 220 references from 102 articles were verified. In 109 references, 160 errors were detected. The results of the study show that library and information professionals, in spite of their awareness of difficulties posed by inaccurate citations, are prone to making such mistakes themselves. Kütüphanecilik literatüründe yapılan atıf hatalarını saptamak amacıyla Türk Kütüphaneciliği dergisinin 1991-95 yılları arasında yayımlanan sayıları incelenmiştir. Toplam 102 makaleden 220 bibliyografik künye incelenmiş, 29 künye doğrulanamamış, 82 künye hatasız bulunmuş, buna karşılık 109 künyede toplam 160 hata saptanmıştır. Bulgular, atıf hatalarının sebep olabileceği güçlükleri çok iyi bilmelerine karşın, kütüphanecilerin de bu tür hatalar yaptığını göstermektedir.

  11. Panorama de la formación y asesoramiento en educación: algunas claves para saber en dónde vamos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Vicente Prados

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad es relevante dedicar atención a la formación del profesorado y al asesoramiento en educación. Este artículo aporta algunas claves comprensivas para saber por dónde vamos en este sentido en nuestro contexto próximo. Para ello, y desde una perspectiva de asesor en ejercicio, se pasa repaso a la situación del asesoramiento, desde sus orígenes hasta hoy. En el trabajo se apuntan las principales causas de las rutinas de los asesores, tanto de su propia acción como las delegadas de la propia cultura y realidad de los centros. Desde ahí se propone un nuevo marco de acción y formación del profesorado en ejercicio que toma en consideración los siguientes aspectos: 1 los profesores son intelectuales que se forman mejor en propuesta interesantes de formación en centros (como contenido y contexto de formación; 2 los asesores deben ser profesionales críticos que actúen desde parámetros de proceso y desarrollo; 3 los centros son singulares; 4 trabajar sobre lo cotidiano valorando la experiencia profesional y el conocimiento del profesorado; 5 trabajar y reconquistar los espacios de comunicación y colaboración y 6 unir mejora e innovación con desarrollo profesional e institucional.

  12. Prevención de ceguera por retinopatía diabética: ¿dónde estamos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodríguez Rodríguez

    Full Text Available La diabetes es una de las cuatro enfermedades no transmisibles prioritarias identificadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, junto con la enfermedad cardiovascular, el cáncer y la enfermedad respiratoria crónica. En este siglo XXI se habla de una "epidemia global de diabetes", fenómeno relacionado particularmente con la diabetes mellitus tipo II y que está teniendo lugar tanto en países desarrollados como en aquellos en vías de desarrollo. Cuba se une desde 1999 a la iniciativa Visión 2020 y desarrolla desde la propia fecha un plan de prevención de ceguera y baja visión. Hoy, donde la prevalencia de diabetes aumenta, asociada al aumento de la esperanza de vida y a los cambios en el estilo de vida, los oftalmólogos cubanos trabajamos en la prevención de la ceguera por retinopatía diabética. En esta revisión nos proponemos analizar dónde estamos en relación con la Guía práctica clínica de retinopatía diabética para Latinoamérica, publicada en el 2011.

  13. Consentimiento informado en el área clínica ¿Cómo, dónde y cuándo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maribel Quintero Roa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl consentimiento informado es catalogado hoy día como un derecho humano fundamental y básico que, a pesar de no tener su origen en la medicina, cuando se instala en esta adquiere un gran componente ético. El presente escrito propone abordar la temática del consentimiento informado haciendo un análisis a partir de la formulación de una pregunta que abarca puntos clave que generan controversia respecto de su desarrollo adecuado. Además, se brindan lineamientos generales que permiten aclarar cuáles son los tipos de consentimiento, donde y quien debe realizarlo, y como proceder en situaciones especiales, como por ejemplo, cuando se trata de pacientes incompetentes. Posteriormente se aborda el papel que juega enfermería en la obtención del consentimiento, y cuál es su responsabilidad profesional a la luz de la normativa deontológica. Finalmente, se realiza una reflexión sobre la responsabilidad que debe asumir toda institución de salud, comprometida en la oferta de servicios de calidad para la adecuada implementación de este proceso.[Quintero Roa EM. Consentimiento informado en el área clínica. ¿Cómo, dónde y cuándo?. MedUNAB 2009; 12:96-101].

  14. Understanding and Exploiting the Effects of Loading on Ultrasonic Sensing Systems for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    have been proposed to implement guided wave NDE and SHM systems. Zhao et al. [5] compared circular, rectangular and parallel linear arrays for Lamb...wave tomography. Yu and Giurgiutiu [6] constructed five different 2-D compact phased arrays and applied beamforming to compare the damage detection...method whereby a phased array was used to create linear and subharmonic images. Images obtained at different applied loads were subtracted to

  15. The Re-election of the Indonesian President: Reasons and Background Präsidentschaftswahlen in Indonesien: Ursachen und Hintergründe zur Wiederwahl Susilo Bambang Yudhoyonos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ziegenhain

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Incumbent president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY was re-elected as Indonesian president in the elections on 8 July 2009 with over 60 per cent of the votes. The reasons for the victory were his relatively successful economic policies, his efforts in the fight against corruption, and the poor quality of his political opponents. The retired general made a military career under the authoritarian New Order and then became a politician after democratisation started in 1998. In 2004, he was elected president with the support of Islamic parties, which he then included in his government. As a person close to the military, SBY avoided reducing the privileges of the Armed Forces and thus democratic deepening has been stalled. However, there are good chances that economic progress and political stability will prevail during his second term. Der amtierende Präsident Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono wurde in der Wahl am 8. Juli 2009 mit über 60% der Stimmen wiedergewählt. Gründe für den Wahlsieg waren seine relativ erfolgreiche Wirtschaftspolitik, seine Bemühungen im Kampf gegen die Korruption, aber auch die wenig Erfolg versprechenden Gegenkandidaten. Der General im Ruhestand machte unter der autoritären Neuen Ordnung Karriere bei den Streitkräften und wurde nach dem Beginn des Demokratisierungsprozesses im Jahr 1998 Politiker. Im Jahr 2004 wurde er mit der Unterstützung der islamischen Parteien zum Präsidenten Indonesiens gewählt. Als eine dem Militär nahestehende Person vermied er, die Privilegien der Streitkräfte zu reduzieren, was die Qualität der Demokratie nicht erhöhte. Dennoch stehen die Chancen gut, dass in seiner zweiten Amtszeit wirtschaftlicher Aufschwung und politische Stabilität anhalten werden.

  16. Pasinler İlçesi (Erzurum’nde Şeker Pancarı (Beta vulgaris Bitkilerinden İzole Edilen Fusarium spp. ve Patojeniteleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk KARYAĞDI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma Pasinler ilçesi (Erzurum’nde şeker pancarı (Beta vulgaris L. bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerini ve patojenitelerini belirlemek amacıyla 2009 yılında yürütülmüştür. Şeker pancarı bitkisinden yapılan izolasyon çalışmaları sonucunda 194 Fusarium izolatı elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen izolatların %37,63’ü F. equiseti, %31,44’ü F. oxysporum, %13,92’i F. acuminatum, %10,82’si F. solani, %4,12’si F. heterosporum, %1,55’i F. avenaceum ve %0,52’si F. graminearum olarak saptanmıştır. Yapılan patojenite testlerinde F. acuminatum (P2-8A1, F. equiseti (P1-6, F. heterosporum (P10-30, F. oxysporum (P8-24, P9-36 ve F. solani (P8-2 izolatları en yüksek hastalık şiddeti oluşturmuştur. F. acuminatum ve F. graminearum için şeker pancarı bitkisi, Türkiye’de yeni konukçu kaydı olarak belirlenmiştir.

  17. BBC DÜNYA SERVİSİ HABER MERKEZİ ÖRNEĞİ'NDE ULUSLARARASI İLETİŞİM VE KAMU DİPLOMASİSİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Yanardağoğlu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genellikle uluslararası ilişkilerin alt alanı olara görülen kamu diplomasisi, İkinci Dünya Savaşı'yla beraber bir iletişim stratejisi olarak  önem kazanmaya başlamış, ulus-devletlerin diğer devletler üzerinde kültürel ve siyasal hegemonya kurma yarışı içine girdikleri bir alan olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Devletlerin uluslararası alanda izledikleri politikalar için kamuoyu oluşturmanın önemini kavradıkça ulus-ötesi yayıncılığa verilen önemin de arttığı gözlemlenmiştir. Bu makalede, uluslararası yayıncılık ve habercilik alanındaki ilk faaliyetlerin  görüldüğü  BBC Dünya  Servisi incelenmekte, uluslararası iletişimin siyasi, teknolojik ve ekonomik etmenlerden dolayı değişen çalışma prensipleriyle kamu diplomasisi arasındaki ilişki burada çalışan gazetecilerin deneyim ve görüşleriyle ele alınmaktadır.  Bu makalede sunulan veriler  BBC Dünya Servisi’nde 2011 ve 2012 yıllarında yapılan yerinde gözlem ve derinlemesine mülakatlara dayanmaktadır

  18. Kütüphanecilik ve Bilgi Yönetimi Literatüründe Kullanıcı / Users in Literature of Librarianship and Information Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available [Turkish abstract]Bu çalışmada Türkiye’de kütüphanecilik ve bilgi yönetimi alanlarında kullanıcılar konusunda yapılan tez ve makaleler incelenmiştir. Bu amaçla yüksek lisans ve doktora tezleri ile alanın önemli süreli yayınları olan Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği Bülteni (1952-1986, Türk Kütüphaneciliği (1987-2006 ve Bilgi Dünyası (2000-2006 dergilerinde yayımlanan makaleler araştırılmıştır. İncelenen 239 tezin 42’sinde (%17,57 ve 1788 makalenin 44’ünde (%2,4 kullanıcılara doğrudan veya dolaylı olarak yer verildiği saptanmıştır. Tezlerin %88’i (42 tez 1990 sonrasında yapılmıştır. İçerik analizi sonuçlarına göre tezlerin %69’unda kullanıcıların bir bilgi merkezi veya sistemiyle ilişkilendirildiği; %83’ünde betimleme yönteminin kullanıldığı; anketin en sık kullanılan veri toplama tekniği olduğu ve araştırmaların akademisyenler üzerinde yoğunlaştığı anlaşılmaktadır. Makalelerde ise 1971 yılına kadar kullanıcı faktörünün incelenmediği, 1980’li yıllarda bu konuya gösterilen ilginin nispeten arttığı, 1990 sonrasında ise ilgili makale sayısında büyük bir artış olduğu görülmektedir. Makalelerde en sık (%40 araştırılan kullanıcı grubunun öğrenciler olduğu; ağırlıkla bilgi okuryazarlığı ve okuma alışkanlığı konularına değinildiği; betimleme yöntemi ile anket ve görüşme tekniklerinin en sık tercih edilen yöntem ve veri toplama teknikleri olduğu anlaşılmaktadır.[English Abstract]In this paper, theses and articles on librarianship and information management focusing on users are studied. Masters and PhD theses along with articles published in the most important periodicals of the field, Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği Bülteni (1952-1986, Türk Kütüphaneciliği (1987-2006 and Bilgi Dünyası (2000-2006, are examined. Some 42 out of 239 theses (17.57% and 44 out of 1788 articles (2.4% focused on users either

  19. MEHMED SADYK PASHA (MİCHAL CZAJKOWSKİ AND COSSACK CAVALRY REGIMENT IN OTTOMAN STATE MEHMED SADIK PAŞA (MİCHAL CZAJKOWSKİ VE OSMANLI DEVLETİ’NDE KAZAK SÜVARÎ ALAYI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa GÜMÜŞ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Hungarian refugees that took cover to Ottoman State during the 1848 revolution attempts, made important changes and innovations in Ottoman State. Ottoman army was the most affected institution from these changes and innovations. Because, a great number of this refugees were qualified soldiers who knew European military system well. Michal Czajkowski was one of the most important of them. He became muslim and changed his name as Mehmed Sadık during the issue of refugees. after the issue of refugees had been resolved, he was employed in Ottoman army. Michal Czajkowski served in different units of Ottoman army and he was promoted to generalship.Michal Czajkowski took duty in Crimean War and he fought aganist Russians. He established Cossack Cavalry Regiment dependent on himself. This regiment that has a specific structure, emerged as a result of the experiences of Michal Czajkowski. The regiment consisted of Polish and Hungarian refugees that took cover to Ottoman State, Cossacks and Tatarians. Dragon Troops were formed in the structure of the regiment. Cossack Cavalry Regiment was usually used to provide public order and security in Balkan border. Afterwards, because of the new regulations in Ottoman army, Cossack Cavalry Regiment was disbanded and were added to third army. 1848-1849 ihtilal hareketleri sırasında Osmanlı Devleti’ne sığınan Leh ve Macar Mültecileri Osmanlı Devleti’nde önemli değişim ve yeniliklere imza atmışlardır. Osmanlı Ordusu bu değişim ve yeniliklerden en fazla etkilenen kurum olmuştur. Çünkü Osmanlı Devleti’ne sığınan mültecilerin büyük bir bölümü Avrupa askerî sistemini iyi bilen uzman askerlerdi. Michal Czajkowski de bunların en önemlilerinden biriydi. İslamiyet’i kabul eden Michal Czajkowski, Mehmed Sadık adını almıştır. Mülteciler meselesi çözüme kavuşunca Osmanlı ordusunda istihdam edilmiştir. Mehmed Sadık Paşa ordunun çeşitli birimlerinde görev alm

  20. METHODOLOGY FOR EXAMINING SYSTEM AGING DUE TO INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CHEMICALLY INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. DENINGER; J. TANSKI

    1999-04-01

    We start with a stored and unused population of fielded engineered units that are composed of chemically incompatible materials. The units age primarily through heterogeneous chemical reactions between the materials resulting in possible degradation in performance. The engineered units are unused in storage, but may be called into actual service at any time. We sample several units from the population per year and perform a number of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as radiography, low-frequency vibration analysis, and ultrasonic imaging on the selected units. From those units, some are selected for destructive testing (D-test) involving disassembly and testing of internal parts and components. Chemical analyses, mechanical properties measurements and other tests are performed. All of the above steps provide information that is used in the system simulation mathematical model. The system simulation model incorporates chemical reactions and gas-solid transport processes, along with changes in both the surface and bulk properties of the solids. Model results are used to suggest improvements in NDE analyses of the units and improvements in component and material analyses. Model results give trending indications of individual component and overall system changes over time, plus some understanding of the mechanisms involved which allow science-based predictions of the aged state of the units in future times. The NDE, D-test, and model results can also be used to assess statistically the reliability and performance of the overall aging population of units.

  1. TÜRKİYE’DE TELEKOMÜNİKASYON SEKTÖRÜNDE KURUMSAL İTİBAR KATSAYISI VE MARKA SADAKATİ ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel KARAYEL BİLBİL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TÜRKİYE’DE TELEKOMÜNİKASYON SEKTÖRÜNDE KURUMSAL İTİBAR KATSAYISI VE MARKA SADAKATİ ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMAÖzet: Bu çalışmada, Türkiye’deki telekomünikasyon sektöründe hizmet veren kurumların paydaşlarının kurumsal itibara bakışları ve marka sadakati ilişkisi incelenmiştir. Telekomünikasyon sektöründe faaliyet gösteren dört firma üzerine, niceleyici çalışma yapılmıştır. Kurumsal itibar katsayısını oluşturan boyutlar incelenmiş ve ağırlıkları tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca kurumsal itibar katsayısı ile marka sadakati arası ilişki incelenmiştir.Fombrun’un RQ modeli altı boyutta incelenirken, Türkiye’deki telekomünikasyon sektöründe bu altı boyutun, iki boyut altında toplandığı görülmüştür. Turkcell, kurum itibarı katsayısı en yüksek olan firma olarak çıkmıştır. Marka sadakati ile kurumsal itibar katsayısı arası ilişki olduğu görülmüştür.RESEARCH ON CORPORATE REPUTATION QUOTIENT AND BRAND LOYALITY IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS SECTOR IN TURKEYAbstract: In this paper, stakeholder views to the corporate reputation in relation to brand loyalty were studied among the corporations operating in Turkish telecommunications sector. Quantitative analyses were conducted on four firms operating in telecommunications sector. Dimensions constituting the Corporate Reputation Quotient were inspected and their weights assessed. Besides, the relation between Corporate Reputation Quotient and Brand Loyalty was examined.While Fombrun’s RQ model is examined in six dimensions, it revealed that these six dimensions were grouped into two in Turkish telecommunications sector. Turkcell, has been found, among others, as the firm with the highest Corporate Reputation Quotient. It was also found that there is a relation between Brand Loyalty and Corporate Reputation Quotient.

  2. Applicability of a Crack-Detection System for Use in Rotor Disk Spin Test Experiments Being Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Roth, Don J.

    2004-01-01

    Engine makers and aviation safety government institutions continue to have a strong interest in monitoring the health of rotating components in aircraft engines to improve safety and to lower maintenance costs. To prevent catastrophic failure (burst) of the engine, they use nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and major overhauls for periodic inspections to discover any cracks that might have formed. The lowest cost fluorescent penetrant inspection NDE technique can fail to disclose cracks that are tightly closed during rest or that are below the surface. The NDE eddy current system is more effective at detecting both crack types, but it requires careful setup and operation and only a small portion of the disk can be practically inspected. So that sensor systems can sustain normal function in a severe environment, health-monitoring systems require the sensor system to transmit a signal if a crack detected in the component is above a predetermined length (but below the length that would lead to failure) and lastly to act neutrally upon the overall performance of the engine system and not interfere with engine maintenance operations. Therefore, more reliable diagnostic tools and high-level techniques for detecting damage and monitoring the health of rotating components are very essential in maintaining engine safety and reliability and in assessing life.

  3. LİBERALİZASYON SÜRECİNDE TÜRKİYE'DE DIŞ TİCARET HADLERİ TRENDİ VE DIŞ TİCARET HADLERİNDEKİ DEĞİŞMELERİN GELİR ETKİSİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. FAYSAL GÖKALP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 1980 sonrası dönemde korumacı politikalar yerine liberal (dışa açık ekono-mi politikaları uygulayan Türkiye’de, dış ticaret hadlerindeki değişmelerin gelir etkisinin hesaplanması, dış ticaretten kazançların bir göstergesi olduğu için, önem taşımaktadır. 1980-1998 döneminde, Nicholson yöntemi kullanıldığında, dış ticaret hadlerinin gelir etkisinin 6 862.5 milyon dolar olarak olumlu olduğu hesaplanmıştır. Ancak, Sachs-Dornbush yöntemi ile aynı dönemdeki gelir etkisi öçüldüğünde, dış ticaret hadlerindeki değişmelerin GSYİH’yı yıllık ortalama     -%0.24 oranında olum-suz yönde etkilediği hesaplanmıştır.

  4. SQUID-based measuring systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P Janawadkar; R Baskaran; R Nagendran; K Gireesan; N Harishkumar; Rita Saha; L S Vaidhyanathan; J Jayapandian; Y Hariharan; T S Radhakrishnan

    2002-05-01

    A program has been developed and initiated at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) for the utilization of SQUID sensors in various application areas. DC SQUID sensors based on Nb–AlO–Nb Josephson junctions have been designed and developed inhouse along with associated flux-locked loop (FLL) electronics. A compact low field SQUID magnetometer insertible in a liquid helium storage dewar has also been developed inhouse and is in use. Efforts to build a high field SQUID magnetometer, SQUID-DAC system, are in progress. A planar gradiometric DC SQUID sensor for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) application to be used in relatively unshielded environment has been designed and developed. An easily portable NDE cryostat with a small lift-off distance, to be used in external locations has been designed and tested. The magnetic field produced by a given two-dimensional current density distribution is inverted using the Fourier transform technique.

  5. LOCATION DESCRIPTIONS AND CHARACTERIZATIONS TO TEZKIRE OF HASAN CHELEBI HASAN ÇELEBİ TEZKİRESİ’NDE MEKÂN TASVİR VE TAVSİFLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman SOLMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The citys who they are mixed with that community because of culture of the society dominance of to identify. Cities living such as human just in these respects is like a living creature that breathes. Definition of cultural significance to the community of the city is expressed through the fabric of society is of great importance in determining the element.In this study, Tezkire’s of Hasan Celebi scanned and places such as Baghdad, Belgrade, Bursa, Edirne, Gallipoli, Istanbul, Cairo, Konya, Kütahya, Malkara, Bitola, Manisa, Prizren, Rhodes, Sophia, Damascus, Tyre, Skopje, Vardar Yenicesi, Yenihisar trying to figure out that memory Şehirler hâkimiyet kuran toplumun kültürüyle yoğrulmuş olmaları hasebiyle o toplumla özdeşleşirler. Şehirler bu yönleriyle tıpkı bir insan gibi yaşayan, soluk alan canlı bir varlık gibidir. Şehirlerin bir toplum için ifade ettiği kültürel anlamın ortaya konması toplumun dokusunda yer alan unsurların tespiti açısından büyük önem arz etmektedir.Bu çalışmada Hasan Çelebi Tezkiresi taranmış olup tezkiredeki mekânlar sınıflandırılmıştır. Bağdat, Belgrad, Bursa, Edirne, Gelibolu, İstanbul, Kahire, Konya, Kütahya, Malkara, Manastır, Manisa, Prizren, Rodos, Sofya, Şam, Tire, Üsküp, Vardar Yenicesi, Yenihisâr gibi Hasan Çelebi Tezkiresi’nde yer alan şehirlerin kültürel bellekte ne anlam ifade ettiği ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır.

  6. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF NDE METHODS ON INSPECTION OF HDPE BUTT FUSION PIPING JOINTS FOR LACK OF FUSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examination approaches for inspecting butt fusion joints in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for lack of fusion (LOF). The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and need for volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic nondestructive techniques and high-speed tensile impact testing for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-inch IPS DR-11 material by varying the fusion parameters in attempts to provide good joints and joints containing LOF. These butt joints were visually examined and volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) and phased-array (PA) ultrasound. A limited subset of pipe joint material was destructively analyzed by either slicing through the joint and visually examining the surface or by employing a standard high-speed tensile impact test. Initial correlation of the fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluations have shown that areas with gross LOF were detected with both TOFD and PA ultrasound and that the tensile impact test showed a brittle failure at the joint. There is still some ambiguity in results from the less obvious LOF conditions. Current work is targeted on assessing the sensitivity of the ultrasonic volumetric examinations and validating the results with a destructive analysis. It is expected that on-going and future work will lead to quantifying the ultrasonic responses in terms of joint integrity.

  7. Tiit Kask, Aldur Vunk (Hrsg.): Reis (nõukogude) läände / Journey to the [Soviet] west. Kuurortlinn Pärnu 1940-88. Artiklite kogumik / Resort town of Pärnu 1940-88. Collection of articles, Pärnu: Pärnu Linnavalitsus 2009, 121 S., 97 Abb. / Andr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fülberth, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Reis (nõukogude) läände : kuurortlinn Pärnu 1940-88 : artiklite kogumik = Journey to the [Soviet] West : resort town of Pärnu during 1940-88 : collection of articles. Pärnu, 2009

  8. Tiit Kask, Aldur Vunk (Hrsg.): Reis (nõukogude) läände / Journey to the [Soviet] west. Kuurortlinn Pärnu 1940-88. Artiklite kogumik / Resort town of Pärnu 1940-88. Collection of articles, Pärnu: Pärnu Linnavalitsus 2009, 121 S., 97 Abb. / Andr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fülberth, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Reis (nõukogude) läände : kuurortlinn Pärnu 1940-88 : artiklite kogumik = Journey to the [Soviet] West : resort town of Pärnu during 1940-88 : collection of articles. Pärnu, 2009

  9. Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities / Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Who lives where. Habitability conditions of the population living in the great Andalusian cities Reseña Del Libro Quién vive dónde. Las condiciones de habitabilidad de la población que vive en las grandes ciudades andaluzas

  10. Ormancılık Hizmet Binalarının Tertibinde Gözönünde Tutulacak Esaslar Üzerine Araştırmalar (Investigations On The Principles To Be Considered In Designing The Forestry Administration Buildings)

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Ormancılık Hizmet Binalarının Tertibinde Gözönünde Tutulacak Esaslar Üzerine Araştırmalar (Investigations On The Principles To Be Considered In Designing The Forestry Administration Buildings)

  11. Processing Waveform-Based NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Donald J (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A computer implemented process for simultaneously measuring the velocity of terahertz electromagnetic radiation in a dielectric material sample without prior knowledge of the thickness of the sample and for measuring the thickness of a material sample using terahertz electromagnetic radiation in a material sample without prior knowledge of the velocity of the terahertz electromagnetic radiation in the sample is disclosed and claimed. Utilizing interactive software the process evaluates, in a plurality of locations, the sample for microstructural variations and for thickness variations and maps the microstructural and thickness variations by location. A thin sheet of dielectric material may be used on top of the sample to create a dielectric mismatch. The approximate focal point of the radiation source (transceiver) is initially determined for good measurements.

  12. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nde Tedavüle Sürülen Banknotların Göstergebilimsel Çözümlemesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithat Yılmaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available İnsan doğumdan ölüme kadar pek çok görsel mesajla karşılaşır ve bu durum da görsel iletişimi oluşturur. Görsel öğeleri anlamlandırmak ve mesajların kodlarını çözmek göstergebilim ile mümkündür. Göstergebilim, gösterge dizgelerini inceleyen bir bilim dalıdır ve göstergelerin anlam evrenini çözümlemeyi amaçlar.Hukuki manada resmi belge olan banknot, tek yönlü bir iletişim sağlamaktadır. Banknotlardaki görsel seçimine çıkarıldığı dönemin ideolojisi ve iletilmek istenen mesaj etki eder. Bu durum aynı zamanda banknotların ulusal ve uluslararası bir iletişim aracı haline gelmesini sağlar. Bu araştırma banknotlar üzerindeki göstergeleri yorumlayarak, görsellerin vermek istediği mesajı açıklamayı ve paraların bir iletişim aracı olarak kullanıldığını ortaya çıkarmayı amaçlamıştırCumhuriyetin kuruluşundan günümüze kadar 9 emisyon grubunda, 24 farklı değerde, 132 tertip banknot dolaşıma çıkarılmıştır. Bu araştırmada, her emisyondan en büyük ve en küçük banknotların ön ve arka yüzleri seçilerek göstergebilimsel olarak incelenmiş, dizisel ve dizimsel boyutları ve ideolojik yaklaşımları çözümlenmeye çalışılmıştır.İnceleme Peirce’nin ikinci üçlüğünde bulunan belirti, ikon ve simge sınıflandırmasına göre gerçekleşmiştir. İncelemede banknotların üzerindeki görsel göstergelerin taşıdığı mesajlar ve anlam evreni açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda banknotların üzerindeki göstergeler açığa çıkarılmış ve bu göstergeler yoluyla ulusal ve uluslararası iletişimin gerçekleştiği ortaya konulmuştur.

  13. SATIŞ ELEMANI PERFORMANS DEĞERLEMESİNDE BİR ÖNERİ: ÜÇGENSEL PERFORMANS DEĞERLEME YÖNTEMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu DİNÇER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A PROPOSAL ON SALESPERSON PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: A TRIANGULAR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION METHODAbstract: This research proposes a performance evaluation method based on relationship among the salesperson, the organization and the customers through 4 types of performance.The method is developed by a qualitative research realized via interviews with department managers of 39 firms. The interviewees describe the salesperson performance by the contribution to the quantitative targets set by the management for the period and confirm the accuracy of the separate and complementary interfaces of the performance triangle. Quantitative criteria are primal but qualitative criteria are not negligible and have a complementary role. Consequently, the presented method is suitable and acceptable. Salesperson performance can be determined within the triangle shaped by 3 interfaces and measured by qualitative and quantitative criteria covering 4 types of performance. Keywords: Sales Force, Salesperson, Sales Performance. SATIŞ ELEMANI PERFORMANS DEĞERLEMESİNDE BİR ÖNERİ: ÜÇGENSEL PERFORMANS DEĞERLEME YÖNTEMİÖzet: Bu araştırma satış elemanının kendisi, satış organizasyonu ve müşteriler ile ilişkileri üzerine kurulu bir bakış açısı ile 4 performans tipi üzerinden bir performans değerleme yöntemi önermektedir. Bu yöntem daha sonra 39 firmanın ilgili bölüm müdürleri ile gerçekleştirilen yüzyüze görüşmeler ışığında nitel bir araştırma ile geliştirilmiştir. Görüşme yapılan kişiler satış elemanı performansını yönetimin dönem için belirlediği nicel hedeflere yaptığı katkı olarak tanımlamaktadır ve performans üçgeninin ayrı ve birbirini tamamlayıcı arayüzlerinin doğruluğunu teyid etmektedirler. Nicel kriterler esastır fakat nitel kriterler ihmal edilemez ve tamamlayıcı bir role sahiptirler.Sonuç olarak, önerilen yöntem, uygun ve kabul edilebilir bir yöntemdir. Satış eleman

  14. Development of NRU reflector wall inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, R.H.; Luloff, B.V.; Zahn, N.; Simpson, N., E-mail: lumsdenr@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. During the next year, the calandria was inspected with six new Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to determine the extent of the corrosion, repaired, and finally the repair was inspected with four additional new NDE techniques before the reactor was returned to service. The calandria is surrounded by a light-water reflector vessel fabricated from the same material as the calandria vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism had damaged the reflector vessel led to the development of a system to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage. The inspection region could only be accessed through 64 mm diameter ports, was 10 m below the port, and had to be inspected from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique was designed to produce a closely spaced wall thickness (WT) grid over an area of approximately 5 m2 on the corroded surface using a very small probe holder. This paper describes the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) development project and the system that resulted. (author)

  15. The actual application of lamp bridge column NDE in Rizhao port railway Ⅰ field%日照港铁路Ⅰ场灯桥立柱无损检测的实际应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    腾书辉; 孙力

    2012-01-01

    Application of ultrasonic rebound combined method,combining with the thickness of concrete protective layer,carbonation,resistivity,steel and concrete corrosion and other NDE method of concrete to made detection to existing building,judged the building damage degree,provided basis for the reinforcement.%运用超声回弹综合法,结合混凝土保护层厚度、碳化、电阻率、钢筋锈蚀程度等混凝土构件无损检测方法对既有构件进行检测,判断构件受损程度,为加固补强提供依据。

  16. ASETİK ASİTİN ETİL ALKOL İLE KATALİTİK REÇİNE KATALİZÖRLÜĞÜNDE ESTERLEŞME KİNETİĞİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol İNCE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seyreltik asetik asit çözeltilerinin asidik gruplu polimerik reçine katalizörlüğünde etil alkol ile esterleşme reaksiyonu kesikli bir reaktörde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Reaksiyon kinetiği üzerine sıcaklık, başlangıçtaki reaktanların mol oranları, başlangıçtaki su konsantrasyonu ve katalizör konsantrasyonu etkileri incelenmiştir. Kesikli reaktörde sıvı ve buhar fazlarının hızla dengeye ulaşmasının reaksiyon kinetiğini sınırladığı belirlenmiştir.

  17. TOPLUMSAL HAYATTA KARŞILAŞTIKLARI ZORLUKLARLA OSMANLI DEVLETİ’NDE SAĞIR, DİLSİZ VE ÂMÂLAR (Deaf, Dumb and Blind People in the Ottoman Empire and Difficulties They Encountered in Their Social Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hürü SAĞLAM TEKİR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Özet Bu çalışmada, Osmanlı toplumu içerisinde yaşayan sağır, dilsiz ve âmâların yaşamış oldukları ekonomik ve sosyal sıkıntılar arşiv belgeleri ışığında irdelenmektedir. Osmanlı Devleti’nde 19. yüzyıla kadar iyi bir şekilde işleyen vakıflar ve imaretler çerçevesindeki refah sistemi işlevini kaybetmeye başlayınca yoksulların korunması merkezî devletin faaliyet ve yetki alanına girmeye başlamıştı. Sosyal devlet olgusunun Osmanlı Devleti’nde yer edinmeye başlaması ile de devlet ihtiyaç sahiplerine çeşitli yollarla destek olmaya başlamıştır. Devletin destek verdiği ihtiyaç sahipleri arasında sağır, dilsiz ve âmâlar da vardır. Toplum içerisinde yaşamını devam ettirmeye çalışan sağır, dilsiz ve âmâlar en büyük sıkıntıyı ekonomik anlamda çekiyorlardı. Sağır, dilsiz ve âmâlar, ekonomik sıkıntıların yanı sıra gündelik hayatlarında da tecavüz olayları, iş kazaları, faili meçhul cinayetler gibi birtakım talihsiz olaylarla karşılaşmışlardır. Bu olayları yaşamalarının en büyük sebebi de şüphesiz insanların birçoğunun sağır, dilsiz ve âmâların varlığını kabul edip onlarla birlikte yaşayabilme düşüncesini kabullenememeleridir. Yaşamış oldukları hayat bunu açıkça gözler önüne sermektedir. Abstract Relying on the Ottoman archival documents, this study examines the social and economic problems deaf, dumb and blind people encountered in the Ottoman Empire. As the Ottoman welfare system of charities and poorhouses weakened in the nineteenth century, central state authority had to step in to help and protect the poor and the disabled including deaf, dumb and blind people. The article presents that the economic challenges were the greatest suffering of these people.

  18. Three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and systems for near-field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2016-05-12

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed three-dimensional holographic (synthetic aperture) radar imaging techniques and systems for a wide variety of near-field applications. These applications include radar cross-section (RCS) imaging, personnel screening, standoff concealed weapon detection, concealed threat detection, through-barrier imaging, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Sequentially-switched linear arrays are used for many of these systems to enable high-speed data acquisition and 3-D imaging. In this paper, the techniques and systems will be described along with imaging results that demonstrate the utility of near-field 3-D radar imaging for these compelling applications.

  19. Design of a robust SHM system for composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Shawn; Liu, Ching-Chao; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2007-04-01

    Composites are becoming increasingly popular materials used in a wide range of applications on large-scale structures such as windmill blades, rocket motor cases, and aircraft fuselage and wings. For these large structures, using composites greatly enhances the operation and performance of the application, but also introduces extraordinary inspection challenges that push the limits of traditional NDE in terms of time and cost. Recent advances in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies offer a promising solution to these inspection challenges. But efficient design methodologies and implementation procedures are needed to ensure the reliability and robustness of SHM technologies for use in real-world applications. This paper introduces the essential elements of the design and implementation process by way of example. State-of-the-art techniques to optimize sensor placement, perform self-diagnostics, compensate for environmental conditions, and generate probability of detection (POD) curves for any application are discussed. The techniques are presented in relation to Acellent's recently developed SmartComposite System that is used to monitor the integrity of large composite structures. The system builds on the active sensor network technology of Acellent that is analogous to a built-in acousto-ultrasonic NDE system. Key features of the system include new miniaturized lightweight hardware, self-diagnostics and adaptive algorithm to automatically compensate for damaged sensors, reliable damage detection under different environmental conditions, and generation of POD curves. This paper will provide an overview of the system and demonstrate its key features.

  20. Structural Integrity Inspection and Visualization System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for compact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the structural integrity of spacecraft components and structures, Physical Optics Corporation...

