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Sample records for htc p3600 fujitsu-siemens

  1. HTC: May survive in bipolar world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Netra Pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The core assets of HTC are people, innovations, and technology. But in the recent quarters, HTC has started retrenching people even from R&D divisions which are responsible for innovation and developing new technologies. It means HTC's core assets are depleting. HTC was known for its cutting edge technology of 16mp camera and high speed '4G' technology but performing badly in the last two and half year. Why is it so? Paper objectives are to identify reasons for its downfall of HTC, distress signals for HTC downfall, and possible revival strategies for survival of HTC in Bipolar world (Samsung and Apple of smartphones makers. In addition, research paper present eight research proposition/ questions with respect to present state of HTC and its future and possible answers to these research propositions/ questions. Research paper ends with concluding remarks in the context of HTC future.

  2. HTC: May survive in bipolar world

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Netra Pal

    2016-01-01

    The core assets of HTC are people, innovations, and technology. But in the recent quarters, HTC has started retrenching people even from R&D divisions which are responsible for innovation and developing new technologies. It means HTC's core assets are depleting. HTC was known for its cutting edge technology of 16mp camera and high speed '4G' technology but performing badly in the last two and half year. Why is it so? Paper objectives are to identify reasons for its downfall of HTC, distress s...

  3. Anaerobic digestion trials with HTC process water

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a process where elevated temperature and pressure is used in order to convert biomass to hydrochar, a coal-like substance with good dewatering properties and many potential uses. HTC can be used to treat digestate from anaerobic digestion, but the process water that remains after the hydrochar has been recovered needs to be treated further in the wastewater treatment plant. In order to make HTC more competitive compared to other sludge treatments it is impo...

  4. Fault current limitation with HTc superconductors; Limitation de courant a partir de materiaux supraconducteurs HTc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzon, D.

    2002-09-15

    This report deals with the possibility of using high critical temperature (HTc) superconductors for current limitation. The transition from a superconductive to a high dissipative state could be used to limit inrush currents. This application of superconductivity is very attractive because it's an innovative device for electrical networks without any conventional equivalence at high voltage. This device would allow to improve the density of connections and the continuity of the electrical distribution. This study can be divided into two fields. The aim of the first one is to analyse the behaviour of different HTc superconductors for current limitation. We carried out experimental measurements to characterise those conductors during a nominal AC rating (measurements of losses) and during a fault setting. Particularly, a description of the transition in bulk textured YBCO samples near Tc was made of inhomogeneous transition of the device and to estimate its losses. Finally, a 1 kV / 100 A demonstrator made of 43 meanders of textured YBCO was tested at 90,5 K. Thermal gradients seem to be responsible of the altering of some of the samples. The other part of this study concerns the dynamic of the transition. Near Tc, our experiments showed that the transition is more homogeneous. Experimental measurements also showed the influence of thermal exchanges with the cryogenic surrounding on the transition. This point can be justified if the dissipated energy is locally concentrated. (author)

  5. Mixing HTC and HPC Workloads with HTCondor and Slurm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, C.; Barnett, J.; Caramarcu, C.; Strecker-Kellogg, W.; Wong, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally, the RHIC/ATLAS Computing Facility (RACF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has only maintained High Throughput Computing (HTC) resources for our HEP/NP user community. We’ve been using HTCondor as our batch system for many years, as this software is particularly well suited for managing HTC processor farm resources. Recently, the RACF has also begun to design/administrate some High Performance Computing (HPC) systems for a multidisciplinary user community at BNL. In this paper, we’ll discuss our experiences using HTCondor and Slurm in an HPC context, and our facility’s attempts to allow our HTC and HPC processing farms/clusters to make opportunistic use of each other’s computing resources.

  6. Levulinic acid from orange peel waste by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puccini, Monica; Licursi, Domenico; Stefanelli, Eleonora; Vitolo, Sandra; Galletti, Anna Maria Raspolli; Heeres, Hero Jan

    2016-01-01

    With the awareness of the need for optimal and sustainable use of natural resources, hydrothermal treatment of biomass and biomass waste for energy and resource recovery has received increasing attention. The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of a biomass is achieved using water as the reaction

  7. Facile functionalization of HTC-derived carbon microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Hiromitsu; Antonietti, Markus; Vilela, Filipe

    2012-11-18

    Surfaces of HTC-derived carbons were functionalized using dienophiles such as maleimide (MI), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and 4,5-dicyano-1,3-dithiol-2-one (DCDTO). DCDTO-functionalized carbons were then hydrolyzed to yield thiol-functionalized carbons, which were used to perform conjugate addition on the carbon surface.

  8. The OMNIUM-G HTC-25 tracking concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinger, S.

    1980-01-01

    A point focusing, two axis tracking, high concentration ratio parabolic reflector is described. Field experience coupled with engineering improvements are shown to have manifested a design that is economic in the areas of manufacturing, packaging, delivering, installing, and commissioning the system into operation. The initial problems specifically with the OMNIUM-G model HTC-25 tracking concentrator are addressed.

  9. [E1A gene transfection of human undifferentiated thyroid cancer cell line HTC/3 by nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang-Liang; He, Dong-Hua; Liao, Xiao-Xing; Zhan, Hong; Ma, Zhong-Fu; Wang, Xi-Fu; Li, Qing; Li, Xin; Li, Yu-Jie

    2007-12-01

    To prepare nanoparticles containing E1A gene and observe the efficiency and feasibility of transfecting E1A gene into human undifferentiated thyroid cancer cell line HTC/3. To examine the sensitivity of transgene cells to X-ray and X-ray-induced apoptosis in those cells. Nanoparticle-DNA complex was prepared with PLGA coating adenoviral early expression gene E1A, and the package efficiency, release progress in vitro, and size of the complex were determined. The nanoparticle-DNA was transfected into the HTC/3 cells. Lipofectamine was used to transfect E1A gene as a control. RT-PCR was used to examine E1A gene mRNA expression in the transfected cells. The survival ratio of HTC/3-E1A and control cells, and the growth inhibition ratio induced by different doses of X-ray in HTC/3-E1A cells were examined by MTT assay. The apoptosis in HTC/3-E1A cells induced by 2 Gy X-ray iradiation was examined by flow cytometry and DNA electrophoresis. The package efficiency, release progress in vitro, and size of the nanoparticle-DNA complex were 0.78%, 18 days, and 150-280 nm, respectively when transfected the plasmid at the same level, the nanoparticle group got more positive transgene cell clones than that in lipofectamine group, with a statistically significant difference (P HTC/3-E1A cells grew slowly, and their doubling time was prolongated (1.44 times in comparison with that in parental cells). According to IC50, the sensitivity of HTC/3-E1A cells to X-ray was improved 2.9 and 2.8 times, respectively, in comparison with that in HTC/3-Vect and HTC/3 cells. The ratio of subG0/G1 phase of HTC/3-E1A cells was significantly higher than that in HTC/3-Vect and HTC/3 cells (P HTC/3-E1A cells was significantly lower than that in HTC/3-Vect and HTC/3 cells (P HTC/3-E1A cells was observed by electrophoresis, but not found in HTC/3-Vect and HTC/3 cells. A nanoparticle-DNA complex has been successfully prepared, and it may carry a foreign gene into cells. The sensitivity of HTC/3-E1A cells

  10. Challenges in the delivery of public HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in Douala, Cameroon: providers perspectives and implications on quality of HTC services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngangue, Patrice; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Bedard, Emmanuelle

    2017-04-08

    The Cameroon government has made HIV testing and counselling (HTC) a priority in its HIV/AIDS strategic plan. However, there is a dearth of literature on the perspectives of providers on the quality of HTC services. The aim of this study was to explore challenges in the provision of HTC services and their implications on quality of HTC services in Douala's district hospitals. Two primary data collection methods supported by the Donabedian's model of healthcare were used to explain the challenges in the provision of HTC services and their implications on quality of HTC services. This consisted of semi-structured individual interviews with 6 nurses and 16 lay counsellors and a non-participant observation of the physical environment for HTC by site. The study sites were the prevention and voluntary testing and counselling centre (PVTCC) of the six district hospitals of the city of Douala. The study reveals concerns about confidentiality and privacy during the counselling sessions due to inadequate and limited space. An absence of consent, even verbal, was reported in one PVTCC. There is no specific accredited training curriculum that leads to a formal registration as a PVTCC staff, and some lay counsellors work without training. Lay counsellors carry the burden of HIV counselling, but the majority of them work for many years without remuneration and recognition. Another quality challenge is the high workload in the district hospitals' lab, which leads to long waiting times for HIV test results, thus contributing to failure to return for results. The findings of this study highlighted some issues such as lack of adequate space and equipment for HIV testing and counselling that hinder the quality of HTC services and should challenge the health authorities of Cameroon on the need to reorganize HTC services and create a national HIV quality assurance program.

  11. Football simulator in virtual reality using Kinect and Htc Vive

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Gonzalo, Guillem

    2017-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of incorporating real world objects into the virtual reality world and its usage inside the gaming community. Using Kinect camera and HTC Vive glasses we recreated a football simulator where the user is able to play with a real ball while watching it in virtual reality. To achieve our goal, we present a mix of image processing algorithms that are be able to track the ball with only depth given by Kinect. Furthermore, a dynamic-link library is generated from t...

  12. Response of maize germination and growth to HTC filtrate type and concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical treatment process that allows for the conversion of biomass slurries into value added products. The option of using HTC filtrate as a liquid based fertilizer for agricultural crop production was evaluated through germination and plant growth studi...

  13. Analysis of electric current flow through the HTc multilayered superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, J.

    2016-02-01

    Issue of the flow of the transport current through multilayered high-temperature superconductors is considered, depending on the direction of the electric current towards the surface of the superconducting CuO2 layers. For configuration of the current flow inside of the layers and for perpendicular magnetic field, it will be considered the current limitations connected with interaction of pancake type vortices with nano-sized defects, created among other during fast neutrons irradiation. So it makes this issue associated with work of nuclear energy devices, like tokamak ITER, LHC and actually developed accelerator Nuclotron-NICA, as well as cryocables. Phenomenological analysis of the pinning potential barrier formation will be in the paper given, which determines critical current flow inside the plane. Comparison of theoretical model with experimental data will be presented too as well as influence of fast neutrons irradiation dose on critical current calculated. For current direction perpendicular to superconducting planes the current-voltage characteristics are calculated basing on model assuming formation of long intrinsic Josephson's junctions in layered HTc superconductors.

  14. Evaluation of the French Haut Taux de Combustion (HTC) Critical Experiment Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Don [ORNL; Hollenbach, Karla Riggle [ORNL; Fox, Patricia B [ORNL

    2008-09-01

    In the 1980s, a series of critical experiments referred to as the Haut Taux de Combustion (HTC) experiments was conducted by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) at the experimental criticality facility in Valduc, France. The plutonium-to- uranium ratio and the isotopic compositions of both the uranium and plutonium used in the simulated fuel rods were designed to be similar to what would be found in a typical pressurized-water reactor fuel assembly that initially had an enrichment of 4.5 wt% {sup 235}U and was burned to 37,500 MWd/MTU. The fuel material also includes {sup 241}Am, which is present due to the decay of {sup 241}Pu. The HTC experiments include configurations designed to simulate fuel handling activities, pool storage, and transport in casks constructed of thick lead or steel. Rights of use for the HTC experiment data were purchased under an agreement that limits release of the information. Consequently, a detailed and complete description of the experiments is not presented in this report. This report discusses evaluation of the four HTC data reports, modeling of the experiments, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, and upper subcritical limit (USL) calculation. The report also presents some conclusions and recommendations concerning use of the HTC experiment data for burnup credit applications. The similarity of the HTC experiments with PWR spent nuclear fuel has been quantified using sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, confirming that the HTC experiments are significantly more applicable to the validation of burnup credit calculations than other available mixed-oxide (MOX) experiments. The HTC experiments were designed and executed with a high level of rigor, resulting in experimental uncertainties that are lower than many of the earlier MOX experiments. The HTC data reports, together with information provided in this report, provide sufficient data to allow for either detailed or simplified computational models to be

  15. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC): near infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression for determination of selective components in HTC solid and liquid products derived from maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M Toufiq; Becker, Wolfgang; Sachsenheimer, Kerstin; Mumme, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a rapid method of predicting fiber components (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash) and selective compounds of hydrochar and corresponding process liquor produced by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of maize silage. Several HTC reaction times and temperatures were applied and NIR spectra of both HTC solids and liquids were obtained and correlated with concentration determined from van-Soest fiber analysis, IC, and UHPLC. Partial least-squares regression was applied to calculate models for the prediction of selective substances. The model developed with the spectra had the best performance in 3-7 factors with a correlation coefficient, which varied between 0.9275-0.9880 and 0.9364-0.9957 for compounds in solid and liquid, respectively. Calculated root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.42-5.06mg/kg. The preliminary results indicate that NIR, a widely applied technique, might be applied to determine chemical compounds in HTC solid and liquid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of pancreastatin receptor and signaling in rat HTC hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margalet, V; González-Yanes, C; Santos-Alvarez, J; Najib, S

    2000-06-02

    Pancreastatin, a chromogranin A-derived peptide widely distributed throughout the neuroendocrine system, has a general inhibitory effect on endocrine secretion and a counterregulatory effect on insulin action. We have recently described the cross-talk of pancreastatin with insulin signaling in rat hepatoma cells (HTC), where it inhibits insulin action and signaling through the serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, thereby impairing tyrosine kinase activity. Here, we have characterized pancreastatin receptors and signaling in HTC cells. The pancreastatin effector systems were studied by determining phospholipase C activity in HTC membranes and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation activity in HTC cells. Binding studies with radiolabeled pancreastatin showed a population of high affinity binding sites, with a B(max) of 8 fmol/mg protein and a K(d) of 0.6 nM. Moreover, we assessed the coupling of the receptor with a G protein system by inhibiting the binding with guanine nucleotide and by measuring the GTP binding to HTC membranes. We found that pancreastatin receptor was coupled with a G alpha(q/11) protein which activates phospholipase C-beta(1) and phospholipase C-beta(3), in addition to MAPK via both beta gamma and alpha(q/11).

  17. Insights into the stability and thermal degradation of P3HT:C60 blended films for solar cell applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available –vis absorbance. The morphology change with the annealing time resulted in an abrupt decrease in the PCE of P3HT:C60 solar cells. These findings signify that the stability of P3HT:C60 solar cells cannot be secured for longer annealing period owing to the unsettled...

  18. Impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on HIV prevention practices among traditional birth attendants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2015-02-10

    Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.

  19. Wastewater treatment--adsorption of organic micropollutants on activated HTC-carbon derived from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschhöfer, Frank; Sahin, Olga; Becker, Gero C; Meffert, Florian; Nusser, Michael; Anderer, Gilbert; Kusche, Stepan; Klaeusli, Thomas; Kruse, Andrea; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Organic micropollutants (MPs), in particular xenobiotics and their transformation products, have been detected in the aquatic environment and the main sources of these MPs are wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an additional cleaning step is necessary. The use of activated carbon (AC) is one approach to providing this additional cleaning. Industrial AC derived from different carbonaceous materials is predominantly produced in low-income countries by polluting processes. In contrast, AC derived from sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a regional and sustainable alternative, based on waste material. Our experiments demonstrate that the HTC-AC from sewage sludge was able to remove most of the applied MPs. In fact more than 50% of sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac and bezafibrate were removed from artificial water samples. With the same approach carbamazepine was eliminated to nearly 70% and atrazine more than 80%. In addition a pre-treated (phosphorus-reduced) HTC-AC was able to eliminate 80% of carbamazepine and diclofenac. Atrazine, sulfamethoxazole and bezafibrate were removed to more than 90%. Experiments using real wastewater samples with high organic content (11.1 g m(-3)) succeeded in proving the adsorption capability of phosphorus-reduced HTC-AC.

  20. ClC-2 chloride channels contribute to HTC cell volume homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, R M; Smith, R L; Feranchak, A P; Clayton, G H; Doctor, R B; Fitz, J G

    2001-03-01

    Membrane Cl(-) channels play an important role in cell volume homeostasis and regulation of volume-sensitive cell transport and metabolism. Heterologous expression of ClC-2 channel cDNA leads to the appearance of swelling-activated Cl(-) currents, consistent with a role in cell volume regulation. Since channel properties in heterologous models are potentially modified by cellular background, we evaluated whether endogenous ClC-2 proteins are functionally important in cell volume regulation. As shown by whole cell patch clamp techniques in rat HTC hepatoma cells, cell volume increases stimulated inwardly rectifying Cl(-) currents when non-ClC-2 currents were blocked by DIDS (100 microM). A cDNA closely homologous with rat brain ClC-2 was isolated from HTC cells; identical sequence was demonstrated for ClC-2 cDNAs in primary rat hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. ClC-2 mRNA and membrane protein expression was demonstrated by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot. Intracellular delivery of antibodies to an essential regulatory domain of ClC-2 decreased ClC-2-dependent currents expressed in HEK-293 cells. In HTC cells, the same antibodies prevented activation of endogenous Cl(-) currents by cell volume increases or exposure to the purinergic receptor agonist ATP and delayed HTC cell volume recovery from swelling. These studies provide further evidence that mammalian ClC-2 channel proteins are functional and suggest that in HTC cells they contribute to physiological changes in membrane Cl(-) permeability and cell volume homeostasis.

  1. New model of the pinning potential barrier in layered HTc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, J.

    2016-11-01

    New model of the pinning potential barrier in multilayered HTc superconductors is presented, based on geometrical approach to the capturing interaction of pancake-type vortices with nano-sized defects. Using the above model the transport current flow phenomena in these materials, especially the current-voltage characteristics and critical current density, have been considered. Details of theoretical analysis are given, including the derivation of basic mathematical equations describing the potential barrier as a function of transport current intensity and the initial position of captured pancake vortex. Computer simulation has been performed of the influence of transport current amplitude on the potential barrier height for various sizes of pinning centers and initial pancake vortex position as well as the influence of fast neutrons irradiation creating nano-sized defects on critical current of HTc layered superconductor.

  2. Analysis of de novo sequencing and transcriptome assembly and lignocellulolytic enzymes gene expression of Coriolopsis gallica HTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuehong; Cao, Qinghua; Tao, Xiang; Shao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yizheng; Tan, Xuemei

    2017-03-01

    White-rot basidiomycete Coriolopsis gallica HTC is one of the main biodegraders of poplar. In our previous study, we have shown the strong capacity of C. gallica HTC to degrade lignocellulose. In this study, equal amounts of total RNA fromC. Gallica HTC cultures grown in different conditions were pooled together. Illumina paired-end RNA sequencing was performed, and 13.2 million 90-bp paired-end reads were generated. We chose the Merged Assembly of Oases data-set for the following blast searches and gene ontology analyses. The reads were assembled de novo into 28,034 transcripts (≥ 100 bp) using combined assembly strategy MAO. The transcripts were annotated using Blast2GO. In all, 18,810 transcripts (≥100 bp) achieved BLASTX hits, of which, 7048 transcripts had GO term and 2074 had ECs. The expression level of 11 lignocellulolytic enzyme genes from the assembled C. gallica HTC transcriptome were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that expression levels of these genes were affected by carbon source and nitrogen source at the level of transcription. The current abundant transcriptome data allowed the identification of many new transcripts in C. gallica HTC. Data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest from C. gallica HTC. Characterization of C. gallica HTC transcriptome provides an effective tool to understand mechanisms underlying cellular and molecular functions of C. gallica HTC.

  3. Costs along the HTC and PMTCT service cascades: findings from Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Opuni, Marjorie; Contreras-Loya, David; Kwan, Ada; Chaumont, Claire; Chompolola, Abson; Condo, Jeanine; Galárraga, Omar; Martinson, Neil; Masiye, Felix; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Ochoa-Moreno, Ivan; Wamai, Richard; Wang'ombe, Joseph

    2016-07-29

    We estimate facility-level average annual cost per client along the HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service cascades. Data were collected from 2011-2013 in 230 HTC and 212 PMTCT facilities in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia. Input quantities and unit prices were collected, as were output data. Annual economic costs were estimated from the service providers' perspective using micro-costing. Average annual costs per client in 2013 US$ were estimated along the service cascades. For HTC, average cost per client tested ranged from US$5 (SD US$7) in Rwanda to US$31 (SD US$24) in South Africa whereas average cost per client diagnosed as HIV-positive ranged from US$122 (SD US$119) in Zambia to US$1,367 (SD US$2,093) in Rwanda. For PMTCT, average cost per client tested ranged from US$18 (SD US$20) in Rwanda to US$89 (SD US$56) in South Africa; average cost per client diagnosed as HIV-positive ranged from US$567 (SD US$417) in Zambia to US$2,021 (SD US$3,210) in Rwanda; average cost per client on antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis ranged from US$704 (SD US$610) in South Africa to US$2,314 (SD US$3,204) in Rwanda; and average cost per infant on nevirapine (NVP) ranged from US$888 (SD US$884) in South Africa to US$2,359 (SD US$3,257) in Rwanda. We found important differences in unit costs along the HTC and PMTCT service cascades within and between countries suggesting that more efficient delivery of these services is possible.

  4. Design, fabrication and tests of a 600A HTc current lead for the LHC correction magnets

    CERN Document Server

    García-Tabarés, L; Abramian, P; Toral, F; Angurel, L A; Diez, J C; Burriel, R; Natividad, E; Iturbe, R; Etxeandia, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of four sets of HTc 600 A current leads manufactured by ANTEC in collaboration with three more Institutes to test the feasibility of industrial fabrication of these units. This development has been made in the framework of a CERN programme to build low thermal losses leads for the correction magnets of the LHC. Tests performed at the manufacturer installations are also presented. (5 refs).

  5. Divergent pathways for TNF and C(2)-ceramide toxicity in HTC hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autelli, Riccardo; Ullio, Chiara; Prigione, Elisa; Crepaldi, Silvia; Schiavone, Nicola; Brunk, Ulf T; Capaccioli, Sergio; Baccino, Francesco M; Bonelli, Gabriella

    2009-07-01

    We previously showed that, in the rat hepatoma cell line HTC, TNF brings about a non-caspase-dependent, apoptosis-like process requiring NADPH oxidase activity, an iron-mediated pro-oxidant status, and a functional acidic vacuolar compartment. This process may thus involve mechanisms such as autophagy or relocation of lysosomal enzymes, perhaps secondary to the formation of ceramide by acidic sphingomyelinase. Here we investigated whether ceramide formation contributes to the apoptogenic process. HTC cells were found to be sensitive to exogenous ceramide and significantly protected against TNF by desipramine, an inhibitor of lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase. However, Bcl-2 transfection and Bcl-x(L) upregulation by dexamethasone significantly diminished the apoptogenic effect of ceramide but not that of TNF, suggesting that ceramide is not directly involved in TNF toxicity. Moreover, Bcl-x(L) silencing precluded dexamethasone-induced protection against ceramide and, by itself, induced massive death, demonstrating the strict dependence of HTC cells on Bcl-x(L) for survival also under standard culture conditions.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF SESQUITERPENE Γ-LACTONE AHILLIN IN HEPATOMA TISSUE CULTURE (HTC CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Investigation of hypolipidemic effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone ahillin in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells.Material and methods. In this study we’ve evaluated the effect of γ-lactone sesquiterpene aсhillin and gemfibrozil (comparator drug on the lipid content in the hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cell which were incubated with a fat emulsion lipofundin by fluorescent method with vital dye Nile Redand staining the cells with the dye Oil Red O. The cell viability was investigated using the MTT-test and staining with Trypan blue.Results. Cultivation cells HTC with aсhillin and gemfibrozilat concentrations ranging from 0.5 to1.5 mM and from0.25 mM to0.5 mM, respectively, resulted in dose-dependent decrease of the fluorescence’s intensity Nile Red. It reflects a decrease in lipid content in the cells. At these concentrations the drugs didn’t have cytotoxic effect and the cell viability didn’t change compared to the control culture.An experimental hyperlipidemia in the hepatoma culture cells was induced by adding to the incubation medium a fat emulsion lipofundin at a final concentration 0.05%. The intensity of fluorescence Nile Red in the cells was increased 4 fold (p < 0.05. This result suggests the significant accumulation of lipids in the cell’s cytosol and confirmed by microscopy after staining neutral lipids with the dye Oil Red O. Under these conditions aсhillin and gemfibrozil reduced lipid content in cells and hadthe effect at concentrations of0.5 mM and0.25 mM respectively.Conclusion. In the lipofundin-mediated model of hyperlipidemia the sesquiterpene lactone aсhillin prevents the lipid accumulation in cells. It confirms by decrease of fluorescence Nile Red and reduction lipid drops which were stained with Oil Red O in cytosol. To establish the molecular targets of aсhillin’saction on lipid metabolism in cell culture HTC we need to investigate a gene expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism.

  7. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the Casearia sylvestris extract on HTC and V79 cells by the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistro, E L; Carvalho, J C T; Mantovani, M S

    2004-06-01

    Casearia sylvestris is common in tropical America growing wild in Brazil in the states of Amazonas and São Paulo. Its leaves are used in Brazilian folk medicine for several diseases. The present investigation was carried out to examine the genotoxic effects of a C. sylvestris crude ethanolic extract on Hepatoma Tissue Culture (HTC cells) of Rattus norvegicus and Chinese hamster V79 cells in culture, using the comet assay. For the genotoxic evaluation the cells were treated with three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml) of extract prepared from a 25 mg/ml aqueous solution. The positive control was cyclophosphamide for HTC cells and methyl methanesulfonate for V79 cells. The duration of the treatment was 2 h. The results showed that the extract of C. sylvestris presented no genotoxic effects and not modified effect inducing DNA damage by alkylating agents cyclophosphamide and methyl methanesulfonate in HTC and V 79 cells respectively.

  8. Integration of the HTC Vive into the medical platform MeVisLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Gall, Markus; Wallner, Jürgen; de Almeida Germano Boechat, Pedro; Hann, Alexander; Li, Xing; Chen, Xiaojun; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2017-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality. VR gets a lot of attention in computer games but has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain. Examples are planning, simulations and training of medical interventions, like for facial surgeries where an aesthetic outcome is important. However, importing medical data into VR devices is not trivial, especially when a direct connection and visualization from your own application is needed. Furthermore, most researcher don't build their medical applications from scratch, rather they use platforms, like MeVisLab, Slicer or MITK. The platforms have in common that they integrate and build upon on libraries like ITK and VTK, further providing a more convenient graphical interface to them for the user. In this contribution, we demonstrate the usage of a VR device for medical data under MeVisLab. Therefore, we integrated the OpenVR library into MeVisLab as an own module. This enables the direct and uncomplicated usage of head mounted displays, like the HTC Vive under MeVisLab. Summarized, medical data from other MeVisLab modules can directly be connected per drag-and-drop to our VR module and will be rendered inside the HTC Vive for an immersive inspection.

  9. HTC Vive MeVisLab integration via OpenVR for medical applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Egger

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Alas, importing medical data into Virtual Reality devices is not necessarily trivial, in particular, when a direct connection to a proprietary application is desired. Moreover, most researcher do not build their medical applications from scratch, but rather leverage platforms like MeVisLab, MITK, OsiriX or 3D Slicer. These platforms have in common that they use libraries like ITK and VTK, and provide a convenient graphical interface. However, ITK and VTK do not support Virtual Reality directly. In this study, the usage of a Virtual Reality device for medical data under the MeVisLab platform is presented. The OpenVR library is integrated into the MeVisLab platform, allowing a direct and uncomplicated usage of the head mounted display HTC Vive inside the MeVisLab platform. Medical data coming from other MeVisLab modules can directly be connected per drag-and-drop to the Virtual Reality module, rendering the data inside the HTC Vive for immersive virtual reality inspection.

  10. A simplified HTc rf SQUID to analyze the human cardiac magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a four-channel high temperature radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (HTc rf SQUID in a simple magnetically shielded room (MSR that can be used to analyze the cardiac magnetic field. It is more robust and compact than existing systems. To achieve the high-quality magnetocardiographic signal, we explored new adaptive software gradiometry technology constructed by the first-order axial gradiometer with a baseline of 80mm, which can adjust its performance timely with the surrounding conditions. The magnetic field sensitivity of each channel was less than 100fT/√Hz in the white noise region. Especially, in the analysis of MCG signal data, we proposed the total transient mapping (TTM technique to visualize current density map (CDM, then we focused to observe the time-varying behavior of excitation propagation and estimated the underlying currents at T wave. According to the clear 3D imaging, isomagnetic field and CDM, the position and distribution of a current source in the heart can be visualized. It is believed that our four-channel HTc rf SQUID magnetometer based on biomagnetic system is available to detect MCG signals with sufficient signal-to-noise (SNR ratio. In addition, the CDM showed the macroscopic current activation pattern, in a way, it has established strong underpinnings for researching the cardiac microscopic movement mechanism and opening the way for its use in clinical diagnosis.

  11. A simplified HTc rf SQUID to analyze the human cardiac magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Tang, Fakuan; Ma, Ping; Gan, Zizhao

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a four-channel high temperature radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (HTc rf SQUID) in a simple magnetically shielded room (MSR) that can be used to analyze the cardiac magnetic field. It is more robust and compact than existing systems. To achieve the high-quality magnetocardiographic signal, we explored new adaptive software gradiometry technology constructed by the first-order axial gradiometer with a baseline of 80mm, which can adjust its performance timely with the surrounding conditions. The magnetic field sensitivity of each channel was less than 100fT/√Hz in the white noise region. Especially, in the analysis of MCG signal data, we proposed the total transient mapping (TTM) technique to visualize current density map (CDM), then we focused to observe the time-varying behavior of excitation propagation and estimated the underlying currents at T wave. According to the clear 3D imaging, isomagnetic field and CDM, the position and distribution of a current source in the heart can be visualized. It is believed that our four-channel HTc rf SQUID magnetometer based on biomagnetic system is available to detect MCG signals with sufficient signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. In addition, the CDM showed the macroscopic current activation pattern, in a way, it has established strong underpinnings for researching the cardiac microscopic movement mechanism and opening the way for its use in clinical diagnosis.

  12. Critical Current Test of Liquid Hydrogen Cooled HTC Superconductors under External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    High-Tc (HTC) superconductors including MgB2 will show excellent properties under temperature of Liquid Hydrogen (LH2:20K), which has large latent heat and low viscosity coefficient. In order to design and fabricate the LH2 cooled superconducting energy devices, we must clear the cooling property of LH2 for superconductors, the cooling system and safety design of LH2 cooled superconducting devices and electro-magnetic property evaluation of superconductors (BSCCO, REBCO and MgB2) and their magnets cooled by LH2. As the first step of the study, an experimental setup which can be used for investigating heat transfer characteristics of LH2 in a pool and also in forced flow (circulation loop with a pump), and also for evaluation of electro-magnetic properties of LH2 cooled superconductors under external magnetic field (up to 7 T). In this paper, we will show a short sketch of the experimental set-up, practical experiences in safety operation of liquid hydrogen cooling system and example test results of critical current evaluation of HTC superconductors cooled by LH2.

  13. HTC Vive MeVisLab integration via OpenVR for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Gall, Markus; Wallner, Jürgen; Boechat, Pedro; Hann, Alexander; Li, Xing; Chen, Xiaojun; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Alas, importing medical data into Virtual Reality devices is not necessarily trivial, in particular, when a direct connection to a proprietary application is desired. Moreover, most researcher do not build their medical applications from scratch, but rather leverage platforms like MeVisLab, MITK, OsiriX or 3D Slicer. These platforms have in common that they use libraries like ITK and VTK, and provide a convenient graphical interface. However, ITK and VTK do not support Virtual Reality directly. In this study, the usage of a Virtual Reality device for medical data under the MeVisLab platform is presented. The OpenVR library is integrated into the MeVisLab platform, allowing a direct and uncomplicated usage of the head mounted display HTC Vive inside the MeVisLab platform. Medical data coming from other MeVisLab modules can directly be connected per drag-and-drop to the Virtual Reality module, rendering the data inside the HTC Vive for immersive virtual reality inspection.

  14. Simulation of electrical and thermal behavior of high temperature superconducting fault current limiting transformer (HTc-SFCLT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurupakorn, C [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kojima, H [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hayakawa, N [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Endo, F [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kashima, N [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Nagaya, S [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Noe, M [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe D-76021 (Germany); Okubo, H [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    Superconducting Fault Current Limiting Transformer (SFCLT) is expected to perform functions both of transformer in the normal operating condition and of fault current limiter in the system fault condition. As the Phase-3 of the SFCLT project, we have been developing SFCLT based on Bi2212/CuNi bulk coils at LN{sub 2} temperature and verified its technical feasibility. In this paper, we developed a numerical model for evaluation of the electrical and thermal behavior of HTc-SFCLT such as current limitation and recovery characteristics. This model took into account E-J characteristics of Bi2212/CuNi bulk coil and its electrical and thermal transient phenomena during the operation of HTc-SFCLT. The simulated current agreed well with the experimental data with the error of less than 5%. The excellent current limitation and self recovery characteristics obtained by the experiments could also be reproduced. With the numerical model, current and thermal behavior of HTc-SFCLT was simulated for different parameters of conductor configuration, which would be useful for the future design and optimization of HTc-SFCLT.

  15. Methionine synthase activity and sulphur amino acid levels in the rat liver tumour cells HTC and Phi-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Susan H; Waterfield, Catherine J; Timbrell, John A; Nicolaou, Anna

    2002-02-01

    Methionine dependence has been reported in tumour cells and suggested as a possible target for chemotherapeutic drugs. The underlying defect has not been extensively researched, nor have levels of sulphur amino acids been examined in these cells. This study compared two rat liver tumour cell lines. One was found to be methionine dependent (HTC) and the other found to be methionine independent (Phi-1). The methionine-dependent cell line (HTC) was discovered to contain markedly less methionine synthase activity, the enzyme activity being less responsive to methionine concentration than in the methionine-independent cells (Phi-1). HTC cells had lower cysteine requirements and contained larger concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and taurine than the Phi-1 cells. Also, in contrast to Phi-1 cells, no glutathione was found in the media of the HTC cells, although large quantities of cysteinylglycine were detected. These results suggested that differences in methionine synthase activity might be partly responsible for methionine dependence and that methionine-dependent cells may have different metabolic requirements for other sulphur amino acids.

  16. Cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and antimutagenicity of the gentisic acid on HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Flavia Maria Lima; Almeida, Igor Vivian; Düsman, Elisângela; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2017-05-16

    Gentisic acid (GA) exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic activities. This substance can be found in citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and peas. Considering that there are few studies in the literature on the toxicity of GA, the present work aimed to investigate its cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities on HTC cells. GA was diluted in culture medium at the final concentration of 0.08, 0.16, 0.8, 1.6, and 8 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue exclusion method, with methyl methanesulfonate and doxorubicin as positive controls, respectively. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay determined the mutagenic/antimutagenic activity with benzo[a]pyrene as positive control. Negative control received culture medium only. GA (0.08-8 μg/mL) was not cytotoxic to HTC cells by the MTT assay nor the Trypan Blue exclusion method as no statistical difference was observed when compared to the control. Concentration of 0.08 and 0.8 μg/mL showed no mutagenic or clastogenic effects, as no significant micronuclei inductions were observed, different from 8 μg/mL, that was mutagenic. Furthermore, none of the concentrations presented an antiproliferative activity. The antimutagenic activity of GA (0.08 μg/mL) was observed at the simultaneous treatment, as it reduced the frequency of micronuclei by 76% (24 h) and 79% (48 h). Although pre- and post-treatments were not statistically different from the mutagen, they reduced the induced-damage by 11% and 21%, respectively. The present study indicated the absence of cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activities of GA, in addition to their antimutagenic/protective effects that may contribute to human health.

  17. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing compounds via gas chromatography-chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC)-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renpenning, Julian; Kümmel, Steffen; Hitzfeld, Kristina L; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Gehre, Matthias

    2015-09-15

    The traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) approach toward compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of hydrogen for heteroatom-bearing (i.e., N, Cl, S) compounds has been afflicted by fractionation bias due to formation of byproducts HCN, HCl, and H2S. This study presents a chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC) approach for organic compounds containing nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur. Following peak separation along a gas chromatographic (GC) column, the use of thermally stable ceramic Cr/HTC reactors at 1100-1500 °C and chemical sequestration of N, Cl, and S by chromium result in quantitative conversion of compound-specific organic hydrogen to H2 analyte gas. The overall hydrogen isotope analysis via GC-Cr/HTC-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) achieved a precision of better than ± 5 mUr along the VSMOW-SLAP scale. The accuracy of GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS was validated with organic reference materials (RM) in comparison with online EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS and offline dual-inlet IRMS. The utility and reliability of the GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS system were documented during the routine measurement of more than 500 heteroatom-bearing organic samples spanning a δ(2)H range of -181 mUr to 629 mUr.

  18. Visualització d’escenes de Realitat Virtual amb ulleres HTC Vive amb interacció

    OpenAIRE

    Laiho Passols, Ari Pekka

    2017-01-01

    El treball està enfocat a la creació d’escenes d’immersió a la realitat virtual mitjançant el motor de videojocs multi plataforma Unity i el conjunt de dispositius de realitat virtual HTC Vive. En aquest treball es busca avançar amb les tècniques de programació i creació d’escenes amb l’editor de Unity. S’ha plantejat un sistema de treball enfocat a la creació i disseny de tres aplicacions que investiguen diferents camps d’estudi dins del món de Unity, la programació amb HTC Vi...

  19. Forbidden City : An Immersive Virtual Reality World Using the HTC VIVE to explore the real imperial palace of China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Forbidden City is a 3D virtual tour of an ancient Chinese architectural masterpiece, first of the world's top five palaces -The Imperial Palace in Beijing, China. This travel guide is designed to give you useful information that will greatly enhance your experience, and it will bring you into an immersive virtual world by using the device of the HTC VIVE rather than static texts and images. This 3D guide integrates cultural and historical information, which is practical and informative. Yo...

  20. The Accuracy and Precision of Position and Orientation Tracking in the HTC Vive Virtual Reality System for Scientific Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederick C. Niehorster

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of inexpensive consumer virtual reality equipment enables many more researchers to study perception with naturally moving observers. One such system, the HTC Vive, offers a large field-of-view, high-resolution head mounted display together with a room-scale tracking system for less than a thousand U.S. dollars. If the position and orientation tracking of this system is of sufficient accuracy and precision, it could be suitable for much research that is currently done with far more expensive systems. Here we present a quantitative test of the HTC Vive’s position and orientation tracking as well as its end-to-end system latency. We report that while the precision of the Vive’s tracking measurements is high and its system latency (22 ms is low, its position and orientation measurements are provided in a coordinate system that is tilted with respect to the physical ground plane. Because large changes in offset were found whenever tracking was briefly lost, it cannot be corrected for with a one-time calibration procedure. We conclude that the varying offset between the virtual and the physical tracking space makes the HTC Vive at present unsuitable for scientific experiments that require accurate visual stimulation of self-motion through a virtual world. It may however be suited for other experiments that do not have this requirement.

  1. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw: influence of feedwater pH prepared by acetic acid and potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M Toufiq; Rottler, Erwin; Herklotz, Laureen; Wirth, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, influence of feedwater pH (2-12) was studied for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of wheat straw at 200 and 260°C. Acetic acid and KOH were used as acidic and basic medium, respectively. Hydrochars were characterized by elemental and fiber analyses, SEM, surface area, pore volume and size, and ATR-FTIR, while HTC process liquids were analyzed by HPLC and GC. Both hydrochar and HTC process liquid qualities vary with feedwater pH. At acidic pH, cellulose and elemental carbon increase in hydrochar, while hemicellulose and pseudo-lignin decrease. Hydrochars produced at pH 2 feedwater has 2.7 times larger surface area than that produced at pH 12. It also has the largest pore volume (1.1 × 10(-1) ml g(-1)) and pore size (20.2 nm). Organic acids were increasing, while sugars were decreasing in case of basic feedwater, however, phenolic compounds were present only at 260°C and their concentrations were increasing in basic feedwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Accuracy and Precision of Position and Orientation Tracking in the HTC Vive Virtual Reality System for Scientific Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehorster, Diederick C; Li, Li; Lappe, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The advent of inexpensive consumer virtual reality equipment enables many more researchers to study perception with naturally moving observers. One such system, the HTC Vive, offers a large field-of-view, high-resolution head mounted display together with a room-scale tracking system for less than a thousand U.S. dollars. If the position and orientation tracking of this system is of sufficient accuracy and precision, it could be suitable for much research that is currently done with far more expensive systems. Here we present a quantitative test of the HTC Vive's position and orientation tracking as well as its end-to-end system latency. We report that while the precision of the Vive's tracking measurements is high and its system latency (22 ms) is low, its position and orientation measurements are provided in a coordinate system that is tilted with respect to the physical ground plane. Because large changes in offset were found whenever tracking was briefly lost, it cannot be corrected for with a one-time calibration procedure. We conclude that the varying offset between the virtual and the physical tracking space makes the HTC Vive at present unsuitable for scientific experiments that require accurate visual stimulation of self-motion through a virtual world. It may however be suited for other experiments that do not have this requirement.

  3. Assessment of medical response capacity in the time of disaster: the estimated formula of Hospital Treatment Capacity (HTC), the maximum receivable number of patients in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akira; Ishii, Noboru; Kawashima, Takahisa; Nakao, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For the assessment on medical response capacity for disaster in local area (such as rescue capacity, transport capacity and treatment capacity), it is necessary to assess it in peace time, and understand how many sufferers from disaster the hospital can respond to. Here the estimated formula of Hospital Treatment Capacity (hereinafter shortened to HTC), the maximum receivable number of patients in hospital (hereinafter shortened to MRN) was showed, which derived from the assessment on emergency medical response in Kobe University Hospital as an example. MATERIALS AND METHODS We treated a total of 12,032 patients transferred and admitted to Kobe University Hospital from April 2003 to January 2005. We calculated the required number of medical personnel, equipment and length of treatment time in order to respond to 410 severe traumas, 35 burn injuries, and 28 patients with blood purification, which were considered to be main clinical conditions in disaster. Beside, the occupation of emergency room and the operation room per hour were also investigated in our hospital. RESULTS HTC (MRN) for each clinical condition within H hours is expressed by following formula: (1) HTC (MRN) for burn injuries = The maximum integer of ( or =H/1.85) (2) HTC (MRN) for patients with blood purification = The maximum integer of ( or =H/2.00) (3) HTC (MRN) for severe traumas =The maximum integer of ( or =H/2.82+b) CONCLUSION The treatment capacity within local area is able to be assessed by adopting the estimated formula of HTC (MRN).

  4. Marine sponge depsipeptide increases gap junction length in HTC cells transfected with Cx43-GFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Marisa; Ionta, Marisa; Cristina Pfister, Sandra; Adolpho Sant'anna Ferreira, Raphael; Maria Machado-Santelli, Glaucia

    2010-01-01

    Connexins are membrane proteins that form GJ (gap junction) channels between adjacent cells. Cx43 (connexin 43), the most widely expressed member of the connexin family, has a rapid turnover rate, and its degradation involves both the lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The goal of this work was to study the effects of geodiamolides, natural peptides from marine sponge that normally are involved with microfilament disruption, on connexin assembly or degradation in the plasma membrane. HTC (hepatocarcinoma cells) expressing Cx43-GFP (green fluorescent protein) were submitted to treatment with 200 nM geodiamolides A, B, H and I for 2 and 4 h. Microfilament distribution and the presence and size of GJ plaques were evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Among the four peptides tested, only Geo H (geodiamolide H) statistically enhanced the length of GJ plaques. Geodiamolide A also showed activity in the GJ plaque size; however, its effect was less pronounced. Treatment with Geo H could interfere with the delivery of connexins to the degradation structures, similar to proteasomal pathways, keeping the connexins assembled and accumulating GJ plaques. Further experiments, with the cells treated with Geo H, using the fungal antibiotic BFA (brefeldin A), were performed in order to uncouple events leading to GJ assembly from those related to GJ removal, since BFA is known to block protein trafficking within a fused ER (endoplasmic reticulum)/Golgi compartment. GJ plaques were drastically reduced after BFA/Geo H treatment, thus indicating that Geo H affects mainly the delivery pathway of Cx43 protein.

  5. The Selimiye Mosque of Edirne, Turkey - AN Immersive and Interactive Virtual Reality Experience Using Htc Vive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Büyüksalih, G.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Kan, T.; Deggim, S.; Kaya, Y.; Baskaraca, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in contemporary Virtual Reality (VR) technologies are going to have a significant impact on veryday life. Through VR it is possible to virtually explore a computer-generated environment as a different reality, and to immerse oneself into the past or in a virtual museum without leaving the current real-life situation. For such the ultimate VR experience, the user should only see the virtual world. Currently, the user must wear a VR headset which fits around the head and over the eyes to visually separate themselves from the physical world. Via the headset images are fed to the eyes through two small lenses. Cultural heritage monuments are ideally suited both for thorough multi-dimensional geometric documentation and for realistic interactive visualisation in immersive VR applications. Additionally, the game industry offers tools for interactive visualisation of objects to motivate users to virtually visit objects and places. In this paper the generation of a virtual 3D model of the Selimiye mosque in the city of Edirne, Turkey and its processing for data integration into the game engine Unity is presented. The project has been carried out as a co-operation between BİMTAŞ, a company of the Greater Municipality of Istanbul, Turkey and the Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning Lab of the HafenCity University Hamburg, Germany to demonstrate an immersive and interactive visualisation using the new VR system HTC Vive. The workflow from data acquisition to VR visualisation, including the necessary programming for navigation, is described. Furthermore, the possible use (including simultaneous multiple users environments) of such a VR visualisation for a CH monument is discussed in this contribution.

  6. The Accuracy and Precision of Position and Orientation Tracking in the HTC Vive Virtual Reality System for Scientific Research

    OpenAIRE

    Niehorster, Diederick C.; Li Li; Markus Lappe

    2017-01-01

    The advent of inexpensive consumer virtual reality equipment enables many more researchers to study perception with naturally moving observers. One such system, the HTC Vive, offers a large field-of-view, high-resolution head mounted display together with a room-scale tracking system for less than a thousand U.S. dollars. If the position and orientation tracking of this system is of sufficient accuracy and precision, it could be suitable for much research that is currently done with far more ...

  7. Expanding HIV testing and counselling into communities: Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of an integrated family planning/HTC service delivery model by Village Health Teams in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunie, Aurélie; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Akol, Angela; Mercer, Sarah; Chen, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Improving HIV testing and counselling (HTC) requires a range of strategies. This article reports on HTC service delivery by Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda in the context of a model integrating this new component into pre-existing family planning services. Eight health centres from matched pairs were randomly allocated to intervention or control. After being trained, 36 VHTs reporting to selected facilities in the intervention group started offering HTC along with family planning, while VHTs in the control group provided family planning only. Proficiency testing was conducted as external quality assurance. A survey of all 36 VHTs and 137 family planning clients in the intervention group and 119 clients in the control group and a review of record data were conducted after 10 months. Survey responses by VHTs and their clients in the intervention group demonstrate knowledge of counselling messages and safe testing. External quality assessment results provide additional evidence of competency. Eighty per cent of the family planning clients surveyed in the intervention group received an HIV test during the intervention; 27% of those were first-time testers. More clients had ever tested for HIV in the intervention group compared with the control; clients also retested more often. Findings indicate that this model is feasible and acceptable for expanding quality HTC into communities. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number [NCT02244398]. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells as a model for investigating the effects of low concentrations of herbicide on cell structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, M; Perdoni, F; Santin, G; Battistelli, S; Muller, S; Biggiogera, M

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies on mice fed genetically modified (GM) soybean demonstrated modifications of the mitochondrial functions and of the transcription/splicing pathways in hepatocytes. The cause(s) of these alterations could not be conclusively established but, since the GM soybean used is tolerant to glyphosate and was treated with the glyphosate-containing herbicide Roundup , the possibility exists that the effects observed may be due to herbicide residues. In order to verify this hypothesis, we treated HTC cells with 1-10mM Roundup and analysed cellular features by flow cytometry, fluorescence and electron microscopy. Under these experimental conditions, the death rate and the general morphology of HTC cells were not affected, as well as most of the cytoplasmic organelles. However, in HTC-treated cells, lysosome density increased and mitochondrial membranes modified indicating a decline in the respiratory activity. Moreover, nuclei underwent morpho-functional modifications suggestive of a decreased transcriptional/splicing activity. Although we cannot exclude that other factors than the presence of the herbicide residues could be responsible for the cellular modifications described in GM-fed mice, the concordance of the effects induced by low concentrations of Roundup on HTC cells suggests that the presence of Roundup residues could be one of the factors interfering with multiple metabolic pathways.

  9. Thermal-induced changes on the properties of spin-coated P3HT:C60 thin films for solar cell applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available of the annealed P3HT:C60 (1:1wt%) films becomes enhanced and red shifted. This feature is evident in the photoluminescence measurements where the formation of polymer crystallites upon annealing is observed. Raman spectroscopy showed a substantial ordering...

  10. Center of Competence in High Temperature Corrosion, HTC. Report of activities during stage 3, 2000-10-01--2003-12-31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lars-Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2004-09-01

    HTC, the Swedish High Temperature Corrosion Centre, is a Swedish national competence centre jointly financed by the Swedish National Energy Agency, Chalmers Univ. of Technology and twelve member companies. HTC research has the following objectives: Improved materials performance resulting in increased service life of installations leading to lower maintenance and repair costs. Improved process performance resulting in improved energy efficiency and decreased emissions to the environment To achieve this, HTC aims to establish new and fundamental knowledge on High-Temperature Corrosion. The following research themes are pursued: High temperature corrosion in combustion gases and under deposits; Interaction of corrosion and mechanical factors such as erosion and fatigue. Main achievements during stage 3: HTC is at the cutting edge of science in certain areas of high temperature corrosion research. e.g., on the effect of water vapor on the corrosion of FeCr alloys, on the oxidation of platinum aluminide coatings and on the kinetics of the reactions at the oxide-gas interface.

  11. The performance of a new Geant4 Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model in high throughput computing (HTC) cluster architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatos, Heikkinen; Andi, Hektor; Veikko, Karimaki; Tomas, Linden [Helsinki Univ., Institute of Physics (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    We study the performance of a new Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model implemented in the general detector simulation tool-kit Geant4 with a High Throughput Computing (HTC) cluster architecture. A 60 node Pentium III open-Mosix cluster is used with the Mosix kernel performing automatic process load-balancing across several CPUs. The Mosix cluster consists of several computer classes equipped with Windows NT workstations that automatically boot, daily and become nodes of the Mosix cluster. The models included in our study are a Bertini intra-nuclear cascade model with excitons, consisting of a pre-equilibrium model, a nucleus explosion model, a fission model and an evaporation model. The speed and accuracy obtained for these models is presented. (authors)

  12. Oleoylethanolamide, a natural ligand for PPAR-alpha, inhibits insulin receptor signalling in HTC rat hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Ubago, María; García-Oya, Inmaculada; Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Quintana-Portillo, Rocio; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; González-Yanes, Carmen; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2009-08-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid mediator belonging to the fatty acid ethanolamides family. It is produced by intestine and adipose tissue. It inhibits food intake and body weight gain, and has hypolipemiant action in vivo, as well as a lipolytic effect in vitro. OEA is a PPAR-alpha agonist, and recently it has been found that OEA is an endogenous ligand of an orphan receptor. Previously, we have shown that OEA inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes, and produces glucose intolerance in rats. In the present work, we have studied another insulin target cell, the hepatocyte using a rat hepatoma cell line (HTC), and we have studied the cross-talk of OEA signalling with metabolic and mitotic signal transduction of insulin receptor. OEA dose-dependently activates JNK and p38 MAPK, and inhibits insulin receptor phosphorylation. OEA inhibits insulin receptor activation, blunting insulin signalling in the downstream PI3K pathway, decreasing phosphorylation of PKB and its target GSK-3. OEA also inhibits insulin-dependent MAPK pathway, as assessed by immunoblot of phosphorylated MEK and MAPK. These effects were reversed by blocking JNK or p38 MAPK using pharmacological inhibitors (SP 600125, and SB 203580). Since OEA is an endogenous PPAR-alpha agonist, we investigated whether a pharmacologic agonist (WY 14643) may mimic the OEA effect on insulin receptor signalling. Activation of PPAR-alpha by the pharmacological agonist WY14643 in HTC hepatoma cells is sufficient to inhibit insulin signalling and this effect is also dependent on p38 MAPK but not JNK kinase. In summary, OEA inhibits insulin metabolic and mitogenic signalling by activation of JNK and p38 MAPK via PPAR-alpha.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Total Dissolved Nitrogen on a Coupled High-Temperature Combustion Total Organic Carbon-Nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection (HTC TOC-NCD) System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Xi; Sanders, Richard; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J; Achterberg, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    .... Recent studies have shown that the high-temperature combustion (HTC) technique is suitable for routine analyses of dissolved organic matter due to its good oxidation efficiency, high sensitivity, and precision...

  14. Evaluation of antimutagenic activity and mechanisms of action of beta-glucan from barley, in CHO-k1 and HTC cell lines using the micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; da Silva, Ariane Fernanda; Matuo, Renata; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

    2006-10-01

    Due to the need to identify new antimutagenic agents and to determine their mechanism of action, the present study examined the mechanism of action of the beta-glucan with regard to antimutagenicity using the micronucleus assay in CHO-k1 and HTC cell lines. The mutagenicity experiments were performed with three different concentrations of beta-glucan (5, 10, and 20 microg/mL), in wich only the highest dose showed mutagenic activity. In the antimutagenicity experiments, the same concentrations of beta-glucan were combined with a mutagenic agent, methylmethane sulfonate, or 2-aminoanthracene, using four different treatment protocols: pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment (simple and with pre-incubation), and post-treatment. The results indicate that the CHO-k1 cell line treated with MMS presented a chemopreventive activity for all the doses of beta-glucan in the different treatment protocols, except for the lowest dose in post-treatment. When HTC cell line treated with MMS is analysed, a chemopreventive activity can be verified for the highest dose in both pre- and post-treatment. For the simple simultaneous treatment, the three doses demonstrated efficacy, while for the simultaneous treatment with pre-incubation only the intermediate concentration was effective. In HTC treated with 2AA both the lowest dose in the pre-treatment protocol and the post-treatment protocol did not show efficacy in preventing DNA damage. The evaluation of the different protocols and the damage decrease percentages observed suggest that beta-glucan has both desmutagenic and bioantimutagenic activity. It is necessary, however, to note that efficacy and mechanism of action are subject to variation when compared the two cell lines, since in HTC, representing a drug-metabolizing system, this substance can show a diminished chemopreventive capacity.

  15. Antigenotoxicity of Agaricus blazei mushroom organic and aqueous extracts in chromosomal aberration and cytokinesis block micronucleus assays in CHO-k1 and HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, M F; Angeli, J P F; Matuo, R; Terezan, A P; Ribeiro, L R; Mantovani, M S

    2006-04-01

    Agaricus blazei (Ab) has become popularly known for its medicinal properties. Scientifically, it has been tested with regard to its capacity to protect genetic material against damage. We examined different organic extracts (methanolic extract -- ME, hexanic extract -- HE and n-butanolic extract -- BE) and an aqueous extract (AE) of Ab, for their capacity to induce DNA damage as well as for their protective effect. Genetic damage was determined by the chromosomal aberration assay (CA) in CHO-k1 cells for all extracts and the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in non drug-metabolizing (CHO-k1) and drug-metabolizing (HTC) cell lines for extract BE only. The extracts did not show clastogenicity but showed anticlastogenicity. The greatest percent reduction obtained were with BE (105%) and AE (126%) treatments in CA. BE treatment did not display genotoxicity in CHO-k1, but was genotoxic in HTC. However, BE was shown to be antigenotoxic causing decreased micronucleus frequency in HTC and CHO-k1 cells. These results suggest that all the extracts contained protective substances, but in some cases they could show a genotoxic effect with regard to metabolism. Therefore, these findings warrant caution in the use of this mushroom by the population.

  16. Novel in situ evaluation of the role minerals play in the development of the hard-to-cook (HTC) defect of cowpeas and its effect on the in vitro mineral bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Johanita; Minnis-Ndimba, Roya; Mtshali, Christopher; Minnaar, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea is a nutritionally important drought-resistant legume in sub-Saharan Africa. It is, however, underutilised, in part due to the hard-to-cook (HTC) defect caused by adverse storage conditions resulting in seeds not softening during cooking. This study introduced a novel evaluation of the potential role that minerals play in the development of the HTC defect. The mineral distribution in the cotyledons of normal and HTC cowpeas were analysed by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry. The phytate, tannin and total phenolic contents were analysed together with in vitro mineral bioaccessibility. In HTC cowpeas, Ca and Mg were more concentrated in the cell wall-middle lamella area of the parenchyma cells. This, together with the reduction in phytate content, confirmed the 'phytase-phytate-mineral' hypothesis as a mechanism for development of the HTC defect. Despite the phytate reduction in stored cowpeas, the HTC defect decreased the bioaccessibility of Ca, Fe and Zn in cowpeas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of cytotoxic, apoptosis-inducing, genotoxic and protective effects of the flavonoid rutin in HTC hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Marcarini, Juliana; Ferreira Tsuboy, Marcela Stefanini; Cabral Luiz, Rodrigo; Regina Ribeiro, Lucia; Beatriz Hoffmann-Campo, Clara; Ségio Mantovani, Mário

    2011-07-01

    Rutin is a flavonoid with antioxidant, vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulating activities. To study the toxicity of rutin and its protective effect, this work investigated the cytotoxic, apoptosis-inducing, genotoxic and protective effects of rutin in HTC cells. In the MTT assay, the highest concentration tested (810 μM) showed cytotoxicity after 72 h of treatment, where cell viability and cell proliferation was diminished. None of the concentrations of rutin tested induced apoptosis after 24h treatment. The highest concentration of rutin after 24h treatment induced DNA damage, shown in the comet assay, but did have a genotoxic effect in the micronucleus test. Rutin was tested against the pro-carcinogenic agent benzo(a)pyrene, at concentrations of 90, 270 and 810 μM, and was found to reduce induced DNA damage significantly. This protective effect of rutin against a pro-carcinogen, suggests an important biological activity for this compound, which can contribute to human health through the diet. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemoprotective activity of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein on mutagenicity induced by direct and indirect mutagens in cultured HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Sandra Regina; Luiz, Rodrigo Cabral; Zanelatto, Leonardo Campos; da Silva, Patrícia Benites Gonçalves; Sartori, Daniele; Ribeiro, Lucia Regina; Mantovani, Mario Sergio

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phenolic compounds widely distributed in plants and found in a high percentage in soybeans. They have important biological properties and are regarded as potential chemopreventive agents. The aim of this study was to verify the preventive effect of two soy isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) by a micronucleus assay, analysis of GST activity, and real-time RT-PCR analysis of GSTa2 gene expression. Mutagens of direct (doxorubicin) and indirect (2-aminoanthracene) DNA damage were used. Hepatoma cells (HTC) were treated with genistein or daidzein for 26 h at noncytotoxic concentrations; 10 μM when alone, and 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μM when combined with genotoxic agents. The micronucleus test demonstrated that both isoflavones alone had no genotoxic effect. Genistein showed antimutagenic effects at 10 μM with both direct and indirect DNA damage agents. On phase II enzyme regulation, the current study indicated an increase in total cytoplasmic GST activity in response to genistein and daidzein at 10 μM supplementation. However, the mRNA levels of GSTa2 isozymes were not differentially modulated by genistein or daidzein. The results point to an in vitro antimutagenic activity of genistein against direct and indirect DNA damage-induced mutagenicity.

  19. The study of ultrasonic irradiation effects on solid state powders of HTc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Mahboubeh; Khoshnevisan, Bahram

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an ultrasound assisted solid state synthesis method for high-temperature (HTc) YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) superconductor nanostructures with different morphologies is presented. Here, the routine heat treatment of the powder mixture of as-prepared precursors is followed by the ultrasound irradiation inside various alcoholic solutions. Not only the influence of the ultrasound irradiation intensity and duration but also the influence of different solvents such as ethanol, methanol and 1-butanol with various vapor pressures and so various destruction powers were also studied on the morphology and particle size of the products. The various morphologies were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) which not only have been affected by intensity and type of alcoholic solvent but also sonication time and ultrasound power have significant role as well. Formation of the YBCO superconducting phase was examined by using Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) which indicates the crystalline preferred growth in c-axis orientation in crystal. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed the ultrasound waves had no important effect on the onset critical temperature of the prepared nanorods (about 91.64 K) which is compared with the bulk samples (Tc ˜ 92K).

  20. THE SELIMIYE MOSQUE OF EDIRNE, TURKEY – AN IMMERSIVE AND INTERACTIVE VIRTUAL REALITY EXPERIENCE USING HTC VIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kersten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in contemporary Virtual Reality (VR technologies are going to have a significant impact on veryday life. Through VR it is possible to virtually explore a computer-generated environment as a different reality, and to immerse oneself into the past or in a virtual museum without leaving the current real-life situation. For such the ultimate VR experience, the user should only see the virtual world. Currently, the user must wear a VR headset which fits around the head and over the eyes to visually separate themselves from the physical world. Via the headset images are fed to the eyes through two small lenses. Cultural heritage monuments are ideally suited both for thorough multi-dimensional geometric documentation and for realistic interactive visualisation in immersive VR applications. Additionally, the game industry offers tools for interactive visualisation of objects to motivate users to virtually visit objects and places. In this paper the generation of a virtual 3D model of the Selimiye mosque in the city of Edirne, Turkey and its processing for data integration into the game engine Unity is presented. The project has been carried out as a co-operation between BİMTAŞ, a company of the Greater Municipality of Istanbul, Turkey and the Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning Lab of the HafenCity University Hamburg, Germany to demonstrate an immersive and interactive visualisation using the new VR system HTC Vive. The workflow from data acquisition to VR visualisation, including the necessary programming for navigation, is described. Furthermore, the possible use (including simultaneous multiple users environments of such a VR visualisation for a CH monument is discussed in this contribution.

  1. Different responses of vanillic acid, a phenolic compound, in HTC cells: cytotoxicity, antiproliferative activity, and protection from DNA-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I V; Cavalcante, F M L; Vicentini, V E P

    2016-12-19

    The consumption of healthy and natural foods has increased over the last few years, primarily because these foods are rich in substances with biological properties of interest, such as exerting anticancer effects and decreasing oxidative stress in living tissues. These foods support adequate nutrition, maintain health, and improve quality of life. Vanillic acid (VA) is a phenolic compound used widely in the food industry as a flavoring, preservative, and food additive. VA can be found in various cereals, whole grains, fruits, herbs, green tea, juices, beers, and wines and possesses antioxidant, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and antiapoptotic activities. Studying the cytotoxicity as well as the mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of different concentrations of VA in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) can identify new cellular activities of this substance. Concentrations up to 100 µM VA are not cytotoxic to HTC cells in a MTT [3-(4,5-dimethilthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenil tetrazolium bromide] assay after 96-h exposure; therefore, VA does not compromise mitochondrial activity. Similarly, concentrations up to 500 µM do not compromise plasma membrane integrity. VA at 10 and 50 µM showed no mutagenic/clastogenic effects, as no significant micronuclei induction was observed. VA 10 µM presented no antiproliferative activity and reduced the cytotoxicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene. The antimutagenic activity of 10 µM VA was observed by the simultaneous, pre-, and post-treatments, as the phenolic compound significantly reduced the frequency of micronuclei induced by the mutagen. These results indicate that VA exerts different responses in HTC cells. Low concentrations present no cytotoxic, mutagenic, or antiproliferative effects and protect cells from DNA damage.