  1. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping Welds and Thick Section Primary System Cast Piping Welds JCN N6398, Task 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Morra, Marino; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-07-21

    Research is being conducted for the NRC at PNNL to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods for the inspection of LWR components. The scope of this research encompasses primary system pressure boundary materials including cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This interim technical letter report (TLR) provides a synopsis of recent investigations at PNNL aimed at evaluating the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of CASS welds in nuclear reactor piping. A description of progress, recent developments and interim results are provided.

  2. Eddy current measurement system evaluation for corrosion depth determination on cast aluminum aircraft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Greving, Dan; Kinney, Andy; Vensel, Fred; Ohm, Jim; Peeler, Mike

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current (EC) technique was developed to determine the corrosion depth on a bare flange face of a cast aluminum A356-T6 aircraft engine structure. The EC response and the corrosion depths determined through metallurgical cross sections were used to develop an empirical relation between EC response and depth. The EC technique and depth determination are used to inspect the engine structures during overhaul to determine if they are fit for continued service. An accurate and reliable Non-Destructive Inspection is required to ensure that structures returned to service are safe for continued operation. NDE system reliability demonstrations of the eddy current technique are traditionally reported in terms of Probability of Detection (POD) data using MIL-HDBK-1823A. However, the calculation of POD data is based on a simple linear predictive model that is valid only if certain criteria are met. These are: 1) NDE system response is measurable (i.e. continuous data), 2) Flaw size is known and measurable (i.e. continuous data), 3) relationship between the NDE system response and flaw size is linear (or linear on a log scale), 4) variation in measured responseresponse around a predicted response for a given flaw size is normally distributed, 5) the variation around the predicted response is constant (i.e. variation does not change with flaw size), and 6) inherent variability in the NDE system is known and fully understood. In this work, a Measurement System Evaluation (MSE) of the Eddy Current System was used to address some of these concerns. This work was completed on two aircraft structures having varying corrosion depths. The data were acquired in a random manner at fifty regions of interests (ROIs). Three operators participated in this study, and each operator measured Eddy Current response three times in each ROI. In total, there were four hundred and fifty data points collected. Following this, the two structures were sectioned for measuring corrosion depth. The

  3. AKILLI KARTLAR İLE YAPILAN MAL VE HİZMET SATIŞLARININ TMS-18 HASILAT STANDARDI ÇERÇEVESİNDE MUHASEBELEŞTİRİLMESİ-RECOGNITION OF SOLD GOODS AND SERVICES BY SMART CARDS WITHIN TMS-18 REVENUE STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abitter ÖZULUCAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada;, önce akıllı kart / yemek çekleri sistemi tanıtılmakta, tarafların sağladıkları fayda ve maliyetler belirtilmekte ve gerçekleşen satış işleminin taraflarca kayda geçirilmesi hususu TMS 18 Hasılat standardı kapsamında ele alınmaktadır. Elde edilen hasılatın ölçümünde, sistemin işleyişinde temel unsur olan ve üye iş yeri tarafından yemek kartı tedavül eden işletmeye hizmet faturası karşılığında ödenen komisyonların, hasılatla doğrudan ilişkilendirilebilen bir gider niteliği taşıyıp taşımaması; bu türden giderlerin Tekdüzen Muhasebe Sistemi’nden farklı olarak, TMS 18 kapsamındaki ölçümünün ve muhasebeleştirilmesinin farklı olup olmadığının belirlenmesi amacıyla kaleme alınan bu çalışma, giriş ve sonuç bölümlerinin dışında dört bölümden oluşmaktadır.-The main part of the smart card system is sellers and while they are measuring of their revenue, they should associate the commissions with revenues to record at inception. So in this paper, after the smart card system is introduced, the advantages and disadvantages of this system are exposed and then how to recognise of the selling is considered within TMS 18, Revenues Standard. In other words, the reason that we conduct this paper can be expressed that the expense of the selling commissions which arise from the selling products with smart card whether should or should not deduct to revenue while the revenue is been measured.

  4. PRIVATE PROPERTY IN PERIOD OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND ITS STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OSMANLI İMPARATORLUĞU DÖNEMİNDE ÖZEL MÜLKİYET VE YAPISAL ÖZELLİKLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÇİFTÇİ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a general belief that there was not an unconditional private property in the Ottoman period because of existence of tımar system. However, some authors who maintain opposite of this general belief argue that private property was realized with vaqfs. Private property during the Ottoman period commonly was in cities and was protected by the state. Actually, this circumstance was a result of a selection. Ottomans did not prefer bureaucratic structure in every fields like ancient Egyptians and Persians. They preferred a structure in parallel with ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. They probably accepted sovereignty of bureaucracy as an opposite power element against the government. Consequently, feudal Middle Age Europe lived this trouble in Ottoman building and in developing process. The Ottomans used merchants in carrying agricultural surplus products as raw material or as manufactured commodity to essential bureaucratic cities like Istanbul in a world where agricultural production was a basis and cities fed with agricultural surplus production. Primitive industrialists also became artisans and tradesmen. Condition of market economy was compulsorily constituted to provide such a surplus product flow and, in this framework, private property was instituted. Vaqfs which surpassed unconditional private property and bruised competitive conditions in the market economy was a structure over the private property. OSMAOsmanlı döneminde tımar sisteminin mevcudiyeti sebebiyle koşulsuz özel mülkiyetin olmadığı yönünde genel inanç mevcuttur. Aksini savunan birkaç yazarsa, özel mülkiyetin vakıflarla gerçekleştirildiğini savunmaktadır. Osmanlı dönemi boyunca özel mülkiyet; ağırlıklı olarak şehirlerde mevcut olmuş, devletçe de koruma altına alınmıştır. Bu durum, aslında bir seçişin sonucudur. Osmanlılar Eski Mısır ya da Persler gibi her alanda güçlü bürokratik yapılanmayı tercih etmemişler, eski Yunan

  5. VATANDAŞLIK VE DEMOKRASİ EĞİTİMİNDE MASAL KULLANIMI / USE OF TALES IN CITIZENSHIP AND DEMOCRACY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih YİĞİT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Türk halk edebiyatının kapsamına giren anonim türler, geçmişten günümüze kültürel etkileşimi ve iletişimi sağlayan bir köprü işlevindedir. Anonim halk edebiyatının nesir türlerinden biri olan ve halk arasında en çok ilgi görenlerinden birisi de masallardır. Evrensel bir anlatı türü olan ve muhtevasında toplumların kültürel zenginliklerini barındıran masallar, yüzyıllar boyu gerek sözlü ve gerekse yazılı kültür ortamı içerisinde gelişmiş, daha sonra elektronik kültür ortamına aktarılmış ve işlevselliğini kaybetmeden günümüze intikal etmiştir. Halk biliminin bir bilim dalı olarak akademik hayattaki yerini almasıyla birlikte Türkiye’de masallar üzerine yapılan çalışmaların artmaya başladığını söyleyebiliriz. Çok kültürlü toplumlarda ortak değerlerin ön plana çıkarılmasının toplumsal barış ve huzur adına önemi büyüktür. Bu anlamda masallar, toplumlar arasındaki müşterek unsurları tespit etmede önemli bir rol üstlenirler. Bunun yanında toplumun genelinde kabul gören değerlerin bir anda ortaya çıkmadığı, bunların özellikle yaşça büyük olan bireyler tarafından yeni nesillere aktarıldığı ve öğretildiği düşünüldüğünde, masalların değerlerin aktarılmasında ne kadar önemli olduğu anlaşılacaktır. Yardımseverlik, doğruluk, bencil olmamak, yalan söylememek, misafirperverlik, büyüklere saygı, anne ve babaya saygı, fedakârlık, cömertlik, iyilik, açgözlü olmamak, paylaşmak ve adil olmak değerlerinin Naki Tezel’in derlemiş olduğu masallar aracılığıyla verilebileceği görülmektedir. Bu değerlerin masallar aracılığıyla öğretilmesi öğrencileri hem doğru vatandaş olma yolunda yetiştirecek, hem de millî ve manevi açıdan geçmişiyle kopuk olmayan nesillerin yetişmesine öncülük edecektir. Bu çalışmanın kapsamına giren masal metinleri Naki Tezel’in iki ciltten oluşan ve ilk bask

  6. PERAKENDECİLİK SEKTÖRÜNDE DİNAMİK FİYATLANDIRMA: GENİŞ BİR LİTERATÜR TARAMASI-DYNAMIC PRICING IN RETAILING INDUSTRY: A WIDE LITERATURE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Taha BİLİŞİK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, perakendecilik sektöründe dinamik fiyatlandırma uygulamaları ve bu konuda yapılmış geçmiş çalışmaları kapsayan geniş bir literatür taraması ele alınmıştır. Çünkü, günümüz gelişen rekabet koşullarında taleplerin hızla değiştiği gibi fiyatlandırma politikalarının da değişkenlik göstermesi gerektiği saptanmıştır. Bu bağlamda, perakendecilik sektöründe dinamik fiyatlandırma ile ilgili literatürde yer alan çalışmalarda kullanılan yöntemler detaylı bir biçimde incelenmiş ve çeşitli özelliklerine göre sınıflandırmaya tabi tutulmuştur. Sonuç kısmında ise; literatürdeki çalışmalarda rastlanan eksikliklere ve gelecek çalışmalar için fiyat optimizasyonu hesaplamalarında göz önüne alınması gereken durumlara değinilmiştir.- In this study, dynamic pricing applications in retailing and past publications in the literature about this subject have been taken into consideration. The crucial factor making us involved in this study is both the rapid change in demand structures and also the pricing policies over time. By this mean, mathematical solution techniques in the literature used to solve dynamic pricing problems in retailing industry have been analyzed deeply and categorized according to different specialties. In the last section, lacks of mathematical solution techniques and important attributes to be taken into computations have been proposed in order to make better and more accurate price optimizations in future studies.

  7. Los recursos metaficcionales en la literatura juvenil: el caso de Dónde crees que vas y quién te crees que eres de Benjamín Prado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel de Amo Sánchez-Fortún

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el amplio panorama de la Literatura Juvenil comienza a despuntar una práctica narrativa que se caracteriza por llamar la atención sobre su propia forma y su propio proceso de construcción, desvelando así su naturaleza ficcional. Se trata de una producción literaria que rompe con los códigos narrativos tradicionales y que requiere del lector una forma más activa de acercamiento. Con esteartículo he pretendido analizar las técnicas y recursos literarios recurrentes en este tipo de obras, poco frecuentes en el ámbito literario que nos ocupa. Para tal fin, he indagado, por un lado, en el estado de la cuestión acerca de la teoría de la metaficción y, por otro, en las estrategias creativas utilizadas por Benjamín Prado en su novela Dónde crees que vas y quién te crees que eres, por ser esta una obra paradigmática.

  8. TÜRK HAZIR GİYİM SEKTÖRÜNDE HIZLI MODA VE HIZLI MODA PERAKENDECİLİĞİ ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME

    OpenAIRE

    HACIOLA, Yasemin; Turan ATILGAN

    2014-01-01

    Hazır giyim sektörü ekonomik gelişmelerden ve değişimlerden önemli ölçüde ve hızlı bir şekilde etkilenen bir pazar yapısına sahiptir. Hızlı moda ise özellikle son on yılda hazır giyim sektöründe etkisini gittikçe arttırmaktadır. İşletmelerin rekabet üstünlüğü yaratabilmek için başvurduğu farklılaşma stratejisi ve iş modeli olarak değerlendirilmeye başlamıştır. Hızlı moda konseptini uygulayan markaların hem yapısal süreçlerinde hem de perakende ağlarında önemli değişimler göza çapmaktadır. Ülk...

  9. Türkiye’de Otomotiv Ana ve Yan Sanayi ve Marmara Bölgesi’nde Kümelenme Automotive Main And Component Industries In Turkey And Clustering In The Marmara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan YAŞAR

    2013-07-01

    üreci başladı. Sektör, 1980’li yılların başından bu yana yaptığı yoğun atılımlar sayesinde rekabetçi bir nitelik kazandı. Sektör için 1990’lı yıllar “küresel rekabet” için yeniden yapılanma ve küresel sanayi ile entegrasyon dönemidir. 1996 yılında Türkiye’nin Avrupa Birliği ile Gümrük Birliği’ni sağlaması, değişen pazar ve rekabet koşulları otomotiv sanayini yeni bir yapılanma sürecine itti. Günümüzde Türk otomotiv sanayi dünya pazarlarına yönelik tasarım ve üretim için atılımlarını sürdürmektedir. Otomotiv sektörünün ayırt edici özelliklerinden biri de güçlü, standartları yüksek ve rekabetçi bir yan sanayiye sahip olmasıdır.Türkiye’de otomotiv sanayi, Marmara Bölgesi Doğu Marmara illerinde sektör ve coğrafi temelde kümelenme göstermektedir. Marmara Bölgesi’nde yer alan 12 otomotiv ana sanayi işletmesinden 10’u Doğu Marmara illerinde faaliyet göstermektedir. 2002 Genel Sanayi ve İşyerleri Sayımı’na göre Marmara Bölgesi’nde 10+işçi çalıştıran 527 otomotiv yan sanayi işletmesinden % 76.9’u Doğu Marmara illerinde faaliyet göstermektedir. Marmara Bölgesi otomotiv ana sanayi istihdamının % 86.5’i de bu illerde istihdam edilmektedir. Türkiye’de yaklaşık 200 bin kişinin istihdam edildiği otomotiv yan sanayi istihdamının % 65’i bölgede istihdam olmaktadır. Adı geçen sayım verilerine göre Kocaeli ve Sakarya illerinde imalat sanayi istihdamında otomotiv sanayi birinci sırada yer alırken, Bursa İli’nde ikinci sırada yer almaktadır. Bu veriler sektör odaklı mekansal yoğunlaşmayı net bir şekilde ortaya koymaktadır.Otomotiv sektörünün Marmara Bölgesi’nde kümelenme göstermesinin nedenleri arasında; Türkiye’de illerin rekabetçilik analizleri yapıldığında ilk ona giren iller arasında dördünün sözü edilen bölgede yer alması gösterilebilir. 2012 yılı Türkiye nüfusunun % 30’u Marmara Bölgesi’nde ikamet

  10. TOPLU KONUT ÜRETİMİNDE TÜNEL KALIP SİSTEMİ UYGULAMALARI VE KARŞILAŞILAN SORUNLAR

    OpenAIRE

    OĞUZALP, Ercan H.; KORUR, Saim

    2005-01-01

    This study is about the problems faced in the application and the utilization of tunnel formwork system that is commonly used to meet the residence need increasing every passing day. Having some problems that could not be solved because of the details not applied by the manufacturers thought of production costs, constitutes disadvantages beside its benefits to our country and manufacture in terms of system. In the formation of the study, various books, thesis, articles, web sites about the in...

  11. Best Practices for Evaluating the Capability of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Techniques for Damage Characterization (Post-Print)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Derriso , M., “Model-assisted probabilistic reliability assessment for structural health monitoring systems,” Review of Progress in QNDE, Vol. 29, AIP...Workshop on SHM, Stanford: DesTech Publications, Inc. p. 2417-2428., (2011). 22. Schubert-Kabban A. C., Derriso M. M., “Certification in structural health...2011). 23. Schubert-Kabban C., Greenwell B., DeSimio M., Derriso M., “The probability of detection for structural health monitoring systems: repeated

  12. İzmir Körfezi’nde Kancaağız Pisi balığının Citharus linguatula (L., 1758 bazı biyolojik özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efe Ulutürk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, İzmir Körfezi’nde kancaağız pisi balığının Citharus linguatula ,(L., 1758 bazı biyolojik özellikleri tespit edilmiştir. Ocak 2005–Mayıs 2006 tarihleri arasında, İzmir Körfezi’nden Egesüf Araştırma Gemisi’nden trol ağı ile aylık olarak toplam 2555 adet elde edilmiştir. Bireylerin I-VI yaş grupları arasında dağılım gösterdiği saptanmıştır. Minimum, maksimum ve ortalama total boy sırasıyla, 9.1cm, 23.9cm ve 15.90±0.096 cm’dir. Minimum, maksimum ve ortalama ağırlık sırasıyla, 5.02g, 105.34g ve 32.06±0.61 g’dır. Total boy-ağırlık ilişkisi esas alınarak hesaplanan boy ağırlık ilişkileri, W=0.005*L3.14, r= 0.98 olarak tespit edilmiştir. von Bertalanffy büyüme parametreleri tüm bireyler için Lt = 27.38 * [1-e-0.2142 (t+1.6353] olarak hesaplanmıştır.

  13. Doğadan Toplanan ve Portakal Kütüğünde Yetiştirilen Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst Mantar Türünün Bazı Kimyasal İçeriklerinin Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezahat Turfan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst (Reishi mantarı tıbbi mantar türlerinden biridir. Mantarların kimyasal içerikleri, yetişme ortamlarının fiziksel ve kimyasal özelliklerine bağlı olarak önemli değişiklik göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada; doğadan toplanan ve portakal kütüğünde yetiştirilen Ganoderma lucidum mantarlarının toplam çözünür protein, toplam çözünür karbonhidrat (glikoz, fruktoz ve sakkaroz ve bazı element (P, K, Mg, Mn, S, Fe, Ca ve Na içerikleri araştırılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre, portakal kütüğünde yetiştirilen G. lucidum mantarlarının toplam protein, glikoz, fruktoz, sakkaroz ve nişasta miktarları, doğadan toplanan G. lucidum mantarlarına göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Fosfor, demir, sodyum, potasyum ve sülfür içerikleri portakal kütüğünde yetiştirilen mantarlarda daha yüksek iken, kalsiyum, magnezyum, manganez ve çinko değerlerinin doğadan toplananlara göre daha fazla olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu sonuçlara göre, portakal kütüğünde yetiştirilen G. lucidum mantarı örneklerinin, doğadan toplananlara göre daha yüksek besin değerlerine sahip olduğu söylenebilir.

  14. Idast läände: ladina terminid kui õiguskultuuri muutuse peegeldajad / From east to west: Latin terms as a reflection of the change in legal culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merike Ristikivi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the usage of Latin terms in legal texts in the Estonian language in the transition period before and after re-establishing Estonian independence on the basis of the journals Nõukogude Õigus (Soviet Law and Eesti Jurist (Estonian Lawyer. The period under the observation (1985–1994 is characterised by conceptual changes in the Estonian legal order, by radical reforms in legislation, and the legal system in general. The results of the study reveal that socio-political developments have had an impact on terminology and the principles of language usage. In the Soviet era the cultural influences changed, and the western legal tradition was replaced by the Soviet legal system and the dominance of the Russian language. The usage of Latin terminology in the journals Nõukogude Õigus and Eesti Jurist at the end of the Soviet era and in the transition period, explored in the course of the present research, revealed that the number of Latin terms in the abovementioned two periodicals is significantly small. Besides infrequently used professional terms in juridical articles, a number of well-known Latin proverbs and expressions concerning academic affairs were employed. The analysis of the research material revealed that the terminological change and an increase in the usage of Latin terms came together with the transformation of the legal culture and policy at the end of the Soviet era. It is important to note that the quantitative and qualitative changes in language usage did not occur in 1991 – i.e., —the year when Estonia restored her independence. The most significant changes in terminology had begun already in 1989 and 1990, when the readiness to try to become again part of the European legal environment surfaced. The rearrangements in the Estonian legal system compelled the Estonian lawyers to include in their usage of legal language those Latin terms that have become rooted in the legal tradition of Europe.

  15. Assessment of Laser-Driven Pulsed Neutron Sources for Poolside Neutron-based Advanced NDE – A Pathway to LANSCE-like Characterization at INL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Markus [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourke, Mark Andrew M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fernandez, Juan Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Glenzer, Siegfried [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Leemans, Wim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siders, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Haefner, Constantin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    A variety of opportunities for characterization of fresh nuclear fuels using thermal (~25meV) and epithermal (~10eV) neutrons have been documented at Los Alamos National Laboratory. They include spatially resolved non-destructive characterization of features, isotopic enrichment, chemical heterogeneity and stoichiometry. The LANSCE spallation neutron source is well suited in neutron fluence and temporal characteristics for studies of fuels. However, recent advances in high power short pulse lasers suggest that compact neutron sources might, over the next decade, become viable at a price point that would permit their consideration for poolside characterization on site at irradiation facilities. In a laser-driven neutron source the laser is used to accelerate deuterium ions into a beryllium target where neutrons are produced. At this time, the technology is new and their total neutron production is approximately four orders of magnitude less than a facility like LANSCE. However, recent measurements on a sub-optimized system demonstrated >1010 neutrons in sub-nanosecond pulses in predominantly forward direction. The compactness of the target system compared to a spallation target may allow exchanging the target during a measurement to e.g. characterize a highly radioactive sample with thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons as well as hard X-rays, thus avoiding sample handling. At this time several groups are working on laser-driven neutron production and are advancing concepts for lasers, laser targets, and optimized neutron target/moderator systems. Advances in performance sufficient to enable poolside fuels characterization with LANSCE-like fluence on sample within a decade may be possible. This report describes the underlying physics and state-of-the-art of the laser-driven neutron production process from the perspective of the DOE/NE mission. It also discusses the development and understanding that will be necessary to provide customized capability for

  16. Entre el orden y el caos : ¿hacia dónde va la administración de las escuelas portuguesas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos González Faraco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es describir y analizar críticamente la situación actual de la administración del Sistema Educativo Portugués, tras las últimas reformas políticas y educativas. Para ello nos hemos valido de tres instrumentos de investigación: el análisis documental de los textos reguladores del sistema, la observación participante en instituciones escolares del Algarve y una serie de entrevistas a actores de la administración educativa portuguesa a diversas escalas. Hemos tratado de confrontar las distintas informaciones obtenidas, a partir de estas tres vías, para determinar las disonancias entre lo estipulado por los documentos normativos y lo que sucede en la realidad escolar. Todo apunta a que los objetivos y planteamientos de las normas que rigen el gobierno y administración del Sistema Educativo Portugués se ven habitual y sensiblemente alterados o desnaturalizados al ser llevados a la práctica. Esta discordancia es, a nuestro juicio, más intensa, o al menos más patente, a escala local, es decir, en las Escuelas o en los Agrupamientos de Escuelas. El artículo sugiere algunas de las causas de esta problemática y, en consecuencia, algunas medidas que habría que tomar preferentemente para su resolución.The object of this article is to describe and critically analyze the present situation of the administration of the Portuguese Educational System after recent political and educational reforms. To accomplish this we have utilized three instruments of investigation: a documentary analysis of the regulatory texts ofthe system, participant-observation of schools in the Algarve, and a series of interviews with actors situated at different levels of the Portuguese educational administration. We have attempted to scrutinize the data obtained from these three sources in order to determine the dissonance between what is stipulated by the normative documents and what actually occurs in the schools. Everything points to

  17. Development of CT and 3D-CT Using Flat Panel Detector Based Real-Time Digital Radiography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, V. R.; Sreelakshmi, C.; Vibin, Vibin

    2008-09-01

    The application of Digital Radiography in the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of space vehicle components is a recent development in India. A Real-time DR system based on amorphous silicon Flat Panel Detector has been developed for the NDE of solid rocket motors at Rocket Propellant Plant of VSSC in a few years back. The technique has been successfully established for the nondestructive evaluation of solid rocket motors. The DR images recorded for a few solid rocket specimens are presented in the paper. The Real-time DR system is capable of generating sufficient digital X-ray image data with object rotation for the CT image reconstruction. In this paper the indigenous development of CT imaging based on the Realtime DR system for solid rocket motor is presented. Studies are also carried out to generate 3D-CT image from a set of adjacent CT images of the rocket motor. The capability of revealing the spatial location and characterisation of defect is demonstrated by the CT and 3D-CT images generated.

  18. Dönüşümsel liderlik kavramı hakkında önde gelen teoriler ve Türkiye'de kavramı ele alan çalışmalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren AYRANCI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde örgütlerin hiçbirisinin değişim, dönüşüm ve yoğun rekabet gibi faktörlere karşı duyarsız kalması mümkün değildir. Örgütlerin söz konusu faktörlerle başa çıkabilmeleri için örgütlerdeki liderler, örgütlerini yeniden yapılandırmalıdırlar. Diğer bir ifadeyle örgütsel liderler, çevre koşullarının değişimlerini dikkate alarak, örgütlerinde bir değişimi veya dönüşümü hayata geçirmek zorundadırlar. Bu çalışmada, değişim ve / veya dönüşüm sürecini olanaklı kılan ve literatürde dönüşümsel, (transformasyonel" liderlik" olarak adlandırılan kavram konu edilmektedir. Konu için literatür taraması yapılmış ve literatürde önde gelen dönüşümsel liderlik teorileri incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın son kısmında ise yakın zamanlarda Türkiye'de işletmecilik bakış açısını kullanan ve dönüşümsel liderliği konu edinen çalışmaların özetleri aktarılmıştır.

  19. TÜRKİYE’DE GIDA SEKTÖRÜNDE KURUM KİMLİĞİ VE KRİZ İLETİŞİMİ YÖNETİMİ ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Banu DAYANÇ KIYAT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Türk gıda sektöründe, süt ve süt ürünleri alanında faaliyet gösteren dört firmanın, kurum kimliği değerleri ile kriz iletişimi yönetimi arasındaki ilişki incelenmiş ve bu kapsamda Pınar, Danone, SEK ve Sütaş firmaları üzerinde, niceleyici çalışma yapılmıştır. 394 örneklem hacmine sahip çalışmanın sonucunda kurum kimliği ile kriz iletişimi yönetimi arasında bir ilişki görülmüştür. Kurum kimliği algısı ne kadar yüksek ise kriz iletişimi yönetiminde paydaşların kurum hakkında pozitif algısı, kurumlara pozitif fırsat olarak yansıdığı ve paydaşların kuruma karşı toleransının yüksek olduğu, anlık tepkilerin, tüketim alışkanlıklarındaki değişime göre daha pozitif olduğu görülmüştür. Bununla birlikte çalışmada, kurum kimliği algısı diğer firmalara göre daha yüksek bulunan Sütaş’ın kurum kimliğini temsil eden değerlere karşı yaptığı hatalar karşısında, paydaşların gösterdiği toleransın daha düşük olduğu da ayrıca tespit edilmiştir.

  20. Kağıt Geri Dönüşümünde Enzim ve Ultrasonik Enerji Kullanımı / Use of Enzyme and Ultrasonic Energy in Paper Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Karademir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Medeniyetin kurulmasında, bilgi depolama ve aktarımında tartışmasız bir yeri olan kâğıt, günümüzde artık çok çeşitli amaçlar için hayatın her kademesinde yer almakta, giderek tüketimi inanılmaz boyutlara ulaşmaktadır. Kâğıt sektöründe hammadde problemine çözüm için, sürdürülebilir ormancılık çalışmalarından daha ziyade, sürdürülebilir geri dönüşüm teknolojilerini geliştirmek gerekmektedir. Bu anlamda atık sınıfına giren kâğıtın, lifler dışında bulunan bütün bileşenlerini en ekonomik ve çevreci metotlarla ayırmak son derece önemlidir. Bu çalışmada, toner baskılı ofis kâğıtlarının mürekkep ve kirliliklerinden arındırılmasında enzim ve ultrasonik enerji kullanımı konusunda elde edilen bazı sonuçlar tartışılmış ve geri dönüşüm açısından kâğıt sektörü çevresel açıdan irdelenmiştir. Use of Enzyme and Ultrasonic Energy in Paper Recycling Paper has undeniable key roles in establishing civilization, archiving and transferring knowledge. Paper is in all parts of daily life for different purposes today and its consumption is getting at unbelievable level. For solving the problems related to insufficient raw materials, the sustainable recycling technologies should be developed rather than concentrating on sustainable forestry practices. In this sense, extracting all materials from waste papers with economical and environmentally friendly methods are extremely important. In this study, some results obtained from an experimental study carried out on the deinking of toner printed office papers with the help of enzymes and ultrasonic energy were discussed and paper industry was examined in respect to recycling and environment.

  1. ORTAÇAĞ AVRUPASI’NIN İKTİSAT TARİHİNDE FAİZ YASAĞININ KÖKENLERİ (THE ROOTS OF THE USURY PROHIBITION IN THE MEDIEVAL ECONOMIC HISTORY OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat Haldun AKALIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ortaçağ filozofları tefeciliğe çok açık ve kesin bir tanımlama getirmişlerdir: anaparayı veya borçlanılan tutarı aşan her fazladan ödeme faizdir. Tüm Skolâstik yazarlar, tefeciliğin bir günah ve suç olduğu, yalnızca kilise hukuku tarafından değil bununla birlikte pek çok ülkede yürürlüğe konulan dünyevi yasalar tarafından da cezalandırılması gerektiği görüşünde fikir birliğine varmışlardı. Köktenci inanca dayanan temel Skolâstik tez, tüm biçimlerdeki insan etkinliğinin en sonunda mutlaka doğal hukuka göre yargılanması gerektiği düşüncesini içermekteydi. Tefecilik, adil olmadığı için kabul edilemezdi. Aristocu önermenin ikinci dereceden de olsa bir önemi vardı. On beşinci asırda reddedilmiş olsa dahi, bundan dolayı Skolâstik konumu asla yok olmamıştı. Aquinas, tefecilik hırsızlıktır ve adalete de aykırıdır diyerek, Aristocu görüşü açıkça ifade etmişti. The scholastic definition of usury was very clearly, whatever exceeds the principal or the sum loaned is usury. All scholastic writers agreed that usury was both a sin and a crime, punishable not only by canon law but also by the secular law of many countries. The basic scholastic thesis rested on a fundamental belief that ultimately all forms of human activity must be judged by natural law. Usury was not acceptable because it was unjust. The Aristotelian argument was subsidiary and when it was rejected in the fifteenth century the scholastic position was not thereby undermined. Aquinas clearly states Aristotelian view that usury was theft and contrary to justice.

  2. DİŞ HEKİMLİGİNDE KULLANILAN Cr-Co ESASLI ALAŞIMLARlN SANTRiFÜJ DÖKÜM PARAMETRELERİNİN BELİRLENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TİJEN ÖVER

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde. diş Jıekinıliğinde çok çeşitli malzemeler kullanılmak'tadır. Bunlarıı\\ içinde kıymetli-kıyınetsiz ınetaller önemli bir ... "Ter tutmalıadır. Bu metallerin -dökümünde vöntenı olarak hassas döküı\\1 yöntemi cihaz olarak da �trifüj dökiim m::ıldneleri kullanıhrk'J:1ad1r. Fakat üretin1.de santrifdj döküm parametrelerinin belirlenmemis olması.. döliimlerde h:-ıta oranlannın , artmasına neden olmaktadır. Bu çalısmada: devir hızı ve bu hıza çıkış süresi değiştiril�bilen yeni bir santrifiij döküm makinesi imal edilmiş ve bu makine ile gerçekleştirilen dö kümlerde maksimwn d evi r hızı ve maksimınn de"ir hızına ulaşma sür esi üzerinde çalışmalar yapılmıştır. Ve sonuç olarak maksimwn devir hızı 600 devir/dak., maksimum d e vi r hızına ulaşnıa süresi olarak da 0.2 Sil belirlenmiş ve en verimli dökümler gerçekleştirilmiştir.

  3. Technical Letter Report, An Evaluation of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Reactor Piping System Components Containing Dissimilar Metal Welds, JCN N6398, Task 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2009-11-30

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light-water reactor components. The scope of this research encom¬passes primary system pressure boundary materials including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, inlays and onlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in steel components that challenge standard and/or conventional inspection methodologies. This interim technical letter report provides a summary of a technical evaluation aimed at assessing the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of small-bore DMW components that exist in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Operating experience and events such as the circumferential cracking in the reactor vessel nozzle-to-RCS hot leg pipe at V.C. Summer nuclear power station, identified in 2000, show that in PWRs where primary coolant water (or steam) are present under normal operation, Alloy 82/182 materials are susceptible to pressurized water stress corrosion cracking. The extent and number of occurrences of DMW cracking in nuclear power plants (domestically and internationally) indicate the necessity for reliable and effective inspection techniques. The work described herein was performed to provide insights for evaluating the utility of advanced NDE approaches for the inspection of DMW components such as a pressurizer surge nozzle DMW, a shutdown cooling pipe DMW, and a ferritic (low-alloy carbon steel)-to-CASS pipe DMW configuration.

  4. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  5. Prevención y cuidados en úlceras por presión: ¿Dónde estamos? Prevention and care in pressure ulcers: Where are we?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ángel Hernández Ortiz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios han explorado el grado de conocimiento (y su posterior puesta en práctica que posee el personal de enfermería sobre las recomendaciones relacionadas con la prevención y el tratamiento adecuado de las úlceras por presión que aparecen desarrolladas de manera sistemática en guías y manuales de sociedades internacionales y de España. Los resultados hallaron lagunas en los conocimientos referidos y deficiencias en su aplicación. Este trabajo pretende comprobar en qué situación nos encontramos los profesionales de enfermería del Complejo Hospitalario de Jaén (perteneciente a la red sanitaria pública andaluza, con respecto al conocimiento (a, frecuencia de utilización de las directrices recomendadas en la práctica asistencial (b, existencia de factores profesionales o de formación que puedan influir en el nivel de conocimiento y en su puesta en práctica (c; todo ello para ubicar los cuidados que prestamos comparando los resultados con investigaciones previas. La metodología fue descriptiva transversal. La recogida de datos se realizó a través de un cuestionario validado. Los resultados obtenidos son totalmente equiparables con los publicados tanto en España, como a nivel internacional.Several studies have explored the knowledge (and its subsequent implementation that owns the nursing staff on the recommendations relating to prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers, which are developed systematically in manuals and guides international companies and our country. The results found gaps in knowledge and related deficiencies in its application. This work aims to verify that we are the professional status of Nursing in Hospital de Jaén (belonging to the Andalusian public health system with respect to knowledge a frequency of use of the guidelines recommended in clinical practice, b existence of training or professional factors that may influence the level of knowledge and its implementation, and c to locate all

  6. Status of NDE research in the US-contributions of NDE to reactor safety and implementation of NDE technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammirato, F. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Power plant designers, plant owners, and regulators have developed inservice inspection (ISI) programs as part of their comprehensive approach to ensuring nuclear safety. This paper examines the role of ISI in reactor safety through several examples drawn from recent industry initiatives to address implementation of effective examination technology for nuclear power plant piping, and BWR and PWR reactor pressure vessels. These examples also illustrate the importance of well designed performance demonstration activities to support application of effective ISI. Finally, the efforts required to implement effective ISI technology for field inspection is addressed. (orig./DGE)

  7. Systems biology and bioinformatics in aging research: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuellen, Georg; Dengjel, Jörn; Hoeflich, Andreas; Hoeijemakers, Jan; Kestler, Hans A; Kowald, Axel; Priebe, Steffen; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Schmeck, Bernd; Schmitz, Ulf; Stolzing, Alexandra; Sühnel, Jürgen; Wuttke, Daniel; Vera, Julio

    2012-12-01

    In an "aging society," health span extension is most important. As in 2010, talks in this series of meetings in Rostock-Warnemünde demonstrated that aging is an apparently very complex process, where computational work is most useful for gaining insights and to find interventions that counter aging and prevent or counteract aging-related diseases. The specific topics of this year's meeting entitled, "RoSyBA: Rostock Symposium on Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Ageing Research," were primarily related to "Cancer and Aging" and also had a focus on work funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The next meeting in the series, scheduled for September 20-21, 2013, will focus on the use of ontologies for computational research into aging, stem cells, and cancer. Promoting knowledge formalization is also at the core of the set of proposed action items concluding this report.