  2. Activation of H2O2-induced VSOR Cl- currents in HTC cells require phospholipase Cgamma1 phosphorylation and Ca2+ mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe; Olivero, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    activation. The aim of this study was to determine the signalling pathways responsible for H(2)O(2)-induced VSOR Cl(-) channel activation. In rat hepatoma (HTC) cells, H(2)O(2) elicited a transient increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) that was blocked by PP2, a Src......-family protein kinases inhibitor. Also, H(2)O(2) triggered an increase in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] that paralleled the time course of PLCgamma1 phosphorylation. The H(2)O(2)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise was prevented by the generic phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-receptor (IP(3...

  3. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis of fluorine-, chlorine-, bromine- and iodine-bearing organics using gas chromatography-chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renpenning, Julian; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Gehre, Matthias

    2017-07-15

    The conventional high-temperature conversion (HTC) approach towards hydrogen compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of halogen-bearing (F, Cl, Br, I) organics suffers from incomplete H2 yields and associated hydrogen isotope fractionation due to generation of HF, HCl, HBr, and HI byproducts. Moreover, the traditional off-line combustion of highly halogenated compounds results in incomplete recovery of water as an intermediary compound for hydrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and hence also leads to isotope fractionation. This study presents an optimized chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC) approach for hydrogen CSIA of various fluorinated, chlorinated, brominated and iodinated organic compounds. The Cr/HTC approach is fast, economical, and not affected by low H2 yields and associated isotope fractionation. The performance of the modified gas chromatography/chromium-based high-temperature conversion (GC-Cr/HTC) system was monitored and optimized using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Quantitative conversion of organic hydrogen into H2 analyte gas was achieved for all halogen-bearing compounds. The corresponding accuracy of CSIA was validated using (i) manual dual-inlet (DI)-IRMS after off-line conversion into H2 , and (ii) elemental analyzer (EA)-Cr/HTC-IRMS (on-line conversion). The overall hydrogen isotope analysis of F-, Cl-, Br- and I-bearing organics via GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS achieved a precision σ ≤ 3 mUr and an accuracy within ±5 mUr along the VSMOW-SLAP scale compared with the measured isotope compositions resulting from both validation methods, off-line and on-line. The same analytical performance as for single-compound GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS was achieved compound-specifically for mixtures of halogenated organics following GC separation to baseline resolution. GC-Cr/HTC technology can be implemented in existing analytical equipment using commercially available materials to provide a versatile tool for hydrogen CSIA of halogenated and non

  4. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer–chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) is responsible for non-quantitative H2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer–Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems.

  5. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC: Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Zafar Janjua

    Full Text Available The British Columbia (BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV, HIV or active tuberculosis (TB in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992 of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54% were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90-100%.Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV.

  6. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC): Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kuo, Margot; Chong, Mei; Yu, Amanda; Alvarez, Maria; Cook, Darrel; Armour, Rosemary; Aiken, Ciaran; Li, Karen; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed Ali; Woods, Ryan; Godfrey, David; Wong, Jason; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W; Krajden, Mel

    2016-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV) epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV), HIV or active tuberculosis (TB) in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992) of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54%) were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90-100%). Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV.

  7. Copper inhibits P2Y(2)-dependent Ca(2+) signaling through the effects on thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores in HTC hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolovcak, Svjetlana; Waldrop, Shar L; Fitz, J Gregory; Kilic, Gordan

    2010-07-02

    Purinergic P2Y(2) G-protein coupled receptors play a key role in the regulation of hepatic Ca(2+) signaling by extracellular ATP. The concentration of copper in serum is about 20muM. Since copper accumulates in the liver in certain disease states, the purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of copper on P2Y(2) receptors in a model liver cell line. Exposure to a P2Y(2) agonist UTP increased [Ca(2+)](i) by stimulating Ca(2+) release from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores. Pretreatment of HTC cells for several minutes with copper did not affect cell viability, but potently inhibited increases in [Ca(2+)](i) evoked by UTP and thapsigargin. During this pretreatment, copper was not transported into the cytosol, and inhibited P2Y(2) receptors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC(50) of about 15muM. These results suggest that copper inhibits P2Y(2) receptors through the effects on thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores by acting from an extracellular side. Further experiments indicated that these effect of copper may lead to inhibition of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) evoked by hypotonic solution. Thus, copper may contribute to defective regulation of purinergic signaling and liver cell volume in diseases associated with the increased serum copper concentration. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Copper inhibits P2Y2-dependent Ca2+ signaling through the effects on thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores in HTC hepatoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolovcak, Svjetlana; Waldrop, Shar L.; Fitz, J. Gregory; Kilic, Gordan

    2010-01-01

    Purinergic P2Y2 G-protein coupled receptors play a key role in the regulation of hepatic Ca2+ signaling by extracellular ATP. The concentration of copper in serum is about 20 μM. Since copper accumulates in the liver in certain disease states, the purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of copper on P2Y2 receptors in a model liver cell line. Exposure to a P2Y2 agonist UTP increased [Ca2+]i by stimulating Ca2+ release from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores. Pretreatment of HTC cells for several minutes with copper did not affect cell viability, but potently inhibited increases in [Ca2+]i evoked by UTP and thapsigargin. During this pretreatment, copper was not transported into the cytosol, and inhibited P2Y2 receptors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC50 of about 15 μM. These results suggest that copper inhibits P2Y2 receptors through the effects on thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores by acting from an extracellular side. Further experiments indicated that these effect of copper may lead to inhibition of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) evoked by hypotonic solution. Thus, copper may contribute to defective regulation of purinergic signaling and liver cell volume in diseases associated with the increased serum copper concentration. PMID:20515656

  9. Activation of H2O2-induced VSOR Cl- currents in HTC cells require phospholipase Cgamma1 phosphorylation and Ca2+ mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe; Olivero, Pablo; Armisén, Ricardo; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Jørgensen, Finn; Sala, Francisco; Stutzin, Andrés

    2007-01-01

    Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channels participate in several physiological processes such as regulatory volume decrease, cell cycle regulation, proliferation and apoptosis. Recent evidence points to a significant role of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in VSOR Cl(-) channel activation. The aim of this study was to determine the signalling pathways responsible for H(2)O(2)-induced VSOR Cl(-) channel activation. In rat hepatoma (HTC) cells, H(2)O(2) elicited a transient increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) that was blocked by PP2, a Src-family protein kinases inhibitor. Also, H(2)O(2) triggered an increase in cytosolic [Ca(2+)] that paralleled the time course of PLCgamma1 phosphorylation. The H(2)O(2)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise was prevented by the generic phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-receptor (IP(3)R) blocker 2-APB. In line with these results, manoeuvres that prevented PLCgamma1 activation and/or [Ca(2+)](i) rise, abolished H(2)O(2)-induced VSOR Cl(-) currents. Furthermore, in cells that overexpress a phosphorylation-defective dominant mutant of PLCgamma1, H(2)O(2) did not induce activation of VSOR Cl(-) currents. All these H(2)O(2)-induced effects were independent of extracellular Ca(2+). Our findings suggest that activation of PLCgamma1 and subsequent Ca(2+)(i) mobilisation mediate H(2)O(2)-induced VSOR Cl(-) currents, indicating that H(2)O(2) operates via redox-sensitive signalling pathways akin to those activated by osmotic challenges.

  10. Effect of processing, post-harvest irradiation, and production system on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. juices in HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Lucchetta, Luciano; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2014-01-01

    The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit) or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90°C) of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m² for 10 minutes). Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI), and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and consumption.

  11. The Population Level Cascade of Care for Hepatitis C in British Columbia, Canada: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Z; Kuo, Margot; Yu, Amanda; Alvarez, Maria; Wong, Stanley; Cook, Darrel; Wong, Jason; Grebely, Jason; Butt, Zahid A; Samji, Hasina; Ramji, Alnoor; Tyndall, Mark; Krajden, Mel

    2016-10-01

    Population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected people across the cascade of care identifies gaps in access and engagement in care and treatment. We characterized a population-level cascade of care for HCV in British Columbia (BC), Canada and identified factors associated with leakage at each stage. The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes 1.5million individuals tested for HCV, HIV, reported cases of hepatitis B, and active tuberculosis in BC from 1990 to 2013 linked to medical visits, hospitalizations, cancers, prescription drugs and mortality data. We defined six HCV cascade of care stages: 1) estimated population prevalence; 2) HCV diagnosed; 3) HCV RNA tested; 4) genotyped; 5) initiated treatment; and 6) achieved sustained virologic response (SVR). We estimated that 73,203 people were HCV antibody positive in BC in 2012 (undiagnosed: 18,301, 25%; diagnosed: 54,902, 75%). Of these, 56%(40,656) had HCV RNA testing; 34%(26,300) were genotyped; 12%( 8532 ) had received interferon-based therapy and 7%(5197) had SVR. Males, older birth cohorts, and HBV coinfected were less likely to undergo HCV RNA testing. Among those with chronic HCV infection, 32% had received liver-related care. Retention in liver care was more likely in those with HIV, cirrhosis, and drug/alcohol use and less likely in males and HBV coinfected. Although there are gaps in HCV RNA testing and genotyping after HCV diagnosis, the major gap in the cascade of care was low treatment initiation. People with comorbidities progressed through the cascade of testing and care but few received treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effect of processing, post-harvest irradiation, and production system on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. juices in HTC cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    Full Text Available The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L. are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90°C of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m² for 10 minutes. Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI, and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and

  13. Development and validation of an universal interface for compound-specific stable isotope analysis of chlorine (37Cl/35Cl) by GC-high-temperature conversion (HTC)-MS/IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renpenning, Julian; Hitzfeld, Kristina L; Gilevska, Tetyana; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2015-03-03

    A universal application of compound-specific isotope analysis of chlorine was thus far limited by the availability of suitable analysis techniques. In this study, gas chromatography in combination with a high-temperature conversion interface (GC-HTC), converting organic chlorine in the presence of H2 to gaseous HCl, was coupled to a dual-detection system, combining an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The combination of the MS/IRMS detection enabled a detailed characterization, optimization, and online monitoring of the high-temperature conversion process via ion trap MS as well as a simultaneous chlorine isotope analysis by the IRMS. Using GC-HTC-MS/IRMS, chlorine isotope analysis at optimized conversion conditions resulted in very accurate isotope values (δ(37)Cl(SMOC)) for measured reference material with known isotope composition, including chlorinated ethylene, chloromethane, hexachlorocyclohexane, and trichloroacetic acids methyl ester. Respective detection limits were determined to be <15 nmol Cl on column with achieved precision of <0.3‰.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Total Dissolved Nitrogen on a Coupled High-Temperature Combustion Total Organic Carbon-Nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection (HTC TOC-NCD) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xi; Sanders, Richard; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J; Achterberg, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    The marine biogeochemistries of carbon and nitrogen have come under increased scrutiny because of their close involvement in climate change and coastal eutrophication. Recent studies have shown that the high-temperature combustion (HTC) technique is suitable for routine analyses of dissolved organic matter due to its good oxidation efficiency, high sensitivity, and precision. In our laboratory, a coupled HTC TOC-NCD system with a sample changer was used for the automated and simultaneous determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in seawater samples. TOC control software was used for TOC instrument control, DOC data acquisition, and data analysis. TDN data acquisition and manipulation was undertaken under LabVIEW. The combined system allowed simultaneous determination of DOC and TDN in the same sample using a single injection and provided low detection limits and excellent linear ranges for both DOC and TDN. The risk of contamination has been remarkably reduced due to the minimal sample manipulation and automated analyses. The optimised system provided a reliable tool for the routine determination of DOC and TDN in marine waters.

  15. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of waters impacted by domestic and industrial effluents of a highly industrialized region of São Paulo State, Brazil, by the comet assay in HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Bárbara Cassu; Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Hoshina, Márcia Miyuki; Menegário, Amauri Antônio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The problems that most affect the quality of the waters of rivers and lakes are associated with the discharges performed in these environments, mainly industrial and domestic effluents inappropriately treated or untreated. The comet assay is a sensitive tool and is recommended for studies of environmental biomonitoring, which aim to determine the genotoxicity potential of water pollutants. This study aimed to assess the genotoxic potential of the Ribeirão Tatu waters, region of Limeira, São Paulo (SP), by the comet assay with mammalian cells (hepatoma tissue culture (HTC)). Water samples were collected along the Ribeirão Tatu at three distinct periods: November 2008, February 2009 and August 2009, and five collection sites were established: P1, source of the stream; P2, site located downstream the urban perimeter of the municipality of Cordeirópolis and after receiving the pollution load of this city; P3, collection site located upstream the urban perimeter of the city of Limeira; P4, urban area of Limeira; and P5, rural area of Limeira, downstream the discharges of the city sewage. The results showed that for the November 2008 collection, there was no water sample-induced genotoxicity; for the February 2009 collection, the sites P1 and P2 were statistically significant in relation to the negative control (NC), and for the August 2009 collection, the site P5 was statistically significant. These results could be explained by the content of different metals during the different seasons that are under the influence of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents and also due to the seasonality, since the water samples collected in the period of heavy rain (February 2009) presented a higher genotoxicity possibly due to the entrainment of contaminants into the bed of the stream promoted by the outflow of rainwaters. The comet assay showed to be a useful and sensitive tool in the evaluation of hydric resources impacted by pollutants of diverse origins, and a

  16. Nernst Effect in HTC cuprate from BDW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxiao

    2015-03-01

    The pseudogap regime in low hole doped high Tc cuprate superconductors exhibits peculiar experimental signatures like the detection of enhanced negative signals for Hall, Seebeck and Nernst coefficients. It has been suggested that some of these phenomena can be understood in terms of a competition between a bond density wave order and superconductivity. In this work, we theoretically studied the Nernst effect using a mean-field quasiparticle model with Q1 = (0 , 2 π / 3) and Q2 = (2 π / 3 , 0) . By employing semi-classical Boltzmann dynamics, we have shown that the thermoelectric coefficient depends linearly on the absolute value of order parameter for small values of the induced gap and the contribution mainly comes from the small area of hot spot.

  17. Hermes: Seamless delivery of containerized bioinformatics workflows in hybrid cloud (HTC environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios M. Kintsakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hermes introduces a new “describe once, run anywhere” paradigm for the execution of bioinformatics workflows in hybrid cloud environments. It combines the traditional features of parallelization-enabled workflow management systems and of distributed computing platforms in a container-based approach. It offers seamless deployment, overcoming the burden of setting up and configuring the software and network requirements. Most importantly, Hermes fosters the reproducibility of scientific workflows by supporting standardization of the software execution environment, thus leading to consistent scientific workflow results and accelerating scientific output.

  18. CeO2 as insulation layer in HTc superconducting multilayer and cross over structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijck, M.A.A.M.; van Wijck, M.A.A.M.; Verhoeven, M.A.J.; Verhoeven, M.A.J.; Reuvekamp, E.M.C.M.; Reuvekamp, E.M.C.M.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Blank, David H.A.; Rogalla, Horst

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the electrical properties of insulating CeO2 layers in combination with superconducting (Y/Dy) Ba2Cu3O7-delta (RBCO) films over ramps and in crossover structures. CeO2 is frequently used as a buffer layer, or template layer for biepitaxial grain boundary junctions, but can also

  19. Automated testing of industrial robots using HTC Vive for motion tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Sletten, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Cybernetics and signal processing Producers of industrial robots are continuously maintaining and upgrading their software that is running on their robot controllers, to improve and expand the functionalities. Extensive testing is performed to verify that all new and existing features are working as intended before this software can be released. These tests are time consuming and requires an operator to perform, observe, and inspect the results. A failure dur...

  20. Automated testing of industrial robots using HTC Vive for motion tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Sletten, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Producers of industrial robots are continuously maintaining and upgrading their software that is running on their robot controllers, to improve and expand the functionalities. Extensive testing is performed to verify that all new and existing features are working as intended before this software can be released. These tests are time consuming and requires an operator to perform, observe, and inspect the results. A failure during these tests can result in very time-consuming tro...

  1. HTC Vive MeVisLab integration via OpenVR for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Jan; Gall, Markus; Wallner, J?rgen; Boechat, Pedro; Hann, Alexander; Li, Xing; Chen, Xiaojun; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Alas, importing medical data into Virtual Reality devices is not necessarily trivi...

  2. Research on and Application to BH-HTC High Density Cementing Slurry System on Tarim Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanhong, Song; Fei, Gao; Jianyong, He; Qixiang, Yang; Jiang, Yang; Xia, Liu

    2017-08-01

    A large section of salt bed is contented in Tarim region Piedmont which constructs complex geological conditions. For high-pressure gas well cementing difficulties from the region, high density cement slurry system has been researched through reasonable level of particle size distribution and second weighting up. The results of laboratory tests and field applications show that the high density cementing slurry system is available to Tarim region cementing because this system has a well performance in slurry stability, gas breakthrough control, fluidity, water loss, and strength.

  3. 600 A HTc current lead based on BSCCO 2212 rods for LHC magnets

    CERN Document Server

    García-Tabarés, L; Abramian, P; Toral, F; Angurel, L A; Diez, J C; Burriel, R; Natividad, E; Iturbe, R; Etxeandia, J

    2000-01-01

    A 600 A current lead using 2212 BSCCO bulk material is now under construction and will be soon delivered to CERN. Present paper describes the main steps of its design and fabrication, including the two main parts in which it is divided, the superconducting module with the BSCCO rods and the conventional resistive part. An important role in this design was played by previous experimental measurements on subassemblies, which are also described along the paper. (5 refs).

  4. Induction spectrometry using an ultrafast hollow-cored toroidal-coil (HTC) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelo, Yunieski; Bleiner, Davide

    2017-02-01

    Ultrafast photoelectron and photoion spectroscopy (as well as their combination known as "coincidence spectroscopy") utilizes detectors based on different electron multipliers such as microchannel plates or single-channel electron multipliers. These detectors have a few important limitations such as fast-signal distortion (low pass operation), mutually exclusive positive or negative mode, dead time, and requirement of trigger. A high-pass induction detector, based on a hollow-cored toroidal coil, was developed that overcomes the above-mentioned limitations. The frequency-dispersive response and linearity of different configurations were analyzed. It is shown that the response is enhanced for ultrafast electron signals, dependent on construction parameters, thus offering response flexibility by design. Kinetic energy distributions of pseudospark-induced electron pulses are characterized in order to validate the capabilities in real applications.

  5. Environmental applications of HTC technology: Biochar production, carbon sequestration, and waste conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motivations for the development and use of hydrothermal carbonization (or wet pyrolysis) have been primarily directed towards the sustainable creation of carbon nanomaterials/nanostructures for use in applications ranging from hydrogen storage to chemical adsorption. The utility of this process, how...

  6. 78 FR 13673 - HTC America, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Home Page (for February 22, 2013), on the World Wide Web, at http://www.ftc.gov/os/actions.shtm . A... the public Commission Web site, at http://www.ftc.gov/os/publiccomments.shtm . As a matter of... and tablet computers using Google Inc.'s Android operating system and Microsoft Corporation's Windows...

  7. Risk factors for service use and trends in coverage of different HIV testing and counselling models in northwest Tanzania between 2003 and 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley, C; Wringe, A; Todd, J.; Gourlay, A; CLARK, B; Masesa, C; Machemba, R; Reniers, G; Urassa, M; Zaba, B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relative effectiveness of different HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services in improving HIV diagnosis rates and increasing HTC coverage in African settings. METHODS: Patient records from three HTC services [community outreach HTC during cohort study rounds (CO-HTC), walk-in HTC at the local health centre (WI-HTC) and antenatal HIV testing (ANC-HTC)] were linked to records from a community cohort study using a probabilistic record linkage algorithm. Character...

  8. Risk factors for service use and trends in coverage of different HIV testing and counselling models in northwest Tanzania between 2003 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley, Caoimhe; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Gourlay, Annabelle; Clark, Benjamin; Masesa, Clemens; Machemba, Richard; Reniers, Georges; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To investigate the relative effectiveness of different HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services in improving HIV diagnosis rates and increasing HTC coverage in African settings. Methods Patient records from three HTC services [community outreach HTC during cohort study rounds (CO?HTC), walk?in HTC at the local health centre (WI?HTC) and antenatal HIV testing (ANC?HTC)] were linked to records from a community cohort study using a probabilistic record linkage algorithm. Ch...

  9. Evaluation of the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and antigenotoxicity/antimutagenicity induced by propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia, by in vitro study with HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Matsumoto, Sílvia Tamie; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    The ethanolic extract of propolis, especially the Brazilian green type, is widely and mainly used for therapeutic purposes despite the lack of knowledge about its effects and its cellular mode of action. This type of propolis, derived from Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim-do-campo), has been extensively commercialized and the consumers use it to enhance health. This work aimed to assess the genotoxic/mutagenic and antigenotoxic/antimutagenic potentials of the ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and of B. dracunculifolia, on mammalian cells. It was not observed genotoxic and mutagenic effects by both extracts. After evaluate the exposure of the cells to each extract with a recognized mutagen, simultaneously, the results showed a significant reduction on DNA damage. The experiment carried out with a pre-incubation period was more effective than without incubation test, showing that the tested extracts were able to inactivate the mutagen before it could react with the DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Population Level Cascade of Care for Hepatitis C in British Columbia, Canada: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Z. Janjua, DrPH

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Although there are gaps in HCV RNA testing and genotyping after HCV diagnosis, the major gap in the cascade of care was low treatment initiation. People with comorbidities progressed through the cascade of testing and care but few received treatment.

  11. 78 FR 34132 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... HTC Corporation of Taiwan. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. International Trade Commission... respondents HTC Corporation of Taiwan and HTC America, Inc. of Bellevue, WA. Issued: June 3, 2013. By order of...

  12. Risk factors for service use and trends in coverage of different HIV testing and counselling models in northwest Tanzania between 2003 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Caoimhe; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Gourlay, Annabelle; Clark, Benjamin; Masesa, Clemens; Machemba, Richard; Reniers, Georges; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the relative effectiveness of different HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services in improving HIV diagnosis rates and increasing HTC coverage in African settings. Patient records from three HTC services [community outreach HTC during cohort study rounds (CO-HTC), walk-in HTC at the local health centre (WI-HTC) and antenatal HIV testing (ANC-HTC)] were linked to records from a community cohort study using a probabilistic record linkage algorithm. Characteristics of linked users of each HTC service were compared to those of cohort participants who did not use the HTC service using logistic regression. Data from three cohort study rounds between 2003 and 2010 were used to assess trends in the proportion of persons testing at different service types. The adjusted odds ratios for HTC use among men with increasing numbers of sexual partners in the past year, and among HIV-positive men and women compared to HIV-negative men and women, were higher at WI-HTC than at CO-HTC and ANC-HTC. Among sero-survey participants, the largest numbers of HIV-positive men and women learned their status via CO-HTC. However, we are likely to have underestimated the numbers diagnosed at WI-HTC and ANC-HTC, due to low sensitivity of the probabilistic record linkage algorithm. Compared to CO-HTC or ANC-HTC, WI-HTC was most likely to attract HIV-positive men and women, and to attract men with greater numbers of sexual partners. Further research should aim to optimise probabilistic record linkage techniques, and to investigate which types of HTC services most effectively link HIV-positive people to treatment services relative to the total cost per diagnosis made. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures into hydrochar and its soil and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a wet carbonization technique using subcritical water under autogenic pressure and temperatures. HTC process conditions are at the lower region of liquefaction process. HTC is also referred as wet pyrolysis or hydrous pyrolysis. HTC can convert wet feedstock biom...

  14. Utilization of HIV Testing and Counseling in Ghana: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV testing and counselling (HTC) is a gateway to all systems of AIDS-related care. This study examined national programme data to highlight gaps in HTC service utilization, regional differences and differential use of various HTC programs in Ghana in the period, 2007-2010. Analysis showed HTC increased rapidly across ...

  15. Home-based versus mobile clinic HIV testing and counseling in rural Lesotho: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Motlomelo, Masetsibi; Cerutti, Bernard; Pfeiffer, Karolin; Kamele, Mashaete; Hobbins, Michael A; Ehmer, Jochen

    2014-12-01

    The success of HIV programs relies on widely accessible HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services at health facilities as well as in the community. Home-based HTC (HB-HTC) is a popular community-based approach to reach persons who do not test at health facilities. Data comparing HB-HTC to other community-based HTC approaches are very limited. This trial compares HB-HTC to mobile clinic HTC (MC-HTC). The trial was powered to test the hypothesis of higher HTC uptake in HB-HTC campaigns than in MC-HTC campaigns. Twelve clusters were randomly allocated to HB-HTC or MC-HTC. The six clusters in the HB-HTC group received 30 1-d multi-disease campaigns (five villages per cluster) that delivered services by going door-to-door, whereas the six clusters in MC-HTC group received campaigns involving community gatherings in the 30 villages with subsequent service provision in mobile clinics. Time allocation and human resources were standardized and equal in both groups. All individuals accessing the campaigns with unknown HIV status or whose last HIV test was >12 wk ago and was negative were eligible. All outcomes were assessed at the individual level. Statistical analysis used multivariable logistic regression. Odds ratios and p-values were adjusted for gender, age, and cluster effect. Out of 3,197 participants from the 12 clusters, 2,563 (80.2%) were eligible (HB-HTC: 1,171; MC-HTC: 1,392). The results for the primary outcomes were as follows. Overall HTC uptake was higher in the HB-HTC group than in the MC-HTC group (92.5% versus 86.7%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.18-3.60; p = 0. 011). Among adolescents and adults ≥ 12 y, HTC uptake did not differ significantly between the two groups; however, in children HTC uptake was higher in the HB-HTC arm (87.5% versus 58.7%; aOR: 4.91; 95% CI: 2.41-10.0; pHTC, 114 (4.9%) tested HIV-positive, 39 (3.6%) in the HB-HTC arm and 75 (6.2%) in the MC-HTC arm (aOR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86; p = 0.002). Ten (25.6%) and 19 (25

  16. 76 FR 60867 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Commission Determination To Review-in-Part a Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... are Nokia Corporation of Espoo, Finland and Nokia, Inc. of Irving, Texas (collectively, ``Nokia... of Taiwan and HTC America, Inc. of Bellevue, Washington (collectively, ``HTC''). Nokia, RIM, and LG...

  17. Abbaukinetiken - und mechanismen von Lignin und Vanillin unter hydrothermalen Bedingungen

    OpenAIRE

    Curtze, Jan Henning

    2017-01-01

    Eine Methode zur energetischen Aufkonzentrierung von feuchten Abfallbiomassen ist die Hydrothermale Carbonisierung (HTC). Um technische HTC-Reaktoren rational auslegen zu können, sollte die Formalkinetik der vier Hauptkomponenten von Biomasse - Kohlenhydrate, Lignin, Fette/Öle und Proteine – bekannt sein. Des Weiteren spielt die Änderungskinetik des Feststoffes während der HTC eine wichtige Rolle. Der Fokus dieser Arbeit liegt auf der Untersuchung der HTC von Lignin, was ein hochkomplexes, ch...

  18. Awareness, willingness and use of Voluntary HIV testing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is the entry point to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services. HTC can be voluntary or mandatory. This study aimed to determine the awareness, willingness, and use of voluntary HTC (VHTC) services by students of the Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State Nigeria ...

  19. Cooperative Localization on Computationally Constrained Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    2.2 Android Powered HTC Hero ............................................................................8 2.3 Cooperative Localization...Worst Case Estimations for 0.254m, 2m, 4m, and 6m .................................. 71 x List of Tables Page Table 1 - HTC Hero Capabilities...strength (RSS), measurements and location fingerprinting. Section 2.2 provides information about the HTC Hero provided for the experiment as well as

  20. Mobile Phones Coupled with Remote Sensors for Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    sensors collected was the Google Nexus One, made by HTC specifically for Google. It runs the Android 2.3.6 operating system, which was updated from...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 51 LIST OF REFERENCES [1] GSM Arena.com. HTC Google Nexus One. < http://www.gsmarena.com/htc_google_nexus_one

  1. Short Message Service (SMS) Command and Control (C2) Awareness in Android-based Smartphones Using Kernel-Level Auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    messages as they are sent from the baseband radio to the application processor. The design is successfully implemented on an HTC Nexus One Android...Device: HTC Nexus One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.4.2 Development Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.4.3 Deploying... HTC Nexus One with Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.6 Anritsu MD8470 Signal Analyzer with Wireless Network Simulator

  2. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively, applicants... transfer to MRC (but will continue to operate) a segment of railroad line, and HTC, a Delaware corporation... Terminal Company (CTC). HTC, a noncarrier holding company, is the parent company of wholly owned...

  3. Computer-assisted 3D design software for teaching neuro-ophthalmology of the oculomotor system and training new retinal surgery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glittenberg, Carl; Binder, Susanne

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To create a more effective method of demonstrating complex subject matter in ophthalmology with the use of high end, 3-D, computer aided animation and interactive multimedia technologies. Specifically, to explore the possibilities of demonstrating the complex nature of the neuroophthalmological basics of the human oculomotor system in a clear and non confusing way, and to demonstrate new forms of retinal surgery in a manner that makes the procedures easier to understand for other retinal surgeons. Methods and Materials: Using Reflektions 4.3, Monzoom Pro 4.5, Cinema 4D XL 5.03, Cinema 4D XL 8 Studio Bundle, Mediator 4.0, Mediator Pro 5.03, Fujitsu-Siemens Pentium III and IV, Gericom Webgine laptop, M.G.I. Video Wave 1.0 and 5, Micrografix Picture Publisher 6.0 and 8, Amorphium 1.0, and Blobs for Windows, we created 3-D animations showing the origin, insertion, course, main direction of pull, and auxiliary direction of pull of the six extra-ocular eye muscles. We created 3-D animations that (a) show the intra-cranial path of the relevant oculomotor cranial nerves and which muscles are supplied by them, (b) show which muscles are active in each of the ten lines of sight, (c) demonstrate the various malfunctions of oculomotor systems, as well as (d) show the surgical techniques and the challenges in radial optic neurotomies and subretinal surgeries. Most of the 3-D animations were integrated in interactive multimedia teaching programs. Their effectiveness was compared to conventional teaching methods in a comparative study performed at the University of Vienna. We also performed a survey to examine the response of students being taught with the interactive programs. We are currently in the process of placing most of the animations in an interactive web site in order to make them freely available to everyone who is interested. Results: Although learning how to use complex 3-D computer animation and multimedia authoring software can be very time consuming and

  4. Comparison of color, anti-nutritional factors, minerals, phenolic profile and protein digestibility between hard-to-cook and easy-to-cook grains from different kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Naincy; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Thakur, Sheetal

    2017-03-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the differences among anti-nutritional factors in relation to mineral absorption and protein digestibility of Easy-to-cook (ETC) and Hard-to-cook (HTC) grains from different kidney bean (KB) accessions.HTC grains showed lower a* (redness to yellowness) and b* (greenness to blueness) values and L* value than ETC grains. HTC grains had significantly higher Ca and Zn and lower Cu, Mn and Fe than ETC grains. ETC and HTC grains showed significant variation in mineral, total phenolic content (TPC), tannin and phytic acid content. TPC and tannin content were significantly higher for HTC grains, on the contrary phytic acid content was lower than counterpart ETC grains. Protein and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) also varied significantly between HTC and ETC grains and was found to be lower for HTC grains. Majority of phenolic compounds (PCs) were present in bound state in both ETC and HTC grains. Moreover, HTC grains showed higher amount of chlorogenic acid and catechin content than ETC grains in bound form. ETC and HTC grains from dark color accessions showed higher catechin content.

  5. Removal of Malachite Green from water using hydrothermally carbonized pine needles

    KAUST Repository

    Hammud, Hassan Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization of pine needles (HTC-PN) and their oxidized-activated form HTC-APN are prepared and applied for the adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) in aqueous solution. The HTC materials were characterized by thermal and TEM analysis. Adsorbent dose, initial concentration of MG, contact time, temperature and pH effect on MG adsorption onto the HTC materials were studied. The adsorption equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model and the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order models for both HTC-PN and HTC-APN. The maximum capacity predicted by the Langmuir nonlinear model is 52.91 and 97.08 mg g-1 for uptake of MG by HTC-PN and HTC-APN, respectively, at 30 °C. Thermodynamic investigations showed that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Results suggest HTC-APN can be used as a low-cost adsorbent for MG removal from industrial wastewater. Yoon-Nelson is the best model with a column capacity of 38.3 mg g-1 for the adsorption of MG onto HTC-APN. This journal is

  6. Natural air convection for cooling of particle accelerator electromagnets: case studies at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Moreira, Mariana

    Cooling by natural convection is investigated on two air-cooled corrector magnets at CERN. The heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for each magnet is estimated analytically using established empirical correlations for certain geometries. The HTC is also estimated numerically with three-dimensional steady-state finite element simulations. Air convection around the respective coils as well as heat conduction inside the coils are modelled. Different formulas for the HTC are tested in the post-processing of the simulation results. The HTC for each magnet is then determined experimentally by measuring surface temperatures on the coils through time at constant currents. A method to extract the HTC from these temperature curves is developed, in which the curves are fitted to a function that is derived from a thermodynamical analysis of the heating process. Some plausible ranges for the HTC for each magnet for different currents are obtained. The results of the different estimation methods are compared with the experimen...

  7. Human-tiger conflict: a review and call for comprehensive plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, John M

    2010-12-01

    Human-tiger (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) conflicts (HTC), manifested primarily as attacks on people and domestic animals, exacerbate at least 2 major threats to tigers: (i) conflicts often result in mortality or removal of tigers from the wild; and (ii) they result in negative attitudes towards tigers by local people, thereby reducing support for tiger conservation. Although HTC has decreased over the past century, it will likely increase if current and proposed conservation initiatives to double tiger populations are successful. Increased HTC could undermine successful conservation initiatives if proactive steps are not taken to reduce HTC. The present paper provides a review of the impacts of HTC and the measures taken to reduce it in ways that reduce negative impacts on both humans and tigers, and stresses the need for development and implementation of comprehensive plans to reduce HTC. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in saline solution: sequestration of nutrients on carbonaceous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Nover; Benjamin Wirth; Charles J Coronella; M Toufiq Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this study, feasibility of selected nutrient sequestration during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was tested for three different HTC temperatures (180, 230, and 300 °C). To study the nutrient sequestration in solid from liquid solution, sugar and salt solutions were chosen as HTC feedstock. Glucose was used as carbohydrate source and various salts e.g., ammonium hydrophosphate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, and anhydrous ferric chloride were used as source of nitrogen and phospho...

  9. Hydrothermal carbonization. CO{sub 2}-neutral production of fuel by hydrothermal carbonization; Hydrothermale Carbonisierung. Gewinnung CO{sub 2}-neutraler Brennstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Klaus M. [PEB Projekt-Entwicklungs- und Beteiligungsgesellschaft mbH, Lingen (Germany); Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Poppe, Klaus W. [RWE-Konzern Wessling, Essen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is the time-lapse process that mimics natural coal formation from biomass. In more than 250 experiments at temperatures of 170 to 280 C and pressures of 8 to 65 bar, we determined reaction parameters for HTC of wood and algae. By HTC of biomass, bound CO{sub 2} can be converted to a stable storage form of carbon or alternatively to a CO{sub 2}-neutral fuel.

  10. Effects of hydrolysis and carbonization reactions on hydrochar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakkaew, K; Koottatep, T; Polprasert, C

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process which converts wet biomass into hydrochar. In this study, a low-energy HTC process named "Two-stage HTC" comprising of hydrolysis and carbonization stages using faecal sludge as feedstock was developed and optimized. The experimental results indicated the optimum conditions of the two-stage HTC to be; hydrolysis temperature of 170 °C, hydrolysis reaction time of 155 min, carbonization temperature of 215 °C, and carbonization reaction time of 100 min. The hydrolysis reaction time and carbonization temperature had a statistically significant effect on energy content of the produced hydrochar. Energy input of the two-stage HTC was about 25% less than conventional HTC. Energy efficiency of the two-stage HTC for treating faecal sludge was higher than that of conventional HTC and other thermal conversion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification. The two-stage HTC could be considered as a potential technology for treating FS and producing hydrochar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparative Study of Normal and Hard-to-Cook Brazilian Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): Ultrastructural and Histochemical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Elisabeth; LAJOLO, Franco M.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1993-01-01

    Legume seeds stored under high temperature and humidity develop a texture defect known as hard-to-cook (HTC). Structural and histochemical characteristics of normal and HTC beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were studied after storing them at 5°C/40% relative humidity (RH) or 40°C/75% RH for 60 days. Cotyledonary cells of HTC beans showed contraction of the cell content, whereas the cytoplasm of normal seeds occupied the total cell volume. Cell walls of HTC beans appear more compact, showing smaller ...

  12. Enhancing HIV status disclosure and partners' testing through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Tanzania HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC) is being implemented through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), provider initiated counselling and testing (PITC) and work place counselling and testing (HTC). Within these programmes, HIV status disclosure is emphasized. However, among persons who ...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanospheres obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of wood-derived and other saccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiangu Yan; Rui Li; Hossein Toghiani; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanospheres were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of four different carbon sources: xylose, glucose, sucrose, and pine wood derived saccharides. The obtained carbon nanospheres were characterized for particle morphology and size, and surface functional groups. Morphological and structural differences among these saccharides derived HTC carbons...

  14. Effects of gamma-irradiation on cotyledon cell separation and pectin solubilisation in hard-to-cook cowpeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jombo, Talknice Z; Minnaar, Amanda; Taylor, John Rn

    2017-08-31

    Cowpeas stored under high temperature and humidity develop the hard-to-cook defect (HTC). This defect greatly increases cooking times and energy costs. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the HTC defect development, the effects of gamma-irradiation on cotyledon cellular structure and pectin solubility in two cowpea cultivars with different susceptibility to HTC defect were investigated. Gamma-irradiation decreased cotyledon cell wall thickness, increased cell size, and intercellular spaces in both cowpea cultivars and reduced cooking time of the less HTC susceptible cultivar. However, it did not reverse the HTC defect in the susceptible cultivar. Gamma-irradiation also increased the levels of cold water- and hot water-soluble pectin. The irradiation effects were thus mainly due to hydrolysis of pectin fractions in the cell walls. However, chelator-soluble pectin (CSP) solubility was not affected. As the cell wall changes brought about by gamma-irradiation were associated with pectin solubilisation, this supports the phytate-phytase-pectin theory as a major cause of the HTC defect. However, the non-reversal of the defect in HTC susceptible cowpeas and the absence of an effect on CSP indicate that other mechanisms are involved in HTC defect development in cowpeas, possibly the formation of alkali-soluble, ester bonded pectins. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Comparative approach to capture bacterial diversity in coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Na, Hyunsoo; Kim, Ok-Sun; Yoon, Suk-hwan

    2011-01-01

    (HTC) methods were applied. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plate-washing clones formed a cluster devoid of any previously cultured representatives within the family Rhodobacteraceae. One HTC isolate (SF293) fell into the OM182 clade, which was not recovered by other culturing methods described...

  16. Drug Release Mechanism of Slightly Soluble Drug from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theophylline) from nanocomposite of zeolite (ZLT) or hydrotalcite (HTC) used as drug carrier. Methods: Nanocomposite was prepared with dispersion of either ZLT or HTC as drug carrier and theophylline (THP) as drug in drug to clay ratios of 1:2 ...

  17. Stigmatising attitudes among people offered home-based HIV testing and counselling in Blantyre, Malawi: construction and analysis of a stigma scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter MacPherson

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS related stigma is a major barrier to uptake of HIV testing and counselling (HTC. We assessed the extent of stigmatising attitudes expressed by participants offered community-based HTC, and their anticipated stigma from others to assess relationship with HIV test uptake. From these data, we constructed a brief stigma scale for use around the time of HIV testing.Adult members of 60 households in urban Blantyre, Malawi, were selected using population-weighted random cluster sampling and offered HTC with the option to self-test before confirmatory HTC. Prior to HTC a 15-item HIV stigma questionnaire was administered. We used association testing and principal components analysis (PCA to construct a scale measure of stigma. Of 226 adults invited to participate, 216 (95.6% completed questionnaires and 198/216 (91.7% opted to undergo HTC (all self-tested. Stigmatising attitudes were uncommon, but anticipated stigma was common, especially fearing verbal abuse (22% or being abandoned by their partner (11%. Three questions showed little association or consistency with the remaining 12 stigma questions and were not included in the final scale. For the 12-question final scale, Cronbach's alpha was 0.75. Level of stigma was not associated with previously having tested for HIV (p = 0.318 or agreeing to HTC (p = 0.379, but was associated with expressed worry about being or becoming HIV infected (p = 0.003.Anticipated stigma prior to HTC was common among both men and women. However, the high uptake of HTC suggests that this did not translate into reluctance to accept community-based testing. We constructed a brief scale to measure stigma at the time of HIV testing that could rapidly identify individuals requiring additional support following diagnosis and monitor the impact of increasing availability of community-based HTC on prevalence of stigma.

  18. Active targeted HIV testing and linkage to care among men who have sex with men attending a gay sauna in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2017-03-01

    Existing data on the feasibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and counseling (HTC) and linkage to care among men who have sex with men (MSM) in hotspots are currently limited. A prospective study on active targeted HTC and linkage to care among MSM (≥18 years old) was conducted at a gay sauna in Thailand from November 2013 to October 2015. HIV risks and risk perception were evaluated through an anonymous survey. HIV testing with result notification and care appointment arrangement were provided on-site. Of the 358 participants; median age was 30 years; 206/358(58%) were at high risk for HIV acquisition; 148/358(41%) accepted HTC, all of whom either had prior negative HIV tests [98/148 (66%)] or had not known their HIV status [50/148 (34%)]. The three most common reasons for declining HTC were prior HIV testing within 6 months (48%), not ready (19%) and perceiving self as no risk (11%). Of the 262 moderate- and high-risk participants, 172 (66%) had false perception of low HIV risk which was significantly associated with declining HTC. Among the 148 participants undergoing HTC, 25 (17%) were HIV-infected. Having false perception of low risk (P = 0.004) and age HTC and facilitating care establishment was feasible among MSM attending the gay sauna but required strategies to improve accuracy of HIV-risk perception and linkage to care.

  19. Towards universal voluntary HIV testing and counselling: a systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Ford, Nathan; Bachanas, Pamela J; Wong, Vincent J; Rajan, Jay S; Saltzman, Alex K; Ajose, Olawale; Fakoya, Ade O; Granich, Reuben M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Baggaley, Rachel C

    2013-08-01

    Effective national and global HIV responses require a significant expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) to expand access to prevention and care. Facility-based HTC, while essential, is unlikely to meet national and global targets on its own. This article systematically reviews the evidence for community-based HTC. PubMed was searched on 4 March 2013, clinical trial registries were searched on 3 September 2012, and Embase and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus were searched on 10 April 2012 for studies including community-based HTC (i.e., HTC outside of health facilities). Randomised controlled trials, and observational studies were eligible if they included a community-based testing approach and reported one or more of the following outcomes: uptake, proportion receiving their first HIV test, CD4 value at diagnosis, linkage to care, HIV positivity rate, HTC coverage, HIV incidence, or cost per person tested (outcomes are defined fully in the text). The following community-based HTC approaches were reviewed: (1) door-to-door testing (systematically offering HTC to homes in a catchment area), (2) mobile testing for the general population (offering HTC via a mobile HTC service), (3) index testing (offering HTC to household members of people with HIV and persons who may have been exposed to HIV), (4) mobile testing for men who have sex with men, (5) mobile testing for people who inject drugs, (6) mobile testing for female sex workers, (7) mobile testing for adolescents, (8) self-testing, (9) workplace HTC, (10) church-based HTC, and (11) school-based HTC. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration's "risk of bias" tool were used to assess the risk of bias in studies with a comparator arm included in pooled estimates. 117 studies, including 864,651 participants completing HTC, met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of people offered community-based HTC who accepted HTC was as follows: index testing, 88% of

  20. Towards universal voluntary HIV testing and counselling: a systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh B Suthar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective national and global HIV responses require a significant expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC to expand access to prevention and care. Facility-based HTC, while essential, is unlikely to meet national and global targets on its own. This article systematically reviews the evidence for community-based HTC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PubMed was searched on 4 March 2013, clinical trial registries were searched on 3 September 2012, and Embase and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus were searched on 10 April 2012 for studies including community-based HTC (i.e., HTC outside of health facilities. Randomised controlled trials, and observational studies were eligible if they included a community-based testing approach and reported one or more of the following outcomes: uptake, proportion receiving their first HIV test, CD4 value at diagnosis, linkage to care, HIV positivity rate, HTC coverage, HIV incidence, or cost per person tested (outcomes are defined fully in the text. The following community-based HTC approaches were reviewed: (1 door-to-door testing (systematically offering HTC to homes in a catchment area, (2 mobile testing for the general population (offering HTC via a mobile HTC service, (3 index testing (offering HTC to household members of people with HIV and persons who may have been exposed to HIV, (4 mobile testing for men who have sex with men, (5 mobile testing for people who inject drugs, (6 mobile testing for female sex workers, (7 mobile testing for adolescents, (8 self-testing, (9 workplace HTC, (10 church-based HTC, and (11 school-based HTC. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration's "risk of bias" tool were used to assess the risk of bias in studies with a comparator arm included in pooled estimates. 117 studies, including 864,651 participants completing HTC, met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of people offered community-based HTC who accepted HTC

  1. Gaseous byproducts from high-temperature thermal conversion elemental analysis of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds with considerations for δ2H and δ18O analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsinger, Glendon B; Tipple, Christopher A; Stern, Libby A

    2013-07-30

    High-temperature, conversion-reduction (HTC) systems convert hydrogen and oxygen in materials into H2 and CO for δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. HTC of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing materials produces unintended byproduct gases that could affect isotope analyses by: (1) allowing isotope exchange reactions downstream of the HTC reactor, (2) creating isobaric or co-elution interferences, and (3) causing deterioration of the chromatography. This study characterizes these HTC byproducts. A HTC system (ThermoFinnigan TC/EA) was directly connected to a gas chromatograph/quadrupole mass spectrometer in scan mode (m/z 8 to 88) to identify the volatile products generated by HTC at conversion temperatures of 1350 °C and 1450 °C for a range of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing solids [keratin powder, horse hair, caffeine, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea, and three nitrated organic explosives (PETN, RDX, and TNT)]. The prominent HTC byproduct gases include carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, methane, acetylene, and water for all nitrogen-bearing compounds, as well as carbon disulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide for sulfur-bearing compounds. The 1450 °C reactor temperature reduced the abundance of most byproduct gases, but increased the significant byproduct, hydrogen cyanide. Inclusion of a post-reactor chemical trap containing Ascarite II and Sicapent, in series, eliminated the majority of byproducts. This study identified numerous gaseous HTC byproducts. The potential adverse effects of these gases on isotope ratio analyses are unknown but may be mitigated by higher HTC reactor temperatures and purifying the products with a purge-and-trap system or with chemical traps. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Hydrothermal Carbon-Mediated Fenton-Like Reaction Mechanism in the Degradation of Alachlor: Direct Electron Transfer from Hydrothermal Carbon to Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yaxin; Zhang, Lizhi; An, Taicheng

    2017-05-24

    As Fenton systems suffer from the undesirable Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle, great efforts were made to realize the effective reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). The effects of hydrothermal carbon (HTC) on the Fe(III)/H2O2 Fenton-like reaction and the subsequent degradation of alachlor in water was systematically investigated, and the results indicated that HTC could enhance alachlor degradation in Fe(III)/H2O2 by promoting the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle via electron transfer from HTC to Fe(III) ions. The apparent alachlor degradation rate constant in the HTC-G/Fe(III)/H2O2 system (7.02 × 10(-2) min(-1)) was about 3 times higher than that in the Fe(III)/H2O2 system (2.25 × 10(-2) min(-1)). The electron spin resonance spectra analysis revealed that HTC consists of abundant carbon-centered persistent free radicals to act as the electron donor. Meanwhile, the hydroxyl groups on the surface of HTC also played an important role in the enhanced alachlor degradation because the decrease in the surface hydroxyl groups on HTC significantly decreased the degradation of alachlor. On the basis of these results, an Fe(III) complex with surface hydroxyl groups on HTC was proposed to favor the electron transfer from the hydroxyl groups to Fe(III), and then, the simultaneously produced Fe(II) could accelerate the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 to facilitate alachlor degradation. These findings shed new light on the possible roles of carbon materials in a natural aquatic environment and provide a new pathway for environmental pollutant control and remediation of organic contaminants by HTC.

  3. Uptake contexts and perceived impacts of HIV testing and counselling among adults in East and Southern Africa: A meta-ethnographic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, T Charles; Lora, Wezzie; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    HIV testing and counselling (HTC) interventions are key to controlling the HIV epidemic in East and Southern Africa where HTC is primarily delivered through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), provider initiated testing and counselling (PITC), and home-based counselling and testing (HBVCT). Decision making processes around uptake of HTC models must be taken into account when designing new interventions. Counselling in HTC aims to reduce post-test risk taking behaviour and to link individuals to care but its efficacy is unclear. This meta-ethnography aims to understand the contexts of HTC uptake in East and Southern Africa and to analyse the perceived impacts of counselling-based interventions in relation to sexual behaviour and linkage to care. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies investigating HTC in East and Southern Africa from 2003 -April 2014. The search and additional snowballing identified 20 studies that fit our selection criteria. These studies were synthesised through a thematic framework analysis. Twenty qualitative and mixed-methods studies examining impacts of HTC models in East and Southern Africa were meta-synthesised. VCT decisions were made individually while HBVCT decisions were located in family and community units. PITC was associated with coercion from healthcare providers. Low quality counselling components and multiple-intersecting barriers faced by individuals mean that counselling in HTC was not perceived to be effective in reducing post-test risk behaviour and had limited perceived effect in facilitating linkage to care. HBVCT is associated with minimal stigma and should be considered as an area of priority. Counselling components in HTC interventions were effective in transmitting information about HIV and sexual risk, but were perceived as ineffective in addressing the broader personal circumstances preventing sexual behaviour change and modulating access to care.

  4. Uptake of HIV testing and counseling, risk perception and linkage to HIV care among Thai university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Khawcharoenporn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing and counseling (HTC with linkage to care after known infection are key components for HIV transmission prevention. This study was conducted to assess HTC uptake, HIV risk perception and linkage to care among Thai university students. Methods An outreach HTC program was conducted in a large public university in Thailand from January 2013 to December 2014. The program consisted of brief HIV knowledge assessment, free HTC, HIV risk assessment and education provided by the healthcare personnel. Students were categorized into low, moderate and high-risk groups according to the pre-defined HIV risk characteristics. Results One-thousand-eight-hundred-one students participated in the program, 494 (27 % underwent HTC. Independent characteristics associated with no HTC uptake included female sex (P < 0.001, lower HIV knowledge score (P < 0.001, younger age (P < 0.001 and students from non-health science faculties (P = 0.02. Among the 494 students undergoing HTC, 141 (29 % were categorized into moderate or high-risk group, of whom 45/141 (32 % had false perception of low HIV risk. Being heterosexual was independently associated with false perception of low HIV risk (P = 0.04. The rate of new HIV infection diagnosis was 4/494 (0.8 %. Of these 4 HIV-infected students, 3 (75 % were men who have sex with men and only 2 of the 4 students (50 % showed up for HIV continuity care. Conclusions An outreach HIV prevention program with HTC was feasible and beneficial in detecting HIV risk and infection among the university students. However, interventions to improve HTC uptake, HIV risk perception and linkage to care are needed.

  5. An Analytical Method for Determining the Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient Between Flowing Fluid and Rock Fracture Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; He, Yuanyuan; Hu, Shaobin; Li, Xiaochun

    2017-07-01

    The convective heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is a useful indicator that characterizes the convective heat transfer properties between flowing fluid and hot dry rock. An analytical method is developed to explore a more realistic formula for the HTC. First, a heat transfer model is described that can be used to determine the general expression of the HTC. As one of the novel elements, the new model can consider an arbitrary function of temperature distribution on the fracture wall along the direction of the rock radius. The resulting Dirichlet problem of the Laplace equation on a semi-disk is successfully solved with the Green's function method. Four specific formulas for the HTC are derived and compared by assuming the temperature distributions along the radius of the fracture wall to be zeroth-, first-, second-, and third-order polynomials. Comparative verification of the four specific formulas based on the test data shows that the formula A corresponding to the zeroth-order polynomial always predicts stable HTC values. At low flow rates, the four formulas predict similar values of HTC, but at higher flow rates, formulas B and D, respectively, corresponding to the first- and third-order polynomials, predict either too large or too small values of the HTC, while formula C, corresponding to the second-order polynomial, predicts relatively acceptable HTC values. However, we cannot tell which one is the more rational formula between formulas A and C due to the limited information measured. One of the clear advantages of formula C is that it can avoid the drawbacks of the discontinuity of temperature and the singular integral of HTC at the points (± R, 0). Further experimental work to measure the actual temperature distribution of water in the fracture will be of great value. It is also found that the absorbed heat of the fluid, Q, has a significant impact on the prediction results of the HTC. The temperatures at the inlet and the outlet used for Q should be

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization of typical components of municipal solid waste for deriving hydrochars and their combustion behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yousheng; Ma, Xiaoqian; Peng, Xiaowei; Yu, Zhaosheng

    2017-11-01

    In this work, five typical components were employed as representative pseudo-components to indirectly complete previous established simulation system during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of municipal solid waste. The fuel characteristics and combustion behavior of HTC-derived hydrochars were evaluated. Results clearly illustrated that the energy ranks of hydrochars were upgraded after HTC. For paper and wood, superior combustion performances of their hydrochars could achieve under suitable conditions. While for food, none positive enrichments on combustion loss rate were observed for hydrochars due to its high solubilization and decomposition under hot compressed water. It was noteworthy that a new weight loss peak was detected for paper and food, suggesting that new compounds were formed. For rubber, the HTC process made the properties of styrene butadiene rubber more close to natural rubber. Therefore, the first peak of hydrochars became significantly intense. While for plastic, only physical changes of polypropylene and polyethylene were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavol Kaleja; Mária Kozlovská

    2017-01-01

    ...). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing...

  8. Projection of the rural and urban human thermal comfort in the Netherlands for 2050

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molenaar, R.E; Heusinkveld, B.G; Steeneveld, G.J

    2016-01-01

    .... The projected climate change may raise this thermal discomfort in the future. To implement measures to prevent adverse health conditions, robust estimates of the future human thermal comfort (HTC) are required...

  9. 78 FR 75942 - Certain Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... ordinary skill in the art, reading the phrase ``different radio communications systems'' in the context of... asserting that the Commission should consider in its public interest analysis the fact that HTC's accused...

  10. Green-Roof Effects on Neighborhood Microclimate and Human Thermal Sensation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilliana LH Peng; C Y Jim

    2013-01-01

    .... Previous studies have identified green-roof benefits in cooling and energy-conservation at the building scale, with limited exploration of the wider influence on neighborhood microclimate and human thermal comfort (HTC...

  11. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube-Supported Pd Catalyst for Improved Electrocatalytic Performance toward Ethanol Electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Zhang, Xinyuan; Luo, Zhiyong; Tang, Dian; Chen, Changxin; Zhang, Teng; Xie, Zailai

    2017-07-01

    In this study, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was applied for surface functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the presence of glucose and urea. The HTC process allowed the deposition of thin nitrogen-doped carbon layers on the surface of the CNTs. By controlling the ratio of glucose to urea, nitrogen contents of up to 1.7 wt% were achieved. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube-supported Pd catalysts exhibited superior electrochemical activity for ethanol oxidation relative to the pristine CNTs. Importantly, a 1.5-fold increase in the specific activity was observed for the Pd/HTC-N1.67%CNTs relative to the catalyst without nitrogen doping (Pd/HTC-CNTs). Further experiments indicated that the introduction of nitrogen species on the surface of the CNTs improved the Pd(0) loading and increased the binding energy.

  12. Hiina mänguasjavabrikud vallutavad mobiilimaailma / Kaido Einama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einama, Kaido, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade visiidist Hiina moodsa suurlinna Shanghai elektroonikakauplustesse, kus puututi kokku tuntud kaubamärkide Nokia, Apple ning HTC toodete koopiatega - Nokla, HiPhone, MTC ja ZTC telefonidega. Lisa: Shanghai poodleja spikker

  13. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Boparai, A.S.; Bass, D.A.

    1992-12-01

    The ACL activities covered IFR fuel reprocessing, corium-concrete interactions, environmental samples, wastes, WIPP support, Advanced Photon Source, H-Tc superconductors, EBWR vessel, soils, illegal drug detection, quality control, etc.

  14. Impact of hydrochar application on soil nutrient dynamics and plant availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargmann, I.; Greef, J. M.; Kücke, M.

    2012-04-01

    In order to investigate potentials for the use of HTC-products (hydrochar) in agriculture, the influence of soil application of different hydrochars on soil nutrient dynamics as well as on plant growth and plant nutrient uptake was determined. Hydrochars were produced from sugar beet pulps and brewer's grains by carbonization at 190°C for 4 respectively 12 hours each. Incubation experiments with two soil types showed an increase of soil pH by 0.5 to 2.5 pH units, depending on the amount of hydrochar added and the process conditions (i.e. addition of calcium carbonate during production). The application of HTC to soil decreased the plant available nitrogen to almost zero in the first week after HTC-addition, followed by a slow re-release of nitrate in the following weeks. A similar immobilization of soluble phosphate was observed for one soil type, although to a lower extent. The plant availability of phosphorus in hydrochars and biochars is subject of current trials. Furthermore it is actually investigated to what extend the N immobilization is related to soil microbial activity. Germination tests with barley showed toxic effects of hydrochar application on germination, both by direct contact of grains with HTC as well as by release of gaseous compounds from HTC. Effects differ significantly for different parent materials and pretreatments (washing, drying, storage). The influence of HTC-addition to soil on plant growth and nutrient uptake was investigated in pot experiments with various crop species (barley, phaseolus bean, leek), comparing HTC from different parent materials and process parameters such as carbonization time. With increasing addition of HTC, the N availability was decreased and N contents in the plant were significantly lower compared with the untreated control. The plant growth response was different for each tested crop. On barley, leaf tip necroses were observed, but not on phaseolus. Biomass yield of barley and beans was generally increased

  15. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experime...

  16. Methadone Maintenance Treatment Promotes Referral and Uptake of HIV Testing and Counselling Services amongst Drug Users and Their Partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT reduces HIV risk behaviors and improves access to HIV-related services among drug users. In this study, we assessed the uptake and willingness of MMT patients to refer HIV testing and counseling (HTC service to their sexual partners and relatives.Health status, HIV-related risk behaviors, and HTC uptake and referrals of 1,016 MMT patients in Hanoi and Nam Dinh were investigated. Willingness to pay (WTP for HTC was elicited using a contingent valuation technique. Interval and logistic regression models were employed to determine associated factors.Most of the patients (94.2% had received HTC, 6.6 times on average. The proportion of respondents willing to refer their partners, their relatives and to be voluntary peer educators was 45.7%, 35.3%, and 33.3%, respectively. Attending MMT integrated with HTC was a facilitative factor for HTC uptake, greater WTP, and volunteering as peer educators. Older age, higher education and income, and HIV positive status were positively related to willingness to refer partners or relatives, while having health problems (mobility, usual care, pain/discomfort was associated with lower likelihood of referring others or being a volunteer. Over 90% patients were willing to pay an average of US $17.9 for HTC service.The results highlighted the potential role of MMT patients as referrers to HTC and voluntary peer educators. Integrating HIV testing with MMT services and applying users' fee are potential strategies to mobilize resources and encourage HIV testing among MMT patients and their partners.

  17. Estimating the impact of universal antiretroviral therapy for HIV serodiscordant couples through home HIV testing: insights from mathematical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah T Roberts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretroviral therapy (ART prevents HIV transmission within HIV serodiscordant couples (SDCs, but slow implementation and low uptake has limited its impact on population-level HIV incidence. Home HIV testing and counselling (HTC campaigns could increase ART uptake among SDCs by incorporating couples’ testing and ART referral. We estimated the reduction in adult HIV incidence achieved by incorporating universal ART for SDCs into home HTC campaigns in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa, and southwestern (SW Uganda. Methods: We constructed dynamic, stochastic, agent-based network models for each region. We compared adult HIV incidence after 10 years under three scenarios: (1 “Current Practice,” (2 “Home HTC” with linkage to ART for eligible persons (CD4 <350 and (3 “ART for SDCs” regardless of CD4, delivered alongside home HTC. Results: ART for SDCs reduced HIV incidence by 38% versus Home HTC: from 1.12 (95% CI: 0.98–1.26 to 0.68 (0.54–0.82 cases per 100 person-years (py in KZN, and from 0.56 (0.50–0.62 to 0.35 (0.30–0.39 cases per 100 py in SW Uganda. A quarter of incident HIV infections were averted over 10 years, and the proportion of virally suppressed HIV-positive persons increased approximately 15%. Conclusions: Using home HTC to identify SDCs and deliver universal ART could avert substantially more new HIV infections than home HTC alone, with a smaller number needed to treat to prevent new HIV infections. Scale-up of home HTC will not diminish the effectiveness of targeting SDCs for treatment. Increasing rates of couples’ testing, disclosure, and linkage to care is an efficient way to increase the impact of home HTC interventions on HIV incidence.

  18. Nutrient retention and fate of iron-binding phenolic compounds during the injera processing of tannin-free and high-tannin sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Yohannes; Retta, Negussie; Baye, Kaleab

    2016-03-30

    Traits such as bird-, insect- and mould-resistance are the focus in selecting improved sorghum varieties, but this often increases the tannin content, which can negatively affect iron bioavailability. The grain characteristics, nutrient retention, and the fate of iron-binding polyphenols (IBPs) during injera processing, an Ethiopian traditional fermented pancake, were investigated using agriculturally improved tannin-free (TFC) and high-tannin (HTC) sorghum cultivars. The HTC had significantly higher IBP contents than the TFC (P tannin (12-35%) losses. Sourdough fermentation reduced the IBP and tannin concentrations in HTC, but had no effect on the IBP concentrations in TFC. The modified injera processing that included pre-soaking resulted in the highest IBP reductions (galloyl 73% and catechol 71%). Nutrient retention in HTC and TFC processing was different. Including a pre-soaking step during injera processing of HTC could counter the negative effects of IBP on iron absorption, while benefiting from the agronomic features of HTC. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Trends in clinical management of women with von Willebrand disease: a survey of 75 women enrolled in haemophilia treatment centres in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtava, A; Crudder, S; Dilley, A; Lally, C; Evatt, B

    2004-03-01

    To assess the management of women with von Willebrand disease( vWD) in an Heamophilia Treatment Center (HTC) setting. A total of 75 women with vWd who were registered in HTCs in the United States participated in this study. A telephone interview elicited information about symptoms pertaining to bleeding disorders, diagnostic issues, referral patterns, treatment modalities before and after the enrollment in the HTC, HTC services provided, and satisfaction with care in the HTC. Menorrhagia was the most commonly reported symptom (84%). The average time from the first symptom until clinician recognition was 16 years (range 0-39). In HTC, DDAVP was the most commonly used drug (31%). Of the 75 women, 71 reported a strong positive opinion and satisfaction about their care in the HTCs. Women with VWD were typically diagnosed with the condition well into adulthood, in spite of the fact that majority of them experienced several bleeding symptoms beginning in early childhood. In general an HTC setting is appropriate for management of women with bleeding disorders. Diagnosis, treatment and education provided in the HTCs were viewed positively by those surveyed.

  20. SPACE Code Assessment for FLECHT Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyoung Kyoun; Min, Ji Hong; Park, Chan Eok; Park, Seok Jeong; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    According to 10 CFR 50 Appendix K, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) performance evaluation model during LBLOCA should be based on the data of FLECHT test. Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and Carryout Rate Fraction (CRF) during reflood period of LBLOCA should be conservative. To develop Mass and Energy Release (MER) methodology using Safety and Performance Analysis CodE (SPACE), FLECHT test results were compared to the results calculated by SPACE. FLECHT test facility is modeled to compare the reflood HTC and CRF using SPACE. Sensitivity analysis is performed with various options for HTC correlation. Based on this result, it is concluded that the reflood HTC and CRF calculated with COBRA-TF correlation during LBLOCA meet the requirement of 10 CFR 50 Appendix K. In this study, the analysis results using SPACE predicts heat transfer phenomena of FLECHT test reasonably and conservatively. Reflood HTC for the test number of 0690, 3541 and 4225 are conservative in the reference case. In case of 6948 HTC using COBRATF is conservative to calculate film boiling region. All of analysis results for CRF have sufficient conservatism. Based on these results, it is possible to apply with COBRA-TF correlation to develop MER methodology to analyze LBLOCA using SPACE.

  1. Removal of Dissolved Silica using Calcinated Hydrotalcite in Real-life Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasan, Koroush [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krumhansl, James L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sasan, Koroush [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sasan, Koroush [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Water shortages are a growing global problem. Reclamation of industrial and municipal wastewater will be necessary in order to mitigate water scarcity. However, many operational challenges, such as silica scaling, prevent large scale water reuse. Previously, our team at Sandia has demonstrated the use of selective ion exchange materials, such as calcinated hydrotalcite (HTC, (Mg 6 Al 2 (OH) 16 (CO 3 )*4H 2 O)), for the low cost removal of silica from synthetic cooling tower water. However, it is not currently know if calcinated HTC has similar capabilities in realistic applications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of calcinated HTC to remove silica from real cooling tower water. This was investigated under both batch and continuous conditions, and in the presence of competing ions. It was determined that calcinated HTC behaved similarly in real and synthetic cooling tower water; the HTC is highly selective for the silica even in the presence of competing cations. Therefore, the data concludes that calcinated HTC is a viable anti-scaling pretreatment for the reuse of industrial wastewaters.

  2. Validation of GC-IRMS techniques for δ(13)C and δ(2)H CSIA of organophosphorus compounds and their potential for studying the mode of hydrolysis in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Kümmel, Steffen; Richnow, Hans H

    2017-04-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is among the most promising tools for studying the fate of organic pollutants in the environment. However, the feasibility of multidimensional CSIA was limited by the availability of a robust method for precise isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing organic compounds. We developed a method for δ (13)C and δ (2)H analysis of eight organophosphorus compounds (OPs) with different chemical properties. In particular, we aimed to compare high-temperature conversion (HTC) and chromium-based HTC (Cr/HTC) units to explore the limitations of hydrogen isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing compounds. Analysis of the amount dependency of the isotope values (linearity analysis) of OPs indicated that the formation of HCl was a significant isotope fractionation process leading to inaccurate δ (2)H analysis in HTC. In the case of nonchlorinated OPs, by-product formation of HCN, H2S, or PH3 in HTC was observed but did not affect the dynamic range of reproducible isotope values above the limit of detection. No hydrogen-containing by-products were found in the Cr/HTC process by use of ion trap mass spectrometry analysis. The accuracy of gas chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry was validated in comparison with elemental analyzer - isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Dual-isotope fractionation yielded Λ values of 0 ± 0 at pH 7, 7 ± 1 at pH 9, and 30 ± 6 at pH 12, indicating the potential of 2D CSIA to characterize the hydrolysis mechanisms of OPs. This is the first report on the combination of δ (2)H and δ (13)C isotope analysis of OPs, and this is the first study providing a systematic evaluation of HTC and Cr/HTC for hydrogen isotope analysis using OPs as target compounds. Graphical Abstract Comparison of δ(2)H measurement of non-chlorinated and chlorinated OPs via GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS and GC-HTC-IRMS system.

  3. Detailed analysis of seed coat and cotyledon reveals molecular understanding of the hard-to-cook defect of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jianyong; Njoroge, Daniel M; Sila, Daniel N; Kinyanjui, Peter K; Christiaens, Stefanie; Bi, Jinfeng; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2016-11-01

    The hard-to-cook (HTC) defect in legumes is characterized by the inability of cotyledons to soften during the cooking process. Changes in the non-starch polysaccharides of common bean seed coat and cotyledon were studied before and after development of the HTC defect induced by storage at 35°C and 75% humidity for 8months. Distinct differences in the yields of alcohol insoluble residues, degree of methoxylation (DM), sugar composition, and molar mass distribution of non-starch polysaccharides were found between the seeds coat and cotyledons. The non-starch polysaccharide profiles, both for seed coats and cotyledons, significantly differed when comparing HTC and easy-to-cook (ETC) beans. In conclusion, differences in the structure, composition and extractability of non-starch polysaccharides between the ETC and HTC beans confirmed the significant role of pectin polysaccharides in interaction with divalent ions in the HTC development, which consequently affect their cooking behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochar treatment resulted in a combined effect on soybean growth promotion and a shift in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza eEgamberdieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of biochar to soil is considered to have the potential for long-term soil carbon sequestration, as well as for improving plant growth and suppressing soil pathogens. In our study we evaluated the effect of biochar on the plant growth of soybeans, as well as on the composition of root-associated bacteria with plant growth promoting traits. Two types of biochar, namely, maize biochar (MBC, wood biochar (WBC, and hydrochar (HTC were used for pot experiments to monitor plant growth. Soybean plants grown in soil amended with HTC char (2% showed the best performance and were collected for isolation and further characterization of root-associated bacteria for multiple plant growth promoting traits.Only HTC char amendment resulted in a statistically significant increase in the root and shoot dry weight of soybeans. Interestingly, rhizosphere isolates from HTC char amended soil showed higher diversity than the rhizosphere isolates from the control soil. In addition, a higher proportion of isolates from HTC char amended soil compared with control soil was found to express plant growth promoting properties and showed antagonistic activity against one or more phytopathogenic fungi. Our study provided evidence that improved plant growth by biochar incorporation into soil results from the combination of a direct effect that is dependent on the type of char and a microbiome shift in root-associated beneficial bacteria.

  5. Profile of an HIV Testing and Counseling Unit in Bangladesh: Majority of New Diagnoses among Returning Migrant Workers and Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urmi, Arunthia Zaidi; Leung, Daniel T; Wilkinson, Vanessa; Miah, Mohammad Abdul Awal; Rahman, Mahfuza; Azim, Tasnim

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of data from HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services provides an opportunity to identify important populations for targeting of HIV prevention efforts. Our primary aim was to describe the demographics of clients presenting to HTC in Bangladesh, a low HIV prevalence country. Our secondary aim was to determine the risk factors for HIV positivity among returning migrant workers who were tested. We performed a cross-sectional study of data collected between 2002 and 2010 from the first HTC service established in Bangladesh, located in three large cities. 8973 individuals attended HTC services, with 558 (6.2%) of clients testing positive for HIV, including 33 children. The majority of those who tested positive were aged 25-44 (71%), male (70%), and married (68%). Key populations considered at increased risk of HIV, such as female sex workers, people who inject drugs, and males who have sex with males accounted for only 11% of adults who tested positive. Notably, 75% of adults testing positive had a history of migrant work or was the spouse of a migrant worker. In multivariable logistic regression of those with a migrant work history presenting for HTC, we found rural residence, working in the Middle East, and longer duration of migrant work to be independently associated with testing positive, and female gender and higher level of education to be negatively associated. These data suggest that in Bangladesh, in addition to targeting traditional key populations, HIV prevention efforts should also focus on migrant workers and their spouses.

  6. Biochar Treatment Resulted in a Combined Effect on Soybean Growth Promotion and a Shift in Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Wirth, Stephan; Behrendt, Undine; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The application of biochar to soil is considered to have the potential for long-term soil carbon sequestration, as well as for improving plant growth and suppressing soil pathogens. In our study we evaluated the effect of biochar on the plant growth of soybeans, as well as on the community composition of root-associated bacteria with plant growth promoting traits. Two types of biochar, namely, maize biochar (MBC), wood biochar (WBC), and hydrochar (HTC) were used for pot experiments to monitor plant growth. Soybean plants grown in soil amended with HTC char (2%) showed the best performance and were collected for isolation and further characterization of root-associated bacteria for multiple plant growth promoting traits. Only HTC char amendment resulted in a statistically significant increase in the root and shoot dry weight of soybeans. Interestingly, rhizosphere isolates from HTC char amended soil showed higher diversity than the rhizosphere isolates from the control soil. In addition, a higher proportion of isolates from HTC char amended soil compared with control soil was found to express plant growth promoting properties and showed antagonistic activity against one or more phytopathogenic fungi. Our study provided evidence that improved plant growth by biochar incorporation into soil results from the combination of a direct effect that is dependent on the type of char and a microbiome shift in root-associated beneficial bacteria.

  7. Heat and ultraviolet light treatment of colostrum and hospital milk: effects on colostrum and hospital milk characteristics and calf health and growth parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A G V; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Young, R; Knauer, W A; Nydam, D V; Bicalho, R C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different physical treatments of bovine colostrum and hospital milk on milk bacteriology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactoferrin concentrations, calf serum IgG concentrations and calf health, growth and survivability. Pooled colostrum samples (n=297) were heat treated (HTC; 63°C for 60 min), exposed to ultraviolet light (UVC; 45 J/cm(2)) or untreated ('raw', RC). Hospital milk (n=712) was subjected to high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST; 72°C for 15s), ultraviolet light irradiation (UVH; 45 J/cm(2)) or was untreated. Neonatal Holstein heifer calves (n=875) were randomly enrolled (309 HTC, 285 UVC, 281 RC) and block randomized (by colostrum treatment) into hospital milk treatments HTST (n=449) or UVH (n=426). HTC was more effective than UVC and HTST was more effective than UVH in reducing bacterial counts. IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTC and UVC than in RC. Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTST than in UVH or untreated hospital milk. There were no significant differences in serum IgG concentrations among calves fed HTC, UVC or RC. Colostrum and hospital milk treatments did not have any significant effect on calf body weight gain, survivability, or frequency of diarrhea or pneumonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parents Support Implementation of HIV Testing and Counseling at School: Cross-Sectional Study with Parents of Adolescent Attending High School in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sphiwe Madiba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A formative assessment of the implementation of HIV testing and counseling (HTC at school showed high acceptability and willingness to test among learners. However, the success of the proposed HTC depends on the support and acceptability of key stakeholders, including the parents. The aim of the study was to assess the opinions and acceptability of the implementation of HTC at school among parents of adolescents in high school. Methods. This was a cross-sectional household survey conducted with parents of adolescents attending high schools in educational districts in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Results. A total of 804 parents participated, and 548 (68.3% were biological mothers, 85 (10.6% were fathers, and the remaining were other relatives including grandmothers. Almost all (n=742, 92.9% parents were in support of implementation and provision of HTC at school, 701 (87.7% would allow their children to be tested at school, 365 (46% felt that parental consent was not needed to test at school, and 39.4% preferred to receive the HIV test results with their children. Conclusion. Parents accept the roll-out of an HTC program at school and have a role to play in supporting children who test positive for HIV.

  9. Does the use of HIV testing and counseling services influence condom use among low-paid female sex workers in Guangxi, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Shah, Iqbal H; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Cui, Yan; Xu, Jinping

    2017-03-01

    HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are increasingly used in China during routine medical care visits to health facilities. However, limited data are available regarding the association between the utilization of HTC services and condom use among low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) who are at high risk of HIV infection but are hard to reach. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 794 low-paid FSWs in a city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2011. Results showed that 71.7% of low-paid FSWs had utilized HTC services in the previous year and 65.7% reported having used a condom during the last sexual intercourse with their clients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that utilizing HTC services was significantly and positively associated with the condom use. It also indicated that low-paid FSWs who were older, married, had higher education, earned less money, had high number of clients, had a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or had little or no HIV knowledge were less likely to use a condom during the last sexual encounter. The study suggests that HTC services need to be scaled up and made more accessible for this vulnerable population.

  10. High-Speed Imaging Reveals Opposing Effects of Chronic Stress and Antidepressants on Neuronal Activity Propagation through the Hippocampal Trisynaptic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eStepan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants (ADs are used as first-line treatment for most stress-related psychiatric disorders. The alterations in brain circuit dynamics that can arise from stress exposure and underlie therapeutic actions of ADs remain, however, poorly understood. Here, enabled by a recently developed voltage-sensitive dye imaging assay in mouse brain slices, we examined the impact of chronic stress and concentration-dependent effects of eight clinically used ADs (belonging to different chemical/functional classes on evoked neuronal activity propagations through the hippocampal trisynaptic circuitry (HTC: perforant path - dentate gyrus - area CA3 - area CA1. Exposure of mice to chronic social defeat stress led to markedly weakened activity propagations (HTC-Waves. In contrast, at concentrations in the low micromolar range, all ADs, which were bath applied to slices, caused an amplification of HTC-Waves in CA regions (invariably in area CA1. The fast-acting antidepressant ketamine, the mood stabilizer lithium, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF exerted comparable enhancing effects, whereas the antipsychotic haloperidol and the anxiolytic diazepam attenuated HTC-Waves. Collectively, we provide direct experimental evidence that chronic stress can depress neuronal signal flow through the HTC and demonstrate shared opposing effects of ADs. Thus, our study points to a circuit-level mechanism of ADs to counteract stress-induced impairment of hippocampal network function. However, the observed effects of ADs are impossible to depend on enhanced neurogenesis.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of high temperature conversion reactors for compound-specific oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzfeld, Kristina L; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2017-05-01

    In this study conversion conditions for oxygen gas chromatography high temperature conversion (HTC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) are characterised using qualitative mass spectrometry (IonTrap). It is shown that physical and chemical properties of a given reactor design impact HTC and thus the ability to accurately measure oxygen isotope ratios. Commercially available and custom-built tube-in-tube reactors were used to elucidate (i) by-product formation (carbon dioxide, water, small organic molecules), (ii) 2nd sources of oxygen (leakage, metal oxides, ceramic material), and (iii) required reactor conditions (conditioning, reduction, stability). The suitability of the available HTC approach for compound-specific isotope analysis of oxygen in volatile organic molecules like methyl tert-butyl ether is assessed. Main problems impeding accurate analysis are non-quantitative HTC and significant carbon dioxide by-product formation. An evaluation strategy combining mass spectrometric analysis of HTC products and IRMS (18)O/(16)O monitoring for future method development is proposed.

  12. Waste Water for Power Generation via Energy Efficient Selective Silica Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sasan, Koroush [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paap, Scott M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Krumhansl, James L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howe, Kerry [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stoll, Zachary [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stomp, James [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Silica is ubiquitous in produced and industrial waters, and plays a major disruptive role in water recycle. Herein we have investigated the use of mixed oxides for the removal of silica from these waters, and their incorporation into a low cost and low energy water purification process. High selectivity hydrotalcite (HTC, (Mg6Al2(OH)16(CO3)•4H2O)), is combined in series with high surface area active alumina (AA, (Al2O3)) as the dissolved silica removal media. Batch test results indicated that combined HTC/AA is a more effective method for removing silica from industrial cooling tower wasters (CTW) than using HTC or AA separately. The silica uptake via ion exchange on the mixed oxides was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Furthermore, HTC/AA effectively removes silica from CTW even in the presence of large concentrations of competing anions, such as Cl-, NO3- HCO3-, CO32- and SO42-. Similar to batch tests, Single Path Flow Through (SPFT) tests with sequential HTC/AA column filtration has very high silica removal too. Technoeconomic Analysis (TEA) was simultaneously performed for cost comparisons to existing silica removal technologies.

  13. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  14. Effect of hydrothermal carbonization on migration and environmental risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge during pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Liu, Zhengang; Zheng, Qingfu; Lang, Qianqian; Xia, Yu; Peng, Nana; Gai, Chao

    2018-01-01

    The heavy metals distribution during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sewage sludge, and pyrolysis of the resultant hydrochar was investigated and compared with raw sludge pyrolysis. The results showed that HTC reduced exchangeable/acid-soluble and reducible fraction of heavy metals and lowered the potential risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge. The pyrolysis favored the transformation of extracted/mobile fraction of heavy metals to residual form especially at high temperature, immobilizing heavy metals in the chars. Compared to the chars from raw sludge pyrolysis, the chars derived from hydrochar pyrolysis was more alkaline and had lower risk and less leachable heavy metals, indicating that pyrolysis imposed more positive effect on immobilization of heavy metals for the hydrochar than for sewage sludge. The present study demonstrated that HTC is a promising pretreatment prior to pyrolysis from the perspective of immobilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. BLENDED LEARNING METHOD BASED ON LOCAL WISDOM AS A SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE HOLY TRINITY COMMUNITY IN DISTRICT BENGKAYANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Vasantan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bengkayang is one of the districts the outermost in Indonesia. The district has limitations and underdevelopment in various fields, one of which is in the field of education. Writing this article aims to show that blended learning based on local wisdom is very helpful coaching Holy Trinity Community (HTC in the district Bengkayang. It has been proven from previous studies, suggesting that coaching HTC with blended learning to be more flexible, effective and efficient . Blended learning has been applied HTC with a combination of conventional learning and e-learning in most areas in Indonesia. With the blended learning, the process of spiritual guidance becomes more flexible, effective and efficient so as to improve student in district Bengkayang.

  16. Hydrothermal carbonization of macrophyte Potamogeton lucens for solid biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Ahmad Rather

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC was used to convert macrophyte Potamogeton lucens into solid biofuel-hydrochar. HTC was carried out in a high pressure reactor with and without chemical additives under subcritical temperatures (240–320 °C, residence times (10–40 min and biomass to water dilution ratios varying from 1:4 to 1:12. Hydrochar produced in HTC with chemical additives viz. KOH, Na2CO3 and acetic acid had improvement in higher heating value (HHV and energy density (Ed in comparison to non-additive HTC from level of sub-bituminous coal to bituminous coal. As reflected by Van Krevelen diagram, HTC with additives had also improvement in H/C and O/C atomic ratios. Enhancement in HHV by utilization of additives followed order; acetic acid > Na2CO3 > KOH. Hydrochar yield of 39% obtained in non additive process decreased to 36% (both with KOH, Na2CO3 and 37% (with acetic acid. However at same time Ed was enhanced from a value of 1.69 in non-additive HTC to 1.72, 1.76 and 1.84 with KOH, Na2CO3 and acetic acid respectively. The hydrochar produced has thus huge potential to serve as an alternate fuel. The study also expresses yield (Y, HHV, Ed and energy yield (Ey in terms of temperature, residence time and biomass to water dilution ratio by linear and nonlinear laws.

  17. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin eWu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput computing (HTC uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general purpose computation on a graphics processing unit (GPU provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin – Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit (CPU capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of

  18. Prevalence of HIV testing and counseling and associated factors among secondary school students in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodika, Stephane M; Lekone, Phenyo E; Loeto, Peter; Alwano, Mary G; Zulu, Thekiso C; Kim, Evelyn; Machao, Gape; Voetsch, Andrew C

    2016-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends HIV testing and counseling (HTC) for all adolescents living in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. In Botswana, HIV prevalence among adolescents 15-19 years is 3.7% and among pregnant adolescents is 10%. We describe the proportion and characteristics of secondary school students who have accessed HTC. A multistage sample survey was conducted among students in Botswana's public secondary schools in 2010. The survey was self-administered using a personal digital assistant device. The HTC rate was estimated using self-reported history of HIV testing. Of 1,632 participants, 52% were girls, 43% aged below 16 years, and 27% had ever had sexual intercourse. Most (81%) students knew where to get tested for HIV. Overall, 2.2% of students were HIV positive by self-report. The HTC rate was 23% overall, 34% among students who had ever had sexual intercourse, and 45% among students who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Being pregnant or having made someone pregnant and having had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months were associated with having been tested for HIV among students who had ever had sexual intercourse. Overall, the HTC rate was low, and the self- reported HIV prevalence was high among secondary students in Botswana. Most sexually active students have never been tested for HIV. Health communications efforts for adolescents that increase demand for HTC, routine opt-out HIV testing in healthcare facilities, and school-based HIV testing are needed as part of a national HIV prevention strategy.

  19. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  20. Criteria for Evaluating Coastal Flood-Protection Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    complete collapse. Timber cannot, however, sur- vive the extremely high unit stresses allowable in structural concrete or steel. Longevity can also be...1 , as this would occur, for example, for the case of all Htc " - 0 J 14. Finally, the correlation coefficient squared, r2 , was calculated 2 ~ Htmj...R(0°)/Hi Htm Htc 2 Assumed U ft ft _ r 1.2 0.8 0.137 0.125 0.23 0.814 Summary and Conclusions 21. A rational method has been developed for predicting

  1. Time-accurate CFD conjugate analysis of transient measurements of the heat-transfer coefficient in a channel with pin fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom I-P. Shih

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat-transfer coefficients (HTC on surfaces exposed to convection environments are often measured by transient techniques such as thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC or infrared thermography. In these techniques, the surface temperature is measured as a function of time, and that measurement is used with the exact solution for unsteady, zero-dimensional (0-D or one-dimensional (1-D heat conduction into a solid to calculate the local HTC. When using the 0-D or 1-D exact solutions, the transient techniques assume the HTC and the free-stream or bulk temperature characterizing the convection environment to be constants in addition to assuming the conduction into the solid to be 0-D or 1-D. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD conjugate analyses were performed to examine the errors that might be invoked by these assumptions for a problem, where the free-stream/bulk temperature and the heat-transfer coefficient vary appreciably along the surface and where conduction into the solid may not be 0-D or 1-D. The problem selected to assess these errors is flow and heat transfer in a channel lined with a staggered array of pin fins. This conjugate study uses three-dimensional (3-D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS closed by the shear-stress transport (SST turbulence model for the gas phase (wall functions not used and the Fourier law for the solid phase. The errors in the transient techniques are assessed by comparing the HTC predicted by the time-accurate conjugate CFD with those predicted by the 0-D and 1-D exact solutions, where the surface temperatures needed by the exact solutions are taken from the time-accurate conjugate CFD solution. Results obtained show that the use of the 1-D exact solution for the semi-infinite wall to give reasonably accurate “transient” HTC (less than 5% relative error. Transient techniques that use the 0-D exact solution for the pin fins were found to produce large errors (up to 160% relative error

  2. "Students want HIV testing in schools" a formative evaluation of the acceptability of HIV testing and counselling at schools in Gauteng and North West provinces in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Mokgatle, Mathilda

    2015-04-17

    The proposal by the South African Health Ministry to implement HIV testing and counselling (HTC) at schools in 2011 generated debates about the appropriateness of such testing. However, the debate has been between the Ministries of Education and Health, with little considerations of the students. The main aim of the study was to assess the students' opinions and uptake of HIV testing and counselling in general, and the acceptability of the provision of HIV testing and counselling in schools. The study also determined the association between socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and HIV testing behaviour of the students. A survey was conducted among grade 10-12 high school students in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Seventeen high schools (nine rural and eight urban) were randomly selected for the administration of a researcher-assisted, self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 2970 students aged 14-27 years participated in the study; 1632 (55%) were girls, 1810 (61%) ever had sex, and 1271 (49.8%) had more than one sex partner. The mean age of first sexual activity was 15.6. Half (n = 1494, 50.1%) had been tested for HIV. Having multiple sexual partners, age, and gender were significantly associated with increased odds of having had a HIV test. Fear, being un-informed about HTC, and low HIV risk perceptions were the reasons for not getting tested. The acceptability of HTC at school was high (n = 2282, 76.9%) and 2129 (71.8%) were willing to be tested at school. Appropriateness, privacy, and secrecy were the main arguments for and against HTC at school. One-third (n = 860, 29%) had intentions to disclose their HIV status to students versus 1258 (42.5%) for teachers. Stigma, discrimination and secrecy were the primary reasons students did not intend to disclose. A high acceptability of HTC and willingness to be tested at school suggest that HIV prevention programs tailored to youth have a high potential of success

  3. Comparação estrutural entre amostras de materiais tipo hidrotalcita obtidas a partir de diferentes rotas de síntese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano H. Chagas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of hydrotalcite-like materials (HTC were synthesized and their structural characteristics were compared with two HTCs obtained commercially. Thermal analyses, FT-IR, PXRD and textural analyses were used to investigate the structural differences between commercial and synthetic samples. Particularly, the memory effect was observed at temperature higher than 600 ºC. The Rietveld refinements were obtained with expressive accuracy and the statistical parameters of goodness of fit are quite satisfactory. In conclusion, the procedures adopted in synthesis of HTC produced crystalline materials with high surface area materials.

  4. "Synnytetään semmonen pöhinäpaikka"

    OpenAIRE

    Siitonen, Jaan

    2016-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tutkia yrityshautomo Helsinki Think Companya (HTC), kuvata miten se syntyi ja vertailla, miten sen käytännön toteutus erosi opetusministeriön visioista edistää korkeakoulupohjaista yrittäjyyttä. Helsinki Think Company (HTC) on Helsingin kaupungin ja Helsingin yliopiston yhteistyöllä huhtikuussa vuonna 2013 perustettu yrittäjyyden tila ja yhteisö, jonka tarkoituksena on kannustaa ja tukea opiskelijoita ja tutkijoita yrittäjyyteen Helsingin alueella. T...

  5. Selected agro-climatic characteristics and wine-grape yields in the Southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Antoš

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sums of average daily temperatures higher than 10 °C (TS10 in the period from April toSeptember describe the temperature conditions in the given area. The absolute precipitationsums concerning the season, i.e. from April to September, and the Seljaninov´s HydrothermicalCoefficient (HTC during the period from June to August describe precipitation and moistureconditions. The HTC values confirm the fact that the South Moravian region belongs amongthe most arid regions in the Czech Republic. The attention is, also, devoted to connectionsbetween the wine-grape yield and the weather conditions in 1997, an abnormal year from themeteorological point of view.

  6. Uptake and yield of HIV testing and counselling among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshini Govindasamy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years children and adolescents have emerged as a priority for HIV prevention and care services. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the acceptability, yield and prevalence of HIV testing and counselling (HTC strategies in children and adolescents (5 to 19 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health and conference abstract databases. Studies reporting on HTC acceptability, yield and prevalence and published between January 2004 and September 2014 were included. Pooled proportions for these three outcomes were estimated using a random effects model. A quality assessment was conducted on included studies. Results and discussion: A total of 16,380 potential citations were identified, of which 21 studies (23 entries were included. Most studies were conducted in Kenya (n=5 and Uganda (n=5 and judged to provide moderate (n=15 to low quality (n=7 evidence, with data not disaggregated by age. Seven studies reported on provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC, with the remainder reporting on family-centred (n=5, home-based (n=5, outreach (n=5 and school-linked HTC among primary schoolchildren (n=1. PITC among inpatients had the highest acceptability (86.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 65.5 to 100%, yield (12.2%; 95% CI: 6.1 to 18.3% and prevalence (15.4%; 95% CI: 5.0 to 25.7%. Family-centred HTC had lower acceptance compared to home-based HTC (51.7%; 95% CI: 10.4 to 92.9% vs. 84.9%; 95% CI: 74.4 to 95.4% yet higher prevalence (8.4%; 95% CI: 3.4 to 13.5% vs. 3.0%; 95% CI: 1.0 to 4.9%. School-linked HTC showed poor acceptance and low prevalence. Conclusions: While PITC may have high test acceptability priority should be given to evaluating strategies beyond healthcare settings (e.g. home-based HTC among families to identify individuals earlier in their disease progression. Data on linkage to care and cost-effectiveness of HTC strategies are needed to

  7. CONDENSATION OF WATER VAPOR IN A VERTICAL TUBE CONDENSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  8. Uptake and linkage into care over one year of providing HIV testing and counselling through community and health facility testing modalities in urban informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Muhula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examine the uptake of HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC and linkage into care over one year of providing HTC through community and health facility testing modalities among people living in Kibera informal urban settlement in Nairobi Kenya. Methods We analyzed program data on health facility-based HIV testing and counselling and community- based testing and counselling approaches for the period starting October 2013 to September 2014. Univariate and bivariate analysis methods were used to compare the two approaches with regard to uptake of HTC and subsequent linkage to care. The exact Confidence Intervals (CI to the proportions were approximated using simple normal approximation to binomial distribution method. Results Majority of the 18,591 clients were tested through health facility-based testing approaches 72.5 % (n = 13485 vs those tested through community-based testing comprised 27.5 % (n = 5106. More clients tested at health facilities were reached through Provider Initiated Testing and Counselling PITC 81.7 % (n = 11015 while 18.3 % were reached through Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT/Client Initiated Testing and Counselling (CITC services. All clients who tested positive during health facility-based testing were successfully linked to care either at the project sites or sites of client choice while not all who tested positive during community based testing were linked to care. The HIV prevalence among all those who were tested for HIV in the program was 5.2 % (n = 52, 95 % CI: 3.9 %–6.8 %. Key study limitation included use of aggregate data to report uptake of HTC through the two testing approaches and not being able to estimate the population in the catchment area likely to test for HIV. Conclusion Health facility-based HTC approach achieved more clients tested for HIV, and this method also resulted in identifying greater numbers of people who were HIV positive in Kibera slum within

  9. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment guiding prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in a copper mine project, northwestern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Astrid M; Divall, Mark J; Owuor, Milka; Nduna, Kennedy; Ng'uni, Harrison; Musunka, Gertrude; Pascall, Anna; Utzinger, Jürg; Winkler, Mirko S

    2017-07-04

    To avoid or mitigate potential project-related adverse health effects, the Trident copper project in Kalumbila, northwestern Zambia, commissioned a health impact assessment. HIV was identified a priority health issue based on the local vulnerability to HIV transmission and experience from other mining projects in Africa. Hence, an HIV/AIDS management plan was developed, including community and workplace interventions, with HIV testing and counselling (HTC) being one of the key components. We present trends in HTC data over a 4-year period. In 13 communities affected by the Trident project, HTC was implemented from 2012 onwards, using rapid diagnostic tests, accompanied by pre- and post-test counselling through trained personnel. In addition, HTC was initiated in the project workforce in 2013, coinciding with the launch of the mine development. HTC uptake and HIV positivity rates were assessed in the study population and linked to demographic factors using regression analysis. In total, 11,638 community members and 5564 workers have taken up HTC with an increase over time. The HIV positivity rate in the community was 3.0% in 2012 and 3.4% in 2015, while positivity rate in the workforce was 5.2% in 2013 and 4.3% in 2015. Females showed a significantly higher odds of having a positive test result than males (odds ratio (OR) = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.55-2.50 among women in the community and OR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.74-4.84 among women in the workforce). HTC users in the 35-49 years age group were most affected by HIV, with an average positivity rate of 6.6% in the community sample and 7.9% in the workforce sample. These study groups had 4.50 and 4.95 higher odds of being positive, respectively, compared to their younger counterparts (15-24 years). While HTC uptake increased five-fold in the community and almost three-fold in the workplace, the HIV positivity rates were insignificantly higher in 2015 compared to 2012. Our data can be used alongside other

  10. Investigation on the formation of tungsten carbide in tungsten-containing diamond like carbon coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strondl, C.; Carvalho, N.M.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Kolk, G.J. van der

    2003-01-01

    A series of tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (Me-DLC) coatings have been produced by unbalanced magnetron sputtering using a Hauzer HTC-1000 production PVD system. Sputtering from WC targets has been used to form W-C:H coatings. The metal to carbon ratio has been varied to study changes in

  11. Seeking wider access to HIV testing for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Folayan, Morenike O; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2016-06-01

    More than 80% of the HIV-infected adolescents live in sub-Saharan Africa. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality has increased among adolescents 10-19 y old. The impact is highest in sub-Saharan Africa, where >80% of HIV-infected adolescents live. The World Health Organization has cited inadequate access to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) as a contributing factor to AIDS-related adolescent deaths, most of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. This review focuses on studies conducted in high adolescent HIV-burden countries targeted by the "All In to End Adolescent AIDS" initiative, and describes barriers to adolescent HTC uptake and coverage. Fear of stigma and family reaction, fear of the impact of a positive diagnosis, perceived risk with respect to sexual exposure, poor attitudes of healthcare providers, and parental consent requirements are identified as major impediments. Most-at-risk adolescents for HIV infection and missed opportunities for testing include, those perinatally infected, those with early sexual debut, high mobility and multiple/older partners, and pregnant and nonpregnant females. Regional analyses show relatively low adolescent testing rates and more restrictive consent requirements for HTC in West and Central Africa as compared to East and southern Africa. Actionable recommendations for widening adolescent access to HTC and therefore timely care include minimizing legal consent barriers, healthcare provider training, parental education and involvement, and expanding testing beyond healthcare facilities.

  12. Correlation between the morphology and photo-physical properties of P3HT: fullerene blends

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The photo-induced charge transfer and optoelectronic efficiency of the solar cells correlated to the morphology and the structure of P3HT:C60 blend was studied by means of photoluminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR). The occurrence of photo...

  13. Photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion based on blend of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The photoelectrochemical performance parameters of the device were compared with pure P3HT and P3HT:C60 blend solid-state photoelectrochemical cell. The current density-voltage characteristics in the dark and under white light illumination and photocurrent spectra for front and backside illuminations have been ...

  14. Experimental investigation of time and repeated cycles in nucleate pool boiling of alumina/water nanofluid on polished and machined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh Dareh, F.; Haghshenasfard, M.; Nasr Esfahany, M.; Salimi Jazi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer of pure water and nanofluids on a copper block has been studied experimentally. Nanofluids with various concentrations of 0.0025, 0.005 and 0.01 vol.% are employed and two simple surfaces (polished and machined copper surface) are used as the heating surfaces. The results indicated that the critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling of fluids on the polished surface is 7% higher than CHF on the machined surface. In the case of machined surface, the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of 0.01 vol.% nanofluid is about 37% higher than HTC of base fluid, while in the polished surface the average HTC of 0.01% nanofluid is about 19% lower than HTC of the pure water. The results also showed that the boiling time and boiling cycles on the polished surface changes the heat transfer performance. By increasing the boiling time from 5 to 10 min, the roughness enhances about 150%, but by increasing the boiling time to 15 min, the roughness enhancement is only 8%.

  15. Study to Modify the Vulnerability Model of the Risk Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    sulfide RDS TF Liquefied natural gas LNG F Liquefied petroleum gas LPG F Methyl bromide MTS T Methal chloride HTC F Octane OAN F Pentane PTA F Phosgene...similar rate. We need therefore to check that lethal exposures are estimated to br of the same order. Patty (19621 vive the ’"dangerous" exposure for

  16. 76 FR 10880 - Initiation of Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    .... Kent Hospitality, Inc. Champion Sun Industries Limited. Changshu HTC Import & Export Co., Ltd.* Cheng... Aosen Furniture Co., Ltd. Shanghai Fangjia Industry Co., Ltd.* Shanghai Hospitality Product Mfg., Co....* Yuexing Group Co., Ltd. Zhang Zhou Sanlong Wood Product Co., Ltd.* Zhangjiagang Daye Hotel Furniture Co...

  17. 75 FR 54854 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Manufacture Co., Ltd. C.F. Kent Co., Inc. C.F. Kent Hospitality, Inc. Changshu HTC Import & Export Co., Ltd... International Co. Ltd. Sheh Hau International Trading Ltd. Senyuan Furniture Group Shanghai Hospitality Product... Sanlong Wood Product Co., Ltd. Zhangjiagang Daye Hotel Furniture Co. Ltd. Zhangzhou Guohui Industrial...

  18. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  19. Barriers to accessibility and utilization of HIV testing and counseling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: While HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services remain to be amongst the effective strategies in slowing HIV transmission, its accessibility and uptake in Tanzania is low. In 2011, 50% of adults have been ever tested and received their results. We conducted this study to assess barriers to accessibility and ...

  20. 75-73 EFFECT OF HEMODIALYSIS ON TOTAL, FREE AND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the arteriovenous fistula immediately before and after one dialysis session. All patients were evaluated by determining tPSA, fPSA, percent fPSA and Htc pre- and .... ranges for patients with normal renal function did not apply to uremic patients, and that a high level of percent fPSA should not be considered a sign of benign ...

  1. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Waste Biomass: Process Design, Modeling, Energy Efficiency and Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Lucian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC process is designed and modeled on the basis of experimental data previously obtained for two representative organic waste materials: off-specification compost and grape marc. The process accounts for all the steps and equipment necessary to convert raw moist biomass into dry and pelletized hydrochar. By means of mass and thermal balances and based on common equations specific to the various equipment, thermal energy and power consumption were calculated at variable process conditions: HTC reactor temperature T: 180, 220, 250 °C; reaction time θ: 1, 3, 8 h. When operating the HTC plant with grape marc (65% moisture content at optimized process conditions (T = 220 °C; θ = 1 h; dry biomass to water ratio = 0.19, thermal energy and power consumption were equal to 1170 kWh and 160 kWh per ton of hydrochar produced, respectively. Correspondingly, plant efficiency was 78%. In addition, the techno-economical aspects of the HTC process were analyzed in detail, considering both investment and production costs. The production cost of pelletized hydrochar and its break-even point were determined to be 157 €/ton and 200 €/ton, respectively. Such values make the use of hydrochar as a CO2 neutral biofuel attractive.

  2. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  3. Assessing the environmental impact of energy production from hydrochar generated via hydrothermal carbonization waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a relatively low temperature thermal conversion process that is gaining significant attention as a sustainable and environmentally beneficial approach for the transformation of biomass and waste streams to value-added products. Although there are numerous studies ...

  4. Inspired by efficient cellulose-dissolving system: Facile one-pot synthesis of biomass-based hydrothermal magnetic carbonaceous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Feng; Xing, Jian-Xiong; Wang, Kun; Yang, Hai-Yan; Fei, Ben-Hua; Liu, Xing-E

    2017-05-15

    The core-shell structure of carbon encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (CEMNs) displays unique properties. Enhancing the magnetization of iron core, in parallel, improving the encapsulation of carbon shell are the two major challenges in the synthesis of CEMNs. Inspired by efficient cellulose-dissolving system, carbon encapsulated magnetic nano-Fe3O4 particles (Fe3O4@C) with ∼10.0nm Fe3O4 cores and 1.9-3.3nm carbon shell, were successfully one-pot synthesized via a novel hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The dissolving process in ionic liquids ([Emim]Ac and [Amim]Cl) completely cleaved the intra- and intermolecular H-bonds in cellulose, and favored the incorporation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles into the cellulose H-bonds systems during the regeneration process. Some stable linkages were formed in Fe3O4@C, taking Fe3O4 nanoparticles as a structure guiding agent. The morphology and properties of Fe3O4@C depended strongly on the type of carbon precursors and pyrolysis temperature. Well encapsulated nanostructure was obtained at HTC temperature 280°C, when [Emim]Ac-treated holocellulose was used as the carbon source. Meanwhile, the thickness of the amorphous shell and magnetization increased with HTC temperature. More importantly, a novel elements for understanding the growth mechanism for the Fe3O4@C composite under HTC conditions was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of banana peel-ash-extract on cooking time and acceptability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana peel ash-extract, widely used in indigenous processing of dry beans, was evaluated for chemical composition and potential in reducing cooking time of beans with HTC defect. The peel ash-extract was found to contain substantial amounts of sodium (0.36 g/ml), chloride (0.07 g/ml) and magnesium (0.04g/ml) ions.

  6. 78 FR 27867 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters Inc. Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Helicopter Technology Company (HTC) tail rotor blades installed. The existing AD currently requires reducing... been detected under the paint. This proposed AD would retain some of the requirements in the existing AD but would require paint removal for all pitch horn inspections, inspecting for pitting and the...

  7. Super-low friction behavior of nanostructured DLC composite coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Galvan, D.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    Advanced TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings have been produced via reactive deposition in a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system (Hauzer HTC-1000). This work concentrates on a detailed mechanical and tribological characterization of the TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings, in particular

  8. Co-gasification of bituminous coal and hydrochar derived from municipal solid waste: Reactivity and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; He, Qing; Ding, Lu; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the influences of gasification temperature and blended ratio on co-gasification reactivity and synergy of Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) and municipal solid waste-derived hydrochar (HTC) were investigated using TGA. Additionally, active alkaline and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) transformation during co-gasification was quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer for correlating synergy on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that higher char gasification reactivity existed at higher HTC char proportion and gasification temperature, and the main synergy behaviour on co-gasification reactivity was performed as synergistic effect. Enhanced synergistic effect at lower temperature was mainly resulted from more obviously inhibiting the primary AAEM (i.e. active Ca) transformation, and weak synergistic effect still existed at higher temperature since more active K with prominent catalysis was retained. Furthermore, more active HTC-derived AAEM remaining in SF sample during co-gasification would lead to enhanced synergistic effect as HTC char proportion increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Valorization of Furfural Residue by Hydrothermal Carbonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Fen; Zhang, Jia; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Furfural residue (FR) is a low-cost by-product generated in the furfural production from corncobs, which is mainly composed of cellulose and lignin. In this report, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of deashed FR was conducted at various reaction temperatures (200, 220 and 240 °C) and reaction tim...

  10. Selenoprotein expression in Hürthle cell carcinomas and in the human Hürthle cell carcinoma line XTC.UC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menth, Marianne; Schmutzler, Cornelia; Mentrup, Birgit; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Köhrle, Josef

    2005-05-01

    Hürthle cell carcinomas (HTC) are characterized by mitochondrial amplification and enhanced oxygen metabolism. To clarify if defects in enzymes scavenging reactive oxygen species are involved in the pathogenesis of HTC, we analyzed selenium (Se)-dependent expression of various detoxifying selenoproteins in the HTC cell line XTC.UC1. Glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase activity was found both in cell lysates and conditioned media of XTC.UC1 cells and was increased by Na(2)SeO(3). Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of thioredoxin reductase both in cell lysates and conditioned media and of glutathione peroxidase 3 in conditioned media. Type I 5'-deiodinase, another selenoprotein that catalyzes thyroid hormone metabolism, was detectable only in cell lysates by enzyme assay and Western blot, and responded to stimulation by both Na(2)SeO(3) and retinoic acid. A selenoprotein P signal was detected in conditioned media by Western blot, but was not enhanced by Na(2)SeO(3) treatment. In situ hybridization revealed glutathione peroxidase mRNAs in HTC specimen; glutathione peroxidase 3 mRNA levels were reduced. These data suggest adequate expression and Se-dependent regulation of a couple of selenoproteins involved in antioxidant defense and thyroid hormone metabolism in XTC.UC1 cells, so far giving no evidence of a role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of HTCs.

  11. A synergistic combination of nutrient reclamation from manure and resultant hydrochar upgradation by acid-supported hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lichun; Yang, Bo; Li, Hong; Tan, Furong; Zhu, Nengmin; Zhu, Qili; He, Mingxiong; Ran, Yi; Hu, Guoquan

    2017-11-01

    Cattle manure was hydrothermally carbonized in acid solutions (0-2% HCl), then nutrient concentration in liquid product and physicochemical properties of hydrochar were characterized to investigate the effects of acid addition on hydrochar properties and nutrient recovery from manure. Results showed that hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) in 2% HCl extracted almost 100% and 63.38% of phosphorus and nitrogen, respectively; specifically, >90% of the extracted phosphorus was PO4-P in liquid from HTC with acid addition, and increasing amount of extracted nitrogen was NH4-N with increasing acid addition. Generally, higher heating value, surface area, total pore volume, fixed carbon, atomic ratios of H/C and O/C were increased in hydrochars from HTC with acid addition, while yield, volatile matter, contents of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen of these hydrochars were decreased. These results indicated that HTC with acid addition could simultaneously facilitate nutrient recovery from manure and resulting hydrochar upgradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of thermal contact resistance on the thermosetting pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    experimentally in the literature. In order to study the effects of the thermal contact resistance (TCR), which can also be expressed by the heat transfer coefficient (HTC), on the pultrusion process, a cylindrical die block and heaters are added to the original problem domain. The significance of using the TCR...

  13. The association between client type and condom use with steady ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Department of Public Health Sciences. Abstract. Background: Approximately 70% .... Information regarding condom use was collected on the National HTC registration ..... Kenyan CSWs via a secondary data analysis using ques- tionnaires from a study designed to ...

  14. Predictors of HIV self-testing among health workers at Nyeri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV self-testing is recognised as a possible option of expanding access to HIV testing and counselling (HTC). There is high demand for self testing among health workers. However, in many health facilities in Kenya, the rate of unregulated self-testing and factors influencing the practice remain unknown.

  15. A qualitative study of the determinants of HIV guidelines implementation in two south-eastern districts of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangome, Mary N; Geubbels, Eveline; Wringe, Alison; Todd, Jim; Klatser, Paul; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    Current HIV policies in Tanzania have adopted the three long-term impact results of zero new infections, zero HIV deaths and zero stigma and discrimination. Strategies to reach these results include scaling-up HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC); Preventing Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT); and

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-20-0037 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-20-0037 ref|ZP_01626499.1| VCBS protein [marine gamma proteobacterium HTC...C2080] gb|EAW41022.1| VCBS protein [marine gamma proteobacterium HTCC2080] ZP_01626499.1 9e-30 65% ...

  17. 78 FR 49764 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... 1930, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on June 26, 2013, based on a complaint filed by Nokia Corporation of Espoo, Finland and Nokia Inc., of Sunnyvale, California (collectively, ``Nokia''). The complaint, as supplemented... that neither complainants Nokia nor respondents HTC oppose the motion. On July 16, 2013, the ALJ issued...

  18. 77 FR 40084 - Certain Portable Communication Devices; Determination Not To Review Initial Determinations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ..., Washington (``Amazon''); Nokia Corporation of Espoo, Finland, Nokia Inc. of Irving, Texas (collectively ``Nokia''); Pantech Co., Ltd. of Seoul, South Korea, and Pantech Wireless, Inc. of Atlanta, Georgia... remaining respondents HTC and Nokia also filed a joint motion under Commission Rule 210.21(a)(2) to...

  19. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dančová P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  20. Calculation and validation of heat transfer coefficient for warm forming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Kaab; Butcher, Clifford; Worswick, Michael

    2017-10-01

    In an effort to reduce the weight of their products, the automotive industry is exploring various hot forming and warm forming technologies. One critical aspect in these technologies is understanding and quantifying the heat transfer between the blank and the tooling. The purpose of the current study is twofold. First, an experimental procedure to obtain the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) as a function of pressure for the purposes of a metal forming simulation is devised. The experimental approach was used in conjunction with finite element models to obtain HTC values as a function of die pressure. The materials that were characterized were AA5182-O and AA7075-T6. Both the heating operation and warm forming deep draw were modelled using the LS-DYNA commercial finite element code. Temperature-time measurements were obtained from both applications. The results of the finite element model showed that the experimentally derived HTC values were able to predict the temperature-time history to within a 2% of the measured response. It is intended that the HTC values presented herein can be used in warm forming models in order to accurately capture the heat transfer characteristics of the operation.

  1. Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, D.; Bosman, F.; Peters, T.; Plasschaert, F.

    The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient (htc) is determined under different loading conditions by using a computer aided method. The thermal load has been applied mathematically as well as experimentally to the coronal surface of an axisymmetric tooth model. To verify the assumptions

  2. Thermal Cracking of Jatropha Oil with Hydrogen to Produce Bio-Fuel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yu Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used thermal cracking with hydrogen (HTC to produce bio-fuel oil (BFO from jatropha oil (JO and to improve its quality. We conducted HTC with different hydrogen pressures (PH2; 0–2.07 MPa or 0–300 psig, retention times (tr; 40–780 min, and set temperatures (TC; 623–683 K. By applying HTC, the oil molecules can be hydrogenated and broken down into smaller molecules. The acid value (AV, iodine value, kinematic viscosity (KV, density, and heating value (HV of the BFO produced were measured and compared with the prevailing standards for oil to assess its suitability as a substitute for fossil fuels or biofuels. The results indicate that an increase in PH2 tends to increase the AV and KV while decreasing the HV of the BFO. The BFO yield (YBFO increases with PH2 and tr. The above properties decrease with increasing TC. Upon HTC at 0.69 MPa (100 psig H2 pressure, 60 min time, and 683 K temperature, the YBFO was found to be 86 wt%. The resulting BFO possesses simulated distillation characteristics superior to those of boat oil and heavy oil while being similar to those of diesel oil. The BFO contains 15.48% light naphtha, 35.73% heavy naphtha, 21.79% light gas oil, and 27% heavy gas oil and vacuum residue. These constituents can be further refined to produce gasoline, diesel, lubricants, and other fuel products.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: While HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services remain to be amongst the effective strategies in slowing HIV transmission, its accessibility and uptake in Tanzania is low. In 2011, 50% of adults have been ever tested and received their results. We conducted this study to.

  4. Perception about the 'Opt Out Strategy' for HIV testing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 41.8% reported adequate privacy during screening process while 20.4% felt they were forced to participate. Positive attitude towards HTC was seen in 72.0%. Higher education was associated with better knowledge of routes of HIV transmission (OR=3.8; 95%CI= -4.3-3.3) Being married or cohabiting with a partner ...

  5. 77 FR 51572 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ..., Seattle, WA 98109-5210. Barnes & Noble, Inc., 122 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10011. Garmin Ltd., M hlentalstrasse 2, 8200 Schaffhausen, Switzerland. Garmin International, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, KS 66062. Garmin USA, Inc., 1200 East 151st Street, Olathe, KS 66062. HTC Corporation, 23 Xinghua Road...

  6. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for delta O-18 versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Böhlke, J.K.; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Jansen, Henk G.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Soergel, Karin; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Weise, Stephan M.; Werner, Roland A.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally distributed organic and inorganic oxygen isotopic reference materials have been calibrated by six laboratories carrying out more than 5300 measurements using a variety of high-temperature conversion techniques (HTC)a in an evaluation sponsored by the International Union of Pure and

  7. On-Line Hydrogen-Isotope Measurements of Organic Samples Using Elemental Chromium : An Extension for High Temperature Elemental-Analyzer Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by

  8. A Study Of The Internal Energy And Magnetic Spin Susceptibility Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exact approach is re-visited in performing a comparative analysis of the attractive and repulsive 2-D Hubbard model (AHM and RHM respectively) which is used in describing a simplified 2x1 (Cu-O-Cu) lattice (known to play significant role in HTc-superconductivity in cuprates) with the use of the MATLAB. The response ...

  9. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Lin; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Weigel, Kent A.; Gatti, Natalia de Leon; Gianola, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput computing (HTC) uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high-throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long, and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl, and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general-purpose computation on a graphics processing unit provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin–Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general-purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of marker panels to realized

  10. Determinants of utilization of a no-cost HIV transition clinic: a cross-sectional study of young adults living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyabigambo A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agnes Nyabigambo,1,2,* Joshua Kanaabi Muliira,3,* Lynn Atuyambe,1,* Harriet M Babikako,1,* Andrew Kambugu,2,* Christopher Ndoleriire4,* 1School of Public Health, 2Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 3College of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod, Muscat, Oman; 4Department of ENT, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: There is minimal research that has been conducted among young adults to understand the determinants of the utilization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV health services in this population. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels and determinants of HIV transition clinic (HTC services utilization by young adults living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (YALHA. The study used a cross-sectional design and quantitative methods to collect data from a sample of 379 YALHA between the ages of 15–24 years who were registered clients of an HTC in Uganda. During data analysis, utilization was categorized into two levels: regular (kept all appointment visits and irregular (missed one or more appointment visits utilization. Univariable, bivariable, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the determinants associated with HTC utilization. The HTC services that were most utilized by the YALHA were those based at the clinic and provided by professional health care providers and these were: clinical examination (96%; laboratory services (87.1%; and counseling (69.7%. The services that were least utilized were home visiting (5.8% and peer support services (19.8%. Of the 379 YALHA, only 32.4% regularly utilized the HTC. Multivariable analysis showed that the main determinants of HTC utilization were CD4 count category of ≥251/µL (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.36–0.95; not being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR

  11. Economic Costs and Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes of HIV Treatment After Self- and Facility-Based HIV Testing in a Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Petrou, Stavros; MacPherson, Peter; Kumwenda, Felistas; Lalloo, David G; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Clarke, Aileen

    2017-07-01

    The scale-up of HIV self-testing (HIVST) in Africa is recommended, but little is known about how this novel approach influences economic outcomes following subsequent antiretroviral treatment (ART) compared with established facility-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) approaches. HIV clinics in Blantyre, Malawi. Consecutive HIV-positive participants, diagnosed by HIVST or facility-based HTC as part of a community cluster-randomized trial (ISRCTN02004005), were followed from initial assessment for ART until 1-year postinitiation. Healthcare resource use was prospectively measured, and primary costing studies undertaken to estimate total health provider costs. Participants were interviewed to establish direct nonmedical and indirect costs over the first year of ART. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US$ and INT$. Health-related quality of life was measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D at each clinic visit. Multivariable analyses estimated predictors of economic outcomes. Of 325 participants attending HIV clinics for assessment for ART, 265 were identified through facility-based HTC, and 60 through HIVST; 168/265 (69.2%) and 36/60 (60.0%), respectively, met national ART eligibility criteria and initiated treatment. The mean total health provider assessment costs for ART initiation were US$22.79 (SE: 0.56) and US$19.92 (SE: 0.77) for facility-based HTC and HIVST participants, respectively, and was US$2.87 (bootstrap 95% CI: US$1.01 to US$4.73) lower for the HIVST group. The mean total health provider costs for the first year of ART were US$168.65 (SE: 2.02) and US$164.66 (SE: 4.21) for facility-based HTC and HIVST participants, respectively, and comparable between the 2 groups (bootstrap 95% CI: -US$12.38 to US$4.39). EQ-5D utility scores immediately before and one year after ART initiation were comparable between the 2 groups. EQ-5D utility scores 1 year after ART initiation had increased by 0.129 (SE: 0.011) and 0.139 (SE: 0.027) for facility-based HTC and HIVST participants

  12. Erythrocyte indices in the second trimester of pregnancy: are reference values well established? Índices eritrocitários no segundo trimestre da gravidez: os valores de referência estão bem estabelecidos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. Bresani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The erythrocyte index values in the pregnancy-puerperal cycle behave in a particular manner, however, the physiological or nosological meaning of such alterations are not well established. This study was aimed at analyzing the distribution of erythrocyte indices in the second trimester of pregnancy. The study was carried out with secondary data from 347 pregnant women in the 2nd trimester of low-risk prenatal care at the Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira (Recife, Brazil between May 2000 and June 2001. Measurements were performed using an automatic counter. Frequency distribution curves of erythrocyte indices (means and standard deviations and correlation curves of hematocrit (HTC and hemoglobin (Hb concentrations were constructed. The mean red blood cell number (RBC was 3.7 x 10(12cells/L; mean HTC was 32.9% and mean Hb was 10.8 g/dL; the values exhibited Gaussian distributions. The mean morphological values were 88.4 fL for the mean corpuscular volume; 29.0 pg for the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and 32.8 g/dL for the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; these values were not adjusted to Normal distributions. HTC values were three times higher than Hb values. Mean RBC, HTC and Hb values (used in the diagnosis of anemia were lower than thresholds considered normal and exhibited Gaussian distributions. Morphological indices remained within normal ranges, but without delineating a Normal curve. As expected HTC and Hb values behaved following a linear correlation.Os valores dos índices eritrocitários comportam-se de maneira particular no ciclo grávido-puerperal, entretanto, o significado fisiológico ou nosológico de tais alterações não está bem estabelecido. Este estudo objetivou analisar as distribuições dos índices eritrocitários no segundo trimestre da gestação. O estudo foi realizado baseando-se em dados secundários de 347 gestantes de 2º trimestre do pré-natal de baixo risco do Instituto Materno

  13. Profile of an HIV Testing and Counseling Unit in Bangladesh: Majority of New Diagnoses among Returning Migrant Workers and Spouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunthia Zaidi Urmi

    Full Text Available Analysis of data from HIV testing and counseling (HTC services provides an opportunity to identify important populations for targeting of HIV prevention efforts. Our primary aim was to describe the demographics of clients presenting to HTC in Bangladesh, a low HIV prevalence country. Our secondary aim was to determine the risk factors for HIV positivity among returning migrant workers who were tested.We performed a cross-sectional study of data collected between 2002 and 2010 from the first HTC service established in Bangladesh, located in three large cities.8973 individuals attended HTC services, with 558 (6.2% of clients testing positive for HIV, including 33 children. The majority of those who tested positive were aged 25-44 (71%, male (70%, and married (68%. Key populations considered at increased risk of HIV, such as female sex workers, people who inject drugs, and males who have sex with males accounted for only 11% of adults who tested positive. Notably, 75% of adults testing positive had a history of migrant work or was the spouse of a migrant worker. In multivariable logistic regression of those with a migrant work history presenting for HTC, we found rural residence, working in the Middle East, and longer duration of migrant work to be independently associated with testing positive, and female gender and higher level of education to be negatively associated.These data suggest that in Bangladesh, in addition to targeting traditional key populations, HIV prevention efforts should also focus on migrant workers and their spouses.

  14. Feasibility and effectiveness of two community-based HIV testing models in rural Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lucy Anne; Jobanputra, Kiran; Rusike, Lorraine; Mazibuko, Sikhathele; Okello, Velephi; Kerschberger, Bernhard; Jouquet, Guillaume; Cyr, Joanne; Teck, Roger

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility (population reached, costs) and effectiveness (positivity rates, linkage to care) of two strategies of community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in rural Swaziland. Strategies used were mobile HTC (MHTC) and home-based HTC (HBHTC). Information on age, sex, previous testing and HIV results was obtained from routine HTC records. A consecutive series of individuals testing HIV-positive were followed up for 6 months from the test date to assess linkage to care. A total of 9 060 people were tested: 2 034 through MHTC and 7 026 through HBHTC. A higher proportion of children and adolescents (<20 years) were tested through HBHTC than MHTC (57% vs. 17%; P < 0.001). MHTC reached a higher proportion of adult men than HBHTC (42% vs. 39%; P = 0.015). Of 398 HIV-positive individuals, only 135 (34%) were enrolled in HIV care within 6 months. Of 42 individuals eligible for antiretroviral therapy, 22 (52%) started treatment within 6 months. Linkage to care was lowest among people who had tested previously and those aged 20-40 years. HBHTC was 50% cheaper (US$11 per person tested; $797 per individual enrolled in HIV care) than MHTC ($24 and $1698, respectively). In this high HIV prevalence setting, a community-based testing programme achieved high uptake of testing and appears to be an effective and affordable way to encourage large numbers of people to learn their HIV status (particularly underserved populations such as men and young people). However, for community HTC to impact mortality and incidence, strategies need to be implemented to ensure people testing HIV-positive in the community are linked to HIV care. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Agronomic Management under Organic Farming May Affect the Bioactive Compounds of Lentil (Lens culinaris L. and Grass Pea (Lathyrus communis L.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Menga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A two year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of three row and eight row seeding on the total phenolic compound (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, hydrolyzed (HTC and condensed tannin (CTC, antioxidant activity (ABTS assay, protein content and soluble dietary fiber (SDF and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF in the extracts of lentil (Lens culinaris L. and grass pea (Lathyrus communis L. cultivated under organic farming. The aim of this study was to determine whether row spacing used for seeding in organic farming systems for lentil and grass pea is a suitable method to increase the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in these crops. Grass pea showed the highest mean SDF and protein while lentil varieties showed the greatest and significant content of all of the antioxidant compounds. In lentil, there were increases in TPC (52%, HTC (73%, TFC (85% and CTC (41%, passing from three rows to eight rows, while in grass pea, the increases were lower, and only significant for TFC and CTC (37%, 13% respectively. In both lentils and grass pea, the highest correlation coefficient was between TPC and HTC, which indicates that the HTC includes the predominant phenolic compounds in lentil as well as in grass pea (r = 0.98, 0.71 p < 0.001, respectively. Regardless of legume species, TPC, HTC, TFC and CTC showed significant (p < 0.001 and linear correlations with the ABTS assay. These data confirm the key role of row spacing for the improvement of the antioxidant properties of lentil in organic farming; moreover, they hint at the major responsiveness and adaptation of lentil to environmental stimulus with respect to grass pea.

  16. Human Thyroid Cancer-1 (TC-1 is a vertebrate specific oncogenic protein that protects against copper and pro-apoptotic genes in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie K. Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human Thyroid Cancer-1 (hTC-1 protein, also known as C8orf4 was initially identified as a gene that was up-regulated in human thyroid cancer. Here we show that hTC-1 is a peptide that prevents the effects of over-expressing Bax in yeast. Analysis of the 106 residues of hTC-1 in available protein databases revealed direct orthologues in jawed-vertebrates, including mammals, frogs, fish and sharks. No TC-1 orthologue was detected in lower organisms, including yeast. Here we show that TC-1 is a general pro-survival peptide since it prevents the growth- and cell death-inducing effects of copper in yeast. Human TC-1 also prevented the deleterious effects that occur due to the over-expression of a number of key pro-apoptotic peptides, including YCA1, YBH3, NUC1, and AIF1. Even though the protective effects were more pronounced with the over-expression of YBH3 and YCA1, hTC-1 could still protect yeast mutants lacking YBH3 and YCA1 from the effects of copper sulfate. This suggests that the protective effects of TC-1 are not limited to specific pathways or processes. Taken together, our results indicate that hTC-1 is a pro-survival protein that retains its function when heterologously expressed in yeast. Thus yeast is a useful model to characterize the potential roles in cell death and survival of cancer related genes.