  8. Siserände rahvuserinevused / Alis Tammur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammur, Alis

    2003-01-01

    Uuringu tulemustest selgus, et eestlaste rändeaktiivsus oli 1990. aastatel oluliselt suurem kui mitte-eestlastel. Kui eestlaste rändes valitses linnastumine, siis mitte-eestlaste vastulinnastumine on uus protsess ja näitab, et nende asustusala on Eestis laienemas. Tabelid. Diagramm. Kaardid

  9. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  10. Enron : Vad hände egentligen?

    OpenAIRE

    Antfolk, Angelica; Möller, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Skandalen som omvärvde Enron skakade affärsvärlden då det var den största skandal som dittills inträffat. De brott Enrons ledning stod anklagade för var många och av varierande art. De undersökningar som redan har genomförts har till stor del fokuserat på organisationen och ledarskapet. För att ge en annorlunda vinkel fokuserar denna uppsats istället på redovisningen och några av de misstag som begicks av Enrons ledning. Det är även därför som händelserna granskas ur ett revisorsperspektiv. M...

  11. ¿Dónde ocurre el aprendizaje?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Páramo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de los planteamientos básicos del aprendizaje situado, este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio que explora los escenarios donde los escolares de secundaria buscan información o adquieren ciertos conocimientos específicos. Metodológicamente, el estudio aplicó el enfoque de Teoría de Facetas para identificar las variables involucradas en las conexiones posibles entre escenarios y contenidos de aprendizaje. 297 estudiantes de secundaria (135 hombres y 163 mujeres respondieron un cuestionario sobre la frecuencia de búsqueda de cierto tipo de contenidos en ciertos escenarios. Los resultados confirmaron la faceta construida para los escenarios y reconfiguraron la faceta de contenidos en una polaridad. A partir de estos resultados, se elaboraron conclusiones respecto al alcance de los planteamientos del aprendizaje situado y se formularon interrogantes para futuros estudios que exploren el papel que juegan los nuevos escenarios de aprendizaje en la formación de los estudiantes. Abstract Under the basic principles of situated learning, this paper presents the results of a study that explores about the scenarios where information is looked up or certain specific knowledge is acquired by high school students. Methodologically, the study applied Facet Theory to identify the variables involved in the possible connections between scenarios and learning contents. A total of 297 high school students (135 males and 163 females answered a questionnaire about the frequency with which certain contents are looked up in certain scenarios, such as: the school, the city, home and the web. The results confirm the scenarios’ facet and restructure the contents’ facet in terms of a polarity. Some conclusions about the extension of situated learning principles were made and questions for future studies that explore the role of new learning scenarios in students’ education were asked.

  12. Ultrasonic stair case array for NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, K.; Tittmann, B. R.; Kropf, M.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we present the results on the design of a unique two-dimensional phased array with low channel applications for imaging defects on a metal surface. First, basic transducer calculations will be shown. Followed by the results of important phased array variables, such as focusing, and angle beam sweeping ability, The final design will be given. Next the computer simulation results will be discussed. These results will indicate the performance of the actual array. The second half of the paper will be devoted to a discussion on the phased array testing results with a demonstration phased array.

  13. Piezoelectric paint sensor for ultrasonic NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-04-01

    This paper deals with a distributed acoustic emission sensing method, which is especially suitable for piezoelectric paint. Piezoelectric paint is a composite piezoelectric material that is comprised of tiny piezoelectric particles randomly dispersed within a polymer matrix phase. An overview of the distributed acoustic emission sensing method for defect monitoring is given in this paper. The use of piezoelectric materials for ultrasonic signal measurements is next discussed along with a series of ultrasonic tests performed to verify the ultrasonic sensing capability of piezoelectric paint. To examine the mechanism of the distributed acoustic emission sensing method for crack initiation detection, the results of a finite element simulation based study is presented in this paper. The finite element model used in the parametric study is calibrated with experimental data. The effect of sensor numbers included in the array has been studied using both simulation and experimental data. Based on the preliminary results of this study, piezoelectric paint sensor appears to hold a potential for use in on-line monitoring of cracks such as those caused by fatigue in metal structures although more work is still needed before successful practical application can be made.

  14. Ultrasonic Test Bed for Quantitative NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    contact: P.H. Milham Director of Contracts and Pricing Rockwell International Science Center 1049 Camino Dos Rios Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 PH (805) 498...50I rb ) CAI COAV DLY Z04 70 25,L5253 *i6 v 1. -- i~r~vYS - C eW 2 ro 2l C U9 4 v ~ eelr 75(4.59 D 1 4r /, 0 DATO (.1e - rvecfoz 30 7V C- i

  15. Near Infrared (nir) Imaging for Nde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, G. G.; Pallav, P.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2008-02-01

    A novel application of near infrared (NIR) signals is presented, which can be used to provide images of many different materials and objects. It is effectively a very low cost non-ionising alternative to many applications currently being investigated using electromagnetic waves at other frequencies, such as THz and X-ray imaging. This alternative technique can be realised by very simple and inexpensive electronics and is inherently far more portable and easy to use. Transmission imaging results from this technique are presented from examples industrial quality control, food inspection and various security applications, and the results compared to existing techniques. In addition, this technique can be used in through-transmission mode on biological and medical samples, and images are presented that differentiate between not only flesh and bone, but also various types of soft tissue.

  16. Siserände rahvuserinevused / Alis Tammur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammur, Alis

    2003-01-01

    Uuringu tulemustest selgus, et eestlaste rändeaktiivsus oli 1990. aastatel oluliselt suurem kui mitte-eestlastel. Kui eestlaste rändes valitses linnastumine, siis mitte-eestlaste vastulinnastumine on uus protsess ja näitab, et nende asustusala on Eestis laienemas. Tabelid. Diagramm. Kaardid

  17. NDE of composite seismic retrofits to bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. C.; Nokes, J. P.; Hawkins, G. F.

    1999-12-01

    Composite materials are being used for bridge column seismic retrofits and to rehabilitate other concrete structures. There are three different manufacturing methods for applying composites to concrete columns which are outlined in this paper. Each method has the potential for creating debonds at the composite-concrete interface and within the composite itself. Thermography is a non-destructive evaluation technique which can be used to image debonds below the composite surface. Data from thermographic tests of a variety of retrofit applications, which include examples for each of the three aforementioned manufacturing processes, are presented.

  18. Anadolu Kültüründe Nazar ve Nazarlıklar: Safranbolu Örneği /Evil Eye and Amulets in Anatolian Culture: The Case of Safranbolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Gür

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Öz Bu araştırma, Anadolu kültüründe yer alan nazar inancı ve bu inancın somut bir yansıması olan nazarlıklarla ilgili günümüze ulaşan bazı örnekleri incelemektedir. Araştırma kapsamında, günümüzde Safranbolu’da bulunan sivil ve dini mimaride, özellikle su yapılarında görülen nazarlık çeşitleri, teknik, tür ve çeşitlilik açısından incelenmiş ve fotoğraflarla belgelenmiştir. Safranbolu’nun Bağlarbaşı, Kıranköy (Atatürk Mahallesi, Gümüş, Hacı Halil, Baba Sultan, Çeşme, Karaali, Çavuş Mahalleleri’ndeki mimari eserlerde bulunan nazarlıklar, araştırma konumuzun kaynağını oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada önce nazar inancı ile ilgili yaklaşımlar ve bu inancın tarihi kökenleri incelenmiştir. Daha sonra nazara inanan insanların, kötü niyetli insanların bakışlarıyla yaydıkları olumsuz enerjiyi başka alanlara yönlendirebilmek amacıyla kullanmış oldukları nazarlıklar incelenmiştir. Kullanılan nazarlık çeşitleri sınıflandırılarak benzer uygulamalar aynı başlık altında incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın son kısmında ise bu nazarlıkların özelliklerini gösteren bir tablo ile birlikte kullanılan malzeme ve teknikler hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Ayrıca, araştırma evreninde yer alan nazarlıklara ait bazı fotoğraflar araştırma sonuna eklenmiştir. Abstract This article examines the belief in evil eye in Anatolian culture and its concrete reflection, using amulets to defend oneself against it. The aim of this essay is to investigate and to certificate the types of amulets in civil and religious architecture, especially in water structures, in Safranbolu. In the study, the amulets existing in Baglarbasi, Kirankoy, Gumus, Haci Halil, Baba Sultan, Cesme, Karaali, and Cavus districts of Safranbolu is handled. The first part of the article examines the belief in evil eye and the historical basis of this belief. The second part examines the amulets used by the

  19. TÜRKİYE HAVAYOLU YOLCU TAŞIMACILIĞI SEKTÖRÜNDE HİZMET KALİTESİNİN KARŞILAŞTIRMALI ÖLÇÜMLENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz YILDIZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TÜRKİYE HAVAYOLU YOLCU TAŞIMACILIĞI SEKTÖRÜNDE HİZMET KALİTESİNİN KARŞILAŞTIRMALI ÖLÇÜMLENMESİYeni müşteriler kazanmak ve mevcut müşterileri elde tutmak bir süredir hizmet işletmeleri için iki önemli konu olmuştur. Hizmetin her aşamasında fark yaratmak bu iki amacın başarılmasında anahtar bir etkendir. Hizmet sunumunun farklılaştırılması açısından hizmet kalitesi göz önüne alındığında, müşterilere sağlanan hizmetin kalitesini ölçmenin önemi ortaya çıkmaktadır. Hizmet işletmeleri için hizmet kalitesini ölçmek zor bir konudur çünkü hizmet soyuttur, değişkendir, dayanıksızdır ve son olarak hizmetin üretimi ve tüketimi aynı anda gerçekleşmektedir. Hizmet kalitesinin ölçümü işletmelere pazarlama faaliyetlerini nasıl yönetecekleri bilgisini sağlar. Bu nedenle bu ölçme işlemi doğru ölçeklerle yapılmalıdır. Bu çalışmada ilk olarak hizmet kalitesi yazınsalı incelenmiş daha sonra yüz yüze anket yöntemiyle araştırmaya temel teşkil edecek veriler toplanmıştır. Araştırmada son olarak, keşifsel faktör analizi yapılmış ve hizmet kalitesini ölçen iki model karşılaştırılmıştır. Araştırmadaki bulgular, ağırlıklı SERVPERF ölçeğinin algılanan hizmet kalitesini ağırlıklı SERVQUAL ölçeğinden daha fazla açıkladığını ortaya koymuştur.COMPARATIVE MEASURING OF SERVICE QUALITY IN THE PASSENGER CARRIAGE OF TURKISH AIRLINES INDUSTRYAcquiring new customers and retaining existing customers have been two important subjects for service organizations. Creating difference in every section of the service is a key factor to success on realization of these purposes. When service quality is thought as an important factor for creating difference in service industry, the importance of measuring service quality provided to the customers comes out. Measuring service quality is a hard issue for service firms because services are intangible

  20. Josephinische Bibliothek und medizinhistorische Bestände der Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien [The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht, Harald

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The University Library of the Medical University of Vienna, founded in 2004, is the most extensive medical library in Austria. It possesses an outstanding medical-historic stock which is basically stored in its Branch Library of Medical History. This unique stock also is a historical source itself because it represents the development of the supply of the Medical Faculty of Vienna, Viennese hospitals and medical societies with scientific literature and information during the last centuries. The brunch library contains several remarkable special-collections such as the Josephinian Library, the Library of Neurology (Obersteiner-Library, the Library of the Society of Physicians in Vienna or the Library of the Austrian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.In order to deal with its own history the University Library runs a provenance-research project to identify expropriated goods transferred to its stock during the Nazi-regime and restores them to their rightful owners. It also runs a weblog-series “Displaced 1938”, which is about displaced members of the Medical Faculty of Vienna during World . Currently it establishes a bio-bibliographical online-portal about exponents of the so called “Vienna Medical School(s” between 1750 and 1950 as well as an online bookplate database.To improve the access to large parts of the stock the ancient card indexes got digitalized (including OCR-reading and have been online since 2010. Supplementary the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna engages in the European cooperation on E-books on Demand (EOD.[german] Die Universitätsbibliothek der 2004 errichteten Medizinischen Universität Wien ist die größte medizinische Fachbibliothek in Österreich. Sie verfügt auch über bedeutende medizinhistorische Bestände, die überwiegend in der Zweigbibliothek für Geschichte der Medizin untergebracht sind und auch eine Quelle für die Entwicklung der Literatur- und

  1. LES INFLUENCES DES OBJETS DANS LA JALOUSIE D’ALAIN ROBBE-GRILLET / ALAIN ROBBE-GRILLET’NİN KISKANÇLIK ESERİNDE NESNELERİN ETKİLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel ÖZKAYA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alain Robbe-Grillet, çok fazla seyahat etmesine neden olan ziraat mühendisliği mesleğini yapar. Bu meslek ona nesneleri ve insanları gözlemleme zevkini verir. Yazar, Yeni Roman’ın gelişip olgunlaşmasında kuramcı ve önde gelen üstadı olarak kabul edilir. Klasik romanın kişileri ön planda tutmasına karşılık, Yeni roman nesnelerin evreni olarak kabul edilir. Alain Robbe-Grillet’nin Kıskançlık isimli eseri bu belirgin aşamayı görmemize olanak sağlar. Romanın başlığında, hem bir duyguyu hem de bir nesneyi belirten çift anlam bulunur. Açıkçası, bu eserin ana konusu karısının tüm şüpheli davranışlarını ortaya koyan anlatıcı-kocanın kıskançlık duygusudur. Anlatı boyunca, karısının onu aldatıp aldatmadığından emin olamaz. Fakat Kıskançlık romanına yenilik katan şey, yazarın anlatı yöntemidir. Bu eserde her şey, karısı A.’yı gözlemleyen kıskanç anlatıcı-kocanın bakış açısından betimlenir. Yazar bize geleneksel bir tablo sunar, ki bu tablo evli bir kadın olan A.’dan, karısı Christiane’ı evde bırakarak düzenli bir şekilde onu ziyarete gelen evli erkek Franck’tan ve her şeyi gözlemleyen anlatıcı-kocadan oluşur. Kitap boyunca anlatıcının adının söylenmemesine rağmen, sıkıntıları ve kaygılarıyla onun var olduğunu anlarız. Kıskanç kişinin şüpheleri, görünümün düzenini, gözlemlenmiş detayların seçimini gizli bir şekilde doğrular.

  2. KONYA MEVLÂNÂ MÜZESİ’NDE BULUNAN “12” ENVANTER NUMARALI KUR’AN-I KERİM’İN TEZHİP AÇISINDAN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennur Atalay Varol

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Medeniyetlerin tarih boyunca sahip oldukları değerlerin, gelecek nesillere aktarılmasında, en önemli öğelerden biri de sanattır. Kültürel değerlerimizden olan Gelenekli Sanatlarımız geçmişimizin, sanata olan yansımasıyla günümüze ulaşmıştır. Bir milletin kendine has sanatı, halkın kültür seviyesini ve sosyal hayatın sembollerini teşkil eder. Tezyîni sanatlar bu anlayış içinde doğup gelişerek günümüze kadar gelmiştir. Tezyîni sanatlar içinde yer alan tezhip sanatı da yüzyıllar boyunca geçen süreçte yaşadığı gelişmeleri ve değişmeleri göstermektedir. Bu çalışmanın konusunu “Konya Mevlânâ Müzesi’nde bulunan 1314 -15 tarihli, “12” envanter numaralı Kur’an-ı Kerim’in tezhipli sayfaları ve cilt kapakları” oluşturmaktadır. Kur’an-ı Kerim’in ketebe sayfasındaki bilgilerden bu eserin H.724 / M.1314-15 tarihinde, Karamanlı Beylerden Halil b. Mahmud için Katip İsmail b. Yusuf tarafından Konya’da yazıldığını ve Yakup b. Gazi el-Konevî tarafından tezhiplendiğini anlıyoruz. Eserin, gerek hat ve gerekse tezhibi, dönemin özelliklerini göstermesi ve tezhip sanatının tarihi seyrine ışık tutması bakımından önemlidir. Yazıldığı tarih itibariyle Beylik dönemine ait bir eser olmakla birlikte, Selçuklu döneminden hemen sonrasına ait olan bu eserin, önceki dönemin sanat anlayışıyla benzer üslupları bulunmaktadır. Eser; motif, desen ve üslup özellikleri bakımından incelenmiş olup, tasarımında etkili olan üslup özellikleri hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Eserin tezyinatı, görsel malzemeler ve çizimlerle desteklenerek değerlendirilmiştir.

  3. DOĞAL AFETLER ve TÜRK SİGORTA SEKTÖRÜNDE RİSK TRANSFERİ - NATURAL DISASTERS AND RISK TRANSFER IN THE TURKS INSURANCE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif ÇEKİCİ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Özet:İklim değişikliği nedeniyle dünyanın her yerindemeydana gelen doğal afetlerin şiddeti ve yarattığı hasarlarzamanla artmaktadır. Doğal afetler sonucundakarşılaşılabilecek risklerden korunmanın en iyi yolu sigortasektörünün güçlendirilmesidir. Çünkü doğal afetler öncedentahmin edilemediği için bu risklerden arınmak mümkündeğildir. Afetlerin hasar boyutu gittikçe büyümekte ve busigorta ve reasürans şirketleri için risk oluşturmaktadır.Dolayısıyla sigorta sektörünün bu riski transfer etmesigerekecektir. Bu çalışmada Türkiye’deki yangın ve doğal afetsigortası prim tutarlarının ve hasar prim oranlarının gelişimi,1986 – 2009 yılları arasındaki yangın ve doğal afet sigortasıprim tutarlarından ve hasar prim oranlarından oluşan zamanserisi ele alınarak incelenmiştir. 2011 yılı için yangın ve doğalafet sigortası prim tutarı tahmini Pegels’in üstel düzeltmetekniği ile yapılmış ve % 95 güven aralığı ile hasar primoranları için güven aralığı hesaplanmıştır.Abstract:Because of climate change, natural disastersoccurring all over the world and their compound effects areincreasing day by day. The best way of being protected fromthe possible risks that stem from natural disasters is toempower the insurance sector. Since the natural disasters arenot predictable, it is impossible to break free of those risks. Thesize of damage of disasters is increasing and this constitutes agreat deal of risk for insurance and reinsurance companies.As a consequence, the insurance sector should transfer thisrisk. In this article, the development of insurance premiums offire and natural disaster and damage premium amounts, arebeing examined by considering the time series of insurancepremiums of fire and natural disaster and rates of damagepremiums between the years of 1986-2009. For the year 2011,the estimate of fire and natural disaster and rates of damagepremium, are being

  4. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi'nde Bina İçi Radon Konsantrasyonlarının Nükleer İz Dedektörleri Kullanılarak Belirlenmesi

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    Mehmet Ertan KÜRKÇÜOĞLU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kapalı ortamlarda zamanla birikebilen radon gazı alfa parçacıkları yayımlar ve doğal radyoaktivitenin yarısından doğrudan sorumludur. Yüksek seviyede radon ihtiva eden ortamlarda radon ve radon ürünlerinin solunması, akciğerde kanser oluşumuyla bağdaştırıldığından radon konsantrasyonlarının kapalı mekanlar için belirlenmesi oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışmada, 10 bin dekarlık alana sahip Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi'nde üçü doğu yerleşkesi, ikisi batı yerleşkesinde olmak üzere toplam beş binadaki (Ziraat Fakültesi, Hukuk Fakültesi, Atatürk Spor Salonu, Mühendislik ve Mimarlık Fakültesi ile Bilgi İşlem Merkezi'ndeki atmosferik radon düzeyleri 92 ölçüm noktasına yerleştirilen CR-39 nükleer iz dedektörleri ile ölçülmüştür. Bu ölçümler yaklaşık 8 haftalık bir süre boyunca, 2010 yılı Mayıs ile Temmuz ayları arasında yapılmıştır. Dedektörlerin analizleri sonucunda; Mühendislik ve Mimarlık Fakültesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Hukuk Fakültesi, Atatürk Spor Salonu ve Bilgi İşlem Merkezi'ndeki bina içi ortalama radon konsantrasyonlarının sırasıyla 259 Bq/m3, 279 Bq/m3, 265 Bq/m3, 324 Bq/m3 ve 173 Bq/m3 olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca bu birimleri kullanan personel ve öğrencilerin radon nedeniyle alacakları tahmini doz miktarları hesaplanmış ve yıllık etkin doz eşdeğerlerinin, yine aynı sırayla 2,7 mSv, 2,9 mSv, 2,8 mSv, 3,4 mSv ve 1,8 mSv düzeyinde olduğu bulunmuştur.

  5. 6. SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN YAZMA BECERİLERİNDE GÖRÜLEN HATALARIN SINIFLANDIRILMASI / CLASSIFICATION OF THE OBSERVED ERRORS IN WRITING SKILLS OF 6TH GRADE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Sena AKBABA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yazma becerisi, kişinin genellikle ilköğretim döneminde kazandığı ve diğer dil becerileri gibi hayatı boyunca gereksinim duyup kullandığı bir beceri türüdür. Bu becerinin sınıf düzeyi arttıkça gelişmesi beklenmektedir. Bu yönüyle sınıf kademesi arttıkça öğrenciden beklenen şey, yazma becerisini geliştirerek hatalardan uzak bir metin ortaya koyabilmesidir. Bu beklentinin karşılanması her bireyde değişiklik göstermektedir. Kimi öğrenciler, yazma öğretimiyle doğru orantılı olarak eksiksiz metinler ortaya koyarken kimi öğrenciler de beklenen düzeylerin altında veya çok altında metinler yazmaktadırlar. Metinlerini hatalı bir şekilde yazan öğrencilerin bireysel bir şekilde değerlendirilmesi ve çeşitli yöntemler kullanarak o hatalarının en aza indirilmesi gerekmektedir. Yazma eğitiminde hataların tespit edilmesi, hataların nasıl ve ne yönde giderileceğini anlamak açısından çok önemlidir. Bu nedenle, öncelikle metinlerdeki hataların hangi noktalarda olduğunun tespit edilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu araştırmada, öğrencilerin yazmış olduğu metinler, araştırmacılar tarafından belirlenen hata başlıkları göz önünde bulundurularak değerlendirilmiştir. Hatalar; kelime, cümle, paragraf ve metin olmak üzere dört düzeyde başlıklandırılmış ve nerelerde daha çok hata yapıldığı ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Doküman analizi tekniğiyle incelenen metinlerdeki yazma hatalarının daha çok nerelerde yapıldığı tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, öğrencilerin kelime düzeyinde yaptıkları hataların çoğu yazım hatalarından oluşmaktadır. Cümle düzeyinde noktalama işaretleri, ardından da anlatım bozukluğu başlığında daha çok hata yapıldığı görülmektedir. Paragraf düzeyinde öğrencilerin cümleler arası bağ kurmada ve giriş, gelişme, sonuç bölümlerine uygun cümle yazmakta zorlandıkları tespit edilmiştir. Metin d

  6. Rapidly Degradable Pyrotechnic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Broth LB-Amp: Ampicillin-Luria Broth NdeI: Restriction Endonuclease OmpA: Outer Membrane Protein Gene PBS: Phosphate Buffered Saline PCR...concentrations of 0.5 g L−1 can be easily achieved by fermentation . In batch fermentation the major part of the enzyme is accumulated in the

  7. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Brockett

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose S={{Xnj,   j=1,2,…,kn}} is an infinitesimal system of random variables whose centered sums converge in law to a (necessarily infinitely divisible distribution with Levy representation determined by the triple (γ,σ2,M. If {Yj,   j=1,2,…} are independent indentically distributed random variables independent of S, then the system S′={{YjXnj,j=1,2,…,kn}} is obtained by randomizing the scale parameters in S according to the distribution of Y1. We give sufficient conditions on the distribution of Y in terms of an index of convergence of S, to insure that centered sums from S′ be convergent. If such sums converge to a distribution determined by (γ′,(σ′2,Λ, then the exact relationship between (γ,σ2,M and (γ′,(σ′2,Λ is established. Also investigated is when limit distributions from S and S′ are of the same type, and conditions insuring products of random variables belong to the domain of attraction of a stable law.

  8. system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.; Vijande, J.

    2017-07-01

    Using local central Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interactions reproducing the low-energy parameters and phase shifts of the nn system, and the latest updates of the nΛ and ΛΛ Nijmegen ESC08c potentials, we study the possible existence of a bound state. Our results indicate that the is unbound, being just above threshold. We discuss the role played by the 1 S 0 nn repulsive term of the Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interaction. Supported by COFAA-IPN (México), Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and EU FEDER (FPA2013-47443, FPA2015-69714-REDT, FPA2016-77177), Junta de Castilla y León (SA041U16) and Generalitat Valenciana PrometeoII/2014/066

  9. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  10. MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT METHODS USED AT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LESSON AND THE DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED FEN VE TEKNOLOJİ DERSİNDE KULLANILAN ÖLÇMEDEĞERLENDİRME YÖNTEMLERİ VE KARŞILAŞILAN GÜÇLÜKLER

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    Etem YEŞİLYURT

    2012-06-01

    ştırmacının hazırladığı yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formuyla elde edilmiş, NVivo 8 nitel veri analizi programıyla çözümlenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda öğretmenlerin en fazla geleneksel yöntemlerden yazılı sınav, tamamlama-boşluk doldurma, çoktan seçmeli, doğru-yanlış türü ve eşleştirme sorularını; tamamlayıcı yöntemlerden ise performansa dayalı işlemler, projeler ve ürün seçki dosyasını kullandıkları belirlenmiştir. Yazılı sınav türünde öğrencilerin bildiklerini ifade edememeleri, tamamlama sorularında öğrencinin akıllarına geleni yazmaları, çoktan seçmeli, doğru yanlış ve eşleştirme sorularında ise öğrencilerin şansla doğru cevabı bulmaları gibi sorunların olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Performansa dayalı işlemler ve proje yöntemindeyse öğretmenler öğrencilerin ödevleri internetten hazır alma, ailelerden fazla yardım görme ve özgün bir ürün ortaya koyamama sorunuyla karşılaştıklarını belirtmişlerdir.Measurement and assessment methods, difficulties Ölçme-değerlendirme yöntemleri, karşılaşılan güçlükler.

  11. Osmanlı Devleti’nde Cadı Avı Var mıydı? (Karşılaştırmalı Bir İnceleme

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    Cem Doğan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWitchcraft, namely putting a spell on someone in a general meaning is a traditionally ritual of early pagan societies. In the middle ages, thousands of people was sentenced to torture or death by accusing witchcraft and wondering and harming people around. As we look at the Ottoman Empire, we will see that there were some people who were accused by being a witch and exiled, or burned after their deaths by opening their graves. This study discusses the place of witchcraft and witches in the Western tradition and examines the trials of witchcraft both in Western and Ottoman societies. In addition to this, the attitude of the Ottoman State to witchcraft and witches also to be held.ÖzetCadılık yani genel anlamıyla düşünüldüğünde kötü emellerle büyü yapma geleneği, aslen erken dönem pagan toplumlarında görülen bir âdettir. Ortaçağ Avrupa’sında da engizisyon tarafından büyücülükle ve geceleri dolaşarak insanlara kötülük etmekle suçlanan binlerce kişi, “cadı” oldukları iddiasıyla işkenceye ve ölüme mahkûm edilmiştir. Osmanlı Devletine baktığımızda ise yine cadılıkla suçlanan ve bu nedenle yer değiştirme, öldükten sonra mezarı açılarak yakılma gibi birtakım cezalara çarptırılan kişilerin var olduğunu görürüz. Bu çalışmada, cadılığın ve cadıların Batı geleneğindeki yeri ve cadılığa ilişkin görülen davalar incelenmiş ve Osmanlı’da cadılığa ve devletin cadılara yönelik tutumu tetkik edilmiş ve Osmanlı toplumu ile Batı toplumlarında Cadılığı yaklaşım ile ilgili karşılaştırmalı bir inceleme yapılmıştır.La chasse aux sorcières dans l'Empire ottomanRésuméLa sorcellerie, à savoir faire de la magie dans un but négatif, était à l’origine une tradition des sociétés païennes de l’âge classique. Dans l’Europe médiévale, des milliers de personnes, accusées de sorcellerie du fait qu’elles sortaient la nuit pour faire de

  12. İki farklı apeks bulucunun kök kanal boyu ölçümünde doğruluğunun ex vivo olarak değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Kartal

    2011-10-01

    ıklı kaliper kullanıldı. Dişler kronları ve apikal 1/3’leri açıkta kalacak şekilde akriliğe gömüldü. Ardından dilerin apikal 1/3’lük kısımları aljinata gömüldü ve iki apeks bulucuyla ölçümler yapıldı. Tüm ölçümler ikişer defa tekrarlandı.

    Bulgular: Dişlerin elektronik kök kanal boyu ölçüm değerleri ortalaması gerçek kanal boyuyla karşılatırıldığı zaman ± 0.5 mm aralığında Propex için ölçüm değeri doğruluk oranı %97.5; RomiAPEX™ D-30 için %95 olarak hesaplandı. Gerçek kök kanal boyu ile elektronik apeks bulucuların ölçüm değerleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılık bulunamadı (p>0,05.

    Sonuç: Her iki apeks bulucunun da kök kanal boyu ölçümünde yüksek oranda doğruluk gösterdiği tespit edildi.

  13. AB ÜLKELERİNDE KAYIT DIŞI İSTİHDAMLA MÜCADELEDE ALTERNATİF BİR METOD OLARAK SOSYAL DİYALOG MEKANİZMASI

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    Eyüp Serdar ERDOĞAN

    2015-08-01

    diyalog mekanizmalarına dair bazı iyi uygulama örnekleri ele alınmıştır. Ayrıca özel sosyal diyalog mekanizması uygulamaları olarak Almanya’daki “Centilmenlik Anlaşması” ve Bulgaristan’da hayata geçirilen “Sosyal Diyalogla Belirlenen İnşaat Sektöründe Prim Eşikleri Uygulaması” na yer verilmiştir. Özellikle tekstil, imalat veya inşaat gibi kayıt dışı istihdamın yoğun olduğu sektörlerde sorunun çözümü açısından AB’deki iyi uygulamalarına benzer sektörel sosyal diyalog girişimlerinin ciddi bir alternatif olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmış ve bu bağlamda bazı öneriler yapılmıştır.

  14. Evliya Çelebi Seyahatnamesi’nde İki Dillilerin Türkçeleri Üzerine On The Turkish Of The Bilinguals In The Travel Book (Seyahatname Of Evliya Çelebi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürer GÜLSEVİN

    2012-12-01

    etnologdur ne de sosyologdur. Evliya Çelebi’nin anlattığı diller, lehçeler ve ağızlar farklı farklı araştırmacılar tarafından incelenmiştir.Evliya Çelebi’nin Seyahatnamesinde, o dönemindeki edebî Türkçe, birçok yabancı dil, Türk dilinin bazı lehçeleri ve ağızları üzerine çok önemli bilgiler bulunmaktadır. Hatta Seyahatname’de tanıtılan dillerden bazıları hakkındaki mevcut en eski bilgilerimiz Evliya Çelebi’nin orada bahsettiklerine dayanmaktadır. Bunların yanı sıra, Osmanlı Devletinde yaşayan iki dilli halkların Türkçeleri hakkında sunduğu veriler ise başka kaynaklarda ulaşılamayacak zenginliktedir. Seyahatname’de, iki dilliler doğal olarak edebî Türkçe ile konuşturulmuştur. Ancak, bu hacimli eserde iki dillilerin azımsanamayacak ölçüde edebî dil dışındaki konuşma örnekleri de vardır.Bu makalede önce Evliya Çelebi’nin Seyahatnamesinde bulduğumuz yukarıdaki dil tipleri hakkında kısaca bilgi verilmiştir. Daha sonra, eserin muhtelif yerlerinde iki dillilerin Evliya Çelebi tarafından nakledildiği şekliyle Türkçe konuşmaları, cümleleri incelenmiştir. Seyahatname’de sunulan şekilleriyle, iki dillilerin ne zaman edebî Türkçe, ne zaman veya hangi şartlarda özel bir ağız ile konuşturuldukları anlaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Sonuç bölümünde ise iki dillilerin Türkçe konuşma tarzları sınıflandırılarak gösterilmiştir.

  15. Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü’nde Aile Temi Üzerinden Türk Modernleşmesinin Seyri Looking At The Turkish Modernisation Via Family Theme In Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanife ÖZER

    2012-12-01

    ınmıştır. Romanın olay örgüsü, başkahraman Hayri İrdal’ın hatıralarına dayanır. Eserde tarih, ekonomi, bürokrasi, bilim, felsefe, hurafe, aile, kadın, Doğu, Batı vb. kavramlar, “eski-yeni” zihniyeti çerçevesinde ele alınmış, bu kavramların art alanlarında köklü değişmelerin çok süratli bir şekilde yaşandığına işaret edilmiştir. Roman Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun son dönemi ile Cumhuriyet’in ilk yarısını kapsayan bir süreci kurgulamış, bu süreç içinde de aile yapısının nasıl değiştiği gözler önüne serilmiştir. Yazar aile kurumundaki gelişmeleri veya değişmeleri, ailenin bağlı bulunduğu ve içinde bir çekirdek rolü üstlendiği toplumdaki gelişmelere paralel bir şekilde almıştır. Yine farklı nesillere mensup aileler arasındaki farklı anlayış ve eğilimleri toplumsal gelişmelerle bazen doğrudan, bazen de dolaylı olarak ilintilediği görülmektedir. Bilindiği gibi, toplumsal yapıdaki her gelişmenin yahut da değişmenin eski bir örneği, bu örneğin bazı etkenlerle yeniyi hazırlayan koşulları, yine bu koşulların etkisi ile yeniye doğru gelişen eğilim ve yeninin, eskinin yerini alması süreci söz konusudur. Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü’nde de böyle bir sürecin varlığından söz edilebilir. Romanda bu süreç içinde Osmanlı Türk ailesinin; geleneksel yapıya sahip olanlar, eskiye bağlı ama aynı zamanda eskinin baskısını yaşayan, bu bakımdan da yeniye geçiş konumunda bulunanlar ile yeninin, modernin yansıtıcısı aileler şeklinde üç grupta ele alındığını söylemek mümkündür.

  16. THE NAMES AND MARKINGS GIVEN TO THE HORSES ACCORDING THEIR COAT COLORS IN TURKISH CULTURE TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜNDE DONLARINA GÖRE ATLARA VERİLEN ADLAR VE NİŞANLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim KÜÇÜK

    2009-12-01

    rkçe döneminden farklı olarak Orta Türkçe dönemindeki yazılı eserlerde at donlarına ve nişanlarına daha fazla yer verildiği görülmüştür. Özellikle Divanü Lûgati’t-Türk bu konuda son derece zengin bir eserdir. Türkiye Türkçesi’nde ise Derleme ve Tarama Sözlükleri at donları ve nişanları yönünden Karahanlı dönemi eserlerine göre daha zengin bir yapı sergilemektedir. Türkiye Türkçesi bu yönüyle hem tarihî hem de çağdaş Türk lehçelerinden belirgin bir şekilde ayrılmaktadır.