  17. Age-Related Differences in Socio-demographic and Behavioral Determinants of HIV Testing and Counseling in HPTN 043/NIMH Project Accept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Austin, N; Kulich, M; Chingono, A; Chariyalertsak, S; Srithanaviboonchai, K; Gray, G; Richter, L; van Rooyen, H; Morin, S; Sweat, M; Mbwambo, J; Szekeres, G; Coates, T; Celentano, D

    2017-06-06

    Youth represent a large proportion of new HIV infections worldwide, yet their utilization of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) remains low. Using the post-intervention, cross-sectional, population-based household survey done in 2011 as part of HPTN 043/NIMH Project Accept, a cluster-randomized trial of community mobilization and mobile HTC in South Africa (Soweto and KwaZulu Natal), Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Thailand, we evaluated age-related differences among socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of HTC in study participants by study arm, site, and gender. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed using complete individual data from 13,755 participants with recent HIV testing (prior 12 months) as the outcome. Youth (18-24 years) was not predictive of recent HTC, except for high-risk youth with multiple concurrent partners, who were less likely (aOR 0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.92) to have recently been tested than youth reporting a single partner. Importantly, the intervention was successful in reaching men with site specific success ranging from aOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.05-1.53) in South Africa to aOR 2.30 in Thailand (95% CI 1.85-2.84). Finally, across a diverse range of settings, higher education (aOR 1.67; 95% CI 1.42, 1.96), higher socio-economic status (aOR 1.21; 95% CI 1.08-1.36), and marriage (aOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.37-1.75) were all predictive of recent HTC, which did not significantly vary across study arm, site, gender or age category (18-24 vs. 25-32 years).

  18. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF ARGLABIN IN HEPATOMA TISSUE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ratkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Investigation of hypolipidemic effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone Arglabin in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC.Materials and methods. In this study we’ve evaluated the effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone Arglabin and gemfibrozil (reference drug on the lipid content in the hepatoma tissue culture (HTC which were incubated with a fat emulsion “Lipofundin” by fluorescent method with vital dye Nile Red. The cell viability was investigated using the MTT-test and staining by Trypan blue.Results. Cultivation of cell cultures of rat’s hepatoma cell line HTC with Arglabin and gemfibrozil in concentrations from 10 to 50 μmol and from 0.25 to 0.5 mmol, respectively, had no cytotoxic effect. HTC cell viability did not change compared with the corresponding rate in the control culture. Experimental hyperlipidemia in hepatoma culture was induced by the addition in the incubation medium of fat emulsion “Lipofundin” in a final concentration of 0.05 %. The fluorescence intensity of Nile Red in the cells was increased 4-fold (p < 0.05, which indicates a significant accumulation of lipids in the cytosol of cells. In these steady-state Arglabin and gemfibrozil at concentrations 75–100 μM and 0.25–1.0 mM, respectively, reduced the content of lipid in cells. Conclusion. In the model of hyperlipidemia induced by lipofundin, sesquiterpene γ-lactone Arglabin prevents the accumulation of lipids in the HTC cell line, as evidenced by a decrease in Nile Red fluorescence. However hypolipidemic effect of Arglabin is associated with cytotoxic effects, which is typical for anticancer drugs.

  19. Comparative analysis of pinewood, peanut shell, and bamboo biomass derived biochars produced via hydrothermal conversion and pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Matthew D; Kumar, Sandeep; Lee, James W

    2014-12-15

    Biochars were produced from pinewood, peanut shell, and bamboo biomass through hydrothermal conversion (HTC) at 300 °C and comparatively by slow pyrolysis over a temperature range of 300, 400, and 500 °C. These biochars were characterized by FT-IR, cation exchange capacity (CEC) assay, methylene blue adsorption, as well as proximate and elemental analysis. The experimental results demonstrated higher retained oxygen content in biochars produced at lower pyrolysis temperatures and through HTC, which also correlated to the higher CEC of respective biochars. Furthermore, all types of biochar studied herein were capable of adsorption of methylene blue from solution and the adsorption did not appear to strongly correlate with CEC, indicating that the methylene blue adsorption appears to be dependent more upon the non-electrostatic molecular interactions such as the likely dispersive π-π interactions between the graphene-like sheets of the biochar with the aromatic ring structure of the dye, than the electrostatic CEC. A direct comparison of hydrothermal and pyrolysis converted biochars reveals that biochars produced through HTC have much higher CEC than the biochars produced by slow pyrolysis. Analysis by FT-IR reveals a higher retention of oxygen functional groups in HTC biochars; additionally, there is an apparent trend of increasing aromaticity of the pyrolysis biochars when produced at higher temperatures. The CEC value of the HTC biochar appears correlated with its oxygen functional group content as indicated by the FT-IR measurements and its O:C ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochar in mind. Production, use and evaluation; Biokohle im Blick. Herstellung, Einsatz und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Klaus [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft; Bergs, Claus-Gerhard [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany); Kammann, Claudia [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenoekologie; Quicker, Peter [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Technologie der Energierohstoffe; Wallmann, Rainer (eds.) [Umweltdezernat Werra-Meissner-Kreis, Eschwege (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Within the 2nd INTERREG NSR Biochar Conference from 19th to 20th September, 2012, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Biochar research and technology in Europe - State of the art (B. Glaser); (2) Thermochemical processes to produce biochar (P. Quicker); (3) Hydrothermal processes (HTC and VTC) in energetic exploitation chains (A. Funke); (4) Technical potentials to impact the properties of coal (H. Gerber); (5) Application possibilities of biochar in metallurgical processes (M. Schulten); (6) Framework conditions and criteria for the use of biochar in cement works (G. Hartmann); (7) Implementation of the HTC into the commercial scale using AVA-CO2 as an example (T.M. Klaeusli); (8) Anaerobic utilization of HTC process waters (D. Bloehse); (9) Energetic utilization of biochar (K. Serfass); (10) Emissions of greenhouse gases and nitrogen transformation processes in vegetable coal soils (C. Kammann); (10) A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis (S. Jeffery); (11) HTC, biogas and agriculture - the APECS concepts (J. Mumme); (12) Vegetable coal, a key technology for the closing of material loops (H.-P. Schmidt); (13) Utilization of vegetable coal substrates in order to accelerate the degradation of organic contaminants (K. Terzyte); (14) Eco-balance in line with the EU Interreg project: 'Biochar: Climate saving soils' (J.-M. Roedger); (15) Biochar: Contaminant source or sink? (I. Hilber); (16) HTC process water: Recycling or disposal? State of knowledge and methods of resolution (B. Weiner); (17) Application of vegetable char in the eco-region Kaindorf (Austria) (G. Dunst); (18) Business cases for biochar production and utilization (R. van Haren); (19) Post-combustion strategies for the carbon cycle: Visions for the future (G. Kreysa).

  1. Sustainable biomass-derived hydrothermal carbons for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, Camillo

    2012-01-15

    The need to reduce humankind reliance on fossil fuels by exploiting sustainably the planet renewable resources is a major driving force determining the focus of modern material research. For this reason great interest is nowadays focused on finding alternatives to fossil fuels derived products/materials. For the short term the most promising substitute is undoubtedly biomass, since it is the only renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels as carbon source. As a consequence efforts, aimed at finding new synthetic approaches to convert biomass and its derivatives into carbon-based materials, are constantly increasing. In this regard, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) has shown to be an effective means of conversion of biomass-derived precursors into functional carbon materials. However the attempts to convert raw biomass, in particular lignocellulosic one, directly into such products have certainly been rarer. Unlocking the direct use of these raw materials as carbon precursors would definitely be beneficial in terms of HTC sustainability. For this reason, in this thesis the HTC of carbohydrate and protein-rich biomass was systematically investigated, in order to obtain more insights on the potentials of this thermochemical processing technique in relation to the production of functional carbon materials from crude biomass. First a detailed investigation on the HTC conversion mechanism of lignocellulosic biomass and its single components (i.e. cellulose, lignin) was developed based on a comparison with glucose HTC, which was adopted as a reference model. In the glucose case it was demonstrated that varying the HTC temperature allowed tuning the chemical structure of the synthesised carbon materials from a highly cross-linked furan-based structure (T = 180 C) to a carbon framework composed of polyaromatic arene-like domains. When cellulose or lignocellulosic biomass was used as carbon precursor, the furan rich structure could not be isolated at any of the

  2. Expenditure Analysis of HIV Testing and Counseling Services Using the Cascade Framework in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thu Nguyen

    Full Text Available Currently, HIV testing and counseling (HTC services in Vietnam are primarily funded by international sources. However, international funders are now planning to withdraw their support and the Government of Vietnam (GVN is seeking to identify domestic funding and generate client fees to continue services. A clear understanding of the cost to sustain current HTC services is becoming increasingly important to facilitate planning that can lead to making HTC and other HIV services more affordable and sustainable in Vietnam. The objectives of this analysis were to provide a snapshot of current program costs to achieve key program outcomes including 1 testing and identifying PLHIV unaware of their HIV status and 2 successfully enrolling HIV (+ clients in care.We reviewed expenditure data reported by 34 HTC sites in nine Vietnamese provinces over a one-year period from October 2012 to September 2013. Data on program outcomes were extracted from the HTC database of 42,390 client records. Analysis was carried out from the service providers' perspective.The mean expenditure for a single client provided HTC services (testing, receiving results and referral for care/treatment was US $7.6. The unit expenditure per PLHIV identified through these services varied widely from US $22.8 to $741.5 (median: $131.8. Excluding repeat tests, the range for expenditure to newly diagnose a PLHIV was even wider (from US $30.8 to $1483.0. The mean expenditure for one successfully referred HIV client to care services was US $466.6. Personnel costs contributed most to the total cost.Our analysis found a wide range of expenditures by site for achieving the same outcomes. Re-designing systems to provide services at the lowest feasible cost is essential to making HIV services more affordable and treatment for prevention programs feasible in Vietnam. The analysis also found that understanding the determinants and reasons for variance in service costs by site is an important

  3. Cost-effectiveness of community-based strategies to strengthen the continuum of HIV care in rural South Africa: a health economic modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer A; Sharma, Monisha; Levin, Carol; Baeten, Jared M; van Rooyen, Heidi; Celum, Connie; Hallett, Timothy B; Barnabas, Ruanne V

    2015-04-01

    Home HIV counselling and testing (HTC) achieves high coverage of testing and linkage to care compared with existing facility-based approaches, particularly among asymptomatic individuals. In a modelling analysis we aimed to assess the effect on population-level health and cost-effectiveness of a community-based package of home HTC in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We parameterised an individual-based model with data from home HTC and linkage field studies that achieved high coverage (91%) and linkage to antiretroviral therapy (80%) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Costs were derived from a linked microcosting study. The model simulated 10,000 individuals over 10 years and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated for the intervention relative to the existing status quo of facility-based testing, with costs discounted at 3% annually. The model predicted implementation of home HTC in addition to current practice to decrease HIV-associated morbidity by 10–22% and HIV infections by 9–48% with increasing CD4 cell count thresholds for antiretroviral therapy initiation. Incremental programme costs were US$2·7 million to $4·4 million higher in the intervention scenarios than at baseline, and costs increased with higher CD4 cell count thresholds for antiretroviral therapy initiation; antiretroviral therapy accounted for 48–87% of total costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per disability-adjusted life-year averted were $1340 at an antiretroviral therapy threshold of CD4 count lower than 200 cells per μL, $1090 at lower than 350 cells per μL, $1150 at lower than 500 cells per μL, and $1360 at universal access to antiretroviral therapy. Community-based HTC with enhanced linkage to care can result in increased HIV testing coverage and treatment uptake, decreasing the population burden of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are less than 20% of South Africa's gross domestic product per person, and

  4. Combustion kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Kabir, G; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the combustion profile and kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of Karanj fruit hulls (KFH). The HTC-KFH hydrochar combustion kinetics was investigated at 5, 10, and 20°C/min by thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetics model, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose revealed the combustion kinetics parameters for the extent of conversion from 0.1 to 0.8; the activation energy varies from 114 to 67 kJ/mol respectively. The hydrochar combustion followed multi-steps kinetics; the Coats-Redfern models predicted the activation energies and pre-exponential constants for the hydrochar combustion zones. The diffusion models are the effective mechanism in the second and third zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selected agro-climatic characteristics and wine-grape yields in the Southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Antoš

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The sums of average daily temperatures higher than 10 °C (TS10 in the period from April to September describe the temperature conditions in the given area. The absolute precipitation sums concerning the season, i.e. from April to September, and the Seljaninov s Hydrothermical Coefficient (HTC during the period from June to August describe precipitation and moisture conditions. The HTC values confirm the fact that the South Moravian region belongs among the most arid regions in the Czech Republic. The attention is, also, devoted to connections between the wine-grape yield and the weather conditions in 1997, an abnormal year from the meteorological point of view.

  6. Hemophilia Management via Data Collection and Reporting: Initial Findings from the Comprehensive Care Sustainability Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Michael D; Pindolia, Vanita K

    2017-01-01

    Despite being a rare disorder, hemophilia represents a significant driver of health care resource utilization and requires expert hematologic and multidisciplinary services to achieve optimal outcomes. Since their inception nearly 40 years ago, hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs) have served as centers of excellence in providing the intensive care and ancillary services necessary for this unique patient base; however, the full capabilities of these centers may be underused in the current framework of managed care, largely because of a lack of communication and information shared between payers and HTC stakeholders. In an effort to enact tangible change toward improving the quality of care for bleeding disorders, the National Hemophilia Foundation developed an ongoing initiative among 18 leading clinicians and managed care decision makers called the Comprehensive Care Sustainability Collaborative (CCSC). The primary aim of the CCSC is to develop a framework for quality improvement pilot programs that can be replicated across the United States between payers and HTCs to facilitate cost-effective hemophilia management by integrating the HTC comprehensive care model. After CCSC committee members shared perspectives on care delivery, quality, and value, actionable data points were reviewed at length in order to develop meaningful metrics to facilitate information sharing between HTC and payer stakeholders. The following pragmatic measures will be reported by HTCs and payers via a series of pilot programs (reporting group is indicated in brackets): (a) patient classification by diagnosis (type, severity, and inhibitor status) [HTC]; (b) total cost of clotting factor [payer]; (c) prescribed factor dose/dispensed dose/patient weight (± range) [payer and HTC]; (d) emergency department visits/hospitalizations [payer and HTC]; (e) home infusion of clotting factor (%) [HTC]; (f) total cost per patient [payer]; and (g) patient contacts (e.g., clinic visits, follow

  7. Environmental performance of hydrothermal carbonization of four wet biomass waste streams at industry-relevant scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Ryberg, Morten; Renz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of green waste, food waste, organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), and digestate is assessed using life cycle assessment as a potential technology to treat biowaste. Water content of the biowaste and composition of the resulting hydrochar are important...... parameters influencing environmental performance. Hydrochar produced from green waste performs best and second best in respectively 2 and 10 out of 15 impact categories, including climate change, mainly due to low transportation needs of the biowaste and optimized pumping efficiency for the feedstock....... By contrast, hydrochar produced from the organic fraction of MSW performs best in 6 impact categories, but has high potential impacts on human health and ecosystems caused by emissions of toxic elements through ash disposal. The greatest potential for environmental optimization for the HTC technology...

  8. Heat-Transfer Coefficient and In-Cavity Pressure at the Casting-Die Interface during High-Pressure Die Casting of the Magnesium Alloy AZ91D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaiid, A.; Dour, G.; Dargusch, M. S.; Loulou, T.; Davidson, C.; Savage, G.

    2008-04-01

    The present article deals with the application of a new measurement method to determine the heat-transfer coefficient (HTC) and the heat flux density at the casting-die interface during high-pressure die casting (HPDC) and solidification of the magnesium AZ91D alloy. The main measurements during the trial included velocity and the position of the piston that delivers the metal into the die, the pressure in the die cavity and at the tip of the piston, the alloy surface temperature, and the die temperature at different depths from the surface of the die. The temperature data were analyzed using an inverse method to determine the HTC at the casting-die interface during solidification. This article examines in detail the influence of the piston velocity and in-cavity pressure on heat transfer at the casting-die interface during casting and solidification of the magnesium AZ91D alloy.

  9. Hydrothermal Carbonization: Modeling, Final Properties Design and Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Román

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active research on biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC continues to demonstrate its advantages over other thermochemical processes, in particular the interesting benefits that are associated with carbonaceous solid products, called hydrochar (HC. The areas of applications of HC range from biofuel to doped porous material for adsorption, energy storage, and catalysis. At the same time, intensive research has been aimed at better elucidating the process mechanisms and kinetics, and how the experimental variables (temperature, time, biomass load, feedstock composition, as well as their interactions affect the distribution between phases and their composition. This review provides an analysis of the state of the art on HTC, mainly with regard to the effect of variables on the process, the associated kinetics, and the characteristics of the solid phase (HC, as well as some of the more studied applications so far. The focus is on research made over the last five years on these topics.

  10. Modelling the effect of coating on the stresses and microstructure evolution in chill casting of wind turbine main shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Thorborg, J.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to quantify the effect of the inside coating on chills for casting of large wind turbine main shafts with respect to the evolution of internal stresses. These are known to affect the lifetime of the chills, and this is a major cost for the foundries today....... Simulations of the casting process are performed with four different heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) between the casting and the chill, and the resulting transient stress fields are reported in the chill. The microstructural evolution in the casting in terms of the nodule count is also modelled...... the HTC from 2000 to 500 W m−2 K−1. These results indicate that the lifetime of the chill will not be significantly improved by adding a thicker layer of coating. The microstructure evolution is not very much affected by the HTC value with a maximum reduction in nodule count of 6.5%. Therefore...

  11. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Postalli Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa and mammal (HTC cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  12. Comparative study of convective heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryam, Hina; Ramzan, Naveed; Umer, Asim; Awan, Gul Hameed; Hassan, Ali

    2017-07-01

    The present research is about to draw a comparison between heat transfer characteristics of gold/deionized water (DIW) and silver/DIW based nanofluid under same heat flux for laminar flow. Experiments are performed on both nanofluid by using different concentrations (0.015, 0.045, 0.0667%) of nano-particles (NPs) in DIW as a base fluid. The experimental study concludes that an appreciable intensification in heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of both nanofluid has been attained as compare to base fluid. However, gold/DIW based nanofluid exhibit better convective heat transfer intensification compared with silver/DIW based nanofluid but Shah correlation cannot predict as much augmentation as in experimental work for both nanofluid. It is also noticed that the anomalous enhancement in Nusselt number and HTC is not only due to the accession in thermal properties but also by the formation of thinner thermal boundary layer at the entrance of the tube due to NPs.

  13. Biased G protein-coupled receptor agonism mediates Neu1 sialidase and matrix metalloproteinase-9 crosstalk to induce transactivation of insulin receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxho, Fiona; Haq, Sabah; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2017-12-24

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) can participate in a number of signaling pathways, and this property led to the concept of biased GPCR agonism. Agonists, antagonists and allosteric modulators can bind to GPCRs in different ways, creating unique conformations that differentially modulate signaling through one or more G proteins. A unique neuromedin B (NMBR) GPCR-signaling platform controlling mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) crosstalk has been reported in the activation of the insulin receptor (IR) through the modification of the IR glycosylation. Here, we propose that there exists a biased GPCR agonism as small diffusible molecules in the activation of Neu1-mediated insulin receptor signaling. GPCR agonists bombesin, bradykinin, angiotensin I and angiotensin II significantly and dose-dependently induce Neu1 sialidase activity and IR activation in human IR-expressing rat hepatoma cell lines (HTC-IR), in the absence of insulin. Furthermore, the GPCR agonist-induced Neu1 sialidase activity could be specifically blocked by the NMBR inhibitor, BIM-23127. Protein expression analyses showed that these GPCR agonists significantly induced phosphorylation of IRβ and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1). Among these, angiotensin II was the most potent GPCR agonist capable of promoting IRβ phosphorylation in HTC-IR cells. Interestingly, treatment with BIM-23127 and Neu1 inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate were able to block GPCR agonist-induced IR activation in HTC cells in vitro. Additionally, we found that angiotensin II receptor (type I) exists in a multimeric receptor complex with Neu1, IRβ and NMBR in naïve (unstimulated) and stimulated HTC-IR cells with insulin, bradykinin, angiotensin I and angiotensin II. This complex suggests a molecular link regulating the interaction and signaling mechanism between these molecules on the cell surface. These findings uncover a biased GPCR agonist-induced IR transactivation signaling axis

  14. Holodeck-ISS Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbolt, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    For the duration of my internship here at JSC for the summer 2016 session, the main project that I worked on dealt with hybrid reality simulations of the ISS. As an ER6 intern for the spacecraft software division, the main project that I worked alongside others was with regards to the Holodeck Virtual Reality Project, specifically with the ISS experience, with the use of the HTC Vive and controllers.

  15. Extended screened exchange functional derived from transcorrelated density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Naoto

    2017-09-01

    We propose a new formulation of the correlation energy functional derived from the transcorrelated method in use in density functional theory (TC-DFT). An effective Hamiltonian, HTC, is introduced by a similarity transformation of a many-body Hamiltonian, H , with respect to a complex function F: HTC=1/F H F . It is proved that an expectation value of HTC for a normalized single Slater determinant, Dn, corresponds to the total energy: E [n ] = ⟨Ψn|H |Ψn ⟩ /⟨Ψn|Ψn ⟩ = ⟨Dn|HTC|Dn ⟩ under the two assumptions: (1) The electron density n (r ) associated with a trial wave function Ψn = DnF is v -representable and (2) Ψn and Dn give rise to the same electron density n (r ). This formulation, therefore, provides an alternative expression of the total energy that is useful for the development of novel correlation energy functionals. By substituting a specific function for F, we successfully derived a model correlation energy functional, which resembles the functional form of the screened exchange method. The proposed functional, named the extended screened exchange (ESX) functional, is described within two-body integrals and is parametrized for a numerically exact correlation energy of the homogeneous electron gas. The ESX functional does not contain any ingredients of (semi-)local functionals and thus is totally free from self-interactions. The computational cost for solving the self-consistent-field equation is comparable to that of the Hartree-Fock method. We apply the ESX functional to electronic structure calculations for a solid silicon, H- ion, and small atoms. The results demonstrate that the TC-DFT formulation is promising for the systematic improvement of the correlation energy functional.

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

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  17. Field Information Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Dell, Garmin, Haier, HTC, Huawei, Kyocera, Lenovo, LG, Motorola, NEC, Samsung , Sharp, Sony Ericsson, Toshiba, and ZTE (Open Handset Alliance, 2010...communicated. From the schools listed in the article, it became apparent that only three form the core of the recruiting locations for Noordin’s...Based on the visualizations and further analysis, it appeared as if the educational institutions formed the basis of recruitment and foundation upon

  18. Human-Tiger conflict in context: risks to lives and livelihoods in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas C. MacMillan; Inskip, Chloe; Ridout, Martin S.; Fahad, Zubair; Tully, Rowan; Barlow, Adam; Greenwood Barlow, Christina; Islam, Anwar; Roberts, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    People’s perceptions of the risk posed by wild animals to human lives and/or livelihoods can influence the rate at\\ud which people intentionally kill these species. Consequently, human–wildlife conflict (HWC) management strategies may benefit from the inclusion of actions which reduce risk perceptions. This study uses Participatory Risk Mapping (PRM) and semi-structured interviews to explore local perceptions and the wider socio-economic context of human–tiger conflict (HTC)in the Bangladesh ...

  19. Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Song

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i high temperature control (HTC, ii traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I and iii traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II (n = 9 per group. The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05. Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05, and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05, compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05. The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05. Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05. The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility.

  20. Study of temperature control in cyber-physical home system environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhuo; Tan, Yasuo; Lim, Azman Osman

    2013-01-01

    Technology advances allow us to design smart home system for the purpose to achieve high demands on occupants' comfort. In this research, we focus on the temperature control to build a thermal comfort controller for the existing hybrid temperature control (HTC) system, which is based on the cyber-physical system (CPS) approach. By using air-conditioner, window and curtain, our proposed controller can acquire the desired temperature under the high energy efficiency. Through the raw data from e...

  1. Study of temperature control using cyber-physical system approach in home environment

    OpenAIRE

    Shein, Wai Wai; Cheng, Zhuo; Tan, Yasuo; Lim, Azman Osman

    2013-01-01

    Technology advances allow us to design smart home system for the purpose to achieve high demand on occupants’ comfort. In this research, we focus on the temperature control to build a thermal comfort controller for the existing hybrid temperature control (HTC) system, which is based on the cyber-physical system (CPS) approach. By using air-conditioner, window and curtain, our proposed controller can acquire the desired temperature under the high energy efficiency. Through the raw data from ex...

  2. Exploring the Design Space of Immersive Urban Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhutian; Wang, Yifang; Sun, Tianchen; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Wei; Pan, Zhigeng; Qu, Huamin; Wu, Yingcai

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid development and wide adoption of immersive head-mounted devices, such as HTC VIVE, Oculus Rift, and Microsoft HoloLens. These immersive devices have the potential to significantly extend the methodology of urban visual analytics by providing critical 3D context information and creating a sense of presence. In this paper, we propose an theoretical model to characterize the visualizations in immersive urban analytics. Further more, based on our comprehensiv...

  3. Most smartphones now have touchscreens, research finds; But non-touchscreen BlackBerry Curve bests iPhone for most popular U.S. smartphone; Android, Nokia make huge smartphone leaps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Brad

    2010-01-01

    ... units shipped worldwide. However, Nokia is climbing fast in the smartphone market, as its total shipments exploded from just over 500,000 in 2008 to 22.4 million units shipped in 2009. Nokia hit the market in a big way this year by releasing several touchscreen devices, including the N97 and the N900. HTC and Samsung rounded out the top fou...

  4. Updating the theoretical analysis of the weak gravitational shielding experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Modanese, G

    1996-01-01

    The most recent data about the weak gravitational shielding produced recently through a levitating and rotating HTC superconducting disk show a very weak dependence of the shielding value ($\\sim 1 \\%$) on the height above the disk. We show that whilst this behaviour is incompatible with an intuitive vectorial picture of the shielding, it is consistently explained by our theoretical model. The expulsive force observed at the border of the shielded zone is due to energy conservation.

  5. Hydrothermal Conversion of Neutral Sulfite Semi-Chemical Red Liquor into Hydrochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Gamgoum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochar was produced from neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC red liquor as a possible bio-based solid fuel for use in power generation facilities. Hydrothermal conversion (HTC experiments were conducted using a fixed liquor-to-water volume ratio of 1:8 and reaction time of 3 h. Solutions were processed using different chemical additives, pH and temperature conditions to determine the optimum conditions required for producing a high energy content solid fuel. The hydrochar samples produced were analyzed by ultimate, thermogravimetric (TGA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analyses to determine physicochemical properties that are important for utilization as a fuel. The residual process liquids were also analyzed to better understand the effect of HTC process conditions on their properties. It was determined that the optimum conditions for producing a solid fuel was at a reaction temperature of 250 °C, in the presence of acetic acid at pH 3. The maximum energy content (HHV of the hydrochar produced from red liquor at this condition was 29.87 MJ/kg, and its ash content was 1.12 wt.%. This result reflects the effect of increasing reaction temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrochar. The increase of HTC temperature significantly reduces the ash content of the hydrochar, leads to a significant increase in the carbon content of the hydrochar, and a reduction in both the oxygen and hydrogen content. These effects suggests an increase in the degree of condensation of the hydrochar products, and consequently the formation of a high energy content material. Based on TGA and FTIR analyses, hydrochars prepared at high HTC temperature showed lower adsorbed moisture, hemicellulose and cellulose contents, with enrichment in content of higher temperature volatiles, such as lignin.

  6. Application of calorimetry in evaluation of phase transformations in the selected hypoeutectic silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of phase transformations described in this study were carried out on hypoeutectic alloys from the Al-Si during heating and cooling. The determination and analysis of characteristic temperature values from the solidification range was made by the DSC method in calorimetric investigations carried out on a high-temperature multi HTC Setaram scanning calorimeter. Applying the lever rule, the phase composition of the examined slumins was calculated and compared with the results of DSC calorimetry.

  7. Innovative strategies using communications technologies to engage gay men and other men who have sex with men into early HIV testing and treatment in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tarandeep; Nitpolprasert, Chattiya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Pakam, Charnwit; Nonenoy, Siriporn; Jantarapakde, Jureeporn; Sohn, Annette H; Phanuphak, Praphan; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2015-04-01

    One-in-three men who have sex with men (MSM) surveyed between 2007 and 2010 in Bangkok were HIV infected; 54% of new infections in Thailand are expected to be among MSM. Although MSM are the top internet-accessing population in Thailand, it has not been optimally used to scale up early HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and linkage to treatment. Thailand needs innovative technology-based strategies to help address the exploding epidemic of HIV among gay men and other MSM. Adam's Love, an innovative web-based communications strategy, was launched in 2011 by the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre. It includes a dedicated website, integrated social media and web message boards for online counselling, recruitment and appointment making, a club membership programme offering non-financial incentives for HTC, targeted marketing and promotions, and collaboration with MSM-friendly clinics and private hospitals to improve accessibility of HTC services. Between September 2011 and January 2015, the website engaged 1.69 million viewers, and gained more than 8 million page views. An estimated 11,120 gay men and other MSM received online counselling; 8,288 MSM were referred to HTC services; 1,223 to STI testing services; and 1,112 MSM living with HIV were advised regarding HIV treatment. In total, 1,181 MSM recruited online were enrolled in the club membership programme, and 15.5% were diagnosed with HIV. The Adam's Love programme has successfully demonstrated the potential for utilising 'online-to-offline' recruitment models in Thailand, and has attracted national and regional recognition as a trusted resource on HIV and referral to testing and care.

  8. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleja Pavol; Kozlovská Mária

    2017-01-01

    We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools ...

  9. [Early evaluation of anaemia in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding: venous blood gas analysis compared to conventional laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez Cantero, José Manuel; Jurado García, Juan; Ruiz Cuesta, Patricia; González Galilea, Angel; Muñoz García-Borruel, María; García Sánchez, Valle; Gálvez Calderón, Carmen

    2013-10-19

    Evaluation of patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGB) requires early clinical evaluation and analysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate early concordance of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HTC) levels determined by conventional venous blood gas analysis (VBG) and by conventional Laboratory in Emergencies (LAB). Observational and prospective study of patients admitted in the Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage Unit with both high and low AGB. Demographic and clinical variables and simultaneous venous blood samples were obtained to determine Hb and HTC by VBG and LAB. Concordance in both methods was analysed by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. One hundred and thirty-two patients were included: 87 (65.9%) males, average age 66.8 years. VBG overestimated Hb in 0.49 g/dl (95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.76) with respect to LAB. Concordance was very high in Hb (ICC 0.931) and high in HTC (0.899), with the Bland-Altman graphs showing both concordance and overestimation of Hb levels determined by VBG. In 19 patients (14.39%), Hb by VBG exceeded in more than 1g/dL the final determination obtained by LAB. Early determination of Hb and HTC in patients with AGB by VBG provides reliable results in the initial evaluation of anaemia. VBG systematically overestimates Hb values by less than 0.5 g/dl, and therefore clinical and hemodynamic evaluation of the bleeding patient should prevail over analytical results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program: Annual Report 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Introduction vi Military International HIV/AIDS viii Training Program Seroprevalence and Behavioral xii Epidemiology Risk Survey...THE WAR AGAINST HIV/AIDS Introduction The US Government has a long history and extensive network of international collaboration and partnerships in... malaria , HTC, full blood count, chemistry analysis, baseline CD4 testing, and CD4s for patient monitoring. The lab services have benefited all

  11. Effects of achilline on lipid metabolism gene expression in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ratkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluation in vitro of the mechanisms of the hypolipidemic effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone achilline in the hepatoma tissue culture (HTC.Materials and methods.The influence of sesquiterpene γ-lactone achilline and gemfibrozil (comparison drug on the viability, lipid content and expression of key genes of lipid metabolism in the hepatoma tissue culture. The lipid content was assessed by fluorescent method with the vital dye Nile Red, the cell viability was assessed using MTT assay.Results. Cultivation of of cell cultures of rat’s hepatoma cell line HTC for 48 h with achilline in a concentration of from 0.25 to 1.0 mm and gemfibrozil from 0,25 to 0,5 mm did not change cell viability compared to control. In these same concentrations of the test substance reduced the lipid content in the cells, assessed by fluorescent method with the vital dye Nile Red. To study the mechanism of hypolipidemicaction of achillinedetermined the expression of key genes of lipid metabolism in cell culture lines HTC. The possible mechanism of hypolipidemic action of achilline can be attributed to the increased transport and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria, as evidenced by the increase in the gene expression of carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2. The decrease in cholesterol level may be due to increased synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol, due to increased gene expression of 7-alphahydroxylase (Cyp7a1. Conclusion. In cell cultures of rat’s hepatoma cell line HTC sesquiterpene γ-lactone achilline reduces the accumulation of lipids in cells, as evidenced by the decrease in the fluorescence of Nile Red, increased gene expression of the carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2 gene and 7-alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1.

  12. Pulsed laser deposition and characterisation of thin superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morone, A. [CNR, zona industriale di Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy). Istituto per i Materiali Speciali

    1996-09-01

    Same concepts on pulsed laser deposition of thin films will be discussed and same examples of high transition temperature (HTc) BiSrCaCuO (BISCO) and low transition temperature NbN/MgO/NbN multilayers will be presented. X-ray and others characterizations of these films will be reported and discussed. Electrical properties of superconducting thin films will be realized as a function of structural and morphological aspect.

  13. Innovative sewage sludge utilization in Switzerland; Innovative Klaerschlammverwertung in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiler, Erwin [oeCompany - Renewable Energy Consulting, Graz (Austria)

    2017-08-01

    ln the nature in millions of years running of coal origin process is technically copied with the socalled hydrothermal carbonization within less hours. As source substrate any biomass can be used practically. ln the case of sewage sludge as the starting substrate, both fresh and sludge dewatering can be used. The advantage of the HTC procedure compared with to conventional sewage sludge utilisation lies, among other things, in the lower energy consumption during the process. Therefore, overall, it is more environmentally friendly.

  14. A Discussion about the Methodology to Validate the Correlations of Heat Transfer Coefficients and Pressure Drop during the Condensation in a Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Pisano, Alessandro; Martinez-Ballester, Santiago; Corberán, José M.; Hidalgo Monpeán, Fernando; Illán Gómez, Ferdando; García Cascales, J-Ramón

    2014-01-01

    As already demonstrated by others authors, when the performance of a heat exchanger is analyzed, a semi-empirical model allows getting good prediction of the experimental results provided that it is accompanied by the application of the suitable correlations for calculating heat transfer coefficients (HTC) and pressure drop (PD) in both refrigerant and air side. Many correlations for calculating these coefficients are available in literature, therefore choose the more suitable of them turns o...

  15. Hydrothermal carbonisation of poultry litter: Effects of initial pH on yields and chemical properties of hydrochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Bashir M; Kwapinski, Witold; Leahy, James J

    2017-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of poultry litter (PL) was carried out to evaluate the impact of initial pH using acetic acid (CH3COOH) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on the yields and properties of hydrochar (HC). The PL samples were treated by HTC at various initial pH and at 250°C for 2h. The HCs produced were characterized by ultimate, proximate and fibre analyses as well as heating value and surface area measurements. The results indicated that undertaking HTC in the presence of acids (CH3COOH, H2SO4) significantly affects the yields and properties of HC. The C content and HHV of the HC increased with decreasing initial pH. In the presence of H2SO4, the hydrochar yield (HY) increased while the ash content was significantly reduced. The lowest ash content and the highest HY were measured in the HC produced from the suspension with an initial pH of 2 using H2SO4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Forth-back oscillated charge carrier motion in dynamically disordered hexathienocoronene molecules: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navamani, K; Senthilkumar, K

    2015-07-21

    Electronic structure calculations were performed to investigate the charge transport properties of hexathienocoronene (HTC) based molecules. The effective displacement of the charge carrier along the π-orbital of nearby molecules is calculated by monitoring the forth and back oscillations of the charge carrier through kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The charge transport parameters such as charge transfer rate, mobility, hopping conductivity, localized charge density, time average effective mass and degeneracy pressure are calculated and used to study the charge transport mechanism in the studied molecules. The existence of degeneracy levels facilitates the charge transfer and is analyzed through degeneracy pressure. Theoretical results show that the site energy difference in the dynamically disordered system controls the forth-back oscillation of charge carrier and facilitates the unidirectional charge transport mechanism along the sequential localized sites. The ethyl substituted HTC has good hole and electron hopping conductivity of 415 and 894 S cm(-1), respectively, whereas unsubstituted HTC has the small hole mobility of 0.06 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is due to large average effective mass of 1.42 × 10(-28) kg.

  17. One-step preparation of carbon-based solid acid catalyst from water hyacinth leaves for esterification of oleic acid and dehydration of xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohapornchaiphan, Jutitorn; Smith, Christopher; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2017-10-25

    Carbon-based solid acid catalysts were successfully obtained via one step hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of water hyacinth (WH) in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). Increasing HTC temperatures from 180 to 240°C resulted in carbonaceous materials with increased sulfur content, and less adsorbed water. Material obtained at 220°C (WH-PTSA-220) contains the highest amount of acid sites, and promotes the highest initial rate of two transformations, methanolysis of oleic acid, and dehydration of xylose to furfural. While all PSTA treated WH catalysts gave comparable fatty acid conversions (97%) and furfural yields (60%) after prolonged reaction times, the WH-PTSA-240 system bearing a relatively low acid density maintains the most favorable reusability profile. Higher HTC temperatures (220-240°C) improved catalyst reusability profiles due to graphitization and hydrophobicity of the carbon surface. The catalyst systems derived herein from biomass may have potential applications in biorefining platforms, utilizing the conversion of waste biomass to chemicals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Assessing the environmental impact of energy production from hydrochar generated via hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Nicole D; Li, Liang; Flora, Joseph R V; Ro, Kyoung S

    2015-09-01

    Although there are numerous studies suggesting hydrothermal carbonization is an environmentally advantageous process for transformation of wastes to value-added products, a systems level evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion has not been conducted. The specific objectives of this work are to use a life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the HTC of food wastes and the subsequent combustion of the generated solid product (hydrochar) for energy production, and to understand how parameters and/or components associated with food waste carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion influence system environmental impact. Results from this analysis indicate that HTC process water emissions and hydrochar combustion most significantly influence system environmental impact, with a net negative GWP impact resulting for all evaluated substituted energy-sources except biomass. These results illustrate the importance of electricity production from hydrochar particularly when it is used to offset coal-based energy sources. HTC process water emissions result in a net impact to the environment, indicating a need for developing appropriate management strategies. Results from this analysis also highlight a need for additional exploration of liquid and gas-phase composition, a better understanding of how changes in carbonization conditions (e.g., reaction time and temperature) influence metal and nutrient fate, and the exploration of liquid-phase treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Speciation evolution of zinc and copper during pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization treatments of sewage sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Rixiang; Zhang, Bei; Saad, Emily M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2018-04-01

    Thermal and hydrothermal treatments are promising techniques for sewage sludge management that can potentially facilitate safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. Content and speciation of heavy metals in the treatment products affect the potential environmental risks upon sludge disposal and/or application of the treatment products. Therefore, it is important to study the speciation transformation of heavy metals and the effects of treatment conditions. By combining synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy/microscopy analysis and sequential chemical extraction, this study systematically characterized the speciation of Zn and Cu in municipal sewage sludges and their chars derived from pyrolysis (a representative thermal treatment technique) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC; a representative hydrothermal treatment technique). Spectroscopy analysis revealed enhanced sulfidation of Zn and Cu by anaerobic digestion and HTC treatments, as compared to desulfidation by pyrolysis. Overall, changes in the chemical speciation and matrix properties led to reduced mobility of Zn and Cu in the treatment products. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanisms during pyrolysis and HTC treatments of sludges and can help evaluate the environmental/health risks associated with the metals in the treatment products.

  20. Experimental Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Two-phase Annular Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Kristofer; Fehring, Brian; Morse, Roman; Livingston-Jha, Simon; Doherty, James; Chan, Jason; Brueggeman, Colby; Berson, Arganthael

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the presented work is to validate published mechanistic heat transfer models in two-phase annular flow under transient conditions. Annular flow occurs in many steam generation and refrigeration systems. Knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) between the wall and the thin liquid film is critical to the design and safe operation of these systems. In heat exchangers with multiple parallel channels, thermal hydraulic instabilities often lead to unsteady flow conditions. The current study is performed in a facility capable of producing pulsed two-phase, single-species annular flow in a heated test section while simultaneously measuring local film thickness and wall temperature using non-intrusive optical techniques. Available correlations between the HTC and wall shear at steady state are compared to our measurements. The HTC can be derived from the known heating power and measured wall temperature, while wall shear is deduced from film thickness measurements. The validity of steady-state correlations under oscillating flow conditions is assessed by performing tests at a variety of pulse frequencies and amplitudes.

  1. Kinetics of the hydrothermal treatment of tannin for producing carbonaceous microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghiroli, F L; Fierro, V; Izquierdo, M T; Parmentier, J; Pizzi, A; Celzard, A

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of condensed tannins were submitted to hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) in a stainless steel autoclave, and the kinetics of hydrothermal carbon formation was investigated by changing several parameters: amount of tannin (0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 g in 16 mL of water), HTC temperature (130, 160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction times (from 1 to 720 h). The morphology and the structure of the tannin-based hydrothermal carbons were studied by TEM, krypton adsorption at -196°C and helium pycnometry. These materials presented agglomerated spherical particles, having surface areas ranging from 0.6 to 10.0 m(2) g(-1). The chemical composition of the hydrothermal carbons was found to be constant and independent of reaction time. HTC kinetics of tannin were determined and shown to correspond to first-order reaction. Temperature-dependent measurements led to an activation energy of 91 kJ mol(-1) for hydrothermal conversion of tannin into carbonaceous microspheres separable by centrifugation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MTD-MFC: unified framework for investigation of diversity of boiling heat transfer curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekriladze, I.G. [Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi (Georgia)], e-mail: shekri@geo.net.ge

    2009-07-01

    A keynote paper presents just the next attempt to promote a discussion of modern state of art in the field of boiling heat transfer research. It is shown how longstanding disregard of internal contradictions of applicable approaches has resulted theoretical deadlock. Alternatively, it also is shown how resolution of these contradictions opens the ways to breakthrough in boiling heat transfer theory. Basic experimental facts, physical models and correlations are reconsidered. Principal contradictions between experimental knowledge and traditional model of 'the theatre of actors' (MTA) are discussed. Crucial role of pumping effect of growing bubble (PEGB) in boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics is shown. Basic role of control of HTC by thermodynamic conditions on nucleation sites is demonstrated and consequent model of 'the theatre of director' (MTD) is discussed. Universal MTD-based correlation of boiling HTC of all types of liquids is considered. Unified consistent research framework for developed boiling heat transfer and diverse specific boiling heat transfer regimes is outlined through supplementing MTD by so-called multifactoring concept (MFC). The latter links transition from developed boiling mode to diverse boiling curves to a phenomenon of multiplication of factors influencing HTC. The ways of further research of the boiling problem are discussed. (author)

  3. [Therapeutic effect of early applying hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun-Zhi; Zhai, Hong-Yin; Su, Chun-Ya

    2009-02-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs (HT-C) in early intervention on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). HIE children were assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 50 in each, at random depending on the willingness of patients' parents. Both groups received the conventional functional training, according to the "0 -3-year-old early intervention outline", but for the treatment group, HT-C was applied additionally. Indexes for quality of sleep, gross motor function, severity of spasm and intellectual development were observed and compared before and after treatment to assess the therapeutic effects. Therapeutic effect in the treatment group was better than that in the control group in all the indexes observed, showing statistical significance (all P <0.05). Early intervention of HT-C could improve clinical symptom, promote the functional recovery and intellectual development in children HIE, and also could reduce or prevent the sequelae occurrence of the nervous system in them.

  4. Influence of synthesis pH and oxidative strength of the catalyzing acid on the morphology and chemical structure of hydrothermal carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiche, Sylvia; Kowalew, Natalia; Schlögl, Robert

    2015-02-23

    A specific control of the morphology and chemical structure of hydrothermal carbon (HTC) is of crucial importance for its application, both in catalyst supports or electrochemical devices. Here we show how the morphology, that is, particles size and homogeneity, and the distribution of functional groups can be controlled by the control of the synthesis pH of the hydrothermal carbonization. A complementary analysis of liquid byproducts by HPLC provides useful information on the nature of the polymeric species produced during the poly-condensation in the hydrothermal process and reveals the potential implementation of the process into the biorefinery concept. The acidic byproducts levulinic acid and formic acid determine the hydrothermal carbonization autocatalytically by additional supply of protons to the reaction medium. Thus, for a starting pH>3, only minor structural differences can be detected for HTC. The use of oxidizing acids favors higher yields of HTC and improves carbonization towards higher condensed carbon domains. Scaling up the process in a stirred 2 L batch reactor favors carbonization leading to higher condensed carbonaceous products. The relative trends of pH variation are maintained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Psychopathological traits in college students from top-ranking french schools: Do autistic features impair success in science when associated with schizotypal traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choteau, Laura; Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-03-30

    The link between personality and the interest of individuals for science has not been thoroughly explored. In this report, we studied psychopathological traits in students studying science in French top-ranking institutions. Three hundred and forty seven individuals answered questionnaires assessing autistic and schizotypal dimensions, as well as anxiety, depression symptomatology and attachment quality. A cluster analysis based on autistic and schizotypal traits led to the identification of 4 distinct profiles: a "low trait cluster", a "moderate autistic trait cluster", a "moderate schizotypal trait cluster" and a "high trait cluster" (HTC) composed of individuals with high scores on both autistic and schizotypal scales. Each cluster represented 20.1-27.1% of participants and was clearly different from the three others, both on autistic and on schizotypal dimensions. These groups could be also typified by their level of anxiety, depression or degraded attachment, which are proportional to the extent of psychopathological traits. Moreover, students from the HTC cluster displayed lower academic results, thus implying that autistic traits might impair success in science when they are associated with moderate schizotypal personality features. This study also suggests that depression and anxiety might mediate performance inhibition in the HTC group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of temperature and color value on hydrochars' properties in hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Siyuan; Yuan, Xingzhong; Xi, Yanni; Huang, Zhongliang; Tan, Mengjiao; Li, Changzhu

    2017-10-16

    In order to investigate the influence of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) on the properties of the hydrochars, sawdust with a particle size below 0.45mm was treated in an autoclave at 200-260°C. The physical and chemical characteristics of products were studied, including proximate analysis, elemental composition, fiber content, surface area, bulk density, energy yield, color value, combustion activities and pyrolysis kinetics, etc. It showed that the color of hydrochars turned blacker, greener, and bluer after HTC. The ash, carbon, hydrogen and lignin contents showed a good correlation (R2>0.96) with color coordinates. The decrement in stage 1 and increment in stage 2 of temperature intervals were attributed to the volatile matters removal and fixed carbon accumulation, improving the stability and safety of hydrochars combustion. As shown by the Kissenger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Coats-Redfern calculations, the HTC process can also make the pyrolysis more stable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brush Polymer of Donor-Accepter Dyads via Adduct Formation between Lewis Base Polymer Donor and All Carbon Lewis Acid Acceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method that taps into the facile Lewis base (LB→Lewis acid (LA adduct forming reaction between the semiconducting polymeric LB and all carbon LA C60 for the construction of covalently linked donor-acceptor dyads and brush polymer of dyads is reported. The polymeric LB is built on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT macromers containing either an alkyl or vinyl imidazolium end group that can be readily converted into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC LB site, while the brush polymer architecture is conveniently constructed via radical polymerization of the macromer P3HT with the vinyl imidazolium chain end. Simply mixing of such donor polymeric LB with C60 rapidly creates linked P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads in which C60 is covalently linked to the NHC junction connecting the vinyl polymer main chain and the brush P3HT side chains. Thermal behaviors, electronic absorption and emission properties of the resulting P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads have been investigated. The results show that a change of the topology of the P3HT-C60 dyad from linear to brush architecture enhances the crystallinity and Tm of the P3HT domain and, along with other findings, they indicate that the brush polymer architecture of donor-acceptor domains provides a promising approach to improve performances of polymer-based solar cells.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Steam Condensation on Nuclear Containment Wall Surfaces Based on Semiempirical Generalized Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan K. Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In water-cooled nuclear power reactors, significant quantities of steam and hydrogen could be produced within the primary containment following the postulated design basis accidents (DBA or beyond design basis accidents (BDBA. For accurate calculation of the temperature/pressure rise and hydrogen transport calculation in nuclear reactor containment due to such scenarios, wall condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC is used. In the present work, the adaptation of a commercial CFD code with the implementation of models for steam condensation on wall surfaces in presence of noncondensable gases is explained. Steam condensation has been modeled using the empirical average HTC, which was originally developed to be used for “lumped-parameter” (volume-averaged modeling of steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases. The present paper suggests a generalized HTC based on curve fitting of most of the reported semiempirical condensation models, which are valid for specific wall conditions. The present methodology has been validated against limited reported experimental data from the COPAIN experimental facility. This is the first step towards the CFD-based generalized analysis procedure for condensation modeling applicable for containment wall surfaces that is being evolved further for specific wall surfaces within the multicompartment containment atmosphere.

  9. MolProbity for the masses-of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent B; Wedell, Jonathan R; Wenger, R Kent; Ulrich, Eldon L; Markley, John L

    2015-09-01

    MolProbity is a powerful software program for validating structures of proteins and nucleic acids. Although MolProbity includes scripts for batch analysis of structures, because these scripts analyze structures one at a time, they are not well suited for the validation of a large dataset of structures. We have created a version of MolProbity (MolProbity-HTC) that circumvents these limitations and takes advantage of a high-throughput computing cluster by using the HTCondor software. MolProbity-HTC enables the longitudinal analysis of large sets of structures, such as those deposited in the PDB or generated through theoretical computation-tasks that would have been extremely time-consuming using previous versions of MolProbity. We have used MolProbity-HTC to validate the entire PDB, and have developed a new visual chart for the BioMagResBank website that enables users to easily ascertain the quality of each model in an NMR ensemble and to compare the quality of those models to the rest of the PDB.

  10. Condensation of the air-steam mixture in a vertical tube condenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlík Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable air. Experimental and theoretical solutions of this problem are presented here. A heat exchanger for the condensation of industrial waste steam containing infiltrated air was designed. The condenser consists of a bundle of vertical tubes in which the steam condenses as it flows downwards with cooling water flowing outside the tubes in the opposite direction. Experiments with pure steam and with mixtures of steam with added air were carried out to find the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC on the air concentration in the steam mixture. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical formulas describing the cases. The theoretical determination of the HTC is based on the Nusselt model of steam condensation on a vertical wall, where the analogy of heat and mass transfer is used to take into account the behaviour of air in a steam mixture during the condensation process. The resulting dependencies obtained from the experiments and obtained from the theoretical model have similar results. The significant decrease in the condensation HTC, which begins at very low air concentrations in a steam mixture, was confirmed.

  11. Pool boiling inversion through bubble induced macroconvection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikumar, A.; Kandlikar, S. G.

    2017-02-01

    While numerous surface geometries have been explored to achieve enhancements in pool boiling critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient (HTC), their mechanistic contributions towards the characteristics of the pool boiling curve are not clear. Recently reported pool boiling curves in literature have shown a trend where an increase in heat flux leads to a decrease in wall superheat. Consequently, a negative slope in the pool boiling curve accompanied by a sharp increase in HTC, termed here as boiling inversion, is observed. We demonstrate that this inversion is due to vapor stream induced reinforcement of an impinging liquid jet over the non-boiling regions. This behavior is characteristic of surfaces developed using separate liquid-vapor pathways and macroconvection enhancement mechanism resulting in a highly efficient self-sustained boiling configuration. The increased jet impingement velocities lead to higher HTCs with lower wall superheats. The analytical models available in literature are employed to quantitatively explain this trend. Furthermore, a self-adjusting boiling mechanism is seen at play wherein a reduction in nucleation activity due to lowering of wall superheat counters the increase in HTC induced by the macroconvective currents.

  12. Attracting female sex workers to HIV testing and counselling in Ethiopia: a qualitative study with sex workers in Addis Ababa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyan, Wole; Jeffery, Caroline; Negash, Kassahun; Biruk, Etsegenet; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing efforts to increase HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services for most at risk populations in Ethiopia, the use of these services by female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. With rising numbers of FSWs in Addis Ketema and concerns about their high risk behaviours, exploring and addressing the barriers to uptake is crucial. This qualitative study explores the barriers to utilising HTC facilities and identifies the motives and motivations of FSWs who seek HTC through in-depth and semi-structured interviews with female sex workers, healthcare workers and key informants. Results indicate that FSWs face numerous barriers including inability to seek treatment if found to be positive due to the requirement of an identity (ID) card many do not own. Many FSWs reported discriminatory behaviour from healthcare workers and a lack of dedicated services. What is clear from the findings is that distinct strategies, which differ from those of the broader population, are required to attract FSWs--strategies which take into account the barriers and maximise the reported motives and motivations for testing.

  13. Analysis of Solid and Aqueous Phase Products from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Whole and Lipid-Extracted Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Broch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have tremendous potential as a feedstock for production of liquid biofuels, particularly biodiesel fuel via transesterification of algal lipids. However, biodiesel production results in significant amounts of algal residues, or “lipid extracted algae” (LEA. Suitable utilization of the LEA residue will improve the economics of algal biodiesel. In the present study, we evaluate the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of whole and lipid extracted algal (Spirulina maxima feedstocks in order to produce a solid biofuel (hydrochar and value-added co-products in the aqueous phase. HTC experiments were performed using a 2-L Parr reactor (batch type at 175–215 °C with a 30-min holding time. Solid, aqueous and gaseous products were analyzed using various laboratory methods to evaluate the mass and carbon balances, and investigate the existence of high value chemicals in the aqueous phase. The HTC method is effective in creating an energy dense, solid hydrochar from both whole algae and LEA at lower temperatures as compared to lignocellulosic feedstocks, and is effective at reducing the ash content in the resulting hydrochar. However, under the treatment temperatures investigated, less than 1% of the starting dry algae mass was recovered as an identified high-value chemical in the aqueous phase.

  14. Bubble induced flow field modulation for pool boiling enhancement over a tubular surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, P. A.; Joshi, I. M.; Jaikumar, A.; Emery, T. S.; Kandlikar, S. G.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the efficacy of using a strategically placed enhancement feature to modify the trajectory of bubbles nucleating on a horizontal tubular surface to increase both the critical heat flux (CHF) and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC). The CHF on a plain tube is shown to be triggered by a local dryout at the bottom of the tube due to vapor agglomeration. To mitigate this effect and delay CHF, the nucleating bubble trajectory is modified by incorporating a bubble diverter placed axially at the bottom of the tube. The nucleating bubble at the base of the diverter experiences a tangential evaporation momentum force (EMF) which causes the bubble to grow sideways away from the tube and avoid localized bubble patches that are responsible for CHF initiation. High speed imaging confirmed the lateral displacement of the bubbles away from the diverter closely matched with the theoretical predictions using EMF and buoyancy forces. Since the EMF is stronger at higher heat fluxes, bubble displacement increases with heat flux and results in the formation of separate liquid-vapor pathways wherein the liquid enters almost unobstructed at the bottom and the vapor bubble leaves sideways. Experimental results yielded CHF and HTC enhancements of ˜60% and ˜75%, respectively, with the diverter configuration when compared to a plain tube. This work can be used for guidance in developing enhancement strategies to effectively modulate the liquid-vapor flow around the heater surface at various locations to enhance HTC and CHF.

  15. Antiproliferative effect of a food coloring on colon cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizadeh Tazehkand, M

    2017-01-01

    4-MEI (4-Methylimidazole) is used as a chemical intermediate, crude material or component in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, photographic and photothermographic chemicals, dyes and pigments and agricultural chemicals. 4-MEI is unintentionally found in our food. Caramel colour (which is the most used beverage colouring and food), dark beers and common brands of cola drinks may comprise more than 100 μg of this compound per 12-ounce serving. 4-MEI is widely used by people and colon cancer is common in our countries. So, it was decided to do in vitro analysis of anti-cancer effect of 4-MEI by MTT test using htc-116 cell line.In this study, mouse Htc-116 cell line was treated with 4-MEI concentrations of 300, 450, 600 and 750 µg/mL for 24 hours and 48 hours periods, after that antiproliferative effect of the 4-MEI was studied by MTT assay. In this study 4-MEI at highest concentration of 24h and at all concentration for 48 h treatment time significantly inhibited cell proliferation when it was compared to control. Also, exposing to the 4-MEI for 48 hours led to a decrease in cells proliferation by concentration dependent manner. This result showed that 4-MEI had anticancer effect in htc-116 cells. However, it has to be evaluated with different new studies (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 19).

  16. Conversion of tomato-peel waste into solid fuel by hydrothermal carbonization: Influence of the processing variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabio, E; Álvarez-Murillo, A; Román, S; Ledesma, B

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the influence of the variables temperature, residence time, and biomass/water ratio on the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of tomato peel was investigated. The implementation of a Design of Experiments - Response Surface Methodology approach allowed to identify the importance of each variable, as well as their interactions, in both the reactivity (solid yield) and energy densification (increase in higher heating value). The HTC residence time and specially temperature had a major effect on the process, increasing the solid yield and promoting energy densification. Ratio had a minor effect although under certain temperature and time conditions, it was a decisive parameter. Solid yields in the range 27.6% and 87.7% with corresponding high heating values 23.6-34.6 MJ kg(-1) were obtained. From the statistical processing of the experimental data obtained pseudo-second order models were developed. It was proven that these approaches envisaged the hydrochar final characteristics successfully. From the elemental analysis and the FTIR spectra, it was possible to investigate the HTC pathway, which was defined as a combination of several processes; considering dehydration and decarboxylation reactions and especially lignin depolimerization reactions, which lead to the formation of monomeric radicals. Moreover, the surface morphology of selected hydrochars by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the original structure scaffold, with minor changes between hydrochars prepared under different conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost and quality of life analysis of HIV self-testing and facility-based HIV testing and counselling in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Petrou, Stavros; MacPherson, Peter; Choko, Augustine T; Kumwenda, Felistas; Lalloo, David G; Clarke, Aileen; Corbett, Elizabeth L

    2016-02-19

    HIV self-testing (HIVST) has been found to be highly effective, but no cost analysis has been undertaken to guide the design of affordable and scalable implementation strategies. Consecutive HIV self-testers and facility-based testers were recruited from participants in a community cluster-randomised trial ( ISRCTN02004005 ) investigating the impact of offering HIVST in addition to facility-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC). Primary costing studies were undertaken of the HIVST service and of health facilities providing HTC to the trial population. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US$ and INT$. Recruited participants were asked about direct non-medical and indirect costs associated with accessing either modality of HIV testing, and additionally their health-related quality of life was measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D. A total of 1,241 participants underwent either HIVST (n = 775) or facility-based HTC (n = 446). The mean societal cost per participant tested through HIVST (US$9.23; 95 % CI: US$9.14-US$9.32) was lower than through facility-based HTC (US$11.84; 95 % CI: US$10.81-12.86). Although the mean health provider cost per participant tested through HIVST (US$8.78) was comparable to facility-based HTC (range: US$7.53-US$10.57), the associated mean direct non-medical and indirect cost was lower (US$2.93; 95 % CI: US$1.90-US$3.96). The mean health provider cost per HIV positive participant identified through HIVST was higher (US$97.50) than for health facilities (range: US$25.18-US$76.14), as was the mean cost per HIV positive individual assessed for anti-retroviral treatment (ART) eligibility and the mean cost per HIV positive individual initiated onto ART. In comparison to the facility-testing group, the adjusted mean EQ-5D utility score was 0.046 (95 % CI: 0.022-0.070) higher in the HIVST group. HIVST reduces the economic burden on clients, but is a costlier strategy for the health provider aiming to identify HIV positive individuals for treatment. The

  18. Drug abuse relapse rates linked to level of education: can we repair hypodopaminergic-induced cognitive decline with nutrient therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Madigan, Margaret A; Braverman, Eric R; Han, David

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that athletes and other individuals who have suffered painful injuries are at increased risk for all reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) behaviors, including substance use disorder (SUD). Comparing patient demographics and relapse rates in chemical dependence programs is pertinent because demographics may affect outcomes. Increased risk for relapse and lower academic achievement were found to have a significant association in recent outcome data from a holistic treatment center (HTC) located in North Miami Beach, FL. Relapse outcomes from the Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS; n = 1738) and HTC (n = 224) were compared for a 12-month period. Post-discharge relapse was reported by 26% of HTC patients and 58% of patients in DATOS. When broken out by education level-less than high school, high school diploma, college degree, and graduate degree-HTC patient relapse was 50%, 36%, 33%, and 16%, respectively, and demonstrated an inverse linear association (F = 5.702; P = 0.017). Looking at DATOS patient relapse rates broken down by educational grades/years completed, patients who attended school between 7th grade and 4 years of college also demonstrated an inverse linear association (F = 5.563; P = 0.018). Additionally, the lowest performers, patients who reported their academic performance as "not so good," had the highest relapse (F = 4.226; P = 0.04). Albeit certain limitations, compared with DATOS patients, HTC patients produced significantly larger net differences in relapse rates (X 2 = 84.09; P = 0.0001), suggesting that other variables, such as the treatment model may also affect patient relapse. Our results implicate the use of vitamin and mineral supplements coupled with a well-researched natural dopamine agonist nutrient therapy; both have been shown to improve cognition and behavior, and thus academic achievement. That relapse is highest among addicts who have less education and who report lower grades is a factor that can be useful

  19. Changes in technological quality of black and carioca beans commercial genothypes / Alterações da qualidade tecnológica de marcas comerciais de feijão dos grupos cores e preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pereira Nóbrega

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. consumption may be affected by a textural defect named hard-to-cook (HTC, that increases grain cooking time of the grain, reducing its quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of black and carioca beans commercial genothypes, relating with the appearance of HTC defect. Water absorption analyses had been carried through for grains in two soaking methods and absorvance of broth gotten during the soaking, beyond pH analysis of the grains. Differences were observed in grain water absorption of analyzed commercial genotyphes and the soaking for one hour with water in boiling point corresponds to a water absorption at about eight hours in ambient temperature. There were differences in absorvance of soaking broth, indicating bigger loss of soluble in commercial genotypes that had also presented pH reduction , what may indicate the beginning of grains installation HTC. Grains soaked with water in boiling point presented a great loss of soluble in broth in comparison with soaking in ambient temperature.O consumo de feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pode ser prejudicado por um defeito textural conhecido como hard-to-cook (HTC, o qual aumenta o tempo de cocção do grão, diminuindo sua qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade tecnológica de marcas comerciais de feijão preto e carioca, relacionando ao aparecimento do defeito HTC. Análises de absorção de água pelos grãos foram realizadas sob dois métodos de maceração, como também da absorbância do caldo obtido durante a maceração, além da análise de pH dos grãos inteiros. Diferenças na absorção de água nos grãos das marcas analisadas foram observadas e a maceração por uma hora com adição de água em ebulição correspondem à absorção de água de cerca de oito horas em temperatura ambiente. Houve diferenças na absorbância do caldo de maceração, indicando maior perda de solúveis em marcas que

  20. What happens with the nitrogen in sewage sludge once this material is pyrolyzed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Kern, Jürgen; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    The transformation of sewage sludge (SS) into char by pyrolysis achieves sludge hygienization, a necessary step prior to a possible application on agricultural soils. Former studies indicated that during this process part of the organic nitrogen (No) of this material is incorporated into the aromatic network of the charred product and forms the so called black N (BN). De la Rosa and Knicker (2011) showed further that at least some of the BN is bioavailable. However, neither the pathways of BN formation nor its chemical structure is well understood. Therefore, we studied the production of inorganic N (Ni) and the forms of No after subjecting two types of SS to hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and dry pyrolysis (Dry-Py). The samples were collected at two different stages of the wastewater treatment (hereafter A_SS and T_SS) at the Experimental Wastewater Treatment plant CENTA, located in Carrion de los Céspedes (Southern Spain). Four chars were produced by HTC at 200°C and 260°C, and with residence times of 30 min and 3 hours. Dry pyrolysis char was obtained after heating at 600°C for 1 hour. The organic N forms were revealed by solid-state 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. All pyrolysis conditions resulted in a decrease of the amount of total N (Nt). Whereas HTC preserved between 83-59% of original N, only 2% were recovered in the char after Dry-Py. With respect to Ni, the amounts of ammonium and nitrite increased between 2 and 4 times compared to the non-treated SS after HTC. After Dry-Py no Ni was detected in the solid residue. The solid-state 15N NMR spectra of the non-treated SS are dominated by the signals assignable to amide-N. With increasing temperature and residence time applied during HTC, a shift of the signal intensity toward the region of pyrrole-N was evidenced. The largest contribution of pyrrole-N was identified in the sample obtained after heating at 260°C for 3h although the 15N-intensity in the chemical shift region of amide

  1. Apoptosis induction by Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer extracts on colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finimundy, Tiane C; Abreu, Rui M V; Bonetto, Natalia; Scariot, Fernando J; Dillon, Aldo J P; Echeverrigaray, Sergio; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Henriques, João A P; Roesch-Ely, Mariana

    2018-02-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC) is an edible mushroom used in food supplements, presenting antitumor properties through induction of cell death pathways. The PSC potential against colorectal cancer was analyzed by exposing HCT116 wt cells to different PSC extracts. The PSC n-hexane extract (PSC-hex) showed the highest cytotoxicity effect (IC 50 value 0.05 mg/mL). The observed cytotoxicity was then associated to apoptosis-promoting and cell cycle-arrest pathways. PSC-hex was able to induce apoptosis related to breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS generation. The absence of cytotoxicity in HTC116 -p53 and HTC116 -Bax cells, alongside with an increase in p53, Bax and Caspase-3 expression, and decrease in Bcl-2 expression, supports that the pro-apoptotic effect is probably induced through a p53 associated pathway. PSC-hex induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M in HCT116 wt without cytotoxicity in HTC116 -p21  cells. These findings suggest that a p21/p53 cell cycle regulation pathway is probably disrupted by compounds present on PSC-hex. Identification of the major components was then performed with ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol representing 30.6% of total weight. In silico docking studies of ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β against Bcl-2 were performed and results show a credible interaction with the Bcl-2 hydrophobic cleft. The results show that PSC-hex can be used as supplementary food for adjuvant therapy in colorectal carcinoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. HIV prevention costs and their predictors: evidence from the ORPHEA Project in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galárraga, Omar; Wamai, Richard G; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Mugo, Mercy G; Contreras-Loya, David; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Nyakundi, Helen; Wang'ombe, Joseph K

    2017-12-01

    We estimate costs and their predictors for three HIV prevention interventions in Kenya: HIV testing and counselling (HTC), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). As part of the 'Optimizing the Response of Prevention: HIV Efficiency in Africa' (ORPHEA) project, we collected retrospective data from government and non-governmental health facilities for 2011-12. We used multi-stage sampling to determine a sample of health facilities by type, ownership, size and interventions offered totalling 144 sites in 78 health facilities in 33 districts across Kenya. Data sources included key informants, registers and time-motion observation methods. Total costs of production were computed using both quantity and unit price of each input. Average cost was estimated by dividing total cost per intervention by number of clients accessing the intervention. Multivariate regression methods were used to analyse predictors of log-transformed average costs. Average costs were $7 and $79 per HTC and PMTCT client tested, respectively; and $66 per VMMC procedure. Results show evidence of economies of scale for PMTCT and VMMC: increasing the number of clients per year by 100% was associated with cost reductions of 50% for PMTCT, and 45% for VMMC. Task shifting was associated with reduced costs for both PMTCT (59%) and VMMC (54%). Costs in hospitals were higher for PMTCT (56%) in comparison to non-hospitals. Facilities that performed testing based on risk factors as opposed to universal screening had higher HTC average costs (79%). Lower VMMC costs were associated with availability of male reproductive health services (59%) and presence of community advisory board (52%). Aside from increasing production scale, HIV prevention costs may be contained by using task shifting, non-hospital sites, service integration and community supervision. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of

  3. Pharmaceuticals in water, fish and osprey nestlings in Delaware River and Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas G; Rattner, Barnett A; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Day, Daniel D; Burket, S Rebekah; Brooks, Bryan W; Haddad, Samuel P; Bowerman, William W

    2018-01-01

    Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2-3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC). We built upon a screening level model used to predict osprey exposure to APIs in Chesapeake Bay and evaluated whether exposure levels could have been predicted in Delaware Bay had we just measured concentrations in water or fish. Use of surface water and BCFs did not predict API concentrations in fish well, likely due to fish movement patterns, and partitioning and bioaccumulation uncertainties associated with these ionizable chemicals. Input of highest measured API concentration in fish plasma combined with pharmacokinetic data accurately predicted that diclofenac and acetaminophen would be the APIs most likely detected in osprey plasma. For the majority of APIs modeled, levels were not predicted to exceed 1 ng/mL or method detection limits in osprey plasma. Based on the target analytes examined, there is little evidence that APIs represent a significant risk to ospreys nesting in Delaware Bay. If an API is present in fish orders of magnitude below HTC, sampling of fish-eating birds is unlikely to be necessary. However, several human pharmaceuticals accumulated in fish plasma within a recommended safety factor for HTC. It is now important to expand the scope of diet-based API exposure modeling to include alternative exposure pathways (e.g., uptake from landfills, dumps and wastewater treatment plants) and geographic locations (developing countries) where API contamination of the environment may represent greater risk

  4. Retinoic acid and cAMP inhibit rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and enhance cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionta, M. [Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas MG (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Rosa, M.C.; Almeida, R.B.; Freitas, V.M.; Rezende-Teixeira, P.; Machado-Santelli, G.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third highest cause of cancer death worldwide. In general, the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative therapies are no longer feasible. For this reason, it is very important to develop new therapeutic approaches. Retinoic acid (RA) is a natural derivative of vitamin A that regulates important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies have shown that RA is effective in inhibiting growth of HCC cells; however, responsiveness to treatment varies among different HCC cell lines. The objective of the present study was to determine if the combined use of RA (0.1 µM) and cAMP (1 mM), an important second messenger, improves the responsiveness of HCC cells to RA treatment. We evaluated the proliferative behavior of an HCC cell line (HTC) and the expression profile of genes related to cancer signaling pathway (ERK and GSK-3β) and liver differentiation [E-cadherin, connexin 26 (Cx26), and connexin 32 (Cx32)]. RA and cAMP were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HTC cells independently of combined use. However, when a mixture of RA and cAMP was used, the signals concerning the degree of cell differentiation were increased. As demonstrated by Western blot, the treatment increased E-cadherin, Cx26, Cx32 and Ser9-GSK-3β (inactive form) expression while the expression of Cx43, Tyr216-GSK-3β (active form) and phosphorylated ERK decreased. Furthermore, telomerase activity was inhibited along treatment. Taken together, the results showed that the combined use of RA and cAMP is more effective in inducing differentiation of HTC cells.

  5. Green-Roof Effects on Neighborhood Microclimate and Human Thermal Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Jim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have been recognized as an effective sustainable design tool to mitigate urban heat island (UHI effects. Previous studies have identified green-roof benefits in cooling and energy-conservation at the building scale, with limited exploration of the wider influence on neighborhood microclimate and human thermal comfort (HTC. This paper investigated the impacts of community-scale green-roof installation on air temperature and HTC in five typical residential neighborhoods of subtropical Hong Kong. The microclimate models ENVI-met and RayMan permitted studies of two main green-roof scenarios, namely extensive (EGR and intensive (IGR. Microclimatic monitoring data from a local experimental green-roof site validated the modeling methods. The results verified that green-roof cooling effects were not restricted to rooftops, but extended to the ground to improve neighborhood microclimate. EGR reduced pedestrian-level air temperature by 0.4–0.7 °C, and IGR by 0.5–1.7 °C, with maximum effect in open-set low rise sites. Coverage by building footprints and building height dampened lateral and vertical advection of cool air generated by green roofs. Roof greening also improved notably the rooftop-podium level HTC. Diurnal duration of high heat stress was reduced by 6–9 h for EGR scenarios, and 9–11 h for IGR. The findings indicated that large-scale green-roof installation could bring neighborhood-wide cooling, mitigate urban heat island effect, and furnish more comfortable thermal environment for urban residents.

  6. A catechol-like phenolic ligand-functionalized hydrothermal carbon: One-pot synthesis, characterization and sorption behavior toward uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo; Ma, Lijian; Tian, Yin; Yang, Xiaodan; Li, Juan; Bai, Chiyao; Yang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Shoujian, E-mail: sjli000616@scu.edu.cn; Jin, Yongdong, E-mail: jinyongdong@scu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A new catechol-like ligand-functionalized hydrothermal carbon sorbent is synthesized. • A combination of bayberry tannin and glyoxal is firstly used as starting materials. • Simple, economically viable and environment-friendly synthesis method. • The sorbent exhibits high sorption capacity and distinct selectivity for uranium. - Abstract: We proposed a new approach for preparing an efficient uranium-selective solid phase extractant (HTC-btg) by choosing bayberry tannin as the main building block and especially glyoxal as crosslinking agent via a simple, economic, and green one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. The results of characterization and analysis show that after addition of glyoxal into only bayberry tannin-based hydrothermal reaction system, the as-synthesized HTC-btg displayed higher thermal stability, larger specific surface area and more than doubled surface phenolic hydroxyl groups. The sorption behavior of the sorbents toward uranium under various conditions was investigated in detail and the results indicated that the process is fast, endothermic, spontaneous, and pseudo-second-order chemisorption. The U(VI) sorption capacity reached up to 307.3 mg g{sup −1} under the current experimental conditions. The selective sorption in a specially designed multi-ion solution containing 12 co-existing cations over the range of pH 1.0–4.5 shown that the amount of uranium sorbed accounts for about 53% of the total sorption amount at pH 4.5 and distinctively about 85%, unreported so far to our knowledge, at pH 2.0. Finally, a possible mechanism involving interaction between uranyl ions and phenolic hydroxyl groups on HTC-btg was proposed.

  7. The Open Science Grid - Support for Multi-Disciplinary Team Science - the Adolescent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerdick, Lothar; Ernst, Michael; Fraser, Dan; Livny, Miron; Pordes, Ruth; Sehgal, Chander; Würthwein, Frank; Open Science Grid

    2012-12-01

    As it enters adolescence the Open Science Grid (OSG) is bringing a maturing fabric of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) services that supports an expanding HEP community to an increasingly diverse spectrum of domain scientists. Working closely with researchers on campuses throughout the US and in collaboration with national cyberinfrastructure initiatives, we transform their computing environment through new concepts, advanced tools and deep experience. We discuss examples of these including: the pilot-job overlay concepts and technologies now in use throughout OSG and delivering 1.4 Million CPU hours/day; the role of campus infrastructures- built out from concepts of sharing across multiple local faculty clusters (made good use of already by many of the HEP Tier-2 sites in the US); the work towards the use of clouds and access to high throughput parallel (multi-core and GPU) compute resources; and the progress we are making towards meeting the data management and access needs of non-HEP communities with general tools derived from the experience of the parochial tools in HEP (integration of Globus Online, prototyping with IRODS, investigations into Wide Area Lustre). We will also review our activities and experiences as HTC Service Provider to the recently awarded NSF XD XSEDE project, the evolution of the US NSF TeraGrid project, and how we are extending the reach of HTC through this activity to the increasingly broad national cyberinfrastructure. We believe that a coordinated view of the HPC and HTC resources in the US will further expand their impact on scientific discovery.

  8. Palaeomagnetic investigation on Early-Middle Triassic sediments of the North China block: a new Early Triassic palaeopole and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baochun; Shi, Ruiping; Wang, Yongcheng; Zhu, Rixiang

    2005-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic study is reported of Early-Middle Triassic terrestrial sediments from the Jiaocheng and Yushe areas, Shanxi province. Thermomagnetic analysis indicates that magnetite and haematite are the main magnetic carriers. Thermal demagnetization shows that the majority of Early Triassic specimens from the Jiaocheng area contain an intermediate-temperature component (ITC) between 500 -250 °C and a high-temperature component (HTC) between 500-680 °C. The ITC has a negative fold test and might be a Cretaceous or recent overprint. The HTC contains both normal and reversed polarities with positive fold and C-level reversal tests. We interpret the HTC as primary magnetization. Unfortunately, we failed to isolate a meaningful mean direction from Middle Triassic rocks of the Yushe area. New Early Triassic palaeopole from the Jiaocheng area confirms an ~ 10° counter-clockwise displacement of the Taihang Early Triassic palaeopoles relative to their Ordos counterparts. This study thus suggests that the North China block (NCB) has generally behaved as rigid block since the Early Triassic, but there might be an ~9° counter-clockwise rotation of the Taihang terrane with respect to stable NCB in the Late Triassic. The slight rotation of the Taihang terrane does not bear significantly on what has been previously concluded concerning the Mesozoic history of the NCB-South China block (SCB) collision. However, Triassic palaeomagnetic data from stable NCB indicate that the east end of the NCB and SCB did not undergo large convergence or significant opposite latitudinal displacement after the initial contact at the end of the Late Permian.

  9. Palaeomagnetic evidence and tectonic origin of clockwise rotations in the Yangtze fold belt, South China Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodong; Kodama, Kenneth P.; Gilder, Stuart; Courtillot, Vincent; Cogné, Jean-Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Fold axis strikes in the Yangtze fold belt of the South China Block (SCB) undergo significant changes over distances of >1000 km. This large-scale variation provides an ideal opportunity to test the oroclinal-bending hypothesis using palaeomagnetic methods, which we have attempted by drilling the Lower Triassic Daye Formation limestones in western Hubei Province. Thermal demagnetization isolated two components in most samples. A low unblocking temperature component (temperature component (HTC), isolated at temperatures >400°C, unblocks univectorially towards the origin. The HTC passes the McFadden-fold test with an overall mean tilt-corrected direction of Dec = 255°, Inc = -24° (N = 7,α95 = 9°). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations suggest an early diagenetic, possible (bio)chemical origin for the magnetic extracts dominated by Ti-poor magnetite. Rock magnetic data show no evidence that the HTC has been affected by tectonic or compaction strain. Our data together with previously published results suggest a general clockwise rotation pattern in the Middle Yangtze fold belt, which is probably related to the collision between the North and SCBs. Comparison of palaeomagnetic rotations with fold axis trends in the fold belt suggests that about 30° clockwise rotation occurred in the Middle reaches of the Yangtze River, while a 15° difference in fold axis trends would be due to initial variation within the fold belt. However, since little is known about the timing of the clockwise rotation, whether the Middle Yangtze fold belt is an orocline awaits further studies.

  10. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite; Sorcion de fenol y derivados de fenol en hidrotalcita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avina G, E.I

    2002-07-01

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  11. Quality of home-based rapid HIV testing by community lay counsellors in a rural district of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Jackson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of universal, annual testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in health facilities suggests that expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC to non-clinical settings is critical to the achievement of national goals for prevention, care and treatment. Consideration should be given to the ability of lay counsellors to perform home-based HTC in community settings. Methods: We implemented a community cluster randomized controlled trial of home-based HTC in Sisonke District, South Africa. Trained lay counsellors conducted door-to-door HIV testing using the same rapid tests used by the local health department at the time of the study (SD Bioline and Sensa. To monitor testing quality and counsellor skill, additional dry blood spots were taken and sent for laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA testing. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the laboratory result as the gold standard. Results and discussion: From 3986 samples, the counsellor and laboratory results matched in all but 23 cases. In 18 cases, the counsellor judged the result as indeterminate, whereas the laboratory judged 10 positive, eight negative and three indeterminate, indicating that the counsellor may have erred on the side of caution. Sensitivity was 98.0% (95% CI: 96.3–98.9%, and specificity 99.6% (95% CI: 99.4–99.7%, for the lay counsellor field-based rapid tests. Both measures are high, and the lower confidence bound for specificity meets the international standard for assessing HIV rapid tests. Conclusions: These findings indicate that adequately trained lay counsellors are capable of safely conducting high-quality rapid HIV tests and interpreting the results as per the kit guidelines. These findings are important given the likely expansion of community and home-based testing models and the shortage of clinically trained professional staff.

  12. A Preliminary Experimental Study of Filmwise and Dropwise Condensation on SUS316 Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Noriyuki, Watanabe [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    This paper studied about the cooling characteristic of SUS316 surface as a PCCS heat exchanger. Specifically, filmwise and dropwise condensations on SUS316 surface were compared. The passive safety features against station blackout (SBO) and containment safety became important issue after Fukushima accident. As a result, passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is selected as candidate option for the advanced light water reactors to guarantee integrity of containment. To design efficient heat exchanger of PCCS inside of concrete containment, a number of attempts were studied to compensate the low heat transfer coefficient of condensation in non-condensable gas circumstance. The study in this paper focused on the dropwise condensation to enhance the cooling performance of PCCS heat exchanger. Bare SUS316 surface represented stable dropwise condensation phase over 12 hours of experiment for all experiment condition shown in Table I. Figure 3 shows the previous studies conducted by other researcher with our result. Subcooled temperature versus heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of DWC on various cooling surface with coatings were compared. Figure 4 and 5 shows the condensation HTC of DWC and FWC with different non-condensable gas fractions. The result of DWC with pure steam was well proportional to the power of subcooled temperature. Otherwise, the result with non-condensable gas shows HTC in low subcooled temperature under 5 .deg. C seems to be decreased, but the result was shaded by the high uncertainty. The result of FWC also proportional to power of subcooled temperature regardless of air concentration and well separated by air concentration condition.

  13. Retinoic acid and cAMP inhibit rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and enhance cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ionta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third highest cause of cancer death worldwide. In general, the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative therapies are no longer feasible. For this reason, it is very important to develop new therapeutic approaches. Retinoic acid (RA is a natural derivative of vitamin A that regulates important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies have shown that RA is effective in inhibiting growth of HCC cells; however, responsiveness to treatment varies among different HCC cell lines. The objective of the present study was to determine if the combined use of RA (0.1 µM and cAMP (1 mM, an important second messenger, improves the responsiveness of HCC cells to RA treatment. We evaluated the proliferative behavior of an HCC cell line (HTC and the expression profile of genes related to cancer signaling pathway (ERK and GSK-3β and liver differentiation (E-cadherin, connexin 26 (Cx26, and Cx32. RA and cAMP were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HTC cells independently of combined use. However, when a mixture of RA and cAMP was used, the signals concerning the degree of cell differentiation were increased. As demonstrated by Western blot, the treatment increased E-cadherin, Cx26, Cx32 and Ser9-GSK-3β (inactive form expression while the expression of Cx43, Tyr216-GSK-3β (active form and phosphorylated ERK decreased. Furthermore, telomerase activity was inhibited along treatment. Taken together, the results showed that the combined use of RA and cAMP is more effective in inducing differentiation of HTC cells.

  14. Rigorous Performance Evaluation of Smartphone GNSS/IMU Sensors for ITS Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Vassilis; Perakis, Harris

    2016-08-05

    With the rapid growth in smartphone technologies and improvement in their navigation sensors, an increasing amount of location information is now available, opening the road to the provision of new Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services. Current smartphone devices embody miniaturized Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and other sensors capable of providing user position, velocity and attitude. However, it is hard to characterize their actual positioning and navigation performance capabilities due to the disparate sensor and software technologies adopted among manufacturers and the high influence of environmental conditions, and therefore, a unified certification process is missing. This paper presents the analysis results obtained from the assessment of two modern smartphones regarding their positioning accuracy (i.e., precision and trueness) capabilities (i.e., potential and limitations) based on a practical but rigorous methodological approach. Our investigation relies on the results of several vehicle tracking (i.e., cruising and maneuvering) tests realized through comparing smartphone obtained trajectories and kinematic parameters to those derived using a high-end GNSS/IMU system and advanced filtering techniques. Performance testing is undertaken for the HTC One S (Android) and iPhone 5s (iOS). Our findings indicate that the deviation of the smartphone locations from ground truth (trueness) deteriorates by a factor of two in obscured environments compared to those derived in open sky conditions. Moreover, it appears that iPhone 5s produces relatively smaller and less dispersed error values compared to those computed for HTC One S. Also, the navigation solution of the HTC One S appears to adapt faster to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting a somewhat different data filtering approach for the iPhone 5s. Testing the accuracy of the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors for a number of maneuvering

  15. Rigorous Performance Evaluation of Smartphone GNSS/IMU Sensors for ITS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Gikas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth in smartphone technologies and improvement in their navigation sensors, an increasing amount of location information is now available, opening the road to the provision of new Intelligent Transportation System (ITS services. Current smartphone devices embody miniaturized Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and other sensors capable of providing user position, velocity and attitude. However, it is hard to characterize their actual positioning and navigation performance capabilities due to the disparate sensor and software technologies adopted among manufacturers and the high influence of environmental conditions, and therefore, a unified certification process is missing. This paper presents the analysis results obtained from the assessment of two modern smartphones regarding their positioning accuracy (i.e., precision and trueness capabilities (i.e., potential and limitations based on a practical but rigorous methodological approach. Our investigation relies on the results of several vehicle tracking (i.e., cruising and maneuvering tests realized through comparing smartphone obtained trajectories and kinematic parameters to those derived using a high-end GNSS/IMU system and advanced filtering techniques. Performance testing is undertaken for the HTC One S (Android and iPhone 5s (iOS. Our findings indicate that the deviation of the smartphone locations from ground truth (trueness deteriorates by a factor of two in obscured environments compared to those derived in open sky conditions. Moreover, it appears that iPhone 5s produces relatively smaller and less dispersed error values compared to those computed for HTC One S. Also, the navigation solution of the HTC One S appears to adapt faster to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting a somewhat different data filtering approach for the iPhone 5s. Testing the accuracy of the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors for a number of

  16. Pharmaceuticals in water, fish and osprey nestlings in Delaware River and Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas G.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Day, Daniel D.; Burket, S. Rebekah; Brooks, Bryan W.; Haddad, Samuel P.; Bowerman, William W.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2–3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC). We built upon a screening level model used to predict osprey exposure to APIs in Chesapeake Bay and evaluated whether exposure levels could have been predicted in Delaware Bay had we just measured concentrations in water or fish. Use of surface water and BCFs did not predict API concentrations in fish well, likely due to fish movement patterns, and partitioning and bioaccumulation uncertainties associated with these ionizable chemicals. Input of highest measured API concentration in fish plasma combined with pharmacokinetic data accurately predicted that diclofenac and acetaminophen would be the APIs most likely detected in osprey plasma. For the majority of APIs modeled, levels were not predicted to exceed 1 ng/mL or method detection limits in osprey plasma. Based on the target analytes examined, there is little evidence that APIs represent a significant risk to ospreys nesting in Delaware Bay. If an API is present in fish orders of magnitude below HTC, sampling of fish-eating birds is unlikely to be necessary. However, several human pharmaceuticals accumulated in fish plasma within a recommended safety factor for HTC. It is now important to expand the scope of diet-based API exposure modeling to include alternative exposure pathways (e.g., uptake from landfills, dumps and wastewater treatment plants) and geographic locations (developing countries) where API contamination of the environment may represent greater risk.

  17. Persons with Haemophilia in Sweden- Experiences and Strategies in Everyday Life. A Single Centre Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Brodin

    Full Text Available Haemophilia is caused by deficiency in coagulation factor VIII or IX. Treatment with the missing coagulation factors has been available in most developed countries for several decades. The aim was to explore the experiences of adults living with severe or moderate haemophilia and their coping strategies at a single centre in Sweden.The interview study had a qualitative empirical approach and was analyzed on the basis of the method empirical phenomenological psychology. The sample included 14 participants, mean age 42 (19-80 y, who met the inclusion criteria and to saturation of information.General characteristics were; All were satisfied with and grateful for access to medication. An acceptance of the disorder and willingness to live a normal life was identified among all participants. They were all content with the care provided by Haemophilia Treatment Centre (HTC and felt supported by its multidisciplinary team. Four typologies were identified; Protective adults and assertive children during up-bringing, finding a role in social context, symptoms and treatments, fear of limited resources in the future. Task-, emotional- and avoidance coping strategies were seen in the interviews. The most prominent coping strategy was task oriented.This interview study with Swedish PWH shows that they strive for normality and adaptation in social activities throughout life finding their own niche. The PWH expressed the importance of knowledge and support from the comprehensive medical team at HTC and therefore it seems important to continue comprehensive medical care at HTC in order to follow-up the haemophilia persons regularly.

  18. Hydrothermal carbonisation of poultry litter: Effects of treatment temperature and residence time on yields and chemical properties of hydrochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Bashir M; Pandey, Daya Shankar; Kwapinski, Witold; Leahy, James J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, hydrochars were prepared by hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of poultry litter (PL) at temperatures between 150-300°C with residence times of 30, 120 and 480min. The effects of treatment temperature and residence time on the yield and composition of hydrochar were investigated. Both treatment temperature and residence time effects were observed however, the effect of residence time was lower. The results indicated that the HHV was improved by up to 25.17% and the overall ash in hydrochar was significantly lower compared to PL, however this coincided with a lower hydrochar yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isotopic disproportionation during hydrogen isotopic analysis of nitrogen-bearing organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sreejesh; Geilmann, Heike; Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Gehre, Matthias; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Brand, Willi A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale High-precision hydrogen isotope ratio analysis of nitrogen-bearing organic materials using high-temperature conversion (HTC) techniques has proven troublesome in the past. Formation of reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) has been suspected as a possible cause of incomplete H2 yield and hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Methods The classical HTC reactor setup and a modified version including elemental chromium, both operated at temperatures in excess of 1400 °C, have been compared using a selection of nitrogen-bearing organic compounds, including caffeine. A focus of the experiments was to avoid or suppress hydrogen cyanide (HCN) formation and to reach quantitative H2 yields. The technique also was optimized to provide acceptable sample throughput. Results The classical HTC reaction of a number of selected compounds exhibited H2 yields from 60 to 90 %. Yields close to 100 % were measured for the experiments with the chromium-enhanced reactor. The δ2H values also were substantially different between the two types of experiments. For the majority of the compounds studied, a highly significant relationship was observed between the amount of missing H2and the number of nitrogen atoms in the molecules, suggesting the pyrolytic formation of HCN as a byproduct. A similar linear relationship was found between the amount of missing H2 and the observed hydrogen isotopic result, reflecting isotopic fractionation. Conclusions The classical HTC technique to produce H2 from organic materials using high temperatures in the presence of glassy carbon is not suitable for nitrogen-bearing compounds. Adding chromium to the reaction zone improves the yield to 100 % in most cases. The initial formation of HCN is accompanied by a strong hydrogen isotope effect, with the observed hydrogen isotope results on H2 being substantially shifted to more negative δ2H values. The reaction can be understood as an initial disproportionation leading to H2 and HCN

  20. Anticlastogenic effect of β-glucan, extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on cultured cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Ariane Fernanda; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Niwa, Andressa Megumi; D’Epiro, Gláucia Fernanda Rocha; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    β-glucan is an important polysaccharide due to its medicinal properties of stimulating the immune system and preventing chronic diseases such as cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the anticlastogenic effect of β-glucan in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV). Chromosome aberration assay was performed in drug-metabolizing cells (HTC) and non drug-metabolizing cells (CHO-K1 and repair-deficient CHO-xrs5), using different treatment protocols. Continuous treatment (UV + ...

  1. Analysis Of Product Positioning On Asian Mobile Phone Products In Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pangemanan, Sifrid S; Roring, Dio Rio

    2014-01-01

    Cellular phone that was once only used to send messages and get in touch with each other, has now turned into a lot of functions and is very sophisticated, with the development of mobile products makes a mobile phone into an object that is in need tape that used to have multiple mobile phone functions that have only by some well-known product now owned or installed into the phone - mobile phone often known by the mobile phone made €‹€‹in asia or asian mobile phone such as: Oppo, Lenovo, HTC, ...

  2. Vivemoose, Virtuaalinen ampumaratasimulaattori

    OpenAIRE

    Tapanainen, Nikke

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli suunnitella ja kehittää virtuaalinen ampumaratasimulaattori, jolla käyttäjät pystyisivät kehittämään ampumataitojaan, sekä antaa yksinkertainen kokeilumahdollisuus ammuntaharrastukseen. Työ tehtiin Unity3D-pelieditorilla HTC Vive -laitteelle. Päätavoitteena oli luoda valmis tuotepaketti, jota voisi vuokrata erilaisiin tilaisuuksiin, kuten esimerkiksi nuorten Metsoleireille. Työllä ei ollut tilaajaa, mutta sen kehityksessä olivat mukana erilaiset seurat, kuten Kurikan...

  3. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO), Central American Coastal Marine Areas West Coast. Volume 1. Area 1 - Central Baja West, Area 2 - Southwest Baja, Area 3 - Gulf of California, Area 4 - Mazatlan, Area 5 - Puerto Vallarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    14.2 31.• 27.1 II.0 5.3 2.1 PPPCfM ftEOUEhC» OF VIVE "CUM IF7I «5 HKVI >[>I00 I5CC040SI 12 13-14 17-1« 20-22 23-25 24-12...D0O2 IOUTHHCSI MJ« OF « HtC PU CCICITAMO** CCIIOM VS 0 ITh «IkflhG :CUR*E>>CE o« MOti-occi’Ricocr or ►CT ICTIL All IfUl

  4. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleja, Pavol; Kozlovská, Mária

    2017-06-01

    We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies

  5. Programación de visitas virtuales a bodegas empleando Unity

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Unai

    2017-01-01

    En este proyecto se presenta el desarrollo del proceso de diseño e implementación de un recorrido a una bodega subterránea empleando realidad virtual con el sistema HTC Vive y utilizando el motor de videojuegos Unity. Se describe el proceso de elección de las plataformas de realidad virtual y las herramientas necesarias para su desarrollo. Además, se detalla el uso de las mismas. Por último, se describen las diferentes formas de interactuar con el usuario, así como la forma en ...

  6. SANS-polymer and functional materials with neutron in Indonesia. Progress report on the collaboration activities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikram, A.; Gunawan; Sukirman, E.; Ridwan; Jahja, A.K. [R and D Center for Materials Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Serpong (Indonesia)

    2000-10-01

    Activities on SANS-polymer collaboration program are reported. This paper presents SANS-data from Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate that have been obtained using BATAN's SANS machine in Serpong. Reports are also presented about activities in the groups for functional materials structural determination which includes magnetic, HTc superconducting and superionic conducting materials. Discussions are also given towards the way the collaboration activities were carried out in the last three years as well as impact of neutron scattering facility conditions in Indonesia. (author)

  7. Comparison between direct transesterification of microalgae and hydrochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo Thanh Phuoc

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of microalgae is one of processes that can effectively remove moisture from microalgae. In addition, the hydrochar retains most of fatty acids from microalgae feedstock, and the content of fatty acids in hydrochar is doubled. This research concentrates on the comparison between direct transesterification of microalgae and hydrochar. The result shows that the biodiesel yields of hydrochar were higher than those of microalgae at the same reaction conditions due to the higher extraction rate of fatty acids from hydrochar. Finally, the amount of methanol and catalyst which is required for a given amount of microalgae can be reduced to a half through the direct transesterification of hydrochar.

  8. A two-center, assessor-blinded, prospective trial evaluating the efficacy of a novel hypertonic draining cream for cellulite reduction: A Clinical and instrumental (Antera 3D CS) assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puviani, Mario; Tovecci, Federica; Milani, Massimo

    2017-12-04

    Gynoid lipodystrophy, also known as cellulite, is a very common skin alteration representing mainly a cosmetic problem rather than a real disease. An effective treatment of cellulite has not been well established. The initial phase of cellulite is characterized by subdermal tissue edema with interstitial fluids retention. A new hypertonic topical product with draining action (HTC) containing NaCl 13%, escine, caffeine, and beta-sitosterol has been recently developed. A 28-day double-blind placebo-controlled study has shown that this cream is able to reduce thigh circumference and the thickness of adipose tissue. No data so far are available regarding an objective evaluation of skin appearance for a longer application period. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of 2-month HCT treatment with clinical and instrumental assessments. In a prospective, 2-center, assessor-blinded trial 20 women (mean age 34 years) with cellulite of Grade I-III in severity were enrolled after their informed consent. HTC was applied once daily for 60 days. Primary outcomes of the trial were the evolution of thigh circumference measurements (assessed at baseline, after 1 and 2 months) and the computer-analysis of skin profilometry (ie, skin volumes) of a prespecified target area evaluated by means of Antera 3D CS digitalized images (assessed at baseline and at the end of the trial). Secondary outcome was the orange peel severity score (from 0 to 5) before and after pitch test. All subjects concluded the study period. Thigh circumference was reduced by -0.88 (right)/-1.2 cm (left) and by -1.8(right)/-2.1 (left) cm, after 30 and 60 days of treatment, respectively (P = .001, Wilcoxon test vs baseline). Antera 3D profilometry of the target zone showed a significant reduction in skin depression expressed in mm 3 of -56% (from 59.7 to 26.73 mm 3 ) after HTC application. Orange peel (no pitch test) mean (SD) score was 2.3 (1) at baseline, 2.0 (1) and 1.8 (0.8) after 1 and 2 months (P = .0031

  9. Practical Android Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Jordan, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    Take a practical approach to becoming a leading-edge Android developer, learning by example while combining the many technologies needed to create a successful, up-to-date web app. Practical Android Projects introduces the Android software development kit and development tools of the trade, and then dives into building cool-looking and fun apps that put Android's amazing capabilities to work. Android is the powerful, full-featured, open source mobile platform that powers phones like Google Nexus, Motorola Droid, Samsung Galaxy S, and a variety of HTC phones and tablet computers. This book help

  10. Interfaz de Control para un Robot Manipulador mediante Realidad Virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Tapia, Elena; Roldán Gómez, Juan Jesús; Garzón Oviedo, Mario Andrei; Martín Barrio, Andrés; Barrientos Cruz, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Las tecnologías inmersivas como la Realidad Virtual tienen potencial para mejorar la teleoperación de los robots. Estas tecnologías transportan al operador al espacio de trabajo, le proporcionan información sobre la misión y le permiten comandar los robots de manera intuitiva. En este trabajo se ha integrado un robot manipulador Kinova Jaco2 en un entorno de realidad virtual visualizado con las gafas de realidad virtual HTC Vive. La interfaz permite tanto la monitorización del brazo robótico ...

  11. Same day ART initiation versus clinic-based pre-ART assessment and counselling for individuals newly tested HIV-positive during community-based HIV testing in rural Lesotho - a randomized controlled trial (CASCADE trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Ringera, Isaac; Lejone, Thabo Ishmael; Masethothi, Phofu; Thaanyane, T'sepang; Kamele, Mashaete; Gupta, Ravi Shankar; Thin, Kyaw; Cerutti, Bernard; Klimkait, Thomas; Fritz, Christiane; Glass, Tracy Renée

    2016-04-14

    Achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in Sub-Sahara Africa is challenged by a weak care-cascade with poor linkage to care and retention in care. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) is widely used in African countries. However, rates of linkage to care and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in individuals who tested HIV-positive are often very low. A frequently cited reason for non-linkage to care is the time-consuming pre-ART assessment often requiring several clinic visits before ART-initiation. This two-armed open-label randomized controlled trial compares in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC the proposition of same-day community-based ART-initiation to the standard of care pre-ART assessment at the clinic. Home-based HTC campaigns will be conducted in catchment areas of six clinics in rural Lesotho. Households where at least one individual tested HIV positive will be randomized. In the standard of care group individuals receive post-test counselling and referral to the nearest clinic for pre-ART assessment and counselling. Once they have started ART the follow-up schedule foresees monthly clinic visits. Individuals randomized to the intervention group receive on the spot point-of-care pre-ART assessment and adherence counselling with the proposition to start ART that same day. Once they have started ART, follow-up clinic visits will be less frequent. First primary outcome is linkage to care (individual presents at the clinic at least once within 3 months after the HIV test). The second primary outcome is viral suppression 12 months after enrolment in the study. We plan to enrol a minimum of 260 households with 1:1 allocation and parallel assignment into both arms. This trial will show if in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC campaigns the proposition of same-day ART initiation in the community, combined with less frequent follow-up visits at the clinic could be a pragmatic approach to

  12. Application of calorimetry in evaluation of phase transformations in the selected hypoeutectic silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of phase transformations described in this study were carried out on hypoeutectic alloys from the Al-Si system (AlSi3, AlSi6 and AlSi9 during heating and cooling. The determination and analysis of characteristic temperature values from the solidification range was made by the DSC method in calorimetric investigations carried out on a high-temperature multi HTC scanning calorimeter. Applying the lever rule, the phase composition of the examined silumins was calculated and compared with the results of DSC calorimetry, obtaining a good correlation of the results.

  13. Same day ART initiation versus clinic-based pre-ART assessment and counselling for individuals newly tested HIV-positive during community-based HIV testing in rural Lesotho – a randomized controlled trial (CASCADE trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklaus Daniel Labhardt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in Sub-Sahara Africa is challenged by a weak care-cascade with poor linkage to care and retention in care. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC is widely used in African countries. However, rates of linkage to care and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART in individuals who tested HIV-positive are often very low. A frequently cited reason for non-linkage to care is the time-consuming pre-ART assessment often requiring several clinic visits before ART-initiation. Methods This two-armed open-label randomized controlled trial compares in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC the proposition of same-day community-based ART-initiation to the standard of care pre-ART assessment at the clinic. Home-based HTC campaigns will be conducted in catchment areas of six clinics in rural Lesotho. Households where at least one individual tested HIV positive will be randomized. In the standard of care group individuals receive post-test counselling and referral to the nearest clinic for pre-ART assessment and counselling. Once they have started ART the follow-up schedule foresees monthly clinic visits. Individuals randomized to the intervention group receive on the spot point-of-care pre-ART assessment and adherence counselling with the proposition to start ART that same day. Once they have started ART, follow-up clinic visits will be less frequent. First primary outcome is linkage to care (individual presents at the clinic at least once within 3 months after the HIV test. The second primary outcome is viral suppression 12 months after enrolment in the study. We plan to enrol a minimum of 260 households with 1:1 allocation and parallel assignment into both arms. Discussion This trial will show if in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC campaigns the proposition of same-day ART initiation in the community, combined with less frequent follow

  14. Non-destructive testing of a carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite using HTS-SQUID and electromagnetic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonavolonta, C; Valentino, M [CNR-INFM Coherentia, Piazzale Tecchio 80, I-80125 Naples (Italy); Meola, C; Carlomagno, G M [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Volponi, R [CIRA Italian Aerospace Research Centre, Advanced Materials and Technologies Lab, Via Maiorise, I-81043 Capua (CE) (Italy); Rosca, I D, E-mail: bonavolo@na.infn.i [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Center for Research in Polymers and Composites (CREPEC), Concordia University, 6079, Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    The correlation between electrical conductivity and magnetic field response, due to multi-walled carbon nanotubes' (MWCNTs) distribution within the polymer matrix, has been demonstrated using a contactless and non-destructive technique. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, both buckypaper and reinforced epoxy matrix specimens with different nanotube percentages, have been inspected using the eddy current technique based on an HTc SQUID magnetometer. The SQUID magnetic field response, due to the nanotube distribution, has been compared with the thermographic technique results. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of nanotube-reinforced composites and buckypaper has been carried out by using the Van der Pauw method.

  15. Bodiless Embodiment: A Descriptive Survey of Avatar Bodily Coherence in First-Wave Consumer VR Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Dooley Joel

    /or agency over their virtual actions even in the absence of visible avatar body parts. This informs research questions and hypotheses for future experimental enquiry into how bodily representation may interplay with user cognition, perceived virtual embodiment (body ownership illusion and sense of agency......This preliminary study surveys whether/which avatar body parts are visible in first-wave consumer virtual reality (VR) applications for the HTC Vive (n = 200). A simple coding schema for assessing avatar bodily coherence (ABC) is piloted and evaluated. Results provide a snapshot of ABC in popular...

  16. Aplicación de telefonía móvil para discapacitados

    OpenAIRE

    Archilla Manso, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    En la sociedad en la que vivimos, no concebimos una vida sin teléfono móvil. En el metro, autobús, en la sala de espera del médico, siempre vemos a alguien utilizando un smartphone o teléfono inteligente. Android, el sistema operativo para dispositivos móviles que abarca más terminales (Samsung, LG, HTC, Sony, etc.), es el más utilizado de todos. Por ello, lo más probable es que veamos a alguien utilizando un teléfono con este sistema operativo. Actualmente, este sistema operativo tiene una g...

  17. [Bronchial hypersensitivity in children with the neutrophilic phenotype of bronchial asthma and GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukov, L A; Koloskova, E K; Galushchinskaia, A V

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between bronchial hypersensitivity as the key phenomenon ofbronchial asthma and detoxication GSTM1 or GSTT1 gene polymorphism in children with neutrophilic phenotype of this disease remains unclear 33 children with bronchial asthma of neutrophile phenotype were examined in histamine and dosed physical exercise (running) tests. In addition GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotyping was performed. Histamine test revealed bronchial hypersensitivity (HTC bronchial asthma having deletions in the GSTT1/GSTM1 system are characterized by bronchial hypersensitivity to histamine and dosed physical exercises.

  18. Biochar strategies as measures for climate protection; Biokohlenstrategien als Massnahmen zum Klimaschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Martin [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Landschaftsoekologie und Ressourcenmanagement; Wilske, Burkhard; Bai, Mo

    2014-07-01

    Biochar is advertised by stakeholders both public and private as an innovative interface in materials stream management which holds potential for added value in the fields of climate protection, energy, agriculture, soil improvement, and waste management. A number of factors must be considered in undertaking a comprehensive assessment and valuation for climate protection purposes of the option of a ''biochar strategy'', meaning carbon sequestration by biomass carbonisation (pyrolysis, HTC): biochar production and uptake capacities, energy and carbon balance, product stability, impact on soil functions and yield effects and, not least, economic aspects. This article addresses the more important of these factors.

  19. An Improved Method of Pose Estimation for Lighthouse Base Station Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, HTC and Valve launched a virtual reality headset empowered with Lighthouse, the cutting-edge space positioning technology. Although Lighthouse is superior in terms of accuracy, latency and refresh rate, its algorithms do not support base station expansion, and is flawed concerning occlusion in moving targets, that is, it is unable to calculate their poses with a small set of sensors, resulting in the loss of optical tracking data. In view of these problems, this paper proposes an improved pose estimation algorithm for cases where occlusion is involved. Our algorithm calculates the pose of a given object with a unified dataset comprising of inputs from sensors recognized by all base stations, as long as three or more sensors detect a signal in total, no matter from which base station. To verify our algorithm, HTC official base stations and autonomous developed receivers are used for prototyping. The experiment result shows that our pose calculation algorithm can achieve precise positioning when a few sensors detect the signal.

  20. Computer Security: Android’s Armageddon… Reloaded

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    About 1 billion Android smartphones are facing their Armageddon. Again.   Android could be facing another Armageddon, just as we saw with the “Stagefright” vulnerability last summer (see “Android’s Armageddon”). But while that “Mother of all Android Vulnerabilities” targeted Android’s Multimedia Messaging Service, this time the driver for Qualcomm’s LTE chipset is in the firing line… And as before, while a fix for this vulnerability has been quickly made available, the big problem has been getting this fix to your Android device: mobile phone manufacturers and providers are incredibly slow at passing it along… What can you do to get this fix? Basically, there's nothing you can do but wait. For certain smartphone models (e.g. HTC One M9 and HTC 10; LG G4, G5, and V10; Samsung Galaxy S7 and S7 Edge; and others), you are completely exposed. This four-fold vulnerability, dubbed &am...

  1. The performance studies on swallow-tailed naphthalene diimide derivatives in solution processed inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Gulsah; Sarica, Hizir; Erten-Ela, Sule

    2014-10-01

    Two different soluble swallow-tailed naphthalene diimide derivatives were synthesized, 1,4:5,8-naphthalene diimides (NDIs), N,N‧-bis-(1-butylpentyl)-naphthalenetetracarboxylic-1,4:5,8-biscarboximide (NDI-1) and N,N‧-bis-(1-pentylhexyl)-naphthalenetetracarboxylic-1,4:5,8-biscarboximide (NDI-2). Thermal stabilities were also measured with thermal gravimetry analyser (TGA). Naphthalene diimides showed high thermal stability. NDI derivatives exhibited good thermal stabilities that thermal decomposition peak appeared at 438 °C and 421 °C, respectively for NDI-1 and NDI-2. Highly soluble naphthalene diimide derivatives were used in inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells. Two different ZnO cathode layers were used to fabricate bulk heterojunction solar cells. One of them was single layer consists of dense ZnO layer and the other was double layer comprising porous ZnO layer onto dense ZnO layer. Inverted bulk heterojunction devices were designed in a FTO/ ZnO (single or double layer)/P3HT:C60:NDI device geometry. Best efficiency was obtained for FTO/ZnO (single or double layer)/P3HT:C60:NDI-2 device as 8.78 mA/cm2 of short circuit photocurrent density, 300 mV of open circuit voltage, 0.28 of filling factor, 0.74 of overall conversion efficiency.

  2. Hydrothermally carbonized plant materials: patterns of volatile organic compounds detected by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Roland; Dorgerloh, Ute; Helmis, Mario; Mumme, Jan; Diakité, Mamadou; Nehls, Irene

    2013-02-01

    The nature and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in chars generated by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is of concern considering their application as soil amendment. Therefore, the presence of VOCs in solid HTC products obtained from wheat straw, biogas digestate and four woody materials was investigated using headspace gas chromatography. A variety of potentially harmful benzenic, phenolic and furanic volatiles along with various aldehydes and ketones were identified in feedstock- and temperature-specific patterns. The total amount of VOCs observed after equilibration between headspace and char samples produced at 270°C ranged between 2000 and 16,000μg/g (0.2-1.6wt.%). Depending on feedstock 50-9000μg/g of benzenes and 300-1800μg/g of phenols were observed. Substances potentially harmful to soil ecology such as benzofurans (200-800μg/g) and p-cymene (up to 6000μg/g in pine wood char) exhibited concentrations that suggest restrained application of fresh hydrochar as soil amendment or for water purification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The microscale cooling effects of water sensitive urban design and irrigation in a suburban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Ashley M.; Coutts, Andrew M.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Demuzere, Matthias; Beringer, Jason

    2017-09-01

    Prolonged drought has threatened traditional potable urban water supplies in Australian cities, reducing capability to adapt to climate change and mitigate against extreme. Integrated urban water management (IUWM) approaches, such as water sensitive urban design (WSUD), reduce the reliance on centralised potable water supply systems and provide a means for retaining water in the urban environment through stormwater harvesting and reuse. This study examines the potential for WSUD to provide cooling benefits and reduce human exposure and heat stress and thermal discomfort. A high-resolution observational field campaign, measuring surface level microclimate variables and remotely sensed land surface characteristics, was conducted in a mixed residential suburb containing WSUD in Adelaide, South Australia. Clear evidence was found that WSUD features and irrigation can reduce surface temperature (T s) and air temperature (T a) and improve human thermal comfort (HTC) in urban environments. The average 3 pm T a near water bodies was found to be up to 1.8 °C cooler than the domain maximum. Cooling was broadly observed in the area 50 m downwind of lakes and wetlands. Design and placement of water bodies were found to affect their cooling effectiveness. HTC was improved by proximity to WSUD features, but shading and ventilation were also effective at improving thermal comfort. This study demonstrates that WSUD can be used to cool urban microclimates, while simultaneously achieving other environmental benefits, such as improved stream ecology and flood mitigation.

  4. Influence of processing and storage of integral grape juice (Vitis labrusca L.) on its physical and chemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsman, E; Almeida, I V; Pinto, E P; Lucchetta, L; Vicentini, V E P

    2017-05-31

    Integral grape juice is extracted from the grape through processes that allow the retention of their natural composition. However, due to the severity of some processes, fruit juices can undergo changes in their quality. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of integral grape juice by a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro. Vitis labrusca L. (variety Concord) were produced organically and by a conventional system, and their juice was extracted by a hot extraction process. The organic grapes were subjected to ultraviolet-type C radiation (UV-C). Experiments were performed after production and after 6 months in storage. Physicochemical analyses revealed that UV-C irradiation of organic grapes, the juice production process, and storage resulted in nutraceutical alterations. However, none of the juice concentrations were cytotoxic to HTC cells by the cytokinesis-blocked proliferation index results or were mutagenic, because the formation of micronucleated cells was not induced. In general, juice induced cell proliferation, possibly due to the presence of vitamins and sugar content (total soluble solid). The data increased the understanding of food technology and confirmed the quality and safety consumption of these juices.

  5. Evolution of phosphorus complexation and mineralogy during (hydro)thermal treatments of activated and anaerobically digested sludge: Insights from sequential extraction and P K-edge XANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rixiang; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2016-09-01

    (Hydro)thermal treatments of sewage sludge is a promising option that can simultaneously target safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. The speciation of phosphorus (P) in sludge is of great relevance to P reclamation/recycling and soil application of sludge-derived products, thus it is critical to understand the effects of different treatment techniques and conditions on P speciation. This study systematically characterized P speciation (i.e. complexation and mineral forms) in chars derived from pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of municipal sewage sludges. Combined sequential extraction and P K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis revealed the dependence of P transformation on treatment conditions and metal composition in the feedstocks. Pyrolysis of sludges decreased the relative abundance of phytic acid while increased the abundance of Al-associated P. HTC thoroughly homogenized and exposed P for interaction with various metals/minerals, with the final P speciation closely related to the composition/speciation of metals and their affinities to P. Results from this study revealed the mechanisms of P transformation during (hydro)thermal treatments of sewage sludges, and might be applicable to other biosolids. It also provided fundamental knowledge basis for the design and selection of waste management strategies for better P (re)cycling and reclamation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurement for Downward Facing Flow Boiling Heat Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Yeong; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To evaluate heat transfer capability of the ERVC, estimating heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is important. In this study, the HTCs were experimentally measured, and large break loss of coolant accident (LLOCA) was used as basic accident. At the lower head outer wall, heat transfer phenomenon was downward facing flow boiling heat transfer. Because, natural circulation occurred. Hence, to simulate the flow boiling, water loop was designed. The reactor vessel lower head was simulated as 2-D slice main heater. To simulate the heat transfer characteristics of material and geometry, the main heater was made of SA508 consisting the reactor vessel, and its radius curvature was 2.5 m. The main heater outer surface (facing to air) temperature was measured by infrared (IR) camera, and the inner surface (facing to working fluid) temperature was calculated by solving conduction equation of main heater. The main heater heat flux was under CHF value of previous research. The results of 60 .deg. and 90 .deg. were used as representative angular location data. LLOCA was used as basic accident. Through this experiment, the HTC data was produced for SA508 heat transfer surface material and 2.5 m of radius curvature. The HTCs result shown different trend at each angular location. The HTCs commonly increased with heat flux increment, but the trends were different for angular location.

  7. Effect of the storage condition of microalgae on hydrochar lipids and direct esterification-transesterification of hydrochar lipids for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo Thanh Phuoc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrochar product from the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of microalgae contains most of fatty acids (FAs in the original microalgae. In the hydrochar, FAs exist in both types of bound fatty acids (BFAs and free fatty acids (FFAs. Besides, when the microalgae paste is stored at the room temperature (25 °C for one day, there is an increase of total fatty acids (TFAs and free fatty acids (FFAs in microalgae. The hydrochar from this microalgae paste was proved to have a higher amount of TFAs and a higher percentage of FFAs/TFAs compared to the ordinary hydrochar (without the additional storage step in this research. Both of these factors favor for the subsequent acid catalyzed esterification-transesterification reaction of hydrochar lipids. In summary, a process based on a combination of the storage of fresh microalgae, the HTC of microalgae paste, and the direct esterification-transesterification of the hydrochar has been developed for biodiesel production. With the additional storage step of fresh microalgae, the total biodiesel yield has been improved of 19.3% in the optimum condition.

  8. H. pylori May Not Be Associated with Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Normal Gastrointestinal Tract Endoscopy Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyibe Saler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between iron deficiency anemia and H. pylori in patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results. Materials and Methods. A total of 117 male patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results were included in this retrospective study. The study and control groups included 69 and 48 patients with and without iron deficiency anemia, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori, the number of RBCs, and the levels of HGB, HTC, MCV, iron, and ferritin were calculated and compared. Results. There was no statistically significant difference found between the groups according to the prevalence of H. pylori (65.2% versus 64.6%, P=0.896. Additionally, the levels of RBCs, HGB, HTC, MCV, iron, and ferritin in the patients in the study group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05. Finally, there was no association between iron deficiency anemia and H. pylori (OR 1.02, Cl 95% 0.47–2.22, and P=0.943. Conclusion. H. pylori is not associated with iron deficiency anemia in male patients with normal gastrointestinal tract endoscopy results.

  9. Experimental investigations on nucleate boiling heat transfer of aqua based reduced graphene oxide nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatchi, R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized from graphite powder and various characterization techniques have been used to study the in-plane crystallite size, number of layers, presence of functional groups and surface morphology. The rGO flakes are dispersed in Millipore water to obtain 0.0005, 0.001, and 0.002 wt.% of rGO-water nanofluids. It is then used in the experimental facility to study the nucleate boiling heat transfer with different heating surfaces viz. smooth and sandblasted surface (SBS). Results of this study indicate (i) an enhancement in heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for concentration upto 0.001 wt.% and deterioration beyond this in the case of smooth surface, and (ii) an increase in HTC with concentrations is observed for SBS and shows a maximum enhancement of about 60% in comparison with smooth surface at 0.002 wt.%. It is found that the presence of secondary cavities (acts as nucleation sites) formed by the rGO flakes during boiling is responsible for the observed phenomena in addition to the possible effect of rGO in the fluid flow.

  10. LNO3 AND L3 Are Associated With Antiproliferative And Pro-Apoptotic Action In Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Campos Zanelatto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of antitumoral substances is the focus of intense biomedical research. Two structural analogues of thalidomide, LNO3 and L3, are two synthetic compounds that might possess such antitumor properties. We evaluated the toxicological effects of these substances, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in HTC cells. Additionally, the production of free radicals (nitric oxide and superoxide was investigated, and the expression of caspases genes 3, 8, and 9 were determined by RT-qPCR. The compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects that resulted in inhibited cell proliferation. LNO3 showed to be more effective and toxic than L3 in all assays. LNO3 stimulated the release of NO and superoxide, which was accompanied by the formation of peroxynitrite. Apoptosis was induced in a dose-dependent manner by both compounds; however, the expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9 was unchanged. These results suggested that L3 and LNO3 possess antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in HTC cells. Additionally, although they exhibited cytotoxicity, L3 and LNO3 might be useful coadjuvants in tumor treatment studies.

  11. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Achieving Universal Access for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis: Potential Prevention Impact of an Integrated Multi-Disease Prevention Campaign in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Granich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Government of Kenya with key stakeholders implemented an integrated multi-disease prevention campaign for water-borne diseases, malaria and HIV in Kisii District, Nyanza Province. The three day campaign, targeting 5000 people, included testing and counseling (HTC, condoms, long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets, and water filters. People with HIV were offered on-site CD4 cell counts, condoms, co-trimoxazole, and HIV clinic referral. We analysed the CD4 distributions from a district hospital cohort, campaign participants and from the 2007 Kenya Aids Indicator Survey (KAIS. Of the 5198 individuals participating in the campaign, all received HTC, 329 (6.3% tested positive, and 255 (5% were newly diagnosed (median CD4 cell count 536 cells/μL. The hospital cohort and KAIS results included 1,284 initial CD4 counts (median 348/L and 306 initial CD4 counts (median 550/μL, respectively (campaign and KAIS CD4 distributions P=0.346; hospital cohort distribution was lower P<0.001 and P<0.001. A Nyanza Province campaign strategy including ART <350 CD4 cell count could avert approximately 35,000 HIV infections and 1,240 TB cases annually. Community-based integrated public health campaigns could be a potential solution to reach universal access and Millennium Development Goals.

  13. Preparation of porous carbon sphere from waste sugar solution for electric double-layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-Qiang; Cao, Jing-Pei; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Qi-Qi; Wang, Xing-Yong; Wei, Xian-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Waste sugar solution (WSS), which contains abundant 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, is harmful to the environment if discharged directly. For value-added utilization of the waste resource, a novel process is developed for preparation of porous carbon spheres by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of WSS followed by KOH activation. Additionally, the possible preparation mechanism of carbon spheres is proposed. The effects of hydrothermal and activation parameters on the properties of the carbon sphere are also investigated. The carbon sphere is applied to electric double-layer capacitor and its electrochemical performance is studied. These results show that the carbon sphere obtained by HTC at 180 °C for 12 h with the WSS/deionized water volume ratio of 2/3 possess the highest specific capacitance under identical activation conditions. The specific capacitance of the carbon spheres can reach 296.1 F g-1 at a current density of 40 mA g-1. Besides, excellent cycle life and good capacitance retention (89.6%) are observed at 1.5 A g-1 after 5000 cycles. This study not only provides a facile and potential method for the WSS treatment, but also achieves the high value-added recycling of WSS for the preparation of porous carbon spheres with superior electrochemical properties.

  14. New paleomagnetic results from Late Ordovician rocks of the Yangtze Block, South China, and their paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenyu; Tong, Yabo; Jing, Xianqing

    2015-07-01

    The paleogeographic relationship between South China and Australia during the Ordovician is important for understanding the configuration of South China in Gondwana. However, high-quality Ordovician paleomagnetic results for the Yangtze Block are scarce. Here we report the results of a new paleomagnetic study of the Late Ordovician limestones of Wangcang County in the northern Yangtze Block, performed in order to constrain the paleoposition of South China. Two magnetic components were isolated by detailed stepwise thermal demagnetization. The low-temperature component falls close to the local current Earth's field direction. The site-mean direction obtained from the high-temperature component (HTC) carried by magnetite is D/I = 132.6°/-35.2° (α95 = 3.6°) after bedding correction, yielding a paleomagnetic pole at 45.8°S, 191.3°E (dp = 2.4°, dm = 4.2°). The HTC direction passed reversal and fold tests, and its corresponding pole differs from the available paleomagnetic poles since the Silurian of the South China Block. These results suggest that the remanent magnetization was probably acquired during the earliest stage of sedimentation. The high-temperature component yields a paleolatitude of 19.5°S, implying that the Yangtze Block was at tropic latitudes during the Late Ordovician. These new and reliable paleomagnetic results bridge the Ordovician data gap and favor the proximity between South China and Australia during the Late Ordovician.

  15. The Impact of Married Individuals Learning HIV Status in Malawi: Divorce, Number of Sexual Partners, and Condom Use With Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Theresa M; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-02-01

    This article assesses how married individuals' knowledge of HIV status gained through HIV testing and counseling (HTC) affects divorce, the number of sexual partners, and the use of condoms within marriage. This study improves upon previous studies on this topic because the randomized incentives affecting the propensity to be tested for HIV permit control for selective testing. Instrumental variable probit and linear models are estimated, using a randomized experiment administered as part of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The results indicate that knowledge of HIV status (1) does not affect chances of divorce for either HIV-negative or HIV-positive respondents; (2) reduces the number of reported sexual partners among HIV-positive respondents; and (3) increases reported condom use with spouses for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive respondents. These results imply that individuals actively respond to information about their HIV status that they learn during HTC, invoking protective behavior against future risk of HIV/AIDS for themselves and their actual and potential sexual partners. Some limitations of this study are a small sample size for those who are HIV-positive and dependence on self-reported sexual behaviors.

  16. An Improved Method of Pose Estimation for Lighthouse Base Station Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Weng, Dongdong; Li, Dong; Xun, Hang

    2017-10-22

    In 2015, HTC and Valve launched a virtual reality headset empowered with Lighthouse, the cutting-edge space positioning technology. Although Lighthouse is superior in terms of accuracy, latency and refresh rate, its algorithms do not support base station expansion, and is flawed concerning occlusion in moving targets, that is, it is unable to calculate their poses with a small set of sensors, resulting in the loss of optical tracking data. In view of these problems, this paper proposes an improved pose estimation algorithm for cases where occlusion is involved. Our algorithm calculates the pose of a given object with a unified dataset comprising of inputs from sensors recognized by all base stations, as long as three or more sensors detect a signal in total, no matter from which base station. To verify our algorithm, HTC official base stations and autonomous developed receivers are used for prototyping. The experiment result shows that our pose calculation algorithm can achieve precise positioning when a few sensors detect the signal.

  17. Effect of sorghum tannins in sheep fed with high-concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.S. Cabral Filho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of three sorghum cultivars with different concentrations of condensed tannins in sheep diets. Six adult sheep (LW=56kg with rumen and duodenal fistulas were assigned to experimental groups using two 3x3 Latin Square designs. The diets were formulated using three sorghum cultivars: LTC (low-tannin cultivar, MTC (medium-tannin cultivar and HTC (high-tannin cultivar. Microbial nitrogen (MN concentration in the duodenum was measured using a 15N trace technique. LTC, MTC and HTC diets presented values of 788, 722 and 747 (SE=20.6 g kg-1 for dry matter digestibility and 633, 535 and 530 (SE=35.8 g/kg for crude protein digestibility. The LTC diet was significantly different from the other diets (P0.05 between the diets. The presence of condensed tannins in the sorghum interfered with the sheep's nitrogen retention; however, the microbial protein supply to the duodenum of the animals was not inhibited.

  18. Heat transfer analysis of laboratory scale fast pyrolysis fluidised bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourabchi, Seyed Amirmostafa; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2017-04-01

    Heat transfer analysis of a fluidised bed with a bore diameter of 2.5 cm and a vertical length of 50 cm was investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on FLUENT 15.0 educational version software. The Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid granular model was used as the multiphase flow model to perform this simulation. A 2-D axisymmetric model was considered by using glass and stainless steel beads of 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm in diameters as the heat transfer medium to biomass. The Gidaspow model was used for the drag equation and the Gunn model was used in the interphase heat transfer coefficient determination. Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of stainless steel beads shows to be approximately 3 times higher than that of the glass beads of the same size based on having higher thermal conductivity. At wall temperature of 500 K, stainless steel and glass beads can be fluidised by using nitrogen linear velocity of 0.7 and 0.3 m/s respectively. Under these optimum conditions, HTC reaches up to 7625 W/(m2.K) and 2900 W/(m2.K) for stainless steel and glass beads and their surface temperatures can reach up to 495 K and 480 K, respectively.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to linkage to ART in primary care: a qualitative study of patients and providers in Blantyre, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter MacPherson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linkage from HIV testing and counselling (HTC to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART is suboptimal in many national programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to delayed initiation of ART and increased risk of death. Reasons for failure of linkage are poorly understood. Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with health providers and HIV-positive primary care patients as part of a prospective cohort study at primary health centres in Blantyre, Malawi. Patients successful and unsuccessful in linking to ART were included. Results: Progression through the HIV care pathway was strongly influenced by socio-cultural norms, particularly around the perceived need to regain respect lost during a period of visibly declining health. Capacity to call upon the support of networks of families, friends and employers was a key determinant of successful progression. Over-busy clinics, non-functioning laboratories and unsuitable tools used for ART eligibility assessment (WHO clinical staging system and centralized CD4 count measurement were important health systems determinants of drop-out. Conclusions: Key interventions that could rapidly improve linkage include guarantee of same-day, same-clinic ART eligibility assessments; utilization of the support offered by peer-groups and community health workers; and integration of HTC and ART programmes.