  17. TURKISH PARTICIPLES AND GREEK RELATIVE CLAUSES: TURKISH PARASYNTHEMES AND GREEK SYNTAGMS TÜRK DİLİNDE ORTAÇLAR – YUNAN DİLİNDE İLGİ YANTÜMCELERİ: TÜRKÇE’DE PARASENTEMLER, YUNANCA’DA SENTAGMLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni SELLA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish and Greek differ clearly in terms of both the syntactic processes and the distribution of their units. Indicative of this differentiation are the difficulties faced by the speakers of Greece in acquiring the method and usage of the Sıfat Fiil of the Turkish language, particularly the ones denoting relations of specialisation between reference and referent. For this purpose, we decided to examine these relations closely, both according to the principles of the contrastive study of the two structural systems, as well as in terms of error analysis, based on the theoretical premises of A. Martinet's Functional Linguistics.The analysis and interpretation of our students' errors leads to the conclusion that, compared to Modern Greek, which is for the mostpart characterised by syntagms, i.e. with an analytic method of structuring and providing information (and it is in this sense contrasted to Ancient Greek, the hardest problem in Turkish lies in the existence of synthemes and parasynthemes, i.e. a synthetic and concentrated structural method. Indeed, this is a clear difference, one that is hard to overcome in the learning process adopted for Turkish. The co-existence of genetic and typological divergences accounts for the presence of a significant number of gaps, which are due not to the strategy of interference, but rather to the mechanism of simplification and to the principle of least effort. Yunanca ile Türkçe arasında hem söz dizimi hem de birimlerin dağılımı konusunda belirleyici farklılıklar vardır. Bu farklılıkların öğrenimde sebep olan zorlukların arasında ana dili Yunanca olanların Türkçe öğrenmelerinde, sıfat–fiil bulunduran tümcelerin söz diziminde (sentaks ve sıfat-fiillerin kullanımında, özellikle de tamlayan ve tamlanan arasındaki ilişki konusunda karşılaştıkları güçlükler de gösterilebilir. Bundan dolayıdır ki, iki dil sistemi Karşıtsal İnceleme ve de Yanlışları

  18. Ultrasonic Guided-Wave Scan System Used to Characterize Microstructure and Defects in Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Martin, Richard E.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for advanced aerospace propulsion applications to save weight, improve reuse capability, and increase performance. However, mechanical and environmental loads applied to CMCs can cause discrete flaws and distributed microdamage, significantly reducing desirable physical properties. Such microdamage includes fiber/matrix debonding (interface failure), matrix microcracking, fiber fracture and buckling, oxidation, and second phase formation. A recent study (ref. 1) of the durability of a C/SiC CMC discussed the requirement for improved nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for monitoring degradation in these materials. Distributed microdamage in CMCs has proven difficult to characterize nondestructively because of the complex microstructure and macrostructure of these materials. This year, an ultrasonic guided-wave scan system developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center was used to characterize various microstructural and flaw conditions in SiC/SiC (silicon carbide fiber in silicon carbide matrix) and C/SiC (carbon fiber in silicon carbide matrix) CMC samples.

  19. Inductively coupled transducer system for damage detection in composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, C. H.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2012-04-01

    The laminated construction of composite offers the possibility of permanently embedding sensors into structure, for example, ultrasonic transducers which can be used for NDE applications. An attractive and simple solution for probing embedded sensors wirelessly is via inductive coupling. However, before this can be achieved it is necessary to have a full understanding and proper design strategy for the inductively coupled system. This paper presents the developments of both system design procedure and a computer program for one dimensional inductively coupled transducer system mounted on a solid substrate. The design strategy in this paper mainly focuses on issues of localization of transducers, and optimizing the signal to noise level. Starting from a three coil equivalent circuit, this paper also explains how the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric disc is implemented into the system model representing a transducer bonded to an arbitrary solid substrate. The computer programme using this model provides immediate predictions of electrical input impedance, acoustic response and pulse-echo response. A series of experiments and calculations have been performed in order to validate the model. This has enabled the degree of accuracy required for various parameters within the model, such as mutual inductance between the coils and self-inductance of coils, to be assessed. Once validated, the model can be used as a tool to predict the effect of physical parameters, such as distance, lateral misalignment between the coils, and the coil geometry on the performance of an inductively coupled system.

  20. Scanning array radar system for bridge subsurface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chieh-Ping; Ren, Yu-Jiun; Yu, Tzu Yang

    2012-04-01

    Early damage detection of bridge has been an important issue for modern civil engineering technique. Existing bridge inspection techniques used by State Department of Transportation (DOT) and County DOT include visual inspection, mechanical sounding, rebound hammer, cover meter, electrical potential measurements, and ultrasonics; other NDE techniques include ground penetrating radar (GPR), radiography, and some experimental types of sensors. Radar technology like GPR has been widely used for the bridge structure detection with a good penetration depth using microwave energy. The system to be presented in this paper is a different type of microwave sensing technology. It is focus on the subsurface detection and trying to find out detail information at subsurface (10 cm) with high resolution radar imaging from a flexible standoff distance. Our radar operating frequency is from 8-12 GHz, which is different from most of the current GPR systems. Scanning array antenna system is designed for adjustable beamwidth, preferable scanning area, and low sidelobe level. From the theoretical analysis and experimental results, it is found that the proposed technique can successfully capture the presence of the near-surface anomaly. This system is part of our Multi- Modal Remote Sensing System (MRSS) and provides good imaging correlations with other MRSS sensors.

  1. Digital Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection system with dynamic focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. S.; Shin, H. J.; Song, S. J.; Song, T. K.

    2000-05-01

    Enhancement of the ultrasonic flaw detection and characterization is expected through the development of a high performance PAULI (Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection) system which can provide high resolution two-dimensional (sector scan: S-scan) images. The high-resolution S-scan image renders inspection results more readable compared to the conventional A-scan and B-scan results. Therefore, it can improve inspection efficiency and reliability. In this study, the ultrasonic imaging technologies developed in medical applications were adapted to develop a digital PAULI system for nondestructive testing. To provide real-time S-scan images, the PAULI system uses 64 independent transceiver channels controlled by proper delay laws for steering and focusing the ultrasound beams along each scan lines. The PAULI system employs a novel dynamic receive focusing technique in order to optimize the lateral resolution by focusing the ultrasound wave at all imaging points. The dynamic receive focusing is achieved in real-time by digital signal processing methods. The feasibility of PAULI system is demonstrated for the NDE of steel structures.

  2. IDEOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE TEXTS OF FOLK LITERATURE AT THE PERIOD OF USSR: IN THE CONTEXT OF ALANKAY BATIR HALK EDEBİYATI METİNLERİNE SOVYETLER BİRLİĞİ DÖNEMİNDE İDEOLOJİK YAKLAŞIM: ALANKAY BATIR ÖRNEĞİ

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    Bülent BAYRAM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Folk Literature was under the ideologic pressure during the USSR period. From time to time it was prohibited to publish some of the literary works. Some of the works were published after they had undergone some change with the excuse that they convey idiology opposite to that of the USSR. Some of the chapters were dropped out of the literary Works: for example, this kind of changes have been done to the Epic of Alankay Batır of the Kazak Turks. Halk edebiyatı eserleri Sovyetler Birliği’nde ideolojik baskılara maruz kalmıştır. Zaman zaman bazı eserlerin yayınlanması tamamen yasaklanmıştır. Bazı eserler de Sovyet ideolojisine ters düştüğü gerekçesiyle değiştirilerek yayınlanmıştır. Bazı bölümler eserlerden çıkarılmıştır. Kazak Türklerinin Alankay Batır destanında da bu tür oynamalar görülmektedir. Elde bulunan orijinal nüsha ile yayınlanan nüsha arasındaki farklılıklar bunu açıkça göstermektedir.

  3. YUNUS EMRE TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİ SETİ’NDE YER ALAN METİNLERİN TÜR, TEMA VE ÖZGÜNLÜK AÇISINDAN İNCELENMESİ / INVESTIGATION ACCORDING TO THE TEXT OF THE TYPE, THEMES AND ORIGINALITY IN YUNUS EMRE TURKISH TEACHING BOOKS

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    Nilüfer SERİN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Yabancı dil öğretiminde temel kaynak olarak ders kitaplarının kullanılması, kitaplarda yer verilen metinlerin seçimini önemli kılmaktadır. Avrupa Ortak Dil Çerçevesi’nde de yabancı dil öğretiminde metinlerin önemine dikkat çekilmekte, metinlerin sadece okuma becerisinin değil aynı zamanda konuşma ve yazma becerisinin de gelişmesine yardımcı olmasından ötürü öğrencilerin fazla sayıda metinle karşılaşması gerektiği üzerinde durulmaktadır. Bunun dışında dil öğrenenlerin söz varlığının gelişmesine, öğrendikleri dilin taşıdığı kültürü tanımalarına, hedef dilin konuşulduğu ülke/ülkeler hakkında bilgi edinmelerine de katkı sağlamaktadır. Bu hususta etkili ve verimli bir yabancı dil dersi için ders kitaplarına seçilecek metinlerin de öğrencilerin seviyesine, dersin hedef ve amaçlarına uygun olması gerekmektedir. Muhakkak ki edebî türler, metnin özgünlüğü ve teması ders kitaplarında yer alan metinlerin seçiminde göz önünde bulundurulacak önemli kıstaslardandır. Bu bağlamda, bu çalışmada yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretilen merkezler tarafından gerek yurt içinde gerekse yurt dışında sıklıkla tercih edilen Yunus Emre Türkçe Öğretim Seti’nde yer alan metinler nitel araştırmaya hizmet edebilecek şekilde doküman analizi tekniğiyle tür, tema ve özgünlük bakımından incelenmiş, elde edilen veriler içerik analizi yöntemiyle çözümlenmiştir. Böylece bu sette yer alan metinlerin hangi edebî tür ve temalar üzerinde yoğunlaştığı, hangi seviyede hangi edebî türe ağırlık verildiği, özgün metin kullanımına ne ölçüde yer verildiği ve kitaplarda bulunan metinlerin Avrupa Ortak Dil Çerçevesi’nde yer verilen metinsel ölçütlere uygunluğu tespit edilmiştir. / The use of textbooks as the primary source of foreign language teaching makes the selection of texts included in books important. The Common European

  4. GSM SEKTÖRÜNDE HİZMET KALİTESİ VE DİĞER DEĞİŞKENLER ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİLERİN YAPISAL EŞİTLİK MODELİ İLE ANALİZİ

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyar, Nezih; IŞIK, Sultan

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, hizmet kalitesi, fiyat, imaj, algılanan değer, değiştirme maliyeti, memnuniyet ve bağlılık arasındaki doğrudan ve dolaylı ilişkiler yapısal eşitlik modeli kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Çalışma GSM sektöründe uygulanmıştır. Bunun nedeni bu sektörün büyümekte ve halen gelişmekte olan bir sektör olması ve daha önceden bu sektörde yapılan benzer çalışmaların sayısının az olmasıdır. Çalışmanın verileri Uşak Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi öğrencilerinden elde edil...

  5. TURİZM ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN STAJ DENEYİMİNDE ALGILADIKLARI MOTİVASYONUN HERZBERG KURAMINA GÖRE DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ: NEVŞEHİR HACI BEKTAŞ VELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ TURİZM FAKÜLTESİ ÖRNEĞİ

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, ZEYNEP; ÇOBAN, Gamze; Çokal, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Turizm sektörü açısından motivasyon kuramları önemli bir yere sahiptir. Bu kuramlardan bir tanesi de Herzberg’in Çift Faktör Kuramı’dır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, turizm sektöründe staj yapan öğrencilerin staj süresince, Herzberg’in belirlemiş olduğu Çift Faktör Kuramının güdülenmeleri üzerinde ne derecede etkili olduğunu ortaya koyarak analiz etmektir. Bu çalışma ile öğrencilerin turizm sektörüne bakış açısını ortaya koyarak, sektörde çalışmaya devam edip etmemelerinde Herzberg’in belirlediği fak...

  6. ÜÇ FARKLI AMERİKAN EYALETİNDE AFRO-AMERİKAN (AFRİKA KÖKENLİ AMERİKALI) ÖĞRENCİLERİN İLERİ YERLEŞTİRME SINAVLARI'NDAKİ BAŞARILARININ KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Carolyn; Joyner, Sheila A; John R. Slate

    2011-01-01

    Genişletilmiş Özet Problem: İleri Yerleştirme (Advanced Placement) kursları, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nde özellikle üst düzey liselerde verilen üniversite seviyesindeki dersleri içermekte ve çoğunlukla kaliteli üniversitelere gitmek isteyen öğrenciler tarafından alınmaktadır. Ancak, geleneksel olarak Afro-Amerikan öğrencilerin bu kursları alma ve başarılı olma oranlarının, diğer öğrenci gruplarıyla karşılaştırıldığında çok düşük düzeyde olduğu bilinmektedir. Bu çalışma, ABD'nin üç eyal...

  7. Investigation of capacitively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for nondestructive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng Huan; Wilcox, Paul D; Croxford, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    Capacitive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory, feasibility, and optimization of such a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface relies on an electric field formed between four metal plates-two plates are physically connected to the electrodes of a transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit connected to the transmit/receive channel of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as an electric network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a transducer attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. A transmission line model is developed which is a function of the physical parameters of the capacitively coupled system, such as the permittivity of the material between the plates, the size of the metal plates, and their relative positions. This model provides immediate prediction of electric input impedance, pulse-echo response, and the effect of plate misalignment. The model has been validated experimentally and has enabled optimization of the various parameters. It is shown that placing a tuning inductor and series resistor on the transmitting side of the circuit can significantly improve the system performance in terms of the signal-to-crosstalk ratio. Practically, bulk-wave CCTSs have been built and demonstrated for underwater and through-composite testing. It has been found that electrical conduction in the media between the plates limits their applications.

  8. Incorporation of nondestructive evaluation in Pontis Bridge Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavi, Ahmad

    1998-03-01

    The highway system in the United States includes nearly 577,000 bridges, the majority of which were built during two major bridge building periods -- just before World War II (1930s) and in the first two decades of the Cold War (1950s and 1960s). Given the age and increased usage of these bridges over the years, many now require substantial maintenance to satisfy their desired level of service. The complex task of allocating scarce funds for the repair, maintenance, and rehabilitation of this large number of bridges led to the development of several optimization studies and two major bridge management system, namely BRIDGIT and Pontis. Pontis has emerged as the system of choice for all states in the Nation. At this time over 40 highway agencies continue to license, evaluate and implement the current AASHTOWARE Program, Pontis V. 3.2. However, all data currently required by Pontis to assess the structural stability and resulting suggestions for repair and maintenance of bridges are based on visual inspection and judgement. Consequently, all suggestions are based on that visual inspection. This paper discusses development of a plan for how non-destructive evaluation (NDE) data can be used to provide more information than visual inspection.

  9. ALIŞVERİŞ MERKEZLERİNİN MARKA KİŞİLİKLERİNİN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI, İSTANBUL İLİNDE BİR UYGULAMA-COMPARISION on BRAND PERSONALITY of SHOPPINGCENTERS, A PRACTISE in ISTANBUL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şakir ERDEM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perakendecilik sektöründe yer alan Galleria ve Akmerkez alışveriş merkezleri marka kişiliklerinin karşılaştırılmasını yapmak ve tüketicilerin alışveriş merkezi tercihlerinde alışveriş merkezlerine atfettiği kişilik boyutlarını ve özelliklerini ortaya çıkarılabilmek amacıyla J. Aaker’ın 1997’de geliştirdiği beş ana marka kişiliği boyutu ve bu boyutların altında toplanan kişilik özellikleri temel alınmıştır. Marka kişiliğine ilişkin literatür taraması yapılmış; araştırma yöntemi olarak nitel araştırma ve nicel araştırma yöntemlerinin birleşmesinden meydana gelen karma araştırma yaklaşımı benimsenmiştir. Nitel veri toplanma araçlarından olan odak grup görüşmesinden faydalanılarak, nicel araştırmanın anketlerinin oluşturulmasında yararlı olabilecek bilgiler ve nicel araştırma örneklem yapısı ve yöntemine ışık tutan bilgiler elde edilmesi sağlanmıştır. Nicel araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak anket yöntemi uygulanmış, analiz yapılmaya uygun 272 adet anket elde edilmiştir. Anket sonuçları SPSS programı yardımıyla kodlanmış, verilerin frekans ve yüzde dağılımları verilerek faktör analizleri, güvenirlik analizleri ve T-testi yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, alışveriş merkezi sektöründe marka kişiliğine dair dört boyut elde edilebilmiş; elde edilen dört boyut Galeria ve Akmerkez alışveriş merkezleri arasında karşılaştırılmıştır.- The present research aims to compare brand personalities of Galeria and Akmerkez shopping centers and to examine the brand personality traits and dimensions that consumers refer on shopping centers preferences. Research based on J. Aaker’s five dimensions of brand personality and the traits. We looked over the literature of brand personality. This research included pluralistic methodology: First, focus groups method was used to take qualitative research’s survey, sampling and

  10. The Visibility of Scholarly Knowledge: Awareness for Open Access in Hacettepe University Bilimsel Bilginin Görünürlüğü: Hacettepe Üniversitesi’nde Açık Erişim Farkındalığı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Levent Ertürk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The scholars begin to place their works into the open repositories or open access journals as well as their personal web sites. In the international arena, the open repositories contain a total of 14,000 Turkey-based scholarly contents. The focus of this study is to determine the level of awareness for open access concept of scholars in Hacettepe University. An electronic questionnaire was conducted to scholars. The data were collected through questionnaire from full time academic staff member in Hacettepe University. It was found that 50% of scholars are aware of the open access concept and 92% of the scholars are willing to place their works into the institutional repository of their university. According to questionnaire study result, different types of works such as articles and assertions can be placed in the institutional open repositories in Turkey and their functionality can be increased in a short time. Bilimsel iletişimin en önemli paydaşı olan bilim insanları, bilimsel bilgilerinin görünürlüğünü artırabilmek için bilimsel eserlerini Web sayfalarında ve/veya açık erişim arşivlerinde depolamaya ya da açık erişim dergilerinde yayınlamaya başlamışlardır. Uluslararası açık erişim arşivlerinde yaklaşık 14 bin Türkiye kaynaklı bilimsel içerik bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışma Hacettepe Üniversitesi’ndeki bilim insanlarının açık erişim farkındalığını belirlemek, kurumsal açık arşivlerin etkin kullanımını konusundaki görüşlerini ortaya çıkarmak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Veriler, Hacettepe Üniversitesi’nde tam zamanlı çalışan öğretim üyelerinden elektronik anket yoluyla elde edilmiştir. Bulgulara göre öğretim üyelerinin en azından yarısının (%50 açık erişim farkındalığına sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Farkındalığı olan öğretim üyeleri yüksek bir çoğunlukla (%92 yayınlarının kendi üniversitelerinde yapılandırılabilecek kurumsal açık ar

  11. A Systems Engineering Approach to Quality Assurance for Aerospace Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2015-01-01

    On the surface, it appears that AS91001 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to major aerospace test programs (or even smaller ones). It also appears that there is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge (BOK)2 that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination (NDE), or some type of lab or bench testing associated with the manufacturing process. However, if one examines: a) how the systems engineering (SE) processes are implemented throughout a test program; and b) how these SE processes can be mapped to the requirements of AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed. What often happens is that quality assurance during a test program is limited to inspections of the test article; what could be considered a manufacturing al fresco approach. This limits the quality professional and is a disservice to the programs and projects, since there are a number of ways that quality can enhance critical processes, and support efforts to improve risk reduction, efficiency and effectiveness.

  12. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

  13. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

  14. Total observed fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) system variabilty and probability of detection (POD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Kinney, Andy; Hogan, Robert; Guerra, Rene

    2012-05-01

    The detection of large flaws in a structure (greater than critical flaw size, >aNDE) plays an important role in probabilistic design and life management of parts. Therefore, development of reliable and capable NDT methods for detecting flaws is essential element of any life prediction system. Traditionally, the reliability and capability of NDT methods has been is studied by determining POD data in terms of a90, a90/95, and Confidence Interval (CI). However, POD data and CI are frequently reported but not necessarily well understood by NDT practionars, design, and life prediction engineers. More importantly, the use of samples statistical uncertainties for system (and/or process) variability adds further confusion. In this paper, we describe Minitab advanced statistical tools as an alternative to POD for studying FPI system reliability and capability in terms total observed system variability. The total observed system variability includes measurement errors (includes statistical uncertainty), variations due to operators and inspection processes as well and is calculated by studying Measurement System Evaluation (MSE).

  15. Nonlinear Structural Health Monitoring of the Responsive Space Satellite Systems Using Magneto Elastic Active Sensors (MEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of compact EMATs sufficiently to make them practical for NDE applications. (Maxfield et al, 1976). The same year, C. M...by about 1.5 inches in height. Wilcox et al (2005) performed an experimental study of omni-directional pancake-coil EMAT design, pursuant to...compact EMAT employed in embedded SHM applications instead of manual NDE . As such, the many contributions of the above researchers to refinement and

  16. HISTORY AND THE SULTANS IN THE WORKS OF ABDÜLHAK HAMİD TARHAN / ABDÜLHAK HAMİD TARHAN’IN ESERLERİNDE TARİH ve HÜKÜMDARLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. İhsan SÂFİ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available History and the sultans have crucial places in theworks of Abdulhak Hamid Tarhan. The topics of hisdramas have been driven form the history, because ofthis the main characters of the dramas are mostly thesultans. In order to criticise the sultan of his time, he make use of these allogoric sultan characters. Sincethere was no role model like Namık Kemal, he expressedhis opposition to the system with the help of allogory. Itis obvious that he tried to create an aura againstSultans and the monarchism. It is neccessary to look atthe historical topics in his works from this perspective.The intention of Hamid is not to write a history bookand to give informatin about the historical events andpeople, but to criticise the dynasty and to explain hisideas about the system of Ottoman Empire.

  17. “REACT” STRATEJİSİNE UYGUN HAZIRLANAN MATERYALİN ÜSTÜN YETENEKLİ ÖĞRENCİLERİN BAŞARISI ÜZERİNDE ETKİSİ

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRCİOĞLU, Hülya; VURAL, Selma; Gökhan DEMİRCİOĞLU

    2012-01-01

    The research on science education has an important place in development of education systems. The data obtained from the researches has contributed to the emergence of different teaching approaches, strategies, models, and practices, and to further development of existing approaches. One of these approaches is the context-based approach. In recent years, it has been used widely in many countries in the world to improve the quality of education. Several context-based approaches have been devel...

  18. High-temperature single-layer SQUID gradiometers with long baseline and parasitic effective area compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegrum, C.M.; Eulenburg, A.; Romans, E.J.; Carr, C.; Millar, A.J.; Donaldson, G.B. [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    First-order HTS SQUID gradiometers were fabricated on 30x10 mm{sup 2} bicrystal substrates. These devices have a baseline of 13 mm, intrinsic balance levels of {approx}1/700 and a typical gradient sensitivity at 1 kHz of 79 fT cm{sup -1}Hz{sup -1/2}. A two-SQUID coupling scheme is discussed that further enhances the device's ability to reject uniform fields. (author)

  19. TURİZM SEKTÖRÜNDE ÇALIŞANLARIN HUKUKİ HAKLARINA İLİŞKİN FARKINDALIKLARI: KONAKLAMA VE YİYECEK-İÇECEK İŞLETMELERİ ÇALIŞANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Hakan ÇAVUŞ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Ekonomik, sosyal ve siyasal koşullar çalışma hayatını yakından etkilemektedir. Bu nedenle hukuki düzenlemeler iş hayatında ve bireylerin sosyal yaşamlarında önemli bir role sahiptir. Bu bağlamda, hemen her sektörde çalışanların özlük haklarına ilişkin yeterli bilgiye sahip olması beklenir. Bu çalışma turizm sektöründe çalışanların sosyal haklarına ilişkin farkındalıklarını test etmeye çalışmaktadır. Araştırmadan elde edilen veriler SPSS 20 ile frekans ve yüzde dağılımlarına tabi tutulmuş ve elde edilen sonuçlara makalede yer verilmiştir. Ayrıca parametrik ve parametrik olmayan testlere yönelik analizler de yapılarak katılımcıların cinsiyet, medeni durum, gelir ve eğitim durumlarıyla uygulamalar arasındaki farklılıklar tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Boyutlar arasındaki ilişkileri tespit etmek amacıyla yapılan korelasyon analizinde ilişki dereceleri oldukça yüksek çıkmıştır. Son olarak yapılan regresyon analizlerine ilişkin bulgularda bağımsız değişkenlerin bağımlı değişkeni açıklama oranı %33 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen istatistikî bulgulara göre, turizm sektöründe sendikalı çalışanların sendikal haklarına ilişkin bilgilerinin yüksek olduğu ancak sosyal sigorta haklarına ilişkin bilgilerinin düşük olduğu belirlenmiştir. Özellikle turizm çalışanlarının emeklilik işlemlerine ve haklarına ilişkin farkındalıklarının ise daha düşük olduğu gözlenmiştir. Katılımcıların cinsiyetleri ile İş Kanunu uygulamaları arasında anlamlı farklılıklar görülmüş bu bağlamda kadınların erkeklere oranla İş Kanunu uygulamalarına daha fazla önem verdikleri görülmüştür. Son olarak 1-5 yıl arasında turizm sektöründe sendikalı çalışanların İş Sağlığı ve Güvenliği Kanunu uygulamalarını daha yakından takip ettikleri saptanmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Turizm

  20. İŞLETME DÜZEYİNDE STRATEJİ PARADOKSLARININ MİNTZBERG’İN ON STRATEJİK YÖNETİM OKULU AÇISINDAN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ - EVALUATION OF BUSINESS LEVEL STRATEGY PARADOXES IN TERMS OF MINTZBERG’S TEN STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refika BAKOĞLU DELİORMAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Özet:Literatürde işletme düzeyinde stratejiler belirlenirkenkaynaklardan mı yoksa pazardan mı hareket edilmesi gerektiğiyönünde bir paradoksun bulunduğu tartışılmaktadır. Buçalışmanın amacı, işletme düzeyi strateji belirlenirken karşıkarşıya kalınan kaynaklar ya da pazarlar paradoksunuMintzberg tarafından belirlenen on stratejik yönetim okuluçerçevesinde değerlendirmektir. Bu çerçevede bu okulların herbirinin strateji belirlemeye ilişkin temel varsayımları dikkatealınarak, hangi strateji paradoksunun hangi stratejik yönetimokuluna daha yakın bir noktada durduğu belirlenmeyeçalışılmıştır. Bu çalışma sonucunda günümüz paradigmasınıkullanan Biçimleşme Okulunun, işletme düzeyinde stratejibelirleme paradoksu açısından Tasarım Okulu ile aynıkategoride değerlendirilebileceği tespit edilmiştir. Göreliolarak eski planlama, çevre ve konumlandırma okullarınındışındaki diğer okulların ise kaynaklar yaklaşımına dahayakın olduğu tespiti ilgi çekici bir sonuç olarakdeğerlendirilebilir.Abstract:The paradox whether resources or markets should bethe starting point while determining business level strategieshas been discussed in the literature. This study aims atevaluating the “sources or markets paradox” whiledetermining the business level strategy in terms of ten strategicmanagement schools of Mintzberg. Within frames of schools’basic assumptions regarding strategy determination, it wasattempted to determine which strategy paradox is compatiblewith the strategic management schools. As a result of thisstudy, it was found out that Configuration School which usestoday's paradigm can be assessed in the same category asDesign School in terms of paradox of business level strategydetermining. It might be considered as an interesting resultthat the rest of the schools are more in line with the marketsperspective apart from relatively old schools of design,environment and

  1. THE FUNCTION OF TEXTS IN TRANSFERRING OF CULTURE IN TEACHING TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE YABANCI DİL OLARAK TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİNDE METİNLERİN KÜLTÜR AKTARIMINDAKİ İŞLEVİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma BÖLÜKBAŞ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the place and the significance of written texts which are among cultural transferring instruments and at the same time which have been used in Turkish as a foreign language courses are questioned and various sample exercises on texts have been prepared. Language is not only a significant part of culture but also the transmitter of the culture. Therefore the transferring of the elements consisting of Turkish culture has positive effects on language learning process. With this point of view in mind, it is necessary to transfer Turkish culture in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. Bu çalışmada, dil öğretiminin kültürler arası karşılaşma alanı olduğu düşüncesinden yola çıkılarak yabancı dil olarak Türkçe derslerinde kullanılan, aynı zamanda kültür aktarım araçlarından olan metinlerin bu süreçteki yeri ve önemi sorgulanarak sınıf içi uygulama örneklerine yer verilmiştir. Dil, sadece kültürün önemli bir parçası değil aynı zamanda kültürün aktarıcısıdır. Bu nedenle yabancı dil öğretiminde kültürel ögelerin aktarılması dil öğrenme sürecini olumlu yönde etkiler. Bu görüşten hareketle, yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde Türk kültürünü içeren ögelerin ders ortamına aktarılması gerekmektedir.

  2. ÇALIŞAN HİLELERİNİN ÖNLENMESİNDE PROAKTİF YAKLAŞIMLAR: KURUMSAL İŞLETMELERDE İNSAN KAYNAKLARI YÖNETİCİLERİ ÜZERİNE NİTEL BİR ARAŞTIRMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ULUCAN ÖZKUL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ÇALIŞAN HİLELERİNİN ÖNLENMESİNDE PROAKTİF YAKLAŞIMLAR: KURUMSAL İŞLETMELERDE İNSAN KAYNAKLARI YÖNETİCİLERİ ÜZERİNE NİTEL BİR ARAŞTIRMAÖzet: Hile, bir işletmenin sahip olduğu varlıkların veya hakların kasıtlı bir şekilde bir başkası tarafından kullanılması, çalınması veya zimmete geçirilmesi olarak tanımlanabilir. Kurumsal bir problem haline gelen çalışan hileleri, işletmelere büyük çaplı ekonomik zararlar vermesinin yanı sıra sonuçları itibariyle itibar kaybına da yol açmaktadır. İşletmeler, teknolojik gelişmelere paralel olarak çalışan hilelerini önlemede reaktif davranmanın yetersiz olduğunu fark etmiş ve proaktif uygulamalara yönelmişlerdir. Bu proaktif yaklaşımlar içerisinde, son yıllarda artan kurumsallaşma ile işletmelerin en önemli fonksiyonlarından biri haline gelen insan kaynakları uygulamaları yer almaktır. Bu çalışmada, çalışan hilelerini önlemede önemli bir role sahip olan insan kaynakları prosedürleri incelenmiş ve insan kaynakları yöneticileri üzerine nitel bir araştırma yapılmıştır.PROACTIVE APPROACHES IN PREVENTION OF EMPLOYEE FRAUDS: A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGERS IN CORPORATE BUSINESSESAbstract: Fraud can be defined as: using, stealing or embezzling rights or assets belonging to an organization. Employee frauds, which became an organizational problem, cause loss of prestige as well as major economic losses. Organizations realized, thanks to technological developments, that to act reactively to prevent fraud does not suffice, consequently they adopted proactive approaches. Among these proactive approaches is human resources, which became one of the most important functions of organizations thanks to recently increasing institutionalization. This study focuses on human resources procedures playing an important role in preventing employee frauds, and a qualitative research on human resources managers.

  3. HASTANE İŞLETMELERİ KARDİYOLOJİ POLİKLİNİĞİNDE SİPARİŞ MALİYET YÖNTEMİYLE AYAKTAN HASTA TANI MALİYETİNİN HESAPLAMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yasemin YEGİNBOY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Günümüzde sağlık hizmeti üreten en önemli işletmeler hastanelerdir. Hastanelerde diğer işletmelerde olduğu gibi maliyet analizleri önem taşır. Maliyet analizleriyle, hastanelerin kazanç veya zarar durumları en iyi şekilde hesaplanabilir. Böylelikle hastane yönetimleri, hasta sayılarının belirlenmesi ve belirli uzmanlık alanlarına yapılacak yatırımların artırılması gibi çeşitli stratejik kararlar alabilirler. Hastanelerde sunulan sağlık hizmeti çok çeşitli ve heterojendir. Her hastaya farklı tedaviler uygulanır. Bu durum hastalık bazlı maliyet hesaplamalarını güçleştirir. Ancak, maliyet hesaplama yöntemlerinden, sipariş maliyet yöntemi ile her hasta için hasta maliyet kartı oluşturulur ve hasta bazlı maliyetler hesaplanabilir. Bu çalışmada; sipariş maliyet yöntemi detaylı olarak açıklanarak uygulama örneği verilmiştir. Kardiyoloji polikliniğinde muayene olup, ilgili birimlerde tetkikleri yapılan bir hastanın tanı maliyeti, sipariş maliyet yöntemi ile hesaplanarak hastanın maliyet kartı oluşturulmuştur. ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the places that offer health care service are hospitals. Like in the other business fields, cost analysis is very important in hospitals. By means of cost analysis, profit and loss statement of the hospitals can be calculated best. Thus, the strategic decisions such as determining the number of the patients with the hospital administration and increasing the investment on certain areas of expertise can be taken. The health care services provided in the hospitals are diverse and not homogeneous. Each patient is provided with different treatment. This situation makes it difficult to calculate patient-based cost accounts. However, by means of job order costing system which is a way of calculating the cost accounts, patient cost card is made for each patient, and patient-based cost accounts can be calculated. In this study, job order costing system is

  4. Validation of a pulsed eddy current system for measuring wall thinning through insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Colin R.; de Raad, Jan A.

    1996-11-01

    There have been several failures in power plant feedwater piping systems due to wall thinning caused by flow- accelerated corrosion of the inner surface. Detection of wastage in susceptible pipes is costly as traditional NDE methods such as ultrasonic testing entail removal and reinstallation of insulation over many meters of pipework. Radiography is one solution to this problem, but it is slow to apply and requires careful attention to safety. The RTD Incotest system uses pulsed eddy current technology to measure pipewall thickness through insulation and external cladding. The technology has been licensed from Arco, Inc., who originally developed the technique for large diameter pipelines and storage tanks where the area interrogated was made deliberately large. This paper describes an optimized Incotest systems which can detect and measure internal or external wall wastage which is more localized and typical of flow-accelerated corrosion. Improvements have also been made to the inspection and data acquisition in order to increase the inspection rate and overall productivity. Ultimately the performance of the optimized Incotest system has been verified on samples which contain artificial and real corrosion.

  5. Developing a program to identify and track corrosion in nuclear plant raw water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spires PE, G.V. [KTA - Tator Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pickles PE, S.B. [Senior Engineer, Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Findings derived from a comprehensive plant performance survey at Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) nuclear units convinced management that it would be prudent to expand the ongoing power piping Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) induced wall thinning base-lining and tracking program to encompass the raw cooling water systems as well. Such systems are subject to a distinctly different class of pipe wall thinning (PWT) mechanisms than the FAC that degrades high-energy power piping. This paper describes the PWT corrosion assessment and tracking program that has been developed and is currently being implemented by OPG for the raw cooling water (i.e., Service Water) systems within it's nuclear generating stations. Interim databases are used prior to initial inspection rounds to catalogue the prospective locations. For each piping system being surveyed, these interim databases include physical coordinates for the candidate locations, the type and wall thickness of the components comprising each location, ranking indications and recommended NDE methodologies as a function of the anticipated corrosion mechanisms. Rationales for assessing corrosion susceptibility and ranking prospective inspection sites are expounded by way of notations built into the database. (authors)

  6. Miniaturized Time Domain Terahertz Non Destructive Evaluation for In-Orbit Inspection of Inflatable Habitats and Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Picometrix's time-domain terahertz (TD-THz) non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technology could be used to inspect space flight structures such as inflatable space...