  20. Haematological studies of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukasem, N.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Some blood parameters of the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch i.e. red (RBC and white (WBC blood cell count, percent haematocrit (HTC, hemoglobin, plasma protein as well as hepatosomatic index (HSI were studied. There were no statistically significant difference (p>0.05 in average body weight and length of fish from the earthen pond and net cage culture, which were 16.85±1.46 g and 16.24±2.42 g, respectively, for the weight and 10.02±0.25 and 9.74±0.37 cm, respectively, for the length. Haematologicalstudies revealed that RBC, WBC including percent HTC levels of the fish from earthen pond and net cage were not significantly different (> 0.05. Whereas hemoglobin and serum protein concentration of the fish sampling from net cage were higher than those sampled from the earthen pond (p<0.05, with value of 12.21± 0.91 g/dl and 11.12±0.85 g/dl for hemoglobin and 4.61±0.50 mg/dl and 3.87±0.62 mg/dl for serum protein, respectively. HSI of the fish cultured in the earthen pond was significantly (p<0.05 higher than that of fish reared in net cage, with value of 1.93±0.12% and 1.66±0.12%, respectively.

  1. Experimental Heat Transfer Study of Endwall in a Linear Cascade with IR Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo Borja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This abstract presents an endwall heat transfer experimental data of air flow going through outlet guide vanes (OGVs situated in a low speed linear cascade. The measurement technique for this experiment was infrared thermography. In order to calculate the heat transfer coefficient (HTC on the endwall, it has been used an instrumented window with a controlled constant temperature in one side of a 5 millimeter Plexiglass in order to generate high temperature gradients and, therefore, by measuring the surface temperature one the other side of the Plexiglass, it is calculated the HTC. Due to the fact that Plexiglass material has not good optical properties at infrared spectrum, it has been used a thin layer of black paint (10-12 μm which has high emissivity (0.973 in the range of temperature that we are working. The Reynolds number for this experiment is 300000 in on and off-design configuration of the OGVs (on-design 25° and off-design cases are 40° and -25° incident angle. Furthermore, the on-design case is run at two different Reynolds number, 300000 and 450000. During this experiments it can be seen how changing the inlet angle to the OGVs produces significant differences on the heat transfer along the endwall. The main objective for this investigation is to study the heat transfer along the endwall of a linear cascade so that it would be a well-defined test case for CFD validation.

  2. Experimental Heat Transfer Study of Endwall in a Linear Cascade with IR Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Borja; Jimenez, Carlos; Chernoray, Valery

    2014-03-01

    This abstract presents an endwall heat transfer experimental data of air flow going through outlet guide vanes (OGVs) situated in a low speed linear cascade. The measurement technique for this experiment was infrared thermography. In order to calculate the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) on the endwall, it has been used an instrumented window with a controlled constant temperature in one side of a 5 millimeter Plexiglass in order to generate high temperature gradients and, therefore, by measuring the surface temperature one the other side of the Plexiglass, it is calculated the HTC. Due to the fact that Plexiglass material has not good optical properties at infrared spectrum, it has been used a thin layer of black paint (10-12 μm) which has high emissivity (0.973) in the range of temperature that we are working. The Reynolds number for this experiment is 300000 in on and off-design configuration of the OGVs (on-design 25° and off-design cases are 40° and -25° incident angle). Furthermore, the on-design case is run at two different Reynolds number, 300000 and 450000. During this experiments it can be seen how changing the inlet angle to the OGVs produces significant differences on the heat transfer along the endwall. The main objective for this investigation is to study the heat transfer along the endwall of a linear cascade so that it would be a well-defined test case for CFD validation.

  3. Chemistry and materials options of sustainable carbon materials made by hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Antonietti, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The production of functional nanostructured materials starting from cheap natural precursors using environmentally friendly processes is a highly attractive subject in material chemistry today. Recently, much attention has been focused on the use of plant biomass to produce functional carbonaceous materials, encompassing economic, environmental and social issues. Besides the classical route to produce activated carbons from agricultural side products, the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process shows clear advantages in that it can generate a variety of cheap and sustainable carbonaceous materials with attractive nanostructure and functionalization patterns for a wide range of applications. In this tutorial review we present the latest developments in this traditional but recently invigorated technique. It will be shown that HTC does not only access carbonaceous materials under comparatively mild hydrothermal conditions, but also replaces the more technical and structurally well-defined charring by a controlled chemical process. It will be shown that this makes it possible to tailor the final structure with the tools of colloid and polymer science, leading to very different morphologies with miscellaneous applications, including modern carbon nanocomposites and hybrids.

  4. Experimental investigations on nucleate boiling heat transfer of aqua based reduced graphene oxide nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatchi, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized from graphite powder and various characterization techniques have been used to study the in-plane crystallite size, number of layers, presence of functional groups and surface morphology. The rGO flakes are dispersed in Millipore water to obtain 0.0005, 0.001, and 0.002 wt.% of rGO-water nanofluids. It is then used in the experimental facility to study the nucleate boiling heat transfer with different heating surfaces viz. smooth and sandblasted surface (SBS). Results of this study indicate (i) an enhancement in heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for concentration upto 0.001 wt.% and deterioration beyond this in the case of smooth surface, and (ii) an increase in HTC with concentrations is observed for SBS and shows a maximum enhancement of about 60% in comparison with smooth surface at 0.002 wt.%. It is found that the presence of secondary cavities (acts as nucleation sites) formed by the rGO flakes during boiling is responsible for the observed phenomena in addition to the possible effect of rGO in the fluid flow.

  5. Optimization of the {sup 99m} Tc generator with hydrotalcite as support of {sup 99} Mo; Optimizacion del generador de {sup 99m} Tc con hidrotalcita como soporte del {sup 99} Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda O, N

    2004-07-01

    In the last years, in the laboratories of the National Institute of Nuclear Investigations (ININ) its have been investigating to the hydrotalcite like a material of support of the {sup 99} Mo with the purpose of developing a new technetium generator. During the development of the investigations it has been demonstrated that when putting in contact to the HTC with an aqueous solution that contains anions of any type, the HTC re hydrate and the structure is regenerated to laminate of the hydrotalcite. If the present anions in the solution are molybdate anions (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), these anions passed to be part of the structure of the hydrotalcite (HT-MoO{sub 4}). These anions can contain, in turn, {sup 99} Mo in their composition ({sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and equally they can pass to be part of the structure of the hydrotalcite forming the HT-{sup 99}MoO{sub 4}. When the HT-{sup 99}MoO{sub 4} is packed in a column, the {sup 99m}Tc that it takes place when decaying the {sup 99}Mo radioactively can separate the column using aqueous solution of NaCl. This way, in previous studies (Serrano, 2000) it was found that the aqueous solution of NaCl to 0.5% it is the but appropriate for elutriate at the {sup 99m}Tc from the column the yield of the elution of the {sup 99m}Tc was since high (98%) in the first elution, and the radionuclide contamination caused by the presence of {sup 99}Mo in the eluate it was low (<0.01%). In this investigation it was also found that the HTC has a high capacity to retain molybdate ions (255.1 mg of ions MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for gram of HTC). These facts, standing out the high capacity of the HTC to retain molybdate ions, they drove from a direct way to investigate the optimization of the generator of {sup 99m}Tc, with hydrotalcite like support of the {sup 99}Mo, using {sup 99}Mo of low specific activity. This finishes radioactive material it can be obtained by the irradiation of the {sup 98}Mo (in the chemical form of MoO{sub 3} or (NH{sub 4

  6. Hydrothermal Carbonization: a feasible solution to convert biomass to soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, Walter; Tesch, Petra; Pfeifer, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    The erosion of fertile soil is a severe problem arising right after peak oil (Myers 1996). That this issue is not only a problem of arid countries is shown by the fact that even the European Commission defined certain milestones to address the problem of soil erosion in Europe (European Commission 2011). The application of bio-char produced by torrefaction or pyrolysis for the remediation, revegetation and restoration of depleted soils started to gain momentum recently (Rillig 2010, Lehmann 2011, Beesley 2011). Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a promising thermo-chemical process that can be applied to convert organic feedstock into fertile soil and water, two resources which are of high value in regions being vulnerable to erosion. The great advantage of HTC is that organic feedstock (e.g. organic waste) can be used without any special pretreatment (e.g. drying) and so far no restrictions have been found regarding the composition of the organic matter. By applying HTC the organic material is processed along a defined pathway in the Van Krevelen plot (Behrendt 2006). By stopping the process at an early stage a nutritious rich material can be obtained, which is known to be similar to terra preta. Considering that HTC-coal is rich in functional groups and can be derived from the process under "wet" conditions, it can be expected that it shall allow soil bacteria to settle more easily compared to the bio-char derived by torrefaction or pyrolysis. In addition, up to 10 tons process water per ton organic waste can be gained (Vorlop 2009). Thus, as organic waste, loss of fertile soil and water scarcity becomes a serious issue within the European Union, hydrothermal carbonization can provide a feasible solution to address these issues of our near future. The presentation reviews the different types of feedstock investigated for the HTC-Process so far and gives an overview on the current stage of development of this technology. References Beesley L., Moreno-Jiménez E

  7. Assessing cost and technical efficiency of HIV prevention interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: the ORPHEA study design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Opuni, Marjorie; Kwan, Ada; Chaumont, Claire; Coetzee, Jenny; Condo, Jeanine; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Galárraga, Omar; Martinson, Neil; Masiye, Felix; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Wamai, Richard; Wang'ombe, Joseph

    2014-11-29

    Scaling up services to achieve HIV targets will require that countries optimize the use of available funding. Robust unit cost estimates are essential for the better use of resources, and information on the heterogeneity in the unit cost of delivering HIV services across facilities - both within and across countries - is critical to identifying and addressing inefficiencies. There is limited information on the unit cost of HIV prevention services in sub-Saharan Africa and information on the heterogeneity within and across countries and determinants of this variation is even more scarce. The "Optimizing the Response in Prevention: HIV Efficiency in Africa" (ORPHEA) study aims to add to the empirical body of knowledge on the cost and technical efficiency of HIV prevention services that decision makers can use to inform policy and planning. ORPHEA is a cross-sectional observational study conducted in 304 service delivery sites in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia to assess the cost, cost structure, cost variability, and the determinants of efficiency for four HIV interventions: HIV testing and counselling (HTC), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), and HIV prevention for sex workers. ORPHEA collected information at three levels (district, facility, and individual) on inputs to HIV prevention service production and their prices, outputs produced along the cascade of services, facility-level characteristics and contextual factors, district-level factors likely to influence the performance of facilities as well as the demand for HIV prevention services, and information on process quality for HTC, PMTCT, and VMMC services. ORPHEA is one of the most comprehensive studies on the cost and technical efficiency of HIV prevention interventions to date. The study applied a robust methodological design to collect comparable information to estimate the cost of HTC, PMTCT, VMMC, and sex worker prevention services in

  8. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-07-31

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (≤ 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  9. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat increase, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Peter-Paul M; van der Meer, Rutger W; Burggraaf, Jacobus; van Elderen, Saskia G C; de Kam, Marieke L; de Roos, Albert; Lamb, Hildo J; Osanto, Susanne

    2014-03-01

    Testicular cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We explored acute effects of chemotherapy by assessing metabolic factors, abdominal fat volume, hepatic triglyceride content (HTC) and aortic wall stiffness. We studied 19 testicular cancer patients (age 20-54 years) before, at three and nine months after the start of chemotherapy. Blood serum was analyzed for lipids, glucose and insulin. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat volume and aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques; HTC was measured by proton MR spectroscopy. Three months after start of chemotherapy visceral abdominal fat volume had significantly increased from 202 ± 141 to 237 ± 153 ml (p = 0.009) whereas body mass index and subcutaneous fat volume significantly increased nine months after treatment from 24.4 ± 4.0 to 26.4 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) (p = 0.01) and from 556 ± 394 to 668 ± 460 ml (p = 0.002) respectively. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin also significantly increased three months after start of treatment from 4.88 ± 1.1 to 5.61 ± 1.50 mmol/l (p = 0.002), 3.31 ± 1.16 to 3.73 ± 1.41 mmol/l (p = 0.02) and 5.7 ± 4.4 to 9.6 ± 6.3 mU/ml (p = 0.03), respectively. Nine months after start of chemotherapy serum lipid and insulin concentrations had returned to baseline. HTC increased in seven of the 19 patients (36.8%) during follow-up. Aortic pulse wave velocity remained unchanged at the three time points measured. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with acute insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and an immediate increase in abdominal visceral adipose tissue and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in testicular cancer patients. A large prospective cohort study with long follow-up is warranted to characterize the time course and relationship between acutely induced obesity and hypercholesterolemia and the development

  10. Supporting Option B+ scale up and strengthening the prevention of mother-to-child transmission cascade in central Malawi: results from a serial cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herce, Michael E; Mtande, Tiwonge; Chimbwandira, Frank; Mofolo, Innocent; Chingondole, Christine K; Rosenberg, Nora E; Lancaster, Kathy E; Kamanga, Esmie; Chinkonde, Jacqueline; Kumwenda, Wiza; Tegha, Gerald; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Hoffman, Irving F; Martinson, Francis E; Stein, Eva; van der Horst, Charles M

    2015-08-12

    We established Safeguard the Family (STF) to support Ministry of Health (MoH) scale-up of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+) and to strengthen the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade from HIV testing and counseling (HTC) through maternal ART provision and post-delivery early infant HIV diagnosis (EID). To these ends, we implemented the following interventions in 5 districts: 1) health worker training and mentorship; 2) couples' HTC and male partner involvement; 3) women's psychosocial support groups; and 4) health and laboratory system strengthening for EID. We conducted a serial cross-sectional study using facility-level quarterly (Q) program data and individual-level infant HIV-1 DNA PCR data to evaluate STF performance on PMTCT indicators for project years (Y) 1 (April-December 2011) through 3 (January-December 2013), and compared these results to national averages. Facility-level uptake of HTC, ART, infant nevirapine prophylaxis, and infant DNA PCR testing increased significantly from quarterly baselines of 66 % (n/N = 32,433/48,804), 23 % (n/N = 442/1,958), 1 % (n/N = 10/1,958), and 52 % (n/N = 1,385/2,644) to 87 % (n/N = 39,458/45,324), 96 % (n/N = 2,046/2,121), 100 % (n/N = 2,121/2,121), and 62 % (n/N = 1,462/2,340), respectively, by project end (all p ART, and infant nevirapine prophylaxis uptake outperformed national averages over years 2-3. While transitioning EID laboratory services to MoH, STF provided first-time HIV-1 DNA PCR testing for 2,226 of 11,261 HIV-exposed infants (20 %) tested in the MoH EID program in STF districts from program inception (Y2) through Y3. Of these, 78 (3.5 %) tested HIV-positive. Among infants with complete documentation (n = 608), median age at first testing decreased from 112 days (interquartile range, IQR: 57-198) in Y2 to 76 days (IQR: 46-152) in Y3 (p ART, infant prophylaxis, and EID services uptake, and a low proportion of infants

  11. Genetic polymorphisms within exon 3 of heat shock protein 90AA1 gene and its association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to identify novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in Exon 3 of HSP90AA1 gene and to analyze their association with respiration rate (RR and rectal temperature (RT in Sahiwal cows. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Sahiwal cows (n=100 with the objectives to identify novel SNP in exon 3 of HSP90AA1 gene and to explore the association with heat tolerance traits. CLUSTAL-W multiple sequence analysis was used to identify novel SNPs in exon 3 of HSP90AA1 gene in Sahiwal cows. Gene and genotype frequencies of different genotypes were estimated by standard procedure POPGENE version 1.32 (University of Alberta, Canada. The significant effect of SNP variants on physiological parameters, e.g. RR and RT were analyzed using the General Linear model procedure of SAS Version 9.2. Results: The polymerase chain reaction product with the amplicon size of 450 bp was successfully amplified, covering exon 3 region of HSP90AA1 gene in Sahiwal cows. On the basis of comparative sequence analysis of Sahiwal samples (n=100, transitional mutations were detected at locus A1209G as compared to Bos taurus (NCBI GenBank AC_000178.1. After chromatogram analysis, three genotypes AA, AG, and GG with respective frequencies of 0.23, 0.50, and 0.27 ascertained. RR and RT were recorded once during probable extreme hours in winter, spring, and summer seasons. It was revealed that significant difference (p<0.01 among genetic variants of HSP90AA1 gene with heat tolerance trait was found in Sahiwal cattle. The homozygotic animals with AA genotype had lower heat tolerance coefficient (HTC (1.78±0.04a, as compared to both AG and GG genotypes (1.85±0.03b and 1.91±0.02c, respectively. The gene and genotype frequencies for the locus A1209G were ascertained. Conclusions: Novel SNP was found at the A1209G position showed all possible three genotypes (homozygous and heterozygous. Temperature humidity index has a highly

  12. Effect of provider-initiated testing and counselling and integration of ART services on access to HIV diagnosis and treatment for children in Lilongwe, Malawi: a pre- post comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Sam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV prevalence in Malawi is 12% and Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH, in the capital Lilongwe, is the main provider of adult and paediatric HIV services in the central region. The Lighthouse at KCH offers opt-in HIV testing and counselling (HTC for adults and children. In June 2004, Lighthouse was the first clinic to provide free antiretroviral treatment (ART in the public sector, but few children accessed the services. In response, provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC and an ART clinic were introduced at the paediatric department at KCH in Quarter 4 (Q4 2004. Methods We analysed prospectively collected, aggregated data of quarterly reports from Q1 2003 to Q4 2006 from HTC centre registers, ART registers and clinic registrations at the ART clinics of both Lighthouse and the paediatric department. By comparing data of both facilities before (Q1 2003 to Q3 2004, and after the introduction of the services at the paediatric department (Q4 2004 to Q4 2006, we assessed the effect of this intervention on the uptake of HIV services for children at KCH. Results Overall, 3971 children were tested for HIV, 2428 HIV-infected children were registered for care and 1218 started ART. Between the two periods, the median (IQR number of children being tested, registered and starting ART per quarter rose from 101 (53-109 to 358 (318-440, 56 (50-82 to 226 (192-234 and 18 (8-23 to 139 (115-150, respectively. The median proportion of tested clients per quarter that were children rose from 3.8% (2.7-4.3 to 9.6% (8.8 to 10.0 (p = 0.0009 and the proportion of ART starters that were children rose from 6.9% (4.9-9.3 to 21.1% (19.2-24.2 (p = 0.0036. The proportion of registered children and adults starting ART each quarter increased similarly, from 26% to 53%, and 20% to 52%, respectively. Conclusions Implementation of PITC and integration of ART services within the paediatric ward are likely to be the main reasons for improved access to

  13. How home HIV testing and counselling with follow-up support achieves high testing coverage and linkage to treatment and prevention: a qualitative analysis from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma C Ware

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The successes of HIV treatment scale-up and the availability of new prevention tools have raised hopes that the epidemic can finally be controlled and ended. Reduction in HIV incidence and control of the epidemic requires high testing rates at population levels, followed by linkage to treatment or prevention. As effective linkage strategies are identified, it becomes important to understand how these strategies work. We use qualitative data from The Linkages Study, a recent community intervention trial of community-based testing with linkage interventions in sub-Saharan Africa, to show how lay counsellor home HIV testing and counselling (home HTC with follow-up support leads to linkage to clinic-based HIV treatment and medical male circumcision services. Methods: We conducted 99 semi-structured individual interviews with study participants and three focus groups with 16 lay counsellors in Kabwohe, Sheema District, Uganda. The participant sample included both HIV+ men and women (N=47 and HIV-uncircumcised men (N=52. Interview and focus group audio-recordings were translated and transcribed. Each transcript was summarized. The summaries were analyzed inductively to identify emergent themes. Thematic concepts were grouped to develop general constructs and framing propositional statements. Results: Trial participants expressed interest in linking to clinic-based services at testing, but faced obstacles that eroded their initial enthusiasm. Follow-up support by lay counsellors intervened to restore interest and inspire action. Together, home HTC and follow-up support improved morale, created a desire to reciprocate, and provided reassurance that services were trustworthy. In different ways, these functions built links to the health service system. They worked to strengthen individuals’ general sense of capability, while making the idea of accessing services more manageable and familiar, thus reducing linkage barriers. Conclusions

  14. Long-term organic selenium supplementation overcomes the trade-off between immune and antioxidant systems in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Leonardo Susumu; Biller-Takahashi, Jaqueline Dalbello; Mansano, Cleber Fernando Menegasso; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Gimbo, Rodrigo Yukihiro; Saita, Marcos Vinícius

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient for antioxidant defenses in fish because of its role in preventing immunosuppression caused by oxidative stress. In this study it was demonstrated the relation between the oxidative stress and immune status after a long Se supplementation period, as a result of the evaluation of immunological, hematological and antioxidant responses, as well as growth performance of pacu fed diets supplemented with different concentrations of organic selenium (0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.8 mg Se-yeast/kg, but the final analyzed selenium concentrations were 0.72, 0.94, 1.15, 1.57 and 2.51 mg/kg, respectively) for 65 days. Dietary Se supplementation at 1.15 mg Se-yeast/kg (analyzed value) restored the production of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)), and consequently allowed the increased of some immunological parameters (leukocyte respiratory burst activity and lysozyme activity), hematological parameters (red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (HTC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and white blood cell count (WBC)). Se supplementation in pacu diets at 1.15 mg Se-yeast/kg for 65 days improved immune response and antioxidant defenses, suggesting that oxidative stress impairs immune system response to prevent excessive reactive oxygen species in cells and indicating the occurrence of a physiological trade-off between immune and antioxidant systems. Higher Se levels, such as 1.57 mg Se-yeast/kg increased the leukocyte respiratory burst activity, the WBC and thrombocyte counts, the RBC and HTC, and the GST and GPx enzymes. However, 2.51 mg Se-yeast/kg decreased the lysozyme levels, the WBC and thrombocyte counts, the RBC, HTC and MCV, and the GST and GPx enzymes. Those findings are important to future studies because showed the negative effect of oxidative stress on immunity, and may help to prevent any inhibition of the expected immune response after immunomodulators administration and

  15. Effects of hypotension and/or hypocapnia during sevoflurane anesthesia on perfusion and metabolites in the developing brain of piglets-a blinded randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Simone K; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Carrera, Inés; Mauch, Jacqueline; Spielmann, Nelly; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Weiss, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Hypotension (HT) and/or hypocapnia (HC) are frequent complications occurring during pediatric anesthesia and may cause cerebral injury in the developing brain. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of HT and/or HC on perfusion and metabolism in the developing brain. Twenty-eight piglets were randomly allocated to four groups: control (C), HT, HC, and hypotension and hyocapnia (HTC). Anesthesia was induced and maintained using sevoflurane. Fentanyl was added for instrumentation. Piglets were fully monitored and their lungs were artificially ventilated. Before treatment, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dynamic susceptibility-contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted MRI (DSC-MRI), and single voxel proton MR spectroscopy ((1) H MRS) were performed. Hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure: 30 ± 3 mmHg) was induced by blood withdrawal and nitroprusside infusion, and hyperventilation was used to induce HC (PaCO2 : 2.7-3.3 kPa). (1) H MRS and DSC-MRI were repeated immediately once treatment goals were achieved and 120 min later. Radiologists were blinded to the groups. DSCI-MRI and (1) H MRS analyses were performed in the thalamus, occipital and parietal lobe, hippocampus, and watershed areas. In comparison to C, mean time to peak (TTP) increased with HTC in all brain areas as assessed with DSC-MRI (n = 26). Using (1) H MRS, a significant decrease in N-acetyl aspartate, choline, and myoinositol, as well as an increase in glutamine-glutamate complex (Glx) were detected independent of group. Compared to C, changes were more pronounced for Glx (due to an increase in glutamate) and myoinositol with HTC, for N-acetyl aspartate with HT, and for Glx with HC. No lactate signal was present. The combination of HT and HC during sevoflurane anesthesia resulted in alteration of cerebral perfusion with signs of neuronal dysfunction and early neuronal ischemia. HT and HC alone also resulted in signs of metabolic disturbances despite the absence of detectable

  16. Estimated age and gender profile of individuals missed by a home-based HIV testing and counselling campaign in a Botswana community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Novitsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It would be useful to understand which populations are not reached by home-based HIV-1 testing and counselling (HTC to improve strategies aimed at linking these individuals to care and reducing rates of onward HIV transmission. Methods: We present the results of a baseline home-based HTC (HBHTC campaign aimed at counselling and testing residents aged 16 to 64 for HIV in the north-eastern sector of Mochudi, a community in Botswana with about 44,000 inhabitants. Collected data were compared with population references for Botswana, the United Nations (UN estimates based on the National Census data and the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV (BAIS-IV. Analyzed data and references were stratified by age and gender. Results: A total of 6238 age-eligible residents were tested for HIV-1; 1247 (20.0%; 95% CI 19.0 to 21.0% were found to be HIV positive (23.7% of women vs. 13.4% of men. HIV-1 prevalence peaked at 44% in 35- to 39-year-old women and 32% in 40- to 44-year-old men. A lower HIV prevalence rate, 10.9% (95% CI 9.5 to 12.5%, was found among individuals tested for the first time. A significant gender gap was evident in all analyzed subsets. The existing HIV transmission network was analyzed by combining phylogenetic mapping and household structure. Between 62.4 and 71.8% of all HIV-positive individuals had detectable virus. When compared with the UN and BAIS-IV estimates, the proportion of men missed by the testing campaign (48.5%; 95% CI 47.0 to 50.0% was significantly higher than the proportion of missed women (14.2%; 95% CI 13.2 to 15.3%; p<0.0001. The estimated proportion of missed men peaked at about 60% in the age group 30 to 39 years old. The proportions of missed women were substantially smaller, at approximately 28% within the age groups 30 to 34 and 45 to 49 years old. Conclusions: The HBHTC campaign seems to be an efficient tool for reaching individuals who have never been tested previously in southern African communities

  17. How home HIV testing and counselling with follow-up support achieves high testing coverage and linkage to treatment and prevention: a qualitative analysis from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Norma C; Wyatt, Monique A; Asiimwe, Stephen; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Tumwesigye, Elioda; van Rooyen, Heidi; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Celum, Connie L

    2016-01-01

    The successes of HIV treatment scale-up and the availability of new prevention tools have raised hopes that the epidemic can finally be controlled and ended. Reduction in HIV incidence and control of the epidemic requires high testing rates at population levels, followed by linkage to treatment or prevention. As effective linkage strategies are identified, it becomes important to understand how these strategies work. We use qualitative data from The Linkages Study, a recent community intervention trial of community-based testing with linkage interventions in sub-Saharan Africa, to show how lay counsellor home HIV testing and counselling (home HTC) with follow-up support leads to linkage to clinic-based HIV treatment and medical male circumcision services. We conducted 99 semi-structured individual interviews with study participants and three focus groups with 16 lay counsellors in Kabwohe, Sheema District, Uganda. The participant sample included both HIV+ men and women (N=47) and HIV-uncircumcised men (N=52). Interview and focus group audio-recordings were translated and transcribed. Each transcript was summarized. The summaries were analyzed inductively to identify emergent themes. Thematic concepts were grouped to develop general constructs and framing propositional statements. Trial participants expressed interest in linking to clinic-based services at testing, but faced obstacles that eroded their initial enthusiasm. Follow-up support by lay counsellors intervened to restore interest and inspire action. Together, home HTC and follow-up support improved morale, created a desire to reciprocate, and provided reassurance that services were trustworthy. In different ways, these functions built links to the health service system. They worked to strengthen individuals' general sense of capability, while making the idea of accessing services more manageable and familiar, thus reducing linkage barriers. Home HTC with follow-up support leads to linkage by building

  18. Scaling behavior and transport in bulk heterojunction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Eric; Lombardo, Christopher; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2011-03-01

    A lateral device geometry has been used to study charge transport in P3HT:C71 -PCBM bulk heterojunction devices. Analysis of current-voltage curves have previously been used to study charge transport in these materials. We perform ambipolar field effect transistor measurements on these structures to extract carrier mobilities. We are also able to describe the charge transport and recombination properties of these materials. Assymetric electrodes (Al, Au) separated by 100 nm- 20 μ m enable us to gain considerable insight into transport physics. Photocurrent measruements as a function of channel length, electric field, and illumination intensity (0.1-100 suns) are used to measure the ambipolar mobility-lifetime product and study how this correlates with measured field-effect mobilities at various electric fields. Lateral structures are shown to be a powerful tool to understand transport and the role of carrier mobility on photovoltaic performance.

  19. Dimensioning storage and computing clusters for efficient High Throughput Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Scientific experiments are producing huge amounts of data, and they continue increasing the size of their datasets and the total volume of data. These data are then processed by researchers belonging to large scientific collaborations, with the Large Hadron Collider being a good example. The focal point of Scientific Data Centres has shifted from coping efficiently with PetaByte scale storage to deliver quality data processing throughput. The dimensioning of the internal components in High Throughput Computing (HTC) data centers is of crucial importance to cope with all the activities demanded by the experiments, both the online (data acceptance) and the offline (data processing, simulation and user analysis). This requires a precise setup involving disk and tape storage services, a computing cluster and the internal networking to prevent bottlenecks, overloads and undesired slowness that lead to losses cpu cycles and batch jobs failures. In this paper we point out relevant features for running a successful s...

  20. Phases' characteristics of poultry litter hydrothermal carbonization under a range of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Vivian; Quance, Julie; Posmanik, Roy; Gross, Amit

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the hydrothermal carbonization of poultry litter under a range of process parameters. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of HTC of poultry litter under a range of operational parameters (temperature, reaction time, and solids concentration) on the formation and characteristics of its phases. Results showed production of a hydrochar with caloric value of 24.4MJ/kg, similar to sub-bituminous coal. The gaseous phase consisted mainly of CO2. However, significant amounts of H2S dictate the need for (further) treatment. The process also produced an aqueous phase with chemical characteristics suggesting its possible use as a liquid fertilizer. Temperature had the most significant effect on processes and product formation. Solids concentration was not a significant factor once dilution effects were considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of the natural and burned hydrotalcite; Sintesis y caracterizacion de la hidrotalcita natural y calcinada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados C, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The synthesis and the structural and surface properties of the natural and burned hydrotalcite using salts of AlCl{sub 3} and MgCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O its were studied. Its were used those analysis of BET, IR, XRD, TGA and SEM to characterize these materials. The obtained product was identified as the natural or carbonated hydrotalcite of chemical formula Mg{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 16}CO{sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O. The hydrotalcite was roasted at 500 C during 5 h and the was obtained roasted hydrotalcite (HTC) that is a material of high selectivity toward the anions that it can be efficiently used as adsorbent material in studies of adsorption for the treatment of anionic radioactive waste present in watery solution. (Author)

  2. New biotite and muscovite isotopic reference materials, USGS57 and USGS58, for δ2H measurements–A replacement for NBS 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Gehre, Matthias; Vennemann, Torsten W.; Brand, Willi A.; Geilmann, Heike; Olack, Gerard; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Palandri, Jim; Huang, Li; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) coupled with a high temperature conversion (HTC) system enabled faster, more cost effective, and more precise δ2H analysis of hydrogen-bearing solids. Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis by on-line or off-line techniques requires appropriate isotopic reference materials (RMs). A strategy of two-point calibrations spanning δ2H range of the unknowns using two RMs is recommended. Unfortunately, the supply of the previously widely used isotopic RM, NBS 30 biotite, is exhausted. In addition, recent measurements have shown that the determination of δ2H values of NBS 30 biotite on the VSMOW-SLAP isotope-delta scale by on-line HTC systems with CF-IRMS may be unreliable because hydrogen in this biotite may not be converted quantitatively to molecular hydrogen. The δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values of NBS 30 biotite analyzed by on-line HTC systems can be as much as 21 mUr (or ‰) too positive compared to the accepted value of − 65.7 mUr, determined by only a few conventional off-line measurements. To ensure accurate and traceable on-line hydrogen isotope-ratio determinations in mineral samples, we here propose two isotopically homogeneous, hydrous mineral RMs with well-characterized isotope-ratio values, which are urgently needed. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such RMs, USGS57 biotite and USGS58 muscovite. The δ2H values were determined by both glassy carbon-based on-line conversion and chromium-based on-line conversion, and results were confirmed by off-line conversion. The quantitative conversion of hydrogen from the two RMs using the on-line HTC method was carefully evaluated in this study. The isotopic compositions of these new RMs with 1-σ uncertainties and mass fractions of hydrogen are:USGS57 (biotite)δ2HVSMOW-SLAP = − 91.5 ± 2.4 mUr (n = 24)Mass fraction hydrogen = 0.416 ± 0.002% (n = 4)Mass fraction water = 3.74 ± 0.02% (n = 4)USGS58 (muscovite

  3. Simulated Prism Therapy in Virtual Reality produces larger after-effects than standard prism exposure in normal healthy subject - Implications for Neglect Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality is an important area of exploration within computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect. Virtual reality will allow for closer monitoring of patient behaviour during prism adaptation therapy and perhaps change the way we induce prismatic after......-effects. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effect of two different prism simulation conditions in virtual reality to a standard exposure to prism goggles after one session of Prism Adaptation Therapy in healthy subjects. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were subjected to one session of prism adaptation therapy under...... three prism conditions: 2 different types of simulated prism techniques in virtual reality and a control session using a set of prism goggles. RESULTS: The study shows that the simulated prism conditions in virtual reality with HTC Vive produced prismatic after-effects larger in size than the after...

  4. Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Outreach for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Bonnie K.; Green, Joel D.; Smith, Louis Chad; Smith, Denise A.; Lawton, Brandon L.; Gough, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is NASA’s next great observatory, launching in October 2018. How will we maintain the prestige and cultural impact of the Hubble Space Telescope as the torch passes to Webb? Emerging technologies such as augmented (AR) and virtual reality (VR) bring the viewer into the data and introduce the telescope in previously unimaginable immersive detail. Adoption of mobile devices, many of which easily support AR and VR, has expanded access to information for wide swaths of the public. From software like Worldwide Telescope to hardware like the HTC Vive, immersive environments are providing new avenues for learning. If we develop materials properly tailored to these media, we can reach more diverse audiences than ever before. STScI is piloting tools related to JWST to showcase at DPS, and in local events, which I highlight here.

  5. Ecopsychosocial Aspects of Human-Tiger Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Tiger Widows of Sundarban Delta, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N; Mondal, Ranajit; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K

    2016-01-01

    Human-tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger-human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows. This is a three-phase ethnographic research with a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the first phase, a door-to-door village survey (3,084 households) was carried out in two villages of Sundarban, which are adjacent to the Reserve Forest, in which the incidents of human-animal conflicts and the 65 tiger-widows identified were documented. In the second phase, the 65 tiger-widows were studied to explore the ecodemography of tiger attacks and tiger-widows alongside the stigma issue by using a stigma questionnaire (n = 49). The stigma burden was compared with normal widows (n = 21) and snake-bite widows (n = 18). In the third phase, the psychosocial and cultural dimensions related to tiger attacks were studied by using in-depth interviews (IDI) of the tiger-widows, focus-group discussions (FGD), and participatory mapping in the community. Clinical examinations of the mental health of the widows were also carried out in this phase. The mean age of the 65 widows was 43.49 ± 9.58 years. Of this, 12.3% of the widows had remarried and only 4.6% of the widows were literate. In all, 67.2% of all tiger attacks occurred as a result of illegal forest entry. The main livelihood of the former husbands of the widows were 43.8% wood cutting, 28.1% fishing, 10.9% crab catching, 9.4% tiger prawn seed (juvenile prawn), and 4.7% honey

  6. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes.

  7. Feasibility and effectiveness of two community-based HIV testing models in rural Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lucy Anne; Jobanputra, Kiran; Rusike, Lorraine; Mazibuko, Sikhathele; Okello, Velephi; Kerschberger, Bernhard; Jouquet, Guillaume; Cyr, Joanne; Teck, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility (population reached, costs) and effectiveness (positivity rates, linkage to care) of two strategies of community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in rural Swaziland. Methods Strategies used were mobile HTC (MHTC) and home-based HTC (HBHTC). Information on age, sex, previous testing and HIV results was obtained from routine HTC records. A consecutive series of individuals testing HIV-positive were followed up for 6 months from the test date to assess linkage to care. Results A total of 9 060 people were tested: 2 034 through MHTC and 7 026 through HBHTC. A higher proportion of children and adolescents (viabilidad (población alcanzada, costes) y efectividad (tasas de positividad, vinculación al tratamiento) de dos estrategias comunitarias de asesoramiento y prueba para el VIH (APV) en zonas rurales de Suazilandia. Métodos Las estrategias utilizadas fueron la de APV en instalaciones clínicas móviles (APVM) y el APV realizado en el hogar (APVBH). Se obtuvo información sobre la edad, el sexo, la realización de pruebas anteriores y resultados de VIH de los informes rutinarios de APV. A una serie consecutiva de individuos que habían dado positivo en la prueba de VIH se les siguió durante 6 meses a partir del día de la prueba, con el fin de evaluar la conexión posterior a los cuidados y tratamiento adecuados. Resultados Se evaluaron 9,060 personas: 2,034 mediante APVM y 7,026 mediante APVBH. A una mayor proporción de niños y adolescentes (<20 años) se les realizó la prueba mediante APVBH que mediante APVM (57% vs. 17%; p<0.001). El APVM llegó a una mayor proporción de hombres adultos que el APVBH (42% vs. 39%; p=0.015). De 398 individuos VIH positivos, solo 135 (34%) estaban recibiendo atención y cuidados para el VIH después de 6 meses. De 42 individuos elegibles para Terapia Antirretroviral, 22 (52%) comenzaron el tratamiento dentro de los 6 meses siguientes a la prueba. La vinculación a los cuidados y

  8. GSDC: A Unique Data Center in Korea for HEP research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Sang-Un

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global Science experimental Data hub Center (GSDC at Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI is a unique data center in South Korea established for promoting the fundamental research fields by supporting them with the expertise on Information and Communication Technology (ICT and the infrastructure for High Performance Computing (HPC, High Throughput Computing (HTC and Networking. GSDC has supported various research fields in South Korea dealing with the large scale of data, e.g. RENO experiment for neutrino research, LIGO experiment for gravitational wave detection, Genome sequencing project for bio-medical, and HEP experiments such as CDF at FNAL, Belle at KEK, and STAR at BNL. In particular, GSDC has run a Tier-1 center for ALICE experiment using the LHC at CERN since 2013. In this talk, we present the overview on computing infrastructure that GSDC runs for the research fields and we discuss on the data center infrastructure management system deployed at GSDC.

  9. Thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity study of the Y3Ba5Cu8Ox system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, M. A.; Kizilaslan, O.; Aksan, E. N.; Yakinci, M. E.

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of heat treatment conditions on the structural/microstructural, electrical and transport properties, such as thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity, of the Y-358 system was investigated. The Y-123 phase instead of Y-358 were obtained with heat treatments. XRD and SEM analyses showed that the best structural formation was obtained for the sample prepared at 900 °C for 24 h. All the samples exhibited the Tc value around 91 K. Positive S(T) value was obtained in all the samples. S(T) data was analyzed by “Two band model with linear T-term”. In thermal conductivity of the samples, small peak with broad maximum was found just below Tc, unlike that of the HTc cuprates.

  10. Validation Tests of Prediction Modules of Shrinkage Defects in Cast Iron Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajkowski J.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental-simulation tests of expansion-shrinkage phenomena occurring in cast iron castings. The tests were based on the standard test for inspecting the tendency of steel-carbon alloys to create compacted discontinuities of the pipe shrinkage type. The cast alloy was a high-silicone ductile iron of GJS - 600 - 10 grade. The validation regarding correctness of prognoses of the shrinkage defects was applied mostly to the simulation code (system NovaFlow & Solid CV (NFS CV. The obtained results were referred to the results obtained using the Procast system (macro- and micromodel. The analysis of sensitivity of the modules responsible for predicting the shrinkage discontinuities on selected pre-processing parameters was performed, focusing mostly on critical fractions concerning the feeding flows (mass and capillary and variation of initial temperature of the alloy in the mould and heat transfer coefficient (HTC on the casting - chill interface.

  11. Mobile health platform for pressure ulcer monitoring with electronic health record integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Pedro, Luís M C C; Vardasca, Tomé; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martins, Henrique M G

    2013-12-01

    Pressure ulcers frequently occur in patients with limited mobility, for example, people with advanced age and patients wearing casts or prostheses. Mobile information communication technologies can help implement ulcer care protocols and the monitoring of patients with high risk, thus preventing or improving these conditions. This article presents a mobile pressure ulcer monitoring platform (mULCER), which helps control a patient's ulcer status during all stages of treatment. Beside its stand-alone version, it can be integrated with electronic health record systems as mULCER synchronizes ulcer data with any electronic health record system using HL7 standards. It serves as a tool to integrate nursing care among hospital departments and institutions. mULCER was experimented with in different mobile devices such as LG Optimus One P500, Samsung Galaxy Tab, HTC Magic, Samsung Galaxy S, and Samsung Galaxy i5700, taking into account the user's experience of different screen sizes and processing characteristics.

  12. HEDONIC PRICE FUNCTION ESTIMATION FOR MOBILE PHONE IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahdi Mostafavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the survey of mobile price determinants by hedonic model. We have applied the hedonic price model for mobile phone market in Iran in the year of 2008. The brands conclude NOKIA, QTEK, HTC, MOTOROLA, SONY ERICSSON and SAMSUNG that comprise 193 types of handset mobile phone. The results show that in the hedonic function, the maximum amount of parameters of hedonic price function related to the following variables respectively: touch screen, hands free and connectivity tools, and the minimum amount of them are belonged to clarification of monitor images, phone volume and phone memory. Moreover, except Motorola brand the type of brand has not a significant parameter in the hedonic price function.

  13. Identification of multiple magnetizations of the Ediacaran strata in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xianqing; Yang, Zhenyu; Tong, Yabo; Wang, Heng; Xu, Yingchao

    2018-01-01

    A suspected Silurian remagnetization of the Ediacaran strata of South China was proposed decades ago by many researchers, but, there has been no systematic study of its causes and mechanisms. In this study, we investigate the multiphase remagnetization processes that affected the Ediacaran strata and the possible mechanisms of these remagnetization events. We conducted detailed palaeomagnetic, rock magnetic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of samples from the Ediacaran strata in the Jiulongwan (JLWE, JLWS), Qinglinkou (QLK) and Sanxiarenjia (SXRJ) sections in the Three Gorges Area, South China. After removal of a recent viscous remanent magnetization below 150 °C, an intermediate temperature component (ITC; Dg = 27.6°, Ig = 45.3°, N = 12 sites, kg = 184.3, α95 = 3.2° for JLWE; Dg = 22°, Ig = 45.3°, N = 11 sites, kg = 789.2, α95 = 1.6° for JLWS; and Dg = 25.5°, Ig = 52.5°, N = 6 sites, kg = 533.4, α95 = 2.9° for SXRJ) was removed below 300 °C which coincides with the Jurassic results from South China, suggesting a pervasive Jurassic remagnetization. In addition, a high temperature component (HTC; Ds = 84.8°, Is = 19.2°, N = 9 sites, ks = 35.5, α95 = 8.8° for JLWE; Ds = 74.1°, Is = 49.4°, N = 7 sites, ks = 218.9, α95 = 4.1° for JLWS; and Ds = 89.5°, Is = 30.7°, N = 8 sites, ks = 129.2, α95 = 4.9° for SXRJ) was isolated between 300 and 480-540 °C. Rock magnetic and SEM studies suggest that the ITC and HTC are carried by pyrrhotite and magnetite, respectively. SEM observations also demonstrate the occurrence of massive authigenic magnetite in cavities or cracks, mineralogical changes from pyrite to Fe oxides, and the reaction between gypsum and Fe oxides. Based on similarities to the Silurian poles of South China, together with the SEM observations, we suggest that the HTC from the JLWE and SXRJ sections is a Silurian age remagnetization. The oxidation of iron sulphides and thermochemical sulphate reduction induced by the

  14. The influenced of reaction time on the degradation of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) in hydrothermal carbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwono, Rakhman; Kurniawan, Hendris Hendarsyah

    2017-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of palm oil in different reaction times were investigated. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave at different reaction time of 3,6,9, 15, 20, 25 and 40 hours. With a fixed solid/liquid ratio of 5 gram of EFB in 50 ml water as a solvent, and temperature reaction of 250 °C. Increase the reaction time the soluble products are also increased. The liquid products were analyzed using GCMS to determine the chemical composition. The chemical composition were greatly affected by the reaction time. The main component was glycolic acid, by increasing the reaction time made the varieties of chemical compositions in liquid products, especially for the glycolic acid component, it was decreased slightly. The higher heating value (HHV) also increase slighly by increasing the reaction time both solid and liquid products.

  15. Reduction Vehicle Speed Using GPS Android Smart Phone Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Sami Hassan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Today the new generation of smart phone such as Samsung galaxy, Sony, Motorola, HTC is used to build smart applications that made the human life more comfortable and safe. The Android open source operating system with java programming language can be used to develop such applications. In this paper a new software application has been developed using Samsung, galaxy note smart phone to control the speed of vehicle using GPS and Android programming for such smart phone. By collecting the speed and location information from Global Position System (GPS receiver and using the global map application programming interface to determine the location nearby university, school and hospital in Baghdad city. The application will be check the speed of vehicle in zone of school, hospital and university using GPS information. If the speed over the limit the application produce sound alarm to reduce the speed to set up limit.

  16. Numerical analysis of the potential of using light radiant ceilings in combination with diffuse ventilation to achieve thermal comfort in NZEB buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusaa, Marie Rugholm; Hviid, Christian Anker; Kolarik, Jakub

    Renewable energy resources for heating and cooling of buildings have temperatures close to room temperature and therefore a limited convertibility potential, i.e. they are of low value. To exploit low-valued energy sources Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling (LTH-HTC) systems must...... ceiling panels. These panels make it possible to combine the heating/cooling ceiling with the diffuse ventilation method. The diffuse ventilation method or leak ventilation use larger surfaces to provide air into the room instead of diffusers. An office building is investigated an analysed on an annual...... basis in the dynamic building simulation tool IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE). The office building contains both offices and meeting rooms. Worst-case scenarios are investigated in the office building considering heat gains, solar gains and the temperature offset between supply water temperature...

  17. Exploring the design space of immersive urban analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhutian Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid development and wide adoption of immersive head-mounted devices, such as HTC VIVE, Oculus Rift, and Microsoft HoloLens. These immersive devices have the potential to significantly extend the methodology of urban visual analytics by providing critical 3D context information and creating a sense of presence. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to characterize the visualizations in immersive urban analytics. Furthermore, based on our comprehensive and concise model, we contribute a typology of combination methods of 2D and 3D visualizations that distinguishes between linked views, embedded views, and mixed views. We also propose a supporting guideline to assist users in selecting a proper view under certain circumstances by considering visual geometry and spatial distribution of the 2D and 3D visualizations. Finally, based on existing work, possible future research opportunities are explored and discussed.

  18. Supo Thermal Model Development II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Alexander Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-14

    This report describes the continuation of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Supo cooling system described in the report, Supo Thermal Model Development1, by Cynthia Buechler. The goal for this report is to estimate the natural convection heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of the system using the CFD results and to compare those results to remaining past operational data. Also, the correlation for determining radiolytic gas bubble size is reevaluated using the larger simulation sample size. The background, solution vessel geometry, mesh, material properties, and boundary conditions are developed in the same manner as the previous report. Although, the material properties and boundary conditions are determined using the appropriate experiment results for each individual power level.

  19. Techniques and tools for measuring energy efficiency of scientific software applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurachmanov, David; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Niemi, Tapio; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Nyback, Filip; Pestana, Goncalo; Ou, Zhonghong; Khan, Kashif

    2014-01-01

    The scale of scientific High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Throughput Computing (HTC) has increased significantly in recent years, and is becoming sensitive to total energy use and cost. Energy-efficiency has thus become an important concern in scientific fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP). There has been a growing interest in utilizing alternate architectures, such as low power ARM processors, to replace traditional Intel x86 architectures. Nevertheless, even though such solutions have been successfully used in mobile applications with low I/O and memory demands, it is unclear if they are suitable and more energy-efficient in the scientific computing environment. Furthermore, there is a lack of tools and experience to derive and compare power consumption between the architectures for various workloads, and eventually to support software optimizations for energy efficiency. To that end, we have performed several physical and software-based measurements of workloads from HEP applications running o...

  20. CFD modeling and computation of convective heat coefficient transfer of automotive disc brake rotors -Modelado CFD y cálculo de la transferencia de coeficientes de calor por convección de rotores de freno de disco automotores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhocine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Braking system is one of the important control systems of an automotive. For many years, the disc brakes have been used in automobiles for safe retardation of the vehicles. During braking enormous amount of heat will be generated and for effective braking sufficient heat dissipation is essential. The thermal performance of disc brake depends upon the characteristics of the airflow around the brake rotor and hence the aerodynamics is an important in the region of brake components. A CFD analysis is carried out on the braking system as a case study to make out the behaviour of airflow distribution around the disc brake components using ANSYS CFX software. We are interested in the determination of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC on each surface of a ventilated disc rotor varying with time in a transient state using CFD analysis, and then imported the surface film condition data into a corresponding FEM model for disc temperature analysis.

  1. Square Kilometre Array: The radio telescope of the XXI century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainge, K.; Alachkar, B.; Amy, Shaun; Barbosa, D.; Bommineni, M.; Boven, P.; Braddock, R.; Davis, J.; Diwakar, P.; Francis, V.; Gabrielczyk, R.; Gamatham, R.; Garrington, S.; Gibbon, T.; Gozzard, D.; Gregory, S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, Y.; Hammond, J.; Hindley, D.; Horn, U.; Hughes-Jones, R.; Hussey, M.; Lloyd, S.; Mammen, S.; Miteff, S.; Mohile, V.; Muller, J.; Natarajan, S.; Nicholls, J.; Oberland, R.; Pearson, M.; Rayner, T.; Schediwy, S.; Schilizzi, R.; Sharma, S.; Stobie, S.; Tearle, M.; Wang, B.; Wallace, B.; Wang, L.; Warange, R.; Whitaker, R.; Wilkinson, A.; Wingfield, N.

    2017-04-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be the world's largest and most sensitive radio telescope. It will address fundamental unanswered questions about our Universe including how the first stars and galaxies formed after the Big Bang, how dark energy is accelerating the expansion of theUniverse, the role of magnetism in the cosmos, the nature of gravity, and the search for life beyond Earth. This project envisages the construction of 133 15-m antennas in South Africa and 131072 log-periodic antennas in Australia, together with the associated infrastructure in the two desert sites. In addition, the SKA is an exemplar Big Data project, with data rates of over 10 Tbps being transported from the telescope to HPC/HTC facilities.

  2. Thermophysical properties of nickel-based cast superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Przeliorz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tests results of specific heat storage capacity and oxidation resistance of nickel - based cast Mar M - 200, Mar - M - 247 and Rene 80 superalloys. Specific heat measurements were conducted with the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, with the use of high - temperature calorimeter multi (HTC Setaram. Oxidation resistance tests were conducted with the use of cyclic temperature change method. Each cycle consisted of heating by temperature of 1 100 °C and next quick cooling in air. It was proved that the biggest value of specific heat Cp was found in alloy Mar - M - 200, and the lowest in alloy Mar - M - 247. Relatively good oxidation resistance has been found in alloy Mar - M - 247.

  3. Diagnóstico de sinéquias uterinas por histerossonografia transvaginal Diagnosis of uterine synechiae in patients with recurrent miscarriages: contribution of transvaginal hysterosonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Antonio Guimarães Filho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de sinéquias uterinas em pacientes com aborto recorrente e a acurácia diagnóstica da ultra-sonografia transvaginal (US-TV e da histerossonografia (HS. MÉTODOS: Sessenta pacientes não grávidas com passado de três ou mais abortos espontâneos consecutivos foram avaliadas por US-TV, HS e histeroscopia (HTC para a pesquisa de sinéquias uterinas. A HTC foi considerada o padrão ouro do estudo. A concordância dos achados da US-TV e da HS foram avaliadas pelo coeficiente Kappa e sua significância foi testada. O nível de significância adotado foi de 0,05 (alfa = 5%. Foram calculadas as medidas de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo e negativo para cada um dos métodos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se a presença de sinéquias uterinas em 16 (26,7% pacientes. A acurácia da US-TV e da HS foram, respectivamente, de 78,9% e 92,7%. Comparativamente à US-TV, a HS foi muito superior quanto à sensibilidade (78,6% versus 20% e concordância com a HTC (Kappa = 80% versus Kappa = 27%. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se boa concordância da HS e concordância ruim da US-TV em relação à HTC para o diagnóstico de sinéquias uterinas. Devido à sua baixa sensibilidade, a US-TV não demonstrou ser um método aplicável à investigação de sinéquias uterinas em pacientes com aborto recorrente. A HS, por sua vez, parece oferecer importante contribuição nesta pesquisa, particularmente por sua simplicidade técnica, baixo custo e elevada acurácia diagnóstica.BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of uterine synechiae in patients with recurrent miscarriages and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound and of hysterosonography. METHODS: Sixty non-pregnant patients with a history of at least three previous consecutive miscarriages were evaluated by transvaginal ultrasound, hysterosonography and hysteroscopy to detect uterine synechiae. Hysteroscopy was considered the

  4. Protein composition in tofu of corrected quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Slađana P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are an inexpensive, high-quality protein source. Soybeans have long been a staple of the human diet in Asia, especially as tofu, which is prepared from soymilk. In this study, tofu was made using a new production method which includes hydrothermal cooking (HTC and rennin-pepsin coagulant. The effects of the addition of gallic acid to the slurry during tofu processing were studied. Tofu was made from two soybean genotypes: Lana and Balkan. The observed genotypes are characterized by relatively high content of total proteins in flour, from 45.88% to 48.83%. The prepared tofu samples are characterized by extremely high content of total proteins (52.17% - Lana tofu and 56.08% - Balkan tofu. The presence of gallic acid significantly affects the solubility of tofu protein. The applied modifications of traditional procedure of tofu production significantly improved sensory properties of soybean protein products.

  5. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the benzodiazepine flunitrazepam in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vivian de Almeida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Flunitrazepam (FNZ is a sedative benzodiazepine prescribed for the short-term treatment of insomnia. However, there are concerns regarding possible carcinogenic or genotoxic effects of this medicine. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, clastogenic and aneugenic effects of FNZ in hepatoma cells from Rattus norvegicus (HTC in vitro and in bone marrow cells of Wistar rats in vivo. These effects were examined in vitro following treatment with 0.2, 1.0, 5.0 or 10 μg/mL FNZ using a micronucleus test with a cytokinesis block or in vivo using a chromosomal aberration test following treatment with 7, 15 or 30 μg/mL/kg body weight. The results showed that the benzodiazepine concentrations tested were not cytotoxic, aneugenic or clastogenic. However, considering the adverse effects of using this benzodiazepine, more studies are required.

  6. A new architecture for a factual materials database on coatings and high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streiff, R.; Vaugelade, S. [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (France); Komornicki, S. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland); Boone, D.H. [Boone and Associates, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    C and HTC-DATA a data bank on coatings and high temperature corrosion, has been created to help in choosing coatings for specific applications, knowing their fabrication process characteristics and their protectivity characteristics. This relational data bank will include five databases, viz. (1) a bibliographic reference data base, (2) a directory of addresses of companies and researchers involved in the field, (3) a numerical database on alloy composition, (4) a factual coatings database, and (5) a factual corrosion database. Building of these factual databases first followed the classical MERISE analytical treatment for data organisation. However, the variety of coating characteristics has resulted in a very complex database structure with a very large number of tables and fields. Therefore, a new approach for the architecture of the coating database based upon a thesaurus to describe the data has been perfected which is presented in this paper. (orig.) 13 refs.

  7. Status Of The Work On The Base Directions Of The "rf Superconductivity For Accelerators" Program At The Federate Problem Lab At Ihep

    CERN Document Server

    Sevryukova, L

    2004-01-01

    In this report result of the study of electrophysical phenomena on the superconducting cavity surface, including plasma, bifurcation, hysteresis, emission and diffusion phenomena are considered. Science intensive recourse -saving technologies of superconducting cavities are being studied on the base of these phenomena. The superconducting cavities are made of Nb and Nb film, alloy film or HTC ceramics, which cover the working surface of the weldless copper shells using ion-plasma technologies (axial and planar magnetron sputtering). Quality monitoring (optical, emission, electrochemical and high frequency) of the working surface condition of superconducting cavities is developed under the realization of new technologies. The brief review of the experimental equipment is used as training base for individual students, post-graduate students and research staff in the field of technologies that use superconductivity phenomenon and ionic-plasma, electrochemical and high-vacuum technologies as well. For realizat...

  8. Power-aware applications for scientific cluster and distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurachmanov, David; Eulisse, Giulio; Grosso, Paola; Hillegas, Curtis; Holzman, Burt; Klous, Sander; Knight, Robert; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    The aggregate power use of computing hardware is an important cost factor in scientific cluster and distributed computing systems. The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) is a major example of such a distributed computing system, used primarily for high throughput computing (HTC) applications. It has a computing capacity and power consumption rivaling that of the largest supercomputers. The computing capacity required from this system is also expected to grow over the next decade. Optimizing the power utilization and cost of such systems is thus of great interest. A number of trends currently underway will provide new opportunities for power-aware optimizations. We discuss how power-aware software applications and scheduling might be used to reduce power consumption, both as autonomous entities and as part of a (globally) distributed system. As concrete examples of computing centers we provide information on the large HEP-focused Tier-1 at FNAL, and the Tigress High Performance Computing Center at Princeton U...

  9. Real-time Implementation of Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging on a Consumer-level Tablet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method based on synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) and directional transverse oscillation is implemented on a commercially available tablet. The SASB technique divides the beamforming process in two parts, whereby the required data rate...... and processed by a first-stage beamformer in a fixed focus. The data were subsequently transferred to an HTC Nexus 9 tablet through an ASUS RT-AC68U Wi-Fi router to simulate a wireless probe. The second-stage beamforming of the B-mode and flow data and the velocity estimation were implemented on the tablet......’s built-in GPU (Nvidia Tegra K1) through the OpenGL ES 3.1 API. Real-time performance was achieved with rates up to 26 VFI frames per second (38 ms/frame) for concurrent processing and Wi-Fi transmission....

  10. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleja Pavol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study. A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies

  11. A case that illustrates the challenges of managing pregnant patients with antithrombin deficiency: More questions than answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeith, Leslie; Aw, Andrew; Hews-Girard, Julia; Rydz, Natalia

    2017-09-01

    Using an illustrative case of a patient with antithrombin (AT) deficiency who developed a recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy despite therapeutic low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), we highlight what is known in the literature and address areas of controversy through a series of questions around the case. The questions we address include the role of anti-Xa monitoring for patients with past VTE on antepartum LMWH, what treatment regimen is recommended for pregnant patients who develop a recurrent VTE while on therapeutic anticoagulation, the role of antepartum AT concentrate prophylaxis, and the management of labor/delivery, epidural anesthesia and postpartum anticoagulation. We also describe practical considerations for use of AT concentrate, including teaching our patient to self-infuse AT concentrate at home with support of a hemophilia treatment center (HTC), and the direct and indirect costs of AT concentrate for secondary prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GSDC: A Unique Data Center in Korea for HEP research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Un

    2017-04-01

    Global Science experimental Data hub Center (GSDC) at Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) is a unique data center in South Korea established for promoting the fundamental research fields by supporting them with the expertise on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the infrastructure for High Performance Computing (HPC), High Throughput Computing (HTC) and Networking. GSDC has supported various research fields in South Korea dealing with the large scale of data, e.g. RENO experiment for neutrino research, LIGO experiment for gravitational wave detection, Genome sequencing project for bio-medical, and HEP experiments such as CDF at FNAL, Belle at KEK, and STAR at BNL. In particular, GSDC has run a Tier-1 center for ALICE experiment using the LHC at CERN since 2013. In this talk, we present the overview on computing infrastructure that GSDC runs for the research fields and we discuss on the data center infrastructure management system deployed at GSDC.

  13. Stigma of tiger attack: Study of tiger-widows from Sundarban Delta, India*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Brahma, Arabinda; Mondal, Ranajit; Biswas, Mrinal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Human-tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This study examined 49 widows, whose husbands were killed by tigers, in order to explore the cultural stigma related with tiger-killing and consequent discrimination and social rejection. Different psychosocial aspects of community stigma associated with tiger-killings is discussed in the context of local culture. Methods: A mix of both quantitative and qualitative methods was used in this ethnographic study in two mouzas of Sundarban adjacent to Reserve Forest, involving (1) Village Survey for Tiger-widows, (2) In-depth interview of the widows, (3) Focus Group discussions, (4) Participatory mapping and (5) Stigma assessment by using a 28 item stigma scale especially devised for this research. For comparison of stigma-burden snake-bite widows and normal widows were taken from the same community. Results: Tiger-widows showed significantly higher stigma scores on all the clusters (fear, negative feelings, disclosure, discrimination, community attitudes, and spiritual dimension) than from both normal and snake-bite widows. They also showed higher total stigma score (65.9 ± 9.8) than normal widows (35.8 ± 8.0) and snake-bite widows (40.1 ± 7.1) and this difference was highly significant (P tiger-killing. This can be seen in how the tiger-widows’ quality of life has been negatively impacted with a multitude of post-trauma psychological scars, deprivation, abuse and exploitation. Conclusions: The study proposes that administrative strategy for sustainable alternative income generation and conservation policy with integrated participatory forest management may save both human and tiger. A community ecocultural mental health programme addressing to eradicate the cultural stigma related with tiger attack, with environmental awareness may help to reduce the social

  14. Outcomes and Impact of HIV Prevention, ART and TB Programs in Swaziland – Early Evidence from Public Health Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L.; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Swaziland’s severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Methods Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. Results By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4<350/mm3, with progressively improving patient retention and survival. As of 2010, 88% of health facilities providing antenatal care offered comprehensive PMTCT services. The HTC program recorded a halving in the proportion of adults tested who were HIV-infected; similarly HIV infection rates among HIV-exposed babies halved from 2007 to 2010. Case fatality rates among hospital patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS started to decrease from 2005–6 in adults and especially in children, contrasting with stable case fatality for other causes including TB. All-cause child in-patient case fatality rates started to decrease from 2005–6. TB case notifications as well as rates of HIV/TB co-infection among notified TB patients continued a steady increase through 2010, while coverage of HIV testing and CPT for co-infected patients increased to above 80%. Conclusion Against a background of high, but stable HIV prevalence and decreasing HIV incidence, we documented early evidence of a mortality decline associated with the expanded national HIV response since 2004. Attribution of impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future

  15. Effect of cerium addition on casting/chill interfacial heat flux and casting surface profile during solidification of Al-14%Si alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijeesh, V.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2016-03-01

    In the present investigation, Al-14 wt. % Si alloy was solidified against copper, brass and cast iron chills, to study the effect of Ce melt treatment on casting/chill interfacial heat flux transients and casting surface profile. The heat flux across the casting/chill interface was estimated using inverse modelling technique. On addition of 1.5% Ce, the peak heat flux increased by about 38%, 42% and 43% for copper, brass and cast iron chills respectively. The effect of Ce addition on casting surface texture was analyzed using a surface profilometer. The surface profile of the casting and the chill surfaces clearly indicated the formation of an air gap at the periphery of the casting. The arithmetic average value of the profile departure from the mean line (Ra) and arithmetical mean of the absolute departures of the waviness profile from the centre line (Wa) were found to decrease on Ce addition. The interfacial gap width formed for the unmodified and Ce treated casting surfaces at the periphery were found to be about 35µm and 13µm respectively. The enhancement in heat transfer on addition of Ce addition was attributed to the lowering of the surface tension of the liquid melt. The gap width at the interface was used to determine the variation of heat transfer coefficient (HTC) across the chill surface after the formation of stable solid shell. It was found that the HTC decreased along the radial direction for copper and brass chills and increased along radial direction for cast iron chills.