  7. Miniaturized Time Domain Terahertz Non Destructive Evaluation for In-Orbit Inspection of Inflatable Habitats and Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Picometrix's time-domain terahertz (TD-THz) non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technology could be used to inspect space flight structures such as inflatable space...

  8. “ŞEM AND PERVANE” IN THE TRIANGEL OF BEAUTY, LOVE AND KNOWLEDGE GÜZELLİK, AŞK VE BİLGİ ÜÇGENİNDE “ŞEM VE PERVÂNE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül AKDEMİR

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the sufism thought system “love” means the creative activity of Allah; but “knowledge” means the aim and result of the activity mentioned. To cause both love and knowledge appear, two elements known as “lover-love” and “knowing-known” are needed because they consist of joint point of the concepts mentioned.In the Classical Turkish Literature whose main concept is love several elements are taken into consideration to meet “the lover/knowing” and “the love/known” and to reflect the form of the relation between them. “Şem and pervane” which is the main subject of our study is one of the sembolic elements used in expressing the relationship of “the lover/knowing-the love/known” in the Classical Turkish Literature. Among these elements “pervane” represents the lover and “şem” undertakes the function of maşuk. The fact that these elements take place in the world of poetry is because the form of the relationship between these two element are commented as the love relation.In the sufism, love is taken into consideration as a notion which is related to not only human but also the creator. Therefore, love in the “şem and pervane” symbolism faces us valid for both two elements and the two love mentioned forms the two steps following each other in the coil of the existence. The first ring of this coil is the burning of şem and the second is the burning of pervane.In this study, “şem and pervane” which are the symbolic expressions in the Classical Turkish Literature are taken into consideration through the concepts of “beauty”, “love” and “knowledge” and they are commented in the light of sufism thought system. Tasavvufi düşünce sisteminde “aşk”, Allah’ın yaratıcı etkinliği olarak karşılık bulmakta; “bilgi” ise söz konusu etkinliğin gayesini ve sonucunu ifade etmektedir. Hem aşkın hem de bilginin ortaya çıkabilmesi için, “âşık-maşuk” ve

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF THEATRE IN BRINGING UP PEOPLE AS IDEOLOGICAL BEINGS İDEOLOJİK BİREYLERİN YETİŞTİRİLMESİNDE TİYATRONUN ROLÜ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KAYGANA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have attempted to analyse theatre plays as one of the basic means used by political systems to turn individuals into ideological beings. With this goal in mind we looked upon theatre from the point of view of its function of conveying a particular ideology as a means used for forming the social and cultural structure of the society in the political system along with the Turkish Na¬tional Struggle and the announcement of the establis¬ment of the Turkısh Republic. The Republic being estab¬lished in some aspect upon the refusal of the cultural inheritance of the Ottoman Empire had to reshape the past along with shaping the future and all its compo¬nents like politics, science, administration, law, etc. It is natural that during this indispensable process of estab¬lisment the function of art began to serve the goal men¬tioned above, together with politics, science and law.Our study is built around theatre plays as one of the most suitable means of reading the mass and moti¬vating it in a particular direction in the period of time right after the Republic was established. When chosing the literary works for this study we took pains to pick the ones that belong to the particular period of time, written in 1923-1940, the years when the ideology of the Repub¬lic was being shaped. Thus, the historical teatre plays written in this pe¬riod of time can be classified according to the period they describe into four groups. These periods are: The history of Turkey before accepting Islam, last period of the Otto¬man Empire, the period of the Turkısh National Struggle and the period after the Rebuplic was established. It is possible to see that the chosen theatre plays represent these four periods in the Turkish History. Bu çalışmada, siyasal sistemlerin bireyleri ideolojik varlıklara dönüştürürken kullandığı temel araçlardan, sanatın bir kolu olarak tiyatro kurumu analiz edilmeye çalışılmaktadır. Bu amaçla, Milli

  10. Araplara Türkçe Öğretmek Amacıyla Hazırlanmış Kaşgarlı Mahmut Türkçe Öğretim Seti’nde Kültür Aktarımı Cultural Transfer In Mahmud Al Kashgari Turkish Teaching Set Prepared For Teaching Turkish To Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsa YILMAZ

    2013-07-01

    . Dil ile kültür arasında bu şekilde bir alışveriş vardır. Bu ilişkiye dil ve kültürden söz edilen her alanda dikkat edilmesi gerekir. Bu alanlardan olan dil öğretiminde dil ile kültür arasındaki ilişki her aşamada göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır. Çünkü dil öğretimi aynı zamanda kültür aktarımı demektir. Bu sebeple Avrupa Dilleri Öğretimi Ortak Çerçeve Metni’nde de dil öğretiminde kültür aktarımının önemi üzerinde durulmuştur.Bu çalışmada dil öğretiminin kültürlerarası etkileşimde bir araç olduğu düşüncesinden hareketle, öncelikle Türkçe öğretimi amacıyla hazırlanmış olan ders kitaplarının kültür aktarımı sürecindeki yeri ve önemi üzerinde durulmuştur. Daha sonra Araplara Türkçe öğretimi amacıyla hazırlanmış olan Kaşgarlı Mahmut Türkçe Öğretim Seti kültür aktarımı bağlamında ele alınmış ve belirli ölçütlere göre değerlendirilmiştir. Bu incelemeler sonucunda temel seviye metinlerinde orta seviye metinlerine göre daha fazla aktarımın yapıldığı ve yapılan aktarımların da genellikle doğrudan olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Orta seviye metinlerinde ise daha çok edebî ve tarihsel aktarımların yapıldığı görülmüştür. Bu sonuçlara göre Türk yaşantısı ve gelenek-görenekleriyle ilgili ögelere daha fazla yer verilmesi gerektiği düşüncesi oluşmuştur.

  11. ANLAŞMAZLIKLARIN ÇÖZÜMÜNDE AKRAN ARABULUCULUK MODELİNİN DÖNÜŞTÜRÜCÜ ETKİLERİ: ARABULUCU ÖĞRENCİLER GÖZÜNDEN BİR DEĞERLENDİRME (THE CONVERTER EFFECTS OF PEER MEDIATION MODEL FOR THE DISAGREEMENTS SOLUTION: EVALUATION FROM THE LOOK OF THE MEDIATOR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemile ÇETİN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Akran-arabuluculuğu, tarafsız bir üçüncü öğrencinin kolaylaştırıcılığında, çatışan öğrencilerin ortak sorunlarını yüz yüze müzakere ettikleri, bir anlaşmazlık çözüm yoludur. Akran-arabuluculuğunda, önerilerde bulunma, nihai kararı belirleme ve her iki tarafında kabul edeceği bir çözüm bulma sorumluluğu, öncelikle müzakere eden yani sorunun tarafı olan öğrencilere aittir (Messing, 1993. Böylece akran arabuluculuk oluşan sorunu çözme konusunda sahip olunan potansiyelin barışçıl performansa dönüştürülmesini sağlar. Araştırma, "akran arabuluculuk modelini, arabulucu öğrencilerin gözünden” değerlendirmek için gerçekleştirilmiştir. İzmir’de bir lisede altı yıldır uygulanan akran arabuluculuk programının etkililiği, arabuluculuk yapan 30'u kız, 20'si ise erkek olmak üzere 50 öğrenci ile yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği kullanılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Kodlama güvenirliği %85,9’dur.Araştırmanın anlamlı sonuçlarından biri; öğrencilerin sınıf arkadaşları tarafından sınıflarının arabulucusu olarak seçilmekten mutluluk, heyecan ve sevinç hissettiklerini ifade etmiş olmalarıdır. Ayrıca, seçilmiş olmanın kendilerinde sorumluluk, özgüven, güçlülük ve sorun çözmeye ilişkin yeterlik duyguları hissettirdiğini belirtmişlerdir. Elde edilen sonuçlar, akran arabuluculuk ile anlaşmazlık çözümünde öğrenilmiş çaresizliğin yerini öğrenilmiş güçlülüğe bıraktığını işaret etmektedir. Aynı zamanda, akran odaklı bir anlaşmazlık çözüm yöntemi olan akran-arabuluculuk modelinin Türk kültüründe hem daha detaylı ve derinlemesine hem de yaygın etkisinin incelenmesine gereksinim vardır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Arabuluculuk, Akran-arabuluculuğu, Çatışma, Anlaşmazlık. ABSTRACT: Peer-mediation is a way of dispute resolution, facilitated by a neutral third student, that conflicting students

  12. Gökova Körfezi'nde küçük ölçekli balıkçılıkta birim çabaya düşen av miktarı (CPUE ve av kompozisyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Dereli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gökova Körfezi’nde avcılık yapan küçük ölçekli balıkçı gemilerinin uzatma ağı ve parakete av kompozisyonları ve birim çabaya düşen av miktarları (CPUE, Temmuz 2009 – Mayıs 2011 tarihleri arasında yürütülen çalışmalarla tespit edilmiştir. Toplam 16 deniz çalışması (uzatma ağı ile 5, parakete ile 11 ticari balıkçıların tekne ve av araçlarıyla yürütülmüştür. Balıkçılık çabası (f, CPUE ve günlük av miktarını hesaplamak için ise karaya çıkış noktalarında rasgele seçimle 131 örnekleme (72 kez uzatma ağı, 59 kez paraketeyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Her iki av aracı birlikte değerlendirildiğinde, Teleostei grubundan 27, Crustacea grubundan 1, Cephalapoda grubundan 2 ve Chondrichthyes grubundan 1 olmak üzere toplam 31 tür tespit edilmiştir. Uzatma ağı ile 19 tür, parakete ile 16 tür yakalanmıştır. Karaya çıkarılan ürün içerisinde, uzatma ağlarında ağırlıklı olarak Pagellus erythrinus, Trachurus mediterraneus ve Scomber japonicus, parakete balıkçığında ise Sparus aurata, Dicentrarchus labrax ve Pagellus erythrinus türleri tespit edilmiştir. Uzatma ağları av kompozisyonu içinde ticari olmayan türlerin oranı (% 50, paraketeninkinden daha yüksektir (% 12. Ortalama CPUE, uzatma ağı için 15,5 ± 19,8 kg/30 posta ağ/gün ve parakete için 1,7 ± 2,8 kg/100 iğne/gün, tekne başına günlük av (kg ortalaması ise uzatma ağı için 10,8 ± 11,0 kg/tekne/gün ve parakete için 5,2 ± 4,3 kg/tekne/gün olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ortalama CPUE değerleri açısından iki av aracı arasında (t:-11,065; p:0,000 ve kooperatifler arasında (uzatma ağı, t:4,382; p:0,000; parakete, t:3,973; p:0,000 istatistiki olarak anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmiştir. Gökova Körfezi’nde uzatma ağı balıkçılığında yakalanan tür sayısının yıllar içerisinde düşüş gösterdiği ve ortalama CPUE değerinin arttığı belirlenmiştir. Parakete bal

  13. MEDYA İŞLETMELERİNDE DENETİMİN FİNANSAL YÖNETİMDEKİ ÖNEMİ - THE IMPORTANCE OF AUDITING FOR FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN MEDIA COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkân Uğur DÂİ

    2014-01-01

    international creditors, customers, stockholders,national and international investors, government and other interest groups is explained in detail.The basic financial statements such as the consolidated balance sheet and the consolidated incomestatement of a media holding subject to external auditing is given as examples. New TurkishCommercial Law and the other related new legal regulations providing international uniformfinancial reporting standards are also analyzed. It is also mentioned that Turkish media organizationswhich are recently developing their internal control systems and periodic internal auditing,not only to prevent errors and irregularities, but also to carry out efficient financial management.In fact the efficient internal auditing determines the extent of external auditing procedures to beapplied by the independent external auditors. The results of the reports prepared by the independentexternal auditors are given importance by professional contemporary managers in order tohave a good financial performance.

  14. Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Sensor Modeling For Multisite Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    8217 DataVer ’,’SoftName’,’DateTime’,’Caption’,... ’AcqVx’,’AcqVy’,’TrVx’,’TrVy’,... ’Nx’,’Ny’,’ScanStp’,’IndexStp’,’StanzaStp’,... ’Dx

  15. Ekspress suundus läände / Heimar Lenk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lenk, Heimar, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Järg Jun/9,10,11,12,13;14;15;16;17;18;19;20;21;22;26;27;29:30; Jul/1;2;3;4;6;7;8;9;10;11;13:14;15;16:17;18;20;21;22;23;24;25;27;28;29;30;31; Aug/3;4;5;6;7;8;10;11;12;13;14;17;18;19;21;22;24;25;26;27;29;31; Sep/1;2;3;4;5;7;8;9;10;11;12;14;15;16;17;18;19;21;22;23;24;25;26;28;29;30, Oct/1;2;3;5;6;7;8;9;10

  16. Ekspress suundus läände / Heimar Lenk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lenk, Heimar, 1946-

    1998-01-01

    Järg Jun/9,10,11,12,13;14;15;16;17;18;19;20;21;22;26;27;29:30; Jul/1;2;3;4;6;7;8;9;10;11;13:14;15;16:17;18;20;21;22;23;24;25;27;28;29;30;31; Aug/3;4;5;6;7;8;10;11;12;13;14;17;18;19;21;22;24;25;26;27;29;31; Sep/1;2;3;4;5;7;8;9;10;11;12;14;15;16;17;18;19;21;22;23;24;25;26;28;29;30, Oct/1;2;3;5;6;7;8;9;10

  17. NDE and Stress Monitoring on Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Damage caused by composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) failure can be catastrophic. Thus, monitoring condition and stress in the composite overwrap,...

  18. NDE of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick H.

    One of the most critical areas for inspection in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors is the bond between the steel case and rubber insulation in the region of the field joints. The tang-and-clevis geometry of the field joints is sufficiently complex to prohibit the use of resonance-based techniques. One approach we are investigating is to interrogate the steel-insulation bondline in the tang and clevis regions using surface-travelling waves. A low-frequency contact surface wave transmitting array transducer is under development at our laboratory for this purpose. The array is placed in acoustic contact with the steel and surface waves are launched on the inside surface or the clevis leg which propagate along the steel-insulation interface. As these surface waves propagate along the bonded surface, the magnitude of the ultrasonic energy leaking into the steel is monitored on the outer surface of the case. Our working hypothesis is that the magnitude of energy received at the outer surface of the case is dependent upon the integrity of the case-insulation bond, with less attenuation for propagation along a disbond due to imperfect acoustic coupling between the steel and rubber. Measurements on test specimens indicate a linear relationship between received signal amplitude and the length of good bend between the transmitter and receiver, suggesting the validity of this working hypothesis.

  19. ¿Hacia dónde caminamos?: Urgencias 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ò. Miró

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un ejercicio de anticipación de lo que la medicina de urgencias y emergencias puede depararnos estas próximas décadas. Se trata de una disquisición en un plano genérico y que se estructura en torno a 10 conceptos básicos que probablemente marcarán el devenir en la práctica médica de esta especialidad. Estos conceptos son: 1. El triunfo de la diversidad. 2. La limitación del consumismo en salud. 3. La claudicación ante la tiranía de lo urgente. 4. La disminución en la asimetría de los conocimientos. 5. El camino hacia la integración de servicios y profesionales. 6. El acercamiento a una planificación suficiente. 7. La consecución de la formación reglada. 8. La consolidación de una medicina de urgencias y emergencias resolutiva y eficiente. 9. La cotidianidad de la transferencia de la información como un signo del nuevo milenio. 10. La profesión de urgenciólogo como motivo de orgullo.

  20. Micromechanical Models for Composite NDE and Diagnostics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern aircraft (and next generation spacecraft) increasingly rely on composite components due to their excellent specific strength and stiffness, as well as...

  1. Micromechanical Models for Composite NDE and Diagnostics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern aircraft increasingly rely on composite components, due to their excellent material properties. However, fastening/joining and design methodologies in current...

  2. Research on Advanced NDE Methods for Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Theory of Edge Detection ," in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, Vol. 207, 1980...Armco Inc. for twelve years. 11. Mar, D., and E. Hildreth, " Theory of Edge Detection ," Proceed- Richard Martin is an associate research engineer with...Inc. for twelve years. 11. Marr, D., and E. Hildreth, " Theory of Edge Detection ," Proceed- Richard Martin is an associate research engineer with

  3. Remote Welding, NDE and Repair of DOE Standardized Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larsen; Art Watkins; Timothy R. McJunkin; Dave Pace; Rodney Bitsoi

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) to manage DOE’s spent nuclear fuel (SNF). One of the NSNFP’s tasks is to prepare spent nuclear fuel for storage, transportation, and disposal at the national repository. As part of this effort, the NSNFP developed a standardized canister for interim storage and transportation of SNF. These canisters will be built and sealed to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section III, Division 3 requirements. Packaging SNF usually is a three-step process: canister loading, closure welding, and closure weld verification. After loading SNF into the canisters, the canisters must be seal welded and the welds verified using a combination of visual, surface eddy current, and ultrasonic inspection or examination techniques. If unacceptable defects in the weld are detected, the defective sections of weld must be removed, re-welded, and re-inspected. Due to the high contamination and/or radiation fields involved with this process, all of these functions must be performed remotely in a hot cell. The prototype apparatus to perform these functions is a floor-mounted carousel that encircles the loaded canister; three stations perform the functions of welding, inspecting, and repairing the seal welds. A welding operator monitors and controls these functions remotely via a workstation located outside the hot cell. The discussion describes the hardware and software that have been developed and the results of testing that has been done to date.

  4. Development of New Dielectric NDE Techniques for Spaceflight Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dielectric spectrometry will be performed on select spacecraft materials (i.e. heat shield materials, structural materials and insulating foams) to examine their...

  5. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation to assess the effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired), ceramics. Objective is to obtain useful information on defects, cracking, delaminations, agglomerates, inclusions, regions of high porosity, and anisotropy.

  6. FEN VE TEKNOLOJİ DERSLERİNDE GAZETELERİN KULLANILMASI

    OpenAIRE

    BULUŞ KIRIKKAYA, Esma; Bozkurt, Esra; İŞERİ, Şebnem

    2013-01-01

    Topics in science and technology course’s topics are related closely to daily life. Therefore, relating science and technology course to daily life makes lessons entertaining and makes students to develop positive attitudes towards science. Being the aims of science and technology course for establishing relationship with daily life and being the newspapers including data about this course’s aims, shows this course’s relevance with using newspaper. In this research, it was aimed to emphasizin...

  7. An implementation of signal processing algorithms for ultrasonic NDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, L.; Stepinski, T. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology, Circuits and Systems

    1994-12-31

    Probability of detection flaws during ultrasonic pulse-echo inspection is often limited by the presence of backscattered echoes from the material structure. A digital signal processing technique for removal of this material noise, referred to as split spectrum processing (SSP), has been developed and verified using laboratory experiments during the last decade. The authors have performed recently a limited scale evaluation of various SSP techniques for ultrasonic signals acquired during the inspection of welds in austenitic steel. They have obtained very encouraging results that indicate promising capabilities of the SSP for inspection of nuclear power plants. Thus, a more extensive investigation of the technique using large amounts of ultrasonic data is motivated. This analysis should employ different combinations of materials, flaws and transducers. Due to the considerable number of ultrasonic signals required to verify the technique for future practical use, a custom-made computer software is necessary. At the request of the Swedish nuclear power industry the authors have developed such a program package. The program provides a user-friendly graphical interface and is intended for processing of B-scan data in a flexible way. Assembled in the program are a number of signal processing algorithms including traditional Split Spectrum Processing and the more recent Cut Spectrum Processing algorithm developed by them. The program and some results obtained using the various algorithms are presented in the paper.

  8. Recent progress in the NDE of cast ship propulsion components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Martin; Rieder, Hans; Dillhöfer, Alexander; Rauhut, Markus; Taeubner, Kai; Kreier, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The failure of propulsion components of ships and ferries can lead to serious environmental and economic damage or even the loss of lives. For ultrasonic inspection of such large components we employ mechanized scanning and defect reconstruction using the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT). We report on results obtained in view of the detection of defects with different inspection techniques. Also, we address the issue of Probability of Detection by reporting results obtained in POD and MAPOD-studies (Model-Assisted POD) using experimental and simulated data. Finally, we show recent results of surface and sub-surface inspection using optical and eddy current techniques.

  9. IVA Ultrasonic and Eddy Current NDE for ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) instruments and array eddy current testing instruments were tested on hypervelocity impact damaged aluminum plates simulating...

  10. NDE Research At Nondestructive Measurement Science At NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    J. Koury IV. CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL MATERIALS a. Nondestructive Evaluation of Temper Embrittlement in HY80 Steel Sidney G. Allison, William T...Skins (1988) / 199 IV. CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL MATERIALS NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF TEMPER EMBRITTLEMENT IN HY80 STEEL S. G. Allison, W. T...this study is commercial grade HY80 (Ni-Cr-Mo-V) casting steel [5] containing various impurity elements which can cause temper embrittlement

  11. TERM OF LOCALIZATION IN THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL POETRY AND IN BÂKÎ ’S DIVAN SOME LOCAL FACTORS DİVAN ŞİİRİNDE MAHALLİLEŞME KAVRAMI VE BÂKÎ DİVANI’NDA BAZI MAHALLÎ UNSURLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap ERDOĞAN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Generaly it is used different expression like current, movement, trend, manner, style or form for localization which is defined that local geography, social life and true to life reflect to poem, simplification of language and trending use local form of poetry. It hasn’t gain certainty if it could qualify as a current. İn this work, we examine if localization could being defined as a current. But we come to a decision about such a sentimental matter which many researchers look uncertainly and we it to readers decision. İn the second part of work Baki’s Divan, one of the classicial school poetry’s achievements which localization shows itself in most beatiful and most outstanding is examined and given place to local factors which is made firm. Thus it is worked to be proved that classical school poetry is poems wasn’t far from society which they had lived and classical school poetry isn’t a literature which is based on dreams felite on the contrary to pretensions. Genel olarak, yaşanılan coğrafyanın, sosyal hayatın, gerçek olayların şiire aksetmesi, dilde sadeleşme ve yerli nazım biçimlerini kullanmaya yönelme olarak tanımlanan mahallileşme için akım, hareket, cereyan, eğilim, tarz ya da üslup gibi farklı ifadelerin kullanılmaktadır. Onun bir akım olarak nitelenip nitelenemeyeceği konusu kesinlik kazanmamıştır. Biz, bu çalışmada mahallileşmenin bir akım olarak değerlendirilip değerlendirlemeyeceği üzerinde durduk. Ancak birçok değerli araştırmacının şüpheyle yaklaştığı böyle hassas bir konuda net bir hükme varmayıp kararı okuyuculara bıraktık. Çalışmanın ikinci bölümünde ise iddia edilenin aksine divan şairlerinin yaşadıkları topluma uzak kalmadıklarının, divan edebiyatının yalnızca yüksek zümrenin hayallerine dayalı bir edebiyat olmadığının güzel bir kanıtı olan mahallileşmenin, kendini en güzel ve en belirgin bir şekilde gösterdiği divan edebiyatı

  12. THE PRESENCE OF TURKS, AND TURKISH LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA/AMERİKA BİRLEŞİK DEVLETLERİ’NDE TÜRK VARLIĞI VE TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa KAYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Language, whose importance in building up the national identity and culture as well as in maintaining them cannot be ignored, is an essential and irreplaceable instrument to transmit all material possessions and moral values to the next generations. Therefore, teaching Turkish language, which is the transmitter of Turkish culture, not only to the learners in Turkey but also to the Turkish children living abroad and to the foreign people who want to learn Turkish is of great importance. As a result of the study, it was found that Turkish language instruction was available as an elective language course in 44 universities and colleges in total in the whole USA, where approximately 500.000 Turks live currently. However, it was also revealed that Turkish language instruction was unavailable in schools providing primary and secondary education, and all of the activities concerning the instruction of Turkish language and culture were conducted by the lecturers and teachers living in the USA, where there were no teachers and lecturers appointed from Turkey yet. Milli kimlik ve kültürün teşekkülünde olduğu gibi onun yaşatılmasında da önemi göz ardı edilemeyecek olan dil, sahip olunan maddi ve manevi bütün değerlerin sonraki nesillere aktarılması bakımından vazgeçilemez ve yeri doldurulamaz bir araçtır. Bu sebeple Türk kültürünün taşıyıcısı olan Türkçenin sadece yurt içinde değil aynı zamanda yurt dışındaki Türk çocuklarına ve Türkçeyi öğrenmek isteyen yabancılara öğretimi büyük önem taşımaktadır. Yapılan araştırmada, yaklaşık 500 bin Türk’ün yaşadığı ABD’de toplam 44 üniversite ve kolejde Türkçenin seçmeli yabancı dil olarak öğretiminin yapıldığı, temel eğitim ve lise seviyesindeki okullarda Türkçe öğretiminin yapılamadığı; Türkçe ve Türk kültürü öğretimi ile ilgili faaliyetlerin ABD’de bulunan öğretim görevlileri ve öğretmenler tarafından ger

  13. MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ’NDE MUHASEBE EĞİTİMİ ALAN ÖĞRENCİLERİN MUHASEBE ALANINA BAKIŞ AÇILARININ DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİNE YÖNELİK BİR ARAŞTIRMA-A RESEARCH FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE STANDPOINT OF THE ACCOUNTING STUDENTS IN RESPECT OF THE FIELD OF ACCOUNTING AT MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ÇELENK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ülkemizde muhasebe eğitimi lisans, yüksek lisans ve doktora düzeyinde birçok üniversitede verilmektedir. Öğrencilerin almış oldukları muhasebe eğitimi hem iş dünyası açısından hem de akademik açıdan önemli bir bilgi birikimi sunmaktadır. Ancak öğrencilerin aldıkları muhasebe eğitiminden sonra muhasebeye veya muhasebe alanına karşı tutumları ve muhasebeye ilişkin algıları bilinmeden verilen eğitimin etkileri, başarısı ve sonuçları hakkında bir bilgi sahibi olunamamaktadır. Bu bağlamda Marmara Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi İşletme Bölümünde lisans ve lisansüstü (yüksek lisans ve doktora eğitimi alan öğrencilerin muhasebe eğitimi üzerine bakış açılarını ölçmeye yönelik bir anket çalışması yapılmıştır. Ankette yöneltilen sorular öğrencilerin; muhasebeye, muhasebe eğitimine, muhasebede hoca faktörüne ve muhasebe ile ilgili mesleklere ilişkin bakış açılarını değerlendirmeye yönelik olarak belirlenmiştir. Anket çalışmasından elde edilen veriler istatistiksel analizlere tabi tutulmuş ve sonuçlar yorumlanmıştır.-In our country, accounting education is given in undergraduate, graduate and doctoral levels in many universities. Accounting education that has been received by the students provides significant knowledge in terms of both business and academic. However, it is not possible to obtain any information pertaining to the effects, success and results of the education without knowing the students’ attitude and perception in respect of the accounting and field of accounting. In this context, a survey study was conducted for the evaluation of the standpoint of the undergraduate and graduate (MA and Ph.D. students in the respect of the field of accounting at the Department of Business of Marmara University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences. Questions that have been asked in the survey were determined to evaluate the

  14. Career Paths of Dergâh-i Âli [Supreme Lodge] Sergeants and Sergeants at the time of Suleiman the Magnificient (KANUNİ SULTAN SÜLEYMAN DÖNEMİNDE DERGÂH-I ÂLİ ÇAVUŞLUĞUNUN KARİYER YOLLARI VE ÇAVUŞLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Altuğ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Çavuşluk kurumu, dergâh-ı âlî çavuşluğu ve burada görevli çavuşlar Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun kuruluşundan itibaren, devletin idari yapısı içerisinde önemli bir yere sahipti. Çavuşlar, elçilikten infazcılığa, ulaklıktan teşrifatçılığa kadar çeşitli işlerde görevlendirilmişlerdir. İmparatorluk sınırları Kanuni Sultan Süleyman döneminde büyük çapta genişleme kaydettiği gibi, devletin yapısı ve örgütlenişi de bunun paralelinde gelişip karmaşıklaşmıştır. Bu süreçte dergâh-ı âli çavuşlarının, bilhassa yoğunlaşmış askerî, idari ve diplomatik işlemlerin yürütülebilmesi için merkezden eyaletlere, tâbi memleketlere ve diğer ülkelere yazılan emir, ferman, hüküm ve mektupların ulaştırılması dolayısıyla önemleri artmış görünüyor. Bu göreve yükselebilmenin koşulları nelerdi? Dergâh-ı âli çavuşları hangi kariyer yollarından gelmekteydi ve bunların kökenleri neydi? Çavuşluk konusunda yapılmış çalışmalarda bu sorular tamamıyla aydınlatılmamıştır. Topkapı Sarayı Arşivi’nde bulunan ve Kanuni döneminde dergâh-ı âli çavuşlarını içeren bir belge bu sorulara açıklık getirecek nitelikte kayıtlar içermektedir. Abstract: The institution of sergeantship, the supreme sergeantship lodge, and the appointed sergeants took an important place in the administrative structure of the Ottoman Empire since its foundation. The sergeants had been charged with various duties extending from diplomats to executioners and message-carriers to masters of ceremonies. In conjunction with the considerable expansion of the borders of the empire, the structure and organization of the state had expanded and become more complex during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificient. Because of these changes in the military, administrative and diplomatic structure, the importance of supreme dervish lodge sergeants came into prominence as the communication of

  15. TÜRKİYE’DE İŞYERİNDE PSİKOLOJİK TACİZ ORANININ VE TÜRLERİNİN BELİRLENMESİ: BİR ÖLÇEK GELİŞTİRME ÇALIŞMASI, MEASURING THE OCCURRENCE AND TYPES OF WORKPLACE BULLYING IN TURKEY: A SCALE DEVELOPMENT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel GÖK

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Özet:Bu araştırmanın amacı, Türk çalışma hayatındapsikolojik taciz oranını ve türlerini belirlemek içinkullanılabilecek geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek geliştirmekolarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırma Mart-Haziran 2009 tarihleriarasında, İstanbul’da hizmet sektöründe istihdam edilen 908katılımcı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olaraktarafımızdan hazırlanan soru formu kullanılmıştır. İstatistikselanalizde, açıklayıcı faktör analizi ve güvenirlik analizindenyararlanılmıştır. Açıklayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda 28maddeden oluşan dört faktörlü “İşyerinde Psikolojik TacizÖlçeği” (İPTÖ geliştirilmiştir (KMO katsayısı = 0,950,Barlettt testi χ2(378 = 10523,337, P(sigma = 0.000. Güvenirlikanalizi sonucu, ölçeğin yüksek bir iç tutarlılık katsayısınasahip olduğunu göstermiştir (α = 0,933. Katılımcıların%13,5’inin İPTÖ’ye göre işyerinde psikolojik taciz mağduruolduğu saptanmıştır. “Yukarıdan aşağıya doğru” ve “işeyönelik davranışların yöneltildiği” psikolojik taciz, en sıkkarşılaşılan türler arasında yer almıştır. Araştırma bulgularıİPTÖ’nün, bundan sonra gerçekleştirilecek ve Türk çalışmahayatında psikolojik taciz oranını ve türlerini belirlemeyihedefleyen çalışmalar için geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçekolduğunu desteklemektedir.Abstract:The aim of the present study was to develop a validand reliable scale investigating the occurrence and types ofworkplace bullying in Turkey. The sample consisted of 908employees from the services sector in Istanbul and the datawere collected between March and June 2009 using aquestionnaire developed for this purpose. Reliability andexploratory factor analysis were used. Exploratory factoranalysis indicated that four factor scale comprising 28 itemsprovided the best fit to the data (χ2(378=10523.337, KMO=0.95,p=0.000. Reliability analysis showed that the

  16. WRAP Module 1 data management system (DMS) software design description (SDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidert, J.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-13

    Revision 2 of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS) Preliminary Software Design Description (PSDD) provides a high-level design description of the system. The WRAP 1 DMS is required to collect, store, and report data related to certification, tracking, packaging, repackaging, processing, and shipment of waste processed or stored at the WRAP 1 facility. The WRAP 1 DMS SDD is used as the primary medium for communication software design information. This release provides design descriptions for the following process modules produced under Phase 1 of the development effort: Receiving Drum or Box Containers Process Routing and Picklists; Waste Inventory by Location and/or Container Relationships; LLW Process Glovebox Facility Radiologic Material Inventory Check (partial); Shipping (partial production); Drum or Box NDE Operations; and Drum or Box NDA Operations Data Review (partial production). In addition, design descriptions are included for the following process modules scheduled for development under Phases 2 and 3: Activity Comment; LLW RWM Glovebox Sample Management; TRU Process Glovebox; TRU RWM Glovebox; and TRUPACT Processing. Detailed design descriptions for Reports and Facility Metrics have also been provided for in Revision 2 of this document.

  17. TEACHER VIEWS ON THE PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED IN TEACHING BASAL READING AND WRITING IN THE AREAS WHERE TURKISH IS LESS WIDELY SPOKEN/ TÜRKÇENİN AZ KONUŞULDUĞU BÖLGELERDE İLK OKUMA YAZMA SÜRECİNDE KARŞILAŞILAN SORUNLARA İLİŞKİN ÖĞRETMEN GÖRÜŞLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SUSAR KIRMIZI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Türkiye, farklı kültürlerin yüz yıllardır bir arada yaşadığı özel bir coğrafyada yer almaktadır. Bu kültürel zenginlik, farklı dillerin de konuşulması durumunu beraberinde getirmektedir. Bu süreçte Türkçeyi yeterince bilmeyen öğrenciler eğitim öğretim aşamasında, başta iletişim olmak üzere diğer alanlarda da birtakım sorunlar yaşamaktadır. Ana dili Türkçe olan öğrenciler dahi ilkokula başladıklarında çeşitli sorunlar yaşarken bu öğrencilerin ilk okuma yazma sürecinde kendini ifade etme, dinleme ve okuduğunu anlamada sorunlar yaşaması oldukça doğaldır. Elbette ki bu durum onların eğitim yaşamını olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. Türkçenin az konuşulduğu bölgelerde Türkçeyi öğretme konusunda geliştirilecek olan eğitim politikaları bu öğrencilerin yaşamış olduğu sorunların çözümünde etkili olabilir. Bu araştırmanın amacı, Türkçenin az konuşulduğu bölgelerde ilk okuma yazma sürecinde karşılaşılan sorunlara ilişkin öğretmenlerin görüşlerini tespit etmektir. Araştırmada, nitel araştırma desenlerinden durum desenine başvurulmuştur. Durum deseni türlerinden ise bütüncül tek durum deseni tercih edilmiştir. Araştırma 2013-2014 eğitim yılında Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi’nden seçkisiz bir şekilde belirlenen üç ayrı il ve ilçelerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Mardin, Muş ve Adıyaman'da yapılan araştırmada yalnızca 1. sınıf öğretmenlerinin görüşlerine başvurulmuştur. Araştırma yapılacak okullar maksimum çeşitlilik örneklemesi yöntemine göre belirlenmiştir. Maksimum çeşitlilik örneklemesi, göreli olarak küçük bir örneklem grubu oluşturmayı kolaylaştırırken örneklemdeki bireylerin çeşitliliğini maksimum derecede yansıtmaktır. İllerdeki okullar alt, orta ve üst olmak üzere üç farklı sosyoekonomik düzeye ayrılmış ve her düzeyden de belirli sayıda okul seçkisiz bir şekilde tespit

  18. Darwin: de dónde y adónde : antecedentes y consecuencias del pensamiento evolucionista

    OpenAIRE

    Claramonte Sanz, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    El artículo sugiere ciertas reflexiones sobre los principales antecedentes y consecuencias de la obra de Darwin, desde la perspectiva de su impacto en la cosmovisión de la sociedad. Desarrolla cómo el pensamiento darwinista supuso, en el área de conocimiento cubierta por la Biología, el transcurso del mito al logos, de una filosofía biológica atemporal a la integración de la vida en el tiempo geológico y cosmológico, y del determinismo característico de la mecánica clá...