  16. Properties and degradability of hydrothermal carbonization products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibisch, Nina; Helfrich, Mirjam; Don, Axel; Mikutta, Robert; Kruse, Andrea; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Flessa, Heinz

    2013-09-01

    Biomass carbonized via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) yields a liquid and a carbon (C)-rich solid called hydrochar. In soil, hydrochars may act as fertilizers and promote C sequestration. We assumed that the chemical composition of the raw material (woodchips, straw, grass cuttings, or digestate) determines the properties of the liquid and solid HTC products, including their degradability. Additionally, we investigated whether easily mineralizable organic components adsorbed on the hydrochar surface influence the degradability of the hydrochars and could be removed by repetitive washing. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO production over 30 d in aerobic incubation experiments with loamy sand. Chemical analysis revealed that most nutrients were preferably enriched in the liquid phase. The C mineralization of hydrochars from woodchips (2% of total C added), straw (3%), grass (6%), and digestate (14%) were dependent on the raw material carbonized and were significantly lower (by 60-92%; digestate-hydrochar (up to 40%) but had no effect on mineralization rates of the other three hydrochars. Variations in C mineralization between different hydrochars could be explained by multiple factors, including differences in the O/C-H/C ratios, C/N ratios, lignin content, amount of oxygen-containing functional groups, and pH. In contrast to the solids, the liquid products were highly degradable, with 61 to 89% of their dissolved organic C being mineralized within 30 d. The liquids may be treated aerobically (e.g., for nutrient recovery). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Inhibition of hepatocellular cancer by EB1089: in vitro and in vive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghous, Zahid; Akhter, Javed; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Morris, David L

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant antiproliferative potential, clinical application of 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2VD3] in the treatment of cancer has been hindered due to the development of hypercalcemia. Various derivatives of 1,25(OH)2VD3 have been synthesized to overcome this side-effect. Seocalcitol (EB1089) is a vitamin D analog that has been extensively studied and shown to have profoundly reduced hypercalcemic effects. Here the effects of EB1089 were evaluated in Hep 3B, SKHEP-1, PLC/PRF/5, HTC and Novikoff hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cell lines. In vitro, cells were treated with different concentrations of EB1089 (1-1000 nM). Analytical tests were then performed including cell count and 3H thymidine assay. For in vivo analysis, SKHEP-1 cells were xenografted into nude male mice. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, mice were randomly assigned to a control group (n=10) or one of the treatment groups (3 groups of 10 mice) receiving 0.02, 0.1 or 0.5 microg/kg/day of EB1089. Control animals received the vehicle (propylene glycol). To minimize the number of intraperitoneal injections, oral and intraperitoneal routes were used on alternate days. Tumor size was measured every third day and the volumes were estimated using the formula 0.5 x length x (width)2. In vitro: Proliferation of Hep 3B, PLC/PRF/5 and SKHEP-1 HCC cells was significantly inhibited at all EB1089 concentrations tested, while HTC cells only responded to 1000 nM concentration of EB1089. Proliferation of Novikoff cells was unaffected by the drug at all concentrations examined. In vivo: EB1089 effectively inhibited SKHEP-1 tumor growth without inducing hypercalcemia (p<0.05). Results of the present study indicate that EB1089 is an effective growth inhibitor of HCC tumors.

  18. Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; White, Emma C.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2016-04-01

    Urban street trees provide many environmental, social, and economic benefits for our cities. This research explored the role of street trees in Melbourne, Australia, in cooling the urban microclimate and improving human thermal comfort (HTC). Three east-west (E-W) oriented streets were studied in two contrasting street canyon forms (deep and shallow) and between contrasting tree canopy covers (high and low). These streets were instrumented with multiple microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and mean radiant temperature so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from May 2011 to June 2013, focusing on summertime conditions and heat events. Street trees supported average daytime cooling during heat events in the shallow canyon by around 0.2 to 0.6 °C and up to 0.9 °C during mid-morning (9:00-10:00). Maximum daytime cooling reached 1.5 °C in the shallow canyon. The influence of street tree canopies in the deep canyon was masked by the shading effect of the tall buildings. Trees were very effective at reducing daytime UTCI in summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from shade, lowering thermal stress from very strong (UTCI > 38 °C) down to strong (UTCI > 32 °C). The influence of street trees on canyon air temperature and HTC was highly localized and variable, depending on tree cover, geometry, and prevailing meteorological conditions. The cooling benefit of street tree canopies increases as street canyon geometry shallows and broadens. This should be recognized in the strategic placement, density of planting, and species selection of street trees.

  19. Reliability of Parameters of Complete Blood Count With Different Storage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Dammika; Jayaweera, Sasini; Madhubhashini, Gayathri; Lokumarakkala, Dilani D; Senanayake, Sameera J

    2017-03-01

    The complete blood count (CBC) is a frequently performed laboratory test today. This study evaluated the effects of temperature and sample storage time on parameters of CBC which could produce misleading results of clinical significance. In a cross-sectional study, CBC was checked in 102 randomly selected healthy individuals and baseline measurements were analyzed using the Sysmex XS 500i fully automated hematology analyzer. CBC was done on samples up to 48 hr of storage at temperatures of 4 ± 2°C, 23 ± 2°C, and 31 ± 2°C. Values were checked at time intervals of 6, 24, and 48 hr. Among CBC parameters, white blood cell, red blood cell, hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), neutrophils and lymphocytes were stable at all three temperatures up to 48 hr. Monocytes, eosinophils, MCH concentration, hematocrit (Htc), and red cell distribution width-coefficient of variation showed statistically significant changes at 23 ± 2°C and 31 ± 2°C. A significant decline in platelet count (PLT) and increment in mean platelet volume and basophil count were seen at all study temperatures up to 48 hr. This study shows that most parameters of the CBC are unaffected with the studied storage temperature up to 48 hr except for the PLT which should be performed within 6 hr of the post-collection time. To avoid changes in a few parameters such as Htc, it is best to store the sample at 4 ± 2°C if any delay is anticipated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Heat transfer at the mold-metal interface in permanent mold casting of aluminum alloys project. Annual project status report for the period October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlke, R.D.; Hao, S.W.

    1998-09-30

    In the first year of this three-year project, substantial progress has been achieved. This project on heat transfer coefficients in metal permanent mold casting is being conducted in three areas. They are the theoretical study at the University of Michigan, the experimental investigations of squeeze casting and semi-solid casting at CMI-Tech Center, and the experimental investigation of low pressure permanent mold casting at Amcast Automotive. U-M did an initial geometry which was defined for ProCAST to solve, and then a geometry half the size was defined and solved using the same boundary conditions. A conceptual mold geometry was examined and is represented as an axisymmetric element.Furthermore, the influences of the localized heat transfer coefficients on the casting process were carefully studied. The HTC Evaluator has been proposed and initially developed by the U-M team. The Reference and the Database Modules of the HTC Evaluator have been developed, and extensively tested. A series of technical barriers have been cited and potential solutions have been surveyed. At the CMI-Tech Center, the Kistler direct cavity pressure measurement system has been purchased and tested. The calibrations has been evaluated. The probe is capable of sensing a light finger pressure. The experimental mold has been designed and modified. The experimental mold has been designed and modified. The first experiment is scheduled for October 14, 1998. The geometry of the experimental hockey-puck casting has been given to the U-M team for numerical analysis.

  1. Steam-Reheat Option for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltanov, Eugene

    SuperCritical-Water-cooled Reactors (SCWRs) are being developed as one of the Generation-IV nuclear-reactor concepts. Main objectives of the development are to increase thermal efficiency of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and to decrease capital and operational costs. The first objective can be achieved by introducing nuclear steam reheat inside a reactor and utilizing regenerative feedwater heaters. The second objective can be achieved by designing a steam cycle that closely matches that of the mature supercritical fossil-fuelled power plants. The feasibility of these objectives is discussed. As a part of this discussion, heat-transfer calculations have been performed and analyzed for SuperCritical-Water (SCW) and SuperHeated-Steam (SHS) channels of the proposed reactor concept. In the calculations a uniform and three non-uniform Axial Heat Flux Profiles (AHFPs) were considered for six different fuels (UO2, ThO 2, MOX, UC2, UC, and UN) and at average and maximum channel power. Bulk-fluid, sheath, and fuel centerline temperatures as well as the Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) profiles were obtained along the fuel-channel length. The HTC values are within a range of 4.7--20 kW/m2·K and 9.7--10 kW/m2·K for the SCW and SHS channels respectively. The main conclusion is that while all the mentioned fuels may be used for the SHS channel, only UC2, UC, or UN are suitable for a SCW channel, because their fuel centerline temperatures are at least 1000°C below melting point, while that of UO2, ThO2 , and MOX may reach melting point.

  2. Development and testing of high temperature-vector-SQUID conductor-magnetometers for the electro-magnetic exploration of our deposits. Final report; SQUID-Anwendungen - Entwicklung und Erprobung von Hochtemperatur-Vektor-Supraleiter SQUID-Magnetometern fuer die elektromagnetische Exploration von Lagerstaetten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzander, U.; Friedrichs, B.

    2000-03-01

    Aim of the was the development of a prototype of a 3 axis HTc SQUID magnetometer for the geophysical exploration. The prototype was tested during the project in Germany and in China. Metronix task was the supervision of the development with the direction that the sensor can be used for field measurements and that the manufacturing costs will be acceptable. For magnetotelluric measurements (MT/CSAMT) further development is required to enhance the drift and noise properties of the sensor. The advantages in the geophysical TEM exploration are: greater sounding depth and good conductors (ore bodies) can be penetrated completely; the thickness of the resource can be estimated this way. At the same time the measuring time can be reduced tremendously because of the better signal to noise ratio. The productivity of the measuring campaign increases. If due to further developments coils systems can be replaced in total by the SQUID, SQUID systems will dominate the TEM market. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Projektes war es, einen Prototyp eines 3-achsigen HTc SQUIDS zur Verfuegung zu haben, welcher die Anforderungen fuer geophysikalische Messungen erfuellt. Dieser Prototyp wurde im Laufe des Projektes in Deutschland und China getestet. Die Rolle der Firma Metronix in diesem Projekt war die Einflussnahme auf die Entwicklung in der Form, dass zum einen die aus der Feldmesstechnik resultierenden Anforderungen beruecksichtigt werden, zum anderen auf eine spaetere kostenguenstige Herstellung geachtet wird. Bei magnetotellurischen Messungen (MT/CSAMT) besteht weiterer Bedarf an Verbesserungen hinsichtlich der Drift- und Rauscheigenschaften des Sensors. Fuer die geophysikalische Exploration in der TEM ergeben sich folgende Vorteile: die Erkundungstiefe ist groesser und gute Leiter (Erzkoerper) koennen vollstaendig durchteuft werden; damit kann die Maechtigkeit des Vorkommens bestimmt werden. Gleichzeitig kann auf Grund des besseren Signal / Rauschverhaeltnisses die Messzeit deutlich

  3. Effect of a high-altitude expedition to a Himalayan peak (Pumori, 7,161 m) on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António; Marques, Franklim; Soares, José M C; Ferreira, Rita; Neuparth, Maria J; Duarte, José A

    2005-03-01

    The effects of a high-altitude exposure were studied in six mountaineers who spent 3 weeks at an altitude range between 5,250 and 7,161 m after 1 week in an acclimatization trek (2,800-5,250 m). Blood drawn from the antecubital vein was collected at sea level 1 day before and 1 day after the expedition to analyse some haematological variables [haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Htc) and red blood cell (RBC) count], erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (Gr)] and membrane fatty acid profile [mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans fatty acids (TRANS)]. Moreover, total antioxidant status (TAS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), thiol protein groups (SH), SOD, GPx and Gr were measured in plasma. High-altitude exposure induced polycythaemia, with significant increases in RBC count (5.26%), Hb concentration (4.83%) and Htc (6.26%). Furthermore, a significant increase in plasma TBARS, SOD and Gr was observed after the expedition, whereas SH, TAS and GPx decreased. Erythrocyte glutathione-cycle-related antioxidant enzyme activity was upregulated, whereas SOD activity was maintained after the expedition. In addition, despite the unchanged (MUFA+PUFA)/SFA ratio, the membrane erythrocyte fatty acid content showed a significant increase in PUFAs and a decrease in TRANS, suggesting enhanced membrane fluidity. In conclusion, it seems that high-altitude exposure, besides quantitative variations in RBC expression, induced plasma oxidative stress and damage, and significant changes in erythrocyte components, namely in antioxidant enzyme activity and membrane fatty acid profile that might modify RBC functionality.

  4. Hydrothermal carbonization as innovative technology in sustainable sanitation in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Ariane [Engineers Without Boarders (Germany), Berlin (DE). Project ' ' Carbonization as Sanitation' ' (CaSa)

    2011-07-01

    The need for sustainable systems is apparent as climate change and other adverse anthropogenic activities continue to negatively affect the soil fertility in Africa. One of the indicators of the loss of soil fertility is the continuous decrease in soil organic matter, which is the major building block of a fertile soil. This is mainly attributed to the inappropriate practice of human-beings of taking more substances from the ecosystem than the amount replaced. As the soil fertility is increasingly lost, food insecurity, due to dropped productivity of the soil, is becoming a critical issue in many areas of Africa, Tanzania is not any different in this respect. On the other hand, most people in rural areas of Africa still lack possibilities to cover their daily energy needs in a more sustainable way and many people mainly rely on firewood. This, in turn, has an adverse impact on the climate and the soil, causing a local viscous circle of poor soil and productivity conditions. Moreover, the sanitation coverage of those areas is very low and there is a need for appropriate sanitation systems. Therefore, the aim of this project is, to conduct research on the possibility of establishing a self-sustaining system for the rural areas of Kagera, Tanzania, to address the three basic issues: sanitation, energy supply and soil fertility. The system consists of a small-scale biogas digester, a urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT) and an adaptive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) unit. Biogas is produced from crop residues and other domestic organic waste. The fermentation residues and the dehydrated fecal matter from the UDDT is then treated with HTC. The carbonised and sanitized residue is then applied as soil amendment to improve the soil fertility as manifested by the Terra Preta in the Amazon. This holistic approach is a new development in ecological sanitation. Therefore, a comprehensive sustainability assessment including environmental, economic and socio

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Application of Solar Radiant Systems, Internal Airflow and Occupants’ Presence in the Improvement of Comfort in Winter Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusébio Z. E. Conceição

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the use of numerical simulation in the application of solar radiant systems, internal airflow and occupants’ presence in the improvement of comfort in winter conditions is made. The thermal comfort, the local thermal discomfort and the air quality in an occupied chamber space are evaluated. In the experimental measurements, a wood chamber, a desk, two seats, two seated hygro-thermal manikins, a warm radiant floor, a solar radiation simulator and a water solar collector are used. The air velocity and the air temperature fluctuation are experimentally evaluated around 15 human body sections. The chamber surface temperature is experimentally measured. In the numerical simulation, a coupling human thermal comfort (HTC integral model, a computational fluids dynamics (CFD differential model and a building thermal response (BTR integral model are applied. The human thermal comfort level is evaluated by the HTC numerical model. The airflow inside the virtual chamber, using the k-epsilon and RNG turbulence models, is evaluated by the CFD numerical model. The chamber surface and the collector temperatures are evaluated by the BTR numerical model. In the human thermal comfort level, in non-uniform environments, the predicted mean vote (PMV and the predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD people are numerically evaluated; in the local thermal discomfort level the draught risk (DR is experimentally and numerically analyzed; and in the air quality, the carbon dioxide CO2 concentration is numerically calculated. In the validation tests, the experimental and numerical values of the chamber surface temperature, the air temperature, the air velocity, the air turbulence intensity and the DR are presented.

  6. LIQUIDARMOR CM Flashing and Sealant, High Impact Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-12-01

    Air leakage is responsible for about 1.1 quads of energy or 6% of the total energy used by commercial buildings in the US. Consequently, infiltration and exfiltration are among the largest envelope-related contributors to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning loads in commercial buildings. New air sealing technologies have recently emerged that aim to improve the performance of air barrier systems by simplifying their installation procedure. LIQUIDARMORTM CM Flashing and Sealant is an example of these new advanced material technologies. This technology is a spray-applied sealant and liquid flashing and can span gaps that are up to ¼ in. wide without a supporting material. ORNL verified the performance of LIQUIDARMORTM CM with field tests and energy simulations from a building in which LIQUIDARMORTM CM was one of components of the air barrier system. The Homeland Security Training Center (HTC) at the College of DuPage in Glen Ellyn, IL, served as the demonstration site. Blower door test results show the average air leakage rate in the demonstration site to be 0.15 cfm/ft2 at 1.57 psf, or 63% lower than the 0.4 cfm at 1.57 psf specified in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). According to simulation results, HTC lowered its annual heating and cooling cost by about $3,000 or 9% compared to a similar building that lacked an air barrier system. This demonstration project serves as an example of the level of building envelope airtightness that can be achieved by using air barrier materials that are properly installed, and illustrates the energy and financial savings that such an airtight envelope could attain.

  7. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  8. Expression and secretion of endostatin in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wunderlich, Annette; Lingelbach, Susanne; Musholt, Petra B; Musholt, Thomas J; von Wasielewski, Reinhard; Zielke, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    In thyroid cancer (TC) endostatin was identified as a powerful negative regulator of tumor angiogenesis in vitro. It is currently being evaluated in phase I trials for antiangiogenic therapy in various solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate endostatin expression in archival TC specimens and its secretion following stimulation with thyrotropin (TSH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in TC cell lines. Tissue microarrays of 44 differentiated and 7 anaplastic TC and their metastasis were immunostained for endostatin protein expression and compared with corresponding non-neoplastic thyroid tissue (NT). In vitro, six differentiated (FTC133, FTC236, HTC, HTC-TSHr, XTC, and TPC1) and three anaplastic (C643, Hth74, Kat4.0) TC cell lines were evaluated for basal as well as TSH (1-100 mU/ml) and EGF stimulated (1-100 ng/ml) endostatin. Endostatin was detected in all TC and more than half of the NT. Endostatin expression was more frequent and intense in differentiated as compared to anaplastic TC. In vitro, basal endostatin secretion varied between 33 +/- 5 pg/ml (FTC236) and 549 +/- 65 pg/ml (TPC1) and was doubled in FTC, when the "primary" (FTC133) was compared with the metastasis (FTC236). Some cell lines showed TSH-induced (e.g., 60% in XTC) or EGF-induced (e.g., 120% in TPC1) upregulation of endostatin secretion, while others did not, despite documented receptor expression. This study demonstrates endostatin expression in TC, metastasis and--less frequently and intensely--in NT, suggesting a possible association to tumor progression. In vitro, endostatin secretion of some cell lines is regulated by TSH and EGF, however the individual differences deserve further functional studies. These results support rather tumor-specific than histotype-specific expression and regulation of endostatin in TC.

  9. HIV status awareness, partnership dissolution and HIV transmission in generalized epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Reniers

    Full Text Available HIV status aware couples with at least one HIV positive partner are characterized by high separation and divorce rates. This phenomenon is often described as a corollary of couples HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC that ought to be minimized. In this contribution, we demonstrate the implications of partnership dissolution in serodiscordant couples for the propagation of HIV.We develop a compartmental model to study epidemic outcomes of elevated partnership dissolution rates in serodiscordant couples and parameterize it with estimates from population-based data (Rakai, Uganda.Via its effect on partnership dissolution, every percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence in monogamous populations by 0.27 percent for women and 0.63 percent for men. These effects are even larger when the assumption of monogamy can be relaxed, but are moderated by other behavior changes (e.g., increased condom use in HIV status aware serodiscordant partnerships. When these behavior changes are taken into account, each percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence by 0.13 and 0.32 percent for women and men, respectively (assuming monogamy. The partnership dissolution effect exists because it decreases the fraction of serodiscordant couples in the population and prolongs the time that individuals spend outside partnerships.Our model predicts that elevated partnership dissolution rates in HIV status aware serodiscordant couples reduce the spread of HIV. As a consequence, the full impact of couples HTC for HIV prevention is probably larger than recognized to date. Particularly high partnership dissolution rates in female positive serodiscordant couples contribute to the gender imbalance in HIV infections.

  10. Rigorous theory of graded thermoelectric converters including finite heat transfer coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenmaier, York Christian; Wachutka, Gerhard

    2017-11-01

    Maximization of thermoelectric (TE) converter performance with an inhomogeneous material and electric current distribution has been investigated in previous literature neglecting thermal contact resistances to the heat reservoirs. The heat transfer coefficients (HTCs), defined as inverse thermal contact resistances per unit area, are thus infinite, whereas in reality, always parasitic thermal resistances, i.e., finite HTCs, are present. Maximization of the generated electric power and of cooling power in the refrigerator mode with respect to Seebeck coefficients and heat conductivity for a given profile of the material's TE figure of merit Z are mathematically ill-posed problems in the presence of infinite HTCs. As will be shown in this work, a fully self consistent solution is possible for finite HTCs, and in many respects, the results are fundamentally different. A previous theory for 3D devices will be extended to include finite HTCs and is applied to 1D devices. For the heat conductivity profile, an infinite number of solutions exist leading to the same device performance. Cooling power maximization for finite HTCs in 1D will lead to a strongly enhanced corresponding efficiency (coefficient of performance), whereas results with infinite HTCs lead to a non-monotonous temperature profile and coefficient of performance tending to zero for the prescribed heat conductivities. For maximized generated electric power, the corresponding generator efficiency is nearly a constant independent from the finite HTC values. The maximized efficiencies in the generator and cooling mode are equal to the efficiencies for the infinite HTC, provided that the corresponding powers approach zero. These and more findings are condensed in 4 theorems in the conclusions.

  11. The effect of direction for hydrophobic lines on subcooled flow boiling: Critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Man; Yu, Dong In; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A lot of time and effort were dedicated on study of BHT and CHF to understand and control boiling characteristics. To enhance boiling performance, structure and coating have been focused on recently. Coating can change wettability of the surface by controlling surface energy. Structure can affect nucleation cavity or wettability. These techniques make differences for boiling phenomena. From many reports, structures have received much attention due to facileness of manipulation for wetting, and so much data were collected about structures and boiling characteristics. In comparison to the structure, the study of coating technique is less active. Hydrophilic surface without structure is difficult to make for lasting during boiling condition, and hydrophobic surface impoverish CHF due to early dryout. For this reason, the study of coating effect is deficient relatively. However, hydrophobic pattern can be a brilliant method to enhance boiling performance. Betz et al. manufactured superbiphilic surfaces having juxtaposing hexagonal hydrophobic dots on the superhydrophilic surface. This surface improved HTC up to three times higher than on reported nanostructured surfaces. They reported that results were from increasing nucleation site due to hydrophobicity and constraining of bubble expansion on the surface to prevent formation of vapor blanket. In this study, hydrophobic patterns with stripe lines were achieved to study direction effect of hydrophobic pattern using Teflon solution, and further research is suggested. From the analysis of bubble dynamics with pattern effects, the following conclusions can be summarized. 1. Teflon coating can make many bubbles at early stage, so it showed the highest HTC, but lowest CHF due to early formation of vapor blanket. 2. Parallel patterns are advantageous higher CHF due to segregated vapor path in flow direction. 3. Cross patterns are unfavorable to delay CHF because merged vapor jets could cover hydrophilic line.

  12. Residual renal function and blood count in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Most of patients with chronic renal failure are affected by normochromic, normocytic anemia caused by different etiological factors. Anemia causes a series of symptoms in chronic renal failure, which can hardly be recognized from the uremic signs. Anemia adds to morbidity and mortality rates in patients affected by advanced chronic renal failure. Blood count partially improves during the first months after starting the chronic renal replacement therapy, in correlation with the quality of depuration program, with extension of erythrocyte lifetime and with hemoconcentration due to reduction of plasma volume. Recent trials found that higher residual renal function (RRF significantly reduced co-morbidity, the rate and duration of hospitalization and risk of treatment failure. Objective: The aim of the study was to follow blood count parameters in 32 patients on chronic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD during the first six months of treatment, to evaluate the influence of demographic and clinical factors on blood count and RRF, and to examine the correlation between RRF and blood count parameters. Method: A total of 32 patients affected by end-stage renal disease of different major cause during the first six months of CADP treatment were studied. RRF and blood count were evaluated as well as their relationship during the follow-up. Results: Blood count significantly improved in our patients during the first six months of CAPD treatment even if Hb and HTC failed to reach normal values. Iron serum level slightly decreased because of more abundant erythropoiesis and iron utilization during the first six months of treatment. RRF slightly decreased. After six months of CAPD treatment, the patients with higher RRF had significantly higher Hb, HTC and erythrocyte number and a lot of positive correlations between RRF and anemia markers were observed. Conclusion: After 6-month follow-up period, the patients with higher RRF had

  13. Efficacy of enhanced HIV counseling for risk reduction during pregnancy and in the postpartum period: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Maman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. METHODS: Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n=733 and control arms (n=747. Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum. RESULTS: There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR 1.01, 95% CI 0.71-1.44 or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.23. The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59-0.88, but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67-1.75. DISCUSSION: An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461.

  14. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of an innovative decay heat removal system for lead-cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetti, Fabio; Vitale Di Maio, Damiano; Naviglio, Antonio; Caruso, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.caruso@uniroma1.it

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • LOOP thermal-hydraulic transient analysis for lead-cooled fast reactors. • Passive decay heat removal system concept to avoid lead freezing. • Solution developed for the diversification of the decay heat removal functions. • RELAP5 vs. RELAP5-3D comparison for lead applications. - Abstract: Improvement of safety requirements in GEN IV reactors needs more reliable safety systems, among which the decay heat removal system (DHR) is one of the most important. Complying with the diversification criteria and based on pure passive and very reliable components, an additional DHR for the ALFRED reactor (Advanced Lead Fast Reactor European Demonstrator) has been proposed and its thermal-hydraulic performances are analyzed. It consists in a coupling of two innovative subsystems: the radiative-based direct heat exchanger (DHX), and the pool heat exchanger (PHX). Preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses, by using RELAP5 and RELAP5-3D© computer programs, have been carried out showing that the whole system can safely operate, in natural circulation, for a long term. Sensitivity analyses for: the emissivity of the DHX surfaces, the PHX water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and the lead HTC have been carried out. In addition, the effects of the density variation uncertainty on the results has been analyzed and compared. It allowed to assess the feasibility of the system and to evaluate the acceptable range of the studied parameters. A comparison of the results obtained with RELAP5 and RELAP5-3D© has been carried out and the analysis of the differences of the two codes for lead is presented. The features of the innovative DHR allow to match the decay heat removal performance with the trend of the reactor decay heat power after shutdown, minimizing at the same time the risk of lead freezing. This system, proposed for the diversification of the DHR in the LFRs, could be applicable in the other pool-type liquid metal fast reactors.

  15. Investigation into the use of smartphone as a machine vision device for engineering metrology and flaw detection, with focus on drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Vikram; Bateman, Richard

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the use of a Smartphone and its camera vision capabilities in Engineering metrology and flaw detection, with a view to develop a low cost alternative to Machine vision systems which are out of range for small scale manufacturers. A Smartphone has to provide a similar level of accuracy as Machine Vision devices like Smart cameras. The objective set out was to develop an App on an Android Smartphone, incorporating advanced Computer vision algorithms written in java code. The App could then be used for recording measurements of Twist Drill bits and hole geometry, and analysing the results for accuracy. A detailed literature review was carried out for in-depth study of Machine vision systems and their capabilities, including a comparison between the HTC One X Android Smartphone and the Teledyne Dalsa BOA Smart camera. A review of the existing metrology Apps in the market was also undertaken. In addition, the drilling operation was evaluated to establish key measurement parameters of a twist Drill bit, especially flank wear and diameter. The methodology covers software development of the Android App, including the use of image processing algorithms like Gaussian Blur, Sobel and Canny available from OpenCV software library, as well as designing and developing the experimental set-up for carrying out the measurements. The results obtained from the experimental set-up were analysed for geometry of Twist Drill bits and holes, including diametrical measurements and flaw detection. The results show that Smartphones like the HTC One X have the processing power and the camera capability to carry out metrological tasks, although dimensional accuracy achievable from the Smartphone App is below the level provided by Machine vision devices like Smart cameras. A Smartphone with mechanical attachments, capable of image processing and having a reasonable level of accuracy in dimensional measurement, has the potential to become a handy low-cost Machine vision

  16. Fabrication of efficient graphene-doped polymer/fullerene bilayer organic solar cells in air using spin coating followed by ultrasonic vibration post treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihi, Fatemeh; Chen, Qianli; Xie, Yu; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    In this work, in an attempt to improve the performance and lifetime of organic solar cells, P3HT photon absorbing polymer was doped with graphene (G) nano-sheets, to make light harvesting G-P3HT composite thin film. The composite this film was then employed as the donor of a bilayer organic solar cell with the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/G-P3HT/C60/Al. The reference P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell was also fabricated for comparison. All solution-processed layers were made by spin coating in humid air (Shanghai, China); C60 and Al were deposited by thermal evaporation. An effective mechanical treatment approach developed by the authors, i.e. the application of forced ultrasonic vibration on the wet spun-on films, was used to improve the dispersion of graphene in G-P3HT composite films to obtain a uniform nanostructure. This mechanical method eliminates tedious and expensive chemical steps, currently performed to engineer the structure of organic solar cells. It is evidenced that the G-P3HT composite thin films, post treated by ultrasonic vibration at the optimum vibration duration, possess superior electrical conductivity, charge carrier mobility and density, uniform surface potential distribution, and lower surface roughness, compared to those of P3HT and G-P3HT thin films made without vibration. The results show significant improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of vibration-treated G-P3HT/C60 cell (PCE = 5.17%, the highest reported for this structure), substantiating the strong positive effect of using graphene and forced vibration for the fabrication of P3HT active layer in the bilayer cell structure.

  17. HIV status awareness, partnership dissolution and HIV transmission in generalized epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Georges; Armbruster, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    HIV status aware couples with at least one HIV positive partner are characterized by high separation and divorce rates. This phenomenon is often described as a corollary of couples HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) that ought to be minimized. In this contribution, we demonstrate the implications of partnership dissolution in serodiscordant couples for the propagation of HIV. We develop a compartmental model to study epidemic outcomes of elevated partnership dissolution rates in serodiscordant couples and parameterize it with estimates from population-based data (Rakai, Uganda). Via its effect on partnership dissolution, every percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence in monogamous populations by 0.27 percent for women and 0.63 percent for men. These effects are even larger when the assumption of monogamy can be relaxed, but are moderated by other behavior changes (e.g., increased condom use) in HIV status aware serodiscordant partnerships. When these behavior changes are taken into account, each percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence by 0.13 and 0.32 percent for women and men, respectively (assuming monogamy). The partnership dissolution effect exists because it decreases the fraction of serodiscordant couples in the population and prolongs the time that individuals spend outside partnerships. Our model predicts that elevated partnership dissolution rates in HIV status aware serodiscordant couples reduce the spread of HIV. As a consequence, the full impact of couples HTC for HIV prevention is probably larger than recognized to date. Particularly high partnership dissolution rates in female positive serodiscordant couples contribute to the gender imbalance in HIV infections.

  18. Hydrothermal Extraction of Microalgae Fatty Acid Influences Hydrochar Phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ennis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC of microalgae biomass for the production of triacylglycerides is a potentially valuable enabling technology for a waste water treatment-based integrated biorefinery. Here, HTC was used to treat Phaeodactylum tricornutum lipid-rich biomass producing a solid hydrochar from the surface of which adsorbed lipids were removed by hexane extraction following filtration of the solid hydrochar from the process liquid product. Approximately 7% of the input biomass was recovered and transesterified for qualitative and quantitative GC-MS analysis for fatty acid methyl esters. Transesterifiable lipids accounted for 94% of the material recovered by solvent extraction. Of the transesterified fatty acids (FA analyzed, the majority was monounsaturated (40.4% and saturated (37% C-16 FA. Other FA detected included saturated and monounsaturated C-18 (7.7 and 1.9% and saturated C-14 (5.3% and C-25 (1.5%. Thermal analysis (TGA/DSC of the hydrochar in air showed calorific values of 10.6 MJ kg−1 (delipidated hydrochar and 3.1 MJ kg−1 (non-delipidated hydrochar with the latter exhibiting the presence of volatalizable components. Germination trials were conducted to assess the potential phytotoxic effects of these hydrochars. Delipidated hydrochar showed a germination index of 73% suggesting the presence of some phytotoxicity. Non-delipidated hydrochar showed high germination index results of 102% (unground and 126% (ground. Taken together with the observation of reduced root hair proliferation in these two test conditions, this suggests the operation of a second phytotoxic effect that is removed by delipidation.

  19. Toward 90-90-90: identifying those who have never been tested for HIV and differences by sex in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Fleming, Paul; Wagman, Jocelyn; Wong, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    To reach HIV epidemic control it is important to ensure that those who have never been tested access HIV testing and counseling (HTC) particularly in the context of a generalized HIV epidemic. Using data from the 2014 Lesotho Demographic Health Survey bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine the associations between never tested for HIV and key socio-cognitive characteristics by sex. Marginal probabilities at the means were calculated for the socio-cognitive variables for men and women to ascertain the magnitude of the differences in the likelihood of never being tested by sex. We stratified by gender and controlled for age, education, religion, marital status, place of residence, and years circumcised (for men only). Results indicate that more men than women have never been tested (χ2 = 461.16, p < 0.001); and, among men, acceptance of gender based violence (Odds ratio [OR]: 1.44, p < 0.001), holding discriminatory attitudes (OR: 1.50, p < 0.001), and not having basic HIV prevention knowledge (OR: 1.53, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with never being tested. The likelihood of never being tested among those who had these three socio-cognitive characteristics was much higher among men (0.56, p < 0.001) than women (0.20, p < 0.001). Given the strong sex differential, there is an urgent need for strategies specifically targeting men in order to effectively promote HTC uptake among them. Additionally, results suggest that those strategies should integrate strategies to address GBV acceptance, HIV prevention knowledge, and HIV discrimination or link men to programs addressing these.

  20. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature Range During Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

    2007-06-30

    pore volume decreased when experimental cycles went on. Silica was doped on the CaAc{sub 2}-CaO in various weight percentages, but the resultant sorbent did not exhibit better performance under cyclic operation than those without dopant. In chapter 3, the Calcium-based carbon dioxide sorbents were made in the gas phase by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and compared to the ones made by standard high temperature calcination (HTC) of selected calcium precursors. The FSP-made sorbents were solid nanostructured particles having twice as large specific surface area (40-60 m{sup 2}/g) as the HTC-made sorbents (i.e. from calcium acetate monohydrate). All FSP-made sorbents showed high capacity for CO{sub 2} uptake at high temperatures (773-1073 K) while the HTC-made ones from calcium acetate monohydrate (CaAc{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O) demonstrated the best performance for CO{sub 2} uptake among all HTC-made sorbents. At carbonation temperatures less than 773 K, FSP-made sorbents demonstrated better performance for CO{sub 2} uptake than all HTC-made sorbents. Above that, both FSP-made, and HTC-made sorbents from CaAc{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O exhibited comparable carbonation rates and maximum conversion. In multiple carbonation/decarbonation cycles, FSP-made sorbents demonstrated stable, reversible and high CO{sub 2} uptake capacity sustaining maximum molar conversion at about 50% even after 60 such cycles indicating their potential for CO{sub 2} uptake. In chapter 4 we investigated the performance of CaO sorbents with dopant by flame spray pyrolysis at higher temperature. The results show that the sorbent with zirconia gave best performance among sorbents having different dopants. The one having Zr to Ca of 3:10 by molar gave stable performance. The calcium conversion around 64% conversion during 102-cycle operations at 973 K. When carbonation was performance at 823 K, the Zr/Ca sorbent (3:10) exhibited stable performance of 56% by calcium molar conversion, or 27% by

  1. The influence of biochar on substrate erodibility: An experimental approach with simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Geißler, Christian; Goebes, Philipp; Teuber, Sandra; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is charcoal made from biomass by pyrolysis and used as a soil amendment. The addition of biochar to topsoils can lead to significant changes in soil characteristics. Nevertheless, the impact of biochar on soil functions is a controversial subject. It generally results from specific influences of substrates and biochar on the equilibrium between release (e.g. desorption) and fixation (e.g. adsorption) mechanisms. Furthermore, physical effects between soil and biochar are reported, which affect soil texture and thus mostly the transport and storage of water in substrates. It seems likely that while biochar influences biochemical and -physical processes, it can also affect soil erodibility. To investigate this assumption, an experimental rainfall simulation with splash cups was conducted. Different types ("HTC", "Pyrochar"; Delinat, Switzerland), sizes (biochar (2 %, 6 %, 10 %) were used in two substrates (sand and silt). Rainfall was induced with a single-nozzle rainfall simulator (Tübingen Rainfall Simulator) under a portable light frame tent (16 m3). The simulator was equipped with a Lechler 460.788.30 nozzle and adjusted to a drop falling height of 3.5 m (pressure at nozzle: 150 hPa). The sprinkle area was 1 m2 and rainfall was applied for 10 min with an intensity of 50 mm h-1 for all simulation runs (KE=5.13 J m-2 mm-1). The drop size spectrum and intensity of the simulator were calibrated and continuously checked using a "Laser Precipitation Monitor" (Thies GmbH) to ensure homogeneous rain characteristics. Results showed that the erodibility of both sand (p=0.006) and silt (p=0.094) decreased with biochar addition compared to treatments without biochar addition. The erodibility of sand was lower with HTC-char than with Pyrochar, but in silt it was lower with Pyrochar than with HTC-char. Nevertheless, the biochar type did not affect erodibility significantly. Sediment detachment was three-times higher in silt than in sand, both with and without biochar

  2. Partial Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in a Segmented Bed Using Oxide-based Catalysts and Oxygen-conducting Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark W.

    reactor inlet, followed by a reforming catalyst. This approach demonstrated that BNHA can be used in the reactor inlet to promote combustion with 1 wt% Rh-substituted pyrochlore in the reactor outlet, but the combustion catalyst should fill less than 50% of the reactor. The second approach placed specific catalysts in regions of the reactor that have conditions in which they are less likely to deactivate. This showed the most benefit in the use of a sulfur-tolerant noble metal catalyst in the reactor outlet. The carbon formation study was conducted on a 2 wt% Rh-substituted pyrochlore. POX of TD for various run times, followed by temperature programmed oxidation, revealed two different types of carbon deposits in the catalyst bed: carbon that burned off at relatively low temperature (LTC), and carbon that burned off at higher temperatures (HTC). The LTC reached a steady state level within two hours of reaction, and was determined not to lead to catalyst deactivation. The HTC continued to accumulate with time on stream. A mathematical expression was developed to predict the rate of formation of the HTC for a given set of reaction conditions (O/C = 1.25). This expression was modified from data from a test under different reaction conditions (O/C = 1.1) for one length of time, and was found to predict the carbon formation for a different run time within 3%.

  3. ‘It is just the way it was in the past before I went to test’: a qualitative study to explore responses to HIV prevention counselling in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Cawley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT for HIV first evolved in Western settings, with one aim being to promote behaviours which lower the risk of onward transmission or acquisition of HIV. However, although quantitative studies have shown that the impact of VCT on sexual behaviour change has been limited in African settings, there is a lack of qualitative research exploring perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages, particularly among clients testing HIV-negative. We conducted a qualitative study to explore healthcare worker, community and both HIV-negative and HIV-positive clients’ perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages in rural Tanzania. Methods This study was carried out within the context of an ongoing community HIV cohort study in Kisesa, northwest Tanzania. Nine group sessions incorporating participatory learning and action (PLA activities were conducted in order to gain general community perspectives of HIV testing and counselling (HTC services. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs with HIV-negative and HIV-positive service users explored individual perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages, while five IDIs were carried out with nurses or counsellors offering HTC in order to explore provider perspectives. Results Two key themes revolving around socio-cultural and contextual factors emerged in understanding responses to HIV prevention counselling messages. The first included constraints to client-counsellor interactions, which were impeded as a result of difficulties discussing private sexual behaviours during counselling sessions, a hierarchical relationship between healthcare providers and clients, insufficient levels of training and support for counsellors, and client concerns about confidentiality. The second theme related to imbalanced gender-power dynamics, which constrained the extent to which women felt able to control their HIV-related risk. Conclusion Within the broader social

  4. Modulation of the mutagenic effect of benzo[a]pyrene and bleomycin by isoflavone extracts in a rat hepatoma cell line Modulação do efeito mutagênico do benzo[a]pireno e bleomicina por extratos de isoflavonas em células de hepatoma de roedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Mantovani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies show that the intake of foods rich in isoflavones (phytoestrogens, such as soybeans, confers protection against various types of cancer, what increases the scientific and popular interest on these compounds. In the present study, phytoestrogens extracts from soybeans were tested for genotoxic potential and modulatory effects on benzo[a]pyrene and bleomycin. Two phytoestrogens were evaluated in vitro, phytoestrogen “A” was supplied by EMBRAPA-Soja, Londrina – PR, and phytoestrogen “B” was purchased in a local drug store. The methods used were the comet assay (genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity and micronucleus test with cytokinesis block (mutagenicity in rat hepatoma cells (HTC cell. The isoflavones were tested at three concentrations pre-established by the MTT cytotoxicity assay. Both isoflavone extracts showed no genotoxic effects in the comet assay, but showed induction of micronucleus. In the evaluation of the phytoestrogens for a modulatory effect, both phytoestrogens extracts showed antigenotoxicity in the comet assay.Estudos epidemiológicos mostram que a ingestão de alimentos ricos em isoflavonas (fitoestrógenos, como a soja, confere proteção contra vários tipos de câncer, o que aumenta o interesse científico e popular sobre esses compostos. No presente estudo, os fitoestrógenos de extrato de soja foram testados quanto aos efeitos genotóxicos e modulador de benzo [a] pireno e bleomicina. Dois fitoestrogênios foram avaliados in vitro, o fitoestrógenos “A” foi fornecido pela Embrapa-Soja, Londrina - PR, e o fitoestrógenos “B” foi comprado em uma farmácia de manipulação local. Os métodos utilizados foram o teste do Cometa (genotoxicidade e antigenotoxicidade e teste do Micronúcleo com Bloqueio Citocinese (mutagenicidade em células de hepatoma de rato (HTC celulares. As isoflavonas foram testadas em três concentrações pré-estabelecidas pelo ensaio de citotoxidade MTT. Ambos os

  5. Comparing four service delivery models for adolescent girls and young women through the 'Girl Power' study: protocol for a multisite quasi-experimental cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Pettifor, Audrey E; Myers, Laura; Phanga, Twambilile; Marcus, Rebecca; Bhushan, Nivedita Latha; Madlingozi, Nomtha; Vansia, Dhrutika; Masters, Avril; Maseko, Bertha; Mtwisha, Lulu; Kachigamba, Annie; Tang, Jennifer; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2017-12-14

    In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) face a range of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges. Clinical, behavioural and structural interventions have each reduced these risks and improved health outcomes. However, combinations of these interventions have not been compared with each other or with no intervention at all. The 'Girl Power' study is designed to systematically make these comparisons. Four comparable health facilities in Malawi and South Africa (n=8) were selected and assigned to one of the following models of care: (1) Standard of care : AGYW can receive family planning, HIV testing and counselling (HTC), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromic management in three separate locations with three separate queues with the general population. No youth-friendly spaces, clinical modifications or trainings are offered, (2) Youth-Friendly Health Services (YFHS) : AGYW are meant to receive integrated family planning, HTC and STI services in dedicated youth spaces with youth-friendly modifications and providers trained in YFHS, (3) YFHS+behavioural intervention (BI) : In addition to YFHS, AGYW can attend 12 monthly theory-driven, facilitator-led, interactive sessions on health, finance and relationships, (4) YFHS+BI+conditional cash transfer (CCT) : in addition to YFHS and BI, AGYW receive up to 12 CCTs conditional on monthly BI session attendance.At each clinic, 250 AGYW 15-24 years old (n=2000 total) will be consented, enrolled and followed for 1 year. Each participant will complete a behavioural survey at enrolment, 6 months and 12 months . All clinical, behavioural and CCT services will be captured. Outcomes of interest include uptake of each package element and reduction in HIV risk behaviours. A qualitative substudy will be conducted. This study has received ethical approval from the University of North Carolina Institutional Review Board, the University of Cape Town Human Research Ethics Committee and Malawi

  6. Towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: performance of different models of care for initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy for pregnant women in Malawi (Option B+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique van Lettow

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malawi introduced a new strategy to improve the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT, the Option B+ strategy. We aimed to (i describe how Option B+ is provided in health facilities in the South East Zone in Malawi, identifying the diverse approaches to service organization (the “model of care” and (ii explore associations between the “model of care” and health facility–level uptake and retention rates for pregnant women identified as HIV-positive at antenatal (ANC clinics. Methods: A health facility survey was conducted in all facilities providing PMTCT/antiretroviral therapy (ART services in six of Malawi's 28 districts to describe and compare Option B+ service delivery models. Associations of identified models with program performance were explored using facility cohort reports. Results: Among 141 health facilities, four “models of care” were identified: A facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women are initiated and followed on ART at the ANC clinic until delivery; B facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women receive only the first dose of ART at the ANC clinic, and are referred to the ART clinic for follow-up; C facilities where newly identified HIV-positive women are referred from ANC to the ART clinic for initiation and follow-up of ART; and D facilities serving as ART referral sites (not providing ANC. The proportion of women tested for HIV during ANC was highest in facilities applying Model A and lowest in facilities applying Model B. The highest retention rates were reported in Model C and D facilities and lowest in Model B facilities. In multivariable analyses, health facility factors independently associated with uptake of HIV testing and counselling (HTC in ANC were number of women per HTC counsellor, HIV test kit availability, and the “model of care” applied; factors independently associated with ART retention were district location, patient volume

  7. Factors associated with male involvement in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe, 2015 - a case control study

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    Annamercy Makoni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uptake of and adherence to the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT interventions are a challenge to most women if there is no male partner involvement. Organizations which include the National AIDS Council and the Zimbabwe AIDS Prevention Project- University of Zimbabwe have been working towards mobilizing men for couple HIV testing and counseling (HTC in antenatal care (ANC. In 2013, Midlands province had 19 % males who were tested together with their partners in ANC, an increase by 9 % from 2011. However, this improvement was still far below the national target, hence this study was conducted to determine the associated factors. Methods A1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a man who did not receive HIV testing and counseling together with his pregnant wife in ANC in Midlands province from January to June 2015. A control was a man who received HIV testing and counseling together with his pregnant wife in ANC in Midlands province from January to June 2015. Simple random sampling was used to select 112 cases and 112 controls. Epi Info statistical software was used to analyze data. Written informed consent was obtained from each study participant. Results Independent factors that predicted male involvement in PMTCT were: having been previously tested as a couple (aOR 0.22, 95 % CI = 0.12, 0.41 and having time to visit the clinic (aOR 0.41, 95 % CI = 0.21, 0.80. Being afraid of knowing one’s HIV status (aOR 2.22, 95 % CI = 1.04, 4.76 was independently associated with low male involvement in PMTCT. Conclusion Multiple factors were found to be associated with male involvement in PMTCT. Routine PMTCT educational campaigns in places where men gather, community based couple HTC and accommodating the working class during weekends are essential in fostering male involvement in PMTCT thereby reducing HIV transmission to the baby.

  8. Performance Analysis of a Double-effect Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle with a Silica Gel/Water Working Pair

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    Atsushi Akisawa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the double-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle is examined in this manuscript. The proposed cycle is based on the cascading adsorption cycle, where condensation heat that is produced in the top cycle is utilized as the driving heat source for the bottom cycle. The results show that the double-effect cycle produces a higher coefficient of performance (COP as compared to that of the conventional single-stage cycle for driving temperatures between 100 °C and 150 °C in which the average cycle chilled water temperature is fixed at 9 °C. Moreover, the COP of the double-effect cycle is more than twice that of the single-stage cycle when the temperature reaches 130 °C. It is also observed that the adsorbent mass ratio of the high temperature cycle (HTC to the low temperature cycle (LTC affects the performance of the double-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle.

  9. Cloning and expression of pab gene of M. tuberculosis isolated from pulmonary TB patient in E.coli DH5α

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    Tri Y. M. Raras

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen38 is a potent serodiagnostic agent containing two M. tuberculosisspecific B-cell epitopes. The high price of imported diagnostic agents hinders realization of fast clinical TB diagnosis in developing countries. Therefore, we produced recombinant antigen38 (recAg38M from M. tuberculosis local strain, which might be used to produce economical tuberculosis serodiagnostic kit.Methods: Pab gene that was isolated from pulmonary TB patient in Malang was cloned into a plasmid vector (pGEMTeasy to construct pMB38. The E.coli DH5α clone carrying pMb38 was selected on X-gal medium. The expression of pab was mediated using pPRoExHTc under the control of Trc promoter and E.coli DH5α as host.Results: Alignment of the pab sequence from the white E.coli DH5α clones with that of M. tuberculosis H37Rv showed 98% homology. The recombinant protein in which the signal peptide has been deleted to prevent the protein being secreted into medium was found in the cytoplasm.Conclusion: pab gene of M. tuberculosis isolated from a TB patient could be expressed in heterologous system in E.coliDH5α. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:247-54Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pab gene expression, recombinant antigen38

  10. Evaluating more naturalistic outcome measures: A 1-year smartphone study in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Riley; White, Charles C; Giovannoni, Gavin; Glanz, Bonnie; Golubchikov, Victor; Hujol, Johnny; Jennings, Charles; Langdon, Dawn; Lee, Michelle; Legedza, Anna; Paskavitz, James; Prasad, Sashank; Richert, John; Robbins, Allison; Roberts, Susan; Weiner, Howard; Ramachandran, Ravi; Botfield, Martyn; De Jager, Philip L

    2015-12-01

    In this cohort of individuals with and without multiple sclerosis (MS), we illustrate some of the novel approaches that smartphones provide to monitor patients with chronic neurologic disorders in their natural setting. Thirty-eight participant pairs (MS and cohabitant) aged 18-55 years participated in the study. Each participant received an Android HTC Sensation 4G smartphone containing a custom application suite of 19 tests capturing participant performance and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Over 1 year, participants were prompted daily to complete one assigned test. A total of 22 patients with MS and 17 cohabitants completed the entire study. Among patients with MS, low scores on PROs relating to mental and visual function were associated with dropout (p color vision test were captured, highlighting the benefits of both active and passive data collection. Third, a new trait, a person-specific learning curve in neuropsychological testing, was identified using spline analysis. Finally, averaging repeated measures over the study yielded the most robust correlation matrix of the different outcome measures. We report the feasibility of, and barriers to, deploying a smartphone platform to gather useful passive and active performance data at high frequency in an unstructured manner in the field. A smartphone platform may therefore enable large-scale naturalistic studies of patients with MS or other neurologic diseases.

  11. β-catenin activity in late hypertrophic chondrocytes locally orchestrates osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Astrid; Weissenböck, Martina; Graf, Julian; Teufel, Stefan; von der Mark, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Trabecular bone formation is the last step in endochondral ossification. This remodeling process of cartilage into bone involves blood vessel invasion and removal of hypertrophic chondrocytes (HTCs) by chondroclasts and osteoclasts. Periosteal- and chondrocyte-derived osteoprogenitors utilize the leftover mineralized HTC matrix as a scaffold for primary spongiosa formation. Here, we show genetically that β-catenin (encoded by Ctnnb1), a key component of the canonical Wnt pathway, orchestrates this remodeling process at multiple levels. Conditional inactivation or stabilization of β-catenin in HTCs by a Col10a1-Cre line locally modulated osteoclastogenesis by altering the Rankl:Opg ratio in HTCs. Lack of β-catenin resulted in a severe decrease of trabecular bone in the embryonic long bones. Gain of β-catenin activity interfered with removal of late HTCs and bone marrow formation, leading to a continuous mineralized hypertrophic core in the embryo and resulting in an osteopetrotic-like phenotype in adult mice. Furthermore, β-catenin activity in late HTCs is required for chondrocyte-derived osteoblastogenesis at the chondro-osseous junction. The latter contributes to the severe trabecular bone phenotype in mutants lacking β-catenin activity in HTCs. PMID:27621061

  12. [Comparative investigation of antigens associated with plasmatic membranes of rat hepatoma and myogenic cells using anti-kidney serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teriukova, N P; Desheva, A S; Blinova, G I; Mirgorodskaia, O A; Ivanov, V A

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of antigenic diversion of tumor cells resulting from the expression of heteroorganic antigens has been continued. Tumor-associated heteroorganic antigens with mol. weight 200-210 kDa (identified before as laminin), 105-130, 75-80 and 43 kDa were detected by anti-kidney serum in fractions of plasmatic membranes of cells of rat ascitic Zajdela hepatoma and cultured HTC hepatoma; the antigen 43 kDa was isolated on immunosorbent and identified by mass spectrometry as beta-actin. Anti-kidney serum revealed laminin in fractions of plasmatic membranes of cultured L8 and L6J1 myoblasts, and L6J1 myotubes; apparently, synthesis of laminin by hepatoma and myogenic cells is not connected with their proliferative activity. Besides, anti-kidney serum detected components 38, 42, 44, 48, 62, 78 and 120 kDa, expression of which on myogenic cells surface might be consequence of active cell proliferation and (or) differentiation.

  13. Using Virtual Reality For Outreach Purposes in Planetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civet, François; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Le Menn, Erwan; Beaunay, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    2016 has been a year marked by a technological breakthrough : the availability for the first time to the general public of technologically mature virtual reality devices. Virtual Reality consists in visually immerging a user in a 3D environment reproduced either from real and/or imaginary data, with the possibility to move and eventually interact with the different elements. In planetology, most of the places will remain inaccessible to the public for a while, but a fleet of dedicated spacecraft's such as orbiters, landers and rovers allow the possibility to virtually reconstruct the environments, using image processing, cartography and photogrammetry. Virtual reality can then bridge the gap to virtually "send" any user into the place and enjoy the exploration.We are investigating several type of devices to render orbital or ground based data of planetological interest, mostly from Mars. The most simple system consists of a "cardboard" headset, on which the user can simply use his cellphone as the screen. A more comfortable experience is obtained with more complex systems such as the HTC vive or Oculus Rift headsets, which include a tracking system important to minimize motion sickness. The third environment that we have developed is based on the CAVE concept, were four 3D video projectors are used to project on three 2x3m walls plus the ground. These systems can be used for scientific data analysis, but also prove to be perfectly suited for outreach and education purposes.

  14. A mobile field-work data collection system for the wireless era of health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Marianne; Sjögren, Petteri; Renard, Matthew; Johansson, Olle

    2011-03-01

    In many countries or regions the capacity of health care resources is below the needs of the population and new approaches for health surveillance are needed. Innovative projects, utilizing wireless communication technology, contribute to reliable methods for field-work data collection and reporting to databases. The objective was to describe a new version of a wireless IT-support system for field-work data collection and administration. The system requirements were drawn from the design objective and translated to system functions. The system architecture was based on fieldwork experiences and administrative requirements. The Smartphone devices were HTC Touch Diamond2s, while the system was based on a platform with Microsoft .NET components, and a SQL Server 2005 with Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating system. The user interfaces were based on .NET programming, and Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. A synchronization module enabled download of field data to the database, via a General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) to a Local Area Network (LAN) interface. The field-workers considered the here-described applications user-friendly and almost self-instructing. The office administrators considered that the back-office interface facilitated retrieval of health reports and invoice distribution. The current IT-support system facilitates short lead times from fieldwork data registration to analysis, and is suitable for various applications. The advantages of wireless technology, and paper-free data administration need to be increasingly emphasized in development programs, in order to facilitate reliable and transparent use of limited resources.

  15. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lipowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologically-relevant saliva concentrations. The sample and fluorescent reagent solutions are placed in a specially-designed, lightweight device that excludes ambient light and concentrates 470-nm excitation light, from a low-power photodiode, within the sample through non-axially-symmetric refraction. The study found that smartphone cameras and post-image processing quantitated sodium ion concentration in water over the range of 0.5–10 mM, yielding best-fit regressions of the data that agree well with a data regression of microplate luminometer results. The data suggest that fluorescence can be used for the measurement of salivary sodium ion concentrations in low-resource or point-of-care settings. With further fluorescent assay testing, the device may find application in a variety of enzymatic or chemical assays.

  16. Effect of sewage sludge hydrochar on soil properties and Cd immobilization in a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Wang, Fenghua; Zhai, Yunbo; Zhu, Yun; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-12-01

    To investigate hydrochar as a soil amendment for the immobilization of Cd, the characteristics of hydrochars (HCs) under three temperatures and residence times, were studied, with a particular interest in soil properties, as well as the speciation, availability and plant uptake of Cd. HCs were obtained by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) reaction of sewage sludge (SS). Based on the study of HC properties, we found that HCs present weak acidity with relatively high ash content and low electrical conductivity (EC) values. The addition of HCs to soil decreased soil pH and EC values but increased the abundance of soil microorganism. HCs also promoted the transformation of Cd from unstable to stable speciation and can decrease the content of phyto-available Cd (optimum condition and efficiency: A13,2 15.38%), which restrained cabbage from assimilating Cd from soil both the aboveground (optimum condition and efficiency: A35, 52.29%) and underground (optimum condition and efficiency: C15, 57.53%) parts of it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Earthquake Safety Training through Virtual Drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changyang; Liang, Wei; Quigley, Chris; Zhao, Yibiao; Yu, Lap-Fai

    2017-04-01

    Recent popularity of consumer-grade virtual reality devices, such as the Oculus Rift and the HTC Vive, has enabled household users to experience highly immersive virtual environments. We take advantage of the commercial availability of these devices to provide an immersive and novel virtual reality training approach, designed to teach individuals how to survive earthquakes, in common indoor environments. Our approach makes use of virtual environments realistically populated with furniture objects for training. During a training, a virtual earthquake is simulated. The user navigates in, and manipulates with, the virtual environments to avoid getting hurt, while learning the observation and self-protection skills to survive an earthquake. We demonstrated our approach for common scene types such as offices, living rooms and dining rooms. To test the effectiveness of our approach, we conducted an evaluation by asking users to train in several rooms of a given scene type and then test in a new room of the same type. Evaluation results show that our virtual reality training approach is effective, with the participants who are trained by our approach performing better, on average, than those trained by alternative approaches in terms of the capabilities to avoid physical damage and to detect potentially dangerous objects.

  18. Efficacy of virtual reality in pedestrian safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Shuchisnigdha; Carruth, Daniel W; Sween, Richard; Strawderman, Lesley; Garrison, Teena M

    2017-11-01

    Advances in virtual reality technology present new opportunities for human factors research in areas that are dangerous, difficult, or expensive to study in the real world. The authors developed a new pedestrian simulator using the HTC Vive head mounted display and Unity software. Pedestrian head position and orientation were tracked as participants attempted to safely cross a virtual signalized intersection (5.5 m). In 10% of 60 trials, a vehicle violated the traffic signal and in 10.84% of these trials, a collision between the vehicle and the pedestrian was observed. Approximately 11% of the participants experienced simulator sickness and withdrew from the study. Objective measures, including the average walking speed, indicate that participant behavior in VR matches published real world norms. Subjective responses indicate that the virtual environment was realistic and engaging. Overall, the study results confirm the effectiveness of the new virtual reality technology for research on full motion tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspirin mono-therapy continuation does not result in more bleeding after knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Pierre-Emmanuel; Lavand'homme, Patricia; Yombi, JeanCyr; Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Current clinical practice guidelines sometimes still recommend stopping aspirin five to seven days before knee arthroplasty surgery. Literature regarding multimodal blood management and continuation of anti-platelet therapy in this type of surgery is scant. The study hypothesis was that knee arthroplasty under low-dose aspirin mono-therapy continuation does not cause more total blood loss than knee arthroplasty performed without aspirin. Blood loss would be measured by haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (HTC) levels drop at day 2 or day 4 for patients who benefit from multimodal bleeding control measures. A database of all patients undergoing knee arthroplasty between 2006 and 2014 was analysed. Demographic, surgical and complete blood workup data were collected. A retrospective comparison study analysed both groups in terms of blood loss, by mean calculated blood loss as haemoglobin or haematocrit drop between the preoperative Nadir value and the postoperative day 2 and 4 value. A group of 198 (44 UKA and 154 TKA) patients underwent surgery without interrupting their aspirin therapy for cardiovascular prevention. Mean (SD) age was 71 (8) and the mean (SD) BMI was 29 (5.5) kg/m 2 . The control group consisted of 403 (102 UKA and 301 TKA) patients who were not under aspirin, or any other anti-platelet agent. Mean (SD) age was 65 (10) (p aspirin mono-therapy for cardiovascular prevention. III.

  20. Numerical Simulation of the Moving Induction Heating Process with Magnetic Flux Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction heating with ferromagnetic metal powder bonded magnetic flux concentrator (MPB-MFC demonstrates more advantages in surface heating treatments of metal. However, the moving heating application is mostly applied in the industrial production. Therefore, the analytical understanding of the mechanism, efficiency, and controllability of the moving induction heating process becomes necessary for process design and optimization. This paper studies the mechanism of the moving induction heating with magnetic flux concentrator. The MPB-MFC assisted moving induction heating for Inconel 718 alloy is studied by establishing the finite element simulation model. The temperature field distribution is analyzed, and the factors influencing the temperature are studied. The conclusion demonstrates that the velocity of the workpiece should be controlled properly and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC has little impact on the temperature development, compared with other input parameters. In addition, the validity of the static numerical model is verified by comparing the finite element simulation with experimental results on AISI 1045 steel. The numerical model established in this work can provide comprehensive understanding for the process control in production.