  19. TÜRK DÖKÜM SANAYİ FİRMALARI VE YABANCI PARTNERLERİ ARASINDAKİ ORTAK GİRİŞİM NEDENLERİ: KAYNAK BAĞIMLILIĞI TEORİSİ VE RAKİP GÖRÜŞLER ÇERÇEVESİNDE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME-MOTIVES FOR JOINT VENTURES BETWEEN TURKISH CASTING INDUSTRY FIRMS AND THEIR FOREIGN PARTNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren G. ARTUNER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Döküm sanayinde yabancı firmalarla yerli firmalar arasında ortak girişim yoluyla oluşturulan yeni yapılar içerisinde faaliyetine devam eden üç firma nezdinde gerçekleştirilen durum çalışması aracılığıyla söz konusu ortak girişim olgularına yol açtığı düşünülen temel motivasyonların belirlenmesi amaçlanmış ve Kaynak Bağımlılığı Teorisi’nin Türk Döküm Sanayi’nde yabancı ortaklarla yerli firmalar arasında gerçekleşen ortak girişim olgularını tek başına açıklayıcı gücü sorgulanmıştır.Yürütülen araştırma neticesinde, Kaynak Bağımlılığı Teorisi’nin açıklayıcı gücünün söz konusu ortak girişim olgularını tek başına açıklamakta yetersiz kaldığı, oluşturulan dört teorik çatı arasında açıklayıcı gücü en yüksek yaklaşımın Firma Teorisi olduğu ve Firma Teorisi’nin de Türk Döküm Sanayi’nde örneklemimiz dahilinde ele aldığımız ortak girişim olgularını diğer üç teorik çatının yardımıyla açıkladığı tespit edilmiştir.-Through the medium of case studies covering three casting firms which pursue their operations after being involved in newly established structures by joint ventures between foreign and national companies, it is aimed to reveal the underlying motivations considered as responsible for the joint venture phenomena. Accordingly, the explanatory power of the Resource Dependence Theory in explaining joint venture phenomena with foreign partners as a single theory in Turkish Casting Industry has been tested.As a result of the undertaken research, we have concluded that the explanatory power of the Resource Dependence Theory wasn’t strong enough to explain by itself the joint venture phenomena in question and that the propositions of the Firm Theory have found the strongest support among these four theoretical frames. However, it was stated that the Firm Theory explains the joint venture phenomena within our sample

  20. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS, with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  1. A Visualization Method for Corrosion Damage on Aluminum Plates Using an Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Scanning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inbok; Zhang, Aoqi; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee

    2016-12-16

    This paper proposes a non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique that uses laser-induced ultrasonic waves to visualize corrosion damage in aluminum alloy plate structures. The non-contact, pulsed-laser ultrasonic measurement system generates ultrasonic waves using a galvanometer-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and measures the ultrasonic waves using a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor. During scanning, a wavefield can be acquired by changing the excitation location of the laser point and measuring waves using the PZT sensor. The corrosion damage can be detected in the wavefield snapshots using the scattering characteristics of the waves that encounter corrosion. The structural damage is visualized by calculating the logarithmic values of the root mean square (RMS), with a weighting parameter to compensate for the attenuation caused by geometrical spreading and dispersion of the waves. An intact specimen is used to conduct a comparison with corrosion at different depths and sizes in other specimens. Both sides of the plate are scanned with the same scanning area to observe the effect of the location where corrosion has formed. The results show that the damage can be successfully visualized for almost all cases using the RMS-based functions, whether it formed on the front or back side. Also, the system is confirmed to have distinguished corroded areas at different depths.

  2. Osmanlı Devleti’nde Cadı Avı Var mıydı? (Karşılaştırmalı Bir İnceleme / Was There a Witch Hunt in the Ottoman Empire? (A Comparative Study

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    cem doğan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Witchcraft, namely putting a spell on someone in a general meaning is a traditionally ritual of early pagan societies. In the middle ages, thousands of people was sentenced to torture or death by accusing witchcraft and wondering and harming people around. As we look at the Ottoman Empire, we will see that there were some people who were accused by being a witch and exiled, or burned after their deaths by opening their graves. This study discusses the place of witchcraft and witches in the Western tradition and examines the trials of witchcraft both in Western and Ottoman societies. In addition to this, the attitude of the Ottoman State to witchcraft and witches also to be held. Özet Cadılık yani genel anlamıyla düşünüldüğünde kötü emellerle büyü yapma geleneği, aslen erken dönem pagan toplumlarında görülen bir âdettir. Ortaçağ Avrupa’sında da engizisyon tarafından büyücülükle ve geceleri dolaşarak insanlara kötülük etmekle suçlanan binlerce kişi, “cadı” oldukları iddiasıyla işkenceye ve ölüme mahkûm edilmiştir. Osmanlı Devletine baktığımızda ise yine cadılıkla suçlanan ve bu nedenle yer değiştirme, öldükten sonra mezarı açılarak yakılma gibi birtakım cezalara çarptırılan kişilerin var olduğunu görürüz. Bu çalışmada, cadılığın ve cadıların Batı geleneğindeki yeri ve cadılığa ilişkin görülen davalar incelenmiş ve Osmanlı’da cadılığa ve devletin cadılara yönelik tutumu tetkik edilmiş ve Osmanlı toplumu ile Batı toplumlarında Cadılığı yaklaşım ile ilgili karşılaştırmalı bir inceleme yapılmıştır. La chasse aux sorcières dans l'Empire ottoman Résumé La sorcellerie, à savoir faire de la magie dans un but négatif, était à l’origine une tradition des sociétés païennes de l’âge classique. Dans l’Europe médiévale, des milliers de personnes, accusées de sorcellerie du fait qu’elles sortaient la nuit pour

  3. Kayseri Ve Yöresi Tarih Araştırmaları Merkezi’nde Bulunan Ebrû Kaplı Defterler The Marbled Paper In The Notebooks That Is Being At History Of Kayseri And Neighboring Areas Research And Implementation Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neval SAKİN

    2013-09-01

    ımızdan olan Ebrû’nun geçmişine ait örneklerin yer aldığı arşivlerden biri de Kayseri ve Yöresi Tarih Araştırmaları Merkezi (KAYTAM Arşivi’dir. Arşiv, müze ve kütüphanelerde çeşitli konularda yazılmış yazma eserler ve resmi belgeler hem süsleme hem de koruma amaçlı olarak döneminin sanat anlayışıyla bezenmiştir. İşte bu anlayıştan yola çıkarak yazımızda KAYTAM Arşivi’nde bulunan ve Osmanlı Devleti’nin son 100 yılı ile Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nin ilk yıllarını içeren çeşitli konulardaki defterlerden ebrû kaplı olanlar ele alınarak incelenmiştir. İnceleme sonucunda tespit edilen 153 adet Ebrû kaplı defterin 25’i aşırı tahrip olmuştur. Kalan 128 adet Ebrû kaplı defterde ise 26 Battal ebrû ve 102 Dalgalı ebrû olmak üzere iki ebrû çeşidi görülmektedir.Makalemizde söz konusu ebrûlardan benzer örnekler elenerek 20 ebrû örneği alınmıştır. Ele aldığımız ebrû kaplı 20 defterden 10 tanesi Battal ebrû, 10 tanesi Dalgalı ebrûdur. Bu ebrû örneklerinde kullanılan renkler; lahor çividi, çivid mavi, oksit sarı, oksit kırmızı, koyu kahverengi, kahverengi, vişne çürüğü’dür. Bir iki örnekte de siyah, mavi, açık mavi, oksit yeşil ve gri renkleri görülmektedir. Ebrûların genel olarak tarihlendirilmesi sıkıntılı olsa da incelediğimiz ebrûların yer aldığı defterler 1842-1876 ve 1886-1889 tarih aralıklarını kapsamaktadır.

  4. ÖRGÜTSEL GÜVEN, ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE ÖRGÜTSEL VATANDAŞLIK DAVRANIŞI ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİ: BİR DEVLET HASTANESİNDE ARAŞTIRMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah TOKGÖZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ÖRGÜTSEL GÜVEN, ÖRGÜTSEL ÖZDEŞLEŞME VE ÖRGÜTSEL VATANDAŞLIK DAVRANIŞI ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİ: BİR DEVLET HASTANESİNDE ARAŞTIRMAÖzet: Bilimciler, örgütsel davranış kavramlarından biri olan örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışını verimlilik ve etkinliği artırıcı en önemli değişkenlerden biri olarak kabul etmişlerdir. Yapılan araştırmalarda örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışlarıyla sonuçlandığı düşünülen birçok bağımsız değişken ileri sürülmüştür. Bu bağımsız değişkenlerden en önemlilerinden biri örgütsel güven kavramıdır. Bu araştırmalarda, örgütsel güven ile örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı arasındaki ilişkiye aracılık yapabilecek faktörler aranmıştır. Bu çalışmada diğerlerinden farklı olarak, örgütsel özdeşleşmenin, örgütsel güven ile örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı arasındaki ilişkiye aracılık etkisi yapacağı ileri sürülmüştür. Bu nedenle araştırmanın örneklemi, Balıkesir Devlet Hastanesi ve Balıkesir Ağız ve Diş Sağlığı Merkezi’ndeki 220 işgörenden anket aracılığıyla elde edilmiştir. Araştırma bulgularına göre, örgütsel güven, örgütsel özdeşleşme ve örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı arasında anlamlı ve pozitif bir ilişki vardır. Ayrıca, örgütsel özdeşleşme, örgütsel güven ve örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı arasındaki ilişkide aracılık rolü oynamıştır.RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL TRUST, ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTIFICATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR: A STUDY AT A STATE HOSPITALAbstract: Organizational citizenship behavior, which increases productivity and efficiency, has been recognized as one of the most important concepts of organizational behavior by scientists. Organizational citizenship behaviors are thought to result in many of the studies suggested that the independent variable. The concept of organizational trust is one of the most important

  5. "Atatürk'ü Koruma Kanunu"nun Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi'nde Tartışılması Debate of the "Law on Protection of Atatürk" in Grand National Assembly of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERTEM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available “The Law on the Protection of Atatürk” was issued by theGovernment of the Democratic Party, on July 25, 1951, after longdiscussions and debates in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.Justification for the law is expressed as attacks on the Atatürk statuesand busts. Law draft debated in Turkey Grand National Assembly on 4and 7 May 1951. As a result, law draft sent to the Constitutional Court.On July 25, 1951, law draft was debated again in the Grand NationalAssembly of Turkey. Law draft was adopted after lengthy discussionsand debates and entered into force on July 25, 1951.Many citizens were tried under “The Law on the Protection ofAtatürk”. For example, in the year of 1987, 110 people were tried underthe law. In the year of 1988, 52 people, in the year of 1990, 60 people,in the year of 1993, 62 people, in the year of 1994, 89 people, in theyear of 1996, 124 people were tried under “The Law on the Protection ofAtatürk”.Also, in the year of 1998, 116 cases were opened and 44 peoplewere convicted under the law. In the year of 1999, 104 cases wereopened and 42 people were convicted under the law. In the year of2002, the number of cases has increased greatly. 581 cases wereopened and 39 people were convicted under the law.“The Law on the Protection of Atatürk” is still in force. “Atatürk’ü Koruma Kanunu”, Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi’ndeki uzun görüşme ve tartışmaların sonunda, 25 Temmuz 1951 tarihinde Demokrat Parti Hükümeti tarafından çıkartılmıştır. Kanunun gerekçesi, Atatürk’ün heykel ve büstlerine yapılan saldırılar olarak ifade edilmiştir. Kanunun tasarısı, 4 ve 7 Mayıs 1951 tarihlerinde Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi’nde tartışılmıştır. Görüşmeler sonucunda Anayasa Mahkemesi’ne gönderilen tasarı, 25 Temmuz 1951 tarihinde tekrar Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi gündemine getirilmiştir. Kanun tasarısı, uzun tartışmalardan sonra kabul edilmiş ve 25 Temmuz 1951

  6. GAINING THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF HISTORY AND MORAL VALUES IN CYPRUS TURKISH EDUCATION SYSTEM KIBRIS TÜRK EĞİTİM SİSTEMİNDE TARİH BİLİNCİ VE AHLÂKÎ DEĞERLERİN KAZANDIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyalp TAMÇELİK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In societies history has an important role in gaining and teaching moral values. Since the social and political transformation on April 23, 2003 in Cyprus, all the education programs have started to be updated. The first product of these studies occurred in 2004 and the new programs which were prepared were put into effect by progressive stages. Hereby, the most important feature of the new education program about the history of Cyprus in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is that it is based on the Constructivist Theory. Another important feature is that the ongoing traditional lecture oriented education shift to student oriented education by the realization of the said active education principles. Consequently, while ‘history’ and ‘history education’ was used as war, animosity, hardness, pressure and fanaticism in the past in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, hereafter it turned into the understanding of ‘history for peace’. Toplumlarda, ahlâkî değerlerin kazandırılmasında ya da öğretilmesinde, tarihin önemli bir yeri vardır. 23 Nisan 2003 tarihinde Kıbrıs’ta meydana gelen sosyal ve siyasal transformasyonundan beri, KKTC’de tüm öğretim programları güncelleme sürecine girmiştir. Bu çalışmaların ilk ürünü, 2004 yılında ortaya çıkmış ve hazırlanan yeni programlar, kademeli olarak yürürlüğe girmiştir. Bundan hareketle KKTC’de Kıbrıs tarihi ile ilgili yeni öğretim programlarının en önemli özelliği, Yapılandırmacılık Kuramı’na dayanmasıdır. Bir diğer temel özellik ise söz konusu etkin öğretim ilkeleri yaşama geçirilerek, geçmişten bugüne süregelen gelenekselleşmiş öğretmen merkezli eğitim yerine, öğrenci merkezli eğitim uygulamasına geçilmiştir. Dolayısıyla KKTC’de eskiden ‘tarih’ ve ‘tarih eğitimi’; savaş, düşmanlık, katılık, baskı ve bağnazlık şeklinde kullanılırken, bundan sonra ‘barış için tarih’ anlayışına dönüştüğü görülmüştür.

  7. Derleme Sözlüğünde Dokumacılık Mesleği İle İlgili Söz Varlığı Existent Words Used For Weaving Occupation From The Dictionary Of Collected Words

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    Serpil SOYDAN

    2013-07-01

    ılığın ortaya çıkmasını sağlamıştır. Bu zanaat zamanla gelişmiştir. İnsanlar tarihi olarak tespit edilemeyen dönemlerde keçi yününden bugün düz dokuma tekniği adı verilen göçebe tenteleri yapmışlardır.Daha sonraki dönemlerde Alacahöyük’te arkeolojik kazılarda bulunan gümüş kirmanlar (M.Ö.3000-2000, Gordion’da bulunan Frigyalılara ait sumak ve cicim dokuma parçaları, Konya’nın Çumra ilçesi merkezinin kuzeyindeki Çatalhöyük’te yapılan kazılarda Neolitik çağa (Cilalı Taş çağı ait (M.Ö 6000dokuma parçaları dokumacılığın Anadolu’da geliştiğini göstermektedir. Bu elimize geçen parçalar sayesinde dokumacılık tarihini Anadolu’da M.Ö. VII. yüzyıla kadar indirebilmekteyiz.1071 yılında Türkler Anadolu’ya geldiklerinde ileri düzeyde bir dokumacılık sanatıyla karşılaşmışlardır. Selçuklu İmparatorluğu döneminde de Türk kilim ve halı dokumacılığı gelişmeye başlamıştır. Birçoğu halen belgelenememiş sayısız halı parçasının 13 ve 14. yüzyıllardan kalma en eski Selçuklu halıları olduğu tahmin edilmektedir.Çalışmamızda Türkiye’de halk ağzından derlenmiş olan Derleme Sözlüğünde yer alan Dokumacılık mesleği ile ilgili söz varlığı incelenmiş, konuyla ilgili tarihî ve çağdaş kaynaklar taranmış, tespit edilen söz varlıkları dokumacılıkta kullanılan malzeme ismi, dokumacılıkta kullanılan alet ve araç ismi, dokumacılıkta kullanılan fiiller, dokumacılıkta kullanılan motif ve işlemeler, dokumada çalışan kişilere verilen isimler, dokumacılıkta kullanılan renk isimleri olmak üzere altı başlık altında gruplandırılmıştır. Ayrıca tespit edilen bu söz varlığı içerisinde ödünçleme kelimeler varsa bu kelimelerin kökenleri hakkında da bilgi verilmeye çalışılmıştır.

  8. Overview of C/C-SiC Composite Development for the Orion Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Valentine, Peter G.; Schofield, Elizabeth S.; Beshears, Ronald D.; Coston, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Past and present efforts by the authors to further understanding of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material used in the valve components of the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Attitude Control Motor (ACM) will be presented. The LAS is designed to quickly lift the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) away from its launch vehicle in emergency abort scenarios. The ACM is a solid rocket motor which utilizes eight throttleable nozzles to maintain proper orientation of the CEV during abort operations. Launch abort systems have not been available for use by NASA on manned launches since the last Apollo ]Saturn launch in 1975. The CMC material, carbon-carbon/silicon-carbide (C/C-SiC), is manufactured by Fiber Materials, Inc. and consists of a rigid 4-directional carbon-fiber tow weave reinforced with a mixed carbon plus SiC matrix. Several valve and full system (8-valve) static motor tests have been conducted by the motor vendor. The culmination of these tests was the successful flight test of the Orion LAS Pad Abort One (PA ]1) vehicle on May 6, 2010. Due to the fast pace of the LAS development program, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center assisted the LAS community by performing a series of material and component evaluations using fired hardware from valve and full ]system development motor tests, and from the PA-1 flight ACM motor. Information will be presented on the structure of the C/C-SiC material, as well as the efficacy of various non ]destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, including but not limited to: radiography, computed tomography, nanofocus computed tomography, and X-ray transmission microscopy. Examinations of the microstructure of the material via scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy will also be discussed. The findings resulting from the subject effort are assisting the LAS Project in risk assessments and in possible modifications to the final ACM operational design.

  9. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  10. Monitoring system for the quality assessment in additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl, Volker, E-mail: carl@t-zfp.de [Carl Messtechnik, Thyssenstrasse 183a, 46535 Dinslaken (Germany)

    2015-03-31

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which a set of digital data -representing a certain complex 3dim design - is used to grow the respective 3dim real structure equal to the corresponding design. For the powder-based EOS manufacturing process a variety of plastic and metal materials can be used. Thereby, AM is in many aspects a very powerful tool as it can help to overcome particular limitations in conventional manufacturing. AM enables more freedom of design, complex, hollow and/or lightweight structures as well as product individualisation and functional integration. As such it is a promising approach with respect to the future design and manufacturing of complex 3dim structures. On the other hand, it certainly calls for new methods and standards in view of quality assessment. In particular, when utilizing AM for the design of complex parts used in aviation and aerospace technologies, appropriate monitoring systems are mandatory. In this respect, recently, sustainable progress has been accomplished by joining the common efforts and concerns of a manufacturer Additive Manufacturing systems and respective materials (EOS), along with those of an operator of such systems (MTU Aero Engines) and experienced application engineers (Carl Metrology), using decent know how in the field of optical and infrared methods regarding non-destructive-examination (NDE). The newly developed technology is best described by a high-resolution layer by layer inspection technique, which allows for a 3D tomography-analysis of the complex part at any time during the manufacturing process. Thereby, inspection costs are kept rather low by using smart image-processing methods as well as CMOS sensors instead of infrared detectors. Moreover, results from conventional physical metallurgy may easily be correlated with the predictive results of the monitoring system which not only allows for improvements of the AM monitoring system, but finally leads to an optimisation of the quality

  11. Spectral characterization of dielectric materials using terahertz measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jeffrey M.

    The performance of modern high frequency components and electronic systems are often limited by the properties of the materials from which they are made. Over the past decade, there has been an increased emphasis on the development of new, high performance dielectrics for use in high frequency systems. The development of these materials requires novel broadband characterization, instrumentation, and extraction techniques, from which models can be formulated. For this project several types of dielectric sheets were characterized at terahertz (THz) frequencies using quasi-optical (free-space) techniques. These measurement systems included a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS, scalar), a Time Domain Spectrometer (TDS, vector), a Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA), and a THz Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). Using these instruments the THz spectral characteristics of dielectric samples were obtained. Polarization based anisotropy was observed in many of the materials measured using vector systems. The TDS was the most informative and flexible instrument for dielectric characterization at THz frequencies. To our knowledge, this is the first such comprehensive study to be performed. Anisotropy effects within materials that do not come into play at microwave frequencies (e.g. ~10 GHz) were found, in many cases, to increase measured losses at THz frequencies by up to an order of magnitude. The frequency dependent properties obtained during the course of this study included loss tangent, permittivity (index of refraction), and dielectric constant. The results were largely consistent between all the different systems and correlated closely to manufacturer specifications over a wide frequency range (325 GHz-1.5 THz). Anisotropic behavior was observed for some of the materials. Non-destructive evaluation and testing (NDE/NDT) techniques were used throughout. A precision test fixture was developed to accomplish these measurements. Time delay, insertion loss, and S-parameters were

  12. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  13. Application of Powered High Lift Systems to STOL Aircraft Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    performance of the S-3A VIKING aircraft was performed. 00 1403 smvw or I Nov ba to NDE ~uv (page 1) 9/34T ases-ea orf iI pil WinR? I=10C I.7 * - -ONE t...D. E. Wilcox and J. A. Cochrane, Tune 1979. 4-4 "QSRA Delivered to Research Center", Aviation Week & Space Technology, Vol. 109, No. 7, p. 20, 14

  14. Guided Wave Sensing In a Carbon Steel Pipe Using a Laser Vibrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Toledo, Abelardo; Salazar Soler, Jordi; Chávez Domínguez, Juan Antonio; García Hernández, Miguel Jesús; Turó Peroy, Antoni

    2010-05-01

    Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques have achieved a great development during the last decades as a valuable tool for material characterization, manufacturing control and structural integrity tests. Among these tools, the guided wave technology has been rapidly extended because it reduces inspection time and costs compared to the ordinary point by point testing in large structures, as well as because of the possibility of inspecting under insulation and coating conditions. This fast development has motivated the creation of several inspection and material characterization systems including different technologies which can be combined with this technique. Different measurements systems based on laser techniques have been presented in order to inspect pipes, plates and diverse structures. Many of them are experimental systems of high cost and complexity which combine the employment of a laser for generation of waves in the structure and an interferometer for detection. Some of them employ air-coupled ultrasound generation transducers, with high losses in air and which demand high energy for exciting waves in materials of high stiffness. The combined employment of a commercial vibrometer system for Lamb wave sensing in plates has been successfully shown in the literature. In this paper we present a measurement system based on the combined employment of a piezoelectric wedge transducer and a laser vibrometer to sense guided acoustic waves in carbon steel pipes. The measurement system here presented is mainly compounded of an angular wedge transducer, employed to generate the guided wave and a commercial laser vibrometer used in the detection process. The wedge transducer is excited by means of a signal function generator whose output signal has been amplified with a power signal amplifier. A high precision positioning system is employed to place the laser beam at different points through the pipe surface. The signal detected by the laser vibrometer system is

  15. Mutual Inductance Problem for a System Consisting of a Current Sheet and a Thin Metal Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.

    1993-01-01

    Rapid inspection of aircraft structures for flaws is of vital importance to the commercial and defense aircraft industry. In particular, inspecting thin aluminum structures for flaws is the focus of a large scale R&D effort in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. Traditional eddy current methods used today are effective, but require long inspection times. New electromagnetic techniques which monitor the normal component of the magnetic field above a sample due to a sheet of current as the excitation, seem to be promising. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyze the magnetic field distribution due to a current sheet above an aluminum test sample. A simple theoretical model, coupled with a two dimensional finite element model (FEM) and experimental data will be presented in the next few sections. A current sheet above a conducting sample generates eddy currents in the material, while a sensor above the current sheet or in between the two plates monitors the normal component of the magnetic field. A rivet or a surface flaw near a rivet in an aircraft aluminum skin will disturb the magnetic field, which is imaged by the sensor. Initial results showed a strong dependence of the flaw induced normal magnetic field strength on the thickness and conductivity of the current-sheet that could not be accounted for by skin depth attenuation alone. It was believed that the eddy current imaging method explained the dependence of the thickness and conductivity of the flaw induced normal magnetic field. Further investigation, suggested the complexity associated with the mutual inductance of the system needed to be studied. The next section gives an analytical model to better understand the phenomenon.

  16. Mobile acoustic system for the detection of surface-breaking cracks in pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzani, Alessandro; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Benzoni, Gianmario

    2004-07-01

    Monitoring the structural condition of road and airport pavement is an extremely critical task to ensure the safety and efficiency of teh transportation. The topic is relevant to both civil and military transportation infrastructure. The presence of damage in pavement, including surface cracking, depressions, swells, and wear, is inevitable due to the sever environmental and service loads that these structures must be subject to. Existing NDE techniques aimed at assessing the structural condition of pavement include Falling Weight Deflectometer, Ground Penetrating Radar, and acoustic methods based on surface waves. This paper presents improvements to the traditional surface-wave method for the detection of surface-breaking cracks in pavement. The advances include 1) the modeling of the problem as dipsersive waves propagating in a multilayer system, 2) the inclusion of post-processing algorithms based on the Wavelet Transform to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the inspection, and 3) the use of non-contact, air-coupled acoustic detectors to enhance the mobility of the inspection unit. The crack detection procedure consists of first generating a dispersive wave with an impulse hammer, and then measuring the changes in velocity, amplitude and/or frequency content as the wave travels across the flaw with the aid of the Continuous Wavelet Transform. Multilayer wave propagation modeling provides a better understanding of the experimental results by predicting how the various frequencies interact with cracks of different depths. The results of field tests will be presented for both rigid (concrete-based) and flexible (bitumen-based) pavement with surface cracks.

  17. System Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary System Identification Introduction.- Part I: Data-based Identification.- System Response Methods.- Frequency Response Methods.- Correlation Methods.- Part II: Time-invariant Systems Identification.- Static Systems Identification.- Dynamic Systems Identification.- Part III: Time-varying

  18. Gradient systems and mechanical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengxiang Mei; Huibin Wu

    2016-01-01

    All types of gradient systems and their properties are discussed. Two problems connected with gradient sys-tems and mechanical systems are studied. One is the direct problem of transforming a mechanical system into a gradi-ent system, and the other is the inverse problem, which is transforming a gradient system into a mechanical system.

  19. Simulación del sistema de generación de vapor y procesos de depuración de SO2 y NOX. // Simulation of the steam generation system and scrubbing processes of SO2 and NOx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Clavelo Robinson

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo propone el empleo del simulador SIMCOMB en el cálculo de la eficiencia de un sistema de generaciónde vapor con diferentes alternativas, como el tipo de combustible a emplear. Además, el mismo brinda diferentes variantesde sistemas de depuración de SO2 y NOX, contaminantes primarios que son causantes de problemas atmosféricos como lalluvia ácida.Palabras claves: Simulación, generación de vapor, depuración, dióxido de azufre, óxidos de nitrógeno,contaminación atmosférica._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The present work proposes the employment of the simulator SIMCOMB in the calculation of the efficiency of the steamgeneration system with different alternative, as the type of fuel to use. Also, the same one offers different variants ofscrubbing processes of SO2 and NOX, primary pollutants that are causing of atmospheric problems as the acid rainKey words: simulation, . steam generation, scrubbing, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, air pollution.

  20. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  1. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  2. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  3. Political Unrest and Educational Electronic Resource Usage in a Conflict Zone, Kashmir (Indian Administered Kashmir: Log Analysis as Politico Analytical Tool=Hindistan Tarafından Yönetilen Keşmir Anlaşmazlık Bölgesi’nde Siyasi Karışıklık ve Eğitimle İlgili Elektronik Kaynakların Kullanımı: Siyasi Analiz Aracı Olarak Log Analizleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeer Gul

    2013-10-01

    and conflict studies of a politically simmering area, Kashmir. The research can further be extended to analyze the impact of political normalcy on the academia of Kashmir.How normalcy acts as an indicator of enhanced e-resource usage can be studied./Elektronik kaynak kullanım analizi, kütüphane hizmetlerine yönelik olarak yapılan planlamalarda en iyi karar verme araçlarından biridir. Elektronik kaynak kullanım düzeyinin belirlenmesi, ülkelerdeki siyasi karışıklıklardan etkilenen eğitim planlamalarının yapılmasında önemli bir araç olarak nitelendirilebilir. Bu çalışma, Hindistan Keşmir Anlaşmazlık Bölgesi’ndeki elektronik kaynak kullanımını ve siyasi karışıklıkların bu kullanım üzerindeki etkisini incelemektedir.Ocak 2008 - Aralık 2010 tarihleri arasındaki anlaşmazlık döneminde Keşmir Üniversitesinde Proje Muse dergisinin makalelerinin kullanımı loglar aracılığıyla analiz edilmiştir. Barış süreci,toplumların gelişiminde her yönden büyük bir role sahiptir. Siyasi anlaşmazlık ise eğitim alanında yaşanacak gelişimin sağlanmasında büyük ölçüde engel teşkil etmektedir. Araştırmada,anlaşmazlık sürecinde Keşmirlilerin akademik davranışlarının gerçek durumu, loglar aracılığıyla ortaya konulmuştur. Araştırma, siyasi anlaşmazlığın genel olarak eğitim alanında, özel olarak elektronik kaynak kullanımında olumsuz etkiler yarattığı gerçeğini yansıtmıştır. Bu araştırma,Keşmir Anlaşmazlık Bölgesi’nde yaşanan ve eğitim alanında olumsuz etkiler yaratan siyasi anlaşmazlığın etkilerinin azaltılmasında eğitimle ilgili politikacılara fikir vermesi bakımından önemlidir. Ayrıca bu araştırma log analizlerinin, siyasi anlaşmazlığın akademik çevrelere yönelik ortaya koyduğu olumsuz etkilerin saptanmasında yardımcı olacağını vurgulamaktadır. Araştırma, Keşmir’de siyasi anlaşmazlık ve eğitim arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya koyan ilk

  4. Characterization of Defects in Composite Material Using Rapidly Acquired Leaky Lamb Wave Dispersion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mal, A.; Chang, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of Leaky Lamb Wave (LLW) in composite materials was first observed in 1982 using a Schlieren system. It has been studied extensively by numerous investigators and successfully shown to be an effective quantitative NDE tool.

  5. Nondestructive evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, S.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc.; and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.

  6. WASTE PACKAGE OPERATIONS FY99 CLOSURE METHODS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. C. Knapp

    1999-09-23

    The waste package (WP) closure weld development task is part of a larger engineering development program to develop waste package designs. The purpose of the larger waste package engineering development program is to develop nuclear waste package fabrication and closure methods that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will find acceptable and will license for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), non-fuel components, and vitrified high-level waste within a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Within the WP closure development program are several major development tasks, which, in turn, are divided into subtasks. The major tasks include: WP fabrication development, WP closure weld development, nondestructive examination (NDE) development, and remote in-service inspection development. The purpose of this report is to present the objectives, technical information, and work scope relating to the WP closure weld development.and NDE tasks and subtasks and to report results of the closure weld and NDE development programs for fiscal year 1999 (FY-99). The objective of the FY-99 WP closure weld development task was to develop requirements for closure weld surface and volumetric NDE performance demonstrations, investigate alternative NDE inspection techniques, and develop specifications for welding, NDE, and handling system integration. In addition, objectives included fabricating several flat plate mock-ups that could be used for NDE development, stress relief peening, corrosion testing, and residual stress testing.

  7. The university library of the Knowledge-based economies, Why and to where it changes? La biblioteca universitaria en las “economías basadas en el conocimiento”¿Por qué y hacia dónde cambia?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Valdunciel, M. Engracia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper some changes that have been occurring in both the university and its libraries since the eighties of XX century are analyzed, from the revision of a Budd’s book: Budd, J.M. (2012). The changing academic library: Operations, culture, environments. 2nd. ed. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries. It is stated that mutations have been coming about due mainly to neoliberal politics and global marketization of education systems and knowledge. The changes have to do wi...

  8. Las ideas del alumnado sobre la ciencia: de dónde vienen, a dónde van... y mientras tanto qué hacemos con ellas

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    1996-01-01

    El artículo presenta una síntesis de las aportaciones actuales de la psicología cognitiva al estudio del origen y la naturaleza de las ideas del alumnado sobre la ciencia. Tras mostrar la funcionalidad de esas ideas para la predicción y control de los acontecimientos que ocurren en nuestro entorno, se clasifican esas ideas en tres grandes grupos en función de su origen (sensorial, cultural y escolar). Finalmente, se propone un tratamiento curricular de las ideas previas de los alumnos dirigid...

  9. La ecología política en México ¿Dónde estamos y para dónde vamos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Durand Smith

    2011-01-01

    socioambientales en México, el trabajo puede considerarse un primer acercamiento a una caracterización e historia de la ecología política de México, que brinda elementos para un futuro abordaje más completo y profundo del desarrollo de esta disciplina.

  10. Perú, cambio climático y enfermedades no trasmisibles: ¿Dónde estamos y a dónde vamos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Avilez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El mundo atraviesa una crisis de enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT junto con un panorama de volatilidad climática. El 99% de la carga en salud del cambio climático será asumida por los países en vías de desarrollo. La mejor oportunidad que tiene el Perú frente a la inminencia del cambio climático recae en desarrollar políticas enfocadas en crear cobeneficios mediante las estrategias de mitigación y adaptación al cambio climático que, a la vez, representen mejoras sobre el panorama de las ENT y la salud en general. En este artículo presentamos los compromisos asumidos por el Perú en estrategias de mitigación de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI; identificamos oportunidades en salud pública para el Perú en el Acuerdo de París de la 21.ª Conferencia de las Partes (COP21; y culminamos con las recomendaciones sobre la generación de evidencia y políticas para para la Academia y el Gobierno.

  11. Alfabetización informacional en Uruguay: ¿dónde estábamos y dónde estamos?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La investigación “Alfabetización en información: ¿qué habilidades tienen los niños uruguayos?”(Abeiro,et.al. 2007)fue pionera en el ámbito de la alfabetización informacional (ALFIN) en Uruguay. En ese entonces se presentaba como un tema nuevo, casi inexplorado en nuestro país. Este artículo plantea un recorrido por la evolución de la alfabetización informacional en Uruguay desde esa fecha hasta el presente. La importancia de la ALFIN en la educación y en la formación de ciudadanos activos es ...

  12. La ecología política en México ¿Dónde estamos y para dónde vamos?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    En México, cada vez es más común la inscripción de enfoques de investigación y desarrollo académico al ámbito de la ecología política. La irrupción de la ecología política como disciplina y referencia teórica es muy alentadora para quienes analizamos los cambios ambientales desde una perspectiva social y política; sin embargo, creemos necesaria una revisión sobre el desarrollo de esta disciplina en México, que nos permita delimitarla y evitar, así, la simplificación y generalización de s...

  13. Alfabetización informacional en Uruguay: ¿dónde estábamos y dónde estamos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Olascoaga Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La investigación “Alfabetización en información: ¿qué habilidades tienen los niños uruguayos?”(Abeiro,et.al. 2007fue pionera en el ámbito de la alfabetización informacional (ALFIN en Uruguay. En ese entonces se presentaba como un tema nuevo, casi inexplorado en nuestro país. Este artículo plantea un recorrido por la evolución de la alfabetización informacional en Uruguay desde esa fecha hasta el presente. La importancia de la ALFIN en la educación y en la formación de ciudadanos activos es sustancial en la sociedad de la información en la que vivimos. Se define qué es ALFIN y se mencionan las principales normas y modelos existentes, así como valiosos recursos relacionados. Se analizan además los resultados más relevantes de la investigación de 2007 que evaluó qué tan competentes en información son los niños uruguayos al finalizar su educación primaria. La premisa subyacente a lo largo de todo el artículo es que la ALFINes un objetivo que debe concebirse a largo plazo e integrada al currículo y no debería de depender del carácter personal de cada docente o bibliotecólogo. El Plan Ceibal es una herramienta que no puede ser desaprovechada por maestros y bibliotecólogos. Para lograrlo, las políticas y estrategias a nivel nacional son la clave.

  14. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  15. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  16. Lymph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic system ... neck, under the arms, and groin. The lymph system includes the: Tonsils Adenoids Spleen Thymus ... JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ...

  17. KURUM PERFORMANSININ DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİNDE İÇ VE DIŞ MÜŞTERİ MEMNUNİYETİNİN ÖLÇÜLMESİ VE YÖNETİLMESİ (USE OF APPRAISAL AND MANAGEMENT OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN CORPORATE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal EYNULLAYEV

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In a modern age, the rapid changing business environment enabled innovation the first imperative of achieving strategic business goals and requires proper advancement of infrastructure. Acquiring aforementioned skill set is necessary but not enough, the firms, with a proactive approach, further need to detect evolving business climate, check and intervene if the current situation requires to do so. In order to maintain and sustain up to date competitiveness Performance Management Systems are needed. The interactions between structures within the Performance Management Systems need to be well-defined, targets and achievements have to be analyzed constantly. In this study, we have conducted two applications in a private bank in the context of customer satisfaction measurement and management model, investigated satisfaction levels of internal and external customers, examined interactions of the factors affecting fulfillment levels of potential customers with multivariate statistical analysis methods and presented the framework for measuring the overall satisfaction level stakeholders and customers, have found out that related factors have positive impact on corporate performance increasement.

  18. Final Report on NASA Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    Processes currently used throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to remove corrosion and coatings from structures, ground service equipment, small parts and flight components result in waste streams consisting of toxic chemicals, spent media blast materials, and waste water. When chemicals are used in these processes they are typically high in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). When blast media is used, the volume of hazardous waste generated is increased significantly. Many of the coatings historically used within NASA contain toxic metals such as hexavalent chromium, and lead. These materials are highly regulated and restrictions on worker exposure continue to increase. Most recently the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reduced the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from 52 to 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Hexavalent chromium is found in numerous pretreatment and primer coatings used within the Space Shuttle Program. In response to the need to continue to protect assets within the agency and the growing concern over these new regulations, NASA is researching different ways to continue the required maintenance of both facility and flight equipment in a safe, efficient, and environmentally preferable manner. The use of laser energy to prepare surfaces for a variety of processes, such as corrosion and coating removal, weld preparation, and non destructive evaluation (NDE) is a relatively new application of the technology that has been proven to be environmentally preferable and in many cases less labor intensive than currently used removal methods. The novel process eliminates VOCs and blast media and captures the removed coatings with an integrated vacuum system. This means that the only waste generated are the coatings that are removed, resulting in an overall cleaner process. The development of a

  19. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  20. ÜRETİM İLİŞKİLERİ TEMELİNDE MODERNİZM VE POST-MODERNİZMİN AZGELİŞMİŞ ÜLKELER ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ (ON THE BASIS OF THE PRODUCTION RELATIONSHIP EFFECTS OF MODERNISM AND POST-MODERNISM ON UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal ER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Dünya ekonomik sisteminin kapitalizm tarafından şekillendirildiği bilinen bir gerçektir. Dolayısıyla, ekonomik sistem içinde yer alan fordizm ve post-fordizm de kapitalizmin etkisi altında bulunmaktadır. Burada yapılan araştırmada görüldüğü gibi, fordizm modernizmi etkilemekte, daha sonra gündeme gelen post-fordizm de post-modernizmi etkilemektedir. Öte yandan, modernizm ve post-modernizm, “gelişme yazını” ve “azgelişme yazını” tarafından farklı açılardan ele alınmaktadır. Bu teorilere “azgelişmişlik” açısından bakılmadığında, toplumsal kalkınma sorununa gelişmeyi destekleyici bir çözüm getirilememektedir. O nedenle, bu makalede, ekonomik sistemleri de belirleyen üretim ilişkileri de dikkate alınarak, modernizm ve post-modernizm teorilerinin azgelişme açısından incelenmesi üzerine yoğunlaşılmaktadır. Literatür araştırmalarından elde edilen sonuçla, üretim ilişkileri temelinde modernizm ve post-modernizm gelişmiş devletlerin çıkarlarına işlemektedir. Çalışmada buradan hareketle, azgelişmiş devletlerin zararlarına olabilecek faktörler vurgulanmaya ve bu faktörlerin etkisini ortadan kaldırmaya yönelik politika önerilerinde bulunulmaya çalışılmaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Azgelişme, Kapitalizm, Modernizm, Post-modernizm, Fordizm, Post-fordizm, Bağımlılık Okulu. ABSTRACT: It is a well-known reality that capitalism forms the economic system of the world. Therefore, fordism and post-fordism contained in the economic system are also under the influence of capitalism. As shown in the research, fordism affects the modernism, and in the next step dealt post-fordism influences the post-modernism. On the other hand, the modernism and post-modernism theories have been considered through different perspectives by the “development literature” and the “underdevelopment literature”. It is not possible to find a solution against the social

  1. Atatürk Dönemi’nde Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nin Ulaşım Politikasına Genel Bir Bakış A General Overview Of The Transportation Polıcy Of The Turkish Republic In The Atatürk Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ÇOLAK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As the economic activities take the first place in the social andeconomic development of a country, public works take the second place.Transportation (“münakâle” has an important place in the area ofpublic works. Transportation system and services provided by thissystem are important determiners of development levels of countries, because transportation system, not only fulfils the needs of people, butalso substantially affects the economic activities from their productionto their consumption.Since its foundation, the Turkish Republic, even in the periods ofeconomic depression, has placed particular importance to thedevelopment of transportation system. An inadequate andunderdeveloped transportation system was taken over from theOttoman State. This inadequate and underdeveloped transportationnetwork could not withstand the destructive effects of long wars.Furthermore, majority of the railroads and land roads that the OttomanState had built with great sacrifices were in the lands lost in the BalkanWars and the First World War.The Turkish Republic gave priority to railroads in theirtransportation policy, because during the Ottoman era, the foreigninvestors were effective in the construction and management of therailroads in Anatolia and Rumelia and primary intention of the foundersof the Republic, who aspired a national state, was to nationalize therailroads belonged to foreign investors and to construct new railways.The transportation policy of Turkey did not consist only ofrailroads. Despite its limited means, the Republic tried to develop theland, maritime and airline transportation. In this study, activities inthese areas during the Atatürk Era will be discussed. Bir ülkenin soysal ve ekonomik açıdan gelişmesinde birinci sırayıekonomik faaliyetler aldığı gibi ikinciliği de bayındırlık çalışmalarıalmaktadır. Bayındırlık çalışmaları içerisinde ulaşım, eski tabiri ilemünakâle, önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Ula

  2. GSM SEKTÖRÜNDE MÜŞTERİ BAĞLILIĞI (Pamukkale Üniversitesi Öğrencilerinin GSM Operatörlerine Bağlılıkları ve Bağlılıklarını Etkileyen Faktörler)

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, müşteri bağlılığının önemi, müşteri bağlılığını etkileyen faktörler ve GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications-Mobil İletişim için Küresel Sistem) operatörlerine bağlılığı etkileyen faktörlerin belirlenmesi amacıyla yapılan araştırma sonuçları açıklanmıştır. 483 Pamukkale Üniversitesi öğrencisi üzerinde yapılan tanımlayıcı araştırma sonuçlarına göre; iletişim kalitesi, iletişim maliyeti, değiştirme maliyeti ve hizmet çeşitliliğinin GSM operatörlerine bağlılık üzerinde öneml...

  3. ÜRETİM SEKTÖRÜNDE FAALİYET GÖSTEREN KOBİLERDE ISO 9000’NİN ETKİLİ UYGULAMASI İÇİN KRİTİK BAŞARI FAKTÖRLERİ (CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ISO 9000 IN SME’S OPERATING IN MANUFACTURING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan KALKAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ISO 9000 for quality is one of the most applicable strategies by businesses all over the world. ISO 9000 has been one of important issues in many developing countries including Turkey. Up to now less study is published on the successful use of ISO 9000 Quality Management System, critical success factors and application problems in SME’s. The purpose of this study is to investigate the critical success factors for the effective implementation of ISO 9000 standard in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME’s operating in the manufacturing sector in Turkey.This empirical study has been carried out with a sample of 246 ISO 9000-certified SME’s selected from enterprises operating in manufacturing sector in Turkey. Data were obtained by a questionnaire survey of the managers responsible for quality in each of the sample SME’s. Critical success factors for the effective implementation of ISO 9000 were assessed for importance by simple descriptive statistics.This study provides practical guidance for SME’s operating in manufacturing sector and seeking to implement the ISO 9000 standard effectively.

  4. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  5. Uses of DARPA Materials Sciences Technology in DoD Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Optics and Lasers University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida May 1996 Sponsored by: Dr. Ben Wilcox Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Defense...agencies. The author of this report, Dr. C. Martin Stickley, was selected to carry out this study by Dr. Ben Wilcox of the Materials Sciences Division of...Aids for VLSI Modeling 1975 - 1993* NDE 1975 - 1980 Rapid Solidification Rate Processing 1975 - 1986 HgCdTe Focal Plane Arrays 1975 - Present

  6. Introducing a new device for detecting Rheumatoid Arthritis : a near-infrared-fluorescence imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Daniel Friedrich Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    In dieser Studie wird mit dem 2-Hand-Fluoreszenz Imager („Rheumascanner“) ein neues Verfahren zur Diagnostik der Rheumatoiden Arthritis vorgestellt. Dieses beruht auf der Detektion von emittierter Fluoreszenz nach intravenöser Injektion eines Fluoreszenzfarbstoffs, des Indocyaningrüns, und Bestrahlung der Hände mit einer Rotlichtquelle. Die Fluoreszenz wird mittels einer Kamera detektiert, die Daten werden vom Computer in Falschfarbbilder umgerechnet und diese können dann in Echtzeit als Film...

  7. SU ÜRÜNLERİ KOOPERATİFLERİNDE KARŞILAŞILAN SORUNLAR VE ÇÖZÜM ÖNERİLERİ: İSTANBUL İLİ ÖRNEĞİ - THE PROBLEMS FACED IN FISHERY COOPERATIVES AND SOLUTION SUGGESTIONS: THE CASE OF ISTANBUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin KARADEMİR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetKooperatifçilik, tarım ve tarım dışı alanlarda başarılı uygulamalara sahip bir girişim biçimidir. Kooperatifler dünyada önemli bir ekonomik büyüklük yaratmakla birlikte istihdam ettiği insanlarla da ülke ekonomilerine katkı sağlamaktadırlar. Bu bağlamda, araştırmada su ürünleri kooperatifleri, Türkiye’de balıkçılığın ve su ürünleri kooperatifçiliğinin önemli merkezlerinden biri olan İstanbul ili örneği çerçevesinde analiz edilmiştir. Kooperatiflerin karşılaştıkları sorunlar belirlenmiş ve bunlara yönelik çözüm önerileri sunulmuştur.AbstractCooperative Trading System is a form of enterprise which has a successful practice in agricultural and non-agricultural areas. Between creating a major economic size, cooperatives contribute to the world economies by employing people. In this context, in the study, fishery cooperatives were analyzed in the example of Istanbul which is one of the most important centers of fisheries and fishery cooperatives in Turkey. Problems of cooperatives encountered were determined and solution suggestions according to them were recommended.

  8. HOW TO EVALUATE EXISTING OF AFFIXES WHICH ARE FORMS OF THE SAME, FUNCTIONS AND CATEGORIES OF DIFFERENT IN TURKISH TEACHING? / TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİNDE BİÇİMLERİ AYNI, İŞLEVLERİ VE KATEGORİLERİ FARKLI EKLERİN BULUNUŞU NASIL DEĞERLENDİRİLMELİ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerime ÜSTÜNOVA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical notions play an important role in teaching of structures constituting language. For this reason, there is grammar teaching in the first stage of language teaching, and its most important objective is not only to transfer on knowledge the language, but also to serve as a skill with all its subtleties, its expression possibilities and wealth. Grammar is seen as body of rules supporting basic skills of language like listening, watching, speaking, reading, and writing. This situation brings forward to grammar lessons, their important, their practice forms, their teaching methods, and necessitates beginning a quest and examination. Commonly neglected of grammar teaching seen very important in language acquisition, and underestimation are a grave contradiction. Today at the point, it shows that teaching by way of memorizing seeing as body of rules to grammar is of no use. Practices which are not considered as language is a system composed of signs, on the one hand to cause the discussion of language issues, on the other hand to extend the learning process, to make difficult to learning, to bring forward a number of problems. Thus, one of the issues discussed in Turcology research belong affixes. It seems that deadlocked on many issues like classification, nomenclature, processing format, and teaching methods. Different perspectives about what is the grammatical notion of affix, its characteristics, how it is perceived, how it is taught, its practice area and format, have led to the emergence of different approaches. Naturally, studied issues, notion errors, context-free definitions are handled with unlike terminology and different methods from each other. Today, common language and common viewpoint is almost lost in the studies of grammar. In this study, it will be focused on that affixes require to be taught into the context based on their formal and semantic functions, drawn attention to the problem, presented solutions.

  9. In-Space Inspection Technologies Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studor, George

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Assess In-Space NDE technologies and needs - current & future spacecraft. Discover & build on needs, R&D & NDE products in other industries and agencies. Stimulate partnerships in & outside NASA to move technologies forward cooperatively. Facilitate group discussion on challenges and opportunities of mutual benefit. Focus Areas: Miniaturized 3D Penetrating Imagers Controllable Snake-arm Inspection systems Miniature Free-flying Micro-satellite Inspectors

  10. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  11. KALİTE YÖNETİM SİSTEMİNE SAHİP ORMAN ÜRÜNLERİ SANAYİ İŞLETMELERİNDE ÇALIŞAN PERFORMANSINI ETKİLEYEN FAKTÖRLERİN DEMOGRAFİK ÖZELLİKLER BAKIMINDAN İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç AYDIN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Öz Endüstriyel üretim sistemlerinde birçok açıdan değerlendirilmesi gereken özelliklere sahip olan çalışanın başarısı, onun çalışmasını etkileyecek olan unsurların analizi ve uygun koşullara getirilmesi ile sağlanabilir. Bu amaçla çalışan performansını etkileyen faktörlerin belirlenmesi ve geliştirici tedbirlerin alınması işletmeler için vazgeçilemeyecek unsurlar arasındadır. Bu çalışma kapsamında orman ürünleri sanayinde çalışan performansını etkileyen faktörlerin belirlenmesi ve bu faktörlerin bazı demografik özellikler bakımından farklılaşma durumları araştırılmıştır. Anket verileri SPSS 16.0 ve AMOS 16.0 istatistik paket programlarında yer alan doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve varyans analizi ile değerlendirilerek sonuçlar ortaya koyulmuştur. Sonuç olarak, orman ürünleri sanayinde çalışan performansını etkileyen faktörlerin stres, motivasyon, çalışma ortamı, iş koşulları ve iş doyumu olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bununla beraber belirlenen performans faktörlerinin cinsiyet, yaş, pozisyon ve toplam çalışma süresine göre farklılık gösterdiği ortaya çıkmıştır. Abstract The success of employees, which has the features needed to evaluate in many respects in industrial production systems, can be achieved by analysis of the elements affecting its study and bringing appropriate conditions. For this purpose, the determination of factors affecting employee performance and taking the improving precautions is among the indispensable elements for businesses. In this study, determination of factors affecting employee performance in the forest products industry and differentiation status in terms of some demographic characteristics of these factors was investigated. The survey data were evaluated by using the confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance located in SPSS 16.0 and AMOS 16.0 statistical software package, and the results were revealed. As a

  12. Intelligent Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The autonomous systems (AS) project, led by NASA Ames, is developing software for system operation automation. AS technology will help astronauts make more decisions...

  13. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  14. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  15. Proceedings: Eleventh annual EPRI nondestructive evaluation information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Behravesh, M.M.; Gehl, S.M.; Lang, J.; McCloskey, T.; Stein, J.; Viswanathan, R.; Welty, C.S.

    1991-08-01

    In increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety available through rapidly developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to begin a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. The major focus has been on light water reactor (LWR) inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now under way. This report, NP7047-M, presents a summary of companion report NP7047- SD Nondestructive Evaluation Research Progress in 1990: Proceedings from the Eleventh Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting.'' NP7047-SD presents EPRI's effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on current NDE projects. In addition, organization plans of the program are presented from different perspectives; in-service inspection vendor, R D engineer, and utility owner. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Türk Kültüründe Gelenek Bağlamında “Sırra Erme” ve “Vecd” Ritüellerinin Fenomenolojik Diyalektiği Phenomenological Dialectical of “Secret Coming” and “Ecstasy” Rıtuels in Context of Tradition in Turkish Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar UĞURLU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers must be considered carefully over the role of cultural factors as performing a study concerned with Turkish culture and historical development of Turkish culture. Because the traditional cultural elements regardless of whatever assets are able to maintain. Despite Turks had put into many religions and belief systems in the history process, cultural elements as gains of this ancient tradition were able to arrive until today. So today for all the cultural values which wehave, we need to look at in this context. The concept of the tradition isjust one of them. The Relations of concept of the tradition thatestablished with the Turkish culture, had been tried to explaine with aphenomenological approach in our article. In the new culture, reflects oftradition as an acquisition of the old traditions had been evaluated bythis perspective. In this study, the relationship between the old cultureand new culture, described a variety of cultural symbols. Ecstatic withthe secret expiration concepts, the concepts proposed in terms of thissymbol. However, only not held due to the types of cultural concepts andsymbols. With movement the old culture, focused on the many culturalelements that continues to experience around the new culture. Thephenomenon is considered to be the concepts of this kind, was evaluatedbased on their roles in historical process. Purpose here is tounderstanding of the historical connection between the old culture andnew culture. Thus, despite the destructiveness of the new culture is seenthat the old culture still continue to live. The force that keeps alive theold culture is the traditional folk culture. The study focused on the powerof intuition based on the traditional folk culture. Araştırmacılar, Türk kültürü ve tarihsel gelişimi ile ilgili bir çalışma gerçekleştirirken, kültürel unsurların rolü üzerinde dikkatlice düşünmelidirler. Çünkü geleneksel kültürel unsurlar her ne olursa olsun varl

  17. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  18. Cryogenic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyama, Kenji

    2002-02-01

    In this lecture we discuss the principle of method of cooling to a very low temperature, i.e. cryogenic. The "gas molecular model" will be introduced to explain the mechanism cooling by the expansion engine and the Joule-Thomson expansion valve. These two expansion processes are normally used in helium refrigeration systems to cool the process gas to cryogenic temperature. The reverse Carnot cycle will be discussed in detail as an ideal refrigeration cycle. First the fundamental process of liquefaction and refrigeration cycles will be discussed, and then the practical helium refrigeration system. The process flow of the system and the key components; -compressor, expander, and heat exchanger- will be discussed. As an example of an actual refrigeration system, we will use the cryogenic system for the KEKB superconducting RF cavity. We will also discuss the liquid helium distribution system, which is very important, especially for the cryogenic systems used in accelerator applications. 1 Principles of Cooling and Fundamental Cooling Cycle 2 Expansion engine, Joule-Thomson expansion, kinetic molecular theory, and enthalpy 3 Liquefaction Systems 4 Refrigeration Systems 5 Practical helium liquefier/refrigeration system 6 Cryogenic System for TRISTAN Superconducting RF Cavity

  19. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  20. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  1. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  2. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  3. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  4. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  5. Systemic darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  6. LANGUAGE USED IN ADVERTISING LITERARY ARTS REKLAM DİLİNDE KULLANILAN EDEBÎ SANATLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir ÇINAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, has been prepeared for examining the advertisement texts creativities and artistic language particularities especially for literary arts. For this reason spoken, written and visual media advertisements has been used. Which media groups will publish this sample advertise ments has been confirmed. The literary arts published in the advertisements have been defined shortly then with this work how much literary arts has been used in the advertisement will be shown you. Bu çalışma, reklam metinlerinin yaratıcı ve sanatsal bir dil özelliğini edebî sanatlar bağlamında incelemek amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Bu amaçla sözlü, yazılı ve görsel medyadaki reklamlardan ve bazı haber başlıklarından faydalanılmıştır. Örneklemeye alınan reklamların hangi basın yayın organında yayınlandığı belirtilmiştir. Reklamlarda yer alan edebî sanatların önce kısa bir tanımı yapılmış, daha sonra reklamla ilişkilendirerek açıklanmıştır. Bu çalışmayla reklam dilinde edebî sanatların ne ölçüde kullanıldığı gösterilmeye çalışılacaktır.

  7. ¿Hacia dónde camina la Prehistoria española?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pellicer, M.ª Rosario

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La investigación prehistórica está cargada de novedades que apuntan hacia la generalización de los enfoques actuales. Explicación e interpretación de procesos y cambios, y la idea de que el registro arqueológico (en el amplio concepto de asentamiento humano/territorio puede darnos muchas respuestas si se saben formular y multiplicar las preguntas y se cuenta con métodos adecuados, guían la investigación futura para trazar una especie de Antropología Prehistórica. Se incrementará y perfeccionará la analítica de laboratorio y el muestreo, con objeto de conocer mejor el Espacio y su interrelación con la Conducta Humana bajo el prisma del Tiempo.

  8. Model benchmarking and reference signals for angled-beam shear wave ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, John C.; Hopkins, Deborah; Datuin, Marvin; Warchol, Mark; Warchol, Lyudmila; Forsyth, David S.; Buynak, Charlie; Lindgren, Eric A.

    2017-02-01

    For model benchmark studies, the accuracy of the model is typically evaluated based on the change in response relative to a selected reference signal. The use of a side drilled hole (SDH) in a plate was investigated as a reference signal for angled beam shear wave inspection for aircraft structure inspections of fastener sites. Systematic studies were performed with varying SDH depth and size, and varying the ultrasonic probe frequency, focal depth, and probe height. Increased error was observed with the simulation of angled shear wave beams in the near-field. Even more significant, asymmetry in real probes and the inherent sensitivity of signals in the near-field to subtle test conditions were found to provide a greater challenge with achieving model agreement. To achieve quality model benchmark results for this problem, it is critical to carefully align the probe with the part geometry, to verify symmetry in probe response, and ideally avoid using reference signals from the near-field response. Suggested reference signals for angled beam shear wave inspections include using the `through hole' corner specular reflection signal and the full skip' signal off of the far wall from the side drilled hole.

  9. ?`Y dónde está el turn-over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    La distribución de luminosidades de los cúmulos globulares presenta un máximo (turn-over) que no varía significativamente de galaxia en galaxia, por lo que es utilizada como indicador de distancia. En este trabajo se investigan los errores estadísticos de su determinación.

  10. NDE of the internal hole defect of dental composite restoration using infrared lock in thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Ja Uk; Choi, Nak Sam [Hanyang Univ., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to detect the pin hole defect of dental composite restoration using lock in thermography method. Amplitude and phase images of the composite resin specimens were analyzed according to the lock in frequency and the diameter of defect area. Through the amplitude image analysis, at lock in frequency of 0.05 Hz, defect diameters 2-5 mm exhibited the highest amplitude contrast value between defective area and sound area. The lock in frequency range of 0.3-0.5 Hz provided good phase angle contrast for contrast value. It is concluded that the infrared lock in thermography method verified the effectiveness for detecting the pin hole defect of dental composite restoration.

  11. NDE of low-velocity impact damage in GFRP using infrared thermography techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ghi Seok [Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kye Sung; Hur, Hwan; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Geon Hee [Center for Analytical Instrumentation Development, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this study, low-velocity impact damage (LVID) in glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) was investigated using pulse thermography (PT) and lock-in thermography (LIT) techniques. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the detection performance of each technique for LVID in GFRP. Unidirectional and cross-ply GFRPs were prepared with four energy levels using a drop weight impact machine and they were inspected from the impact side, which may be common in actual service conditions. When the impacted side was used for both inspection and thermal loading, results showed that the suggested techniques were able to identify the LVID which is barely visible to the naked eye. However, they also include limitations that depend on the GFRP thickness at the location of the delamination produced by the lowest impact energy of five joule.

  12. Troas Bölgesi'nde Göçler, Diller ve Kültürler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüstem Aslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its strategic location the Troad was from the Early Bronze Age to the Archaic Period confronted with the many differents immigrations. The transition to the Early Iron Age took place around 1130 BC. During this short transition period, former traditions were maintained while new elements emerged at the same time. Most scholars agreed that the settlement transformed into another local culture. However, this settlement was also brought to an end by destruction later on, the Early Iron Age, Troy VIIb2 and VIIb3 under influence of the Balkans lasted from 1150 BC to 950 BC. The archaeological evidence shows, that these two different cultures lived in peace on the Troad. During the Archaic period, the Greeks arrived in the region. According to Herodot and Strabon, the Greeks also had a process of acculturation with the local cultures.

  13. Ingenieria e industria química: ¿hacia dónde vamos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Garzón Gaitán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocer a fondo las fuerzas del cambio, diferenciar la tecnología medular de la periférica, preveer con certeza, modelar el futuro y actuar junto con los mas capacitados y audaces. Todas estas pueden ser proclamas cuya convergencia ayude a hacer realidad la utopía de un mañana mas equitativo para los colombianos. El presente artículo tiene tres partes: una descripción muy simple del escenario actual de la ingeniería química, una prefiguración del escenario ideal y, finalmente, unas estrategias para orientar la acción de los ingenieros químicos con el fin de alcanzar el escenario ideal.

  14. Real-Time NDE Using Multi-Function Robotic Sonoscope (MSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    was caused by a 0.16 Xc impacto - a"L a s?eed of 6-7 m/s. The field of view is 45 ran x 2 6 mm Mass 0.16 Kg Velocity = 6.70 m...3J tic . (c) SLAM inage of Specimen C3. ?ig. 6 (c) SLAM irrage of Scecimer. C^ 3£ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 *! T ±± 12 13

  15. ¿Hacia dónde va la psicolingüística?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Silva Villena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo revisa de modo introductorio la preocupación de destacados pensadores en la historia de los estudios de la relación lenguaje-pensamiento. Del mismo modo se analizan los periodos de la psicolingüística como ciencia de la comunicación humana: formativo, lingüístico, cognitivo y de ciencia cognitiva. Uno de los puntos más importantes es el relacionado con el modelo de arquitectura básica de los procesos de habla y comprensión según W. Levelt, director del Instituto Max Planck para la Psicolingüística (Holanda. Dicho modelo abarca: la evocación de la intención comunicativa, la generación de mensajes, la articulación del habla real, la representación fonética en la decodificación, el mensaje derivado, el procesamiento de la intención discursiva y la comprensión. Finalmente se entregan algunas perspectivas de ubicación de la psicolingüística en este milenio y sus proyecciones para comprender al homo loquens

  16. Using phase information to enhance speckle noise reduction in the ultrasonic NDE of coarse grain materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Timothy; Li, Minghui; Gachagan, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    Materials with a coarse grain structure are becoming increasingly prevalent in industry due to their resilience to stress and corrosion. These materials are difficult to inspect with ultrasound because reflections from the grains lead to high noise levels which hinder the echoes of interest. Spatially Averaged Sub-Aperture Correlation Imaging (SASACI) is an advanced array beamforming technique that uses the cross-correlation between images from array sub-apertures to generate an image weighting matrix, in order to reduce noise levels. This paper presents a method inspired by SASACI to further improve imaging using phase information to refine focusing and reduce noise. A-scans from adjacent array elements are cross-correlated using both signal amplitude and phase to refine delay laws and minimize phase aberration. The phase-based and amplitude-based corrected images are used as inputs to a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm that will output a weighting matrix that can be applied to any conventional image. This approach was validated experimentally using a 5MHz array a coarse grained Inconel 625 step wedge, and compared to the Total Focusing Method (TFM). Initial results have seen SNR improvements of over 20dB compared to TFM, and a resolution that is much higher.

  17. OPINIÓN: PARA TRABAJAR POR CARTAGENA POR DÓNDE COMENZAR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cabrales Vargas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciertamente son muchos los flancos desde los cuales acercarnos a esta ciudad que se encuentra en permanente y profunda movilidad con respecto a lo que era hace dos décadas. Cartagena ha estallado y seguirá estallando en muchos pedazos, convirtiéndose en una ciudad que por su compleja dinámica no alcanza a recomponerse en su organización social ni en sus espacios físicos; por ello se nos muestra como un lugar donde la confrontación con el orden instituido para su funcionamiento es permanente. En ese sentido, puede anotarse que son pocos los que acogen con rigor las normas de tránsito o respetan el espacio público, o practican el cuidado ambiental o respetan el derecho del otro al uso de los recursos institucionales que se ofrecen. Dicho de otra forma, en los imaginarios de estos habitantes parece no encontrarse el de la ciudad en cuanto organización espacial con reglas y normas que le dan sentido.

  18. ¿Hacia dónde va la psicolingüística?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Villena Omer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo revisa de modo introductorio la preocupación de destacados pensadores en la historia de los estudios de la relación lenguaje-pensamiento. Del mismo modo se analizan los periodos de la psicolingüística como ciencia de la comunicación humana: formativo, lingüístico, cognitivo y de ciencia cognitiva. Uno de los puntos más importantes es el relacionado con el modelo de arquitectura básica de los procesos de habla y comprensión según W. Levelt, director del Instituto Max Planck para la Psicolingüística (Holanda. Dicho modelo abarca: la evocación de la intención comunicativa, la generación de mensajes, la articulación del habla real, la representación fonética en la decodificación, el mensaje derivado, el procesamiento de la intención discursiva y la comprensión. Finalmente se entregan algunas perspectivas de ubicación de la psicolingüística en este milenio y sus proyecciones para comprender al homo loquens.

  19. Die Salomonische Säulenordnung. Eine unkonventionelle Erfindung und ihre historischen Umstände

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther, Hubertus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As early as 1549, i.e. 50 years before Villalpando's famous Ezechiel commentary was published, Jacques Androuet Ducerceau introduced the Salomonic Order in his Exempla arcuum, a series of engravings in which the Salomonic Order is even presented as a part of a canon of orders. For the first time, the article draws attention to this hitherto neglected early example. The author analyses Ducerceau's canon within the broader context of renaissance theories of architecture, treatises on the columnar order, and conceptions of the origins of good or artful architecture, some of which can be traced back to medieval positions. Furthermore, it is argued that the dismissal of the italic orders in favor of the Salomonic order by Ducerceau and others is inextricably linked to the increasing nationalist tendencies of the renaissance.

  20. MEMS, Nanotechnology and Spintronics for Sensor Enhanced Armor, NDE and Army Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-16

    Crew Interface and Automation • Robotic Follower ATD • ARV Robotic Technologies Program SMART ARMOR Battery Pack w/ Integrated Heat Exchanger CONDITION...of MI, Prof. Wise ACTIVE STENTS : Wireless Readout of Intra-Arterial Pressure and Flow Suitable for the carotid arteries; not yet small enough for the

  1. Tung läände - Venemaa jalahoobid lükkavad Gruusia Euroopasse / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 20. okt. nr. 42 lk. 154. Gruusiat on vallanud rahvuslik ühtsustunne, seljataga on rängad revolutsioonijärgsed katsumused. Gruusia edusammudest. Gruusia ministrite seisukohti. Vt. samas: Tbilisi liikluses ei kehti liiklusmärgid, suunad, kiiruspiirangud ega foorid; Kuidas vaesed politseinikud pistiseta jäeti; Poomisnööri asemel vaid lõuahaagid. Lisa: Euroopa Liit mõistab Venemaa hukka

  2. ¿Dónde situar el hospital de Salnés?

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUEZ, Francisco

    1998-01-01

    Se trata de una propuesta didáctica con la resolución de un problema real: ¿cual es la ubicación ideal para un hospital comarcal (el del Salnés en Pontevedra)? La resolución del problema conduce a varios métodos diferentes: un procedimiento analógico (búsqueda del punto de equilibrio de una serie de masas puntuales, que puede relacionarse con el teorema de Steinitz), un método estadístico (calculo de la media de una variables estadística) y un procedimiento propio del análisis matemático (det...

  3. nde aprender a leer y escribir en el año mil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Prieto, Ana Belén

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The gap created with the disappearance of the municipal schools after the fall of the Western Roman Empire was filled by the different ecclesiastical institutions, giving birth to schools dependant on parish churches, cathedrals and monasteries. These schools, besides guaranteeing the necessary education of the clergymen, admitted often lay children not destined to join the ranks of the Church.

    El hueco creado por la desaparición de las escuelas municipales tras la caída del Imperio Romano fue cubierto por las distintas instancias eclesiásticas, surgiendo de este modo escuelas parroquiales, episcopales y monacales, que además de garantizar la formación básica de los clérigos admitieron en muchas ocasiones a niños laicos no destinados a formar parte de las filas del clero.

  4. ¿A dónde va la investigación sobre la prueba?

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Patricio

    2000-01-01

    La traducción de la tesis de Nicolás Balacheff al castellano es un hecho que debe celebrarse, particularmente por lo que esta obra significa para quienes nos interesamos en investigar la problemática de la validación de los cono- cimientos matemáticos en la clase. Como resulta evidente de la lectura del libro, el trabajo reconoce tres filiaciones intelectuales importantes. Hay una filiación epistemológica con las obras de Imre Lakatos (1976, 1978), de quien Balacheff obtiene la noción fundame...

  5. ¿dónde queda la educación?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amando Vega Fuentes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de un Sistema Nacional de Dependencia aborda la necesidad de apoyos a las personas con discapacidad. Pero existe la necesidad de superar el enfoque médico-asistencial dominante para llegar a un planteamiento respetuoso de los derechos de las personas con discapacidad que piden atención integral y calidad de vida. Este artículo pretende analizar los conceptos de autonomía y dependencia con sus implicaciones para la atención de las personas con discapacidad, planteando diferentes lecturas, para defender una pedagogía de la autonomía. Más allá de enfoques médicos-asistencialistas o de mercado se ha de pretender el desarrollo integral de las personas, tarea que no se puede desarrollar sin la implicación de la educación formal y no formal.