  1. Specific Colon Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Bacteriophage E Gene Expression under Transcriptional Control of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Promoter

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    Ana R. Rama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Patients in advanced stages often develop metastases that require chemotherapy and usually show a poor response, have a low survival rate and develop considerable toxicity with adverse symptoms. Gene therapy may act as an adjuvant therapy in attempts to destroy the tumor without affecting normal host tissue. The bacteriophage E gene has demonstrated significant antitumor activity in several cancers, but without any tumor-specific activity. The use of tumor-specific promoters may help to direct the expression of therapeutic genes so they act against specific cancer cells. We used the carcinoembryonic antigen promoter (CEA to direct E gene expression (pCEA-E towards colon cancer cells. pCEA-E induced a high cell growth inhibition of human HTC-116 colon adenocarcinoma and mouse MC-38 colon cancer cells in comparison to normal human CCD18co colon cells, which have practically undetectable levels of CEA. In addition, in vivo analyses of mice bearing tumors induced using MC-38 cells showed a significant decrease in tumor volume after pCEA-E treatment and a low level of Ki-67 in relation to untreated tumors. These results suggest that the CEA promoter is an excellent candidate for directing E gene expression specifically toward colon cancer cells.

  2. Pyrolysis behaviors and thermodynamics properties of hydrochar from bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens) shoot shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuqing; Dong, Xiangyuan; Zhu, Caixia; Han, Yangyang; Ma, Fuqin; Wu, Tingting

    2017-06-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was employed to produce hydrochar from bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens) shoot shell (BS) at severity (combined temperature and time) of 4.83-7.69. The pyrolysis and thermodynamics properties of the hydrochars were fully investigated. The results showed that the hydrochar properties (solid yield, C content, H/C and O/C atomic ratios, pyrolysis yield, pyrolysis index, formation of enthalpy, exergy, LHV, and HHV) of BS were highly dependent on severity and could be expressed by dose-response functions. The rapid variations of the hydrochar properties appeared at severity of 5.93-6.59. The pyrolysis temperature interval for the maximum weight loss shifted from 300 to 400°C at hydrothermal severity less than 6.59 to 400-500°C at hydrothermal severity greater than 6.59. The hydrochar thermal stability increased greatly with the severity increasing. And the thermodynamic properties of hydrochar approached those of lignin model compounds as the hydrothermal severity was greater than 6.59. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neonatal circumcision in severe haemophilia: a survey of paediatric haematologists at United States Hemophilia Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, S; Sharathkumar, A; Rodriguez, V; Chitlur, M; Valentino, L; Boggio, L; Gill, J

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal circumcision in patients with severe haemophilia has not been well studied. We performed a survey of paediatric haematologists from Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC) across the United States to better understand the attitudes toward and management of neonatal circumcision in haemophilia patients. Response rate to our survey was 40% (n = 64/159). Thirty-eight percent of respondents (n = 24) said that they would allow this procedure in the newborn period but in many cases this was against medical advice. The most reported concern regarding neonatal circumcision in haemophilia patients was the risk of development of an inhibitor (n = 25; 39%) followed by the concern for bleeding (n = 22; 34%) and issues related to vascular access in the neonate (n = 11; 17%). All respondents recommended at least one preprocedure dose of factor replacement. Twenty-two percent (n = 14) of respondents did not use more than one dose of factor replacement but 32% (n = 21) used 1-2 postoperative doses. The remainder of paediatric haematologists surveyed recommended between 3-5 (16%; n = 10) and 6-10 (3%, n = 2) additional days postoperatively. There was wide variation in both techniques of circumcision as well as adjuvant haemostatic agents used. Only 22% of respondents said that they had an established protocol for management of circumcision in the newborn haemophilia patient. These survey results highlight the need for evidence-based guidelines regarding the optimal management of circumcision in neonates with severe haemophilia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Both Hemophilia Health Care Providers and Hemophilia A Carriers Report that Carriers have Excessive Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroskie, Allison; Oso, Olatunde; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hemophilia A, the result of reduced factor VIII (FVIII) activity, is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder. Previous reports of Hemophilia A carriers suggest an increased bleeding tendency. Our objective was to determine the attitudes and understanding of the Hemophilia A carrier bleeding phenotype, and opinions regarding timing of carrier testing from the perspective of both medical providers and affected patients. Data from this survey was used as preliminary data for an ongoing prospective study. Material and Methods An electronic survey was distributed to physicians and nurses employed at Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC), and Hemophilia A carriers who were members of Hemophilia Federation of America. Questions focused on the clinical understanding of bleeding symptoms and management of Hemophilia A carriers, and the timing and intensity of carrier testing. Results Our survey indicates that 51% (36/51) of providers compared to 78% (36/46) of carriers believe that Hemophilia A carriers with normal FVIII activity have an increased bleeding tendency (pHemophilia A carriers report a high frequency of bleeding symptoms. Regarding carrier testing, 72% (50/69) of medical providers recommend testing after 14 years of age, conversely 65% (29/45) of Hemophilia A carriers prefer testing to be done prior to this age (pHemophilia A carriers self-report a higher frequency of bleeding than previously acknowledged, and have a preference for earlier testing to confirm carrier status. PMID:24309601

  5. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Realini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  6. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, Eugenio; Caldera, Stefano; Pertusini, Lisa; Sampietro, Daniele

    2017-10-24

    The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost) and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  7. Effects of rice husks and their chars from hydrothermal carbonization on the germination rate and root length of Lepidium sativum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jürgen; Mukhina, Irina; Dicke, Christiane; Lanza, Giacomo; Kalderis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    Currently, char substrates gain a lot of interest, since they are being discussed as a component in growing media, which may become one option for the replacement of peat. Among different thermal conversion processes of biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been found to produce chars with similar acidic pH values like peat. The question however is, if these hydrochars, which may contain toxic phenolic compounds are suitable to be introduced as a new substitute for peat in horticulture. In this study rice husk were hydrothermally carbonized at 200° C for 6 hours, yielding in hydrochars containing organic contaminants such as phenols and furfurals, which may affect plants and soil organisms. We investigated potential toxic effects on the germination rate and the root length of cress salad (Lepidium sativum) in four fractions: i) soil control, ii) raw rice husk + soil, iii) unwashed rice char + soil and iv) acetone/water washed rice char + soil. It could be shown that phenols and furfurals, which were removed from the hydrochar after washing by 80 to 96% did not affect the germination rate and the root length of the cress plants. The lowest germination rate and root length were found in the soil control, the highest in the non-washed hydrochar treatment, indicating a fertilization effect and growth stimulation of cress salad by hydrochar. If this result can be confirmed for other target and non-target organisms in future studies, a new strategy for the production of growing media may be developed.

  8. Home management of haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, J M; Barnard, D; Israels, S; Lillicrap, D; Poon, M-C; Sek, J

    2004-03-01

    The demonstrated benefits of home care for haemophilia include improved quality of life, less pain and disability, fewer hospitalizations, and less time lost from work or school. Although reduced mortality has not been demonstrated, the substantial increase in longevity since the early 1980s correlates with the introduction of home treatment and prophylaxis programmes. These programmes must be designed and monitored by haemophilia treatment centres (HTC), which are staffed with professionals with broad and complementary expertise in the disease and its complications. In return, patients and their families must be willing to accept the reciprocal responsibilities that come from administering blood products or their recombinant equivalents at home. Patients with inhibitors to factors VIII or IX pose special challenges, but these complications do not obviate participation in home care programmes. Home care was an essential prerequisite to the introduction of effective prophylactic factor replacement therapy. Prophylaxis offers significant improvements in quality of life, but requires a substantial commitment. The use of implantable venous access devices can eliminate some of the difficulty and discomfort of peripheral venous access in small children, but brings additional risks. The future holds the promise of factor concentrates for home use that have longer half-lives, or can be administered by alternate routes. Knowledge of patient genotypes may allow treatments tailored to avoid complications such as inhibitor development. Gene therapy trials, which are currently ongoing, will ultimately lead to gene-based treatments as a complement to traditional protein-based therapy.

  9. R134a Flow Boiling Analysis with Modified Thermodynamic Property File of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Gyumin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Previous study showed application of RELAP5 code to solar energy facility with molten salt (60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3) as working fluid. Based on external experimental correlations, thermodynamic properties of molten salt were evaluated as a function of pressure and temperature and those equations were used to generate tpf. To validate external tpf, experimental values were compared with RELAP5 analysis. In nuclear field, utilization of other fluid is also important since many thermal-hydraulic experiments used various fluids such as FC-72, R123, and R134a. Theses refrigerants have been used to simulate the high pressure environment of nuclear power plants due to their low boiling point, and density ratio between vapor and liquid. Thus, this study aims for tpf generation of R134a and verification by analyzing real case. R134a is selected as a fluid to be implemented and analyzed because it is currently used in refrigerator and frequently used in flow boiling experiment related with heat transfer coefficient and CHF measurement. R134a property file were generated with fitted equation using temperature and pressure as variables, originated from external data source. For validation, flow boiling experiment case were made into simplified input. Analysis with tpfr134a showed that application of Gnielinksi correlation could enhance single phase flow accuracy. Large error of HTC from two phase analysis requires parameter study. Future work aims for more specified experimental case comparison and correlation enhancement for two phase analysis.

  10. Effects of axial power shapes on CHF locations in a single tube and in rod bundle assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Yang, B.W.; Zhang, H.; Zha, Y.; Zhang, Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2016-07-15

    Currently, the prediction of rod bundle CHF is dependent on CHF correlations derived from CHF data. A simple correction factor, such as F-factor, is often used to account for the axial power shape differences based on a simple accumulated energy concept, which has totally no consideration on the impact of true local condition on CHF mechanism. Subsequently, as expected, large uncertainty is often associated with the CHF value and CHF location predictions. For the purpose of obtaining different power shapes effects on CHF, CFD calculated parameter values were used to predict the possible CHF occurrence location. The possible CHF location prediction method proposed in this paper is calculated void fraction, heat transfer coefficient (HTC), liquid temperature distribution and detailed local parameters. And the uniform and non-uniform CHF were analyzed. The prediction of possible CHF locations in a 5 x 5 rod bundle may provide useful information for the design of a full-length CHF test, enhance the accuracy of CHF and CHF location prediction, and reduce the costs of the experimentation.

  11. The role of dedicated data computing centers in the age of cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramarcu, Costin; Hollowell, Christopher; Strecker-Kellogg, William; Wong, Antonio; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2017-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) anticipates significant growth in scientific programs with large computing and data storage needs in the near future and has recently reorganized support for scientific computing to meet these needs. A key component is the enhanced role of the RHIC-ATLAS Computing Facility (RACF) in support of high-throughput and high-performance computing (HTC and HPC) at BNL. This presentation discusses the evolving role of the RACF at BNL, in light of its growing portfolio of responsibilities and its increasing integration with cloud (academic and for-profit) computing activities. We also discuss BNL’s plan to build a new computing center to support the new responsibilities of the RACF and present a summary of the cost benefit analysis done, including the types of computing activities that benefit most from a local data center vs. cloud computing. This analysis is partly based on an updated cost comparison of Amazon EC2 computing services and the RACF, which was originally conducted in 2012.

  12. Massive Alveolar Hemorrhage During Wegener Granulomatosis: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Perincek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of Wegener Granulomatosis (WG disease. Even though the lungs are rarely affected. massive alveolar hemorrhage is seen which leads to mortality. The patient was a 28 year old man. His illness was diagnosed as WG and glomerulonephritis a year previously and he was treated by administration of methylprednisolone orally. He had been treated irregularly. He applied to the emergency service with hemoptysis and asthma complaints two days earlier. After the results of his examination Hb: 3.6 gr/dl, Htc:10.3%, Üre:131 mg /dl, kreatini: 7.7 mg/dl, pH: 7.41, pO2: 55 mmHg, pCO2:33 mmHg, and being diagnosed as alveolar consolidation on lung X-ray, he was taken to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of a massive alveolar hemorrhagei. He was intubated and attached to mechanical ventilation. He was treated with parenteral 1 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone and, siklofosfamid 2 mg/kg/day. He was extubated on the 21st day. He was taken to the chest service department on 24th day. He is still being treated.

  13. A Middleware for Power Management in Multicore Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaosong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased power consumption is a critical concern for smartphone users. While multi-core processors in smartphones have already emerged in market, current applications are yet to take full advantage of this new architecture, particularly in the area of managing power consumption. This paper addresses the issue of managing power consumption in multicore smartphones via a middleware layer that schedules optimal number of cores for currently running applications taking into account the tradeoff between power consumption, performance and user experience. The paper first describes a simple and accurate method to measure the overall power consumption and then studies the impact of scheduling seven different popular applications over one to four cores on the overall power consumption. Based on this study, the paper proposes three new power-aware scheduling algorithms that dynamically schedule optimal number of cores as well as dynamically adjust the voltage frequency of each online core to achieve the best tradeoff between power consumption, application performance and user experience under the current context. Evaluation from a prototype implementation of the middleware on a quad-core HTC One shows that these algorithms result in significant reduction in power consumption while ensuring good performance and user experience.

  14. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  15. Assembly of pseudorabies virus genome-based transfer vehicle carrying major antigen sites of S gene of transmissible gastroenteritis virus: potential perspective for developing live vector vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiechao; Ren, Xiaofeng; Tian, Zhijun; Li, Yijing

    2007-03-01

    Two severe porcine infectious diseases, pseudorabies (PR) and transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) respectively often result in serious economic loss in animal husbandry worldwide. Vaccination is the important prevention means against both infections. To achieve a PRV genome-based virus live vector, aiming at further TGEV/PRV bivalent vaccine development, a recombinant plasmid pUG was constructed via inserting partial PK and full-length gG genes of PRV strain Bartha K-61 amplified into pUC119 vector. In parallel, another recombinant pHS was generated by introducing a fragment designated S1 encoding the major antigen sites of S gene from TGEV strain TH-98 into a prokaryotic expression vector pP(RO)EX HTc. The SV40 polyA sequence was then inserted into the downstream of S1 fragment of pHS. The continuous region containing S1fragment, SV40 polyA and four single restriction enzyme sites digested from pHS was subcloned into the downstream of gG promoter of pUG. In addition, a LacZ reporter gene was introduced into the universal transfer vector named pUGS-LacZ. Subsequently, a PRV genome-based virus live vector was generated via homologous recombination. The functionally effective vector was purified and partially characterized. Moreover, the potential advantages of this system are discussed.

  16. Roles of free radicals in type 1 phototherapeutic agents: aromatic amines, sulfenamides, and sulfenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tien-Sung; Rajagopalan, Raghavan; Shen, Yuefei; Park, Sungho; Poreddy, Amruta R; Asmelash, Bethel; Karwa, Amolkumar S; Taylor, John-Stephen A

    2013-07-03

    Detailed analyses of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra, cell viability, and DNA degradation studies are presented for the photolyzed Type I phototherapeutic agents: aromatic amines, sulfenamides, and sulfenates. The ESR studies provided evidence that copious free radicals can be generated from these N-H, N-S, and S-O containing compounds upon photoirradiation with UV/visible light. The analyses of spectral data allowed us to identify the free radical species. The cell viability studies showed that these agents after exposure to light exert cytotoxicity to kill cancer cells (U937 leukemia cell lines HTC11, KB, and HT29 cell lines) in a dosage- and time-dependent manner. We examined a possible pathway of cell death via DNA degradation by a plasmid cleavage assay for several compounds. The effects of photosensitization with benzophenone in the presence of oxygen were examined. The studies indicate that planar tricyclic amines and sulfenamides tend to form π-electron delocalized aminyl radicals, whereas nonplanar ones tend to yield nitroxide radicals resulting from the recombination of aminyl radicals with oxygen. The ESR studies coupled with the results of cell viability measurements and DNA degradation reveal that planar N-centered radicals can provide higher potency in cell death and allow us to provide some insights on the reaction mechanisms. We also found the formation of azatropylium cations possessing high aromaticity derived from azepines can facilitate secondary electron transfer to form toxic O2(•-) radicals, which can further exert oxidative stress and cause cell death.

  17. Real-time visualization of magnetic flux densities for transcranial magnetic stimulation on commodity and fully immersive VR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivarapu, Vijay K.; Serrate, Ciro; Hadimani, Ravi L.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive procedure that uses time varying short pulses of magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain. In this method, a magnetic field generator ("TMS coil") produces small electric fields in the region of the brain via electromagnetic induction. This technique can be used to excite or inhibit firing of neurons, which can then be used for treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, migraine, and depression. It is however challenging to focus the induced electric field from TMS coils to smaller regions of the brain. Since electric and magnetic fields are governed by laws of electromagnetism, it is possible to numerically simulate and visualize these fields to accurately determine the site of maximum stimulation and also to develop TMS coils that can focus the fields on the targeted regions. However, current software to compute and visualize these fields are not real-time and can work for only one position/orientation of TMS coil, severely limiting their usage. This paper describes the development of an application that computes magnetic flux densities (h-fields) and visualizes their distribution for different TMS coil position/orientations in real-time using GPU shaders. The application is developed for desktop, commodity VR (HTC Vive), and fully immersive VR CAVETM systems, for use by researchers, scientists, and medical professionals to quickly and effectively view the distribution of h-fields from MRI brain scans.

  18. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, K. H.; Sidek, L. M.; Abidin, M. R. Z.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Beddu, S.

    2013-06-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  19. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Labour with Unknown Status and those with Negative Status Early in the Index Pregnancy in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaire, Binyerem C; Agboghoroma, Chris O; Durojaiye, Korede W

    2015-09-01

    Rapid HIV test in labour provide an opportunity for the identification of HIV positive pregnant women who should benefit from interventions to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Between November 2013 and June 2014 we conducted rapid HIV testing of pregnant women in labour at the National Hospital Abuja to determine the HIV seroconversion rate in pregnancy and the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in labour with previously unknown status. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) was acceptable to 224 (99.6%) of the pregnant women who met the study criteria. The mean 'turnaround' time for test result was 288 minutes and 16.2 minutes for tests performed in the hospital laboratory and those performed at the point-of-care (labour ward) respectively. HIV seroconversion was detected in 2(1.2%) of the 165 parturients with initial HIV negative result early in the index pregnancy. HIV infection was detected in four (2.7%) of the 59 parturients with unknown HIV status. Secondary school level education was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion in pregnancy P labour using rapid testing strategy is feasible and acceptable in our setting. The introduction of HCT will lead to the diagnosis of HIV positive women in labour, appropriate interventions and prevention of MTCT of HIV.

  20. Masking of Time-Frequency Patterns in Applications of Passive Underwater Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Sildam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectrogram analysis of acoustical sounds for underwater target classification is utilized when loud nonstationary interference sources overlap with a signal of interest in time but can be separated in time-frequency (TF domain. We propose a signal masking method which in a TF plane combines local statistical and morphological features of the signal of interest. A dissimilarity measure D of adjacent TF cells is used for local estimation of entropy H, followed by estimation of ΔH=Htc−Hfc entropy difference, where Hfc is calculated along the time axis at a mean frequency fc and Htc is calculated along the frequency axis at a mean time tc of the TF window, respectively. Due to a limited number of points used in ΔH estimation, the number of possible ΔH values, which define a primary mask, is also limited. A secondary mask is defined using morphological operators applied to, for example, H and ΔH. We demonstrate how primary and secondary masks can be used for signal detection and discrimination, respectively. We also show that the proposed approach can be generalized within the framework of Genetic Programming.

  1. SmartFix: Indoor Locating Optimization Algorithm for Energy-Constrained Wearable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor localization technology based on Wi-Fi has long been a hot research topic in the past decade. Despite numerous solutions, new challenges have arisen along with the trend of smart home and wearable computing. For example, power efficiency needs to be significantly improved for resource-constrained wearable devices, such as smart watch and wristband. For a Wi-Fi-based locating system, most of the energy consumption can be attributed to real-time radio scan; however, simply reducing radio data collection will cause a serious loss of locating accuracy because of unstable Wi-Fi signals. In this paper, we present SmartFix, an optimization algorithm for indoor locating based on Wi-Fi RSS. SmartFix utilizes user motion features, extracts characteristic value from history trajectory, and corrects deviation caused by unstable Wi-Fi signals. We implemented a prototype of SmartFix both on Moto 360 2nd-generation Smartwatch and on HTC One Smartphone. We conducted experiments both in a large open area and in an office hall. Experiment results demonstrate that average locating error is less than 2 meters for more than 80% cases, and energy consumption is only 30% of Wi-Fi fingerprinting method under the same experiment circumstances.

  2. Grids, virtualization, and clouds at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, S.; Chadwick, K.; Garzoglio, G.; Noh, S.

    2014-06-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. To better serve this community, in 2004, the (then) Computing Division undertook the strategy of placing all of the High Throughput Computing (HTC) resources in a Campus Grid known as FermiGrid, supported by common shared services. In 2007, the FermiGrid Services group deployed a service infrastructure that utilized Xen virtualization, LVS network routing and MySQL circular replication to deliver highly available services that offered significant performance, reliability and serviceability improvements. This deployment was further enhanced through the deployment of a distributed redundant network core architecture and the physical distribution of the systems that host the virtual machines across multiple buildings on the Fermilab Campus. In 2010, building on the experience pioneered by FermiGrid in delivering production services in a virtual infrastructure, the Computing Sector commissioned the FermiCloud, General Physics Computing Facility and Virtual Services projects to serve as platforms for support of scientific computing (FermiCloud 6 GPCF) and core computing (Virtual Services). This work will present the evolution of the Fermilab Campus Grid, Virtualization and Cloud Computing infrastructure together with plans for the future.

  3. Magnetic excitations of layered cuprates studied by RIXS at Cu L{sub 3} edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiringhelli, G., E-mail: giacomo.ghiringhelli@fisi.polimi.it [CNR/SPIN, CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Braicovich, L. [CNR/SPIN, CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We have developed very high resolution RIXS instrumentation. ► Cu L{sub 3} RIXS is ideal for studying magnetic excitations in layered cuprates. ► RIXS has been used to map magnon and paramagnon dispersion in HTcS. ► We have developed the first partial polarization analyzer for RIXS in the soft X-rays. -- Abstract: The inelastic scattering of X-rays is becoming a powerful alternative to better established techniques, based on neutrons or low energy photons, for the study of low- and medium-energy excitations in solids. When performed in the soft range the resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is ideal for strongly correlated electron systems based on 3d transition metals. The remarkable evolution of Cu L{sub 3} RIXS has been boosted by the steady improvement of experimental energy resolution, and by the fortunate fact that cuprates give intense and richly featured spectra. Over the last 8 years several key results were obtained using the AXES (ESRF) and the SAXES (SLS) spectrometers. This initial success is now supporting several new projects for soft X-ray RIXS worldwide. We briefly present here the case of spin excitation dispersion in insulating and superconducting cuprates and the first RIXS spectra with partial polarization analysis of the scattered photons.

  4. Outcomes and impact of HIV prevention, ART and TB programs in Swaziland--early evidence from public health triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Swaziland's severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4TB. All-cause child in-patient case fatality rates started to decrease from 2005-6. TB case notifications as well as rates of HIV/TB co-infection among notified TB patients continued a steady increase through 2010, while coverage of HIV testing and CPT for co-infected patients increased to above 80%. Against a background of high, but stable HIV prevalence and decreasing HIV incidence, we documented early evidence of a mortality decline associated with the expanded national HIV response since 2004. Attribution of impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future household surveys, and improved routine (program, surveillance, and hospital) data at district level.

  5. Predictors of retention among HIV/hemophilia health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K; Schultz, Janet R; Forsberg, Ann D; King, Gary; Kocik, Susan M; Butler, Regina B

    2002-01-01

    Health care professionals working with individuals with chronic medical illness, especially those infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), may be at risk for burnout and departure due to various job stresses such as the death of patients and social stigma. Factors that prevent burnout and employee attrition are seldom studied. Two hundred thirteen staff (doctors, nurses and mental health workers) at a representative sample of Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC) completed instruments to measure Burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and perceived job stresses and satisfaction (job tasks, interactions with colleagues and patient care). The staff were surveyed again after two years and their job status determined after 4 years. After 4 years, 35% of the staff had left the field of Hemophilia/HIV care. Univariate tests found that retention was significantly associated with initial job satisfaction, being married and low levels of stress with colleagues. Burnout, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, at baseline, was unrelated to job retention over 4 years. An adjusted multiple logistic regression of all significant variables found that colleague support was most related to retention (OR=2.8, CI=1.49,5.1). We conclude that attrition of highly trained staff is a significant issue for patients and HTCs. These data suggest the important role that a well-functioning team can have in buffering the inevitable stresses associated with HIV care. Mental Health professionals have considerable expertise in addressing these issues.

  6. One-step fabricated Fe3O4@C core-shell composites for dye removal: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lingling; Han, Tingting; Luo, Zhijun; Liu, Cancan; Mei, Yan; Zhu, Ting

    2015-03-01

    B-Fe3O4@C core-shell composites were synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process and used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. By using sodium borate as the catalyst, the hydrothermal carbonization process of B-Fe3O4@C core-shell composites was optimized and a higher surface area was obtained. The adsorbent was characterized by XRD, Raman spectra, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. We studied the dye adsorption process at different conditions and analyzed the data by employing the Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the equilibrium data fitted well with both models. Kinetic analyses were conducted by using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model and the results showed that the adsorption process was more consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. To better understand the dye adsorption process from the thermodynamics perspective, we also calculated ΔHο, ΔSο, ΔGο and Ea, the results suggesting that the MB adsorption process was physisorption endothermic process, and spontaneous at room temperature. The as-synthesized B-Fe3O4@C showing high magnetic sensitivity provides a facile and efficient way to recycle from aqueous solution.

  7. Nitrogen activation of carbon-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles and influence of the activation temperature on heavy metals removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiti, Stefania; Calderon, Blanca; Collina, Elena; Lasagni, Marina; Mezzanotte, Valeria; Aracil Saez, Nacho; Fullana, Andrés

    2017-05-01

    Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (nZVI) represent a promising agent for environmental remediation. This is due to their core-shell structure which presents the characteristics of both metallic and oxidised iron, leading to sorption and reductive precipitation of metal ions. Nevertheless, nZVI application presents some limitations regarding their rapid oxidation and aggregation in the media which leads to the delivery of the ions after some hours (the “aging effect”). To address these issues, modifications of nZVI structure and synthesis methods have been developed in the last years. The aging problem was solved by using nZVI encapsulated inside carbon spheres (CE-nZVI), synthetized through Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC). Results showed high heavy metals removal percentage. Furthermore, CE-nZVI were activated with nitrogen in order to increase the metallic iron content. The aim of this study was to test CE-nZVI post-treated with nitrogen at different temperatures in heavy metals removal, demonstrating that the influence of the temperature was negligible in nanoparticles removal efficiency.

  8. Effects of Vitamin B12 treatment on hematological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulali Aktas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin B12 deficiency is not a rare condition in medical practice. There is not much data in literature about overlooked hemogram parameters (ie. red cell distribution width, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width in vitamin B12 deficiency. We aimed to compare pre and post treatment hematological parameters of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency in present retrospective study.Methodology: Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency icluded to the study. Age, gender, vitamin B12 levels and hematological parameters, such as, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil count (neu, lymphocyte count (lym, eosinophil count (eos, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Htc, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, red cell distribution width (RDW, platelet count (PLT, mean platelet volume (MPV and platelet distribution width (PDW were recorded.Results: Pretreatment RDW (16.5±0.6 was significantly higher than in posttreatment (16.1±1 period (p=0.021. MPV was significantly lower in pretreatment period (8.5±1.1 than in posttreatment (9±1.1 period (p=0.025.Conclusion: We suggest that RDW and MPV alterations begin in early stages of Vitamin B12 deficiency before development of cytopenias. However, to confirm our results,  prospective studies with a larger cohort are needed. 

  9. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 2: numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo; Facchini, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical validation of the aero-thermal study of a 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative trailing edge with one row of enlarged pedestals under stationary and rotating conditions. A CFD analysis was performed by means of commercial ANSYS-Fluent modeling the isothermal air flow and using k- ω SST turbulence model and an isothermal air flow for both static and rotating conditions (Ro up to 0.23). The used numerical model is validated first by comparing the numerical velocity profiles distribution results to those obtained experimentally by means of PIV technique for Re = 20,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. The second validation is based on the comparison of the numerical results of the 2D HTC maps over the heated plate to those of TLC experimental data, for a smooth surface for a Reynolds number = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two-tip conditions were considered: open tip and closed tip conditions. Results of the average Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts region are presented too. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  10. Calorimetric analysis of heating and cooling process of nodular cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bińczyk F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations of the thermal effects which take place during heating and cooling of samples of the nodular graphite cast iron taken from the stepped test casting of the wall thicknesses amounting to 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm. For investigations, a differential scanning calorimeter, type Multi HTC S60, was used. During heating, three endothermic effects related with pearlite decomposition, phase transformation α → γ, and carbon dissolution in austenite were observed on a DSC diagram. During cooling, two exothermic effects related with phase transformation γ→ α and pearlite formation were observed to consecutively take place on a DSC diagram. The values of the enthalpy of these processes differ and depend on the initial microstructure of the examined samples. The metallic matrix in 5 mm sample after the process of heating and cooling changes totally in favour of ferrite. The same effect, though less advanced in intensity, takes place in 10 mm sample, while in 15 and 20 mm samples the matrix constitution remains unchanged. The higher is the content of ferrite in samples, the stronger is the endothermic effect of the α → γ transformation and the weaker is the endothermic effect related with carbon dissolution in austenite. The total of the endothermic effects (heating is reduced, while that of the exothermic effects (cooling increases along with the increasing thickness of walls in a stepped test casting, from which samples for the investigations were taken.

  11. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 1—experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Facchini, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    The aero-thermal behavior of the flow field inside 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative smooth trailing edge of shaped wedge discharge duct with one row of enlarged pedestals have been investigated in order to determine the effect of rotation, inlet velocity and blowing conditions effects, for Re = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two configurations are presented: with and without open tip configurations. Thermo-chromic liquid crystals technique is used to ensure a local measurement of the heat transfer coefficient on the blade suction side under stationary and rotation conditions. Results are reported in terms of detailed 2D HTC maps on the suction side surface as well as the averaged Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts. Two correlations are proposed, for both closed and open tip configurations, based on the Re, Pr, Ro and a new non-dimensional parameter based on the position along the radial distance, to assess a reliable estimation of the averaged Nusselt number at the inter-pedestal region. A good agreement is found between prediction and experimental data with about ±10 to ±12 % of uncertainty, for the simple form correlation, and about ±16 % using a complex form. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  12. Elevated Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Recurrent Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Guclu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate the relation between optic neuritis (ON and systemic inflammation markers as neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, and red cell distribution width (RDW and furthermore to evaluate the utilization of these markers to predict the frequency of the ON episodes. Methods. Forty-two patients with acute ON and forty healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The medical records were reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin (Hb, Haematocrit (Htc, RDW, platelet count, MPV, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio. Results. The mean N/L ratio, platelet counts, and RDW were significantly higher in ON group (p=0.000, p=0.048, and p=0.002. There was a significant relation between N/L ratio and number of episodes (r=0.492, p=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference for MPV between one episode group and recurrent ON group (p=0.035. Conclusions. Simple and inexpensive laboratory methods could help us show systemic inflammation and monitor ON patients. Higher N/L ratio can be a useful marker for predicting recurrent attacks.

  13. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowicz, Michelle; Garcia, Antonio

    2015-06-02

    The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia) for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologically-relevant saliva concentrations. The sample and fluorescent reagent solutions are placed in a specially-designed, lightweight device that excludes ambient light and concentrates 470-nm excitation light, from a low-power photodiode, within the sample through non-axially-symmetric refraction. The study found that smartphone cameras and post-image processing quantitated sodium ion concentration in water over the range of 0.5-10 mM, yielding best-fit regressions of the data that agree well with a data regression of microplate luminometer results. The data suggest that fluorescence can be used for the measurement of salivary sodium ion concentrations in low-resource or point-of-care settings. With further fluorescent assay testing, the device may find application in a variety of enzymatic or chemical assays.

  14. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. NOx removal by low-cost char pellets: Factors influencing the activity and selectivity towards NOx reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Maria Soriano-Mora; Agustin Bueno-Lopez; Avelina Garcia-Garcia; Ron E. Perry; Colin E. Snape [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain). MCMA Group, Department of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-05-15

    The activity of potassium-containing char pellets prepared from different low-cost carbon precursors towards NOx reduction in an oxygen-rich environment has been investigated by isothermal reactions at 325{sup o}C. From the overall data, it can be asserted that high potassium content is a key factor in allowing carbon-based pellets to achieve better NOx reduction capacities whilst exhibiting higher selectivity to NOx reduction and inhibiting carbon burn-off, but the intrinsic characteristics of the carbon precursor must also be taken into account (mineral matter content, carbon nature...). Having chosen the most appropriate formulation for pellet preparation (high potassium content and suitable carbon precursor, a metallurgical coke), the 3HT-C pellets demonstrated the most promise for consideration for NOx removal. This sample, when tested as a packed bed of pellets at 325{sup o}C, gave more moderate and very constant NOx reduction rates in combination with very high selectivity towards NOx. On the other hand, when tested at 400-450{sup o}C, very high and constant NOx reduction rates were achieved, with decreased but still acceptable selectivity. Reaction data from a lifetime test were not significantly worse than those from a 2 h reaction, which is very encouraging. Neither was sample efficiency compromised in the lifetime test, in which only 18% (maximum) of oxygen was consumed compared with 84.1% (maximum) NOx converted. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Development of a Virtual Museum Including a 4d Presentation of Building History in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Deggim, S.

    2017-02-01

    In the last two decades the definition of the term "virtual museum" changed due to rapid technological developments. Using today's available 3D technologies a virtual museum is no longer just a presentation of collections on the Internet or a virtual tour of an exhibition using panoramic photography. On one hand, a virtual museum should enhance a museum visitor's experience by providing access to additional materials for review and knowledge deepening either before or after the real visit. On the other hand, a virtual museum should also be used as teaching material in the context of museum education. The laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has developed a virtual museum (VM) of the museum "Alt-Segeberger Bürgerhaus", a historic town house. The VM offers two options for visitors wishing to explore the museum without travelling to the city of Bad Segeberg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Option a, an interactive computer-based, tour for visitors to explore the exhibition and to collect information of interest or option b, to immerse into virtual reality in 3D with the HTC Vive Virtual Reality System.

  17. The NASA Augmented/Virtual Reality Lab: The State of the Art at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, William

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center is dedicated to the investigation of Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies, with the goal of determining potential uses of these technologies as human-computer interaction (HCI) devices in an aerospace engineering context. Begun in 2012, the AVR Lab has concentrated on commercially available AR and VR devices that are gaining in popularity and use in a number of fields such as gaming, training, and telepresence. We are working with such devices as the Microsoft Kinect, the Oculus Rift, the Leap Motion, the HTC Vive, motion capture systems, and the Microsoft Hololens. The focus of our work has been on human interaction with the virtual environment, which in turn acts as a communications bridge to remote physical devices and environments which the operator cannot or should not control or experience directly. Particularly in reference to dealing with spacecraft and the oftentimes hazardous environments they inhabit, it is our hope that AR and VR technologies can be utilized to increase human safety and mission success by physically removing humans from those hazardous environments while virtually putting them right in the middle of those environments.

  18. Industrial symbiosis: corn ethanol fermentation, hydrothermal carbonization, and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brandon M; Jader, Lindsey R; Schendel, Frederick J; Hahn, Nicholas J; Valentas, Kenneth J; McNamara, Patrick J; Novak, Paige M; Heilmann, Steven M

    2013-10-01

    The production of dry-grind corn ethanol results in the generation of intermediate products, thin and whole stillage, which require energy-intensive downstream processing for conversion into commercial animal feed products. Hydrothermal carbonization of thin and whole stillage coupled with anaerobic digestion was investigated as alternative processing methods that could benefit the industry. By substantially eliminating evaporation of water, reductions in downstream energy consumption from 65% to 73% were achieved while generating hydrochar, fatty acids, treated process water, and biogas co-products providing new opportunities for the industry. Processing whole stillage in this manner produced the four co-products, eliminated centrifugation and evaporation, and substantially reduced drying. With thin stillage, all four co-products were again produced, as well as a high quality animal feed. Anaerobic digestion of the aqueous product stream from the hydrothermal carbonization of thin stillage reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by more than 90% and converted 83% of the initial COD to methane. Internal use of this biogas could entirely fuel the HTC process and reduce overall natural gas usage. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Operation planning of electrical power systems; Planeacion de operacion de sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The development of a software that has facilitated and improved considerably the planning tasks, besides diminishing the production costs is presented. The software denominated Hydrothermal Coordination (HTC)(Coordinacion Hidrotermica (CHT)), was developed in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), with this software the plan of short term operation of the generating units is determined. The software analyzes mathematically a great number of options regarding to the allocation of generation units and selects very close solutions, in cost, to the optimal one. It constitutes in addition an information system that stores the relevant data of each unit, useful for decision making. [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo de un software que ha facilitado y mejorado considerablemente las tareas de planeacion, ademas de disminuir los costos de produccion. El paquete denominado Coordinacion Hidrotermica (CHT), fue desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); con el se determina el plan de operacion a corto plazo de las unidades generadoras. El paquete analiza matematicamente un gran numero de opciones en lo que se refiere a la asignacion de unidades de generacion y selecciona soluciones muy cercanas, en costo, a la optima. Constituye ademas un sistema de informacion que almacena los datos relevantes de cada unidad, utiles para la toma de decisiones.

  20. 3D Flow visualization in virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszewski, Noah; Dhillon, Ranbir; Green, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    By viewing fluid dynamic isosurfaces in virtual reality (VR), many of the issues associated with the rendering of three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional screen can be addressed. In addition, viewing a variety of unsteady 3D data sets in VR opens up novel opportunities for education and community outreach. In this work, the vortex wake of a bio-inspired pitching panel was visualized using a three-dimensional structural model of Q-criterion isosurfaces rendered in virtual reality using the HTC Vive. Utilizing the Unity cross-platform gaming engine, a program was developed to allow the user to control and change this model's position and orientation in three-dimensional space. In addition to controlling the model's position and orientation, the user can ``scroll'' forward and backward in time to analyze the formation and shedding of vortices in the wake. Finally, the user can toggle between different quantities, while keeping the time step constant, to analyze flow parameter relationships at specific times during flow development. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by an award from NYS Department of Economic Development (DED) through the Syracuse Center of Excellence.

  1. Toxicological Characteristics of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xuhong; Xie, Yanxin; Wu, Jianru; Tang, Meng; Wang, Bei

    2015-02-01

    In an effort to examine liver, heart and kidney injury, immune response, and other physiological effect in rats caused by intratracheal instillation of nano titanium dioxide (TiO2) for 28 days, we assessed T lymphocytes counts, hematological indices, biochemical parameters, cytokines assay and histopathological changes in nano TiO2 treated rats. Indeed, rats treated with nano TiO2 displayed a reduction in body weight and coefficients of the hearts. Edema and loose cytoplasm on liver cells were found in nano groups. The results showed that a statistically significant increased in the BUN, HTC and AST levels than those in control group. Our data suggested that the immunologically competent cells of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ caused by nano TiO2 32 mg/kg group were significantly lower than control group. The ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ from the nano 32 mg/kg group was significantly increased and showed a disturbance of cellular immune function. But ELISA analysis showed that no significant changes in IFN-γ and IL-4 were observed throughout the experimental period in this study.

  2. Experimental research and numerical simulation on cryogenic line chill-down process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingxue; Cho, Hyokjin; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2018-01-01

    The empirical heat transfer correlations are suggested for the fast cool down process of the cryogenic transfer line from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. The correlations include the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) correlations for single-phase gas convection and film boiling regimes, minimum heat flux (MHF) temperature, critical heat flux (CHF) temperature and CHF. The correlations are obtained from the experimental measurements. The experiments are conducted on a 12.7 mm outer diameter (OD), 1.25 mm wall thickness and 7 m long stainless steel horizontal pipe with liquid nitrogen (LN2). The effect of the lengthwise position is verified by measuring the temperature profiles in near the inlet and the outlet of the transfer line. The newly suggested heat transfer correlations are applied to the one-dimensional homogeneous transient model to simulate the cryogenic line chill-down process, and the chill-down time and the cryogen consumption are well predicted in the mass flux range from 26.0 kg/m2 s to 73.6 kg/m2 s through the correlations.

  3. Ecopsychosocial Aspects of Human–Tiger Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Tiger Widows of Sundarban Delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Mondal, Ranajit; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS Human–tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger–human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows. METHODS This is a three-phase ethnographic research with a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the first phase, a door-to-door village survey (3,084 households) was carried out in two villages of Sundarban, which are adjacent to the Reserve Forest, in which the incidents of human–animal conflicts and the 65 tiger-widows identified were documented. In the second phase, the 65 tiger-widows were studied to explore the ecodemography of tiger attacks and tiger-widows alongside the stigma issue by using a stigma questionnaire (n = 49). The stigma burden was compared with normal widows (n = 21) and snake-bite widows (n = 18). In the third phase, the psychosocial and cultural dimensions related to tiger attacks were studied by using in-depth interviews (IDI) of the tiger-widows, focus-group discussions (FGD), and participatory mapping in the community. Clinical examinations of the mental health of the widows were also carried out in this phase. RESULTS The mean age of the 65 widows was 43.49 ± 9.58 years. Of this, 12.3% of the widows had remarried and only 4.6% of the widows were literate. In all, 67.2% of all tiger attacks occurred as a result of illegal forest entry. The main livelihood of the former husbands of the widows were 43.8% wood cutting, 28.1% fishing, 10.9% crab catching, 9.4% tiger prawn seed

  4. Here and now: the intersection of computational science, quantum-mechanical simulations, and materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, Nicola

    The last 30 years have seen the steady and exhilarating development of powerful quantum-simulation engines for extended systems, dedicated to the solution of the Kohn-Sham equations of density-functional theory, often augmented by density-functional perturbation theory, many-body perturbation theory, time-dependent density-functional theory, dynamical mean-field theory, and quantum Monte Carlo. Their implementation on massively parallel architectures, now leveraging also GPUs and accelerators, has started a massive effort in the prediction from first principles of many or of complex materials properties, leading the way to the exascale through the combination of HPC (high-performance computing) and HTC (high-throughput computing). Challenges and opportunities abound: complementing hardware and software investments and design; developing the materials' informatics infrastructure needed to encode knowledge into complex protocols and workflows of calculations; managing and curating data; resisting the complacency that we have already reached the predictive accuracy needed for materials design, or a robust level of verification of the different quantum engines. In this talk I will provide an overview of these challenges, with the ultimate prize being the computational understanding, prediction, and design of properties and performance for novel or complex materials and devices.

  5. Angle-of-arrival-based gesture recognition using ultrasonic multi-frequency signals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hui

    2017-11-02

    Hand gestures are tools for conveying information, expressing emotion, interacting with electronic devices or even serving disabled people as a second language. A gesture can be recognized by capturing the movement of the hand, in real time, and classifying the collected data. Several commercial products such as Microsoft Kinect, Leap Motion Sensor, Synertial Gloves and HTC Vive have been released and new solutions have been proposed by researchers to handle this task. These systems are mainly based on optical measurements, inertial measurements, ultrasound signals and radio signals. This paper proposes an ultrasonic-based gesture recognition system using AOA (Angle of Arrival) information of ultrasonic signals emitted from a wearable ultrasound transducer. The 2-D angles of the moving hand are estimated using multi-frequency signals captured by a fixed receiver array. A simple redundant dictionary matching classifier is designed to recognize gestures representing the numbers from `0\\' to `9\\' and compared with a neural network classifier. Average classification accuracies of 95.5% and 94.4% are obtained, respectively, using the two classification methods.

  6. Effect of heat shock protein 70 polymorphism on thermotolerance in Tharparkar cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Bhat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Out of various members of heat shock protein (HSP superfamily which act a molecular chaperon by binding to the denaturing protein thus stabilizing them and preserving their activity, HSP70 are of major importance in thermotolerance development. Thus, present investigation aimed at a screening of HSP70 gene for polymorphisms and possible differences in thermotolerance in Tharparkar breed of cattle. Materials and Methods: A 295 bp fragment of HSP70 gene was subjected to polymerase chain reaction-singlestrand conformation polymorphism (SSCP followed by sequencing of different SSCP patterns in 64 Tharparkar cattle. A comparative thermotolerance of identified genotypes was analyzed using heat tolerance coefficients (HTCs of animals for different seasons. Results: Three SSCP patterns and consequently two alleles namely A and B were documented in one fragment of HSP70 gene. On sequencing, one single-nucleotide polymorphism with G > T substitution was found at a position that led to a change of amino acid aspartate to tyrosine in allele A. It was found that in maintaining near normal average rectal temperature, genotype AA was superior (p≤0.01. Genotype AA, thus, was found to be most thermotolerant genotype with the highest HTC (p≤0.01. Conclusion: The polymorphism at HSP70 is expected to be a potent determinant for heat tolerance in cattle, which may aid in selection for thermotolerance in cattle.

  7. Photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion based on blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl propyl-1-phenyl [6,6]C61 (PCBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teketel Yohannes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solid-state photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion device based on blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and 1-(3-methoxycarbonylpropyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (PCBM, and an amorphous poly(ethylene oxide complexed with I3-/I- redox couple has been constructed and characterized. The photoelectrochemical performance parameters of the device were compared with pure P3HT and P3HT:C60 blend solid-state photoelectrochemical cell. The current density-voltage characteristics in the dark and under white light illumination and photocurrent spectra for front and backside illuminations have been studied. An open-circuit voltage of 140 mV and a short-circuit current density of 28.4 μA/cm2 at light intensity of 100 mW/cm2; IPCE% of 1.52% for front side illumination (ITO|PEDOT and IPCE% of 0.17% for backside illumination (ITO|P3HT:PCBM at a wavelength of 510 nm were obtained. The dependence of the short-circuit current density and an open-circuit voltage on the light intensity and time have also been studied.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i2.12

  8. Does Testosterone Modulate Mood States and Physical Performance in Young Basketball Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloski, Bernardo; Aoki, Marcelo S; de Freitas, Camila G; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moraes, Helena S; Drago, Gustavo; Borges, Thiago O; Moreira, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine and compare mood states profile and physical performance during different training phases between 2 groups of adolescent basketball players that were differentiated according to baseline testosterone concentration (T). The basketball players were submitted to an intensified training period (OVL) followed by a tapering period (TP). Twenty-three young male basketball players initiated the study. Experimental criteria data were used to stratify 16 players into high-testosterone (HTC) or low-testosterone (LTC) concentration groups. All the 16 athletes undertook 5 weeks of OVL followed by a 3-week TP. Saliva sampling, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IRL1) test and the T-test were conducted at the beginning (T1), after OVL (T2), and after TP (T3). A similar increase in internal training load was observed during OVL when compared with TP in both groups (p 0.05); however, LTC displayed a higher score for fatigue (p 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that LTC athletes may be more susceptible to changes in mood states during intensified training periods. In addition, data indicate that a periodized training program successfully improved the physical performance (endurance and agility) of young basketball players; however, this improvement was not affected by testosterone level.

  9. Description and validation of the Little correlation for boiling zeotropic mixtures in horizontal tubes from cryogenic to room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, R.; Nellis, G.; Klein, S.; Reindl, D.

    2015-12-01

    The use of mixed gas working fluids has become common in Joule-Thomson (JT) type cryocoolers for a variety of applications operating in temperatures ranging from 80 to 230 K. The thermal efficiency of mixed gas JT cryocoolers is dependent on the optimization of the gas mixture composition. Most optimization methodologies focus on thermodynamic criteria of the cycle because there are very little data or theory currently available regarding the heat transfer coefficients associated with these multi-component mixtures in two-phase regimes at cryogenic temperatures. A generally accepted correlation to predict the local heat transfer coefficient (htc) for mixtures during the boiling process does not exist. Little [1] proposed a correlation to be used on horizontal tubes that shows good agreement with Nellis et al. [2] experimental data of nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures. However, it is not clearly shown how the correlation is obtained and how it should be applied. This paper provides a more complete description of the Little correlation and also expands its validation using the experimental data provided by Barraza [3]. The new experimental data include measurements of the local heat transfer coefficient for mixtures comprising 2 component (binary) up to 5 components in the temperature range between 100 K and room temperature. These mixtures are formed from nitrogen-hydrocarbon and argon-fluorocarbon mixtures and evaporate in horizontal tubes with diameters from 0.5 to 3.0 mm for different heat flux, mass flux, evaporating pressure, and composition.

  10. Uptake, Accuracy, Safety, and Linkage into Care over Two Years of Promoting Annual Self-Testing for HIV in Blantyre, Malawi: A Community-Based Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine T Choko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Home-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC achieves high uptake, but is difficult and expensive to implement and sustain. We investigated a novel alternative based on HIV self-testing (HIVST. The aim was to evaluate the uptake of testing, accuracy, linkage into care, and health outcomes when highly convenient and flexible but supported access to HIVST kits was provided to a well-defined and closely monitored population.Following enumeration of 14 neighbourhoods in urban Blantyre, Malawi, trained resident volunteer-counsellors offered oral HIVST kits (OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to adult (≥16 y old residents (n = 16,660 and reported community events, with all deaths investigated by verbal autopsy. Written and demonstrated instructions, pre- and post-test counselling, and facilitated HIV care assessment were provided, with a request to return kits and a self-completed questionnaire. Accuracy, residency, and a study-imposed requirement to limit HIVST to one test per year were monitored by home visits in a systematic quality assurance (QA sample. Overall, 14,004 (crude uptake 83.8%, revised to 76.5% to account for population turnover residents self-tested during months 1-12, with adolescents (16-19 y most likely to test. 10,614/14,004 (75.8% participants shared results with volunteer-counsellors. Of 1,257 (11.8% HIV-positive participants, 26.0% were already on antiretroviral therapy, and 524 (linkage 56.3% newly accessed care with a median CD4 count of 250 cells/μl (interquartile range 159-426. HIVST uptake in months 13-24 was more rapid (70.9% uptake by 6 mo, with fewer (7.3%, 95% CI 6.8%-7.8% positive participants. Being "forced to test", usually by a main partner, was reported by 2.9% (95% CI 2.6%-3.2% of 10,017 questionnaire respondents in months 1-12, but satisfaction with HIVST (94.4% remained high. No HIVST-related partner violence or suicides were reported. HIVST and repeat HTC results agreed in 1

  11. Monitoramento do processo de assistência pré-natal entre as usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde em município do Sudeste brasileiro Monitoring the prenatal care process among users of the Unified Health Care System in a city of the Brazilian Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Coutinho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a evolução da adequação do processo de atendimento às gestantes usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e consolidar metodologia para monitoramento da assistência pré-natal. MÉTODOS: estudo de séries temporais múltiplas, com auditoria em cartões de gestantes que realizaram pré-natal em município do Sudeste brasileiro (Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais nos semestres iniciais de 2002 e 2004 (370 e 1.200 cartões, respectivamente e utilizaram o SUS no atendimento ao parto a termo (p PURPOSE: to evaluate the evolution of adequacy of the care process among pregnant users of the Brazilian Single Health System (SUS, acronym in Portuguese and to consolidate a methodology for monitoring the prenatal care. METHODS: this is a multiple time series study with auditing of prenatal cards of pregnant women who were attended for prenatal care in a city of the Brazilian Southeast (Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais in the initial semesters of 2002 and 2004 (370 and 1,200 cards, respectively and gave birth using SUS services in term pregnancies (p < 0.05. A three complementary level sequence was respected: utilization of prenatal care (beginning and number of visits at level 1; utilization of prenatal care and obligatory clinical-obstetric procedures during prenatal visits (assessment of blood pressure (BP, weight, uterine fundal height (FH, gestational age (GA, fetal heart rate (FHR and fetal presentation at level 2; and utilization of prenatal care, obligatory clinical-obstetric procedures and basic laboratory tests, according to the Humanization Program of Prenatal Care and Birth (PHPN, acronym in Portuguese (ABO/Rh, hemoglobin/hematocrit (Hb/Htc, VDRL, glycemia and urinalisys at level 3. RESULTS: it was confirmed the high prenatal care coverage (99%, the increased mean number of visits per pregnant woman (6.4 versus 7.2% and the decreased gestational age at the time of the first visit (17.4 versus 15.7 weeks. The proper registration of

  12. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  13. Systemic Screening of Strains of the Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) and Its Protective Effects on Aβ-Triggered Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongying; Wang, Qinglong; Cui, Jian; Wang, Lili; Xiong, Lili; Wang, Wei; Li, Diqiang; Liu, Na; Wu, Yiran; Mao, Canquan

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus possesses multiple medicinal values. To date, however, there have been few studies of the systemic screening of H. erinaceus strains, and the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus prepared from homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies are not fully understood. In this study, 4 random primers were selected and used in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen and evaluate the genetic diversity of 19 commercial strains of H. erinaceus from different localities in China. A total of 66 bands were obtained, and the percentage of polymorphic loci reached 80.30%. Five dendrograms were constructed based on RAPD by Jaccard cluster and within-group linkage analysis. Primer S20 as well as all 4 primers had great potential as specific primers for RAPD-PCR molecular identification and differentiation of H. erinaceus strains. Based on the results of submerged culture and fruiting body cultivation, strains HT-N, HT-J1, HT-C, and HT-M were identified as superior among the 19 H. erinaceus strains. Further study showed that the oral preparation of homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus could attenuate the Aβ25-35-triggered damage in PC12 cells by significantly increasing cell viability and by decreasing the release of lactate dehydrogenase. In conclusion, RAPD-PCR combined with liquid and solid cultures can be used well in the screening and identification of H. erinaceus strains, and products prepared from homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus had neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells.

  14. 5-nm LiF as an Efficient Cathode Buffer Layer in Polymer Solar Cells Through Simply Introducing a C60 Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Guo, L. Jay; Zheng, Yonghao

    2017-09-01

    Lithium fluoride (LiF) is an efficient and widely used cathode buffer layer (CBL) in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). The LiF thickness is normally limited to 1 nm due to its insulting property. Such small thickness is difficult to precise control during thermal deposition, and more importantly, 1-nm-thick LiF cannot provide sufficient protection for the underlying active layer. Herein, we demonstrated the application of a very thick LiF as CBL without sacrificing the device efficiency by simply inserting a C60 layer between the active layer and LiF layer. The devices with the C60/LiF (5 nm) double CBLs exhibit a peak power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.65%, which is twofold higher than that (1.79%) of LiF (5 nm)-only device. The superior performance of the C60/LiF (5 nm)-based devices is mainly attributed to the good electrical conductivity of the C60/LiF (5 nm) bilayer, arising from the intermixing occurred at the C60/LiF interface. Besides, the formation of a P3HT/C60 subcell and the optical spacer effect of C60 also contribute to the increase in short-circuit current density ( J sc) of the device. With further increase of LiF thickness to 8 nm, a PCE of 1.10% is attained for the C60/LiF-based device, while the negligible photovoltaic performance is observed for the LiF-only device. All in all, our results show that C60/LiF bilayer is a promising alternative to LiF single layer due to its high tolerance to the LiF thickness variations.

  15. [Significance of serum creatinine levels in respiratory insufficiency conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prnjavorac, B; Ajanovic, E; Rakic, B; Kahvic, S

    2001-01-01

    Analyses of creatinema in the cases of global respiratory failure was performed in this paper. The patients with global respiratory failure treated in General Hospital in TeSanj have been followed. For all patients laboratory analyses have been performed on the admimtion and in the time of clinical status improvement, including creatinin level, K, Na, Hb, Htc, and blood gas analyses with mesurement of pO2 pCO2 pH, BE, saturation of the blood with oxgen, BE and HCO3-. Creatinine level have been considered in coleration of body mass index, and general nutritional status. The dinamic source of creatinine level in the blood have been followed, in relation of parameters of respiratory status. The statistical significance in relation of creatinine level with the respiratory status was registrated. With the improvement of respiratory status and laboratory analyses related to respiratory status, decrease of creatinin level was registrated. Because of that the therapy given to the patients with respiratory failure could influence on potassium level, the relation of creatinnemia and potassium level in the blood wasn't considered. The high creatinin level couldn't be explained with the initial renal failure, but as the sign of metbolic adaptation to hypoxemic and hypoxyc situation on the body. The registration of high creatinine level in the situations of global respiratory failure could be the guidelines for the choice of the antibiotics for these patients, mostly for potentially nephrotoxic antibiotics, like aminoglicosides, and theirs combinations. The decision and evaluation of benefit and toxicity of antibiotics for these situations could be easier.

  16. Insulin-sensitizing and anti-proliferative effects of Argania spinosa seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samane, Samira; Noël, Josette; Charrouf, Zoubida; Amarouch, Hamid; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2006-09-01

    Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2), ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells) and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases.

  17. Validation of Physical Activity Tracking via Android Smartphones Compared to ActiGraph Accelerometer: Laboratory-Based and Free-Living Validation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Grieco, Lauren; Rosenberger, Mary; Winter, Sandra J; Haskell, William; King, Abby C

    2015-04-15

    There is increasing interest in using smartphones as stand-alone physical activity monitors via their built-in accelerometers, but there is presently limited data on the validity of this approach. The purpose of this work was to determine the validity and reliability of 3 Android smartphones for measuring physical activity among midlife and older adults. A laboratory (study 1) and a free-living (study 2) protocol were conducted. In study 1, individuals engaged in prescribed activities including sedentary (eg, sitting), light (sweeping), moderate (eg, walking 3 mph on a treadmill), and vigorous (eg, jogging 5 mph on a treadmill) activity over a 2-hour period wearing both an ActiGraph and 3 Android smartphones (ie, HTC MyTouch, Google Nexus One, and Motorola Cliq). In the free-living study, individuals engaged in usual daily activities over 7 days while wearing an Android smartphone (Google Nexus One) and an ActiGraph. Study 1 included 15 participants (age: mean 55.5, SD 6.6 years; women: 56%, 8/15). Correlations between the ActiGraph and the 3 phones were strong to very strong (ρ=.77-.82). Further, after excluding bicycling and standing, cut-point derived classifications of activities yielded a high percentage of activities classified correctly according to intensity level (eg, 78%-91% by phone) that were similar to the ActiGraph's percent correctly classified (ie, 91%). Study 2 included 23 participants (age: mean 57.0, SD 6.4 years; women: 74%, 17/23). Within the free-living context, results suggested a moderate correlation (ie, ρ=.59, PAndroid smartphone can provide comparable estimates of physical activity to an ActiGraph in both a laboratory-based and free-living context for estimating sedentary and MVPA and that different Android smartphones may reliably confer similar estimates.

  18. Scidac-Data: Enabling Data Driven Modeling of Exascale Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Misbah; Ding, Pengfei; Aliaga, Leo; Tsaris, Aristeidis; Norman, Andrew; Lyon, Adam; Ross, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The SciDAC-Data project is a DOE-funded initiative to analyze and exploit two decades of information and analytics that have been collected by the Fermilab data center on the organization, movement, and consumption of high energy physics (HEP) data. The project analyzes the analysis patterns and data organization that have been used by NOvA, MicroBooNE, MINERvA, CDF, D0, and other experiments to develop realistic models of HEP analysis workflows and data processing. The SciDAC-Data project aims to provide both realistic input vectors and corresponding output data that can be used to optimize and validate simulations of HEP analysis. These simulations are designed to address questions of data handling, cache optimization, and workflow structures that are the prerequisites for modern HEP analysis chains to be mapped and optimized to run on the next generation of leadership-class exascale computing facilities. We present the use of a subset of the SciDAC-Data distributions, acquired from analysis of approximately 71,000 HEP workflows run on the Fermilab data center and corresponding to over 9 million individual analysis jobs, as the input to detailed queuing simulations that model the expected data consumption and caching behaviors of the work running in high performance computing (HPC) and high throughput computing (HTC) environments. In particular we describe how the Sequential Access via Metadata (SAM) data-handling system in combination with the dCache/Enstore-based data archive facilities has been used to develop radically different models for analyzing the HEP data. We also show how the simulations may be used to assess the impact of design choices in archive facilities.

  19. Index case finding facilitates identification and linkage to care of children and young persons living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saeed; Sabelli, Rachael A; Simon, Katie; Rosenberg, Nora E; Kavuta, Elijah; Harawa, Mwelura; Dick, Spencer; Linzie, Frank; Kazembe, Peter N; Kim, Maria H

    2017-08-01

    Evaluation of a novel index case finding and linkage-to-care programme to identify and link HIV-infected children (1-15 years) and young persons (>15-24 years) to care. HIV-infected patients enrolled in HIV services were screened and those who reported untested household members (index cases) were offered home- or facility-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) of their household by a community health worker (CHW). HIV-infected household members identified were enrolled in a follow-up programme offering home and facility-based follow-up by CHWs. Of the 1567 patients enrolled in HIV services, 1030 (65.7%) were screened and 461 (44.8%) identified as index cases; 93.5% consented to HIV testing of their households and of those, 279 (64.7%) reported an untested child or young person. CHWs tested 711 children and young persons, newly diagnosed 28 HIV-infected persons (yield 4.0%; 95% CI: 2.7-5.6), and identified an additional two HIV-infected persons not enrolled in care. Of the 30 HIV-infected persons identified, 23 (76.6%) were linked to HIV services; 18 of the 20 eligible for ART (90.0%) were initiated. Median time (IQR) from identification to enrolment into HIV services was 4 days (1-8) and from identification to ART start was 6 days (1-8). Almost half of HIV-infected patients enrolled in treatment services had untested household members, many of whom were children and young persons. Index case finding, coupled with home-based testing and tracked follow-up, is acceptable, feasible and facilitates the identification and timely linkage to care of HIV-infected children and young persons. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Segeberg 1600 - Reconstructing a Historic Town for Virtual Reality Visualisation as AN Immersive Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deggim, S.; Kersten, T. P.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Hinrichsen, N.

    2017-11-01

    The 3D reconstruction of historic buildings and cities offers an opportunity to experience the history of relevant objects and their development over the centuries. Digital visualisations of such historic objects allow for a more natural view of history as well as showing information that is not possible in a real world setting. New presentation forms, such as the virtual reality (VR) system HTC Vive, can be used to disseminate information in another dimension and simplify the access by changing the user's viewpoint from a listener and viewer into being an integrated part of an interactive situation. In general, this approach is a combination of education and entertainment, also known as "edutainment" or "gamification", a term used in the education sector as describing where motivation to learn is encouraged through adding a competitive element. It is thus a step away from simple consumption of information towards experiencing information and a more literal interpretation of "living history". In this contribution, we present the development of a 3D reconstruction of the two towns Segeberg and Gieschenhagen (today: Bad Segeberg) in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany in the Early Modern Age around 1600. The historic landscape and its conversion from a reconstructed virtual town model into an interactive VR application is also described. The reconstruction is based on a recent digital terrain model as well as survey data of surviving buildings, historic visual information based on historic drawings and written accounts from that era. All datasets are combined to a single walkable virtual world that spans approximately 3 km2.