  6. Hacia una estética del dónde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabeu Larena, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building process of engineering works has been considered from the point of view of art for its technical character and often referred to the dialectic between utility and beauty, both by engineers and art historians. In a world where everything is technical, concepts such as shape, type, process and certain guidelines or specific goals related to lightness, strictness and superfluity are introduced. Then the large size of these works is taken into consideration, for they exceed the scale of man and his relationship with the territory, summarized as landscape. Here the confrontation with nature is introduced and the contribution of the sublime and picturesque as ways of interpreting and valuing the works. With the introduction of the meanings and concept of cultural landscape, the necessity to consider engineering from a phenomenological perspective is concluded, stressing the importance of ‘where’ to understand their peculiarities.La manera de construir propia de la ingeniería ha sido considerada por el arte a partir de su carácter técnico y a menudo referida a la dialéctica utilidad-belleza, tanto por los propios ingenieros como por los historiadores del arte. En un mundo donde todo es técnico, se introducen algunos conceptos para precisar ese carácter, como forma, tipo, proceso y ciertas pautas o metas específicas, relacionadas con lo ligero, lo estricto y lo superfluo. Se considera después la gran dimensión de esas obras, que supera la escala del hombre, y su relación con el territorio resumida en paisaje. A continuación se introduce la confrontación con lo natural y la aportación de lo sublime y lo pintoresco como vías de interpretación y valoración de lo construido. Con la introducción de los significados y del paisaje cultural se concluye la conveniencia de considerar la ingeniería desde una perspectiva fenomenológica, subrayando la importancia del ‘donde’ para entender sus peculiaridades.

  7. Y...¿Dónde está la resilencia? una reflexión conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Kalawski

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras analizar críticamente el desarrollo histórico del concepto de resiliencia en la psicología y la psiquiatría, proponemos no considerar la resiliencia como una variable psicológica en sí misma. En cambio, sugerimos considerar resilientes a todas las personas que presentan un resultado inesperado frente a una determinada situación adversa, independientemente de las causas de ese resultado. Ofrecemos además una distinción entre factores protectores, factores de recuperación y factores de control conductual. Finalmente, discutimos las implicaciones de estas propuestas para la investigación

  8. ¿Hacia dónde caminan nuestros museos? Futuros pasos para el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ruiz Torres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Los espacios expositivos en la actualidad sufren una mudanza que afecta a su concepción, aportando nuevos enfoques de lo que considerábamos como museo, así como en su discurso expositivo convencional. Esto mismo es lo que María Luisa Bellido Gant ha tenido en cuenta a la hora de editar este libro, que recoge los contenidos más punteros a nivel internacional en lo que a éstos ámbitos se refiere. Esta razón constituye uno de los firmes pilares que llevan a prestar especial atención al lector cuyo interés en obtener una visión reciente y aproximada a las nuevas tendencias museológicas, obliga a no obviar este compendio.

  9. ¿Qué es el control predictivo y hacia dónde se proyecta?

    OpenAIRE

    Sendoya, Diego Fernando

    2013-01-01

    El control predictivo basado en modelo (Model Based Predictive Control – MBPC o simplemente MPC) es una metodología de control que hace uso del modelo del proceso para predecir las salidas futuras de la planta y con base en ello optimizar las acciones de control futuras. De hecho, el control predictivo no se puede considerar como una estrategia de control independiente sino, que por el contrario, integra toda una familia de métodos de control tales como, el control óptimo, el control de proce...

  10. NDE of explosion welded copper stainless steel first wall mock-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taehtinen, S.; Kauppinen, P.; Jeskanen, H.; Lahdenperae, K.; Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity

    1997-04-01

    The study showed that reflection type C-mode scanning acoustic microscope (C-SAM) and internal ultrasonic inspection (IRIS) equipment can be applied for ultrasonic examination of copper stainless steel compound structures of ITER first wall mock-ups. Explosive welding can be applied to manufacture fully bonded copper stainless steel compound plates. However, explosives can be applied only for mechanical tightening of stainless steel cooling tubes within copper plate. If metallurgical bonding between stainless steel tubes and copper plate is required Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) method can be applied. (orig.)

  11. DENGUE: ¿DÓNDE NOS ENCONTRAMOS EN EL DESARROLLO DE UNA VACUNA EFICAZ?

    OpenAIRE

    Galán Herrera, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    El dengue es una enfermedad causada por uno de los cuatros serotipos del virus dengue. La infección por dengue supone una carga socioeconómica y enfermedad grave en muchas regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo. Actualmente es considerada actualmente como la enfermedad por arbovirus más importante a nivel internacional. La disponibilidad de una vacuna tetravalente segura y eficaz que induzca la producción equilibrada, robusta y sostenida de anticuerpos protectores contra todos los viru...

  12. TARİHİ TÜRK BAHÇELERİNDE HAVUZ YAPILARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Turgut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetHızla değişen ve kalıcı olmayan bahçe tasarımları göçebe hayattan yerleşik hayata geçen Türk toplumunun değişim süreci için önemli ipuçları verebilirdi. Ancak değerlendirme yapılabilecek bahçe örnekleri çok az bulunmakta ve olanların da değişime uğrayıp uğramadıkları net olarak bilinmemektedir. Bu çalışmada; farklı sanat akımları ile tanışmış olan, çoğunun varlığını ancak kitaplardan bildiğimiz tarihi Türk Bahçelerinin havuz detaylarının incelenerek Türk bahçe kültürü hakkında bilgi edinilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada, ağırlıklı olarak son tanık olan Sedad Hakkı Eldem’in kaynakları Türk dünyasının önemli sanat kollarından olan tarihi belge niteliği taşıyan minyatürler, gezgin notları, çeşitli rehber nitelikli kaynaklar incelenmiştir. Çalışmada minyatürlerin tercih edilme sebebi, minyatürlerin ince ayrıntıların gösterildiği resimler olmasının yanı sıra Türk resminden önce minyatür sanat örneklerinin var olması ve arşiv niteliğinde çalışmalar olarak değerlendirilebilmesidir. Minyatürde görünümden çok fikir ve gerçeklik ön plandadır. Çalışmanın sonucunda bundan sonra yapılacak Türk Bahçesi çalışmaları için daha detaylı bir bakış açısı ortaya konulması umut edilmektedir.Abstract The fast changes and non-permanent designs in Historical Turkish gardening could have given us important hints about the process of how nomadic Turkish people transformed into the settled life. But there are few samples of these designs to know if they underwent any changes. This study aims at giving information about the pool structures in the historical Turkish gardens, which are closely related to the Turkish culture. In doing so, the study examines the works of Sedad Hakki Eldem, together with miniatures, travel notes and various guiding notes. The reason why miniatures are chosen is because they are not only the pictures which give details but they were also existing in Turkish culture before the painting was used, so that miniatures could be evaluated as archives. In miniatures, idea and realism are more important rather than the look. As a result of this work, we expect to have a more detailed understanding of Turkish gardens for future use.RésuméLes dessins des jardins en pleine mutation peuvent donner des indices importants relatifs au processus de changement de la société Turque qui passe de la vie nomade à la vie urbaine. Cependant, il y a très peu d’exemples de jardin pour pouvoir évaluer ces changements, nous ne savons d’ ailleurs pas si ces transformations/changements ont eu lieu. Dans cette étude, nous avons voulu obtenir des renseignements au sujet de la culture du jardin Turc en examinant les détails de la piscine – connus au travers des livres – et leur influence sur différents mouvements artistiques. Nous avons principalement utilisé comme sources, les matériaux du dernier témoin Sedad Hakki Eldem, les miniatures issues de registres historiques qui représentent l’art du monde Turc, les notes des voyageurs et les écrits assimilés à des guides. Nous avons choisi les miniatures comme source pour notre travail car elles se composent de dessins qui montrent des détails fins et elles précédent l’art du dessin Turc; on peut ainsi les évaluer comme des documents d’archive.Dans la miniature, la pensée et la réalité sont plus représentatives que l’apparence/la forme. Par notre travail, nous espérons susciter un regard plus large dans des études postérieures qui porteraient sur les jardins Turcs.ملخص:كان من الممكن أن تعطينا تصاميم الحدائق التي تتغير سريعًا ولا تدوم كثيرًا تلميحات هامّة لنفهم كيف تغيّرت حياة الأتراك من البداوة إلى الحضارة. ولكن نماذج الحدائق قليلة جدًّا، ولا نعرف بالضبط هل هي تغيّرت أم لا. نهدف في هذه الدراسة اكتساب المعرفة عن ثقافة الحديقة التركية من خلال دراسة تفاصيل الحياض القديمة التي تعرّفت على تيارات فنية مختلفة والتي نعرف وجود كثير منها عن الكتب. في الدراسة بحثنا غالبًا ما بحثنا مصادر الشاهد الأخير "سداد حقي إيلدم"، والصور المصغّرة (المينياتور التي هي من أهم الفروع الفن العالم التركي وهي وثائق تاريخية، ومذكرات الرحالين، ومصادر الإرشاد السياحي... والسبب في اختيارنا للصور المصغرة لهذه الدراسة هو أن هذه الصور تظهر فيها التفاصيل الدقيقة، بالإضافة إلى أن فن الصور المصغرة (المينياتور موجودًا قبل فن الرسم التركي، ووجود إمكانية استخدامها كوثائق أرشيفية... في فن الصور المصغرة الفكرة والواقع في الطليعة أكثر من الظاهر. ونأمل في آخر الدراسة وضع وجهة نظر تفصيلي لعمليات الحديقة التركية التي ستتم بعد الآن.

  13. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis: An NDE Tool for the Residual Stress Assessment of Metallic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2000-01-01

    During manufacturing, certain propulsion components that will be used in a cyclic fatigue environment are fabricated to contain compressive residual stresses on their surfaces because these stresses inhibit the nucleation of cracks. Overloads and elevated temperature excursions cause the induced residual stresses to dissipate while the component is still in service, lowering its resistance to crack initiation. Research at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field has focused on employing the Thermoelastic Stress Analysis technique (TSA, also recognized as SPATE: Stress Pattern Analysis by Thermal Emission) as a tool for monitoring the residual stress state of propulsion components. TSA is based on the fact that materials experience small temperature changes when they are compressed or expanded. When a structure is cyclically loaded (i.e., cyclically compressed and expanded), the resulting surface-temperature profile correlates to the stress state of the structure s surface. The surface-temperature variations resulting from a cyclic load are measured with an infrared camera. Traditionally, the temperature amplitude of a TSA signal has been theoretically defined to be linearly dependent on the cyclic stress amplitude. As a result, the temperature amplitude resulting from an applied cyclic stress was assumed to be independent of the cyclic mean stress.

  14. ELEKTRİKLİ EV ALETLERİNDE CE UYUMLULUĞU VE BİR UYGULAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hızla gelişen teknoloji, artan rekabet ortamı ve kullanıcının bilinçlenmesi gibi nedenlerden dolayı kaliteli üretim yapmanın gerekliliği günümüzde daha da artmıştır. Ürün kalitesinin ve güvenilirliğinin belgelenmesi tüketici açısından şart olmuştur. Ürün güvenliğinin belgelenmesinde kullanılan birçok belge vardır. Bu belgelerden biri de CE belgesidir. Bu makalede, CE işareti ile ilgili temel bilgi verilmiş ve elektrikli ev aletleri için gerekli CE standartları ve testlerinden bahsedilmiştir. Örnek olarak elektrikli ev aletlerinden tost makinesi ele alınmış, incelenmiştir. Tost makinesine CE belgesi almak için EN60335-2-9 direktifine göre gerekli testler yapılmış ve CE belgesi alınmıştır.

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Technology Initiatives (NTIP). Delivery Order 0039: Statistical Comparison of Competing Material Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    DeGroot , Morris H., “Lindley’s Paradox: Comment,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, June 1982, Volume: 77 Number: 378 Page: pp336-339...22) DeGroot , Morris H., “Lindley’s Paradox: Comment,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, June 1982, Volume: 77 Number: 378 Page: pp336

  16. Diabetes y enfermedad vascular aterosclerótica ¿Dónde estamos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Díaz Díaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad vascular de origen aterosclerótico (EVA comprende los episodios clínicos (agudos-críticos, recurrentes o crónicos asociados a coronariopatía aterosclerótica, enfermedad cerebrovascular aterotrombótica o arteriopatía peri-férica y, constituye una de las principales causas de muerte y discapacidad en países desarrollados, especialmente entre su población con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM2

  17. ¿Hacia dónde va la ciencia argentina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Barañao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El ministro se refirió a los lineamientos de la ciencia argentina. Destacó que la inversión que la sociedad hace en Ciencia y Tecnología en la Argentina debe apuntar a una mejora de la calidad de vida de la población, mediante el fortalecimiento del sistema, mejora de los salarios e infraestructura, la diversificación de financiamientos, la vinculación efectiva entre generación de conocimiento, solución de problemas y aumento de la actividad productiva, con atención a las demandas sociales. Para cumplir estos objetivos pueden contribuir la cooperación investigación-empresa, la del Estado con el sector privado, las mejoras en infraestructura e institucionales, como así también la promoción del diálogo entre disciplinas. La divulgación del conocimiento es la forma más directa en que vuelve la inversión en ciencia a la sociedad. Y la excelencia de la investigación científica siempre tendrá un papel preponderante como motor de las acciones. El ministro se refirió también a los subsidios para proyectos científicos, la relación entre el sistema científico y la producción, y cómo acoplar la ciencia innovadora a la actividad productiva, destacando la promoción de empresas de base tecnológica. En la actualidad existen tres plataformas tecnológicas: nanotecnología, biotecnología y tecnología en información y comunicación. El ministerio identifica prioritariamente 4 sectores de problema/oportunidad que son: la salud, la energía renovable, la agro-industria y el desarrollo social. De la interacción entre éstos y las plataformas surgirá, por ejemplo, el área de biotecnología aplicada a la salud. Destacó que el sistema debe crecer en medicina traslacional. Finalmente abordó el tema de patentes, señalando que con tal fin se promueven los fondos sectoriales para aplicación de la ciencia: consorcios público-privados, con un plan de negocios.

  18. Hacia Dónde va la Profesión Médica en Colombia …

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Malagón Londoño

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available

    “Es difícil entender el presente, sin pasearnos por los escenarios del pasado e imposible imaginar el futuro, sin conocer el presente”. esto lo afirmaba un ilustre pensador y es aplicable al tema de la profesión médica en el país, sobre lo cual se hacen todo tipo de conjeturas, desde su generosidad económica, la carencia de especialistas, la falta de médicos para cubrir las necesidades reales del país y por tanto la necesidad apremiante de crear nuevas escuelas de medicina.

    Esto último por supuesto lo están utilizando hasta la saciedad quienes están interesados en abrir una nueva facultad de medicina. Vale la pena revisar el pasado, tan sólo un retazo de medio siglo, para mirar allí cuanto ha sucedido hasta el momento actual del país con 32 millones de habitantes, 36 mil médicos, dieciocho mil especialistas, 59 mil camas hospitalarias, más de 200.000 trabajadores de la salud. Se ha evolucionado en forma rápida, quizás al tenor de las exigencias demográficas del país, del avance tecnológico que descubre más precozmente las causas de enfermedad, de la necesidad de dar una cobertura adecuada de servicios; de la impostergable necesidad de adecuar el recurso humano profesional para afrontar con conocimiento y destreza la realidad nosológica de Colombia.

    Pero también con un afán desmedido de aumentar la población de médicos, sin estudiar con serenidad que si bien es cierto que países avanzados cuentan con un médico para quinientos habitantes, en donde el profesional tiene todos los medios para su ejercicio en cualquier lugar, también lo es que donde no se dan las condiciones ideales para trabajar, los médicos se quedan en los centros urbanos más desarrollados y prefieren los rigores del subempleo o desempleo en muchos casos, antes que desplazarse a sectores inhóspitos, inseguros, abandonados por las autoridades, sin recursos para el ejercicio, como sucede en nuestro país, en el cual se ha demostrado que el 70% del recurso profesional para la salud está concentrado en las siete ciudades principales o en sus alrededores, que representan aproximadamente el 65% de la población de Colombia.

    Al revisar el pasado, se encuentra que hasta 1950, era muy marcada la influencia de la escuela europea en la medicina colombiana, como sucedía en la mayoría de los países subdesarrollados. Había dos grupos bien definidos de médicos: el General y el de los especialistas de cuatro grandes áreas: Medicina Interna, Pediatría, Cirugía y Maternidad. Estos últimos formados en Europa antes de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, hicieron escuela maravillosa con su sapiencia y experiencia y fueron forjadores de los más connotados maestros.

    Los Médicos Internistas, manejaban las áreas de cardiología, endocrinología, dermatología y eran los magos en el manejo de las patologías tropicales, de la tuberculosis y la mayoría de los problemas de la época. Eran los clínicos respetables que decían la última palabra frente a la salud o la enfermedad. Los Cirujanos operaban todo lo quirúrgico: el cráneo, el tórax, el abdomen o las extremidades.

    El Pediatra, resolvía cualquier patología de los niños y el Especialista en Maternidad, resolvía lo de su área, a excepción de los problemas que requerían cirugía. Apenas por la década del cincuenta se abrían paso las especialidades de Traumatología, Cirugía del Tórax y Neumología, Organos de los sentidos que atendían ojos, oídos, nariz y garganta, como rezaban los avisos de la puerta de sus consultorios. Por esta misma época se inician la Neurocirugía, la Cirugía Plástica y la Cirugía de las Vías Digestivas.

    Existían 5 facultades de Medicina en el país, con programas académicos de seis años, más uno de internado, requisito legal para graduarse, que adelantaba el estudiante en el hospital en donde era generalmente un miembro más del grupo profesional y como tal era vinculado laboralmente. Muchos Internos iniciaron durante este período su especialización, alIado de los docentes destacados que les transmitieron todos los conocimientos y los formaron como sus asistentes hasta sacarlos como especialistas competentes.

    Son de grata recordación los Hospitales San José, San Juan de Dios y la Samaritana de Bogotá, los mismo que el Hospital San Vicente de Medellín, verdaderas cunas de la docencia. La duración de la especialidad en general, no estaba reglamentada y el título lo expedía el Hospital o el propio profesor. En 1959, fue creada Ascofame. Uno de sus propósitos, fue” estudiar y organizar lo relacionado con el ejercicio de las especialidades médicas en el país y estudiar y organizar la calidad de los programas de pre y postgrado en medicina”...

  19. TÜRK ORDU GELENEĞİNDE ASKERİ MÜZİK OLGUSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Erdem Kaya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish military forces have left important legacies for ages. Beside important war weapons, strategies, historical heros, important musical instruments are remained up to now from Turkish military forces. Firstly the musical instruments were simple, but in next centuries it became more organized. The military music which always symbol of sovereignty and power has played important role in the battlefield for centuries. In this study, evulation and trends of military music have been analysed.

  20. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION ON KASHKAY TURKS KAŞKAY TÜRKLERİNDE SOSYAL TABAKALAŞMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ERENOĞLU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Social dynamics of the world gain various dimensions due to thesuch reasons as migrations, settlements, agriculture, animal husbandry,industrialization, politics, and religions. Today there are a lot of studieson this issue as theoretical and practical in the East end West, With theincreasing social movements, new roles and status have been emerging;thus, the human layers or social strata occur.In this study the structure of the social strata between KaskayTurks located within the Iranian borders, and the Old TurkishCommunities, particularly the Oghuz Turks, was studied. Dünyanın sosyal dinamikleri, göçler, yerleşmeler, ziraat,hayvancılık, sanayileşme, siyaset, inanç gibi sebeplerle değişik boyutlarkazanmaktadır. Artan sosyal hareketlilikle yeni rol ve statüler ortayaçıkmakta ve böylece insan katmanları ya da sosyal tabakalar ortayaçıkmaktadır. Doğu ve Batı toplumlarında bu konu üzerinde teorik vepratik pek çok çalışma yapılmıştır.Bu çalışmada İran sınırları içinde bulunan Kaşkay Türklerinin, eskiTürk toplumları ve özellikle Oğuz Türkleri ile ortaklık gösteren sosyaltabakalaşma yapısı incelenmiştir.

  1. EREĞLİ (KONYA) İLÇESİNDE MEYVECİLİK

    OpenAIRE

    TAPUR, TAHSİN; BOZYİĞİT, RECEP

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETAraştırma Sahası, İç Anadolu Bölgesi’nin güneydoğusunda yer alır. Ereğli ilçesidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Ereğli’de meyveciliğin dağılımını, üretimini ve gelişimini ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmanın ilk aşamasında konu ile ilgili literatür incelenmiştir. Daha sonra çeşitli tarihlerde (Eylül 2008 veTemmuz 2009) arazi incelemeleri yapılmıştır. Saha çalışması ile elde edilen bilgiler, literatür ve SWOT/GZFT analiz yöntemi ile değerlendirilmiştir.Çalışma alanında meyveciliğin gelişmesi üzerinde f...

  2. Esporogénesis, esporodermo y ornamentaciónde esporas maduras en Lycopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Javier Rincón Baron

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios sobre aspectos reproductivos, morfología y ultraestructura de las esporas de Lycopodiaceae no son abundantes en la literatura científica y constituyen información esencial para apoyar las relaciones taxonómicas y sistemáticas en el grupo. Con el fin de completar la información existente, añadiendo contribuciones nuevas y más amplias sobre estos temas, se realizó un análisis comparado de la ultraestructura de la esporogénesis, con énfasis en aspectos citológicos que tienen que ver con la formación de la cubierta de los esporocitos, el tapete, las meiosis monoplastidial y poliplastidial, la ontogenia del esporodermo y la ornamentación de las esporas maduras en 43 táxones de ocho géneros de Lycopodiaceae: Austrolycopodium, Diphasium, Diphasiastrum, Huperzia (incluyendo Phlegmariurus, Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, Palhinhaea y Pseudolycopodiella que crecen en los Andes de Colombia y el Neotrópico. Para estudios con microscopía electrónica de trasmisión (MET las muestras se recolectaron en los departamentos de Cauca y Valle del Cauca, mientras que la mayoría de las muestras para microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB provienen de material herborizado de colecciones. Para la observación de las muestras con MET y MEB se utilizaron protocolos estándar para el procesamiento de esporas. La cubierta de los esporocitos está formada por pared primaria; los esporocitos invierten gran parte de su actividad metabólica en la producción de esa cubierta, que es mantenida hasta la liberación de las esporas y tiene funciones de protección de las células que harán meiosis. La abundancia de dictiosomas en los esporocitos se relacionó con la formación y desarrollo de la cubierta. Además de la actividad de los microtúbulos, la presencia de sinuosidades y plegamientos asociados con material electro denso en la membrana de los esporocitos determinarían tempranamente los patrones de ornamentación de las esporas. La condición monoplastidial es común en Lycopodium s.l.y la poliplastidial se observó en Huperzia y Lycopodiella s. l. En especies monoplastidiales el tapete presenta abundantes cuerpos plurivesiculares, en las poliplastidiales la actividad secretora del tapete es menos intensa. El desarrollo del esporodermo es centrípeto, el exosporio se forma primero, seguido del endosporio y el perisporio, si está presente, se deposita de último. En las esporas adultas de Lycopodiaceae se encontraron dos patrones de ornamentación: negativo o caviforme (esporas foveoladas y positivo o muriforme (esporas rugadas y reticuladas. Las esporas foveoladas son características de Huperzia; las rugadas de unas pocas especies de Huperzia y las especies de Lycopodiella s. l., mientras que las reticulada son típicas de Lycopodium s. l.. Numerosos caracteres de la ornamentación resultan diagnósticos en el nivel específico. Los tipos principales no apoyan la extrema fragmentación reciente de la familia en varios géneros, aunque podría coincidir, a priori, con la idea de tres subfamilias. Los hallazgos de la esporogénesis, extremadamente similar en todos los táxones estudiados, apuntan más a la unificación de los géneros en la familia que a su segregación.

  3. ¿Dónde estamos en la patología de la fascitis plantar?

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    La fascitis plantar es uno de los problemas musculoesqueléticos más frecuentes en las extremidades inferiores. Es una de las pocas áreas de la práctica podológica donde hay un conjunto de pruebas que evalúan el tratamiento y el diagnóstico. Esta presentación le permitirá navegar a través de la investigación para explorar los problemas actuales en el diagnóstico de fascitis plantar, incluyendo la presentación clínica y diagnóstico diferencial. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Int...

  4. Real-Time Leaky Lamb Wave Spectrum Measurement and Its Application to NDE of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1999-01-01

    Numerous analytical and theoretical studies of the behavior of leaky Lamb waves (LLW) in composite materials were documented in the literature. One of the key issues that are constraining the application of this method as a practical tool is the amount of data that needs to be acquired and the slow process that is involved with such experiments. Recently, a methodology that allows quasi real-time acquisition of LLW dispersion data was developed. At each angle of incidence the reflection spectrum is available in real time from the experimental setup and it can be used for rapid detection of the defects. This technique can be used to rapidly acquire the various plate wave modes along various angles of incidence for the characterization of the material elastic properties. The experimental method and data acquisition technique will be described in this paper. Experimental data was used to examine a series of flaws including porosity and delaminations and demonstrated the efficiency of the developed technique.

  5. Sistema de Acreditación Universitaria en Chile: ¿Dónde estamos?

    OpenAIRE

    Cancino,Víctor Cancino

    2010-01-01

    El sistema universitario chileno puede ser considerado como relativamente estático y pequeño en tamaño, hasta las reformas implementadas a inicio de los 80’, para luego, en conjunto con la promulgación de la Ley Orgánica Constitucional de Enseñanza (LOCE) del año 1990, transformarse en un sistema que crece sustantivo (cuadruplicando su tamaño), llegando en la actualidad a un total de 57 universidades, entre las cuales se encuentran estatales, privadas tradicionales y privadas p...

  6. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Kevlar Composite Over Wrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurization and failure tests of small Kevlar/epoxy COPV bottles were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc., at TRI facilities. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests. Results of some of the tests indicate a possibility that AE can be used to track the stress-rupture degradation of COPV vessels.

  7. PLC PROGRAMLAMA EĞİTİMİNDE PC_SIMU YAZILIMININ KULLANIMI

    OpenAIRE

    ENGİN UFUK ERGÜL; CENK GEZEGİN

    2013-01-01

    PLC (Programlanabilir Lojik Denetleyici)’ lerin son yıllarda artan kullanımına paralel olarak bu konuda yetişmiş bilgi ve beceriye sahip teknik personele olan talep de artmaktadır. PLC’ lerin ek donanımlarının ve PLC içeren deney setlerinin fiyatları oldukça yüksektir. Bu yüzden eğitim kurumları PLC eğitimi konusunda öğrencilere tüm imkânları sağlamakta yetersiz kalmaktadır. Ayrıca gerçek sistemlere benzeyen PLC kontrollü proseslerin boyutları bir laboratuara sığdırılamayacak kadar büyük ve m...

  8. ¿Dónde está el feminismo en el ciberfeminismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Wilding

    2004-01-01

    potential to challenge the patriarchal status quo. A conscious attitude of selfdefinition can help the forming cyberfeminism to establish a crucial solidarity with transnational feminist and postcolonial initiatives in order to be able to exert an effective political action.

  9. Yağ Gülü (Rosa damascena Mill'nde Mutasyon Islahı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan BAYDAR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutation breeding is one of the ways to create genetic variation of oil rose, as in other species. In the present study, it is aimed to develop superior mutants in terms of mophological, agronomic and quality characteristic compare to the oil rose. Oil rose fruits (Rosa damascena Mill. were harvested and seeds were extracted in 2007. 1000 seeds were irradiated with 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 Gry doses of the cobalt 60 gamma-ray in Atomic Energy Agency, Ankara, Turkey. Irradiated seeds were stratified at 4oC for 3 month and planted to viols on March in 2008. Seedlings applied 0, 100, 200 Gry doses were transferred to pots in 2008 and were planted to field on March in 2010. Mutant oil roses showed wide genetic variation for flower color (from darker pink to white, petal number (from 5 to 90 and flowering period (M1 generation in 2011

  10. Open data, big data: ¿hacia dónde nos dirigimos?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The "open data" movement is becoming more popular in different contexts: public administration, science and companies; therefore, it is important to know its scope. The term has generated a lot of expectations related to transparency at all levels, data reuse and free access. This review discusses some of the expectations generated by this movement. En unos momentos en que se está popularizan- do el movimiento de "datos abiertos" en distintos contex- tos: administración pública, c...

  11. ALEV ALATLI AND TRACKING DOWN GOGOL / ALEV ALATLI VE GOGOL’UN İZİNDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay ÜNSAL (M.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alev Alatlı is a novalist who gives importance tosciences like philosophy, politics, economy, theology,physics, psychology, sociology and who can reflect theseattentions to her novels while thinking about humanbeing and universe in a totaliter (holistic shape.In the book named Gogol’un Đzinde of the author, ithas been considered in many differents ways of survivalstruggles of Russian people from history to present in anovel fiction and described an artistic narration. Thereare a lot of events and thoughts appears in the bookwhich can make free association of ideas about Turkeywhich is also important and functional for Turkishreaders. While Alatlı is telling about Russia and Russianpeople, she wanted to give a message with patterningRussia to Turkish people. In the novel which Turkish andera’s problems tried to be discuss with an universalviewpoint, the author succeed in using thought worlds ofRussian intellectuals as source and aggregate a greatdeal of Russian autors in same tought entireness.Gogol’un Đzinde is an important work which is fedwith real sources and an approach we do not used to,steers into Türkiye and Türkish people reviews above ananother society.

  12. Çanakkale Cephesi'nde İdari Faaliyetler ve Lojistik Hizmetleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Esenkaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine how administrative activities and logistic services were conducted in Çanakkale front line. To that end, one of the qualitative research methods, document analysis technique within post-positivistic philosophy is adopted. Current documents were achieved by reviewing military artefacts and memories. The findings showed that logistic services were better level than other front lines due to Çanakkale front line is in Marmara region, its proximity to İstanbul, and Uzunköprü rail and sea transport facilities. General inspectorate of range managing all administrative activities and logistic services was at a central point in all supply services and a main problem solver in case of any inconvenience. Ammunition replenishment was given priority since Çanakkale front line has a primordial importance for the survival of Ottoman Empire. Especially, board agenda was more overplayed which has speculative risks. Most of fortification materials were provided from overseas such as fuel, ammo, ammunition, ships, aircraft, pilot and mechanic. Fuel materials, food and kitchen equipment, pet food and other requirements (if needed were bought from close regions. In addition, required imported products were seized and delivered to front line by authorities providing that their prices would be paid afterwards in 15-25% percent.

  13. EĞİTİM FELSEFESİNDE İDEALİZM

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAKLI, BAYRAKTAR

    2014-01-01

    Genel felsefenin ve eğitim felsefesinin en eskisi idealizmdir.Felsefe, Kur'ani anlamda hikmet, insanlığın ortak malı olmuştur.Öyle sanıyorum ki, idealist felsefe insanlık tarihi kadar e~kidir.Bazan bu felsefe, gerçek bir semavi dinin bulunmadığı toplumlarda ortaya çıkan ihtiyaç, ya da boşluğu doldurarak insanları tatmin etmeğe çalışmış; bazan da gerçek bir cemavi dinin bulunduğu toplumlarda dinle toplum kültürünü kaynaştırma görevini yerine getirmiştir.

  14. EĞİTİM FELSEFESİNDE İDEALİZM

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAKLI, BAYRAKTAR

    2013-01-01

    Genel felsefenin ve eğitim felsefesinin en eskisi idealizmdir.Felsefe, Kur'ani anlamda hikmet, insanlığın ortak malı olmuştur.Öyle sanıyorum ki, idealist felsefe insanlık tarihi kadar e~kidir.Bazan bu felsefe, gerçek bir semavi dinin bulunmadığı toplumlarda ortaya çıkan ihtiyaç, ya da boşluğu doldurarak insanları tatmin etmeğe çalışmış; bazan da gerçek bir cemavi dinin bulunduğu toplumlarda dinle toplum kültürünü kaynaştırma görevini yerine getirmiştir....

  15. Estimating Parameters of Delaminations in GRP Pipes Using Thermal NDE and ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, G. K.; Majumder, M. C.; Ramachandran, K. P.; Muruganandam, A.; Govindarajan, L.

    2010-10-01

    Thermographic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TNDE) is one of the techniques that have been widely used over the decades to evaluate the integrity of structures. To meet the increased demand for robust and effective inspection in complex TNDE tasks, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been recently deployed in many problems. The aim of the paper is to adopt an inverse technique using ANNs in the field of TNDE to estimate various parameters of delamination in Glass Reinforced Polymer (GRP) pipes by supplying thermal contrast evolution data as input. A Radial Basis Network (RBN) is employed with 80 input and 3 output neurons. The estimation capability of the network was evaluated with the data obtained from numerical simulations. The overall absolute errors show that the estimation capability of ANN is good.

  16. Putin oli pantvangikriisile lõpu teinud gaasiründe heaks kiitnud / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2002-01-01

    Kuigi Venemaa president Vladimir Putin oli gaasirünnaku heaks kiitnud, ei osanud ründeoperatsiooni juhid ennustada, et uinutav gaas tapab rohkem kui sada inimest, väidab autor. Vt. samas kronoloogia: Tšetšeenid on rünnanud haiglaid ja lennukeid

  17. Detsibill : Hullumaja! Nii palju bände... White label : Project Massacre. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Cyndi Lauper "The Body Acoustic", Sway "This is my demo", Röyksopp "Night Out Live", Hardcore Superstar "Gai", The Bamboos "Step It Up", "Innovatsioon", Scandinavian Music Group "Hölmö rakkaus - ylpeä sydän", Anti-Flag "For Blood and Epmpire", Depoo "Amazing", Azmuth "Pure (Best of Far Out)", "Parimad laulud uues kuues"

  18. Status of NDE research and applications for life management of nuclear power plants in india

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, B.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    1999-08-01

    The development and application of various nondestructive evaluation techniques and methodologies for the life management of nuclear power plants in India are described. The indigenous development carried out to meet the stringent quality requirements in evaluation of fabricated components and innovative methodologies using multidisciplinary approaches and advances for assessment of inservice performance of plants are highlighted. (orig.)

  19. Bibliography of information on mechanics of structural failure (hydrogen embrittlement, protective coatings, composite materials, NDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is comprised of approximately 1,600 reference citations related to four problem areas in the mechanics of failure in aerospace structures. The bibliography represents a search of the literature published in the period 1962-1976, the effort being largely limited to documents published in the United States. Listings are subdivided into the four problem areas: Hydrogen Embrittlement; Protective Coatings; Composite Materials; and Nondestructive Evaluation. An author index is included.

  20. Familia, querida familia, ¿hacia dónde vas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda López Díaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de las transformaciones históricas, el concepto de familia es el punto de partida de este artículo. Se pretende situar los nuevos discursos ideológicos como factor imprescindible en la interpretación y tratamiento de la familia en la posmodernidad. Las formas vinculares promovidas, los preceptos morales y éticos que guían la acción, y los deberes y derechos exaltados son abordados en el texto para situar, en la dialéctica discursividad-práctica, los malestares culturales que inciden en la familia como el ámbito que forja y sostiene al sujeto en el mundo social.